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Sample records for peptide penetratin induces

  1. Alternative Mechanisms for the Interaction of the Cell-Penetrating Peptides Penetratin and the TAT Peptide with Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Yesylevskyy, Semen; Marrink, Siewert-Jan; Mark, Alan E.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have recently attracted much interest due to their apparent ability to penetrate cell membranes in an energy-independent manner. Here molecular-dynamics simulation techniques were used to study the interaction of two CPPs: penetratin and the TAT peptide with 1,2-Dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) phospolipid bilayers shed light on alternative mechanisms by which these peptides might cross biological membranes. In contrast to previous simulation studies of charged peptides interacting with lipid bilayers, no spontaneous formation of transmembrane pores was observed. Instead, the simulations suggest that the peptides may enter the cell by micropinocytosis, whereby the peptides induce curvature in the membrane, ultimately leading to the formation of small vesicles within the cell that encapsulate the peptides. Specifically, multiple peptides were observed to induce large deformations in the lipid bilayer that persisted throughout the timescale of the simulations (hundreds of nanoseconds). Pore formation could be induced in simulations in which an external potential was used to pull a single penetratin or TAT peptide into the membrane. With the use of umbrella-sampling techniques, the free energy of inserting a single penetratin peptide into a DPPC bilayer was estimated to be ∼75 kJmol−1, which suggests that the spontaneous penetration of single peptides would require a timescale of at least seconds to minutes. This work also illustrates the extent to which the results of such simulations can depend on the initial conditions, the extent of equilibration, the size of the system, and the conditions under which the simulations are performed. The implications of this with respect to the current systems and to simulations of membrane-peptide interactions in general are discussed. PMID:19580742

  2. Relationships between Membrane Binding, Affinity and Cell Internalization Efficacy of a Cell-Penetrating Peptide: Penetratin as a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Isabel D.; Bechara, Cherine; Walrant, Astrid; Zaltsman, Yefim; Jiao, Chen-Yu; Sagan, Sandrine

    2011-01-01

    Background Penetratin is a positively charged cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) that has the ability to bind negatively charged membrane components, such as glycosaminoglycans and anionic lipids. Whether this primary interaction of penetratin with these cell surface components implies that the peptide will be further internalized is not clear. Methodology Using mass spectrometry, the amount of internalized and membrane bound penetratin remaining after washings, were quantified in three different cell lines: wild type (WT), glycosaminoglycans- (GAGneg) and sialic acid-deficient (SAneg) cells. Additionally, the affinity and kinetics of the interaction of penetratin to membrane models composed of pure lipids and membrane fragments from the referred cell lines was investigated, as well as the thermodynamics of such interactions using plasmon resonance and calorimetry. Principal Findings Penetratin internalized with the same efficacy in the three cell lines at 1 µM, but was better internalized at 10 µM in SAneg>WT>GAGneg. The heat released by the interaction of penetratin with these cells followed the ranking order of internalization efficiency. Penetratin had an affinity of 10 nM for WT cells and µM for SAneg and GAGneg cells and model membrane of phospholipids. The remaining membrane-bound penetratin after cells washings was similar in WT and GAGneg cells, which suggested that these binding sites relied on membrane phospholipids. The interaction of penetratin with carbohydrates was more superficial and reversible while it was stronger with phospholipids, likely because the peptide can intercalate between the fatty acid chains. Conclusion/Significance These results show that accumulation and high-affinity binding of penetratin at the cell-surface do not reflect the internalization efficacy of the peptide. Altogether, these data further support translocation (membrane phospholipids interaction) as being the internalization pathway used by penetratin at low

  3. Calpastatin exon 1B-derived peptide, a selective inhibitor of calpain: enhancing cell permeability by conjugation with penetratin.

    PubMed

    Gil-Parrado, Shirley; Assfalg-Machleidt, Irmgard; Fiorino, Ferdinando; Deluca, Dominga; Pfeiler, Dietmar; Schaschke, Norbert; Moroder, Luis; Machleidt, Werner

    2003-03-01

    The ubiquitous calpains, mu- and m-calpain, have been implicated in essential physiological processes and various pathologies. Cell-permeable specific inhibitors are important tools to elucidate the roles of calpains in cultivated cells and animal models. The synthetic N-acetylated 27-mer peptide derived from exon B of the inhibitory domain 1 of human calpastatin (CP1B) is unique as a potent and highly selective reversible calpain inhibitor, but is poorly cell-permeant. By addition of N-terminal cysteine residues we have generated a disulfide-conjugated CP1B with the cell-penetrating 16-mer peptide penetratin derived from the third helix of the Antennapedia homeodomain protein. The inhibitory potency and selectivity of CP1B for calpain versus cathepsin B and L, caspase 3 and the proteasome was not affected by the conjugation with penetratin. The conjugate was shown to efficiently penetrate into living LCLC 103H cells, since it prevents ionomycin-induced calpain activation at 200-fold lower concentration than the non-conjugated inhibitor and is able to reduce calpain-triggered apoptosis of these cells. Penetratin-conjugated CP1B seems to be a promising alternative to the widely used cell-permeable peptide aldehydes (e.g. calpain inhibitor 1) which inhibit the lysosomal cathepsins and partially the proteasome as well or even better than the calpains. PMID:12715890

  4. Cell-Penetrating Peptide Penetratin as a Potential Tool for Developing Effective Nasal Vaccination Systems.

    PubMed

    Muto, Keiya; Kamei, Noriyasu; Yoshida, Mia; Takayama, Kozo; Takeda-Morishita, Mariko

    2016-06-01

    Nasal vaccination is considered an attractive strategy to prevent the infection and spread of viruses. However, the vaccine formulations available on the market remain imperfect on account of their limited effectiveness. In the present study, we hypothesized that the nasal coadministration of antigens with cell-penetrating peptides promotes antigen delivery immune response in the nasal mucosa, thereby enhancing the production of mucosal IgA and systemic IgG. The levels of ovalbumin (OVA)-specific IgG and IgA in plasma and nasal perfusate, respectively, increased after 2 or 4 weeks on nasal coadministration of OVA with l- or d-penetratin, suggesting that OVA antigen was effectively delivered by penetratin to the nasal epithelium. An additional study demonstrated that the production of systemic IgG and nasal mucosal IgA against influenza A virus was specifically promoted by nasal coadministration of influenza A virus with d-penetratin. The results of this study suggested that cell-penetrating peptides are a promising tool for the delivery of vaccines to the nasal mucosa and for the subsequent dual stimulation of systemic and mucosal immune responses. PMID:27155764

  5. Small Peptides Derived from Penetratin as Antibacterial Agents.

    PubMed

    Parravicini, Oscar; Somlai, Csaba; Andujar, Sebastián A; Garro, Adriana D; Lima, Beatriz; Tapia, Alejandro; Feresin, Gabriela; Perczel, Andras; Tóth, Gabor; Cascales, Javier López; Rodríguez, Ana M; Enriz, Ricardo D

    2016-04-01

    The synthesis, in vitro evaluation and conformational study of several small-size peptides acting as antibacterial agents are reported. Among the compounds evaluated, the peptides Arg-Gln-Ile-Lys-Ile-Trp-Arg-Arg-Met-Lys-Trp-Lys-Lys-NH2 , Arg-Gln-Ile-Lys-Ile-Arg-Arg-Met-Lys-Trp-Arg-NH2 , and Arg-Gln-Ile-Trp-Trp-Trp-Trp-Gln-Arg-NH2 exhibited significant antibacterial activity. These were found to be very active antibacterial compounds, considering their small molecular size. In order to better understand the antibacterial activity obtained for these peptides, an exhaustive conformational analysis was performed, using both theoretical calculations and experimental measurements. Molecular dynamics simulations using two different media (water and trifluoroethanol/water) were employed. The results of these theoretical calculations were corroborated by experimental circular dichroism measurements. A brief discussion on the possible mechanism of action of these peptides at molecular level is also presented. Some of the peptides reported here constitute very interesting structures to be used as starting compounds for the design of new small-size peptides possessing antibacterial activity. PMID:26972341

  6. In vivo proof of concept of oral insulin delivery based on a co-administration strategy with the cell-penetrating peptide penetratin.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Ebbe Juel Bech; Yoshida, Shinya; Kamei, Noriyasu; Iwamae, Ruisha; Khafagy, El-Sayed; Olsen, Jørgen; Rahbek, Ulrik Lytt; Pedersen, Betty Lomstein; Takayama, Kozo; Takeda-Morishita, Mariko

    2014-09-10

    Oral delivery of insulin is blocked by low intestinal absorption caused by the poor permeability of insulin across cellular membranes and the susceptibility to enzymatic degradation in the gastrointestinal tract. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been investigated for a number of years as oral absorption enhancers for hydrophilic macromolecules. Penetratin, a cationic and amphipathic CPP, effectively enhances insulin absorption and we were able to alleviate the enzymatic barrier by using the enzymatic resistant D-form of penetratin. In this study, mice were dosed orally with a physical mixture of insulin and penetratin. Blood glucose concentrations were measured and a pharmacological availability (PA) of 18.2% was achieved in mice dosed with insulin and D-penetratin. Following the promising data, we investigated the degradation parameters of insulin and penetratin in rat intestinal fluid. As expected, L-penetratin was degraded rapidly whereas D-penetratin had a halflife of 67±7min in 10-fold diluted gastrointestinal fluid. Insulin degradation was slowed by the presence of penetratin in intestinal fluid. The half-life of insulin increased from 24.9±4.5min to 55.6±14min and 90.5±11.8min in the presence of L- and D-penetratin respectively. In conclusion, both Land D-penetratin acted as oral absorption enhancers at select CPP concentrations for insulin and the current study is the first solid evidence of pharmacological activity of oral insulin delivery systems based on non-covalent intermolecular interactions with penetratin. PMID:24973720

  7. A proapoptotic peptide conjugated to penetratin selectively inhibits tumor cell growth.

    PubMed

    Alves, Isabel D; Carré, Manon; Montero, Marie-Pierre; Castano, Sabine; Lecomte, Sophie; Marquant, Rodrigue; Lecorché, Pascaline; Burlina, Fabienne; Schatz, Christophe; Sagan, Sandrine; Chassaing, Gérard; Braguer, Diane; Lavielle, Solange

    2014-08-01

    The peptide KLA (acetyl-(KLAKLAK)2-NH2), which is rather non toxic for eukaryotic cell lines, becomes active when coupled to the cell penetrating peptide, penetratin (Pen), by a disulfide bridge. Remarkably, the conjugate KLA-Pen is cytotoxic, at low micromolar concentrations, against a panel of seven human tumor cell lines of various tissue origins, including cells resistant to conventional chemotherapy agents but not to normal human cell lines. Live microscopy on cells possessing fluorescent labeled mitochondria shows that in tumor cells, KLA-Pen had a strong impact on mitochondria tubular organization instantly resulting in their aggregation, while the unconjugated KLA and pen peptides had no effect. But, mitochondria in various normal cells were not affected by KLA-Pen. The interaction with membrane models of KLA-Pen, KLA and penetratin were studied using dynamic light scattering, calorimetry, plasmon resonance, circular dichroism and ATR-FTIR to unveil the mode of action of the conjugate. To understand the selectivity of the conjugate towards tumor cell lines and its action on mitochondria, lipid model systems composed of zwitterionic lipids were used as mimics of normal cell membranes and anionic lipids as mimics of tumor cell and mitochondria membrane. A very distinct mode of interaction with the two model systems was observed. KLA-Pen may exert its deleterious and selective action on cancer cells by the formation of pores with an oblique membrane orientation and establishment of important hydrophobic interactions. These results suggest that KLA-Pen could be a lead compound for the design of cancer therapeutics. PMID:24796502

  8. Penetratin Peptide-Functionalized Gold Nanostars: Enhanced BBB Permeability and NIR Photothermal Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease Using Ultralow Irradiance.

    PubMed

    Yin, Tiantian; Xie, Wenjie; Sun, Jing; Yang, Licong; Liu, Jie

    2016-08-01

    The structural changes of amyloid-beta (Aβ) from nontoxic monomers into neurotoxic aggregates are implicated with pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Over the past decades, weak disaggregation ability and low permeability to the blood-brain barrier (BBB) may be the main obstacles for major Aβ aggregation blockers. Here, we synthesized penetratin (Pen) peptide loaded poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-stabilized gold nanostars (AuNS) modified with ruthenium complex (Ru@Pen@PEG-AuNS), and Ru(II) complex as luminescent probes for tracking drug delivery. We revealed that Ru@Pen@PEG-AuNS could obviously inhibit the formation of Aβ fibrils as well as dissociate preformed fibrous Aβ under the irradiation of near-infrared (NIR) due to the NIR absorption characteristic of AuNS. More importantly, this novel design could be applied in medicine as an appropriate nanovehicle, being highly biocompatible and hemocompatible. In addition, Ru@Pen@PEG-AuNS had excellent neuroprotective effect on the Aβ-induced cellular toxicity by applying NIR irradiation. Meanwhile, Pen peptide could effectively improve the delivery of nanoparticles to the brain in vitro and in vivo, which overcame the major limitation of Aβ aggregation blockers. These consequences illustrated that the enhanced BBB permeability and efficient photothermolysis of Ru@Pen@PEG-AuNS are promising agents in AD therapy. PMID:27411476

  9. Penetratin Story: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Edmond; Prochiantz, Alain; Joliot, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides are short, often hydrophilic peptides that get access to the intracellular milieu. They have aroused great interest both in academic and applied research. First, cellular internalization of CPPs often involves the crossing of a biological membrane (plasma or vesicular), thus challenging the view of the non-permeability of these structures to large hydrophilic molecules. Secondly, CPPs can drive the internalization of hydrophilic cargoes into cells, a rate-limiting step in the development of many therapeutic substances. Interestingly, the two most used CPPs, TAT and penetratin peptides, are derived from natural proteins, HIV Tat and Antennapedia homeoprotein, respectively. The identification of the penetratin peptide, summarized in this review, is intimately linked to the study of its parental natural protein. PMID:26202260

  10. A Critical Reassessment of Penetratin Translocation Across Lipid Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Bárány-Wallje, Elsa; Keller, Sandro; Serowy, Steffen; Geibel, Sebastian; Pohl, Peter; Bienert, Michael; Dathe, Margitta

    2005-01-01

    Penetratin is a short, basic cell-penetrating peptide able to induce cellular uptake of a vast variety of large, hydrophilic cargos. We have reassessed the highly controversial issue of direct permeation of the strongly cationic peptide across negatively charged lipid membranes. Confocal laser scanning microscopy on rhodamine-labeled giant vesicles incubated with carboxyfluorescein-labeled penetratin yielded no evidence of transbilayer movement, in contradiction to previously reported results. Confocal fluorescence spectroscopy on black lipid membranes confirmed this finding, which was also not affected by application of a transmembrane electric potential difference. A novel dialysis assay based on tryptophan absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy demonstrated that the permeability of small and large unilamellar vesicles to penetratin is <10−13 m/s. Taken together, the results show that penetratin is not capable of overcoming model membrane systems irrespective of the bilayer curvature or the presence of a transmembrane voltage. Thus, direct translocation across the hydrophobic core of the plasma membrane cannot account for the efficient uptake of penetratin into live cells, which is in accord with recent in vitro studies underlining the importance of endocytosis in the internalization process of cationic cell-penetrating peptides. PMID:16040762

  11. Effect of different intestinal conditions on the intermolecular interaction between insulin and cell-penetrating peptide penetratin and on its contribution to stimulation of permeation through intestinal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Noriyasu; Aoyama, Yukina; Khafagy, El-Sayed; Henmi, Mao; Takeda-Morishita, Mariko

    2015-08-01

    Our recent studies have shown that the coadministration of cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) is a potential strategy for oral delivery of peptide- and protein-based biopharmaceuticals. The intermolecular interaction between drug and CPP is an essential factor in the effective delivery of these drugs, but the characteristics of the interaction under the conditions of the intestinal lumen remain unknown. In this study, therefore, we examined the characteristics of binding of the amphipathic CPP penetratin to insulin and the efficiency of its enhancement of epithelial insulin transport at different pH and in simulated intestinal fluids (SIFs). The binding between insulin and penetratin was pH dependent and particularly decreased at pH 5.0. In addition, we clarified that the sodium taurocholate (NaTC) present in two types of SIF (fasted-state SIF [FaSSIF] and fed-state SIF [FeSSIF]) affected binding efficiency. However, the permeation of insulin through a Caco-2 cell monolayer was significantly facilitated by coincubation with l- or d-penetratin at various pH values. Moreover, the permeation-stimulating effect of l-penetratin was observed in FaSSIF containing NaTC and lecithin, but not in 3mM NaTC solution, suggesting that the presence of lecithin was the key factor in maintaining the ability of penetratin to enhance the intestinal absorption of biopharmaceuticals. This report describes the essential considerations for in vivo use and clinical application of a CPP-based oral delivery strategy. PMID:25960330

  12. Non-Metabolic Membrane Tubulation and Permeability Induced by Bioactive Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Lamazière, Antonin; Burlina, Fabienne; Wolf, Claude; Chassaing, Gérard; Trugnan, Germain; Ayala-Sanmartin, Jesus

    2007-01-01

    Background Basic cell-penetrating peptides are potential vectors for therapeutic molecules and display antimicrobial activity. The peptide-membrane contact is the first step of the sequential processes leading to peptide internalization and cell activity. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in peptide-membrane interaction are not well understood and are frequently controversial. Herein, we compared the membrane activities of six basic peptides with different size, charge density and amphipaticity: Two cell-penetrating peptides (penetratin and R9), three amphipathic peptides and the neuromodulator substance P. Methodology/Principal Findings Experiments of X ray diffraction, video-microscopy of giant vesicles, fluorescence spectroscopy, turbidimetry and calcein leakage from large vesicles are reported. Permeability and toxicity experiments were performed on cultured cells. The peptides showed differences in bilayer thickness perturbations, vesicles aggregation and local bending properties which form lipidic tubular structures. These structures invade the vesicle lumen in the absence of exogenous energy. Conclusions/Significance We showed that the degree of membrane permeabilization with amphipathic peptides is dependent on both peptide size and hydrophobic nature of the residues. We propose a model for peptide-induced membrane perturbations that explains the differences in peptide membrane activities and suggests the existence of a facilitated “physical endocytosis,” which represents a new pathway for peptide cellular internalization. PMID:17299584

  13. Bacteriocin Inducer Peptides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel peptides produced by bacteriocin-producing bacteria stimulate the production of bacteriocins in vitro. The producer bacteria are cultured in the presence of a novel inducer bacteria and a peptide having a carboxy terminal sequence of VKGLT in order to achieve an increase in bacteriocin produc...

  14. Synthesis and studies on cell-penetrating peptides.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Jean-Remi; Malvy, Claude; Auguste, Tiphanie; Tóth, Gábor K; Kiss-Ivánkovits, Orsolya; Illyés, Eszter; Hollósi, Miklós; Bottka, Sándor; Laczkó, Ilona

    2009-07-01

    The ability of different synthetic cell penetrating peptides, as Antennapedia (wild and Phe(6) mutated penetratins), flock house virus, and integrin peptides to form complexes with a 25mer antisense oligonucleotide was compared and their conformation was determined by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The efficiency for oligonucleotide delivery into cells was measured using peptides labeled with a coumarin derivative showing blue fluorescence and the fluorescein-labeled antisense oligonucleotide showing green fluorescence. Fluorescence due to the excitation energy transfer confirmed the interaction of the antisense oligonucleotide and cell-penetrating peptides. The most efficient oligonucleotide delivery was found for penetratins. Comparison of the two types of penetratins shows that the wild-type penetratin proved to be more efficient than mutated penetratin. The paper also emphasizes that the attachment of a fluorescent label may have an effect on the conformation and flexibility of cell-penetrating peptides that must be taken into consideration when evaluating biological experiments. PMID:19552459

  15. Region-Dependent Role of Cell-Penetrating Peptides in Insulin Absorption Across the Rat Small Intestinal Membrane.

    PubMed

    Khafagy, El-Sayed; Iwamae, Ruisha; Kamei, Noriyasu; Takeda-Morishita, Mariko

    2015-11-01

    We have reported that the cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) penetratin acts as a potential absorption enhancer in oral insulin delivery systems and that this action occurs through noncovalent intermolecular interactions. However, the region-dependent role of CPPs in intestinal insulin absorption has not been clarified. To identify the intestinal region where CPPs have the most effect in increasing insulin absorption, the region-dependent action of penetratin was investigated using in situ closed intestinal loops in rats. The order of the insulin area under the insulin concentration-time curve (AUC) increase effect by L-penetratin was ileum > jejunum > duodenum > colon. By contrast, the AUC order after coadministration of insulin with D-penetratin was colon > duodenum ≥ jejunum and ileum. We also compared the effects of the L- and D-forms of penetratin, R8, and PenetraMax on ileal insulin absorption. Along with the CPPs used in this study, L- and D-PenetraMax produced the largest insulin AUCs. An absorption study using ilea pretreated with CPPs showed that PenetraMax had no irreversible effect on the intestinal epithelial membrane. The degradation of insulin in the presence of CPPs was assessed in rat intestinal enzymatic fluid. The half-life (t 1/2) of insulin increased from 14.5 to 23.7 and 184.7 min in the presence of L- and D-PenetraMax, respectively. These enzymatic degradation-resistant effects might contribute partly to the increased ileal absorption of insulin induced by D-PenetraMax. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the ability of the L- and D-forms of penetratin to increase intestinal insulin absorption was maximal in the ileum and the colon, respectively, and that D-PenetraMax is a powerful but transient enhancer of oral insulin absorption. PMID:26216471

  16. Vaccine delivery by penetratin: mechanism of antigen presentation by dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Pouniotis, Dodie; Tang, Choon-Kit; Apostolopoulos, Vasso; Pietersz, Geoffrey

    2016-08-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPP) or membrane-translocating peptides such as penetratin from Antennapedia homeodomain or TAT from human immunodeficiency virus are useful vectors for the delivery of protein antigens or their cytotoxic (Tc) or helper (Th) T cell epitopes to antigen-presenting cells. Mice immunized with CPP containing immunogens elicit antigen-specific Tc and/or Th responses and could be protected from tumor challenges. In the present paper, we investigate the mechanism of class I and class II antigen presentation of ovalbumin covalently linked to penetratin (AntpOVA) by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells with the use of biochemical inhibitors of various pathways of antigen processing and presentation. Results from our study suggested that uptake of AntpOVA is via a combination of energy-independent (membrane fusion) and energy-dependent pathways (endocytosis). Once internalized by either mechanism, multiple tap-dependent or independent antigen presentation pathways are accessed while not completely dependent on proteasomal processing but involving proteolytic trimming in the ER and Golgi compartments. Our study provides an understanding on the mechanism of antigen presentation mediated by CPP and leads to greater insights into future development of vaccine formulations. PMID:27138940

  17. Facile Noninvasive Retinal Gene Delivery Enabled by Penetratin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Jiang, Kuan; Tai, Lingyu; Liu, Yu; Wei, Gang; Lu, Weiyue; Pan, Weisan

    2016-08-01

    Gene delivery to the posterior segment of the eye is severely hindered by the impermeability of defensive barriers; therefore, in clinical settings, genomic medicines are mainly administered by intravitreal injection. We previously found that penetratin could transport the covalently conjugated fluorophore to the fundus oculi by topical instillation. In this study, gene delivery systems enabled by penetratin were designed based on electrostatic binding to target the retina via a noninvasive administration route and prepared with red fluorescent protein plasmid (pRFP) and/or poly(amidoamine) dendrimer of low molecular weight (G3 PAMAM). Formulation optimization, structure confirmation, and characterization were subsequently conducted. Penetratin alone showed limited ability to condense the plasmid but had powerful uptake and transfection by corneal and conjunctival cells. G3 PAMAM was nontoxic to the ocular cells, and when introduced into the penetratin-incorporated complex, the plasmid was condensed more compactly. Therefore, further improved cellular uptake and transfection were observed. After being instilled in the conjunctival sac of rats, the intact complexes penetrated rapidly from the ocular surface into the fundus and resided in the retina for more than 8 h, which resulted in efficient expression of RFP in the posterior segment. Intraocular distribution of the complexes suggested that the plasmids were absorbed into the eyes through a noncorneal pathway during which penetratin played a crucial role. This study provides a facile and friendly approach for intraocular gene delivery and is an important step toward the development of noninvasive gene therapy for posterior segment diseases. PMID:27400087

  18. Elucidating the Function of Penetratin and a Static Magnetic Field in Cellular Uptake of Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Suman; Smith, Carol Anne; del Pino, Pablo; de la Fuente, Jesus M.; Mullin, Margaret; Hursthouse, Andrew; Stirling, David; Berry, Catherine C.

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology plays an increasingly important role in the biomedical arena. In particular, magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) have become important tools in molecular diagnostics, in vivo imaging and improved treatment of disease, with the ultimate aim of producing a more theranostic approach. Due to their small sizes, the nanoparticles can cross most of the biological barriers such as the blood vessels and the blood brain barrier, thus providing ubiquitous access to most tissues. In all biomedical applications maximum nanoparticle uptake into cells is required. Two promising methods employed to this end include functionalization of mNPs with cell-penetrating peptides to promote efficient translocation of cargo into the cell and the use of external magnetic fields for enhanced delivery. This study aimed to compare the effect of both penetratin and a static magnetic field with regards to the cellular uptake of 200 nm magnetic NPs and determine the route of uptake by both methods. Results demonstrated that both techniques increased particle uptake, with penetratin proving more cell specific. Clathrin- medicated endocytosis appeared to be responsible for uptake as shown via PCR and western blot, with Pitstop 2 (known to selectively block clathrin formation) blocking particle uptake. Interestingly, it was further shown that a magnetic field was able to reverse or overcome the blocking, suggesting an alternative route of uptake. PMID:24275948

  19. Self-assembled penetratin-deferasirox micelles as potential carriers for hydrophobic drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Dibakar; Vitorino, Hector Aguilar; Machini, M Teresa; Espósito, Breno P

    2015-11-01

    There has been a growing interest in the use of micelles with nanofiber geometry as nanocarriers for hydrophobic drugs. Here we show that the conjugate of penetratin, a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) with blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, and deferasirox (DFX), a hydrophobic iron chelator, self-assembles to form micelles at a very low concentration (∼15 mg/L). The critical micelle concentration (CMC) was determined, and the micelles were used for solubilizing curcumin, a hydrophobic anti-neurodegenerative drug, for successful delivery across RBE4 cells, a BBB model. Transmission Electron Microscope images of the curcumin-loaded micelles confirmed the formation of nanofibers. These results indicate the potential of CPP-drug conjugates for use as nanocarriers. PMID:25973759

  20. Massive glycosaminoglycan-dependent entry of Trp-containing cell-penetrating peptides induced by exogenous sphingomyelinase or cholesterol depletion.

    PubMed

    Bechara, Chérine; Pallerla, Manjula; Burlina, Fabienne; Illien, Françoise; Cribier, Sophie; Sagan, Sandrine

    2015-02-01

    Among non-invasive cell delivery strategies, cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) vectors represent interesting new tools. To get fundamental knowledge about the still debated internalisation mechanisms of these peptides, we modified the membrane content of cells, typically by hydrolysis of sphingomyelin or depletion of cholesterol from the membrane outer leaflet. We quantified and visualised the effect of these viable cell surface treatments on the internalisation efficiency of different CPPs, among which the most studied Tat, R9, penetratin and analogues, that all carry the N-terminal biotin-Gly4 tag cargo. Under these cell membrane treatments, only penetratin and R6W3 underwent a massive glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-dependent entry in cells. Internalisation of the other peptides was only slightly increased, similarly in the absence or the presence of GAGs for R9, and only in the presence of GAGs for Tat and R6L3. Ceramide formation (or cholesterol depletion) is known to lead to the reorganisation of membrane lipid domains into larger platforms, which can serve as a trap and cluster receptors. These results show that GAG clustering, enhanced by formation of ceramide, is efficiently exploited by penetratin and R6W3, which contains Trp residues in their sequence but not Tat, R9 and R6L3. Hence, these data shed new lights on the differences in the internalisation mechanism and pathway of these peptides that are widely used in delivery of cargo molecules. PMID:25112713

  1. An eIF4E-interacting peptide induces cell death in cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Masse, M; Glippa, V; Saad, H; Le Bloas, R; Gauffeny, I; Berthou, C; Czjzek, M; Cormier, P; Cosson, B

    2014-01-01

    The eukaryotic initiation factor eIF4E is essential for cap-dependent initiation of translation in eukaryotes. Abnormal regulation of eIF4E has been implicated in oncogenic transformation. We developed an eIF4E-binding peptide derived from Angel1, a partner of eIF4E that we recently identified. We show here that this peptide fused to a penetratin motif causes drastic and rapid cell death in several epithelial cancer cell lines. This necrotic cell death was characterized by a drop in ATP levels with F-actin network injury being a key step in extensive plasma membrane blebbing and membrane permeabilization. This synthetic eIF4E-binding peptide provides a candidate pharmacophore for a promising new cancer therapy strategy. PMID:25356869

  2. Effect of cell-penetrating peptides on the nasal absorption of insulin.

    PubMed

    Khafagy, El-Sayed; Morishita, Mariko; Isowa, Koichi; Imai, Jun; Takayama, Kozo

    2009-01-19

    The goal of this study was to evaluate whether cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) affect the nasal absorption of insulin. L- or D-forms of penetratin, or the L- or D-forms of octaarginine (L- or D-R8), was used as first time for nasal insulin delivery. Furthermore, the concentration of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in nasal lavage fluid was determined and a histopathological study of nasal respiratory epithelium was conducted. CPPs dramatically increased nasal insulin absorption, and it was more pronounced for L- and D-penetratin than L- or D-R8. L-penetratin was the most effective promoter of insulin absorption compared with others CPPs. A dose-dependent relationship of L-penetratin and insulin bioavailability was statically significant. The pharmacological availability and bioavailability of nasally administered insulin was up to 76.7% and 50.7% relative to the subcutaneous route, respectively. In contrast, increasing the D-penetratin concentration decreased the efficiency of nasal insulin absorption. There was no significant difference in the release of LDH in nasal lavage fluid and the integrity of nasal respiratory epithelium when L-penetratin was present. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that L-penetratin markedly increased the permeability of insulin across the nasal membrane without causing detectable damage to the integrity of cells in the nasal respiratory mucosa. PMID:18930084

  3. Visualization and Quantitative Assessment of the Brain Distribution of Insulin through Nose-to-Brain Delivery Based on the Cell-Penetrating Peptide Noncovalent Strategy.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Noriyasu; Shingaki, Tomotaka; Kanayama, Yousuke; Tanaka, Misa; Zochi, Riyo; Hasegawa, Koki; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Takeda-Morishita, Mariko

    2016-03-01

    Our recent work suggested that intranasal coadministration with the cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) penetratin increased the brain distribution of the peptide drug insulin. The present study aimed to distinctly certify the ability of penetratin to facilitate the nose-to-brain delivery of insulin by quantitatively evaluating the distribution characteristics in brain using radioactive (64)Cu-NODAGA-insulin. Autoradiography and analysis using a gamma counter of brain areas demonstrated that the accumulation of radioactivity was greatest in the olfactory bulb, the anterior part of the brain closest to the administration site, at 15 min after intranasal administration of (64)Cu-NODAGA-insulin with l- or d-penetratin. The brain accumulation of (64)Cu-NODAGA-insulin with penetratin was confirmed by ELISA using unlabeled insulin in which intact insulin was delivered to the brain after intranasal coadministration with l- or d-penetratin. By contrast, quantification of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples showed increased insulin concentration in only the anterior portion of the CSF at 15 min after intranasal coadministration with l-penetratin. This study gives the first concrete proof that penetratin can accelerate the direct transport of insulin from the nasal cavity to the brain parenchyma. Further optimization of intranasal administration with CPP may increase the efficacy of delivery of biopharmaceuticals to the brain while reducing the risk of systemic drug exposure. PMID:26795701

  4. An unusual cell penetrating peptide identified using a plasmid display-based functional selection platform

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shan; Simon, Melissa J.; Hue, Christopher D.; Morrison, Barclay; Banta, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) have tremendous potential for use in gene and drug delivery applications. The selection of new CPPs with desired capabilities from randomized peptide libraries is challenging, since the CPP phenotype is a complex selection target. Here we report the discovery of an unusual new CPP from a randomized peptide library using a functional selection system based on plasmid display (PD). After four rounds of screening of a 14-mer peptide library over PC12 cells, several peptides were identified and tested for their ability to deliver the green fluorescent protein (GFP). One peptide (SG3) exhibited a cell penetrating phenotype, however unlike other well-known CPPs such as TAT or Penetratin, the newly identified peptide was not highly cationic. The PD protocol necessitated the addition of a cationic lipid (Lipofectamine2000), and in the presence of this compound, the SG3 peptide significantly outperformed the well-known TAT CPP in the delivery of GFP to PC12 cells and primary astrocytes. When the SG3 peptide was fused to the pro-apoptotic BH3 peptide from the Bak protein, significant cell death was induced in cultured primary astrocytes, indicating relevant, intracellular delivery of a functional cargo. The PD platform is a useful method for identifying functional new CPPs from randomized libraries with unique delivery capabilities. PMID:21291271

  5. Surfactant-induced assembly of enzymatically-stable peptide hydrogels

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Brad H.; Martinez, Alina M.; Wheeler, Jill S.; Spoerke, Erik D.

    2015-04-07

    The secondary structure of peptides in the presence of interacting additives is an important topic of study, having implications in the application of peptide science to a broad range of modern technologies. Surfactants constitute a class of biologically relevant compounds that are known to influence both peptide conformation and aggregation or assembly. In addition, we have characterized the secondary structure of a linear nonapeptide composed of a hydrophobic alanine/phenylalanine core flanked by hydrophilic acid/amine units. We show that the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) induces the formation of β-sheets and macroscopic gelation in this otherwise unstructured peptide. Through comparison to related additives, we propose that SDS-induced secondary structure formation is the result of amphiphilicity created by electrostatic binding of SDS to the peptide. In addition, we demonstrate a novel utility of surfactants in manipulating and stabilizing peptide nanostructures. SDS is used to simultaneously induce secondary structure in a peptide and to inhibit the activity of a model enzyme, resulting in a peptide hydrogel that is impervious to enzymatic degradation. These results complement our understanding of the behavior of peptides in the presence of interacting secondary molecules and provide new potential pathways for programmable organization of peptides by the addition of such components.

  6. Surfactant-induced assembly of enzymatically-stable peptide hydrogels

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jones, Brad H.; Martinez, Alina M.; Wheeler, Jill S.; Spoerke, Erik D.

    2015-04-07

    The secondary structure of peptides in the presence of interacting additives is an important topic of study, having implications in the application of peptide science to a broad range of modern technologies. Surfactants constitute a class of biologically relevant compounds that are known to influence both peptide conformation and aggregation or assembly. In addition, we have characterized the secondary structure of a linear nonapeptide composed of a hydrophobic alanine/phenylalanine core flanked by hydrophilic acid/amine units. We show that the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) induces the formation of β-sheets and macroscopic gelation in this otherwise unstructured peptide. Through comparisonmore » to related additives, we propose that SDS-induced secondary structure formation is the result of amphiphilicity created by electrostatic binding of SDS to the peptide. In addition, we demonstrate a novel utility of surfactants in manipulating and stabilizing peptide nanostructures. SDS is used to simultaneously induce secondary structure in a peptide and to inhibit the activity of a model enzyme, resulting in a peptide hydrogel that is impervious to enzymatic degradation. These results complement our understanding of the behavior of peptides in the presence of interacting secondary molecules and provide new potential pathways for programmable organization of peptides by the addition of such components.« less

  7. The impact of cell-penetrating peptides on membrane bilayer structure during binding and insertion.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Daniel J; Lee, Tzong-Hsien; Kulkarni, Ketav; Wilce, Jacqueline A; Aguilar, Marie-Isabel

    2016-08-01

    We have studied the effect of penetratin and a truncated analogue on the bilayer structure using dual polarisation interferometry, to simultaneously measure changes in mass per unit area and birefringence (an optical parameter representing bilayer order) with high sensitivity during the binding and dissociation from the membrane. Specifically, we studied penetratin (RQIKIWFQNRRMKWKK), along with a shortened and biotinylated version known as R8K-biotin (RRMKWKKK(Biotin)-NH2). Overall both peptides bound only weakly to the neutral DMPC and POPC bilayers, while much higher binding was observed for the anionic DMPC/DMPG and POPC/POPG. The binding of penetratin to gel-phase DMPC/DMPG was adequately represented by a two-state model, whereas on the fluid-phase POPC/POPG it exhibited a distinctly different binding pattern, best represented by a three-state kinetic model. However, R8K-biotin did not bind well to DMPC/DMPG and showed a more transitory and superficial binding to POPC/POPG. Comparing the modelling results for both peptides binding to POPC/POPG suggests an important role for a securely bound intermediate prior to penetratin insertion and translocation. Overall these results further elucidate the mechanism of penetratin, and provide another example of the significance of the ability of DPI to measure structural changes and the use of kinetic analysis to investigate the stages of peptide-membrane interactions. PMID:27163492

  8. Radiation-induced products of peptides and their enzymatic digestibility

    SciTech Connect

    Gajewski, E.

    1983-01-01

    Chemical characterization of radiation-induced products of peptides and proteins is essential for understanding the effect of ionizing radiation on peptides and proteins. Furthermore, peptides containing radiation-altered amino acid residues might not be completely digestible by proteolytic enzymes. In this work, small homopeptides of Ala, Phe and Met were chosen as model peptides. Lysozyme was used to investigate the effect of ionizing radiation on a small protein. All peptides and lysozyme were irradiated in diluted, oxygen free, N/sub 2/O-saturated aqueous solutions, using a /sup 60/Co-..gamma..-source. HPLC, capillary GC and GC-MS were applied to isolate and characterize the radiation-induced products. The enzymatic digestibility of the products was investigated using aminopeptidase M, leucine aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase A and carboxypeptidase Y. It was found that irradiation of peptides examined in this work leads to racemization and alteration of amino acid residues and crosslinks between the peptide chains. In addition, it was established that exopeptidases act differently on radiation-induced dimers of peptides composed of aliphatic, aromatic and sulfur-containing amino acids.

  9. Characterization of a delta-electroencephalogram (-sleep)-inducing peptide.

    PubMed

    Schoenenberger, G A; Monnier, M

    1977-03-01

    A peptide that induces slow-wave (delta) and spindles electroencephalogram enhancement after intraventricular (brain) infusion has been isolated from rabbits and given the name delta-sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP). Amino acid seqeunce: Trp-Ala-Gly-Gly-Asp-Ala-Ser-Gly-Glu. This compound, five possible metabolic products (containing residues 1--8, 2--9, 2--8, 1--4, and 5--9), two nonapeptide analogues with two amino acids exchanged, and a related tripeptide (Trp-Ser-Glu) were synthesized. All nine synthetic peptides were infused intraventricularly in rabbits under double-blind conditions. A total of 58 rabbits including controls were evaluated. The electroencephalogram leads from the neocortex and the archicortex were directly fast-Fourier transformed and analyzed by a Univac 1108 computer system. Only the delta-sleep-inducing peptide (snythetic) showed significant and specific enhancement/induction of delta and spindle electroencephalogram patterns. PMID:265572

  10. Synthesis, cellular uptake and HIV-1 Tat-dependent trans-activation inhibition activity of oligonucleotide analogues disulphide-conjugated to cell-penetrating peptides

    PubMed Central

    Turner, John J.; Arzumanov, Andrey A.; Gait, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Oligonucleotides composed of 2′-O-methyl and locked nucleic acid residues complementary to HIV-1 trans-activation responsive element TAR block Tat-dependent trans-activation in a HeLa cell assay when delivered by cationic lipids. We describe an improved procedure for synthesis and purification under highly denaturing conditions of 5′-disulphide-linked conjugates of 3′-fluorescein labelled oligonucleotides with a range of cell-penetrating peptides and investigate their abilities to enter HeLa cells and block trans-activation. Free uptake of 12mer OMe/LNA oligonucleotide conjugates to Tat (48–58), Penetratin and R9F2 was observed in cytosolic compartments of HeLa cells. Uptake of the Tat conjugate was enhanced by N-terminal addition of four Lys or Arg residues or a second Tat peptide. None of the conjugates entered the nucleus or inhibited trans-activation when freely delivered, but inhibition was obtained in the presence of cationic lipids. Nuclear exclusion was seen for free delivery of Tat (48–58), Penetratin and R9 conjugates of 16mer phosphorothioate OMe oligonucleotide. Uptake into human fibroblast cytosolic compartments was seen for Tat, Penetratin, R9F2 and Transportan conjugates. Large enhancements of HeLa cell uptake into cytosolic compartments were seen when free Tat peptide was added to Tat conjugate of 12mer OMe/LNA oligonucleotide or Penetratin peptide to Penetratin conjugate of the same oligonucleotide. PMID:15640444

  11. Coarse Graining to Investigate Membrane Induced Peptide Folding of Anticancer Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, Sai; Xu, Hongcheng; Matysiak, Silvina

    Information about membrane induced peptide folding mechanisms using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations is a challenge due to time and length scale issues.We recently developed a low resolution Water Explicit Polarizable PROtein coarse-grained Model by adding oppositely charged dummy particles inside protein backbone beads.These two dummy particles represent a fluctuating dipole,thus introducing structural polarization into the coarse-grained model.With this model,we were able to achieve significant α- β secondary structure content de novo,without any added bias.We extended the model to zwitterionic and anionic lipids,by adding oppositely charged dummy particles inside polar beads, to capture the ability of the head group region to form hydrogen bonds.We use zwitterionic POPC and anionic POPS as our model lipids, and a cationic anticancer peptide,SVS1,as our model peptide.We have characterized the driving forces for SVS1 folding on lipid bilayers with varying anionic and zwitterionic lipid compositions.Based on our results, dipolar interactions between peptide backbone and lipid head groups contribute to stabilize folded conformations.Cooperativity in folding is induced by both intra peptide and membrane-peptide interaction.

  12. Enhanced oral bioavailability of insulin using PLGA nanoparticles co-modified with cell-penetrating peptides and Engrailed secretion peptide (Sec).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Siqi; Chen, Shuangxi; Gao, Yuan; Guo, Feng; Li, Fengying; Xie, Baogang; Zhou, Jianliang; Zhong, Haijun

    2016-07-01

    Biodegradable polymer nanoparticle drug carriers are an attractive strategy for oral delivery of peptide and protein drugs. However, their ability to cross the intestinal epithelium membrane is largely limited. Therefore, in the present study, cell-penetrating peptides (R8, Tat, penetratin) and a secretion peptide (Sec) with N-terminal stearylation were introduced to modify nanoparticles (NPs) on the surface to improve oral bioavailability of peptide and protein drugs. In vitro studies conducted in Caco-2 cells showed the value of the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of the nanoparticles co-modified with Sec and penetratin (Sec-Pen-NPs) was about two-times greater than that of the nanoparticles modified with only penetratin (Pen-NPs), while the increase of transcellular transport of nanoparticles modified together with Sec and R8 (Sec-R8-NPs), or Sec and Tat (Sec-Tat-NPs), was not significant compared with nanoparticles modified with only R8 (R8-NPs) or Tat (Tat-NPs). Using insulin as the model drug, in vivo studies performed on rats indicated that compared to Pen-NPs, the relative bioavailability of insulin for Sec-Pen-NPs was 1.71-times increased after ileal segments administration, and stronger hypoglycemic effects was also observed. Therefore, the nanoparticles co-modified with penetratin and Sec could act as attractive carriers for oral delivery of insulin. PMID:26181841

  13. Peptide and non-peptide opioid-induced hyperthermia in rabbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandasamy, S. B.; Williams, B. A.

    1983-01-01

    The intracerebroventricular administration of prototype nonpeptide opioid receptor (mu, kappa, and sigma) agonists, morphine, ketocyclazocine, and N-allyl-normetazocine was found to induce hyperthermia in rabbits. The similar administration of peptide opioids like beta-endorphin (BE), methionine-enkephalin (ME), and its synthetic analogue D-ala2-methionine-enkephalinamide (DAME) was also found to cause hyperthermia. Results indicate that only the liver-like transport system is important to the ventricular inactivation of BE and DAME. Prostaglandins and norepinephrine were determined not to be involved in peptide and nonpeptide opioid-induced hyperthermia. In addition, cAMP was not required since a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, theophylline, did not accentuate the hyperthermia due to peptide and nonpeptide opioids. Naloxone-sensitive receptors were found to be involved in the induction of hyperthermia by morphine, BE, ME, and DAME since naloxone attenuated them. However, the hyperthermic response to ketocyclazocine and N-allyl-normetazocine was not antagonized by naloxone.

  14. Peptide-Induced Antiviral Protection by Cytotoxic T Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Manfred; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.; Hengartner, Hans

    1991-02-01

    A specific antiviral cytotoxic immune response in vivo could be induced by the subcutaneous injection of the T-cell epitope of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) nucleoprotein as an unmodified free synthetic peptide (Arg-Pro-Gln-Ala-Ser-Gly-Val-Tyr-Met-Gly-Asn-Leu-Thr-Ala-Gln) emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant. This immunization rendered mice into a LCMV-specific protective state as shown by the inhibition of LCMV replication in spleens of such mice. The protection level of these mice correlated with the ability to respond to the peptide challenge by CD8^+ virus-specific cytotoxic T cells. This is a direct demonstration that peptide vaccines can be antivirally protective in vivo, thus encouraging further search for appropriate mixtures of stable peptides that may be used as T-cell vaccines.

  15. Steric-electronic effects in malarial peptides inducing sterile immunity

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno-Vranich, Armando; Patarroyo, Manuel E.

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Is it evident that the residues position are relevant regarding of {phi} angular value. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The geometry considered for detailing the alterations undergone by HABPs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The inter planar interactions ruled by clashes between the atoms making them up. -- Abstract: Conserved Plasmodium falciparum high activity binding peptides' (HABPs) most relevant proteins involved in malaria parasite invasion are immunologically silent; critical binding residues must therefore be specifically replaced to render them highly immunogenic and protection-inducing. Such changes have a tremendous impact on these peptides' steric-electronic effects, such as modifications to peptide length peptide bonds and electronic orbitals' disposition, to allow a better fit into immune system MHCII molecules and better interaction with the TCR which might account for the final immunological outcome.

  16. PFR peptide, one of the antimicrobial peptides identified from the derivatives of lactoferrin, induces necrosis in leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yan; Zhang, Teng-Fei; Shi, Yue; Zhou, Han-Wei; Chen, Qi; Wei, Bu-Yun; Wang, Xi; Yang, Tian-Xin; Chinn, Y. Eugene; Kang, Jian; Fu, Cai-Yun

    2016-01-01

    LF11-322 (PFWRIRIRR-NH2) (PFR peptide), a nine amino acid-residue peptide fragment derived from human lactoferricin, possesses potent cytotoxicity against bacteria. We report here the discovery and characterization of its antitumor activity in leukemia cells. PFR peptide inhibited the proliferation of MEL and HL-60 leukemia cells by inducing cell death in the absence of the classical features of apoptosis, including chromatin condensation, Annexin V staining, Caspase activation and increase of abundance of pro-apoptotic proteins. Instead, necrotic cell death as evidenced by increasing intracellular PI staining and LDH release, inducing membrane disruption and up-regulating intracellular calcium level, was observed following PFR peptide treatment. In addition to necrotic cell death, PFR peptide also induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. Moreover, PFR peptide exhibited favorable antitumor activity and tolerability in vivo. These findings thus provide a new clue of antimicrobial peptides as a potential novel therapy for leukemia. PMID:26860588

  17. Assembly of naphthalenediimide conjugated peptides: aggregation induced changes in fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Basak, Shibaji; Nanda, Jayanta; Banerjee, Arindam

    2013-08-01

    Naphthalenediimide appended peptide based self-assembly was studied. Interestingly, an aggregation induced drastic change in the fluorescence property and gel formation were observed depending on the solvent composition (chloroform : methylcyclohexane) at a fixed concentration of 1.6 mM at room temperature. PMID:23799544

  18. Peptide hydrogelation triggered by enzymatic induced pH switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Wei; Li, Ying

    2016-07-01

    It remains challenging to develop methods that can precisely control the self-assembling kinetics and thermodynamics of peptide hydrogelators to achieve hydrogels with optimal properties. Here we report the hydrogelation of peptide hydrogelators by an enzymatically induced pH switch, which involves the combination of glucose oxidase and catalase with D-glucose as the substrate, in which both the gelation kinetics and thermodynamics can be controlled by the concentrations of D-glucose. This novel hydrogelation method could result in hydrogels with higher mechanical stability and lower hydrogelation concentrations. We further illustrate the application of this hydrogelation method to differentiate different D-glucose levels.

  19. Surface-Induced Dissociation of Peptide Ions: Kinetics and Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Laskin, Julia; Futrell, Jean H.; Shukla, Anil K.

    2003-12-01

    Kinetics and dynamics studies have been carried out for the surface-induced dissociation (SID) of a set of model peptides utilizing a specially designed electrospray ionization Fourier Transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer in which mass-selected and vibrationally relaxed ions are collided on a orthogonally-mounted fluorinated self-assembled monolayer on Au{l_brace}111{r_brace} crystal. The sampling time in this apparatus can be varied from hundreds of microseconds to tens of seconds, enabling the investigation of kinetics of ion decomposition over an extended range of decomposition rates. RRKM-based modeling of these reactions for a set of polyalanines demonstrates that SID kinetics of these simple peptides is very similar to slow, multiple-collision activation and that the distribution of internal energies following collisional activation is indistinguishable from a thermal distribution. For more complex peptides comprised of several amino acids and with internal degrees of freedom ( DOF) of the order of 350 there is a dramatic change in kinetics in which RRKM kinetics is no longer capable of describing the decomposition of these complex ions. A combination of RRKM kinetics and the sudden death approximation, according to which decomposition occurs instantaneously, is a satisfactory description. This implies that a population of ions-which is dependant on the nature of the peptide, kinetic energy and sampling time-decomposes on or very near the surface. The shattering transition is described quantitatively for the limited set of molecules examined to date

  20. Surface-Induced Dissociation of Peptide Ions: Kinetics and Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Laskin, Julia; Futrell, Jean H.

    2003-12-01

    Kinetics and dynamics studies have been carried out for the surface-induced dissociation (SID) of a set of model peptides utilizing a specially designed electro spray ionization Fourier Transform Ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer in which mass-selected and vibrationally relaxed ions are collided on an orthogonally-mounted fluorinated self-assembled monolayer on Au {111} crystal. The sampling time in this apparatus can be varied from hundreds of microseconds to tens of seconds, enabling the investigation of kinetics of ion decomposition over an extended range of decomposition rates. RRKM-based modeling of these reactions for a set of polyalanines demonstrates that kinetics of these simple peptides is very similar to slow, multiple-collision activation and that the distribution of internal energies following collisional activation is indistinguishable from a thermal distribution. For more complex peptides comprised of several amino acids and with internal degrees of freedom (DOF) of the order of 350 there is a dramatic change in kinetics in which RRKM kinetics is no longer capable of describing the decomposition of these complex ions. A combination of RRKM kinetics and the “sudden death” approximation, according to which decomposition occurs instantaneously, is a satisfactory description. This implies that a population of ions – which is dependant on the nature of the peptide, kinetic energy and sampling time – decomposes on or very near the surface. The shattering transition is described quantitatively for the limited set of molecules examined to date.

  1. PARP-1 modulates amyloid beta peptide-induced neuronal damage.

    PubMed

    Martire, Sara; Fuso, Andrea; Rotili, Dante; Tempera, Italo; Giordano, Cesare; De Zottis, Ivana; Muzi, Alessia; Vernole, Patrizia; Graziani, Grazia; Lococo, Emanuela; Faraldi, Martina; Maras, Bruno; Scarpa, Sigfrido; Mosca, Luciana; d'Erme, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) causes neurodegeneration by several mechanisms including oxidative stress, which is known to induce DNA damage with the consequent activation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1). To elucidate the role of PARP-1 in the neurodegenerative process, SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were treated with Aβ25-35 fragment in the presence or absence of MC2050, a new PARP-1 inhibitor. Aβ25-35 induces an enhancement of PARP activity which is prevented by cell pre-treatment with MC2050. These data were confirmed by measuring PARP-1 activity in CHO cells transfected with amylod precursor protein and in vivo in brains specimens of TgCRND8 transgenic mice overproducing the amyloid peptide. Following Aβ25-35 exposure a significant increase in intracellular ROS was observed. These data were supported by the finding that Aβ25-35 induces DNA damage which in turn activates PARP-1. Challenge with Aβ25-35 is also able to activate NF-kB via PARP-1, as demonstrated by NF-kB impairment upon MC2050 treatment. Moreover, Aβ25-35 via PARP-1 induces a significant increase in the p53 protein level and a parallel decrease in the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein. These overall data support the hypothesis of PARP-1 involvment in cellular responses induced by Aβ and hence a possible rationale for the implication of PARP-1 in neurodegeneration is discussed. PMID:24086258

  2. PARP-1 Modulates Amyloid Beta Peptide-Induced Neuronal Damage

    PubMed Central

    Martire, Sara; Fuso, Andrea; Rotili, Dante; Tempera, Italo; Giordano, Cesare; De Zottis, Ivana; Muzi, Alessia; Vernole, Patrizia; Graziani, Grazia; Lococo, Emanuela; Faraldi, Martina; Maras, Bruno; Scarpa, Sigfrido; Mosca, Luciana; d'Erme, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) causes neurodegeneration by several mechanisms including oxidative stress, which is known to induce DNA damage with the consequent activation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1). To elucidate the role of PARP-1 in the neurodegenerative process, SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were treated with Aβ25–35 fragment in the presence or absence of MC2050, a new PARP-1 inhibitor. Aβ25–35 induces an enhancement of PARP activity which is prevented by cell pre-treatment with MC2050. These data were confirmed by measuring PARP-1 activity in CHO cells transfected with amylod precursor protein and in vivo in brains specimens of TgCRND8 transgenic mice overproducing the amyloid peptide. Following Aβ25–35 exposure a significant increase in intracellular ROS was observed. These data were supported by the finding that Aβ25–35 induces DNA damage which in turn activates PARP-1. Challenge with Aβ25–35 is also able to activate NF-kB via PARP-1, as demonstrated by NF-kB impairment upon MC2050 treatment. Moreover, Aβ25–35 via PARP-1 induces a significant increase in the p53 protein level and a parallel decrease in the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein. These overall data support the hypothesis of PARP-1 involvment in cellular responses induced by Aβ and hence a possible rationale for the implication of PARP-1 in neurodegeneration is discussed. PMID:24086258

  3. Development of a peptide-based inducer of nuclear receptors degradation.

    PubMed

    Demizu, Yosuke; Ohoka, Nobumichi; Nagakubo, Takaya; Yamashita, Hiroko; Misawa, Takashi; Okuhira, Keiichiro; Naito, Mikihiko; Kurihara, Masaaki

    2016-06-01

    A peptide-based protein knockdown system for inducing nuclear receptors degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system was developed. Specifically, the designed molecules were composed of two biologically active scaffolds: a peptide that binds to the estrogen receptor α (ERα) surface and an MV1 molecule that binds to cellular inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAP: cIAP1/cIAP2/XIAP) to induce ubiquitylation of the ERα. The hybrid peptides induced IAP-mediated ubiquitylation followed by proteasomal degradation of the ERα. Those peptides were also applicable for inducing androgen receptor (AR) degradation. PMID:27086122

  4. Inhibition of NF-kappa B activation by peptides targeting NF-kappa B essential modulator (nemo) oligomerization.

    PubMed

    Agou, Fabrice; Courtois, Gilles; Chiaravalli, Jeanne; Baleux, Françoise; Coïc, Yves-Marie; Traincard, François; Israël, Alain; Véron, Michel

    2004-12-24

    NF-kappa B essential modulator/IKK-gamma (NEMO/IKK-gamma) plays a key role in the activation of the NF-kappa B pathway in response to proinflammatory stimuli. Previous studies suggested that the signal-dependent activation of the IKK complex involves the trimerization of NEMO. The minimal oligomerization domain of this protein consists of two coiled-coil subdomains named Coiled-coil 2 (CC2) and leucine zipper (LZ) (Agou, F., Traincard, F., Vinolo, E., Courtois, G., Yamaoka, S., Israel, A., and Veron, M. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 27861-27869). To search for drugs inhibiting NF-kappa B activation, we have rationally designed cell-permeable peptides corresponding to the CC2 and LZ subdomains that mimic the contact areas between NEMO subunits. The peptides were tagged with the Antennapedia/Penetratin motif and delivered to cells prior to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. Peptide transduction was monitored by fluorescence-activated cell sorter, and their effect on lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-kappa B activation was quantified using an NF-kappa B-dependent beta-galactosidase assay in stably transfected pre-B 70Z/3 lymphocytes. We show that the peptides corresponding to the LZ and CC2 subdomains inhibit NF-kappa B activation with an IC(50) in the mum range. Control peptides, including mutated CC2 and LZ peptides and a heterologous coiled-coil peptide, had no inhibitory effect. The designed peptides are able to induce cell death in human retinoblastoma Y79 cells exhibiting constitutive NF-kappa B activity. Our results provide the "proof of concept" for a new and promising strategy for the inhibition of NF-kappa B pathway activation through targeting the oligomerization state of the NEMO protein. PMID:15466857

  5. Chemotherapy-induced antitumor immunity requires formyl peptide receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Vacchelli, Erika; Ma, Yuting; Baracco, Elisa E; Sistigu, Antonella; Enot, David P; Pietrocola, Federico; Yang, Heng; Adjemian, Sandy; Chaba, Kariman; Semeraro, Michaela; Signore, Michele; De Ninno, Adele; Lucarini, Valeria; Peschiaroli, Francesca; Businaro, Luca; Gerardino, Annamaria; Manic, Gwenola; Ulas, Thomas; Günther, Patrick; Schultze, Joachim L; Kepp, Oliver; Stoll, Gautier; Lefebvre, Céline; Mulot, Claire; Castoldi, Francesca; Rusakiewicz, Sylvie; Ladoire, Sylvain; Apetoh, Lionel; Bravo-San Pedro, José Manuel; Lucattelli, Monica; Delarasse, Cécile; Boige, Valérie; Ducreux, Michel; Delaloge, Suzette; Borg, Christophe; André, Fabrice; Schiavoni, Giovanna; Vitale, Ilio; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Mattei, Fabrizio; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido

    2015-11-20

    Antitumor immunity driven by intratumoral dendritic cells contributes to the efficacy of anthracycline-based chemotherapy in cancer. We identified a loss-of-function allele of the gene coding for formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) that was associated with poor metastasis-free and overall survival in breast and colorectal cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. The therapeutic effects of anthracyclines were abrogated in tumor-bearing Fpr1(-/-) mice due to impaired antitumor immunity. Fpr1-deficient dendritic cells failed to approach dying cancer cells and, as a result, could not elicit antitumor T cell immunity. Experiments performed in a microfluidic device confirmed that FPR1 and its ligand, annexin-1, promoted stable interactions between dying cancer cells and human or murine leukocytes. Altogether, these results highlight the importance of FPR1 in chemotherapy-induced anticancer immune responses. PMID:26516201

  6. Sensing lymphoma cells based on a cell-penetrating/apoptosis-inducing/electron-transfer peptide probe.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Kazuharu; Shinohara, Hiroki; Kadoya, Toshihiko; Kuramitz, Hideki

    2016-06-14

    To electrochemically sense lymphoma cells (U937), we fabricated a multifunctional peptide probe that consists of cell-penetrating/apoptosis-inducing/electron-transfer peptides. Electron-transfer peptides derive from cysteine residue combined with the C-terminals of four tyrosine residues (Y4). A peptide whereby Y4C is bound to the C-terminals of protegrin 1 (RGGRLCYCRRRFCVCVGR-NH2) is known to be an apoptosis-inducing agent against U937 cells, and is referred to as a peptide-1 probe. An oxidation response of the peptide-1 probe has been observed due to a phenolic hydroxyl group, and this response is decreased by the uptake of the peptide probe into the cells. To improve the cell membrane permeability against U937 cells, the RGGR at the N-terminals of the peptide-1 probe was replaced by RRRR (peptide-2 probe). In contrast, RNRCKGTDVQAWY4C (peptide-3 probe), which recognizes ovalbumin, was constructed as a control. Compared with the other probes, the change in the peak current of the peptide-2 probe was the greatest at low concentrations and occurred in a short amount of time. Therefore, the cell membrane permeability of the peptide-2 probe was increased based on the arginine residues and the apoptosis-inducing peptides. The peak current was linear and ranged from 100 to 1000 cells/ml. The relative standard deviation of 600 cells/ml was 5.0% (n = 5). Furthermore, the membrane permeability of the peptide probes was confirmed using fluorescent dye. PMID:27181650

  7. Euler buckling, membrane corrugation and pore formation induced by antimicrobial peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubovic, Leonardo; Gao, Lianghui; Chen, Licui; Jia, Nana; Fang, Weihai

    2014-03-01

    Antimicrobial peptides serve as defense weapons against bacteria. They are secreted by organisms of plants and animals and have a wide variety in composition and structure. In this study, we theoretically explore the effects of the antimicrobial peptides on the lipid bilayer membrane by using analytic arguments and the coarse grained dissipative particle dynamics simulations. We study peptide/lipid membrane complexes by considering peptides with various structure, hydrophobicity and peptide/lipid interaction strength. The role of lipid/water interaction is also discussed. We discuss a rich variety of membrane morphological changes induced by peptides, such as pore formation, membrane corrugation and Euler buckling. Such buckled membrane states have been indeed seen in a number of experiments with bacteria affected by peptide, yet this is the first theoretical study addressing these phenomena more deeply.

  8. Peptide Fragmentation by Corona Discharge Induced Electrochemical Ionization

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, John R.; Hess, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental studies have greatly improved our understanding of electrospray, including the underlying electrochemical reactions. Generally regarded as disadvantageous, we have recently shown that corona discharge (CD) can be used as an effective method to create a radical cation species [M]+•, thus optimizing the electrochemical reactions that occur on the surface of the stainless steel (SS) electrospray capillary tip. This technique is known as CD initiated electrochemical ionization (CD-ECI). Here, we report on the fundamental studies using CD-ECI to induce analytically useful in-source fragmentation of a range of molecules that complex transition metals. Compounds that have been selectively fragmented using CD-ECI include enolate forming phenylglycine containing peptides, glycopeptides, nucleosides and phosphopeptides. Collision induced dissociation (CID) or other activation techniques were not necessary for CD-ECI fragmentation. A four step mechanism was proposed: 1. Complexation using either Fe in the SS capillary tip material or Cu(II) as an offline complexation reagent; 2. Electrochemical oxidation of the complexed metal and thus formation of a radical cation (e.g.; Fe - e− → Fe +•); 3. Radical fragmentation of the complexed compound. 4. Electrospray ionization of the fragmented neutrals. Fragmentation patterns resembling b- and y-type ions were observed and allowed the localization of the phosphorylation sites. PMID:20869880

  9. Peptide fragmentation by corona discharge induced electrochemical ionization.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, John R; Hess, Sonja

    2010-12-01

    Fundamental studies have greatly improved our understanding of electrospray, including the underlying electrochemical reactions. Generally regarded as disadvantageous, we have recently shown that corona discharge (CD) can be used as an effective method to create a radical cation species [M](+·), thus optimizing the electrochemical reactions that occur on the surface of the stainless steel (SS) electrospray capillary tip. This technique is known as CD initiated electrochemical ionization (CD-ECI). Here, we report on the fundamental studies using CD-ECI to induce analytically useful in-source fragmentation of a range of molecules that complex transition metals. Compounds that have been selectively fragmented using CD-ECI include enolate forming phenylglycine containing peptides, glycopeptides, nucleosides, and phosphopeptides. Collision induced dissociation (CID) or other activation techniques were not necessary for CD-ECI fragmentation. A four step mechanism was proposed: (1) complexation using either Fe in the SS capillary tip material or Cu(II) as an offline complexation reagent; (2) electrochemical oxidation of the complexed metal and thus formation of a radical cation (e.g.; Fe - e(-) → Fe(+·)); (3) radical fragmentation of the complexed compound; (4) electrospray ionization of the fragmented neutrals. Fragmentation patterns resembling b- and y-type ions were observed and allowed the localization of the phosphorylation sites. PMID:20869880

  10. Protective Effect of Wheat Peptides against Indomethacin-Induced Oxidative Stress in IEC-6 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Hong; Pan, Xingchang; Song, Zhixiu; Wang, Shaokang; Yang, Ligang; Sun, Guiju

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that wheat peptides protected rats against non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-induced small intestinal epithelial cells damage, but the mechanism of action is unclear. In the present study, an indomethacin-induced oxidative stress model was used to investigate the effect of wheat peptides on the nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB)-inducible nitric oxide synthase-nitric oxide signal pathway in intestinal epithelial cells-6 cells. IEC-6 cells were treated with wheat peptides (0, 125, 500 and 2000 mg/L) for 24 h, followed by 90 mg/L indomethacin for 12 h. Wheat peptides significantly attenuated the indomethacin-induced decrease in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity. Wheat peptides at 2000 mg/L markedly decreased the expression of the NF-κB in response to indomethacin-induced oxidative stress. This study demonstrated that the addition of wheat peptides to a culture medium significantly inhibited the indomethacin-induced release of malondialdehyde and nitrogen monoxide, and increased antioxidant enzyme activity in IEC-6 cells, thereby providing a possible explanation for the protective effect proposed for wheat peptides in the prevention of indomethacin-induced oxidative stress in small intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:24481130

  11. Brain delivery of insulin boosted by intranasal coadministration with cell-penetrating peptides.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Noriyasu; Takeda-Morishita, Mariko

    2015-01-10

    Intranasal administration is considered as an alternative route to enable effective drug delivery to the central nervous system (CNS) by bypassing the blood-brain barrier. Several reports have proved that macromolecules can be transferred directly from the nasal cavity to the brain. However, strategies to enhance the delivery of macromolecules from the nasal cavity to CNS are needed because of their low delivery efficiencies via this route in general. We hypothesized that the delivery of biopharmaceuticals to the brain parenchyma can be facilitated by increasing the uptake of drugs by the nasal epithelium including supporting and neuronal cells to maximize the potentiality of the intranasal pathway. To test this hypothesis, the CNS-related model peptide insulin was intranasally coadministered with the cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) penetratin to mice. As a result, insulin coadministered with l- or d-penetratin reached the distal regions of the brain from the nasal cavity, including the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and brain stem. In particular, d-penetratin could intranasally deliver insulin to the brain with a reduced risk of systemic insulin exposure. Thus, the results obtained in this study suggested that CPPs are potential tools for the brain delivery of peptide- and protein-based pharmaceuticals via intranasal administration. PMID:25445695

  12. Atrial natriuretic peptide mediates oxytocin secretion induced by osmotic stimulus.

    PubMed

    Chriguer, Rosengela S; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Franci, Celso R

    2003-02-15

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), first discovered in the heart, has been also detected in various brain regions involved in the control of cardiovascular function and water and sodium balance. The anteroventral region of the third ventricle (AV3V) and the subfornical organ (SFO) have ANP-immunoreactive projections towards the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei of the hypothalamus. Extracellular fluid (ECF) hyperosmolality stimulates the secretion of oxytocin (OT) which induces ANP release by the atrium. On the other hand, passive immunoneutralization of ANP reduces OT secretion in response to ECF hypertonicity. Previous studies have shown the co-localization of ANP and OT in PVN and SON neurons and in the periventricular region, as well as the presence of ANPergic and oxytocinergic neurons in the median eminence. The aim of the present study was to investigate the OT and ANP content in the SON and PVN of the hypothalamus and in the posterior pituitary (PP) after an osmotic stimulus that induces OT secretion. The results showed that intracerebroventricular microinjection of normal rabbit serum (NRS) or of ANP antiserum followed or not by an intraperitoneal injection of isotonic saline did not alter OT secretion or OT content in the PVN, SON, and PP; passive ANP immunoneutralization reduced the basal content of ANP in the PVN, SON, and PP of animals in a situation of isotonicity; the ANP antiserum inhibited the increase of OT secretion and content of OT and ANP in the PVN, SON and PP induced by the osmotic stimulus. Thus, the increase in plasma OT and oxytocinergic neurons of the hypothalamus-posterior pituitary system in response to hypertonicity depends on the action of endogenous ANP, i.e., ECF hypertonicity must activate ANPergic neurons which directly or indirectly stimulate OT release. PMID:12576148

  13. Fluctuations and the Rate-Limiting Step of Peptide-Induced Membrane Leakage

    PubMed Central

    Mazzuca, C.; Orioni, B.; Coletta, M.; Formaggio, F.; Toniolo, C.; Maulucci, G.; De Spirito, M.; Pispisa, B.; Venanzi, M.; Stella, L.

    2010-01-01

    Peptide-induced vesicle leakage is a common experimental test for the membrane-perturbing activity of antimicrobial peptides. The leakage kinetics is usually very slow, requiring minutes to hours for complete release of vesicle contents, and exhibits a biphasic behavior. We report here that, in the case of the peptaibol trichogin GA IV, all processes involved in peptide-membrane interaction, such as peptide-membrane association, peptide aggregation, and peptide translocation, take place on a timescale much shorter than the leakage kinetics. On the basis of these findings, we propose a stochastic model in which the leakage kinetics is determined by the discrete nature of a vesicle suspension: peptides are continuously exchanging among vesicles, producing significant fluctuations over time in the number of peptide molecules bound to each vesicle, and in the formation of pores. According to this model, the fast initial leakage is caused by vesicles that contain at least one pore after the peptides are randomly distributed among the liposomes, whereas the slower release is associated with the time needed to occasionally reach in an intact vesicle the critical number of bound peptides necessary for pore formation. Fluctuations due to peptide exchange among vesicles therefore represent the rate-limiting step of such a slow mechanism. PMID:20858423

  14. Reversible Sheet–Turn Conformational Change of a Cell-Penetrating Peptide in Lipid Bilayers Studied by Solid-State NMR

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yongchao; Mani, Rajeswari; Doherty, Tim; Waring, Alan J.

    2014-01-01

    The membrane-bound conformation of a cell-penetrating peptide, penetratin, is investigated using solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The 13C chemical shifts of 13C, 15N-labeled residues in the peptide indicate a reversible conformational change from β-sheet at low temperature to coil-like at high temperature. This conformational change occurs for all residues examined between positions 3 and 13, at peptide/lipid molar ratios of 1:15 and 1:30, in membranes with 25–50% anionic lipids, and in both saturated DMPC/DMPG (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylchloline/1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylglycerol) membranes and unsaturated POPC/POPG (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylglycerol) membranes. Thus, it is an intrinsic property of penetratin. The coil state of the peptide has C– H order parameters of 0.23–0.52 for Cα and Cβ sites, indicating that the peptide backbone is unstructured. Moreover, chemical shift anisotropy lineshapes are uniaxially averaged, suggesting that the peptide backbone undergoes uniaxial rotation around the bilayer normal. These observations suggest that the dynamic state of penetratin at high temperature is a structured turn instead of an isotropic random coil. The thermodynamic parameters of this sheet–turn transition are extracted and compared to other membrane peptides reported to exhibit conformational changes. We suggest that the function of this turn conformation may be to reduce hydrophobic interactions with the lipid chains and facilitate penetratin translocation across the bilayer without causing permanent membrane damage. PMID:18656895

  15. The Antimicrobial Peptide Lysozyme Is Induced after Multiple Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Klüter, Tim; Fitschen-Oestern, Stefanie; Lippross, Sebastian; Weuster, Matthias; Pufe, Thomas; Tohidnezhad, Mersedeh; Beyer, Andreas; Seekamp, Andreas; Varoga, Deike

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial peptide lysozyme is an important factor of innate immunity and exerts high potential of antibacterial activity. In the present study we evaluated the lysozyme expression in serum of multiple injured patients and subsequently analyzed their possible sources and signaling pathways. Expression of lysozyme was examined in blood samples of multiple trauma patients from the day of trauma until 14 days after trauma by ELISA. To investigate major sources of lysozyme, its expression and regulation in serum samples, different blood cells, and tissue samples were analysed by ELISA and real-time PCR. Neutrophils and hepatocytes were stimulated with cytokines and supernatant of Staphylococcus aureus. The present study demonstrates the induction and release of lysozyme in serum of multiple injured patients. The highest lysozyme expression of all tested cells and tissues was detected in neutrophils. Stimulation with trauma-related factors such as interleukin-6 and S. aureus induced lysozyme expression. Liver tissue samples of patients without trauma show little lysozyme expression compared to neutrophils. After stimulation with bacterial fragments, lysozyme expression of hepatocytes is upregulated significantly. Toll-like receptor 2, a classic receptor of Gram-positive bacterial protein, was detected as a possible target for lysozyme induction. PMID:25258475

  16. The antimicrobial peptide lysozyme is induced after multiple trauma.

    PubMed

    Klüter, Tim; Fitschen-Oestern, Stefanie; Lippross, Sebastian; Weuster, Matthias; Mentlein, Rolf; Steubesand, Nadine; Neunaber, Claudia; Hildebrand, Frank; Pufe, Thomas; Tohidnezhad, Mersedeh; Beyer, Andreas; Seekamp, Andreas; Varoga, Deike

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial peptide lysozyme is an important factor of innate immunity and exerts high potential of antibacterial activity. In the present study we evaluated the lysozyme expression in serum of multiple injured patients and subsequently analyzed their possible sources and signaling pathways. Expression of lysozyme was examined in blood samples of multiple trauma patients from the day of trauma until 14 days after trauma by ELISA. To investigate major sources of lysozyme, its expression and regulation in serum samples, different blood cells, and tissue samples were analysed by ELISA and real-time PCR. Neutrophils and hepatocytes were stimulated with cytokines and supernatant of Staphylococcus aureus. The present study demonstrates the induction and release of lysozyme in serum of multiple injured patients. The highest lysozyme expression of all tested cells and tissues was detected in neutrophils. Stimulation with trauma-related factors such as interleukin-6 and S. aureus induced lysozyme expression. Liver tissue samples of patients without trauma show little lysozyme expression compared to neutrophils. After stimulation with bacterial fragments, lysozyme expression of hepatocytes is upregulated significantly. Toll-like receptor 2, a classic receptor of Gram-positive bacterial protein, was detected as a possible target for lysozyme induction. PMID:25258475

  17. Superoxide generation catalyzed by the ozone-inducible plant peptides analogous to prion octarepeat motif.

    PubMed

    Yokawa, Ken; Kagenishi, Tomoko; Kawano, Tomonori

    2011-04-01

    Ozone-inducible (OI) peptides found in plants contain repeated sequences consisting of a hexa-repeat unit (YGH GGG) repeated 7-9 times in tandem, and each unit tightly binds copper. To date, the biochemical roles for OI peptides are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrated that the hexa-repeat unit from OI peptides behaves as metal-binding motif catalytically active in the O2•--generation. Lastly, possible mechanisms of the reaction and biological consequence of the reactions are discussed by analogy to the action of human prion octarepeat peptides. PMID:21350332

  18. Hierarchical, interface-induced self-assembly of diphenylalanine: formation of peptide nanofibers and microvesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Renliang; Su, Rongxin; Qi, Wei; Zhao, Jun; He, Zhimin

    2011-06-01

    To gain insight into the hierarchical self-assembly of peptides and the surface effect on assembly formation, an aromatic peptide of diphenylalanine (FF) was used in this study as the model peptide. We found that the diphenylalanine peptide could self-assemble into a core-branched nanostructure through non-covalent interactions in aqueous solution. The pre-assemblies further assembled into nanofibers and microvesicles on the glass surface and microporous membrane, respectively, showing a significant dependence on surface characteristics. The structural and morphological differences between nanofibers and microvesicles were investigated directly using several spectroscopy and microscopy techniques. Our results revealed a hierarchical and interface-induced assembly behavior of diphenylalanine peptide. The novel strategy based on the surface effect allows one to controllably fabricate various peptide-based nanostructures.

  19. Hierarchical, interface-induced self-assembly of diphenylalanine: formation of peptide nanofibers and microvesicles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Renliang; Su, Rongxin; Qi, Wei; Zhao, Jun; He, Zhimin

    2011-06-17

    To gain insight into the hierarchical self-assembly of peptides and the surface effect on assembly formation, an aromatic peptide of diphenylalanine (FF) was used in this study as the model peptide. We found that the diphenylalanine peptide could self-assemble into a core-branched nanostructure through non-covalent interactions in aqueous solution. The pre-assemblies further assembled into nanofibers and microvesicles on the glass surface and microporous membrane, respectively, showing a significant dependence on surface characteristics. The structural and morphological differences between nanofibers and microvesicles were investigated directly using several spectroscopy and microscopy techniques. Our results revealed a hierarchical and interface-induced assembly behavior of diphenylalanine peptide. The novel strategy based on the surface effect allows one to controllably fabricate various peptide-based nanostructures. PMID:21543826

  20. Low-Energy Collision-Induced Dissociation Fragmentation Analysis of Cysteinyl-Modified Peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Borisov, Oleg V.; Goshe, Michael B. ); Conrads, Thomas P. ); Rakov, Vsevolod S. ); Veenstra, Timothy D. ); Smith, Richard D. )

    2002-05-15

    The development of methods to chemically modify and isolate cysteinyl-residue containing peptides (Cys-peptides) for LC-MS/MS analysis has generated considerable interest in the field of proteomics. Methods using isotope-coded affinity tags (ICAT) and (+)-biotinyl-iodoacetamidyl-3,6-dioxaoctanediamine (iodoacetyl-PEO-biotin) employ similar Cys-modifying reagents that contain a thiolate-specific biotin group to modify and isolate Cys-containing peptides in conjunction with immobilized avidin. For these strategies to be effective on a proteome-wide level, the presence of the ICAT or acetyl-PEO-biotin tag should not interfere with the efficiency of induced dissociation in MS/MS experiments or with the identification of the modified Cys-peptides by automated database searching algorithms. We have compared the collision-induced dissociation (CID) fragmentation patterns of peptides labeled with iodoacetyl-PEO-biotin and the ICAT reagent to those of the unmodified peptides. CID of Cys-peptides modified with either reagent resulted in the formation of ions attributed to the modified Cys-peptides as well as those unique to the labeling reagent. As demonstrated by analyzing acetyl-PEO-biotin labeled peptides from ribonuclease A and the ICAT-labeled proteome of D. radiodurans, the presence of these labeled-specific product ions provides a useful identifier to discern whether a peptide has been modified with the Cys-specific reagent, especially when a number of peptides analyzed using these methods do not contain a modified Cys-residue, and to differentiate identical Cys-peptides labeled with either ICAT-D0 or ICAT-D8.

  1. Epitope spreading induced by immunization with synthetic SSB peptides

    PubMed Central

    DING, MIN; ZHANG, JIANZHONG

    2016-01-01

    Sjogren's syndrome type B (SSB)/La antibody is an autoantibody generally observed in connective tissue diseases whereas double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (dsDNA) antibodies are the most characteristic autoantibodies found in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. The relationship of these autoantibodies remains unclear. The aim of the study was to determine the profile of antibody production in rabbits immunized with synthetic SSB peptides alone or with dsDNA. For this purpose, 214–225aa peptide of SSB antigen was synthesized based on the organic chemistry solid-phase peptide synthesis. Rabbits were immunized with the following antigens: i) synthetic SSB peptides linked with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH); ii) dsDNA; iii) SSB plus dsDNA; iv) KLH; and v) phosphate-buffered saline. SSB peptide antibody was measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay while extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) antibody and dsDNA antibody were measured by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence, respectively. The results showed that a specific anti-SSB peptide antibody was produced following immunization with SSB epitope alone or with dsDNA. The SSB peptide antibody titer in the coimmunization group was higher than that of the SSB alone group. In addition, antibodies against ribonucleoprotein (RNP), Smith and/or dsDNA were detected in rabbits of the coimmunization group. The presence of anti-dsDNA antibodies in the rabbits immunized with SSB peptide suggested the induction of epitope spreading. In conclusions, SSB antibodies were produced in rabbits immunized with SSB peptide or SSB+dsDNA, whereas SSB antibody titers were higher in the coimmunization group. Furthermore, coimmunization was associated with epitope spreading. PMID:27347030

  2. Requirements of the engineered leader peptide of nisin for inducing modification, export, and cleavage.

    PubMed

    Plat, Annechien; Kluskens, Leon D; Kuipers, Anneke; Rink, Rick; Moll, Gert N

    2011-01-01

    Nisin A is a pentacyclic peptide antibiotic produced by Lactococcus lactis. The leader peptide of prenisin keeps nisin inactive and has a role in inducing NisB- and NisC-catalyzed modifications of the propeptide and NisT-mediated export. The highly specific NisP cleaves off the leader peptide from fully modified and exported prenisin. We present here a detailed mutagenesis analysis of the nisin leader peptide. For alternative cleavage, we successfully introduced a putative NisP autocleavage site and sites for thrombin, enterokinase, Glu-C, and factor Xa in the C-terminal part of the leader peptide. Replacing residue F-18 with Trp or Thr strongly reduced production. On the other hand, D-19A, F-18H, F-18M, L-16D, L-16K, and L-16A enhanced production. Substitutions within and outside the FNLD box enhanced or reduced the transport efficiency. None of the above substitutions nor even an internal 6His tag from positions -13 to -8 had any effect on the capacity of the leader peptide to induce NisB and NisC modifications. Therefore, these data demonstrate a large mutational freedom. However, simultaneous replacement of the FNLD amino acids by four alanines strongly reduced export and even led to a complete loss of the capacity to induce modifications. Reducing the leader peptide to MSTKDFNLDLR led to 3- or 4-fold dehydration. Taken together, the FNLD box is crucial for inducing posttranslational modifications. PMID:21097596

  3. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Induces Postprandial Lipid Oxidation in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Birkenfeld, Andreas L.; Budziarek, Petra; Boschmann, Michael; Moro, Cedric; Adams, Frauke; Franke, Gabriele; Berlan, Michel; Marques, Marie A.; Sweep, Fred C.G.J.; Luft, Friedrich C.; Lafontan, Max; Jordan, Jens

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) regulates arterial blood pressure. In addition, ANP has recently been shown to promote human adipose tissue lipolysis through cGMP-mediated hormone-sensitive lipase activation. We hypothesized that ANP increases postprandial free fatty acid (FFA) availability and energy expenditure while decreasing arterial blood pressure. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We infused human ANP (25 ng · kg−1 · min−1) in 12 men (age 32 ± 0.8 years, BMI 23.3 ± 0.4 kg/m2) before, during, and 2 h after ingestion of a standardized high-fat test meal in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over fashion. Cardiovascular changes were monitored by continuous electrocardiogram and beat-by-beat blood pressure recordings. Metabolism was monitored through venous blood sampling, intramuscular and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue microdialysis, and indirect calorimetry. RESULTS—ANP infusion decreased mean arterial blood pressure by 4 mmHg during the postprandial phase (P < 0.01 vs. placebo). At the same time, ANP induced lipolysis systemically (P < 0.05 vs. placebo) and locally in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (P < 0.0001 vs. placebo), leading to a 50% increase in venous glycerol (P < 0.01) and FFA (P < 0.05) concentrations compared with placebo. The increase in FFA availability with ANP was paralleled by a 15% increase in lipid oxidation rates (P < 0.05 vs. placebo), driving a substantial increase in postprandial energy expenditure (P < 0.05 vs. placebo). CONCLUSIONS—Our data identify the ANP system as a novel pathway regulating postprandial lipid oxidation, energy expenditure, and concomitantly arterial blood pressure. The findings could have therapeutic implications. PMID:18835931

  4. Novel inducible antibacterial peptides from a hemipteran insect, the sap-sucking bug Pyrrhocoris apterus.

    PubMed Central

    Cociancich, S; Dupont, A; Hegy, G; Lanot, R; Holder, F; Hetru, C; Hoffmann, J A; Bulet, P

    1994-01-01

    Insects belonging to the recent orders of the endopterygote clade (Lepidoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Coleoptera) respond to bacterial challenge by the rapid and transient synthesis of a battery of potent antibacterial peptides which are secreted into their haemolymph. Here we present the first report on inducible antibacterial molecules in the sap-sucking bug Pyrrhocoris apterus, a representative species of the Hemiptera, which predated the Endoptergotes by at least 50 million years in evolution. We have isolated and characterized from immune blood of this species three novel peptides or polypeptides: (i) a 43-residue cysteine-rich anti-(Gram-positive bacteria) peptide which is a new member of the family of insect defensins; (ii) a 20-residue proline-rich peptide carrying an O-glycosylated substitution (N-acetylgalactosamine), active against Gram-negative bacteria; (iii) a 133-residue glycine-rich polypeptide also active against Gram-negative bacteria. The proline-rich peptide shows high sequence similarities with drosocin, an O-glycosylated antibacterial peptide from Drosophila, and also with the N-terminal domain of diptericin, an inducible 9 kDa antibacterial peptide from members of the order Diptera, whereas the glycine-rich peptide has similarities with the glycine-rich domain of diptericin. We discuss the evolutionary aspects of these findings. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:8002963

  5. Effect of Curcumin on the metal ion induced fibrillization of Amyloid-β peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Rona

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Curcumin on Cu(II) and Zn(II) induced oligomerization and protofibrillization of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide has been studied by spectroscopic and microscopic methods. Curcumin could significantly reduce the β-sheet content of the peptide in a time dependent manner. It also plays an antagonistic role in β-sheet formation that is promoted by metal ions like Cu(II) and Zn(II) as observed by Circular Dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopic (AFM) images show that spontaneous fibrillization of the peptide occurs in presence of Cu(II) and Zn(II) but is inhibited on incubation of the peptide with Curcumin indicating the beneficial role of Curcumin in preventing the aggregation of Aβ peptide.

  6. Cognate peptides induce self-destruction of CD8+ cytolytic T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Walden, P R; Eisen, H N

    1990-01-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) have been shown to be relatively resistant to cytolytic attack by other CTLs. We show here, however, that cloned CTLs, in the absence of other cells, are destroyed by exposure to their cognate peptides (defined as those that in association with major histocompatibility complex proteins are recognized by the antigen-specific receptor of the T cell). Destruction is proportional to peptide concentration and can be prevented by a second peptide that competes with the cognate peptide for presentation by the class I major histocompatibility complex proteins of the CTLs. The speed and extent of peptide-induced changes in the appearance of CTLs suggest that the destruction may be due primarily to self-recognition and self-destruction of individual CTLs (suicide) rather than to the destruction of some CTLs by others of the same clone in the same culture (fratricide). This effect may also take place in vivo because the appropriately timed injection of a cognate peptide into ovalbumin-immunized mice appeared to deplete their spleens of primed anti-ovalbumin CTLs. The results point to a possible physiologic mechanism for postthymic elimination of cytolytic T cells that recognize their own peptides in association with their own major histocompatibility complex protein. The results also raise the possibility that cognate peptides might eventually prove therapeutically useful for eliminating CTL clones that cause pathological cell destruction, as in some autoimmune diseases and some viral infections. Images PMID:2123347

  7. KL4 Peptide Induces Reversible Collapse Structures on Multiple Length Scales in Model Lung Surfactant

    PubMed Central

    Holten-Andersen, Niels; Michael Henderson, J.; Walther, Frans J.; Waring, Alan J.; Ruchala, Piotr; Notter, Robert H.; Lee, Ka Yee C.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effects of KL4, a 21-residue amphipathic peptide approximating the overall ratio of positively charged to hydrophobic amino acids in surfactant protein B (SP-B), on the structure and collapse of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol monolayers. As reported in prior work on model lung surfactant phospholipid films containing SP-B and SP-B peptides, our experiments show that KL4 improves surfactant film reversibility during repetitive interfacial cycling in association with the formation of reversible collapse structures on multiple length scales. Emphasis is on exploring a general mechanistic connection between peptide-induced nano- and microscale reversible collapse structures (silos and folds). PMID:22208194

  8. Visible-Light-Induced Specific Desulfurization of Cysteinyl Peptide and Glycopeptide in Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiao-Fei; Du, Jing-Jing; Liu, Zheng; Guo, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Visible-light-induced specific desulfurization of cysteinyl peptides has been explored. The photocatalytic desulfurization catalyzed by Ru(bpy)3(2+) can proceed efficiently at room temperature in aqueous solution or in binary mixtures of aqueous/organic solvent and be compatible with the presence of residues of amino acids, carbohydrates, and various sulfur-containing functional groups. This approach was successfully applied to synthesize linear and cyclic peptides through the ligation-desulfurization protocol. PMID:26892036

  9. An analogue peptide from the Cancer/Testis antigen PASD1 induces CD8+ T cell responses against naturally processed peptide

    PubMed Central

    Hardwick, Nicola; Buchan, Sarah; Ingram, Wendy; Khan, Ghazala; Vittes, Gisella; Rice, Jason; Pulford, Karen; Mufti, Ghulam; Stevenson, Freda; Guinn, Barbara-ann

    2013-01-01

    We have previously identified the novel Cancer/Testis antigen PASD1 by immunoscreening a testis library with pooled acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patient sera. To develop a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-inducing vaccine, we have now investigated the carboxy-terminal region, known to contain serological determinants, for MHC class I (HLA-A⋆0201)-binding peptides. Algorithm-selected natural peptides failed to show detectable HLA-A⋆0201 binding in T2 assays. However, anchor-modified analogue peptides showed enhanced binding, with decreased off-rates. Analogue peptide-loaded antigen-presenting cells (APCs) induced IFN-γ production by T cells from normal donors and patients. In addition, peptide-specific T cells could be expanded from cancer patients by stimulation with the PASD1 analogue peptide Pa14. For clinical application, a DNA fusion gene vaccine encoding Pa14 was designed and tested in “humanized” mice. Splenocytes from vaccinated mice showed in vitro cytotoxicity against tumour cells, either exogenously loaded with the corresponding wild-type peptide (Pw8) or expressing endogenously processed PASD1 protein. We show for the first time that a DNA vaccine encoding an altered PASD1 epitope can induce CTLs to target the natural peptide expressed by human tumour cells. PMID:23882161

  10. Cathelicidin peptide sheep myeloid antimicrobial peptide-29 prevents endotoxin-induced mortality in rat models of septic shock.

    PubMed

    Giacometti, Andrea; Cirioni, Oscar; Ghiselli, Roberto; Mocchegiani, Federico; D'Amato, Giuseppina; Circo, Raffaella; Orlando, Fiorenza; Skerlavaj, Barbara; Silvestri, Carmela; Saba, Vittorio; Zanetti, Margherita; Scalise, Giorgio

    2004-01-15

    The present study was designed to investigate the antiendotoxin activity and therapeutic efficacy of sheep myeloid antimicrobial peptide (SMAP)-29, a cathelicidin-derived peptide. The in vitro ability of SMAP-29 to bind LPS from Escherichia coli 0111:B4 was determined using a sensitive limulus chromogenic assay. Two rat models of septic shock were performed: (1) rats were injected intraperitoneally with 1 mg E. coli 0111:B4 LPS and (2) intraabdominal sepsis was induced via cecal ligation and single puncture. All animals were randomized to receive parenterally isotonic sodium chloride solution, 1 mg/kg SMAP-29, 1 mg/kg polymyxin B or 20 mg/kg imipenem. The main outcome measures were: abdominal exudate and plasma bacterial growth, plasma endotoxin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations, and lethality. The in vitro study showed that SMAP-29 completely inhibited the LPS procoagulant activity at approximately 10 microM peptide concentration. The in vivo experiments showed that all compounds reduced the lethality when compared with control animals. SMAP-29 achieved a substantial decrease in endotoxin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha plasma concentrations when compared with imipenem and saline treatment and exhibited a slightly lower antimicrobial activity than imipenem. No statistically significant differences were noted between SMAP-29 and polymyxin B. SMAP-29, because of its double antiendotoxin and antimicrobial activities, could be an interesting compound for septic shock treatment. PMID:14563656

  11. A Study into the Collision-induced Dissociation (CID) Behavior of Cross-Linked Peptides*

    PubMed Central

    Giese, Sven H.; Fischer, Lutz; Rappsilber, Juri

    2016-01-01

    Cross-linking/mass spectrometry resolves protein–protein interactions or protein folds by help of distance constraints. Cross-linkers with specific properties such as isotope-labeled or collision-induced dissociation (CID)-cleavable cross-linkers are in frequent use to simplify the identification of cross-linked peptides. Here, we analyzed the mass spectrometric behavior of 910 unique cross-linked peptides in high-resolution MS1 and MS2 from published data and validate the observation by a ninefold larger set from currently unpublished data to explore if detailed understanding of their fragmentation behavior would allow computational delivery of information that otherwise would be obtained via isotope labels or CID cleavage of cross-linkers. Isotope-labeled cross-linkers reveal cross-linked and linear fragments in fragmentation spectra. We show that fragment mass and charge alone provide this information, alleviating the need for isotope-labeling for this purpose. Isotope-labeled cross-linkers also indicate cross-linker-containing, albeit not specifically cross-linked, peptides in MS1. We observed that acquisition can be guided to better than twofold enrich cross-linked peptides with minimal losses based on peptide mass and charge alone. By help of CID-cleavable cross-linkers, individual spectra with only linear fragments can be recorded for each peptide in a cross-link. We show that cross-linked fragments of ordinary cross-linked peptides can be linearized computationally and that a simplified subspectrum can be extracted that is enriched in information on one of the two linked peptides. This allows identifying candidates for this peptide in a simplified database search as we propose in a search strategy here. We conclude that the specific behavior of cross-linked peptides in mass spectrometers can be exploited to relax the requirements on cross-linkers. PMID:26719564

  12. Role of chirality in peptide-induced formation of cholesterol-rich domains

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The chiral specificity of the interactions of peptides that induce the formation of cholesterol-rich domains has not been extensively investigated. Both the peptide and most lipids are chiral, so there is a possibility that interactions between peptide and lipid could require chiral recognition. On the other hand, in our models with small peptides, the extent of folding of the peptide to form a specific binding pocket is limited. We have determined that replacing cholesterol with its enantiomer, ent-cholesterol, alters the modulation of lipid organization by peptides. The phase-transition properties of SOPC (1-stearoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine):cholesterol [in a 6:4 ratio with 0.2 mol% PtdIns(4,5)P2] are not significantly altered when ent-cholesterol replaces cholesterol. However, in the presence of 10 mol% of a 19-amino-acid, N-terminally myristoylated fragment (myristoyl-GGKLSKKKKGYNVNDEKAK-amide) of the protein NAP-22 (neuronal axonal membrane protein), the lipid mixture containing cholesterol undergoes separation into cholesterol-rich and cholesterol-depleted domains. This does not occur when ent-cholesterol replaces cholesterol. In another example, when N-acetyl-Leu-Trp-Tyr-Ile-Lys-amide (N-acetyl-LWYIK-amide) is added to SOPC:cholesterol (7:3 ratio), there is a marked increase in the transition enthalpy of the phospholipid, indicating separation of a cholesterol-depleted domain of SOPC. This phenomenon completely disappears when ent-cholesterol replaces cholesterol. The all-D-isomer of N-acetyl-LWYIK-amide also induces the formation of cholesterol-rich domains with natural cholesterol, but does so to a lesser extent with ent-cholesterol. Thus specific peptide chirality is not required for interaction with cholesterol-containing membranes. However, a specific chirality of membrane lipids is required for peptide-induced formation of cholesterol-rich domains. PMID:15929726

  13. Intracellular delivery of fluorescent protein into viable wheat microspores using cationic peptides

    PubMed Central

    Bilichak, Andriy; Luu, Justin; Eudes, François

    2015-01-01

    Microspores are specialized generative cells with haploid genome that demonstrate the amenability toward embryogenesis under certain conditions. The induced microspore culture technique is largely exploited by the breeding programs of wheat and other crops due to its high efficiency for generation of the large number of haploid plants in the relatively short period of time. The ability to produce mature double haploid plant from a single cell has also attracted attention of the plant biotechnologists in the past few years. More importantly, the possibility to deliver proteins for improvement of embryogenesis and the genome modification purposes holds great potential for transgene-free wheat biotechnology. In the present study, we examined the ability of cationic and amphipathic cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) to convey a covalently-linked mCherry protein inside the viable microspores. We demonstrate that the affinity of CPPs to the microspore cells dependents on their charge with the highest efficiency of CPP-mCherry binding to the cells achieved by cationic CPPs (penetratin and R9). Additionally, due to overall negative charge of the microspore cell wall, the successful uptake of the protein cargo by live microspore cells is attained by utilization of a reversible disulfide bond between the R9 CPP and mCherry protein. Overall, the approach proposed herein can be applied by the other biotechnology groups for the fast and efficient screening of the different CPP candidates for their ability to deliver proteins inside the viable plant cells. PMID:26379691

  14. Identification of an HLA-A2-Restricted Epitope Peptide Derived from Hypoxia-Inducible Protein 2 (HIG2)

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Sachiko; Tsunoda, Takuya; Osawa, Ryuji; Harada, Makiko; Watanabe, Tomohisa; Hikichi, Tetsuro; Katsuda, Masahiro; Miyazawa, Motoki; Tani, Masaji; Iwahashi, Makoto; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Katagiri, Toyomasa; Nakamura, Yusuke; Yamaue, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    We herein report the identification of an HLA-A2 supertype-restricted epitope peptide derived from hypoxia-inducible protein 2 (HIG2), which is known to be a diagnostic marker and a potential therapeutic target for renal cell carcinoma. Among several candidate peptides predicted by the HLA-binding prediction algorithm, HIG2-9-4 peptide (VLNLYLLGV) was able to effectively induce peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). The established HIG2-9-4 peptide-specific CTL clone produced interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in response to HIG2-9-4 peptide-pulsed HLA-A*02:01-positive cells, as well as to cells in which HLA-A*02:01 and HIG2 were exogenously introduced. Moreover, the HIG2-9-4 peptide-specific CTL clone exerted cytotoxic activity against HIG2-expressing HLA-A*02:01-positive renal cancer cells, thus suggesting that the HIG2-9-4 peptide is naturally presented on HLA-A*02:01 of HIG-2-expressing cancer cells and is recognized by CTLs. Furthermore, we found that the HIG2-9-4 peptide could also induce CTLs under HLA-A*02:06 restriction. Taken together, these findings indicate that the HIG2-9-4 peptide is a novel HLA-A2 supertype-restricted epitope peptide that could be useful for peptide-based immunotherapy against cancer cells with HIG2 expression. PMID:24416375

  15. Potassium ions are more effective than sodium ions in salt induced peptide formation.

    PubMed

    Dubina, Michael V; Vyazmin, Sergey Yu; Boitsov, Vitali M; Nikolaev, Eugene N; Popov, Igor A; Kononikhin, Alexey S; Eliseev, Igor E; Natochin, Yuri V

    2013-04-01

    Prebiotic peptide formation under aqueous conditions in the presence of metal ions is one of the plausible triggers of the emergence of life. The salt-induced peptide formation reaction has been suggested as being prebiotically relevant and was examined for the formation of peptides in NaCl solutions. In previous work we have argued that the first protocell could have emerged in KCl solution. Using HPLC-MS/MS analysis, we found that K(+) is more than an order of magnitude more effective in the L-glutamic acid oligomerization with 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole in aqueous solutions than the same concentration of Na(+), which is consistent with the diffusion theory calculations. We anticipate that prebiotic peptides could have formed with K(+) as the driving force, not Na(+), as commonly believed. PMID:23536046

  16. Potassium Ions are More Effective than Sodium Ions in Salt Induced Peptide Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubina, Michael V.; Vyazmin, Sergey Yu.; Boitsov, Vitali M.; Nikolaev, Eugene N.; Popov, Igor A.; Kononikhin, Alexey S.; Eliseev, Igor E.; Natochin, Yuri V.

    2013-04-01

    Prebiotic peptide formation under aqueous conditions in the presence of metal ions is one of the plausible triggers of the emergence of life. The salt-induced peptide formation reaction has been suggested as being prebiotically relevant and was examined for the formation of peptides in NaCl solutions. In previous work we have argued that the first protocell could have emerged in KCl solution. Using HPLC-MS/MS analysis, we found that K+ is more than an order of magnitude more effective in the L-glutamic acid oligomerization with 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole in aqueous solutions than the same concentration of Na+, which is consistent with the diffusion theory calculations. We anticipate that prebiotic peptides could have formed with K+ as the driving force, not Na+, as commonly believed.

  17. Angiotensin peptides attenuate platelet-activating factor-induced inflammatory activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Sato, Akira; Yokoyama, Izumi; Ebina, Keiichi

    2015-11-01

    Angiotensin (Ang)--a peptide that is part of the renin-angiotensin system-induces vasoconstriction and a subsequent increase in blood pressure; Ang peptides, especially AngII, can also act as potent pro-inflammatory mediators. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a potent phospholipid mediator that is implicated in many inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of Ang peptides (AngII, AngIII, and AngIV) on PAF-induced inflammatory activity. In experiments using a rat hind-paw oedema model, AngII markedly and dose-dependently attenuated the paw oedema induced by PAF. The inhibitory effects of AngIII and AngIV on PAF-induced paw oedema were lower than that of AngII. Two Ang receptors, the AT1 and AT2 receptors, did not affect the AngII-mediated attenuation of PAF-induced paw oedema. Moreover, intrinsic tyrosine fluorescence studies demonstrated that AngII, AngIII, and AngIV interact with PAF, and that their affinities were closely correlated with their inhibitory effects on PAF-induced rat paw oedema. Also, AngII interacted with metabolite/precursor of PAF (lyso-PAF), and an oxidized phospholipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-(5'-oxo-valeroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POVPC), which bears a marked structural resemblance to PAF. Furthermore, POVPC dose-dependently inhibited AngII-mediated attenuation of PAF-induced paw oedema. These results suggest that Ang peptides can attenuate PAF-induced inflammatory activity through binding to PAF and lyso-PAF in rats. Therefore, Ang peptides may be closely involved in the regulation of many inflammatory diseases caused by PAF. PMID:26348270

  18. Laminin peptide YIGSR induces collagen synthesis in Hs27 human dermal fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Jong Hyuk; Kim, Jaeyoon; Lee, Hyeongjoo; Kim, So Young; Jang, Hwan-Hee; Ryu, Sung Ho; Kim, Beom Joon; Lee, Taehoon G.

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We identify a function of the YIGSR peptide to enhance collagen synthesis in Hs27. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer YIGSR peptide enhanced collagen type 1 synthesis both of gene and protein levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There were no changes in cell proliferation and MMP-1 level in YIGSR treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The YIGSR effect on collagen synthesis mediated activation of FAK, pyk2 and ERK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The YIGSR-induced FAK and ERK activation was modulated by FAK and MEK inhibitors. -- Abstract: The dermal ECM is synthesized from fibroblasts and is primarily compromised of fibrillar collagen and elastic fibers, which support the mechanical strength and resiliency of skin, respectively. Laminin, a major glycoprotein located in the basement membrane, promotes cell adhesion, cell growth, differentiation, and migration. The laminin tyrosine-isoleucine-glycine-serine-arginine (YIGSR) peptide, corresponding to the 929-933 sequence of the {beta}1 chain, is known to be a functional motif with effects on the inhibition of tumor metastasis, the regulation of sensory axonal response and the inhibition of angiogenesis through high affinity to the 67 kDa laminin receptor. In this study, we identified a novel function of the YIGSR peptide to enhance collagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblasts. To elucidate this novel function regarding collagen synthesis, we treated human dermal fibroblasts with YIGSR peptide in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. According to subsequent experiments, we found that the YIGSR peptide strongly enhanced collagen type 1 synthesis without changing cell proliferation or cellular MMP-1 level. This YIGSR peptide-mediated collagen type 1 synthesis was modulated by FAK inhibitor and MEK inhibitor. This study clearly reveals that YIGSR peptide plays a novel function on the collagen type 1 synthesis of dermal fibroblasts and also suggests that YIGSR is a strong candidate

  19. Duck-billed platypus venom peptides induce Ca2+ influx in neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kita, Masaki; Black, David StC; Ohno, Osamu; Yamada, Kaoru; Kigoshi, Hideo; Uemura, Daisuke

    2009-12-23

    The duck-billed platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) is one of the few venomous Australian mammals. We previously found that its crude venom potently induces Ca(2+) influx in human neuroblastoma IMR-32 cells. Guided by this bioassay, we identified 11 novel peptides, including the heptapeptide H-His-Asp-His-Pro-Asn-Pro-Arg-OH (1). Compounds 1-4 and 5-11 coincided with the 6-9 N-terminal residues of Ornithorhynchus venom C-type natriuretic peptide (OvCNP) and the 132-150 part of OvCNP precursor peptide, respectively. Heptapeptide 1, which is one of the primary components of the venom fluid (approximately 200 ng/microL), induced a significant increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in IMR-32 cells at 75 microM. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of the isolation of the N-terminal linear fragments of CNPs in any mammal. PMID:19928958

  20. Inhibitory Effects of Antimicrobial Peptides on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yue; Shang, Dejing

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are usually small molecule peptides, which display broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, high efficiency, and stability. For the multiple-antibiotic-resistant strains, AMPs play a significant role in the development of novel antibiotics because of their broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities and specific antimicrobial mechanism. Besides broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, AMPs also have anti-inflammatory activity. The neutralization of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) plays a key role in anti-inflammatory action of AMPs. On the one hand, AMPs can readily penetrate the cell wall barrier by neutralizing LPS to remove Gram-negative bacteria that can lead to infection. On the contrary, AMPs can also inhibit the production of biological inflammatory cytokines to reduce the inflammatory response through neutralizing circulating LPS. In addition, AMPs also modulate the host immune system by chemotaxis of leukocytes, to promote immune cell proliferation, epithelialization, and angiogenesis and thus play a protective role. This review summarizes some recent researches about anti-inflammatory AMPs, with a focus on the interaction of AMPs and LPS on the past decade. PMID:26612970

  1. Photo-induced reversible structural transition of cationic diphenylalanine peptide self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongchao; Fei, Jinbo; Li, Qi; Li, Junbai

    2015-04-17

    The photo-induced self-assembly of a cationic diphenylalanine peptide (CDP) is investigated using a photoswitchable sulfonic azobenzene as the manipulating unit. A reversible structural transition between a branched structure and a vesicle-like structure is observed by alternating between UV and visible light irradiation. PMID:25405602

  2. Lipoproteins/peptides are sepsis-inducing toxins from bacteria that can be neutralized by synthetic anti-endotoxin peptides

    PubMed Central

    de Tejada, Guillermo Martinez; Heinbockel, Lena; Ferrer-Espada, Raquel; Heine, Holger; Alexander, Christian; Bárcena-Varela, Sergio; Goldmann, Torsten; Correa, Wilmar; Wiesmüller, Karl-Heinz; Gisch, Nicolas; Sánchez-Gómez, Susana; Fukuoka, Satoshi; Schürholz, Tobias; Gutsmann, Thomas; Brandenburg, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis, a life-threatening syndrome with increasing incidence worldwide, is triggered by an overwhelming inflammation induced by microbial toxins released into the bloodstream during infection. A well-known sepsis-inducing factor is the membrane constituent of Gram-negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), signalling via Toll-like receptor-4. Although sepsis is caused in more than 50% cases by Gram-positive and mycoplasma cells, the causative compounds are still poorly described. In contradicting investigations lipoproteins/-peptides (LP), lipoteichoic acids (LTA), and peptidoglycans (PGN), were made responsible for eliciting this pathology. Here, we used human mononuclear cells from healthy donors to determine the cytokine-inducing activity of various LPs from different bacterial origin, synthetic and natural, and compared their activity with that of natural LTA and PGN. We demonstrate that LP are the most potent non-LPS pro-inflammatory toxins of the bacterial cell walls, signalling via Toll-like receptor-2, not only in vitro, but also when inoculated into mice: A synthetic LP caused sepsis-related pathological symptoms in a dose-response manner. Additionally, these mice produced pro-inflammatory cytokines characteristic of a septic reaction. Importantly, the recently designed polypeptide Aspidasept® which has been proven to efficiently neutralize LPS in vivo, inhibited cytokines induced by the various non-LPS compounds protecting animals from the pro-inflammatory activity of synthetic LP. PMID:26390973

  3. Peptide Scrambling During Collision-Induced Dissociation is Influenced by N-terminal Residue Basicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chawner, Ross; Holman, Stephen W.; Gaskell, Simon J.; Eyers, Claire E.

    2014-08-01

    `Bottom up' proteomic studies typically use tandem mass spectrometry data to infer peptide ion sequence, enabling identification of the protein whence they derive. The majority of such studies employ collision-induced dissociation (CID) to induce fragmentation of the peptide structure giving diagnostic b-, y-, and a- ions. Recently, rearrangement processes that result in scrambling of the original peptide sequence during CID have been reported for these ions. Such processes have the potential to adversely affect ion accounting (and thus scores from automated search algorithms) in tandem mass spectra, and in extreme cases could lead to false peptide identification. Here, analysis of peptide species produced by Lys-N proteolysis of standard proteins is performed and sequences that exhibit such rearrangement processes identified. The effect of increasing the gas-phase basicity of the N-terminal lysine residue through derivatization to homoarginine toward such sequence scrambling is then assessed. The presence of a highly basic homoarginine (or arginine) residue at the N-terminus is found to disfavor/inhibit sequence scrambling with a coincident increase in the formation of b(n-1)+H2O product ions. Finally, further analysis of a sequence produced by Lys-C proteolysis provides evidence toward a potential mechanism for the apparent inhibition of sequence scrambling during resonance excitation CID.

  4. Aggregation and hemi-fusion of anionic vesicles induced by the antimicrobial peptide cryptdin-4.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Jason E; Vanderlick, T Kyle

    2007-07-01

    We show that cryptdin-4 (Crp4), an antimicrobial peptide found in mice, induces the aggregation and hemi-fusion of charged phospholipid vesicles constructed of the anionic lipid POPG and the zwitterionic lipid POPC. Hemi-fusion is confirmed with positive total lipid-mixing assay results, negative inner monolayer lipid-mixing assay results, and negative results from contents-mixing assays. Aggregation, as quantified by absorbance and dynamic light scattering, is self-limiting, creating finite-sized vesicle assemblies. The rate limiting step in the formation process is the mixing of juxtaposed membrane leaflets, which is regulated by bound peptide concentration as well as vesicle radius (with larger vesicles less prone to hemi-fusion). Bound peptide concentration is readily controlled by total peptide concentration and the fraction of anionic lipid in the vesicles. As little as 1% PEGylated lipid significantly reduces aggregate size by providing a steric barrier for membrane apposition. Finally, as stable hemi-fusion is a rare occurrence, we compare properties of Crp4 to those of many peptides known to induce complete fusion and lend insight into conditions necessary for this unusual type of membrane merger. PMID:17531950

  5. Inhibition of Hepatocyte Apoptosis: An Important Mechanism of Corn Peptides Attenuating Liver Injury Induced by Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhili; Hou, Tao; Shi, Wen; Liu, Weiwei; He, Hui

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effects of mixed corn peptides and synthetic pentapeptide (QLLPF) on hepatocyte apoptosis induced by ethanol were investigated in vivo. QLLPF, was previously characterized from corn protein hydrolysis, which had been shown to exert good facilitating alcohol metabolism activity. Mice were pre-treated with the mixed corn peptides and the pentapeptide for 1 week and then treated with ethanol. After treatment of three weeks, the biochemical indices and the key ethanol metabolizing enzymes, the serum TNF-α, liver TGF-β1 concentrations and the protein expressions related to apoptosis were determined. We found that the Bcl-2, Bax and cytochrome c expressions in the intrinsic pathway and the Fas, FasL and NF-κB expressions in the extrinsic pathway together with higher TNF-α and TGF-β1 concentrations were reversed compared with the model group by both the mixed corn peptides and the pentapeptide. The activation of caspase3 was also suppressed. Additionally, apoptosis was further confirmed with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and the TUNEL assay demonstrated peptides suppressed hepatocyte apoptosis. Our results suggest that apoptosis induced by ethanol is alleviated in response to the treatment of corn peptides, potentially due to reversing the related protein expression. PMID:26378531

  6. Peptide-Lipid Interactions of the Stress-Response Peptide TisB That Induces Bacterial Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Steinbrecher, Thomas; Prock, Sebastian; Reichert, Johannes; Wadhwani, Parvesh; Zimpfer, Benjamin; Bürck, Jochen; Berditsch, Marina; Elstner, Marcus; Ulrich, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial stress-response peptide TisB in Escherichia coli has been suggested to dissipate the transmembrane potential, such that the depletion of ATP levels induces the formation of dormant persister cells which can eventually form biofilms. We studied the structure and membrane interactions of TisB to find out whether it forms pores or other proton-selective channels. Circular dichroism revealed an amphiphilic α-helical structure when reconstituted in lipid vesicles, and oriented circular dichroism showed that the helix assumes a transmembrane alignment. The addition of TisB to dye-loaded vesicles caused leakage only at very high peptide concentration, notably with a Hill coefficient of 2, which suggests that dimers must be involved. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations showed that membrane binding of monomeric TisB is rapid and spontaneous, and transmembrane insertion is energetically feasible. When TisB oligomers are assembled as transmembrane pores, these channels collapse during the simulations, but transmembrane dimers are found to be stable. Given the pattern of charges on the amphiphilic TisB helix, we postulate that antiparallel dimers could be assembled via a ladder of salt bridges. This electrostatic charge-zipper could enable protons to pass along a wire of trapped water molecules across the hydrophobic membrane. PMID:23062338

  7. The thrombin receptor extracellular domain contains sites crucial for peptide ligand-induced activation.

    PubMed Central

    Bahou, W F; Coller, B S; Potter, C L; Norton, K J; Kutok, J L; Goligorsky, M S

    1993-01-01

    A thrombin receptor (TR) demonstrating a unique activation mechanism has recently been isolated from a megakaryocytic (Dami) cell line. To further study determinants of peptide ligand-mediated activation phenomenon, we have isolated, cloned, and stably expressed the identical receptor from a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) library. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing a functional TR (CHO-TR), platelets, and HUVECs were then used to specifically characterize alpha-thrombin- and peptide ligand-induced activation responses using two different antibodies: anti-TR34-52 directed against a 20-amino acid peptide spanning the thrombin cleavage site, and anti-TR1-160 generated against the NH2-terminal 160 amino acids of the TR expressed as a chimeric protein in Escherichia coli. Activation-dependent responses to both alpha-thrombin (10 nM) and peptide ligand (20 microM) were studied using fura 2-loaded cells and microspectrofluorimetry. Whereas preincubation of CHO-TR with anti-TR34-52 abolished only alpha-thrombin-induced [Ca2+]i transients, preincubation with anti-TR1-160 abrogated both alpha-thrombin- and peptide ligand-induced responses. This latter inhibitory effect was dose dependent and similar for both agonists, with an EC50 of approximately 90 micrograms/ml. Anti-TR1-160 similarly abolished peptide ligand-induced [Ca2+]i transients in platelets and HUVECs, whereas qualitatively different responses characterized by delayed but sustained elevations in [Ca2+]i transients were evident using alpha-thrombin. Platelet aggregation to low concentrations of both ligands was nearly abolished by anti-TR1-160, although some shape change remained; anti-TR34-52 only inhibited alpha-thrombin-induced aggregation. These data establish that a critical recognition sequence for peptide ligand-mediated receptor activation is contained on the NH2-terminal portion of the receptor, upstream from the first transmembrane domain. Furthermore, alpha-thrombin-induced

  8. Membrane Thinning and Thickening Induced by Membrane-Active Amphipathic Peptides.

    PubMed

    Grage, Stephan L; Afonin, Sergii; Kara, Sezgin; Buth, Gernot; Ulrich, Anne S

    2016-01-01

    Membrane thinning has been discussed as a fundamental mechanism by which antimicrobial peptides can perturb cellular membranes. To understand which factors play a role in this process, we compared several amphipathic peptides with different structures, sizes and functions in their influence on the lipid bilayer thickness. PGLa and magainin 2 from X. laevis were studied as typical representatives of antimicrobial cationic amphipathic α-helices. A 1:1 mixture of these peptides, which is known to possess synergistically enhanced activity, allowed us to evaluate whether and how this synergistic interaction correlates with changes in membrane thickness. Other systems investigated here include the α-helical stress-response peptide TisB from E. coli (which forms membrane-spanning dimers), as well as gramicidin S from A. migulanus (a natural antibiotic), and BP100 (designer-made antimicrobial and cell penetrating peptide). The latter two are very short, with a circular β-pleated and a compact α-helical structure, respectively. Solid-state (2)H-NMR and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) on oriented phospholipid bilayers were used as complementary techniques to access the hydrophobic thickness as well as the bilayer-bilayer repeat distance including the water layer in between. This way, we found that magainin 2, gramicidin S, and BP100 induced membrane thinning, as expected for amphiphilic peptides residing in the polar/apolar interface of the bilayer. PGLa, on the other hand, decreased the hydrophobic thickness only at very high peptide:lipid ratios, and did not change the bilayer-bilayer repeat distance. TisB even caused an increase in the hydrophobic thickness and repeat distance. When reconstituted as a mixture, PGLa and magainin 2 showed a moderate thinning effect which was less than that of magainin 2 alone, hence their synergistically enhanced activity does not seem to correlate with a modulation of membrane thickness. Overall, the absence of

  9. Peptide-induced emesis in dogs: possible relevance to radiation-induced emesis. Final report Oct 80-Sep 81

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, D.O.

    1982-09-01

    Results of earlier investigators indicate that radioemesis is mediated by some humoral agent(s). Peptides are likely candiates since they exert a number of biological effects and are released from storage sites by various stimuli, including radiation. Peptides at various concentrations were injected singly intravenously into conscious dogs, and the dog's emetic response was observed. Of the peptides tested, neurotensin, angiotensin II, vasopressin, oxytocin, and TRH produced consistent emetic responses. Inhibition of drug-induced emesis was studied both centrally (chlorpromazine) and peripherally (domperidone) acting dopamine antagonists. Results indicate inhibition by chlorpromazine, which crosses the blood brain barrier, but only partial blockade by domperidone, which does not cross the blood brain barrier. Preliminary studies were conducted attempting to characterize types of receptors on area postrema neurons. Single-cell recordings from these neurons, challenged by iontophoretic administration of various neurotransmitters, show stimulation by glutamic acid and serotonin and inhibiiton by norepinephrine.

  10. Inhibition of peptide binding to DR molecules by a leupeptin-induced invariant chain fragment.

    PubMed

    Demotz, S; Danieli, C; Wallny, H J; Majdic, O

    1994-08-01

    Loading of peptides onto DR molecules was studied by characterizing precursors of the mature peptide-DR complexes expressed at the surface of B cells. Since invariant chain (Ii) prevents binding of peptides by DR molecules, it was speculated that analysis of complexes between DR heterodimers and proteolytic fragments of Ii offers the possibility to examine how DR molecules and peptides assemble. Using a procedure combining a two-step affinity chromatography and gel filtration, we isolated from leupeptin-treated B cells complexes between DR molecules and N-terminal Ii fragments previously called "leupeptin-induced polypeptides" (LIP; Blum and Cresswell, 1988, Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85, 3975-3979). It was observed that the most prominent LIP fragment has a relative molecular mass (M(r)) of 16 kDa. In addition, we show that this polypeptide species does not bear N-linked glycans, indicating that this fragment does not extend beyond residue 129 of Ii. Similarly to DR alpha beta heterodimers associated with the full length 33 and 35 kDa Ii forms, DR alpha beta heterodimers associated with LIP fragments are unstable in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at ambient temperature, whereas mature DR alpha beta heterodimers are resistant to dissociation with SDS. These results are indirect evidence that LIP-DR complexes are devoid of bound peptides. This possibility was supported by showing that LIP-DR complexes fail to bind a radioiodinated tetanus toxin peptide (125I-p2), while DR molecules, which are spontaneously released from complexes with LIP fragments, bind the labeled peptide. These results demonstrate that association with LIP fragments is sufficient to prevent binding of peptides by DR molecules. This notion was further documented by showing that binding of 125I-p2 on DR heterodimers is inhibited by preparations of LIP fragment. By contrast, a soluble recombinant fragment corresponding to the extracytoplasmic region of Ii did not block 125I-p2 binding. The results

  11. Vv-AMP1, a ripening induced peptide from Vitis vinifera shows strong antifungal activity

    PubMed Central

    de Beer, Abré; Vivier, Melané A

    2008-01-01

    Background Latest research shows that small antimicrobial peptides play a role in the innate defense system of plants. These peptides typically contribute to preformed defense by developing protective barriers around germinating seeds or between different tissue layers within plant organs. The encoding genes could also be upregulated by abiotic and biotic stimuli during active defense processes. The peptides display a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities. Their potent anti-pathogenic characteristics have ensured that they are promising targets in the medical and agricultural biotechnology sectors. Results A berry specific cDNA sequence designated Vv-AMP1, Vitis vinifera antimicrobial peptide 1, was isolated from Vitis vinifera. Vv-AMP1 encodes for a 77 amino acid peptide that shows sequence homology to the family of plant defensins. Vv-AMP1 is expressed in a tissue specific, developmentally regulated manner, being only expressed in berry tissue at the onset of berry ripening and onwards. Treatment of leaf and berry tissue with biotic or abiotic factors did not lead to increased expression of Vv-AMP1 under the conditions tested. The predicted signal peptide of Vv-AMP1, fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP), showed that the signal peptide allowed accumulation of its product in the apoplast. Vv-AMP1 peptide, produced in Escherichia coli, had a molecular mass of 5.495 kDa as determined by mass spectrometry. Recombinant Vv-AMP1 was extremely heat-stable and showed strong antifungal activity against a broad spectrum of plant pathogenic fungi, with very high levels of activity against the wilting disease causing pathogens Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae. The Vv-AMP1 peptide did not induce morphological changes on the treated fungal hyphae, but instead strongly inhibited hyphal elongation. A propidium iodide uptake assay suggested that the inhibitory activity of Vv-AMP1 might be associated with altering the membrane permeability of the fungal

  12. Cationic Peptides Facilitate Iron-induced Mutagenesis in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Rojas, Alexandro; Makarova, Olga; Müller, Uta; Rolff, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the causative agent of chronic respiratory infections and is an important pathogen of cystic fibrosis patients. Adaptive mutations play an essential role for antimicrobial resistance and persistence. The factors that contribute to bacterial mutagenesis in this environment are not clear. Recently it has been proposed that cationic antimicrobial peptides such as LL-37 could act as mutagens in P. aeruginosa. Here we provide experimental evidence that mutagenesis is the product of a joint action of LL-37 and free iron. By estimating mutation rate, mutant frequencies and assessing mutational spectra in P. aeruginosa treated either with LL-37, iron or a combination of both we demonstrate that mutation rate and mutant frequency were increased only when free iron and LL-37 were present simultaneously. Colistin had the same effect. The addition of an iron chelator completely abolished this mutagenic effect, suggesting that LL-37 enables iron to enter the cells resulting in DNA damage by Fenton reactions. This was also supported by the observation that the mutational spectrum of the bacteria under LL-37-iron regime showed one of the characteristic Fenton reaction fingerprints: C to T transitions. Free iron concentration in nature and within hosts is kept at a very low level, but the situation in infected lungs of cystic fibrosis patients is different. Intermittent bleeding and damage to the epithelial cells in lungs may contribute to the release of free iron that in turn leads to generation of reactive oxygen species and deterioration of the respiratory tract, making it more susceptible to the infection. PMID:26430769

  13. Cationic Peptides Facilitate Iron-induced Mutagenesis in Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rojas, Alexandro; Makarova, Olga; Müller, Uta; Rolff, Jens

    2015-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the causative agent of chronic respiratory infections and is an important pathogen of cystic fibrosis patients. Adaptive mutations play an essential role for antimicrobial resistance and persistence. The factors that contribute to bacterial mutagenesis in this environment are not clear. Recently it has been proposed that cationic antimicrobial peptides such as LL-37 could act as mutagens in P. aeruginosa. Here we provide experimental evidence that mutagenesis is the product of a joint action of LL-37 and free iron. By estimating mutation rate, mutant frequencies and assessing mutational spectra in P. aeruginosa treated either with LL-37, iron or a combination of both we demonstrate that mutation rate and mutant frequency were increased only when free iron and LL-37 were present simultaneously. Colistin had the same effect. The addition of an iron chelator completely abolished this mutagenic effect, suggesting that LL-37 enables iron to enter the cells resulting in DNA damage by Fenton reactions. This was also supported by the observation that the mutational spectrum of the bacteria under LL-37-iron regime showed one of the characteristic Fenton reaction fingerprints: C to T transitions. Free iron concentration in nature and within hosts is kept at a very low level, but the situation in infected lungs of cystic fibrosis patients is different. Intermittent bleeding and damage to the epithelial cells in lungs may contribute to the release of free iron that in turn leads to generation of reactive oxygen species and deterioration of the respiratory tract, making it more susceptible to the infection. PMID:26430769

  14. Peptide-induced membrane curvature in edge-stabilized open bilayers: a theoretical and molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Pannuzzo, Martina; Raudino, Antonio; Böckmann, Rainer A

    2014-07-14

    Peptide- or protein-induced curvatures of lipid membranes may be studied in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In these, membranes are usually modeled as infinitely extended bilayers by using periodic boundary conditions. However, the enforced periodicity results in an underestimation of the bending power of peptides, unless the patch size is much larger than the induced curvature radii. In this letter, we propose a novel approach to evaluate the bending power of a given distribution and/or density of peptides based on the use of flat open-edged lipid patches. To ensure long-lived metastable structures, the patch rim is stabilized in MD simulations by a local enrichment with short-chain lipids. By combining the theory of continuum elastic media with MD simulations, we prove that open-edged patches evolve from a planar state to a closed vesicle, with a transition rate that strongly depends on the concentration of lipid soluble peptides. For close-to-critical values for the patch size and edge energy, the response to even small changes in peptide concentration adopts a transition-like behavior (buckling instability). The usage of open-edged membrane patches amplifies the bending power of peptides, thereby enabling the analysis of the structural properties of membrane-peptide systems. We applied the presented method to investigate the curvature induced by aggregating β -amyloid peptides, unraveling a strong sensitivity of membrane deformation to the peptide concentration. PMID:25028040

  15. Peptide-induced membrane curvature in edge-stabilized open bilayers: A theoretical and molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pannuzzo, Martina; Raudino, Antonio; Böckmann, Rainer A.

    2014-07-01

    Peptide- or protein-induced curvatures of lipid membranes may be studied in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In these, membranes are usually modeled as infinitely extended bilayers by using periodic boundary conditions. However, the enforced periodicity results in an underestimation of the bending power of peptides, unless the patch size is much larger than the induced curvature radii. In this letter, we propose a novel approach to evaluate the bending power of a given distribution and/or density of peptides based on the use of flat open-edged lipid patches. To ensure long-lived metastable structures, the patch rim is stabilized in MD simulations by a local enrichment with short-chain lipids. By combining the theory of continuum elastic media with MD simulations, we prove that open-edged patches evolve from a planar state to a closed vesicle, with a transition rate that strongly depends on the concentration of lipid soluble peptides. For close-to-critical values for the patch size and edge energy, the response to even small changes in peptide concentration adopts a transition-like behavior (buckling instability). The usage of open-edged membrane patches amplifies the bending power of peptides, thereby enabling the analysis of the structural properties of membrane-peptide systems. We applied the presented method to investigate the curvature induced by aggregating β -amyloid peptides, unraveling a strong sensitivity of membrane deformation to the peptide concentration.

  16. Role of extracellular domain dimerization in agonist-induced activation of natriuretic peptide receptor A.

    PubMed

    Parat, Marie; McNicoll, Normand; Wilkes, Brian; Fournier, Alain; De Léan, André

    2008-02-01

    Natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR) A is composed of an extracellular domain (ECD) with a ligand binding site, a single transmembrane region, a kinase homology domain, and a guanylyl cyclase domain. The natural agonists atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP) bind and activate NPRA, leading to cyclic GMP production, which is responsible for their role in cardiovascular homeostasis. Previous studies suggested that stabilization of a dimeric form of NPRA by agonist is essential for receptor activation. However, ligand specificity and sequential steps of this dimerization process have not been investigated. We used radioligand binding, fluorescence resonance energy transfer homoquenching, and molecular modeling to characterize the interaction of human NPRA-ECD with ANP, BNP, the superagonist (Arg(10),Leu(12),Ser(17),Leu(18))-rANP-(1-28), the minimized analog mini-ANP and the antagonist (Arg(6),beta-cyclohexyl-Ala(8),d-Tic(16),Arg(17),Cys(18))-rANP-(6-18)-amide (A71915). ANP binds to preformed ECD dimers and spontaneous dimerization is the rate-limiting step of the ligand binding process. All the studied peptides, including A71915 antagonist, induce a dose-dependent fluorescence homoquenching, specific to dimerization, with potencies highly correlated with their binding affinities. A71915 induced more quenching than other peptides, suggesting stabilization by the antagonist of ECD dimer in a distinct inactive conformation. In summary, these results indicate that the ligand-induced dimerization process of NPRA is different from that for cytokine receptor model. Agonists or antagonists bind to preformed dimeric ECD, leading to dimer stabilization in an active or inactive conformation, respectively. Furthermore, the highly sensitive fluorescence assay designed to assess dimerization could serve as a powerful tool for further detailing the kinetic steps involved in natriuretic peptide receptor binding and activation. PMID:17965196

  17. Distinct Membrane Disruption Pathways Are Induced by 40-Residue β-Amyloid Peptides.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Dennis A; Doherty, Katelynne; Cheng, Qinghui; Kim, Hyeongeun; Xu, Dawei; Dong, He; Grewer, Christof; Qiang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Cellular membrane disruption induced by β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides has been considered one of the major pathological mechanisms for Alzheimer disease. Mechanistic studies of the membrane disruption process at a high-resolution level, on the other hand, are hindered by the co-existence of multiple possible pathways, even in simplified model systems such as the phospholipid liposome. Therefore, separation of these pathways is crucial to achieve an in-depth understanding of the Aβ-induced membrane disruption process. This study, which utilized a combination of multiple biophysical techniques, shows that the peptide-to-lipid (P:L) molar ratio is an important factor that regulates the selection of dominant membrane disruption pathways in the presence of 40-residue Aβ peptides in liposomes. Three distinct pathways (fibrillation with membrane content leakage, vesicle fusion, and lipid uptake through a temporarily stable ionic channel) become dominant in model liposome systems under specific conditions. These individual systems are characterized by both the initial states of Aβ peptides and the P:L molar ratio. Our results demonstrated the possibility to generate simplified Aβ-membrane model systems with a homogeneous membrane disruption pathway, which will benefit high-resolution mechanistic studies in the future. Fundamentally, the possibility of pathway selection controlled by P:L suggests that the driving forces for Aβ aggregation and Aβ-membrane interactions may be similar at the molecular level. PMID:27056326

  18. Mitophagy induced by nanoparticle-peptide conjugates enabling an alternative intracellular trafficking route.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaolei; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Yanqing; Liu, Jinyin; Xing, Xiaoyun; Zhong, Jun; Xu, Guoqiang; Kang, Zhenhui; Liu, Jian

    2015-10-01

    The intracellular behaviors of nanoparticles are fundamentally important for the evaluation of their biosafety and the designs of nano carrier-assisted drug delivery with high therapeutic efficacy. It is still in a great need to discover how functionalized nanoparticles are transported inside the cells, for instance, in a complicated fashion of translocation between different types of cell organelles. Here we report a new understanding of the interactions between nanoparticles and cells by the development of polyoxometalates nanoparticle-peptide conjugates and investigation of their intracellular trafficking behaviors. The as-prepared nanoparticles are featured with a unique combination of fluorescence and high contrast for synchrotron X-ray-based imaging. Functional surface modification with peptides facilitates effective delivery of the nanoparticles onto the target organelle (mitochondria) and subsequent intracellular trafficking in a dynamic mode. Interestingly, our experimental results have revealed that autophagy of mitochondria (mitophagy) can be induced by NP-peptide as a cellular response for recycling the damaged organelles, through molecular mediation associated with the change of mitochondrial membrane potential. The biological effects induced by NP-peptide reciprocally affect the distribution patterns and fates of nanoparticles in the cell metabolism by providing an alternative route of intracellular trafficking. The new understanding of the mutual activities between nanoparticles and cells will enrich our approaches in the development of nanobiotechnology and nano-medicine for disease treatments. PMID:26142776

  19. Cell-Penetrating Peptide Induces Leaky Fusion of Liposomes Containing Late Endosome-Specific Anionic Lipid

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sung-Tae; Zaitseva, Elena; Chernomordik, Leonid V.; Melikov, Kamran

    2010-01-01

    Cationic cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are a promising vehicle for the delivery of macromolecular drugs. Although many studies have indicated that CPPs enter cells by endocytosis, the mechanisms by which they cross endosomal membranes remain elusive. On the basis of experiments with liposomes, we propose that CPP escape into the cytosol is based on leaky fusion (i.e., fusion associated with the permeabilization of membranes) of the bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP)-enriched membranes of late endosomes. In our experiments, prototypic CPP HIV-1 TAT peptide did not interact with liposomes mimicking the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane, but it did induce lipid mixing and membrane leakage as it translocated into liposomes mimicking the lipid composition of late endosome. Both membrane leakage and lipid mixing depended on the BMP content and were promoted at acidic pH, which is characteristic of late endosomes. Substitution of BMP with its structural isomer, phosphatidylglycerol (PG), significantly reduced both leakage of the aqueous probe from liposomes and lipid mixing between liposomes. Although affinity of binding to TAT was similar for BMP and PG, BMP exhibited a higher tendency to support the inverted hexagonal phase than PG. Finally, membrane leakage and peptide translocation were both inhibited by inhibitors of lipid mixing, further substantiating the hypothesis that cationic peptides cross BMP-enriched membranes by inducing leaky fusion between them. PMID:20959093

  20. Antigen-oriented T cell migration contributes to myelin peptide induced-EAE and immune tolerance.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Peiguo; Fu, Hanxiao; Wei, Gaohui; Wei, Zhongwei; Zhang, Junhua; Ma, Xuehan; Rui, Dong; Meng, Xianchun; Ming, Liang

    2016-08-01

    Treatment with soluble myelin peptide can efficiently and specifically induce tolerance to demyelination autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis, however the mechanism underlying this therapeutic effect remains to be elucidated. In actively induced mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) we analyzed T cell and innate immune cell responses in the central nervous system (CNS) and spleen after intraperitoneal (i.p.) infusion of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). We found that i.p. MOG infusion blocked effector T cell recruitment to the CNS and protected mice from EAE and lymphoid organ atrophy. Innate immune CD11b(+) cells preferentially recruited MOG-specific effector T cells, particularly when activated to become competent antigen presenting cells (APCs). During EAE development, mature APCs were enriched in the CNS rather than in the spleen, attracting effector T cells to the CNS. Increased myelin antigen exposure induced CNS-APC maturation, recruiting additional effector T cells to the CNS, causing symptoms of disease. MOG triggered functional maturation of splenic APCs. MOG presenting APCs interacted with MOG-specific T cells in the spleen, aggregating to cluster around CD11b(+) cells, and were trapped in the periphery. This process was MHC II dependent as an MHC II directed antibody blocked CD4(+) T cell cluster formation. These findings highlight the role of myelin peptide-loaded APCs in myelin peptide-induced EAE and immune tolerance. PMID:27327113

  1. Anti-apoptotic peptides protect against radiation-induced cell death

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, Kevin W.; Muenzer, Jared T.; Chang, Kathy C.; Davis, Chris G.; McDunn, Jonathan E.; Coopersmith, Craig M.; Hilliard, Carolyn A.; Hotchkiss, Richard S.; Grigsby, Perry W.; Hunt, Clayton R. . E-mail: chunt@radonc.wustl.edu

    2007-04-06

    The risk of terrorist attacks utilizing either nuclear or radiological weapons has raised concerns about the current lack of effective radioprotectants. Here it is demonstrated that the BH4 peptide domain of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL can be delivered to cells by covalent attachment to the TAT peptide transduction domain (TAT-BH4) and provide protection in vitro and in vivo from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Isolated human lymphocytes treated with TAT-BH4 were protected against apoptosis following exposure to 15 Gy radiation. In mice exposed to 5 Gy radiation, TAT-BH4 treatment protected splenocytes and thymocytes from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Most importantly, in vivo radiation protection was observed in mice whether TAT-BH4 treatment was given prior to or after irradiation. Thus, by targeting steps within the apoptosis signaling pathway it is possible to develop post-exposure treatments to protect radio-sensitive tissues.

  2. Hydroxymethyl-phytochelatins [(gamma-glutamylcysteine)n-serine] are metal-induced peptides of the Poaceae.

    PubMed

    Klapheck, S; Fliegner, W; Zimmer, I

    1994-04-01

    Exposure of several species of the family Poaceae to cadmium results in the formation of metal-induced peptides of the general structure (gamma-Glu-Cys)n-Ser (n=2-4). They are assumed to be formed from hydroxymethyl-glutathione (gamma-Glu-Cys-Ser) and are termed hydroxymethyl-phytochelatins (hm-PCs) in analogy to the homo-phytochelatins [(gamma-Glu-Cys)n-beta-Ala], discovered in legumes, and the phytochelatins [PCs, (gamma-Glu-Cys)n-Gly] found in most other plants and many fungi. The hm-PCs were isolated from the roots of cadmium-exposed rice (Oryza sativa L. cv Strella), and their structure was confirmed by amino acid analysis after total and enzymic hydrolysis and by tandem mass spectrometry. The hm-PCs probably play a significant role in heavy metal detoxication in rice. In addition to this new form of gamma-Glu-Cys (gamma EC) peptide, PCs and gamma EC peptides without C-terminal Ser or Gly are found. All gamma EC peptides are synthesized without delay after incubation of rice plants in 100 microM CdCl2 in the roots as well as in the shoots. Incubation times exceeding 24 h or higher concentrations of cadmium result in a selective enrichment of gamma EC peptides with higher chain length and an increased ratio of PCs to hm-PCs. gamma EC peptide synthesis is accompanied by a decrease of the glutathione content and an increase of the hydroxymethyl-glutathione content in roots and shoots of rice plants. PMID:8016264

  3. Hydroxymethyl-phytochelatins [(gamma-glutamylcysteine)n-serine] are metal-induced peptides of the Poaceae.

    PubMed Central

    Klapheck, S; Fliegner, W; Zimmer, I

    1994-01-01

    Exposure of several species of the family Poaceae to cadmium results in the formation of metal-induced peptides of the general structure (gamma-Glu-Cys)n-Ser (n=2-4). They are assumed to be formed from hydroxymethyl-glutathione (gamma-Glu-Cys-Ser) and are termed hydroxymethyl-phytochelatins (hm-PCs) in analogy to the homo-phytochelatins [(gamma-Glu-Cys)n-beta-Ala], discovered in legumes, and the phytochelatins [PCs, (gamma-Glu-Cys)n-Gly] found in most other plants and many fungi. The hm-PCs were isolated from the roots of cadmium-exposed rice (Oryza sativa L. cv Strella), and their structure was confirmed by amino acid analysis after total and enzymic hydrolysis and by tandem mass spectrometry. The hm-PCs probably play a significant role in heavy metal detoxication in rice. In addition to this new form of gamma-Glu-Cys (gamma EC) peptide, PCs and gamma EC peptides without C-terminal Ser or Gly are found. All gamma EC peptides are synthesized without delay after incubation of rice plants in 100 microM CdCl2 in the roots as well as in the shoots. Incubation times exceeding 24 h or higher concentrations of cadmium result in a selective enrichment of gamma EC peptides with higher chain length and an increased ratio of PCs to hm-PCs. gamma EC peptide synthesis is accompanied by a decrease of the glutathione content and an increase of the hydroxymethyl-glutathione content in roots and shoots of rice plants. PMID:8016264

  4. Hypochlorite-induced oxidation of amino acids, peptides and proteins.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, C L; Pattison, D I; Davies, M J

    2003-12-01

    Activated phagocytes generate the potent oxidant hypochlorite (HOCl) via the release of the enzyme myeloperoxidase and hydrogen peroxide. HOCl is known to react with a number of biological targets including proteins, DNA, lipids and cholesterol. Proteins are likely to be major targets for reaction with HOCl within a cell due to their abundance and high reactivity with HOCl. This review summarizes information on the rate of reaction of HOCl with proteins, the nature of the intermediates formed, the mechanisms involved in protein oxidation and the products of these reactions. The predicted targets for reaction with HOCl from kinetic modeling studies and the consequences of HOCl-induced protein oxidation are also discussed. PMID:14661089

  5. Inhibition of atrial natriuretic peptide-induced natriuresis by plasma hydrolysates containing pepsanurin.

    PubMed

    Borić, M P; Croxatto, H R; Albertini, R; Roblero, J S

    1992-02-01

    The specificity of antidiuretic actions of pepsanurin, a peptidic fraction obtained by pepsin hydrolysis of plasma, was studied in anesthetized rats and in isolated perfused rat kidneys. Pepsanurin was obtained from fresh dialyzed human plasma digested with pepsin (2,400 units/ml, 18 hours at 37 degrees C, pH 2.5), deproteinized (10 minutes at 80 degrees C), and centrifuged. In the rat, intraperitoneal injections of pepsanurin (0.5 ml/100 g body wt) significantly inhibited the effects of an intravenous bolus of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) (0.5 micrograms) on water, sodium, and potassium excretion without altering systemic blood pressure. In addition, pepsanurin abolished the peak in glomerular filtration rate and reduced the ANP-induced rise in fractional sodium excretion. Pepsanurin also inhibited the natriuretic effects of amiloride (10 micrograms/100 g body wt i.v.) without changing glomerular filtration rate, but it did not inhibit the potassium-retaining effect of amiloride. In contrast, pepsanurin had no effect on basal urinary excretion, and it did not affect the diuretic response induced by furosemide (doses of 25, 50, or 100 micrograms i.v.). Control peptidic hydrolysates prepared from human plasma preincubated 48 hours at 37 degrees C (PIPH), bovine albumin (BSAH), or human albumin did not inhibit ANP, amiloride, or furosemide. In perfused kidneys, pepsanurin significantly and reversibly reduced sodium and water excretion. Furthermore, pepsanurin, but not PIPH or BSAH, blocked the natriuretic and diuretic effects of ANP. These results support the existence of a specific plasma substrate able to release a peptide or peptides that counteract distal tubule diuresis and natriuresis by an intrarenal mechanism. PMID:1531208

  6. An alpha-chain TCR CDR3 peptide can enhance EAE induced by myelin basic protein or proteolipid protein.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, T; Geng, T C; Kozovska, M F; Yokoyama, K; Cohen, I R; Tabira, T

    1996-09-15

    Regulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) can be induced by anti-idiotype immunity against T cell receptor (TCR) fragments associated with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. However, we have recently found that preimmunization with an alpha-chain TCR CDR3 peptide (LYFCAARSNYQL) derived from myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific clones did not suppress but rather augmented the severity of EAE induced by MBP-specific T cells in SJL/J mice. To test whether CDR3 vaccination could control only a highly restricted T cell population, we studied the effect of the peptide against EAE induced by T cells specific for different Ag/MHC ligands and autoimmune diseases affecting non-neural tissues. In contrast to expectations, the peptide was found to augment not only EAE induced by MBP-specific T cells, but also proteolipid protein (PLP)-specific T cell- or PLP peptide-induced EAE in SJL/J mice, and MBP-induced EAE and adjuvant arthritis (AA) in rats. The CDR3 peptide was neither inhibitory nor supportive for Ag-induced activation of an encephalitogenic clone in vitro. In addition, the peptide treatment neither inhibited the induction of Ag-specific T cells nor altered the APC function of spleen cells. These findings, on the one hand, confirm previous results showing TCR peptide-induced enhancement of the disease and, on the other hand, indicate that the TCR CDR3 peptide may control T cells with broader Ag/MHC specificities than could be expected. Structural similarity among TCR idiotypes of autoimmune T cells may partly account for these results. PMID:8892082

  7. Photo-Crosslinking Induced Geometric Restriction Controls the Self-Assembly of Diphenylalanine Based Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tie, Zuo-Xiu; Qin, Meng; Zou, Da-Wei; Cao, Yi; Wang, Wei

    2011-02-01

    The diphenylalanine (FF) motif has been widely used in the design of peptides that are capable of forming various ordered structures, such as nanotubes, nanospheres and hydrogels. In these assemblies, FF based peptides adopt an antiparallel structure and are stabilized by π — π stacking among the phenyl groups. Here we show that assembly of FF-based peptides can be controlled by their geometric restrictions. Using tripeptide FFY (L-Phe-L-Phe-L-Tyr) as an example, we demonstrate that photo-crosslinking of C-terminal tyrosine can impose a geometric restriction to the formation of an antiparallel structure, leading to a structural change of the assemblies from nanosphere to amorphous. This finding is confirmed using far-UV circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Based on such a mechanism, we are able to control the gel-sol transition of Fmoc-FFY using the geometric restriction induced by photo-crosslinking of C-terminal tyrosine groups. We believe that geometric restriction should be considered as an important factor in the design of peptide-based materials. It can also be implemented as a useful strategy for the construction of environment-responsive “smart" materials.

  8. A Novel Intracellular Peptide Derived from G1/S Cyclin D2 Induces Cell Death*

    PubMed Central

    de Araujo, Christiane B.; Russo, Lilian C.; Castro, Leandro M.; Forti, Fábio L.; do Monte, Elisabete R.; Rioli, Vanessa; Gozzo, Fabio C.; Colquhoun, Alison; Ferro, Emer S.

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular peptides are constantly produced by the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and many are probably functional. Here, the peptide WELVVLGKL (pep5) from G1/S-specific cyclin D2 showed a 2-fold increase during the S phase of HeLa cell cycle. pep5 (25–100 μm) induced cell death in several tumor cells only when it was fused to a cell-penetrating peptide (pep5-cpp), suggesting its intracellular function. In vivo, pep5-cpp reduced the volume of the rat C6 glioblastoma by almost 50%. The tryptophan at the N terminus of pep5 is essential for its cell death activity, and N terminus acetylation reduced the potency of pep5-cpp. WELVVL is the minimal active sequence of pep5, whereas Leu-Ala substitutions totally abolished pep5 cell death activity. Findings from the initial characterization of the cell death/signaling mechanism of pep5 include caspase 3/7 and 9 activation, inhibition of Akt2 phosphorylation, activation of p38α and -γ, and inhibition of proteasome activity. Further pharmacological analyses suggest that pep5 can trigger cell death by distinctive pathways, which can be blocked by IM-54 or a combination of necrostatin-1 and q-VD-OPh. These data further support the biological and pharmacological potential of intracellular peptides. PMID:24764300

  9. Granulosa Cell Apoptosis Induced by a Novel FSH Binding Inhibitory Peptide From Human Ovarian Follicular Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Chitnis, Swati S.; Navlakhe, Rajshri M.; Shinde, Gayatri C.; Barve, Sharmila J.; D'Souza, Serena; Mahale, Smita D.; Nandedkar, Tarala D.

    2008-01-01

    Pituitary gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, are the key regulators of ovarian folliculogenesis; these are known to be directly or indirectly modulated by many intraovarian factors. Our group has identified and studied one such novel peptide from human ovarian follicular fluid. Its partial N-terminal eight amino acid sequence has been deduced, referred to as octapeptide (OP). OP induces follicular atresia in mice and interferes with normal ovarian function in non-human primates, this action being similar to the native peptide. Thus, in this study, an attempt has been made to elucidate the mechanism of action of the synthetic OP by studying the pathway of follicular atresia in mouse ovary. Changes in granulosa cells were studied using various apoptotic markers by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. An increase in apoptotic cell population in atretic- and peptide-treated groups was observed compared with normal controls. Interestingly, both these groups exhibited differences in the apoptotic pathway. Results showed that the mitochondrial pathway was predominant in the atretic group, whereas the Fas-FasL pathway was predominant in the peptide-treated groups. The ultrastructural study also showed apoptotic changes in the OP-treated and atretic groups; the pattern of apoptosis differed at the subcellular level. (J Histochem Cytochem 56:961–968, 2008) PMID:18645207

  10. Pharmacological characterization of the receptors mediating vasoactive intestinal peptide-induced vasodilation in rat aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.T.; Bylund, D.B.

    1986-03-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-contain nerve fibers associated with blood vessels are widely distributed, both in the central nervous system and in the periphery. VIP has been shown to be a potent vasodilator in a variety of vascular preparations. The authors have evaluated VIP, the VIP fragment 10-28, and several related peptides including PHI-27, PHM-27 and secretin in terms of their potencies in (1) stimulating the synthesis of cyclic AMP, using the method of Shimizu, in aortic rings; and (2) reversing norepinephrine induced contraction in aortic rings. The authors results indicate that VIP is the most potent of the peptides in both experimental protocols and that the rank order potencies of the various peptides are consistent between the two parameters measured. The authors are currently conducting radioligand binding studies with (/sup 125/I)VIP to further characterize the receptors involved. Additionally, the authors experiments in rat aorta indicate that the presence of the endothelial layer is not required for VIP receptor mediated effects to occur. A potential role for synthetic compounds with high specificity for the VIP receptor in treating hypertension is suggested.

  11. Peptides Targeting the Desmoglein 3 Adhesive Interface Prevent Autoantibody-induced Acantholysis in Pemphigus*

    PubMed Central

    Heupel, Wolfgang-Moritz; Müller, Thomas; Efthymiadis, Athina; Schmidt, Enno; Drenckhahn, Detlev; Waschke, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) autoantibodies directly inhibit desmoglein (Dsg) 3-mediated transinteraction. Because cellular signaling also seems to be required for PV pathogenesis, it is important to characterize the role of direct inhibition in pemphigus acantholysis to allow establishment of new therapeutic approaches. Therefore, we modeled the Dsg1 and Dsg3 sequences into resolved cadherin structures and predicted peptides targeting the adhesive interface of both Dsg3 and Dsg1. In atomic force microscopy single molecule experiments, the self-designed cyclic single peptide specifically blocked homophilic Dsg3 and Dsg1 transinteraction, whereas a tandem peptide (TP) consisting of two combined single peptides did not. TP did not directly block binding of pemphigus IgG to their target Dsg antigens but prevented PV-IgG-induced inhibition of Dsg3 transinteraction in cell-free (atomic force microscopy) and cell-based (laser tweezer) experiments, indicating stabilization of Dsg3 bonds. Similarly, PV-IgG-mediated acantholysis and disruption of Dsg3 localization in HaCaT keratinocytes was partially blocked by TP. This is the first evidence that direct inhibition of Dsg3 binding is important for PV pathogenesis and that peptidomimetics stabilizing Dsg transinteraction may provide a novel approach for PV treatment. PMID:19164289

  12. Acaloleptins A: inducible antibacterial peptides from larvae of the beetle, Acalolepta luxuriosa.

    PubMed

    Imamura, M; Wada, S; Koizumi, N; Kadotani, T; Yaoi, K; Sato, R; Iwahana, H

    1999-01-01

    We purified and characterized three structurally related antibacterial peptides with a molecular mass of 8 kDa (acaloleptins A1, A2, and A3) from the hemolymph of immunized larvae of the Udo longicorn beetle, Acalolepta luxuriosa. These peptides have the same 6 N-terminal amino acid residues and show potent antibacterial activity against some Gram-negative bacteria. The three peptides are thought to be isoforms. Reverse phase HPLC analysis of the hemolymph of immunized and naive larvae showed that acaloleptins A1, A2, and A3 were inducible and suggested that all three peptides were produced in a single insect. We determined the complete amino acid sequence of acaloleptin A1: Acaloleptin A1 consists of 71 amino acid residues and shares significant sequence similarity with coleoptericin and holotricin 2, which were isolated from other coleopteran insects. Furthermore, the 29 C-terminal residues of acaloleptin A1 had 40% identity with the 30 C-terminal residues of hymenoptaecin found in honeybees. Arch. Insect Biochem. PMID:10077828

  13. Molecular basis for T cell response induced by altered peptide ligand of type II collagen.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeoung-Eun; Cullins, David; Zalduondo, Lillian; Barnett, Stacey L; Yi, Ae-Kyung; Kleinau, Sandra; Stuart, John M; Kang, Andrew H; Myers, Linda K

    2012-06-01

    Mounting evidence from animal models has demonstrated that alterations in peptide-MHC interactions with the T cell receptor (TCR) can lead to dramatically different T cell outcomes. We have developed an altered peptide ligand of type II collagen, referred to as A9, which differentially regulates TCR signaling in murine T cells leading to suppression of arthritis in the experimental model of collagen-induced arthritis. This study delineates the T cell signaling pathway used by T cells stimulated by the A9·I-A(q) complex. We have found that T cells activated by A9 bypass the requirement for Zap-70 and CD3-ζ and signal via FcRγ and Syk. Using collagen-specific T cell hybridomas engineered to overexpress either Syk, Zap-70, TCR-FcRγ, or CD3-ζ, we demonstrate that A9·I-A(q) preferentially activates FcRγ/Syk but not CD3-ζ/Zap-70. Moreover, a genetic absence of Syk or FcRγ significantly reduces the altered peptide ligand induction of the nuclear factor GATA3. By dissecting the molecular mechanism of A9-induced T cell signaling we have defined a new alternate pathway that is dependent upon FcRγ and Syk to secrete immunoregulatory cytokines. Given the interest in using Syk inhibitors to treat patients with rheumatoid arthritis, understanding this pathway may be critical for the proper application of this therapy. PMID:22511761

  14. Antimicrobial peptide protonectin disturbs the membrane integrity and induces ROS production in yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kairong; Dang, Wen; Xie, Junqiu; Zhu, Ranran; Sun, Mengyang; Jia, Fengjing; Zhao, Yanyan; An, Xiaoping; Qiu, Shuai; Li, Xiaoyuan; Ma, Zelin; Yan, Wenjin; Wang, Rui

    2015-10-01

    Candidiasis is often observed in immunocompromised patients and is the 4th most common cause of bloodstream infections. However, antifungals are limited, so novel antifungal agents are urgently needed. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are considered as potential alternatives of conventional antibiotics. In the present study, antimicrobial peptide protonectin was chemically synthesized and its antifungal activity and mode of action were studied. Our results showed that protonectin has potent antifungal activity and fungicidal activity against the tested fungi cells. Its action mode involved the disruption of the membrane integrity and the inducing of the production of cellular ROS. Furthermore, protonectin could inhibit the formation of biofilm and kill the adherent fungi cells. In conclusion, with the increase of fungal infection, protonectin may offer a new strategy and be considered as a potential therapeutic agent against fungal disease. PMID:26209560

  15. Thioredoxin-mimetic peptides (TXM) reverse auranofin induced apoptosis and restore insulin secretion in insulinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Kutner, Moshe; Khomsky, Lena; Trus, Michael; Aisner, Yonatan; Niv, Masha Y; Benhar, Moran; Atlas, Daphne

    2013-04-01

    The thioredoxin reductase/thioredoxin system (TrxR/Trx1) plays a major role in protecting cells from oxidative stress. Disruption of the TrxR-Trx1 system keeps Trx1 in the oxidized state leading to cell death through activation of the ASK1-Trx1 apoptotic pathway. The potential mechanism and ability of tri- and tetra-oligopeptides derived from the canonical -CxxC- motif of the Trx1-active site to mimic and enhance Trx1 cellular activity was examined. The Trx mimetics peptides (TXM) protected insulinoma INS 832/13 cells from oxidative stress induced by selectively inhibiting TrxR with auranofin (AuF). TXM reversed the AuF-effects preventing apoptosis, and increasing cell-viability. The TXM peptides were effective in inhibiting AuF-induced MAPK, JNK and p38(MAPK) phosphorylation, in correlation with preventing caspase-3 cleavage and thereby PARP-1 dissociation. The ability to form a disulfide-bridge-like conformation was estimated from molecular dynamics simulations. The TXM peptides restored insulin secretion and displayed Trx1 denitrosylase activity. Their potency was 10-100-fold higher than redox reagents like NAC, AD4, or ascorbic acid. Unable to reverse ERK1/2 phosphorylation, TXM-CB3 (NAc-Cys-Pro-Cys amide) appeared to function in part, through inhibiting ASK1-Trx dissociation. These highly effective anti-apoptotic effects of Trx1 mimetic peptides exhibited in INS 832/13 cells could become valuable in treating adverse oxidative-stress related disorders such as diabetes. PMID:23327993

  16. Gliadin Induces Neutrophil Migration via Engagement of the Formyl Peptide Receptor, FPR1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Song; Omatsu, Tatsushi; Janka-Junttila, Mirkka; Casolaro, Vincenzo; Reinecker, Hans-Christian; Parent, Carole A.; Fasano, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Background Gliadin, the immunogenic component within gluten and trigger of celiac disease, is known to induce the production of Interleukin-8, a potent neutrophil-activating and chemoattractant chemokine. We sought to study the involvement of neutrophils in the early immunological changes following gliadin exposure. Methods Utilizing immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, the redistribution of major tight junction protein, Zonula occludens (ZO)-1, and neutrophil recruitment were assessed in duodenal tissues of gliadin-gavaged C57BL/6 wild-type and Lys-GFP reporter mice, respectively. Intravital microscopy with Lys-GFP mice allowed monitoring of neutrophil recruitment in response to luminal gliadin exposure in real time. In vitro chemotaxis assays were used to study murine and human neutrophil chemotaxis to gliadin, synthetic alpha-gliadin peptides and the neutrophil chemoattractant, fMet-Leu-Phe, in the presence or absence of a specific inhibitor of the fMet-Leu-Phe receptor-1 (FPR1), cyclosporine H. An irrelevant protein, zein, served as a control. Results Redistribution of ZO-1 and an influx of CD11b+Lys6G+ cells in the lamina propria of the small intestine were observed upon oral gavage of gliadin. In vivo intravital microscopy revealed a slowing down of GFP+ cells within the vessels and influx in the mucosal tissue within 2 hours after challenge. In vitro chemotaxis assays showed that gliadin strongly induced neutrophil migration, similar to fMet-Leu-Phe. We identified thirteen synthetic gliadin peptide motifs that induced cell migration. Blocking of FPR1 completely abrogated the fMet-Leu-Phe-, gliadin- and synthetic peptide-induced migration. Conclusions Gliadin possesses neutrophil chemoattractant properties similar to the classical neutrophil chemoattractant, fMet-Leu-Phe, and likewise uses FPR1 in the process. PMID:26378785

  17. Peptide LSARLAF induces integrin β3 dependent outside-in signaling in platelets

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Haixia; Xu, Zhenlu; Li, Ding; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Kemin; Taylor, Donald B.; Liu, Junling; Gartner, T. Kent

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Peptide LSARLAF (LSA) can bind and activate integrin αIIbβ3 in the absence of ‘inside-out’ signal. The active αIIbβ3 mediates ‘outside-in’ signaling that elicits platelet aggregation, granule secretion and TxA2 production. Here we identify the membrane glycoproteins which mediate LSA-induced platelet activation other than αIIbβ3, and determine the roles of Src, PLCγ2, FcRγ-chain, and SLP-76 in LSA-induced platelet activation. Method Ligand-receptor binding assay was performed to study the effect of peptide LSA or its control peptide FRALASL (FRA) on integrins binding to their ligands. Spreading of CHO cells expressing αIIbβ3 or αVβ3 on immobilized fibrinogen was measured in the presence of LSA or FRA. Washed β3, Src, FcRγ-chain, LAT and SLP-76 deficient platelets aggregation and secretion were tested in response to LSA. Results Ligand-receptor binding assay indicated that LSA promoted the binding of multiple ligands to αIIbβ3 or αVβ3. LSA also enhanced CHO cells with αIIbβ3 or αVβ3 expression spreading on immobilized fibrinogen. β3 deficient platelets failed to aggregate and secrete in response to LSA. The phosphorylation of PLCγ2 and Syk was also β3 dependent. Src, FcRγ-chain, LAT and SLP-76 deficient platelets did not aggregate, secrete ATP or produce TxA2 in response to LSA. Conclusion LSA-induced platelet activation is β3 dependent, and signaling molecules Src, FcRγ-chain, SLP-76 and LAT play crucial roles in LSA-induced β3 mediated signaling. PMID:22482832

  18. Injection of Cocaine-Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART) peptide into the nucleus accumbens does not inhibit caffeine-induced locomotor activity: Implications for CART peptide mechanism.

    PubMed

    Job, Martin O

    2016-09-01

    Much evidence suggests that intra-nucleus accumbens (NAc) CART peptide (CART 55-102) injection inhibits locomotor activity (LMA) when there is an increase in the release and activity of dopamine (DA) in the NAc. However, this hypothesis has not been fully tested. One way to examine this is to determine if there is a lack of effect of intra-NAc CART peptide on LMA that does not involve increases in DA release in the NAc. Several studies have suggested that caffeine-induced LMA does not involve extracellular DA release in the NAc core. Therefore, in this study, we have examined the effect of injections of CART peptide (2.5μg) into the NAc core on the locomotor effects of caffeine in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Several LMA relevant doses of caffeine were used (0, 10, 20mg/kg i.p.), and an inverted U response curve was found as expected. We determined, in the same animals, that intra-NAc CART peptide had no effect on caffeine-induced LMA whereas it blunted cocaine-mediated LMA, as shown by other reports. We also extended a previous observation in mice by showing that at a LMA activating dose of caffeine there is no alteration of CART peptide levels in the NAc of rats. Our study supports the hypothesis that the inhibitory effects of CART peptide in the NAc may be exerted only under conditions of increased extracellular DA release and activity in this region. Our results also suggest that intra-NAc CART 55-102 does not generally inhibit increases in LMA due to all drugs, but has a more specific inhibitory effect on dopaminergic neurotransmission. PMID:27168116

  19. Amyloid beta-peptide induces cell monolayer albumin permeability, impairs glucose transport, and induces apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Blanc, E M; Toborek, M; Mark, R J; Hennig, B; Mattson, M P

    1997-05-01

    Amyloid beta-peptide (A beta) is deposited as insoluble fibrils in the brain parenchyma and cerebral blood vessels in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition to neuronal degeneration, cerebral vascular alterations indicative of damage to vascular endothelial cells and disruption of the blood-brain barrier occur in AD. Here we report that A beta25-35 can impair regulatory functions of endothelial cells (ECs) from porcine pulmonary artery and induce their death. Subtoxic exposures to A beta25-35 induced albumin transfer across EC monolayers and impaired glucose transport into ECs. Cell death induced by A beta25-35 was of an apoptotic form, characterized by DNA condensation and fragmentation, and prevented by inhibitors of macromolecular synthesis and endonucleases. The effects of A beta25-35 were specific because A beta1-40 also induced apoptosis in ECs with the apoptotic cells localized to the microenvironment of A beta1-40 aggregates and because astrocytes did not undergo similar changes after exposure to A beta25-35. Damage and death of ECs induced by A beta25-35 were attenuated by antioxidants, a calcium channel blocker, and a chelator of intracellular calcium, indicating the involvement of free radicals and dysregulation of calcium homeostasis. The data show that A beta induces increased permeability of EC monolayers to macromolecules, impairs glucose transport, and induces apoptosis. If similar mechanisms are operative in vivo, then A beta and other amyloidogenic peptides may be directly involved in vascular EC damage documented in AD and other disorders that involve vascular amyloid accumulation. PMID:9109512

  20. Stress-induced analgesia and endogenous opioid peptides: the importance of stress duration.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Drupad; Hamid, Abdul; Friedman, Theodore C; Nguyen, Khanh; Tseng, Andy; Marquez, Paul; Lutfy, Kabirullah

    2011-01-15

    Stress is known to elicit pain relief, a phenomenon referred to as stress-induced analgesia. Based on stress parameters, opioid and non-opioid intrinsic pain inhibitory systems can be activated. In the present study, we assessed whether changing the duration of stress would affect the involvement of endogenous opioids in antinociception elicited by swim in warm water (32 °C), known to be opioid-mediated. Using mice lacking beta-endorphin, enkephalins or dynorphins and their respective wild-type littermates, we assessed the role of each opioid peptide in antinociception induced by a short (3 min) vs. long (15 min) swim. Mice were tested for baseline hot plate latency, exposed to swim (3 or 15 min) in warm water (32 °C) and then tested for antinociception at 5, 15 and 30 min. Our results revealed that both swim paradigms induced significant antinociception in wild-type mice. However, the short swim failed to induce antinociception in beta-endorphin-deficient mice, illustrating that beta-endorphin is important in this form of stress-induced antinociception. On the other hand, antinociception elicited by the long swim was only slightly reduced in beta-endorphin-deficient mice despite pretreatment with naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, significantly attenuated the antinociception elicited by the long swim. Nevertheless, a delayed hyperalgesic response developed in mice lacking beta-endorphin following exposure to either swim paradigm. On the other hand, mice lacking enkephalins or dynorphins and their respective wild-type littermates expressed a comparable antinociceptive response and did not exhibit the delayed hyperalgesic response. Together, our results suggest that the endogenous opioid peptide beta-endorphin not only mediates antinociception induced by the short swim but also prevents the delayed hyperalgesic response elicited by either swim paradigm. PMID:21044625

  1. Stress-induced analgesia and endogenous opioid peptides: the importance of stress duration

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Drupad; Hamid, Abdul; Friedman, Theodore C.; Nguyen, Khanh; Tseng, Andy; Marquez, Paul; Lutfy, Kabirullah

    2010-01-01

    Stress is known to elicit pain relief, a phenomenon referred to as stress-induced analgesia. Based on stress parameters, opioid and non-opioid intrinsic pain inhibitory systems can be activated. In the present study, we assessed whether changing the duration of stress would affect the involvement of endogenous opioids in antinociception elicited by swim in warm water (32°C), known to be opioid-mediated. Using mice lacking beta-endorphin, enkephalins or dynorphins and their respective wild-type littermates, we assessed the role of each opioid peptide in antinociception induced by a short (3 min) vs. long (15 min) swim. Mice were tested for baseline hot plate latency, exposed to swim (3 or 15 min) in warm water (32°C) and then tested for antinociception at 5, 15 and 30 min. Our results revealed that both swim paradigms induced significant antinociception in wild-type mice. However, the short swim failed to induce antinociception in beta-endorphin-deficient mice, illustrating that beta-endorphin is important in this form of stress-induced antinociception. On the other hand, antinociception elicited by the long swim was only slightly reduced in beta-endorphin-deficient mice despite pretreatment with naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, significantly attenuated the antinociception elicited by the long swim. Nevertheless, a delayed hyperalgesic response developed in mice lacking beta-endorphin following exposure to either swim paradigm. On the other hand, mice lacking enkephalins or dynorphins and their respective wild-type littermates expressed a comparable antinociceptive response and did not exhibit the delayed hyperalgesic response. Together, our results suggest that the endogenous opioid peptide beta-endorphin not only mediates antinociception induced by the short swim but also prevents the delayed hyperalgesic response elicited by either swim paradigm. PMID:21044625

  2. A proinflammatory peptide from Helicobacter pylori activates monocytes to induce lymphocyte dysfunction and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Betten, Åsa; Bylund, Johan; Cristophe, Thierry; Boulay, François; Romero, Ana; Hellstrand, Kristoffer; Dahlgren, Claes

    2001-01-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori causes chronic gastritis, which is characterized by a dense mucosal infiltration by inflammatory cells such as monocytes/macrophages. H. pylori–induced inflammation is a risk factor for the development of gastric adenocarcinoma, but the mechanisms involved in H. pylori–associated carcinogenesis are poorly understood. A cecropin-like H. pylori peptide, Hp(2-20), was found to be a monocyte chemoattractant and activated the monocyte NADPH-oxidase to produce oxygen radicals. The receptors mediating monocyte activation were identified as FPRL1 and the monocyte-specific orphan receptor FPRL2. Hp(2-20)–activated monocytes inhibited lymphocytes with antitumor properties, such as CD56+ natural killer (NK) cells and CD3ε+ T cells. The changes observed in NK cells and T cells — a reduced antitumor cytotoxicity, downregulation of CD3ζ expression, and apoptosis — were mediated by Hp(2-20)–induced oxygen radicals. Histamine, a gastric mucosal constituent, rescued NK cells and T cells from inhibition and apoptosis by suppressing Hp(2-20)–induced oxygen radical formation. We conclude that H. pylori expression of this monocyte-activating peptide contributes to its ability to attract and activate monocytes and reduces the function and viability of antineoplastic lymphocytes. These novel mechanisms may be subject to local, histaminergic regulation in the gastric mucosa. PMID:11602630

  3. Mystixin-7 Peptide Protects Ionotropic Glutamatergic Mechanisms against Glutamate-Induced Excitotoxicity In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Hyperactivation of the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) causes glutamate excitotoxicity, a process potentially important for many neurological diseases. This study aims to investigate protective effects of the synthetic corticotrophin-releasing factor-like peptide, mystixin-7 (MTX), on model glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in vitro. The technique online monitoring of electrophysiological parameters (excitatory glutamatergic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic (AMPAR) and NMDAR-dependent postsynaptic mechanisms) in the olfactory cortex slices was used. Application of L-glutamate in toxic concentration (20 mM) on slices evoked hyperactivation of NMDARs and weaker activation of the AMPARs. Upon further action agonist, the excessive activation of glutamate receptors was replaced by their irreversible blockade. Pretreatment of the slices using MTX in different concentrations (50 and 100 mg/mL) protected both NMDARs and AMPARs from glutamate-induced damage. An enzymatic treatment of MTX reduced hyperactivation of both NMDARs and AMPARs. The present study demonstrated that MTX minipeptide protected the functioning of both NMDARs and AMPARs against glutamate-induced damage. The MTX peptide is a prospective candidate for elaborated medication in treatment of neurological diseases. PMID:27504123

  4. Production of phytotoxic cationic α-helical antimicrobial peptides in plant cells using inducible promoters.

    PubMed

    Company, Nuri; Nadal, Anna; Ruiz, Cristina; Pla, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic linear antimicrobial peptides with cationic α-helical structures, such as BP100, have potent and specific activities against economically important plant pathogenic bacteria. They are also recognized as valuable therapeutics and preservatives. However, highly active BP100 derivatives are often phytotoxic when expressed at high levels as recombinant peptides in plants. Here we demonstrate that production of recombinant phytotoxic peptides in transgenic plants is possible by strictly limiting transgene expression to certain tissues and conditions, and specifically that minimization of this expression during transformation and regeneration of transgenic plants is essential to obtain viable plant biofactories. On the basis of whole-genome transcriptomic data available online, we identified the Os.hsp82 promoter that fulfilled this requirement and was highly induced in response to heat shock. Using this strategy, we generated transgenic rice lines producing moderate yields of severely phytotoxic BP100 derivatives on exposure to high temperature. In addition, a threshold for gene expression in selected tissues and stages was experimentally established, below which the corresponding promoters should be suitable for driving the expression of recombinant phytotoxic proteins in genetically modified plants. In view of the growing transcriptomics data available, this approach is of interest to assist promoter selection for specific purposes. PMID:25387106

  5. NPYFa, A Chimeric Peptide of Met-Enkephalin, and NPFF Induces Tolerance-Free Analgesia.

    PubMed

    Mudgal, Annu; Kumar, Krishan; Mollereau, Catherine; Pasha, Santosh

    2016-06-01

    Methionine-enkephalin-Arg-Phe is an endogenous amphiactive analgesic peptide. Neuropeptide FF, on the other hand, is reported for its role in opioid modulation and tolerance development. Based on these reports, in the present study we designed a chimeric peptide NPYFa (YGGFMKKKPQRFamide), having the Met-enkephalin (opioid) and PQRFamide sequence of neuropeptide FF, which can then target both the opioid and neuropeptide FF receptors. We hypothesized that the chimeric peptide so designed would have both analgesic properties and further aid in understanding of the role of neuropeptide FF in the development of opiate tolerance. Our studies indicated that NPYFa induced an early onset, potent, dose-dependent and prolonged antinociception. Additionally, antagonists (MOR, KOR, and DOR) pretreatment studies determined a KOR-mediated antinociception activity of the ligand. Further, in vitro binding studies using the Eu-GTP-γS binding assay on cell lines expressing opioid and NPFF receptors showed binding to both the opioid and neuropeptide FF receptors suggesting a multiple receptor binding character of NPYFa. Moreover, chronic (6 days) treatment with NPYFa exhibited an absence of tolerance development subsequent to its analgesia. The current study proposes NPYFa as a potent, long-acting antinociceptor lacking tolerance development as well as a probe to study opioid analgesia and the associated complex mechanisms of tolerance development. PMID:26802437

  6. Prognostic Value of Adrenomedullin and Natriuretic Peptides in Uroseptic Patients Induced by Ureteroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei; Zhou, Pang-Hu; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Lijun; Zhang, Xiao-Bin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate whether urosepsis is related to irrigation pressure of ureteroscopy (URS) and evaluate the prognostic value of adrenomedullin (ADM) and atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP) in URS-induced uroseptic patients. From July 2008 to October 2013, we enrolled 332 patients with untreated unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). The UUO group included three subgroups of, respectively, 118, 132, and 82 patients who underwent URS under intermittent stable irrigation pressure of, respectively, 80, 120, and 160 mmHg. The plasma concentrations of ADM, ANP, and BNP were measured in all subjects. URS was performed for all UUO patients; the values of the three peptides were measured again after URS. Irrigation pressure and stone size were independent risk factors of urosepsis. After URS, the plasma concentrations of ADM, ANP, and BNP were significantly higher in uroseptic patients. Moreover, the concentrations were significantly higher depending on the disease severity. Plasma concentrations of the three peptides were correlated with plasma ET concentration in the uroseptic patients. The areas under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of ADM, ANP, and BNP for predicting urosepsis were 0.811, 0.728, and 0.764, respectively. In conclusion, ADM, along with ANP and BNP, is valuable for prognosis in urosepsis secondary to URS which is associated with irrigation pressure. PMID:26880865

  7. Production of Phytotoxic Cationic α-Helical Antimicrobial Peptides in Plant Cells Using Inducible Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Company, Nuri; Nadal, Anna; Ruiz, Cristina; Pla, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic linear antimicrobial peptides with cationic α-helical structures, such as BP100, have potent and specific activities against economically important plant pathogenic bacteria. They are also recognized as valuable therapeutics and preservatives. However, highly active BP100 derivatives are often phytotoxic when expressed at high levels as recombinant peptides in plants. Here we demonstrate that production of recombinant phytotoxic peptides in transgenic plants is possible by strictly limiting transgene expression to certain tissues and conditions, and specifically that minimization of this expression during transformation and regeneration of transgenic plants is essential to obtain viable plant biofactories. On the basis of whole-genome transcriptomic data available online, we identified the Os.hsp82 promoter that fulfilled this requirement and was highly induced in response to heat shock. Using this strategy, we generated transgenic rice lines producing moderate yields of severely phytotoxic BP100 derivatives on exposure to high temperature. In addition, a threshold for gene expression in selected tissues and stages was experimentally established, below which the corresponding promoters should be suitable for driving the expression of recombinant phytotoxic proteins in genetically modified plants. In view of the growing transcriptomics data available, this approach is of interest to assist promoter selection for specific purposes. PMID:25387106

  8. Comparison of Ultraviolet Photodissociation and Collision Induced Dissociation of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robotham, Scott A.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2015-09-01

    In an effort to better characterize the fragmentation pathways promoted by ultraviolet photoexcitation in comparison to collision induced dissociation (CID), six adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) peptides in a range of charge states were subjected to 266 nm ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD), 193 nm UVPD, and CID. Similar fragment ions and distributions were observed for 266 nm UVPD and 193 nm UVPD for all peptides investigated. While both UVPD and CID led to preferential cleavage of the Y-S bond for all ACTH peptides [except ACTH (1-39)], UVPD was far less dependent on charge state and location of basic sites for the production of C-terminal and N-terminal ions. For ACTH (1-16), ACTH (1-17), ACTH (1-24), and ACTH (1-39), changes in the distributions of fragment ion types ( a, b, c, x, y, z, and collectively N-terminal ions versus C-terminal ions) showed only minor changes upon UVPD for all charge states. In contrast, CID displayed significant changes in the fragment ion type distributions as a function of charge state, an outcome consistent with the dependence on the number and location of mobile protons that is not prominent for UVPD. Sequence coverages obtained by UVPD showed less dependence on charge state than those determined by CID, with the latter showing a consistent decrease in coverage as charge state increased.

  9. Cold denaturation induces inversion of dipole and spin transfer in chiral peptide monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Eckshtain-Levi, Meital; Capua, Eyal; Refaely-Abramson, Sivan; Sarkar, Soumyajit; Gavrilov, Yulian; Mathew, Shinto P.; Paltiel, Yossi; Levy, Yaakov; Kronik, Leeor; Naaman, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Chirality-induced spin selectivity is a recently-discovered effect, which results in spin selectivity for electrons transmitted through chiral peptide monolayers. Here, we use this spin selectivity to probe the organization of self-assembled α-helix peptide monolayers and examine the relation between structural and spin transfer phenomena. We show that the α-helix structure of oligopeptides based on alanine and aminoisobutyric acid is transformed to a more linear one upon cooling. This process is similar to the known cold denaturation in peptides, but here the self-assembled monolayer plays the role of the solvent. The structural change results in a flip in the direction of the electrical dipole moment of the adsorbed molecules. The dipole flip is accompanied by a concomitant change in the spin that is preferred in electron transfer through the molecules, observed via a new solid-state hybrid organic–inorganic device that is based on the Hall effect, but operates with no external magnetic field or magnetic material. PMID:26916536

  10. Peptides with dual mode of action: Killing bacteria and preventing endotoxin-induced sepsis.

    PubMed

    Brandenburg, Klaus; Heinbockel, Lena; Correa, Wilmar; Lohner, Karl

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial infections, with the most severe form being sepsis, can often not be treated adequately leading to high morbidity and lethality of infected patients in critical care units. In particular, the increase in resistant bacterial strains and the lack of new antibiotics are main reasons for the worsening of the current situation, As a new approach, the use of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) seems to be promising, combining the ability of broad-spectrum bactericidal activity and low potential of induction of resistance. Peptides based on natural defense proteins or polypeptides such as lactoferrin, Limulus anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (LALF), cathelicidins, and granulysins are candidates due to their high affinity to bacteria and to their pathogenicity factors, in first line lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) of Gram-negative origin. In this review, we discuss literature with the focus on the use of AMPs from natural sources and their variants as antibacterial as well as anti-endotoxin (anti-inflammatory) drugs. Considerable progress has been made by the design of new AMPs for acting efficiently against the LPS-induced inflammation reaction in vitro as well as in vivo (mouse) models of sepsis. Furthermore, the data indicate that efficient antibacterial compounds are not necessarily equally efficient as anti-endotoxin drugs and vice versa. The most important reason for this may be the different molecular geometry of LPS in bacteria and in free form. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antimicrobial peptides edited by Karl Lohner and Kai Hilpert. PMID:26801369

  11. Cold denaturation induces inversion of dipole and spin transfer in chiral peptide monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckshtain-Levi, Meital; Capua, Eyal; Refaely-Abramson, Sivan; Sarkar, Soumyajit; Gavrilov, Yulian; Mathew, Shinto P.; Paltiel, Yossi; Levy, Yaakov; Kronik, Leeor; Naaman, Ron

    2016-02-01

    Chirality-induced spin selectivity is a recently-discovered effect, which results in spin selectivity for electrons transmitted through chiral peptide monolayers. Here, we use this spin selectivity to probe the organization of self-assembled α-helix peptide monolayers and examine the relation between structural and spin transfer phenomena. We show that the α-helix structure of oligopeptides based on alanine and aminoisobutyric acid is transformed to a more linear one upon cooling. This process is similar to the known cold denaturation in peptides, but here the self-assembled monolayer plays the role of the solvent. The structural change results in a flip in the direction of the electrical dipole moment of the adsorbed molecules. The dipole flip is accompanied by a concomitant change in the spin that is preferred in electron transfer through the molecules, observed via a new solid-state hybrid organic-inorganic device that is based on the Hall effect, but operates with no external magnetic field or magnetic material.

  12. Membrane aggregation and perturbation induced by antimicrobial peptide of S-thanatin

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Guoqiu; Wu, Hongbin; Li, Linxian; Fan, Xiaobo; Ding, Jiaxuan; Li, Xiaofang; Xi, Tao; Shen, Zilong

    2010-04-23

    Thanatin, a 21-residue peptide, is an inducible insect peptide. In our previous study, we have identified a novel thanatin analog of S-thanatin, which exhibited a broad antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi with low hemolytic activity. This study was aimed to delineate the antimicrobial mechanism of S-thanatin and identify its interaction with bacterial membranes. In this study, membrane phospholipid was found to be the target for S-thanatin. In the presence of vesicles, S-thanatin interestingly led to the aggregation of anionic vesicles and sonicated bacteria. Adding S-thanatin to Escherichia coli suspension would result in the collapse of membrane and kill bacteria. The sensitivity assay of protoplast elucidated the importance of outer membrane (OM) for S-thanatin's antimicrobial activity. Compared with other antimicrobial peptide, S-thanatin produced chaotic membrane morphology and cell debris in electron microscopic appearance. These results supported our hypothesis that S-thanatin bound to negatively charged LPS and anionic lipid, impeded membrane respiration, exhausted the intracellular potential, and released periplasmic material, which led to cell death.

  13. Prognostic Value of Adrenomedullin and Natriuretic Peptides in Uroseptic Patients Induced by Ureteroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei; Zhou, Pang-hu; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Lijun; Zhang, Xiao-bin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate whether urosepsis is related to irrigation pressure of ureteroscopy (URS) and evaluate the prognostic value of adrenomedullin (ADM) and atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP) in URS-induced uroseptic patients. From July 2008 to October 2013, we enrolled 332 patients with untreated unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). The UUO group included three subgroups of, respectively, 118, 132, and 82 patients who underwent URS under intermittent stable irrigation pressure of, respectively, 80, 120, and 160 mmHg. The plasma concentrations of ADM, ANP, and BNP were measured in all subjects. URS was performed for all UUO patients; the values of the three peptides were measured again after URS. Irrigation pressure and stone size were independent risk factors of urosepsis. After URS, the plasma concentrations of ADM, ANP, and BNP were significantly higher in uroseptic patients. Moreover, the concentrations were significantly higher depending on the disease severity. Plasma concentrations of the three peptides were correlated with plasma ET concentration in the uroseptic patients. The areas under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of ADM, ANP, and BNP for predicting urosepsis were 0.811, 0.728, and 0.764, respectively. In conclusion, ADM, along with ANP and BNP, is valuable for prognosis in urosepsis secondary to URS which is associated with irrigation pressure. PMID:26880865

  14. Cold denaturation induces inversion of dipole and spin transfer in chiral peptide monolayers.

    PubMed

    Eckshtain-Levi, Meital; Capua, Eyal; Refaely-Abramson, Sivan; Sarkar, Soumyajit; Gavrilov, Yulian; Mathew, Shinto P; Paltiel, Yossi; Levy, Yaakov; Kronik, Leeor; Naaman, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Chirality-induced spin selectivity is a recently-discovered effect, which results in spin selectivity for electrons transmitted through chiral peptide monolayers. Here, we use this spin selectivity to probe the organization of self-assembled α-helix peptide monolayers and examine the relation between structural and spin transfer phenomena. We show that the α-helix structure of oligopeptides based on alanine and aminoisobutyric acid is transformed to a more linear one upon cooling. This process is similar to the known cold denaturation in peptides, but here the self-assembled monolayer plays the role of the solvent. The structural change results in a flip in the direction of the electrical dipole moment of the adsorbed molecules. The dipole flip is accompanied by a concomitant change in the spin that is preferred in electron transfer through the molecules, observed via a new solid-state hybrid organic-inorganic device that is based on the Hall effect, but operates with no external magnetic field or magnetic material. PMID:26916536

  15. Charge properties of peptides derived from casein affect their bioavailability and cytoprotection against H2O2-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Xie, Ningning; Li, Bo

    2016-04-01

    The effects of charge properties of casein peptides on absorption stability, antioxidant activity, and cytoprotection were evaluated. Alcalase hydrolysates of casein were separated into 4 fractions by cation-exchange chromatography according to charge properties. After simulated digestion and Caco-2 cell transmembrane transport, we determined the total antioxidant capacity (Trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity and oxygen radical antioxidant activity) and nitrogen content of peptide fractions to estimate available antioxidant efficacy and bioavailability (BA) of peptides. Results showed that negatively charged peptide fractions had greater BA and antioxidant activities after digestion and absorption. The peptide permeates were used to test the cytoprotective effect against H2O2-induced oxidative damage in HepG-2 cells. All peptide permeates increased cell viability, elevated catalase activity, and decreased superoxide dismutase activity. However, negatively charged peptide fractions preserved cell viability to a greater degree. Therefore, the negatively charged peptides from casein may be potential antioxidants and could be used as ingredients in functional foods and dietary supplements. PMID:26851854

  16. A rational approach to select immunogenic peptides that induce IFN-γ response against Toxoplasma gondii in human leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Néstor I; Moncada, Diego M; Gómez-Marin, Jorge E

    2015-12-01

    The ideal vaccine to prevent toxoplasmosis in humans would comprise antigens that elicit a protective T cell type 1 response with high IFN-γ production. Here, we report the use of a bioinformatics pipeline to discover peptides based on biochemical characteristics that predict strong IFN-γ response by human leukocytes. We selected peptide sequences that previously were reported to induce IFN-γ to identify the biophysical characteristics that will predict HLA-A*02 high-affinity epitopes. We found that the protein motif pattern FL...L..[VL] was common in previously reported highly immunogenic sequences. We have selected new peptides with a length of 9 residues with affinities from 2 to 21 nM with peptide signal and transmembrane domains and predicted to be cleaved at the proteasome to perform ELISPOT assays with human leukocytes. Within 9 peptides with the highest scores for IFN-γ production, four peptides elicited IFN-γ levels in a range from 252 to 1763 SFC/1e6. Our pipeline uncovered Toxoplasma proteins with peptides that are processed by MHC class 1 in humans. Our results suggest that our rational strategy for the selection of immunogenic epitopes could be used to select peptides as candidates for inclusion in epitope-based vaccines. PMID:26210043

  17. The effect of protonation site and conformation on surface-induced dissociation in a small, lysine containing peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, Kulsum; Blackwood, Jacob; Barnes, George L.

    2015-09-01

    Simulations of surface induced dissociation (SID) of protonated peptides have provided significant insight into the energy transfer and mechanism of SID; however, they have been limited to glycine and alanine containing peptides. The chemical simplicity of these systems forces N-terminus protonation. Here we present results from simulations involving a lysine containing peptide that allowed for multiple protonation sites and conformations. We found that when the excess proton is located on the basic lysine side chain, fragmentation dynamics are typically slower and occur through a 'charge-remote' pathway. Additionally, conformation alone has a significant effect on the observed proton transfer pathways.

  18. Synthetic Peptide Ligands of the Antigen Binding Receptor Induce Programmed Cell Death in a Human B-Cell Lymphoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renschler, Markus F.; Bhatt, Ramesh R.; Dower, William J.; Levy, Ronald

    1994-04-01

    Peptide ligands for the antigen binding site of the surface immunoglobulin receptor of a human B-cell lymphoma cell line were identified with the use of filamentous phage libraries displaying random 8- and 12-amino acid peptides. Corresponding synthetic peptides bound specifically to the antigen binding site of this immunoglobulin receptor and blocked the binding of an anti-idiotype antibody. The ligands, when conjugated to form dimers or tetramers, induced cell death by apoptosis in vitro with an IC50 between 40 and 200 nM. This effect was associated with specific stimulation of intracellular protein tyrosine phosphorylation.

  19. Peptide drugs accelerate BMP-2-induced calvarial bone regeneration and stimulate osteoblast differentiation through mTORC1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Sugamori, Yasutaka; Mise-Omata, Setsuko; Maeda, Chizuko; Aoki, Shigeki; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Murali, Ramachandran; Yasuda, Hisataka; Udagawa, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Honma, Masashi; Aoki, Kazuhiro

    2016-08-01

    Both W9 and OP3-4 were known to bind the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. Recently, both peptides were shown to stimulate osteoblast differentiation; however, the mechanism underlying the activity of these peptides remains to be clarified. A primary osteoblast culture showed that rapamycin, an mTORC1 inhibitor, which was recently demonstrated to be an important serine/threonine kinase for bone formation, inhibited the peptide-induced alkaline phosphatase activity. Furthermore, both peptides promoted the phosphorylation of Akt and S6K1, an upstream molecule of mTORC1 and the effector molecule of mTORC1, respectively. In the in vivo calvarial defect model, W9 and OP3-4 accelerated BMP-2-induced bone formation to a similar extent, which was confirmed by histomorphometric analyses using fluorescence images of undecalcified sections. Our data suggest that these RANKL-binding peptides could stimulate the mTORC1 activity, which might play a role in the acceleration of BMP-2-induced bone regeneration by the RANKL-binding peptides. PMID:27345003

  20. Intermedin/adrenomedullin-2 is a hypoxia-induced endothelial peptide that stabilizes pulmonary microvascular permeability

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad; Paddenberg, Renate; Quanz, Karin; Chang, Chia L.; Park, Jae-Il; Gries, Barbara; Rafiq, Amir; Faulhammer, Petra; Goldenberg, Anna; Papadakis, Tamara; Noll, Thomas; Hsu, Sheau Y. T.; Weissmann, Norbert; Kummer, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests a pivotal role of the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) signaling pathway in preventing damage of the lung by stabilizing pulmonary barrier function. Intermedin (IMD), also termed adrenomedullin-2, is the most recently identified peptide targeting this receptor. Here we investigated the effect of hypoxia on the expression of IMD in the murine lung and cultured murine pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMEC) as well as the role of IMD in regulating vascular permeability. Monoclonal IMD antibodies were generated, and transcript levels were assayed by quantitative RT-PCR. The promoter region of IMD gene was analyzed, and the effect of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α on IMD expression was investigated in HEK293T cells. Isolated murine lungs and a human lung microvascular endothelial cell monolayer model were used to study the effect of IMD on vascular permeability. IMD was identified as a pulmonary endothelial peptide by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Hypoxia caused an upregulation of IMD mRNA in the murine lung and PMEC. As shown by these results, HIF-1α enhances IMD promoter activity. Our functional studies showed that IMD abolished the increase in pressure-induced endothelial permeability. Moreover, IMD decreased basal and thrombin-induced hyperpermeability of an endothelial cell monolayer in a receptor-dependent manner and activated PKA in these cells. In conclusion, IMD is a novel hypoxia-induced gene and a potential interventional agent for the improvement of endothelial barrier function in systemic inflammatory responses and hypoxia-induced vascular leakage. PMID:19684198

  1. Quantification of the Binding Properties of Cu2+ to the Amyloid-Beta Peptide: Coordination Spheres for Human and Rat Peptides and Implication on Cu2+-Induced Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Lian; Carducci, Tessa M.; Bush, William D.; Dudzik, Christopher G.; Millhauser, Glenn L.; Simon, John D.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY There is no consensus on the coordinating ligands for Cu2+ by A β. Yet the differences in peptide sequence between human and rat have been hypothesized to alter metal ion binding in a manner that alters Cu2+-induced aggregation of A β. Herein, we employ isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), circular dichroism (CD) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to examine the Cu2+ coordination spheres to human and rat A β and an extensive set of A β(16) mutants. EPR of the mutant peptides is consistent with a 3N1O binding geometry, like the native human peptide at pH 7.4. The thermodynamic data reveal an equilibrium between three coordination spheres, {NH2, O-, NIm His6, amide N−}, {NH2, O-, NIm His6, NIm His13} and {NH2, O-, NIm His6, NIm His14} for human A β(16) but only one for rat A β(16), { NH2, O-, NIm His6, N−}, at pH 7.4 -6.5. ITC and CD data establish that the mutation R5G is sufficient for reproducing this difference in Cu2+ binding properties at pH 7.4. The substitution of bulky and positively charged Arg by Gly is proposed to stabilize the coordination {NH2, O-, NIm His6, amide N−} that then results in one dominating coordination sphere for the case of the rat peptide. The differences in the coordination geometries for Cu2+ by the human and rat A β are proposed to contribute to the variation in the ability of Cu2+ to induce aggregation of A β peptides. PMID:20690669

  2. Roles of Arginine and Lysine Residues in the Translocation of a Cell-Penetrating Peptide from 13C, 31P and 19F Solid-State NMR

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yongchao; Doherty, Tim; Waring, Alan J.; Ruchala, Piotr; Hong, Mei

    2009-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are small cationic peptides that cross the cell membrane while carrying macromolecular cargoes. We use solid-state NMR to investigate the structure and lipid interaction of two cationic residues, Arg10 and Lys13, in the CPP penetratin. 13C chemical shifts indicate that Arg10 adopts a rigid β-strand conformation in the liquid-crystalline state of anionic lipid membranes. This behavior contrasts with all other residues observed so far in this peptide, which adopt a dynamic β-turn conformation with coil-like chemical shifts at physiological temperature. Low-temperature 13C-31P distances between the peptide and the lipid phosphates indicate that both the Arg10 guanidinium Cζ and the Lys13 Cε lie in close proximity to the lipid 31P (4.0 - 4.2 Å), proving the existence of charge-charge interaction for both Arg10 and Lys13 in the gel-phase membrane. However, since lysine substitution in CPPs are known to reduce their translocation ability, we propose that low temperature stabilizes both lysine and arginine interactions with the phosphates, whereas at high temperature the lysine-phosphate interaction is much weaker than the arginine-phosphate interaction. This is supported by the unusually high rigidity of the Arg10 sidechain and its β-strand conformation at high temperature. The latter is proposed to be important for ion pair formation by allowing close approach of the lipid headgroups to guanidinium sidechains. 19F and 13C spin diffusion experiments indicate that penetratin is oligomerized into β-sheets in gel-phase membranes. These solid-state NMR data indicate that guanidinium-phosphate interactions exist in penetratin, and guanidinium groups play a stronger structural role than ammonium groups in the lipid-assisted translocation of CPPs across liquid-crystalline cell membranes. PMID:19364134

  3. Reconstructive Phase Transition in Ultrashort Peptide Nanostructures and Induced Visible Photoluminescence.

    PubMed

    Handelman, Amir; Kuritz, Natalia; Natan, Amir; Rosenman, Gil

    2016-03-29

    A reconstructive phase transition has been found and studied in ultrashort di- and tripeptide nanostructures, self-assembled from biomolecules of different compositions and origin such as aromatic, aliphatic, linear, and cyclic (linear FF-diphenylalanine, linear LL-dileucine, FFF-triphenylalanine, and cyclic FF-diphenylalanine). The native linear aromatic FF, FFF and aliphatic LL peptide nanoensembles of various shapes (nanotubes and nanospheres) have asymmetric elementary structure and demonstrate nonlinear optical and piezoelectric effects. At elevated temperature, 140-180 °C, these native supramolecular structures (except for native Cyc-FF nanofibers) undergo an irreversible thermally induced transformation via reassembling into a completely new thermodynamically stable phase having nanowire morphology similar to those of amyloid fibrils. This reconstruction process is followed by deep and similar modification at all levels: macroscopic (morphology), molecular, peptide secondary, and electronic structures. However, original Cyc-FF nanofibers preserve their native physical properties. The self-fabricated supramolecular fibrillar ensembles exhibit the FTIR and CD signatures of new antiparallel β-sheet secondary folding with intermolecular hydrogen bonds and centrosymmetric structure. In this phase, the β-sheet nanofibers, irrespective of their native biomolecular origin, do not reveal nonlinear optical and piezoelectric effects, but do exhibit similar profound modification of optoelectronic properties followed by the appearance of visible (blue and green) photoluminescence (PL), which is not observed in the original peptides and their native nanostructures. The observed visible PL effect, ascribed to hydrogen bonds of thermally induced β-sheet secondary structures, has the same physical origin as that of the fluorescence found recently in amyloid fibrils and can be considered to be an optical signature of β-sheet structures in both biological and bioinspired

  4. N-acylated peptides derived from human lactoferricin perturb organization of cardiolipin and phosphatidylethanolamine in cell membranes and induce defects in Escherichia coli cell division.

    PubMed

    Zweytick, Dagmar; Japelj, Bostjan; Mileykovskaya, Eugenia; Zorko, Mateja; Dowhan, William; Blondelle, Sylvie E; Riedl, Sabrina; Jerala, Roman; Lohner, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Two types of recently described antibacterial peptides derived from human lactoferricin, either nonacylated or N-acylated, were studied for their different interaction with membranes of Escherichia coli in vivo and in model systems. Electron microscopy revealed striking effects on the bacterial membrane as both peptide types induced formation of large membrane blebs. Electron and fluorescence microscopy, however demonstrated that only the N-acylated peptides partially induced the generation of oversized cells, which might reflect defects in cell-division. Further a different distribution of cardiolipin domains on the E. coli membrane was shown only in the presence of the N-acylated peptides. The lipid was distributed over the whole bacterial cell surface, whereas cardiolipin in untreated and nonacylated peptide-treated cells was mainly located at the septum and poles. Studies with bacterial membrane mimics, such as cardiolipin or phosphatidylethanolamine revealed that both types of peptides interacted with the negatively charged lipid cardiolipin. The nonacylated peptides however induced segregation of cardiolipin into peptide-enriched and peptide-poor lipid domains, while the N-acylated peptides promoted formation of many small heterogeneous domains. Only N-acylated peptides caused additional severe effects on the main phase transition of liposomes composed of pure phosphatidylethanolamine, while both peptide types inhibited the lamellar to hexagonal phase transition. Lipid mixtures of phosphatidylethanolamine and cardiolipin revealed anionic clustering by all peptide types. However additional strong perturbation of the neutral lipids was only seen with the N-acylated peptides. Nuclear magnetic resonance demonstrated different conformational arrangement of the N-acylated peptide in anionic and zwitterionic micelles revealing possible mechanistic differences in their action on different membrane lipids. We hypothesized that both peptides kill bacteria by

  5. Human lactoferricin derived di-peptides deploying loop structures induce apoptosis specifically in cancer cells through targeting membranous phosphatidylserine.

    PubMed

    Riedl, Sabrina; Leber, Regina; Rinner, Beate; Schaider, Helmut; Lohner, Karl; Zweytick, Dagmar

    2015-11-01

    Host defense-derived peptides have emerged as a novel strategy for the development of alternative anticancer therapies. In this study we report on characteristic features of human lactoferricin (hLFcin) derivatives which facilitate specific killing of cancer cells of melanoma, glioblastoma and rhabdomyosarcoma compared with non-specific derivatives and the synthetic peptide RW-AH. Changes in amino acid sequence of hLFcin providing 9-11 amino acids stretched derivatives LF11-316, -318 and -322 only yielded low antitumor activity. However, the addition of the repeat (di-peptide) and the retro-repeat (di-retro-peptide) sequences highly improved cancer cell toxicity up to 100% at 20 μM peptide concentration. Compared to the complete parent sequence hLFcin the derivatives showed toxicity on the melanoma cell line A375 increased by 10-fold and on the glioblastoma cell line U-87mg by 2-3-fold. Reduced killing velocity, apoptotic blebbing, activation of caspase 3/7 and formation of apoptotic DNA fragments proved that the active and cancer selective peptides, e.g. R-DIM-P-LF11-322, trigger apoptosis, whereas highly active, though non-selective peptides, such as DIM-LF11-318 and RW-AH seem to kill rapidly via necrosis inducing membrane lyses. Structural studies revealed specific toxicity on cancer cells by peptide derivatives with loop structures, whereas non-specific peptides comprised α-helical structures without loop. Model studies with the cancer membrane mimic phosphatidylserine (PS) gave strong evidence that PS only exposed by cancer cells is an important target for specific hLFcin derivatives. Other negatively charged membrane exposed molecules as sialic acid, heparan and chondroitin sulfate were shown to have minor impact on peptide activity. PMID:26239537

  6. Anti-apoptotic peptides protect against radiation-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Kevin W; Muenzer, Jared T; Chang, Kathy C; Davis, Chris G; McDunn, Jonathan E; Coopersmith, Craig M; Hilliard, Carolyn A; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Grigsby, Perry W; Hunt, Clayton R

    2007-04-01

    The risk of terrorist attacks utilizing either nuclear or radiological weapons has raised concerns about the current lack of effective radioprotectants. Here it is demonstrated that the BH4 peptide domain of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL can be delivered to cells by covalent attachment to the TAT peptide transduction domain (TAT-BH4) and provide protection in vitro and in vivo from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Isolated human lymphocytes treated with TAT-BH4 were protected against apoptosis following exposure to 15Gy radiation. In mice exposed to 5Gy radiation, TAT-BH4 treatment protected splenocytes and thymocytes from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Most importantly, in vivo radiation protection was observed in mice whether TAT-BH4 treatment was given prior to or after irradiation. Thus, by targeting steps within the apoptosis signaling pathway it is possible to develop post-exposure treatments to protect radio-sensitive tissues. PMID:17307150

  7. LEUCINE-RICH AMELOGENIN PEPTIDE INDUCES OSTEOGENESIS IN MOUSE EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Warotayanont, Rungnapa; Zhu, Danhong; Snead, Malcolm L.; Zhou, Yan

    2008-01-01

    Leucine-rich amelogenin peptide (LRAP), an alternatively spliced amelogenin protein, possesses a signaling property shown to induce osteogenic differentiation. In the current study, we detected LRAP expression during osteogenesis of wild-type (WT) embryonic stem (ES) cells and observed the absence of LRAP expression in amelogenin-null (KO) ES cells. We explored the signaling effect of LRAP on wild-type ES cells, and the ability of LRAP to rescue the impaired osteogenesis phenotype observed in KO ES cells. Our data indicate that LRAP treatment of WT and KO ES cells induces a significant increase in mineral matrix formation, and significant increases in bone sialoprotein and osterix gene expression. In addition, the amelogenin KO phenotype is partially rescued by the addition of exogenous LRAP. These data suggest a unique function of LRAP during ES cell differentiation along osteogenic lineage. PMID:18086559

  8. Mitochondria related peptide MOTS-c suppresses ovariectomy-induced bone loss via AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Ming, Wei; Lu, Gan; Xin, Sha; Huanyu, Lu; Yinghao, Jiang; Xiaoying, Lei; Chengming, Xu; Banjun, Ruan; Li, Wang; Zifan, Lu

    2016-08-01

    Therapeutic targeting bone loss has been the focus of the study in osteoporosis. The present study is intended to evaluate whether MOTS-c, a novel mitochondria related 16 aa peptide, can protect mice from ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis. After ovary removal, the mice were injected with MOTS-c at a dose of 5 mg/kg once a day for 12 weeks. Our results showed that MOTS-c treatment significantly alleviated bone loss, as determined by micro-CT examination. Mechanistically, we found that the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) induced osteoclast differentiation was remarkably inhibited by MOTS-c. Moreover, MOTS-c increased phosphorylated AMPK levels, and compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, could partially abrogate the effects of the MOTS-c on osteoclastogenesis. Thus, our findings provide evidence that MOTS-c may exert as an inhibitor of osteoporosis via AMPK dependent inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. PMID:27237975

  9. A newly identified tomato peptide induces cytosolic calcium and may correspond to pathogen defense-related endogenous peptides in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants recognize a variety of stimuli that invoke defenses against attacking pathogens and herbivores. This recognition primes the plant to mount defenses against herbivory and disease. These stimuli include molecules called damage-associated molecular patterns or DAMPs, among them signaling peptide...

  10. Role of peptide YY in 5-fluorouracil-induced reduction of dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiroyasu; Kai, Yuki; Takase, Kazuhide; Sato, Ken; Kimura, Minami; Tabata, Shoko; Yaegashi, Miyabi; Sato, Fumiaki; Yomoto, Tetsuro; Narita, Minoru

    2016-08-01

    5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is part of the standard care for cancer treatment but is associated with high incidences of appetite loss and reduced food intake, which may contribute to chemotherapy-induced cachexia (weakness and wasting of tissue). The role of gastrointestinal satiety hormones in chemotherapy-induced appetite loss has not been intensively investigated. Peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 are important signals of gastrointestinal satiety, so this study examined the roles of these gut hormones in 5-FU-induced reduction of dietary intake. Mice were given 5-FU (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i.p.]) every day for 4 consecutive days. Gene expression levels of proglucagon (Pro-Gcg), a precursor of GLP-1, and PYY in the colon were examined by real-time RT-PCR. Serum levels of GLP-1 and PYY were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Some mice were pretreated with the GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin9-39 (1 mg/kg) or the neuropeptide Y type 2 (NPY2) receptor antagonist BIIE0246 (2 mg/kg) via the i.p. route 30 minutes before 5-FU administration. Mice receiving 5-FU exhibited a significant reduction in food intake that was correlated with body weight loss. These mice also showed significantly enhanced expression levels of mRNAs encoding pro-GLP-1 and PYY in the transverse and distal colon as well as elevated serum concentrations of GLP-1 and PYY compared to vehicle-treated controls. The 5-FU-induced reduction in food intake was attenuated by BIIE0246 but not by exendin9-39. These data suggest that administration of a NPY2 receptor antagonist may be effective for attenuating the anorexia caused by 5-FU chemotherapy. PMID:27130783

  11. Spider peptide Phα1β induces analgesic effect in a model of cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Rigo, Flavia Karine; Trevisan, Gabriela; Rosa, Fernanda; Dalmolin, Gerusa D; Otuki, Michel Fleith; Cueto, Ana Paula; de Castro Junior, Célio José; Romano-Silva, Marco Aurelio; Cordeiro, Marta do N; Richardson, Michael; Ferreira, Juliano; Gomez, Marcus V

    2013-09-01

    The marine snail peptide ziconotide (ω-conotoxin MVIIA) is used as an analgesic in cancer patients refractory to opioids, but may induce severe adverse effects. Animal venoms represent a rich source of novel drugs, so we investigated the analgesic effects and the side-effects of spider peptide Phα1β in a model of cancer pain in mice with or without tolerance to morphine analgesia. Cancer pain was induced by the inoculation of melanoma B16-F10 cells into the hind paw of C57BL/6 mice. After 14 days, painful hypersensitivity was detected and Phα1β or ω-conotoxin MVIIA (10-100 pmol/site) was intrathecally injected to evaluate the development of antinociception and side-effects in control and morphine-tolerant mice. The treatment with Phα1β or ω-conotoxin MVIIA fully reversed cancer-related painful hypersensitivity, with long-lasting results, at effective doses 50% of 48 (32-72) or 33 (21-53) pmol/site, respectively. Phα1β produced only mild adverse effects, whereas ω-conotoxin MVIIA induced dose-related side-effects in mice at analgesic doses (estimated toxic dose 50% of 30 pmol/site). In addition, we observed that Phα1β was capable of controlling cancer-related pain even in mice tolerant to morphine antinociception (100% of inhibition) and was able to partially restore morphine analgesia in such animals (56 ± 5% of inhibition). In this study, Phα1β was as efficacious as ω-conotoxin MVIIA in inducing analgesia in a model of cancer pain without producing severe adverse effects or losing efficacy in opioid-tolerant mice, indicating that Phα1β has a good profile for the treatment of cancer pain in patients. PMID:23718272

  12. TAT-BH4 and TAT-Bcl-xL peptides protect against sepsis-induced lymphocyte apoptosis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hotchkiss, Richard S; McConnell, Kevin W; Bullok, Kristin; Davis, Christopher G; Chang, Katherine C; Schwulst, Steven J; Dunne, Jeffrey C; Dietz, Gunnar P H; Bähr, Mathias; McDunn, Jonathan E; Karl, Irene E; Wagner, Tracey H; Cobb, J Perren; Coopersmith, Craig M; Piwnica-Worms, David

    2006-05-01

    Apoptosis is a key pathogenic mechanism in sepsis that induces extensive death of lymphocytes and dendritic cells, thereby contributing to the immunosuppression that characterizes the septic disorder. Numerous animal studies indicate that prevention of apoptosis in sepsis improves survival and may represent a potential therapy for this highly lethal disorder. Recently, novel cell-penetrating peptide constructs such as HIV-1 TAT basic domain and related peptides have been developed to deliver bioactive cargoes and peptides into cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of sepsis-induced apoptosis in Bcl-x(L) transgenic mice and in wild-type mice treated with an antiapoptotic TAT-Bcl-x(L) fusion protein and TAT-BH4 peptide. Lymphocytes from Bcl-x(L) transgenic mice were resistant to sepsis-induced apoptosis, and these mice had a approximately 3-fold improvement in survival. TAT-Bcl-x(L) and TAT-BH4 prevented Escherichia coli-induced human lymphocyte apoptosis ex vivo and markedly decreased lymphocyte apoptosis in an in vivo mouse model of sepsis. In conclusion, TAT-conjugated antiapoptotic Bcl-2-like peptides may offer a novel therapy to prevent apoptosis in sepsis and improve survival. PMID:16622015

  13. Four different synthetic peptides of proteolipid protein induce a distinct antibody response in MP4-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Recks, Mascha S; Grether, Nicolai B; van der Broeck, Franziska; Ganscher, Alla; Wagner, Nicole; Henke, Erik; Ergün, Süleyman; Schroeter, Michael; Kuerten, Stefanie

    2015-07-01

    Here we studied the autoantibody specificity elicited by proteolipid protein (PLP) in MP4-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a mouse model of multiple sclerosis (MS). In C57BL/6 (B6) mice, antibodies were induced by immunization with one of the two extracellular and by the intracellular PLP domain. Antibodies against extracellular PLP were myelin-reactive in oligodendrocyte cultures and induced mild spinal cord demyelination upon transfer into B cell-deficient J(H)T mice. Remarkably, also antibodies against intracellular PLP showed binding to intact oligodendrocytes and were capable of inducing myelin pathology upon transfer into J(H)T mice. In MP4-immunized mice peptide-specific T(H)1/T(H)17 responses were mainly directed against the extracellular PLP domains, but also involved the intracellular epitopes. These data suggest that both extracellular and intracellular epitopes of PLP contribute to the pathogenesis of MP4-induced EAE already in the setting of intact myelin. It remains to be elucidated if this concept also applies to MS itself. PMID:25959684

  14. Non-fibrillar amyloid-{beta} peptide reduces NMDA-induced neurotoxicity, but not AMPA-induced neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Niidome, Tetsuhiro; Goto, Yasuaki; Kato, Masaru; Wang, Pi-Lin; Goh, Saori; Tanaka, Naoki; Akaike, Akinori; Kihara, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Hachiro

    2009-09-04

    Amyloid-{beta} peptide (A{beta}) is thought to be linked to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Recent studies suggest that A{beta} has important physiological roles in addition to its pathological roles. We recently demonstrated that A{beta}42 protects hippocampal neurons from glutamate-induced neurotoxicity, but the relationship between A{beta}42 assemblies and their neuroprotective effects remains largely unknown. In this study, we prepared non-fibrillar and fibrillar A{beta}42 based on the results of the thioflavin T assay, Western blot analysis, and atomic force microscopy, and examined the effects of non-fibrillar and fibrillar A{beta}42 on glutamate-induced neurotoxicity. Non-fibrillar A{beta}42, but not fibrillar A{beta}42, protected hippocampal neurons from glutamate-induced neurotoxicity. Furthermore, non-fibrillar A{beta}42 decreased both neurotoxicity and increases in the intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), but not by {alpha}-amino-3-hydrozy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA). Our results suggest that non-fibrillar A{beta}42 protects hippocampal neurons from glutamate-induced neurotoxicity through regulation of the NMDA receptor.

  15. Amyloid beta-peptide disrupts carbachol-induced muscarinic cholinergic signal transduction in cortical neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, J F; Furukawa, K; Barger, S W; Rengen, M R; Mark, R J; Blanc, E M; Roth, G S; Mattson, M P

    1996-01-01

    Cholinergic pathways serve important functions in learning and memory processes, and deficits in cholinergic transmission occur in Alzheimer disease (AD). A subset of muscarinic cholinergic receptors are linked to G-proteins that activate phospholipase C, resulting in the liberation of inositol trisphosphate and Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. We now report that amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta), which forms plaques in the brain in AD, impairs muscarinic receptor activation of G proteins in cultured rat cortical neurons. Exposure of rodent fetal cortical neurons to Abeta25-35 and Abeta1-40 resulted in a concentration and time-dependent attenuation of carbachol-induced GTPase activity without affecting muscarinic receptor ligand binding parameters. Downstream events in the signal transduction cascade were similarly attenuated by Abeta. Carbachol-induced accumulation of inositol phosphates (IP, IP2, IP3, and IP4) was decreased and calcium imaging studies revealed that carbachol-induced release of calcium was severely impaired in neurons pretreated with Abeta. Muscarinic cholinergic signal transduction was disrupted with subtoxic levels of exposure to AP. The effects of Abeta on carbachol-induced GTPase activity and calcium release were attenuated by antioxidants, implicating free radicals in the mechanism whereby Abeta induced uncoupling of muscarinic receptors. These data demonstrate that Abeta disrupts muscarinic receptor coupling to G proteins that mediate induction of phosphoinositide accumulation and calcium release, findings that implicate Abeta in the impairment of cholinergic transmission that occurs in AD. PMID:8692890

  16. Identification of a Possible Role for Atrial Natiuretic Peptide in MDMA-induced hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Hrometz, Sandra L; Thatcher, Karen E; Ebert, Jeremy A; Mills, Edward M; Sprague, Jon E

    2011-01-01

    MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) induces thermogenesis in a mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3-dependent manner. There is evidence that this hyperthermia is mediated in part by the lipolytic release of free fatty acids, that subsequently activate uncoupling protein 3 in skeletal muscle mitochondria. We hypothesize that atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a strong lipolytic mediator, may contribute to the induction and maintenance of MDMA-induced thermogenesis. The specific aims of this study were to 1) determine if ANP is released following MDMA administration, and 2) use the ANP receptor antagonist, Anantin, to ascertain the role of ANP in MDMA-induced hyperthermia. ANP levels were measured in plasma at baseline, 10, 20, 30 and 60 min following MDMA (40 mg/kg, sc) administration in 16 male Sprague-Dawley rats. A robust increase in ANP was seen within ten min of MDMA administration. ANP levels returned to baseline at 20 min and then gradually rose over the 60 min monitoring period. The administration of Anantin (40 mg, ip), 15 min before and after MDMA, significantly attenuated the MDMA-induced hyperthermia. We conclude that ANP signaling contributes to the hyperthermia induced by MDMA. PMID:21827841

  17. Amyloid beta-peptide disrupts carbachol-induced muscarinic cholinergic signal transduction in cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J F; Furukawa, K; Barger, S W; Rengen, M R; Mark, R J; Blanc, E M; Roth, G S; Mattson, M P

    1996-06-25

    Cholinergic pathways serve important functions in learning and memory processes, and deficits in cholinergic transmission occur in Alzheimer disease (AD). A subset of muscarinic cholinergic receptors are linked to G-proteins that activate phospholipase C, resulting in the liberation of inositol trisphosphate and Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. We now report that amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta), which forms plaques in the brain in AD, impairs muscarinic receptor activation of G proteins in cultured rat cortical neurons. Exposure of rodent fetal cortical neurons to Abeta25-35 and Abeta1-40 resulted in a concentration and time-dependent attenuation of carbachol-induced GTPase activity without affecting muscarinic receptor ligand binding parameters. Downstream events in the signal transduction cascade were similarly attenuated by Abeta. Carbachol-induced accumulation of inositol phosphates (IP, IP2, IP3, and IP4) was decreased and calcium imaging studies revealed that carbachol-induced release of calcium was severely impaired in neurons pretreated with Abeta. Muscarinic cholinergic signal transduction was disrupted with subtoxic levels of exposure to AP. The effects of Abeta on carbachol-induced GTPase activity and calcium release were attenuated by antioxidants, implicating free radicals in the mechanism whereby Abeta induced uncoupling of muscarinic receptors. These data demonstrate that Abeta disrupts muscarinic receptor coupling to G proteins that mediate induction of phosphoinositide accumulation and calcium release, findings that implicate Abeta in the impairment of cholinergic transmission that occurs in AD. PMID:8692890

  18. Early signaling events induced by the peptide elicitor PIP-1 necessary for acetosyringone accumulation in tobacco cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yonghyun; Miyashita, Masahiro; Miyagawa, Hisashi

    2016-06-01

    A peptide elicitor PIP-1 induces defense-related secondary metabolites such as phytoalexin capsidiol in tobacco cells. In this study, we identified one of other metabolites induced by PIP-1 as acetosyringone. Unlike capsidiol accumulation that requires long-term stimulation with PIP-1, acetosyringone was induced by short-term stimulation with PIP-1. The importance of NADPH oxidase in the acetosyringone induction was also demonstrated. PMID:26924306

  19. DCP-LA neutralizes mutant amyloid beta peptide-induced impairment of long-term potentiation and spatial learning.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Tetsu; Tomiyama, Takami; Tominaga, Takemi; Mori, Hiroshi; Yaguchi, Takahiro; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2010-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) was monitored from the CA1 region of the intact rat hippocampus by delivering high frequency stimulation (HFS) to the Schaffer collateral commissural pathway. Intraventricular injection with mutant amyloid beta(1-42) peptide lacking glutamate-22 (Abeta(1-42)E22Delta), favoring oligomerization, 10 min prior to HFS, inhibited expression of LTP, with the potency more than wild-type amyloid beta(1-42) peptide. Intraperitoneal injection with the linoleic acid derivative 8-[2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl]-octanoic acid (DCP-LA) 70 min prior to HFS neutralized mutant Abeta(1-42)E22Delta peptide-induced LTP inhibition. In the water maze test, continuous intraventricular injection with mutant Abeta(1-42)E22Delta peptide for 14 days prolonged the acquisition latency as compared with that for control, with the potency similar to wild-type Abeta(1-42) peptide, and intraperitoneal injection with DCP-LA shortened the prolonged latency to control levels. The results of the present study indicate that DCP-LA neutralizes mutant Abeta(1-42)E22Delta peptide-induced impairment of LTP and spatial learning. PMID:19716848

  20. Immunological features of T cells induced by human telomerase reverse transcriptase-derived peptides in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mizukoshi, Eishiro; Nakagawa, Hidetoshi; Kitahara, Masaaki; Yamashita, Tatsuya; Arai, Kuniaki; Sunagozaka, Hajime; Fushimi, Kazumi; Kobayashi, Eiji; Kishi, Hiroyuki; Muraguchi, Atsushi; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2015-08-10

    Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is a catalytic enzyme required for telomere elongation. In this study, we investigated the safety and immunogenicity of an hTERT-derived peptide (hTERT461) as a vaccine and characterized the hTERT-specific T cell responses induced. Fourteen hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients were enrolled in the study. The hTERT-derived peptide was emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant and administered via subcutaneous immunization three times biweekly. The maximum toxicity observed was grade 2 according to the common terminology criteria and mainly consisted of skin reactions at the site of vaccination. The vaccination induced hTERT-specific immunity in 71.4% of patients and 57.1% of patients administered with hTERT461 peptide-specific T cells could prevent HCC recurrence after vaccination. In phenotypic analysis, the post-vaccinated increase in hTERT-specific T cells was due to an increase in cells with the effector memory phenotype, with the potential to produce multiple cytokines. Seven hTERT-specific T cell receptors were obtained from the vaccinated patients, showing their cytotoxic activities to hTERT-derived peptide-bearing cells. In conclusion, the safety and effects of immune boosting by hTERT461 peptide have shown the potential of the peptide to provide clinical benefits in HCC patients. PMID:25982205

  1. Osmolyte Induced Changes in Peptide Conformational Ensemble Correlate with Slower Amyloid Aggregation: A Coarse-Grained Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Sukenik, Shahar; Sapir, Liel; Harries, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    Stabilizing osmolytes are known to impact the process of amyloid aggregation, often altering aggregation kinetics. Recent evidence further suggests that osmolytes modify the peptide conformational dynamics, as well as change the physical characteristics of assembling amyloid fibrils. To resolve how these variations emerge on the molecular level, we simulated the initial aggregation steps of an amyloid-forming peptide in the presence and absence of the osmolyte sorbitol, a naturally occurring polyol. To this end, a coarse-grained force field was extended and implemented to access larger aggregate sizes and longer time scales. The force field optimization procedure placed emphasis on calibrating the solution thermodynamics of sorbitol, the aggregating peptide in its monomeric form, and the interaction of both of these components with each other and with water. Our simulations show a difference in aggregation kinetics and structural parameters in the presence of sorbitol compared to water, which qualitatively agree well with our experimentally resolved aggregation kinetics of the same peptide. The kinetic changes induced by sorbitol can be traced in our simulations to changes in monomer conformations resulting from osmolyte presence. These translate into changes in peptide conformations within the aggregated clusters and into differences in rates of monomer nucleation and of association to formed fibrils. We find that, compared to pure water as solvent, the presence of sorbitol induces formation of more aggregates each containing fewer peptides, with an increased tendency toward parallel interpeptide contacts. PMID:26587669

  2. A Prosaposin-Derived Peptide Alleviates Kainic Acid-Induced Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Nabeka, Hiroaki; Shimokawa, Tetsuya; Doihara, Takuya; Saito, Shouichiro; Wakisaka, Hiroyuki; Hamada, Fumihiko; Kobayashi, Naoto; Matsuda, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    Four sphingolipid activator proteins (i.e., saposins A–D) are synthesized from a single precursor protein, prosaposin (PS), which exerts exogenous neurotrophic effects in vivo and in vitro. Kainic acid (KA) injection in rodents is a good model in which to study neurotrophic factor elevation; PS and its mRNA are increased in neurons and the choroid plexus in this animal model. An 18-mer peptide (LSELIINNATEELLIKGL; PS18) derived from the PS neurotrophic region prevents neuronal damage after ischemia, and PS18 is a potent candidate molecule for use in alleviating ischemia-induced learning disabilities and neuronal loss. KA is a glutamate analog that stimulates excitatory neurotransmitter release and induces ischemia-like neuronal degeneration; it has been used to define mechanisms involved in neurodegeneration and neuroprotection. In the present study, we demonstrate that a subcutaneous injection of 0.2 and 2.0 mg/kg PS18 significantly improved behavioral deficits of Wistar rats (n = 6 per group), and enhanced the survival of hippocampal and cortical neurons against neurotoxicity induced by 12 mg/kg KA compared with control animals. PS18 significantly protected hippocampal synapses against KA-induced destruction. To evaluate the extent of PS18- and KA-induced effects in these hippocampal regions, we performed histological evaluations using semithin sections stained with toluidine blue, as well as ordinal sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. We revealed a distinctive feature of KA-induced brain injury, which reportedly mimics ischemia, but affects a much wider area than ischemia-induced injury: KA induced neuronal degeneration not only in the CA1 region, where neurons degenerate following ischemia, but also in the CA2, CA3, and CA4 hippocampal regions. PMID:25993033

  3. Apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide 4F blocks sphingomyelinase-induced LDL aggregation[S

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Su Duy; Javanainen, Matti; Rissanen, Sami; Zhao, Hongxia; Huusko, Jenni; Kivelä, Annukka M.; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Navab, Mohamad; Fogelman, Alan M.; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Kovanen, Petri T.; Öörni, Katariina

    2015-01-01

    Lipolytic modification of LDL particles by SMase generates LDL aggregates with a strong affinity for human arterial proteoglycans and may so enhance LDL retention in the arterial wall. Here, we evaluated the effects of apoA-I mimetic peptide 4F on structural and functional properties of the SMase-modified LDL particles. LDL particles with and without 4F were incubated with SMase, after which their aggregation, structure, and proteoglycan binding were analyzed. At a molar ratio of L-4F to apoB-100 of 2.5 to 20:1, 4F dose-dependently inhibited SMase-induced LDL aggregation. At a molar ratio of 20:1, SMase-induced aggregation was fully blocked. Binding of 4F to LDL particles inhibited SMase-induced hydrolysis of LDL by 10% and prevented SMase-induced LDL aggregation. In addition, the binding of the SMase-modified LDL particles to human aortic proteoglycans was dose-dependently inhibited by pretreating LDL with 4F. The 4F stabilized apoB-100 conformation and inhibited SMase-induced conformational changes of apoB-100. Molecular dynamic simulations showed that upon binding to protein-free LDL surface, 4F locally alters membrane order and fluidity and induces structural changes to the lipid layer. Collectively, 4F stabilizes LDL particles by preventing the SMase-induced conformational changes in apoB-100 and so blocks SMase-induced LDL aggregation and the resulting increase in LDL retention. PMID:25861792

  4. Immunization of Patients with the hTERT:540-548 Peptide Induces Peptide-Reactive T Lymphocytes That Do Not Recognize Tumors Endogenously Expressing Telomerase

    PubMed Central

    Parkhurst, Maria R.; Riley, John P.; Igarashi, Takehito; Li, Yong; Robbins, Paul F.; Rosenberg, Steven A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Telomerase is an attractive target antigen for cancer immunotherapies because it is expressed in >85% of human tumors but is rarely found in normal tissues. A HLA-A*0201-restricted T-cell epitope was previously identified within telomerase reverse transcriptase hTERT:540-548. This peptide was reported to induce CTL that recognized tumor cells and transfectants that endogenously expressed telomerase. Therefore, we initiated a clinical protocol to evaluate the therapeutic and immunological efficacy of this peptide. Experimental Design Fourteen patients with metastatic cancers were vaccinated with hTERT:540-548 emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant. Results In 7 patients, peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected after immunization recognized hTERT:540-548, whereas those collected before vaccination did not. However, none of these CTLs recognized tumors that endogenously expressed telomerase, and none of the patients had an objective clinical response. Several highly avid T-cell clones were generated that recognized T2 cells pulsed with ≤1 nm hTERT:540-548, but none of these recognized HLA-A*0201+ hTERT+ tumors or cells transduced with the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene. Also, an antibody specific for hTERT:540-548/HLA-A*0201 complexes stained peptide-pulsed cells but not telomerase+ tumors. Conclusions Our results are discordant with previous studies and those of a clinical trial that claimed peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients vaccinated with peptide-pulsed dendritic cells lysed hTERT+ tumors. However, our findings are consistent with a previous study that demonstrated that the hTERT:540-548 peptide is cleaved in the proteasome. These results suggest that hTERT:540-548 is not presented on the surfaces of tumor cells in the context of HLA-A*0201 and will not be useful for the immunotherapy of patients with cancer. PMID:15269141

  5. Sodium dodecyl sulfate monomers induce XAO peptide polyproline II to α-helix transition.

    PubMed

    Hong, Zhenmin; Damodaran, Krishnan; Asher, Sanford A

    2014-09-11

    XAO peptide (Ac-X2A7O2-NH2; X: diaminobutyric acid side chain, -CH2CH2NH3(+); O: ornithine side chain, -CH2CH2CH2NH3(+)) in aqueous solution shows a predominantly polyproline II (PPII) conformation without any detectable α-helix-like conformations. Here we demonstrate by using circular dichroism (CD), ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy that sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) monomers bind to XAO and induce formation of α-helix-like conformations. The stoichiometry and the association constants of SDS and XAO were determined from the XAO-SDS diffusion coefficients measured by pulsed field gradient NMR. We developed a model for the formation of XAO-SDS aggregate α-helix-like conformations. Using UVRR spectroscopy, we calculated the Ramachandran ψ angle distributions of aggregated XAO peptides. We resolved α-, π- and 3(10)-helical conformations and a turn conformation. XAO nucleates SDS aggregation at SDS concentrations below the SDS critical micelle concentration. The XAO4-SDS16 aggregates have four SDS molecules bound to each XAO to neutralize the four side chain cationic charges. We propose that the SDS alkyl chains partition into a hydrophobic core to minimize the hydrophobic area exposed to water. Neutralization of the flanking XAO charges enables α-helix formation. Four XAO-SDS4 aggregates form a complex with an SDS alkyl chain-dominated hydrophobic core and a more hydrophilic shell where one face of the α-helix peptide contacts the water environment. PMID:25121643

  6. Intranasal peptide-induced tolerance and linked suppression: consequences of complement deficiency.

    PubMed

    Fossati-Jimack, Liliane; Ling, Guang Sheng; Baudino, Lucie; Szajna, Marta; Manivannan, Kiruthika; Zhao, Jade Chen; Midgley, Robert; Chai, Jian-Guo; Simpson, Elizabeth; Botto, Marina; Scott, Diane

    2015-01-01

    A role for complement, particularly the classical pathway, in the regulation of immune responses is well documented. Deficiencies in C1q or C4 predispose to autoimmunity, while deficiency in C3 affects the suppression of contact sensitization and generation of oral tolerance. Complement components including C3 have been shown to be required for both B-cell and T-cell priming. The mechanisms whereby complement can mediate these diverse regulatory effects are poorly understood. Our previous work, using the mouse minor histocompatibility (HY) model of skin graft rejection, showed that both C1q and C3 were required for the induction of tolerance following intranasal peptide administration. By comparing tolerance induction in wild-type C57BL/6 and C1q-, C3-, C4- and C5-deficient C57BL/6 female mice, we show here that the classical pathway components including C3 are required for tolerance induction, whereas C5 plays no role. C3-deficient mice failed to generate a functional regulatory T (Treg) -dendritic cell (DC) tolerogenic loop required for tolerance induction. This was related to the inability of C3-deficient DC to up-regulate the arginine-consuming enzyme, inducible nitric oxide synthase (Nos-2), in the presence of antigen-specific Treg cells and peptide, leading to reduced Treg cell generation. Our findings demonstrate that the classical pathway and C3 play a critical role in the peptide-mediated induction of tolerance to HY by modulating DC function. PMID:25039245

  7. Intranasal peptide-induced tolerance and linked suppression: consequences of complement deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Fossati-Jimack, Liliane; Ling, Guang Sheng; Baudino, Lucie; Szajna, Marta; Manivannan, Kiruthika; Zhao, Jade Chen; Midgley, Robert; Chai, Jian-Guo; Simpson, Elizabeth; Botto, Marina; Scott, Diane

    2015-01-01

    A role for complement, particularly the classical pathway, in the regulation of immune responses is well documented. Deficiencies in C1q or C4 predispose to autoimmunity, while deficiency in C3 affects the suppression of contact sensitization and generation of oral tolerance. Complement components including C3 have been shown to be required for both B-cell and T-cell priming. The mechanisms whereby complement can mediate these diverse regulatory effects are poorly understood. Our previous work, using the mouse minor histocompatibility (HY) model of skin graft rejection, showed that both C1q and C3 were required for the induction of tolerance following intranasal peptide administration. By comparing tolerance induction in wild-type C57BL/6 and C1q-, C3-, C4- and C5-deficient C57BL/6 female mice, we show here that the classical pathway components including C3 are required for tolerance induction, whereas C5 plays no role. C3-deficient mice failed to generate a functional regulatory T (Treg) –dendritic cell (DC) tolerogenic loop required for tolerance induction. This was related to the inability of C3-deficient DC to up-regulate the arginine-consuming enzyme, inducible nitric oxide synthase (Nos-2), in the presence of antigen-specific Treg cells and peptide, leading to reduced Treg cell generation. Our findings demonstrate that the classical pathway and C3 play a critical role in the peptide-mediated induction of tolerance to HY by modulating DC function. PMID:25039245

  8. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Monomers Induce XAO Peptide Polyproline II to α-Helix Transition

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    XAO peptide (Ac–X2A7O2–NH2; X: diaminobutyric acid side chain, −CH2CH2NH3+; O: ornithine side chain, −CH2CH2CH2NH3+) in aqueous solution shows a predominantly polyproline II (PPII) conformation without any detectable α-helix-like conformations. Here we demonstrate by using circular dichroism (CD), ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy that sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) monomers bind to XAO and induce formation of α-helix-like conformations. The stoichiometry and the association constants of SDS and XAO were determined from the XAO–SDS diffusion coefficients measured by pulsed field gradient NMR. We developed a model for the formation of XAO–SDS aggregate α-helix-like conformations. Using UVRR spectroscopy, we calculated the Ramachandran ψ angle distributions of aggregated XAO peptides. We resolved α-, π- and 310- helical conformations and a turn conformation. XAO nucleates SDS aggregation at SDS concentrations below the SDS critical micelle concentration. The XAO4–SDS16 aggregates have four SDS molecules bound to each XAO to neutralize the four side chain cationic charges. We propose that the SDS alkyl chains partition into a hydrophobic core to minimize the hydrophobic area exposed to water. Neutralization of the flanking XAO charges enables α-helix formation. Four XAO–SDS4 aggregates form a complex with an SDS alkyl chain-dominated hydrophobic core and a more hydrophilic shell where one face of the α-helix peptide contacts the water environment. PMID:25121643

  9. Nutrient-induced glucagon like peptide-1 release is modulated by serotonin.

    PubMed

    Ripken, Dina; van der Wielen, Nikkie; Wortelboer, Heleen M; Meijerink, Jocelijn; Witkamp, Renger F; Hendriks, Henk F J

    2016-06-01

    Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and serotonin are both involved in food intake regulation. GLP-1 release is stimulated upon nutrient interaction with G-protein coupled receptors by enteroendocrine cells (EEC), whereas serotonin is released from enterochromaffin cells (ECC). The central hypothesis for the current study was that nutrient-induced GLP-1 release from EECs is modulated by serotonin through a process involving serotonin receptor interaction. This was studied by assessing the effects of serotonin reuptake inhibition by fluoxetine on nutrient-induced GLP-1, PYY and CCK release from isolated pig intestinal segments. Next, serotonin-induced GLP-1 release was studied in enteroendocrine STC-1 cells, where effects of serotonin receptor inhibition were studied using specific and non-specific antagonists. Casein (1% w/v), safflower oil (3.35% w/v), sucrose (50mM) and rebaudioside A (12.5mM) stimulated GLP-1 release from intestinal segments, whereas casein only stimulated PYY and CCK release. Combining nutrients with fluoxetine further increased nutrient-induced GLP-1, PYY and CCK release. Serotonin release from intestinal tissue segments was stimulated by casein and safflower oil while sucrose and rebaudioside A had no effect. The combination with fluoxetine (0.155μM) further enhanced casein and safflower oil induced-serotonin release. Exposure of ileal tissue segments to serotonin (30μM) stimulated GLP-1 release whereas it did not induce PYY and CCK release. Serotonin (30 and 100μM) also stimulated GLP-1 release from STC-1 cells, which was inhibited by the non-specific 5HT receptor antagonist asenapine (1 and 10μM). These data suggest that nutrient-induced GLP-1 release is modulated by serotonin through a receptor mediated process. PMID:27142747

  10. Statistical Analysis of Peptide-Induced Graded and All-or-None Fluxes in Giant Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Wheaten, Sterling A.; Lakshmanan, Aruna; Almeida, Paulo F.

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial, cytolytic, and cell-penetrating peptides induce pores or perturbations in phospholipid membranes that result in fluxes of dyes into or out of lipid vesicles. Here we examine the fluxes induced by four of these membrane-active peptides in giant unilamellar vesicles. The type of flux is determined from the modality of the distributions of vesicles as a function of their dye content using the statistical Hartigan dip test. Graded and all-or-none fluxes correspond to unimodal and bimodal distributions, respectively. To understand how these distributions arise, we perform Monte Carlo simulations of peptide-induced dye flux into vesicles using a very simple model. The modality of the distributions depends on the rate constants of pore opening and closing, and dye flux. If the rate constants of pore opening and closing are both much smaller than that of dye flux through the pore, all-or-none influx occurs. However, if one of them, especially the rate constant for pore opening, increases significantly relative to the flux rate constant, the process becomes graded. In the experiments, we find that the flux type is the same in giant and large vesicles, for all peptides except one. But this one exception indicates that the flux type cannot be used to unambiguously predict the mechanism of membrane permeabilization by the peptides. PMID:23870264

  11. Atrial natriuretic peptide attenuates agonist-induced pulmonary edema in mice with targeted disruption of the gene for natriuretic peptide receptor-A

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Shu-Whei; Green, Sabrina; Grinnell, Katie L.; Machan, Jason T.; Harrington, Elizabeth O.

    2013-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) inhibits agonist-induced pulmonary edema formation, but the signaling pathway responsible is not well defined. To investigate the role of the particulate guanylate cyclase-linked receptor, natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPR-A), we measured acute lung injury responses in intact mice and pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVEC) with normal and disrupted expression of NPR-A. NPR-A wild-type (NPR-A+/+), heterozygous (NPR-A+/−), and knockout (NPR-A−/−) mice were anesthetized and treated with thrombin receptor agonist peptide (TRAP) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Lung injury was assessed by lung wet-to-dry (W/D) weight and by protein and cell concentration of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. No difference in pulmonary edema formation was seen between NPR-A genotypes under baseline conditions. TRAP and LPS increased lung W/D weight and BAL fluid cell counts more in NPR-A−/− mice than in NPR-A+/− or NPR-A+/+ mice, but no genotype-related differences were seen in TRAP-induced increases in bloodless lung W/D weight or LPS-induced increases in BAL protein concentration. Pretreatment with ANP infusion completely blocked TRAP-induced increases in lung W/D weight and blunted LPS-induced increases in BAL cell counts and protein concentration in both NPR-A−/− and NPR-A+/+ mice. Thrombin decreased transmembrane electrical resistance in monolayers of PMVECs in vitro, and this effect was attenuated by ANP in PMVECs isolated from both genotypes. Administration of the NPR-C-specific ligand, cANF, also blocked TRAP-induced increases in lung W/D weight and LPS-induced increases in BAL cell count and protein concentration in NPR-A+/+ and NPR-A−/− mice. We conclude that ANP is capable of attenuating agonist-induced lung edema in the absence of NPR-A. The protective effect of ANP on agonist-induced lung injury and pulmonary barrier function may be mediated by NPR-C. PMID:23195629

  12. Atrial natriuretic peptide attenuates agonist-induced pulmonary edema in mice with targeted disruption of the gene for natriuretic peptide receptor-A.

    PubMed

    Klinger, James R; Tsai, Shu-Whei; Green, Sabrina; Grinnell, Katie L; Machan, Jason T; Harrington, Elizabeth O

    2013-02-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) inhibits agonist-induced pulmonary edema formation, but the signaling pathway responsible is not well defined. To investigate the role of the particulate guanylate cyclase-linked receptor, natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPR-A), we measured acute lung injury responses in intact mice and pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVEC) with normal and disrupted expression of NPR-A. NPR-A wild-type (NPR-A+/+), heterozygous (NPR-A+/-), and knockout (NPR-A-/-) mice were anesthetized and treated with thrombin receptor agonist peptide (TRAP) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Lung injury was assessed by lung wet-to-dry (W/D) weight and by protein and cell concentration of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. No difference in pulmonary edema formation was seen between NPR-A genotypes under baseline conditions. TRAP and LPS increased lung W/D weight and BAL fluid cell counts more in NPR-A-/- mice than in NPR-A+/- or NPR-A+/+ mice, but no genotype-related differences were seen in TRAP-induced increases in bloodless lung W/D weight or LPS-induced increases in BAL protein concentration. Pretreatment with ANP infusion completely blocked TRAP-induced increases in lung W/D weight and blunted LPS-induced increases in BAL cell counts and protein concentration in both NPR-A-/- and NPR-A+/+ mice. Thrombin decreased transmembrane electrical resistance in monolayers of PMVECs in vitro, and this effect was attenuated by ANP in PMVECs isolated from both genotypes. Administration of the NPR-C-specific ligand, cANF, also blocked TRAP-induced increases in lung W/D weight and LPS-induced increases in BAL cell count and protein concentration in NPR-A+/+ and NPR-A-/- mice. We conclude that ANP is capable of attenuating agonist-induced lung edema in the absence of NPR-A. The protective effect of ANP on agonist-induced lung injury and pulmonary barrier function may be mediated by NPR-C. PMID:23195629

  13. Functionalization with C-terminal cysteine enhances transfection efficiency of cell-penetrating peptides through dimer formation

    SciTech Connect

    Amand, Helene L.

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reversible CPP dimerisation is a simple yet efficient strategy to improve delivery. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dimer formation enhances peptiplex stability, resulting in increased transfection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer By dimerisation, the CPP EB1 even gain endosomal escape properties while lowering cytotoxicity. -- Abstract: Cell-penetrating peptides have the ability to stimulate uptake of macromolecular cargo in mammalian cells in a non-toxic manner and therefore hold promise as efficient and well tolerated gene delivery vectors. Non-covalent peptide-DNA complexes ('peptiplexes') enter cells via endocytosis, but poor peptiplex stability and endosomal entrapment are considered as main barriers to peptide-mediated delivery. We explore a simple, yet highly efficient, strategy to improve the function of peptide-based vectors, by adding one terminal cysteine residue. This allows the peptide to dimerize by disulfide bond formation, increasing its affinity for nucleic acids by the 'chelate effect' and, when the bond is reduced intracellularly, letting the complex dissociate to deliver the nucleic acid. By introducing a single C-terminal cysteine in the classical CPP penetratin and the penetratin analogs PenArg and EB1, we show that this minor modification greatly enhances the transfection capacity for plasmid DNA in HEK293T cells. We conclude that this effect is mainly due to enhanced thermodynamic stability of the peptiplexes as endosome-disruptive chloroquine is still required for transfection and the effect is more pronounced for peptides with lower inherent DNA condensation capacity. Interestingly, for EB1, addition of one cysteine makes the peptide able to mediate transfection in absence of chloroquine, indicating that dimerisation can also improve endosomal escape properties. Further, the cytotoxicity of EB1 peptiplexes is considerably reduced, possibly due to lower concentration of free peptide dimer resulting from

  14. Liquid Crystalline Nanodispersions Functionalized with Cell-Penetrating Peptides for Topical Delivery of Short-Interfering RNAs: A Proposal for Silencing a Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine in Cutaneous Diseases.

    PubMed

    Petrilli, R; Eloy, J O; Praça, F S G; Del Ciampo, J O; Fantini, M A C; Fonseca, M J V; Bentley, M V L B

    2016-05-01

    Short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are a potential strategy for the treatment of cutaneous diseases. In this context, liquid crystalline nanoparticles functionalized with specific proteins and peptide-transduction domains (PTDs), which act as penetration enhancers, are a promising carrier for siRNA delivery through the skin. Herein, hexagonal phase liquid crystal nanoparticles based on monoolein (MO) and/or oleic acid (OA) containing (or lacking) the cationic polymer polyethylenimine (PEI) and the cationic lipid oleylamine (OAM) were functionalized with the membrane transduction peptides transcriptional activator (TAT) or penetratin (PNT). These nanoparticles were complexed with siRNA and characterized by particle size, polydispersity, zeta potential, complexation efficiency and siRNA release. The formulations containing cationic agents presented positive zeta potentials, sizes on the nanometer scale, and complexed siRNAs at concentrations of 10 μM; these agents were successfully released in a heparin competition assay. Cell culture studies demonstrated that nanoparticles composed of MO:OA:PEI functionalized with TAT were the most efficient at transfecting L929 cells, and the uptake efficiency was enhanced by TAT peptide functionalization. Thereafter, the selected formulations were evaluated for in vivo skin irritation, penetration and in vivo efficacy using a chemically induced inflammatory animal model. These nanoparticles did not irritate the skin and provided higher siRNA penetration and delivery into the skin than control formulations. Additionally, efficacy studies in the animal model showed that the association of TAT with the nanodispersion provided higher suppression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Thus, the development of liquid crystalline nanodispersions containing TAT may lead to improved topical siRNA delivery for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:27305826

  15. Corn Peptides Protect Against Thioacetamide-Induced Hepatic Fibrosis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Jie; Nie, Zhi-Kui; Zhang, Jiu-Liang; Liu, Feng-Yan; Wang, Zhen-Zhen; Ma, Zhi-Li

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Certain bioactive peptides are reported to be able to alleviate hepatic fibrosis. Our previous work has confirmed the hepatoprotective effect of corn peptides (CPs) that are prepared from a high protein by-product, corn gluten meal, on acute liver injury in an animal model. However, the antifibrotic activity of CPs remained to be elucidated. In this study, the hepatoprotective effect of CPs on thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver fibrosis was tested. Results showed that CPs (100 mg/kg body weight) significantly decreased the levels of alanine transaminase/aspartate transaminase, laminin, type IV collagen, and type III collagen in serum and increased the serum albumin levels and total antioxidant capacity. Additionally, with CP treatment (100 mg/kg body weight), a significant decrease was observed in the levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, hydroxyproline, transforming growth factor β1, and lactate dehydrogenase activity as well as the liver index, while the activity of superoxidedismutase was significantly increased in livers. The histological and morphological analysis showed that the hepatocyte structure in CP-treated rats was superior to that of TAA-injured rats, and inflammation and fibrosis were also ameliorated. Therefore, CPs can be used as an option for prevention and adjuvant therapy of liver fibrosis. PMID:24063407

  16. Mechanisms of Ultrasonically Induced Fibrillation of Amyloid β1-40 Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uesugi, Kentaro; Ogi, Hirotsugu; Fukushima, Masahiko; So, Masatomo; Yagi, Hisashi; Goto, Yuji; Hirao, Masahiko

    2013-07-01

    We systematically study the relationship between the ultrasonically induced aggregation behavior of amyloid β1-40 peptide and acoustic pressures to clarify the dominant mechanism of the aggregation. With ultrasonic irradiation, the thioflavin-T (ThT) level of the Aβ solution rises after a lag time, takes a maximum at ˜5 h, and remains unchanged or decreases. Thus, we monitor the ThT level at 5 h to evaluate the progress of the β-sheet structure and investigate its correlation with the acoustic pressures of fundamental and harmonics waves. The second-harmonics-wave amplitude shows the highest correlation with the ThT level, indicating the dominant contribution of cavitation bubbles to the fibrillation phenomenon. The influence of solution pH and Ar gas are investigated to identify the aggregation mechanism. As a result, local condensation of the peptide due to the high affinity of hydrophobic residues to the bubble-solution interface causes a highly supersaturated solution, leading to precipitation of β-sheet-rich nuclei.

  17. Stress-induced changes in the analgesic and thermic effects of opioid peptides in the rat.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, B D; Holtzman, S G

    1986-07-01

    Stress (e.g. restraint) potentiates analgesia and alters changes in body temperature induced by morphine administered either systemically or intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) in rats. In order to extend the generality of this phenomenon to opioid peptides, we determined whether the analgesic and thermic effects of i.c.v. D-Ala2-D-Leu5-enkephalin (DADLE) or D-Ala2-N-MePhe4-Gly5(ol)-enkephalin (DAGO), agonists selective for delta- and mu-opioid receptors, respectively, were affected by restraint stress. Analgesia was measured in the tail-flick test and core body temperature by rectal probe. The unstressed rats exhibited a dose-dependent increase in tail-flick latencies after administration of either DAGO or DADLE. Restrained rats treated with DAGO or DADLE had a greater analgesic response to each dose of peptide than did unstressed rats; both the magnitude and duration of the drug effect were increased. The unstressed group of rats responded to all doses of DAGO and DADLE with an increase of core temperature. In contrast, restrained rats showed a decrease of core temperature following injection with either DAGO or DADLE. Thus, restraint stress can significantly modify the effects of DAGO and DADLE on analgesia and body temperature in a manner that is qualitatively and quantitatively similar to that observed previously for morphine administered by the i.c.v. route. PMID:3015351

  18. Unique properties of cd-binding peptides induced in fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Y.; Nakagawa, C.W.; Murasugi, A.

    1986-03-01

    Metallothioneins, a class of low molecular weight cysteine-rich proteins that bind heavy metal ions, have been found in various eucaryotic organisms. When fission yeasts are grown in the presence of high concentration of CdCl/sub 2/, large amounts of Cd-binding peptides (Cd-BP1 and Cd-BP2) are synthesized. While Cd-BP2 shows similarities to mammalian Cd-thioneins in UV and CD spectra, Cd-BP1has a characteristic shoulder at 265 nm in the UV absorption spectrum and shows two marked Cotton bands at 257 nm (negative) and 275 nm (positive). These characteristics of Cd-BP1 are not found in the other Cd-thioneins. The UV and CD spectra differences between reconstituted and native Cd-BP1 suggest the requirement for some additional molecular architecture including another peptide-Cd/sup 2 +/ interaction. Induction of cadystin synthesis is almost exclusive for Cd, but an exception is a small amount of cadystin also induced by the higher concentration of CuCl/sub 2/ (2.5 mM). The UV spectrum of the natural Cu-cadystin complex was similar to that of Cd-BP1. On the basis of these findings the models for Cd-BP1 and Cd-BP2 are proposed.

  19. TGF-β-mediated airway tolerance to allergens induced by peptide-based immunomodulatory mucosal vaccination.

    PubMed

    Michael, H; Li, Y; Wang, Y; Xue, D; Shan, J; Mazer, B D; McCusker, C T

    2015-11-01

    We sought to modulate mucosal immune responses using neonatal vaccination to avert the development of allergic airways disease (AAD). Pulmonary pathology in AAD is driven by T helper (TH)2 cytokines, in particular interleukin (IL)4 and IL13, the expression and actions of which are regulated by the transcription factor STAT6. We developed a peptide homolog of STAT6, STAT6-IP. Neonatal mice given, intranasally, STAT6-IP, in an effort to modulate de novo airways immune responses, developed tolerance following subsequent allergen sensitization, with either ovalbumin or ragweed allergens, as demonstrated by reduced TH2 cytokines and specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E and the significant increases in the latency-associated peptide (LAP)(+) T-regulatory (Treg) cell subset and expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. This regulatory phenotype was transferrable by CD4(+) T cells or CD11c(+) dendritic cells (DCs) derived from STAT6-IP-vaccinated mice. Anti-TGF-β treatment during allergen sensitization, however, re-established the pro-inflammatory TH2 response. Thus, neonatal STAT6-IP vaccination induces prospective TGF-β-dependent tolerance to allergen and constitutes a novel highly effective immunomodulatory allergy prevention strategy. PMID:25783968

  20. Atrial natriuretic peptide and oxytocin induce natriuresis by release of cGMP

    PubMed Central

    Soares, T. J.; Coimbra, T. M.; Martins, A. R.; Pereira, A. G. F.; Carnio, E. C.; Branco, L. G. S.; Albuquerque-Araujo, W. I. C.; de Nucci, G.; Favaretto, A. L. V.; Gutkowska, J.; McCann, S. M.; Antunes-Rodrigues, J.

    1999-01-01

    Our hypothesis is that oxytocin (OT) causes natriuresis by activation of renal NO synthase that releases NO followed by cGMP that mediates the natriuresis. To test this hypothesis, an inhibitor of NO synthase, l-nitroarginine methyl ester (NAME), was injected into male rats. Blockade of NO release by NAME had no effect on natriuresis induced by atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). This natriuresis presumably is caused by cGMP because ANP also activates guanylyl cyclase, which synthesizes cGMP from GTP. The 18-fold increase in sodium (Na+) excretion induced by OT (1 μg) was accompanied by an increase in urinary cGMP and preceded by 20 min a 20-fold increase in NO3− excretion. NAME almost completely inhibited OT-induced natriuresis and increased NO3− excretion; however, when the dose of OT was increased 10-fold, a dose that markedly increases plasma ANP concentrations, NAME only partly inhibited the natriuresis. We conclude that the natriuretic action of OT is caused by a dual action: generation of NO leading to increased cGMP and at higher doses release of ANP that also releases cGMP. OT-induced natriuresis is caused mainly by decreased tubular Na+ reabsorption mediated by cGMP. In contrast to ANP that releases cGMP in the renal vessels and the tubules, OT acts on its receptors on NOergic cells demonstrated in the macula densa and proximal tubules to release cGMP that closes Na+ channels. Both ANP- and OT-induced kaliuresis also appear to be mediated by cGMP. We conclude that cGMP mediates natriuresis and kaliuresis induced by both ANP and OT. PMID:9874809

  1. Cell-Penetrating Peptide as a Means of Directing the Differentiation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kaitsuka, Taku; Tomizawa, Kazuhito

    2015-01-01

    Protein transduction using cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) is useful for the delivery of large protein molecules, including some transcription factors. This method is safer than gene transfection methods with a viral vector because there is no risk of genomic integration of the exogenous DNA. Recently, this method was reported as a means for the induction of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, directing the differentiation into specific cell types and supporting gene editing/correction. Furthermore, we developed a direct differentiation method to obtain a pancreatic lineage from mouse and human pluripotent stem cells via the protein transduction of three transcription factors, Pdx1, NeuroD, and MafA. Here, we discuss the possibility of using CPPs as a means of directing the differentiation of iPS cells and other stem cell technologies. PMID:26561805

  2. Plant natriuretic peptides induce proteins diagnostic for an adaptive response to stress

    PubMed Central

    Turek, Ilona; Marondedze, Claudius; Wheeler, Janet I.; Gehring, Chris; Irving, Helen R.

    2014-01-01

    In plants, structural and physiological evidence has suggested the presence of biologically active natriuretic peptides (PNPs). PNPs are secreted into the apoplast, are systemically mobile and elicit a range of responses signaling via cGMP. The PNP-dependent responses include tissue specific modifications of cation transport and changes in stomatal conductance and the photosynthetic rate. PNP also has a critical role in host defense responses. Surprisingly, PNP-homologs are produced by several plant pathogens during host colonization suppressing host defense responses. Here we show that a synthetic peptide representing the biologically active fragment of the Arabidopsis thaliana PNP (AtPNP-A) induces the production of reactive oxygen species in suspension-cultured A. thaliana (Col-0) cells. To identify proteins whose expression changes in an AtPNP-A dependent manner, we undertook a quantitative proteomic approach, employing tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling, to reveal temporal responses of suspension-cultured cells to 1 nM and 10 pM PNP at two different time-points post-treatment. Both concentrations yield a distinct differential proteome signature. Since only the higher (1 nM) concentration induces a ROS response, we conclude that the proteome response at the lower concentration reflects a ROS independent response. Furthermore, treatment with 1 nM PNP results in an over-representation of the gene ontology (GO) terms “oxidation-reduction process,” “translation” and “response to salt stress” and this is consistent with a role of AtPNP-A in the adaptation to environmental stress conditions. PMID:25505478

  3. The gene expression of the hypothalamic feeding-regulating peptides in cisplatin-induced anorexic rats.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Mitsuhiro; Matsuura, Takanori; Ohkubo, Junichi; Ohno, Motoko; Maruyama, Takashi; Ishikura, Toru; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Kakuma, Tetsuya; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu; Terawaki, Kiyoshi; Uezono, Yasuhito; Ueta, Yoichi

    2013-08-01

    Cisplatin has been widely used; however, various disadvantageous side effects afflict patients. Rikkunshito (RKT), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, has been widely prescribed in Japan to improve anorexia; but the mechanisms are unknown. Here we studied whether RKT could improve anorexia induced by cisplatin and changes in feeding-regulating peptides in the hypothalamus in rats. Adult male rats were divided into 4 groups: water+saline (WS), water+cisplatin (WC), RKT+saline (RS), and RKT+cisplatin (RC) groups. Water or RKT (1g/kg) was intragastrically administered for 4 days, from day -1 to day 2, and saline or cisplatin (6mg/kg) was intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered at day 0. After i.p. administration, cumulative food intake, water intake, urine volume and body weight were measured. The rats were then decapitated, followed by removal of the brain, and feeding-regulating peptides in the hypothalamus were measured by in situ hybridization histochemistry. In the three-day measurements, there were no significant changes in cumulative water intake and urine volume. The body weight and cumulative food intake in WC significantly decreased compared to WS, whereas these were not observed in RC. Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) in WC significantly increased, and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the ARC decreased compared to WS, whereas those in RS and RC were comparable to WS. These results suggest that RKT may have therapeutic potential for anorexia induced by cisplatin. PMID:23684922

  4. Ultrasensitive detection of closely related angiotensin I peptides using capillary electrophoresis with near-infrared laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Baars, M J; Patonay, G

    1999-02-01

    A novel near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye (NN382, LICOR, Inc.) was evaluated as an ultrasensitive peptide-labeling reagent for use with capillary electrophoresis (CE). Six angiotensin I (Ang-I) variants were selected as model peptides for the derivatization and separation studies. The closely related decapeptides were labeled with the NIR dye, separated using CE, and detected by NIR laser-induced fluorescence. Derivatization of the peptides was achieved under aqueous conditions using 2.5-500 pmol of Ang-I in a 50-microL sample (5 x 10(-8)-1 x 10(-5)M), and between 1.3 and 254 amol of the labeled peptides were injected on column. The fluorescence response was linear over a 200-fold range (correlation r > or = 0.9986). The limit of detection (SNR = 3, signal/RMS noise) ranged from 100 to 300 zmol, for the six Ang-I variants. Four of six peptides were resolved from each other and excess dye using capillary zone electrophoresis with a simple 50 mM phosphate run buffer, pH 7.2. Two pairs of coeluting peptides were successfully resolved using micellar electrokinetic chromatography with a nonionic surfactant, Triton X-100. The NIR amine-labeling reagent NN382 is a viable alternative to using visible fluorophores for CE methods requiring high sensitivity. PMID:9989384

  5. Self-assembly of diphenylalanine peptides into microtubes with "turn on" fluorescence using an aggregation-induced emission molecule.

    PubMed

    Na, Na; Mu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Qiuling; Wen, Jiying; Wang, Fangfang; Ouyang, Jin

    2013-10-01

    The self-assembly of diphenylalanine peptides (l-Phe-l-Phe) into microtubes with "turn on" bright yellow green fluorescence was described, which was achieved using an aggregation-induced emission (AIE) molecule of 9,10-bis[4-(3-sulfonatopropoxyl)-styryl] anthracene (BSPSA) sodium. PMID:24045462

  6. Protective effects of luteolin against cognitive impairment induced by infusion of Aβ peptide in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Tian-Xia; Zhang, Peng; Guan, Yan; Wang, Min; Zhen, Ming-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Luteolin can be found in many traditional Chinese medicines, it’s a falconoid compound derived from Lonicera japonica Thunb. This study aims to investigate the neuroprotective effects of luteolin against cognitive impairment induced by amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide and the underlying mechanisms in rats. The animal behavioral tests showed that luteolin could ameliorate Aβ-induced learning and memory impairment. In hippocampal tissue, the activity of choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) increased after treated by luteolin. Luteolin also reversed the increased activity of acetylcholine esterase (AchE). In hippocampi homogenate, the content of acetylcholine (Ach) increased, but malondialdehyde (MDA) reduced. Moreover, luteolin can increase Bcl-2/Bax ratio. This study demonstrated that luteolin could protect Alzheimer’s disease (AD) rats against Aβ-induced cognitive impairment through regulating the cholinergic system and inhibiting oxidative injuries. The results suggesting that luteolin may have potential as a therapy for AD. PMID:26261557

  7. Induced expression of neuronal membrane attack complex and cell death by Alzheimer's beta-amyloid peptide.

    PubMed

    Shen, Y; Sullivan, T; Lee, C M; Meri, S; Shiosaki, K; Lin, C W

    1998-06-15

    beta-amyloid peptide (A beta) and complement-derived membrane attack complex (MAC) are co-localized in senile plaques of brains from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. But the relationship between A beta and complement activation is unclear. We have used human neurotypic cells, differentiated SH-SY5Y, as a model system to examine regulation of neuronal MAC expression and cell death by A beta. We demonstrated that mRNAs (C1q, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, C7, C8 and C9) and proteins (C1q, C3 and C9) for the major components of the classical complement cascade are present in the SH-SY5Y neurotypic cells, indicating that neuronal cells can synthesize the necessary proteins required for MAC formation. Furthermore, immunocytochemical studies showed the A beta-induced neuronal MAC expression on the SH-SY5Y cells after CD59 was removed by PIPLC or blocked by anti-CD59 antibody. Meanwhile, increased A beta-induced neuronal cell death was observed following treatment with anti-CD59. Taken together, these results suggest that A beta activates neuronal complement cascade to induce MAC, and a deficiency of endogenous complement regulatory proteins, e.g., CD59, may increase the vulnerability of neurons to complement-mediated cytotoxicity. PMID:9689469

  8. Isoflurane and desflurane at clinically relevant concentrations induce amyloid {beta}-peptide oligomerization: An NMR study

    SciTech Connect

    Mandal, Pravat K Fodale, Vincenzo

    2009-02-13

    Current understanding on Alzheimer's disease (AD) reveals that soluble amyloid {beta}-peptide (A{beta}) oligomeric formation plays an important role in AD pathophysiology. A potential role for several inhaled anesthetics in promoting A{beta} oligomer formation has been suggested. Using a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study, we previously demonstrated that at a high concentration (higher than clinically relevant concentrations), the inhaled anesthetics halothane and isoflurane, interact with specific amino acid residues (G29, A30, and I31) and induce A{beta} oligomerization. The present study confirms this is true at a clinically relevant concentration. Isoflurane and desflurane induce A{beta} oligomerization by inducing chemical shift changes of the critical amino acid residues (G29, A30, and I31), reinforcing the evidence that perturbation of these three crucial residues indeed plays an important role in oligomerization. These findings support the emerging hypothesis that several commonly used inhaled anesthetics could be involved in neurodegeneration, as well as risk factor for accelerating the onset of AD.

  9. Differential patterns of spinal cord pathology induced by MP4, MOG peptide 35-55, and PLP peptide 178-191 in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Kuerten, Stefanie; Gruppe, Traugott L; Laurentius, Laura-Maria; Kirch, Christiane; Tary-Lehmann, Magdalena; Lehmann, Paul V; Addicks, Klaus

    2011-06-01

    In this study we demonstrate that experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced by the MBP-PLP fusion protein MP4, MOG peptide 35-55, or PLP peptide 178-191 in C57BL/6 mice, respectively, displays distinct features of CNS pathology. Major differences between the three models resided in (i) the region-/tract-specificity and disseminated nature of spinal cord degeneration, (ii) the extent and kinetics of demyelination, and (iii) the involvement of motoneurons in the disease. In contrast, axonal damage was present in all models and to a similar extent, proposing this feature as a possible morphological correlate for the comparable chronic clinical course of the disease induced by the three antigens. The data suggest that the antigen targeted in autoimmune encephalomyelitis is crucial to the induction of differential histopathological disease manifestations. The use of MP4-, MOG:35-55-, and PLP:178-191-induced EAE on the C57BL/6 background can be a valuable tool when it comes to reproducing and studying the structural-morphological diversity of multiple sclerosis. PMID:21569091

  10. Chlorella 11-Peptide Inhibits the Production of Macrophage-Induced Adhesion Molecules and Reduces Endothelin-1 Expression and Endothelial Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Mei Fen; Chen, Lih Chi; Cherng, Jong Yuh

    2013-01-01

    The inflammation process in large vessels involves the up-regulation of vascular adhesion molecules such as endothelial cell selectin (E-selectin), intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) which are also known as the markers of atherosclerosis. We have reported that Chlorella 11-peptide exhibited effective anti-inflammatory effects. This peptide with an amino sequence Val-Glu-Cys-Tyr-Gly-Pro-Asn-Arg-Pro-Gln-Phe was further examined for its potential in preventing atherosclerosis in this study. In particular, the roles of Chlorella 11-peptide in lowering the production of vascular adhesion molecules, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) and expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1) from endothelia (SVEC4-10 cells) were studied. The production of E-selectin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MCP-1 in SVEC4-10 cells was measured with ELISA. The mRNA expression of ET-1 was analyzed by RT-PCR and agarose gel. Results showed that Chlorella 11-peptide significantly suppressed the levels of E-selectin, ICAM, VCAM, MCP-1 as well as ET-1 gene expression. The inhibition of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 production by Chlorella 11-peptide was reversed in the presence of protein kinase A inhibitor (H89) which suggests that the cAMP pathway was involved in the inhibitory cause of the peptide. In addition, this peptide was shown to reduce the extent of increased intercellular permeability induced by combination of 50% of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 cells medium and 50% normal SEVC cell culture medium (referred to as 50% RAW-conditioned medium). These data demonstrate that Chlorella 11-peptide is a promising biomolecule in preventing chronic inflammatory-related vascular diseases. PMID:24129228

  11. Nisin-induced expression of a recombinant antihypertensive peptide in dairy lactic acid bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peptides with antihypertensive activity have been identified from the enzymatic hydrolysis of bovine milk proteins. A 12-residue peptide (FFVAPFPEVFGK) shown to inhibit the angiotensin I-converting enzyme is released from the enzymatic breakdown of aS1-casein. A synthetic gene encoding this peptid...

  12. Chloride-Inducible Expression Vector for Delivery of Antimicrobial Peptides Targeting Antibiotic-Resistant Enterococcus faecium

    PubMed Central

    Geldart, Kathryn; Borrero, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant enterococcal infections are a major concern in hospitals where patients with compromised immunity are readily infected. Enterococcus faecium bacteria are of particular interest as these pathogens account for over 80% of vancomycin-resistant enterococcal infections. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced at the site of infection by engineered bacteria may offer a potential alternative to traditional antibiotics for the treatment of resistant bacteria such as E. faecium. For this mode of delivery to be effective, it is essential to identify a suitable protein expression system that can be used in the desired delivery bacterium. In this study, we describe a promising chloride-inducible promoter and its application in the bacterial delivery of AMPs from Lactococcus lactis to reduce counts of E. faecium bacteria in vitro. Reporter gene studies show that at chloride concentrations found within the human intestines, the chloride-inducible promoter exhibits high levels of protein expression compared to those of the commonly used nisin-inducible promoter. These results indicate that this system is powerful and would not require the exogenous administration of an inducer molecule. In its application for AMP production against E. faecium in vitro, L. lactis producing AMPs under the chloride promoter rapidly decreased E. faecium counts by nearly 10,000-fold. As an extension of this application, we also demonstrate the potential in using this type of delivery system in combination with traditional antibiotics to slow the development of resistance. Collectively, this study shows the promise of using a chloride-inducible promoter for the bacterial delivery of AMPs in the body for the treatment of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and other antibiotic-resistant bacteria. PMID:25841002

  13. Chloride-Inducible Expression Vector for Delivery of Antimicrobial Peptides Targeting Antibiotic-Resistant Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Geldart, Kathryn; Borrero, Juan; Kaznessis, Yiannis N

    2015-06-01

    Antibiotic-resistant enterococcal infections are a major concern in hospitals where patients with compromised immunity are readily infected. Enterococcus faecium bacteria are of particular interest as these pathogens account for over 80% of vancomycin-resistant enterococcal infections. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced at the site of infection by engineered bacteria may offer a potential alternative to traditional antibiotics for the treatment of resistant bacteria such as E. faecium. For this mode of delivery to be effective, it is essential to identify a suitable protein expression system that can be used in the desired delivery bacterium. In this study, we describe a promising chloride-inducible promoter and its application in the bacterial delivery of AMPs from Lactococcus lactis to reduce counts of E. faecium bacteria in vitro. Reporter gene studies show that at chloride concentrations found within the human intestines, the chloride-inducible promoter exhibits high levels of protein expression compared to those of the commonly used nisin-inducible promoter. These results indicate that this system is powerful and would not require the exogenous administration of an inducer molecule. In its application for AMP production against E. faecium in vitro, L. lactis producing AMPs under the chloride promoter rapidly decreased E. faecium counts by nearly 10,000-fold. As an extension of this application, we also demonstrate the potential in using this type of delivery system in combination with traditional antibiotics to slow the development of resistance. Collectively, this study shows the promise of using a chloride-inducible promoter for the bacterial delivery of AMPs in the body for the treatment of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and other antibiotic-resistant bacteria. PMID:25841002

  14. Synthetic Amphipathic Helical Peptides Targeting CD36 Attenuate Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation and Acute Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Bocharov, Alexander V; Wu, Tinghuai; Baranova, Irina N; Birukova, Anna A; Sviridov, Denis; Vishnyakova, Tatyana G; Remaley, Alan T; Eggerman, Thomas L; Patterson, Amy P; Birukov, Konstantin G

    2016-07-15

    Synthetic amphipathic helical peptides (SAHPs) designed as apolipoprotein A-I mimetics are known to bind to class B scavenger receptors (SR-Bs), SR-BI, SR-BII, and CD36, receptors that mediate lipid transport and facilitate pathogen recognition. In this study, we evaluated SAHPs, selected for targeting human CD36, by their ability to attenuate LPS-induced inflammation, endothelial barrier dysfunction, and acute lung injury (ALI). L37pA, which targets CD36 and SR-BI equally, inhibited LPS-induced IL-8 secretion and barrier dysfunction in cultured endothelial cells while reducing lung neutrophil infiltration by 40% in a mouse model of LPS-induced ALI. A panel of 20 SAHPs was tested in HEK293 cell lines stably transfected with various SR-Bs to identify SAHPs with preferential selectivity toward CD36. Among several SAHPs targeting both SR-BI/BII and CD36 receptors, ELK-B acted predominantly through CD36. Compared with L37pA, 5A, and ELK SAHPs, ELK-B was most effective in reducing the pulmonary barrier dysfunction, neutrophil migration into the lung, and lung inflammation induced by LPS. We conclude that SAHPs with relative selectivity toward CD36 are more potent at inhibiting acute pulmonary inflammation and dysfunction. These data indicate that therapeutic strategies using SAHPs targeting CD36, but not necessarily mimicking all apolipoprotein A-I functions, may be considered a possible new treatment approach for inflammation-induced ALI and pulmonary edema. PMID:27316682

  15. Quantitative Peptidomics Study Reveals That a Wound-Induced Peptide from PR-1 Regulates Immune Signaling in Tomato[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Lan; Lee, Chi-Ying; Cheng, Kai-Tan; Chang, Wei-Hung; Huang, Rong-Nan; Nam, Hong Gil

    2014-01-01

    Many important cell-to-cell communication events in multicellular organisms are mediated by peptides, but only a few peptides have been identified in plants. In an attempt to address the difficulties in identifying plant signaling peptides, we developed a novel peptidomics approach and used this approach to discover defense signaling peptides in plants. In addition to the canonical peptide systemin, several novel peptides were confidently identified in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and quantified to be induced by both wounding and methyl jasmonate (MeJA). A wounding or wounding plus MeJA-induced peptide derived from the pathogenesis-related protein 1 (PR-1) family was found to induce significant antipathogen and minor antiherbivore responses in tomato. This study highlights a role for PR-1 in immune signaling and suggests the potential application of plant endogenous peptides in efforts to defeat biological threats in crop production. As PR-1 is highly conserved across many organisms and the putative peptide from At-PR1 was also found to be bioactive in Arabidopsis thaliana, our results suggest that this peptide may be useful for enhancing resistance to stress in other plant species. PMID:25361956

  16. The Peptide Vaccine Combined with Prior Immunization of a Conventional Diphtheria-Tetanus Toxoid Vaccine Induced Amyloid β Binding Antibodies on Cynomolgus Monkeys and Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Akira; Ito, Kaori; Miwa, Yoshikatsu; Kanazawa, Yoshito; Chiba, Akiko; Iigo, Yutaka; Kashimoto, Yoshinori; Kanda, Akira; Murata, Shinji; Makino, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The reduction of brain amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides by anti-Aβ antibodies is one of the possible therapies for Alzheimer's disease. We previously reported that the Aβ peptide vaccine including the T-cell epitope of diphtheria-tetanus combined toxoid (DT) induced anti-Aβ antibodies, and the prior immunization with conventional DT vaccine enhanced the immunogenicity of the peptide. Cynomolgus monkeys were given the peptide vaccine subcutaneously in combination with the prior DT vaccination. Vaccination with a similar regimen was also performed on guinea pigs. The peptide vaccine induced anti-Aβ antibodies in cynomolgus monkeys and guinea pigs without chemical adjuvants, and excessive immune responses were not observed. Those antibodies could preferentially recognize Aβ40, and Aβ42 compared to Aβ fibrils. The levels of serum anti-Aβ antibodies and plasma Aβ peptides increased in both animals and decreased the brain Aβ40 level of guinea pigs. The peptide vaccine could induce a similar binding profile of anti-Aβ antibodies in cynomolgus monkeys and guinea pigs. The peptide vaccination could be expected to reduce the brain Aβ peptides and their toxic effects via clearance of Aβ peptides by generated antibodies. PMID:26539559

  17. Antimicrobial Peptide Lactoferricin B-Induced Rapid Leakage of Internal Contents from Single Giant Unilamellar Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Moniruzzaman, Md; Alam, Jahangir Md; Dohra, Hideo; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2015-09-29

    Enzymatic digestion of bovine lactoferrin generates lactoferricin B (Lfcin B), a 25-mer peptide with strong antimicrobial activity of unknown mechanism. To elucidate the mechanistic basis of Lfcin B bactericidal activity, we investigated the interaction of Lfcin B with Escherichia coli and liposomes of lipid membranes. Lfcin B induced the influx of a membrane-impermeant fluorescent probe, SYTOX green, from the outside of E. coli into its cytoplasm. Lfcin B induced gradual leakage of calcein from large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) of dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol (DOPG)/dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) membranes. To clarify the cause of Lfcin B-induced leakage of calcein from the LUVs, we used the single giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV) method to investigate the interaction of Lfcin B with calcein-containing DOPG/DOPC-GUVs. We observed that a rapid leakage of calcein from a GUV started stochastically; statistical analysis provided a rate constant for Lfcin B-induced pore formation, kp. On the other hand, phase-contrast microscopic images revealed that Lfcin B induced a rapid leakage of sucrose from the single GUVs with concomitant appearance of a spherical GUV of smaller diameter. Because of the very fast leakage, and at the present time resolution of the experiments (33 ms), we could not follow the evolution of pore nor the process of the structural changes of the GUV. Here we used the term "local rupture" to express the rapid leakage of sucrose and determined the rate constant of local rupture, kL. On the basis of the comparison between kp and kL, we concluded that the leakage of calcein from single GUVs occurred as a result of a local rupture in the GUVs and that smaller pores inducing leakage of calcein were not formed before the local rupture. The results of the effect of the surface charge density of lipid membranes and that of salt concentration in buffer on kp clearly show that kp increases with an increase in the extent of electrostatic interactions due to

  18. Mucosal Tolerance Induced by an Immunodominant Peptide from Rat α3(IV)NC1 in Established Experimental Autoimmune Glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, John; Abbott, Danielle S.; Karegli, Julieta; Evans, David J.; Pusey, Charles D.

    2009-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune glomerulonephritis (EAG), an animal model of Goodpasture’s disease, can be induced in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats by immunization with the noncollagenous domain of the α 3 chain of type IV collagen, α3(IV)NC1. Recent studies have identified an immunodominant peptide, pCol (24-38), from the N-terminus of rat α3(IV)NC1; this peptide contains the major B- and T-cell epitopes in EAG and can induce crescentic nephritis. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of mucosal tolerance in EAG by examining the effects of the nasal administration of this peptide after the onset of disease. A dose-dependent effect was observed: a dose of 300 μg had no effect, a dose of 1000 μg resulted in a moderate reduction in EAG severity, and a dose of 3000 μg produced a marked reduction in EAG severity accompanied by diminished antigen-specific, T-cell proliferative responses. These results demonstrate that mucosal tolerance in EAG can be induced by nasal administration of an immunodominant peptide from the N-terminus of α3(IV)NC1 and should be of value in designing new therapeutic strategies for patients with Goodpasture’s disease and other autoimmune disorders. PMID:19406992

  19. Interferon-γ induces immunoproteasomes and the presentation of MHC I-associated peptides on human salivary gland cells.

    PubMed

    Arellano-Garcia, Martha E; Misuno, Kaori; Tran, Simon D; Hu, Shen

    2014-01-01

    A prominent histopathological feature of Sjögren's syndrome, an autoimmune disease, is the presence of lymphocytic infiltrates in the salivary and lachrymal glands. Such infiltrates are comprised of activated lymphocytes and macrophages, and known to produce multiple cytokines including interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). In this study, we have demonstrated that IFN-γ strongly induces the expression of immunoproteasome beta subunits (β1i, β2i and β5i) and immunoproteasome activity but conversely inhibits the expression of proteasome beta subunits (β1, β2 and β5) in human salivary gland (HSG) cells. Mass spectrometric analysis has revealed potential MHC I-associated peptides on the HSG cells, including a tryptic peptide derived from salivary amylase, due to IFN-γ stimulation. These results suggest that IFN-γ induces immunoproteasomes in HSG cells, leading to enhanced presentation of MHC I-associated peptides on cell surface. These peptide-presenting salivary gland cells may be recognized and targeted by auto-reactive T lymphocytes. We have also found that lactacystin, a proteasome inhibitor, inhibits the expression of β1 subunit in HSG cells and blocks the IFN-γ-induced expression of β1i and immunoproteasome activity. However, the expression of β2i and β5i in HSG cells is not affected by lactacystin. These results may add new insight into the mechanism regarding how lactacystin blocks the action of proteasomes or immunoproteasomes. PMID:25102056

  20. Smad-induced alterations of matrix metabolism by a myristoyl tetra peptide.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Haeyoung; Lee, Yun Sub; Kim, Myung Ok; Chang, Min Youl; Won, Bo Mi; Jin, Byung Suk; Park, Seyeon

    2014-12-01

    Regulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components is essential for tissue homeostasis and function. We screened a small peptide that induces ECM protein synthesis for its usefulness in protecting keratinocytes. In this report, we demonstrate that myristoyl tetrapeptide Ala-Ala-Pro-Val (mAAPV) stimulates the expression of ECM proteins and inhibits the expression of metalloproteinases (MMPs) that degrade ECM proteins in Hs68 human fibroblast cells. In order to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms for the effects of mAAVP, we investigated the changes in gene expression in the presence of mAAPV using a cDNA microarray. Treatment with mAAPV resulted in decreased expression of MMP-related genes such as MMP1, MMP3, TIMP1 and TIMP3 and increased expression of collagen genes, including COL1A1, COL1A2, COL3A1, COL5A1 and COL6A3. The pattern of gene expression regulated by mAAPV was very similar to that of gene expression induced by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, indicating that the TGF-β signaling pathway is crucial for simultaneous activation of several ECM-related genes by mAAPV. We examined whether the activation of SMAD, a downstream protein of TGF-β receptor, is involved in the signal transduction pathway induced by mAAPV. The results demonstrate that mAAVP directly activates SMAD2 and induces SMAD3 to bind to DNA. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that mAAPV both enhances the expression of collagen and inhibits its degradation via production of protease inhibitors that prevent enzymatic breakdown of the ECM. The results suggest that mAAPV would be a useful ECM-protecting agent. PMID:25289880

  1. Short Peptide Induces an “Uncultivable” Microorganism To Grow In Vitro ▿

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, D.; Lewis, K.; Orjala, J.; Mo, S.; Ortenberg, R.; O'Connor, P.; Zhao, C.; Vouros, P.; Kaeberlein, T.; Epstein, S. S.

    2008-01-01

    Microorganisms comprise the bulk of biodiversity, but only a small fraction of this diversity grows on artificial media. This phenomenon was noticed almost a century ago, repeatedly confirmed, and termed the “great plate count anomaly.” Advances in microbial cultivation improved microbial recovery but failed to explain why most microbial species do not grow in vitro. Here we show that at least some of such species can form domesticated variants capable of growth on artificial media. We also present evidence that small signaling molecules, such as short peptides, may be essential factors in initiating growth of nongrowing cells. We identified one 5-amino-acid peptide, LQPEV, that at 3.5 nM induces the otherwise “uncultivable” strain Psychrobacter sp. strain MSC33 to grow on standard media. This demonstrates that the restriction preventing microbial in vitro growth may be different from those offered to date to explain the “great plate count anomaly,” such as deficiencies in nutrient composition and concentrations in standard media, medium toxicity, and inappropriate incubation time. Growth induction of MSC33 illustrates that some microorganisms do not grow in vitro because they are removed from their native communities and the signals produced therein. “Uncultivable” species represent the largest source of unexplored biodiversity, and provide remarkable opportunities for both basic and applied research. Access to cultures of some of these species should be possible through identification of the signaling compounds necessary for growth, their addition to standard medium formulations, and eventual domestication. PMID:18515474

  2. LXXLL Peptide Converts Transportan 10 to a Potent Inducer of Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tints, Kairit; Prink, Madis; Neuman, Toomas; Palm, Kaia

    2014-01-01

    Degenerate expression of transcription coregulator proteins is observed in most human cancers. Therefore, in targeted anti-cancer therapy development, intervention at the level of cancer-specific transcription is of high interest. The steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) is highly expressed in breast, endometrial, and prostate cancer. It is present in various transcription complexes, including those containing nuclear hormone receptors. We examined the effects of a peptide that contains the LXXLL-motif of the human SRC-1 nuclear receptor box 1 linked to the cell-penetrating transportan 10 (TP10), hereafter referred to as TP10-SRC1LXXLL, on proliferation and estrogen-mediated transcription of breast cancer cells in vitro. Our data show that TP10-SRC1LXXLL induced dose-dependent cell death of breast cancer cells, and that this effect was not affected by estrogen receptor (ER) status. Surprisingly TP10-SRC1LXXLL severely reduced the viability and proliferation of hormone-unresponsive breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, the regulation of the endogenous ERα direct target gene pS2 was not affected by TP10-SRC1LXXLL in estrogen-stimulated MCF-7 cells. Dermal fibroblasts were similarly affected by treatment with higher concentrations of TP10-SRC1LXXLL and this effect was significantly delayed. These results suggest that the TP10-SRC1LXXLL peptide may be an effective drug candidate in the treatment of cancers with minimal therapeutic options, for example ER-negative tumors. PMID:24705462

  3. IR-induced conformational isomerization of a helical peptide in a cold ion trap.

    PubMed

    Seaiby, Caroline; Zabuga, Aleksandra V; Svendsen, Annette; Rizzo, Thomas R

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we use laser-induced population transfer techniques to study the conformational isomerization of a helical peptide, Ac-Phe-(Ala)5-LysH(+), in a cold ion trap. In one scheme, called IR-UV hole-filling spectroscopy, a single conformation is selectively excited with an IR pump laser via a distinct NH stretch vibration. After giving the vibrationally excited ions sufficient time to isomerize and re-cool in the trap, the new conformational redistribution is detected by UV photofragment spectroscopy. While we clearly observe a redistribution of the conformer populations due to isomerization, only those conformations that initially have population participate in this redistribution-we do not form conformers that were not initially present in the trap. In a second scheme, called IR-induced population transfer spectroscopy, we determine the fractional populations of the four stable conformations of Ac-Phe-(Ala)5-LysH(+) by scanning the IR laser while selectively detecting a specific conformation using UV photofragment spectroscopy. PMID:26747803

  4. The Arabidopsis peptide kiss of death is an inducer of programmed cell death

    PubMed Central

    Blanvillain, Robert; Young, Bennett; Cai, Yao-min; Hecht, Valérie; Varoquaux, Fabrice; Delorme, Valérie; Lancelin, Jean-Marc; Delseny, Michel; Gallois, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) has a key role in defence and development of all multicellular organisms. In plants, there is a large gap in our knowledge of the molecular machinery involved at the various stages of PCD, especially the early steps. Here, we identify kiss of death (KOD) encoding a 25-amino-acid peptide that activates a PCD pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. Two mutant alleles of KOD exhibited a reduced PCD of the suspensor, a single file of cells that support embryo development, and a reduced PCD of root hairs after a 55°C heat shock. KOD expression was found to be inducible by biotic and abiotic stresses. Furthermore, KOD expression was sufficient to cause death in leaves or seedlings and to activate caspase-like activities. In addition, KOD-induced PCD required light in leaves and was repressed by the PCD-suppressor genes AtBax inhibitor 1 and p35. KOD expression resulted in depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane, placing KOD above mitochondria dysfunction, an early step in plant PCD. A KOD∷GFP fusion, however, localized in the cytosol of cells and not mitochondria. PMID:21326210

  5. Human neutrophil peptides upregulate expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and endothelin-1 by inducing oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Syeda, Farisa; Tullis, Elizabeth; Slutsky, Arthur S.; Zhang, Haibo

    2016-01-01

    The human neutrophil peptides (HNP) bind to vascular smooth muscle cells and regulate vascular tone. We hypothesized that HNP act on endothelial cells to modulate the expression of vasoactive byproducts. We observed a time- and dose-dependent increase in the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in response to HNP stimulation, while COX-1 levels remained unchanged. Despite an upregulated expression of COX-2, HNP did not significantly enhance the production of the COX-2-derived prostaglandins PGI2 and PGE2. HNP significantly induced the release of endothelin-1 (ET-1) as well as the formation of nitrotyrosine. The HNP-induced COX-2 and ET-1 production was attenuated by the treatment with the oxygen free radical scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine, and the inhibitors of p38 MAPK and NF-κB, respectively. We conclude that HNP may play an important role in the regulation of the course of cardiovascular diseases by activating endothelial cells to produce vasoactive byproducts. PMID:18441204

  6. Molecular mechanism of cytotoxicity induced by Hsp90-targeted Antp-TPR hybrid peptide in glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is vital to cell survival under conditions of stress, and binds client proteins to assist in protein stabilization, translocation of polypeptides across cell membranes, and recovery of proteins from aggregates. Therefore, Hsp90 has emerged as an important target for the treatment of cancer. We previously reported that novel Antp-TPR hybrid peptide, which can inhibit the interaction of Hsp90 with the TPR2A domain of Hop, induces selective cytotoxic activity to discriminate between normal and cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Results In this study, we investigated the functional cancer-cell killing mechanism of Antp-TPR hybrid peptide in glioblastoma (GB) cell lines. It was demonstrated that Antp-TPR peptide induced effective cytotoxic activity in GB cells through the loss of Hsp90 client proteins such as p53, Akt, CDK4, and cRaf. Antp-TPR also did not induce the up-regulation of Hsp70 and Hsp90 proteins, although a small-molecule inhibitor of Hsp90, 17-AAG, induced the up-regulation of these proteins. It was also found that Antp-TPR peptide increased the endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response, and the cytotoxic activity of this hybrid peptide to GB cells in the endoplasmic reticulum stress condition. Conclusion These results show that targeting of Hsp90 by Antp-TPR could be an attractive approach to selective cancer-cell killing because no other Hsp90-targeted compounds show selective cytotoxic activity. Antp-TPR might provide potent and selective therapeutic options for the treatment of cancer. PMID:22913813

  7. A mucin-like peptide from Fasciola hepatica induces parasite-specific Th1-type cell immunity.

    PubMed

    Noya, Verónica; Brossard, Natalie; Berasaín, Patricia; Rodríguez, Ernesto; Chiale, Carolina; Mazal, Daniel; Carmona, Carlos; Freire, Teresa

    2016-03-01

    Fasciolosis, caused by the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica, is a major parasitic disease of livestock that causes significant economic losses worldwide. Although drugs are effective against liver flukes, they do not prevent reinfection, and continuous treatment is costly. Moreover, resistant fluke strains are emerging. In this context, vaccination is a good alternative since it provides a cost-effective long-term prevention strategy to control fasciolosis. In this paper, we evaluate the Fhmuc peptide as a potential vaccine against fasciolosis. This peptide derives from a mucin-like protein highly expressed in the infective stage of Fasciola hepatica. Mucin-like molecules expressed by parasites can contribute to several infection processes by protecting the parasite from host proteases and recognition by the immune system. We show that the Fhmuc peptide induces Th1-like immune responses specific for F. hepatica excretion-secretion products (FhESP) with a high production of IFNγ. We also investigated whether this peptide could protect animals from infection, and present preliminary data indicating that animals treated with Fhmuc exhibited reduced liver damage compared to non-immunised animals and that this protection was associated with a recruitment of B and T lymphocytes in the peritoneum, as well as eosinophils and mature dendritic cells. These results suggest that the mucin-like peptide Fhmuc could constitute a potential vaccine candidate against fasciolosis and pave the way towards the development of vaccines against parasites. PMID:26637311

  8. SARS Coronavirus Fusion Peptide-Derived Sequence Suppresses Collagen-Induced Arthritis in DBA/1J Mice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zu T; Sigalov, Alexander B

    2016-01-01

    During the co-evolution of viruses and their hosts, the viruses have evolved numerous strategies to counter and evade host antiviral immune responses in order to establish a successful infection, replicate and persist in the host. Recently, based on our model of immune signaling, the Signaling Chain HOmoOLigomerization (SCHOOL) model, we suggested specific molecular mechanisms used by different viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) to modulate the host immune response mediated by members of the family of multichain immune recognition receptors (MIRRs). This family includes T cell receptor (TCR) that is critically involved in immune diseases such as autoimmune arthritis. In the present study, we provide compelling experimental in vivo evidence in support of our hypothesis. Using the SCHOOL approach and the SARS-CoV fusion peptide sequence, we rationally designed a novel immunomodulatory peptide that targets TCR. We showed that this peptide ameliorates collagen-induced arthritis in DBA/1J mice and protects against bone and cartilage damage. Incorporation of the peptide into self-assembling lipopeptide nanoparticles that mimic native human high density lipoproteins significantly increases peptide dosage efficacy. Together, our data further confirm that viral immune evasion strategies that target MIRRs can be transferred to therapeutic strategies that require similar functionalities. PMID:27349522

  9. Low-mass ions produced from peptides by high-energy collision-induced dissociation in tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Falick, A M; Hines, W M; Medzihradszky, K F; Baldwin, M A; Gibson, B W

    1993-11-01

    High-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID) mass spectrometry provides a rapid and sensitive means for determining the primary sequence of peptides. The low-mass region (below mass 300) of a large number of tandem CID spectra of peptides has been analyzed. This mass region contains several types of informative fragment ions, including dipeptide ions, immonium ions, and other related ions. Useful low-mass ions are also present in negative-ion CID spectra. Immonium ions (general structure [H2N=CH-R](+), where R is the amino acid side chain) and related ions characteristic of specific amino acid residues give information as to the presence or absence of these residues in the peptide being analyzed. Tables of observed immonium and reiated ions for the 20 standard amino acids and for a number of modified amino acids are presented. A database consisting of 228 high-energy CID spectra of peptides has been established, and the frequency of occurrence of various ions indicative of specific ammo acid residues has been determined. Two model computer-aided schemes for analysis of the ammo-acid content of unknown peptides have been developed and tested against the database. PMID:24227532

  10. Collision-Induced Dissociation Fragmentation Inside Disulfide C-Terminal Loops of Natural Non-Tryptic Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samgina, Tatiana Y.; Vorontsov, Egor A.; Gorshkov, Vladimir A.; Artemenko, Konstantin A.; Zubarev, Roman A.; Ytterberg, Jimmy A.; Lebedev, Albert T.

    2013-07-01

    Collision-induced dissociation (CID) spectra of long non-tryptic peptides are usually quite complicated and rather difficult to interpret. Disulfide bond formed by two cysteine residues at C-terminus of frog skin peptides precludes one to determine sequence inside the forming loop. Thereby, chemical modification of S-S bonds is often used in "bottom up" sequencing approach. However, low-energy CID spectra of natural non-tryptic peptides with C-terminal disulfide cycle demonstrate an unusual fragmentation route, which may be used to elucidate the "hidden" C-terminal sequence. Low charge state protonated molecules experience peptide bond cleavage at the N-terminus of C-terminal cysteine. The forming isomeric acyclic ions serve as precursors for a series of b-type ions revealing sequence inside former disulfide cycle. The reaction is preferable for peptides with basic lysine residues inside the cycle. It may also be activated by acidic protons of Asp and Glu residues neighboring the loop. The observed cleavages may be quite competitive, revealing the sequence inside disulfide cycle, although S-S bond rupture does not occur in this case.

  11. SARS Coronavirus Fusion Peptide-Derived Sequence Suppresses Collagen-Induced Arthritis in DBA/1J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zu T.; Sigalov, Alexander B.

    2016-01-01

    During the co-evolution of viruses and their hosts, the viruses have evolved numerous strategies to counter and evade host antiviral immune responses in order to establish a successful infection, replicate and persist in the host. Recently, based on our model of immune signaling, the Signaling Chain HOmoOLigomerization (SCHOOL) model, we suggested specific molecular mechanisms used by different viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) to modulate the host immune response mediated by members of the family of multichain immune recognition receptors (MIRRs). This family includes T cell receptor (TCR) that is critically involved in immune diseases such as autoimmune arthritis. In the present study, we provide compelling experimental in vivo evidence in support of our hypothesis. Using the SCHOOL approach and the SARS-CoV fusion peptide sequence, we rationally designed a novel immunomodulatory peptide that targets TCR. We showed that this peptide ameliorates collagen-induced arthritis in DBA/1J mice and protects against bone and cartilage damage. Incorporation of the peptide into self-assembling lipopeptide nanoparticles that mimic native human high density lipoproteins significantly increases peptide dosage efficacy. Together, our data further confirm that viral immune evasion strategies that target MIRRs can be transferred to therapeutic strategies that require similar functionalities. PMID:27349522

  12. Elastin peptides prepared from piscine and mammalian elastic tissues inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation and stimulate migration and proliferation of human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Shiratsuchi, Eri; Ura, Megumi; Nakaba, Misako; Maeda, Iori; Okamoto, Kouji

    2010-11-01

    We obtained pure elastin peptides from bovine ligamentum nuchae, porcine aorta, and bonito bulbus arteriosus. The inhibitory activity of these elastin peptides on platelet aggregation induced by collagen and the migratory and proliferative responsivenesses of human skin fibroblasts to these elastin peptides were examined. All of bonito, bovine, and porcine elastin peptides found to inhibit platelet aggregation, but bonito elastin peptides showed a higher inhibitory activity than bovine and porcine elastin peptides did. All elastin peptides enhanced the proliferation of fibroblasts 3.5- to 4.5-fold at a concentration of 10 µg/ml. Bovine and porcine elastin peptides stimulated the migration of fibroblasts, with the optimal response occurring at 10(-1) µg/ml, while maximal response was at 10(2) µg/ml for bonito elastin peptides. Furthermore, pretreatment of fibroblasts by lactose depressed their ability to migrate in response to all elastin peptides, suggesting the involvement of elastin receptor in cell response. These results suggest that both mammalian and piscine elastin peptides can be applied as useful biomaterials in which elasticity, antithrombotic property, and the enhancement of cell migration and proliferation are required. PMID:20853312

  13. A relaxin-like peptide purified from radial nerves induces oocyte maturation and ovulation in the starfish, Asterina pectinifera

    PubMed Central

    Mita, Masatoshi; Yoshikuni, Michiyasu; Ohno, Kaoru; Shibata, Yasushi; Paul-Prasanth, Bindhu; Pitchayawasin, Suthasinee; Isobe, Minoru; Nagahama, Yoshitaka

    2009-01-01

    Gonad-stimulating substance (GSS) of starfish is the only known invertebrate peptide hormone responsible for final gamete maturation, rendering it functionally analogous to the vertebrate luteinizing hormone (LH). Here, we purified GSS of starfish, Asterina pectinifera, from radial nerves and determined its amino acid sequence. The purified GSS was a heterodimer composed of 2 different peptides, A and B chains, with disulfide cross-linkages. Based on its cysteine motif, starfish GSS was classified as a member of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)/relaxin superfamily. The cDNA of GSS encodes a preprohormone sequence with a C peptide between the A and B chains. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that starfish GSS was a relaxin-like peptide. Chemically synthesized GSS induced not only oocyte maturation and ovulation in isolated ovarian fragments, but also unique spawning behavior, followed by release of gametes shortly after the injection. Importantly, the action of the synthetic GSS on oocyte maturation and ovulation was mediated through the production of cAMP by isolated ovarian follicle cells, thereby producing the maturation-inducing hormone of this species, 1-methyladenine. In situ hybridization showed the transcription of GSS to occur in the periphery of radial nerves at the side of tube feet. Together, the structure, sequence, and mode of signal transduction strongly suggest that GSS is closely related to the vertebrate relaxin. PMID:19470645

  14. Amyloidogenic amyloid-β-peptide variants induce microbial agglutination and exert antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, Philipp; Condic, Mateja; Herrmann, Martin; Oberstein, Timo Jan; Scharin-Mehlmann, Marina; Gilbert, Daniel F; Friedrich, Oliver; Grömer, Teja; Kornhuber, Johannes; Lang, Roland; Maler, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides are the main components of the plaques found in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. However, Aβ peptides are also detectable in secretory compartments and peripheral blood contains a complex mixture of more than 40 different modified and/or N- and C-terminally truncated Aβ peptides. Recently, anti-infective properties of Aβ peptides have been reported. Here, we investigated the interaction of Aβ peptides of different lengths with various bacterial strains and the yeast Candida albicans. The amyloidogenic peptides Aβ1-42, Aβ2-42, and Aβ3p-42 but not the non-amyloidogenic peptides Aβ1-40 and Aβ2-40 bound to microbial surfaces. As observed by immunocytochemistry, scanning electron microscopy and Gram staining, treatment of several bacterial strains and Candida albicans with Aβ peptide variants ending at position 42 (Aβx-42) caused the formation of large agglutinates. These aggregates were not detected after incubation with Aβx-40. Furthermore, Aβx-42 exerted an antimicrobial activity on all tested pathogens, killing up to 80% of microorganisms within 6 h. Aβ1-40 only had a moderate antimicrobial activity against C. albicans. Agglutination of Aβ1-42 was accelerated in the presence of microorganisms. These data demonstrate that the amyloidogenic Aβx-42 variants have antimicrobial activity and may therefore act as antimicrobial peptides in the immune system. PMID:27624303

  15. Molecular organization in striated domains induced by transmembrane alpha-helical peptides in dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine bilayers.

    PubMed

    Sparr, Emma; Ganchev, Dragomir N; Snel, Margot M E; Ridder, Anja N J A; Kroon-Batenburg, Loes M J; Chupin, Vladimir; Rijkers, Dirk T S; Killian, J Antoinette; de Kruijff, Ben

    2005-01-11

    Transmembrane (TM) alpha-helical peptides with neutral flanking residues such as tryptophan form highly ordered striated domains when incorporated in gel-state 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) bilayers and inspected by atomic force microscopy (AFM) (1). In this study, we analyze the molecular organization of these striated domains using AFM, photo-cross-linking, fluorescence spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and X-ray diffraction techniques on different functionalized TM peptides. The results demonstrate that the striated domains consist of linear arrays of single TM peptides with a dominantly antiparallel organization in which the peptides interact with each other and with lipids. The peptide arrays are regularly spaced by +/-8.5 nm and are separated by somewhat perturbed gel-state lipids with hexagonally organized acyl chains, which have lost their tilt. This system provides an example of how domains of peptides and lipids can be formed in membranes as a result of a combination of specific peptide-peptide and peptide-lipid interactions. PMID:15628840

  16. Global Proteomics and Pathway Analysis of Pressure-overload Induced Heart Failure and Its Attenuation by Mitochondrial Targeted Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Dao-Fu; Hsieh, Edward J.; Chen, Tony; Menendez, Lorena G.; Basisty, Nathan B.; Tsai, Lauren; Beyer, Richard P.; Crispin, David A.; Shulman, Nicholas J.; Szeto, Hazel H.; Tian, Rong; MacCoss, Michael J.; Rabinovitch, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    Background We investigated the protective effects of mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant and protective peptides, SS31 and SS20, on cardiac function, proteomic remodeling and signaling pathways. Methods and Results We applied an improved label-free shotgun proteomics approach to evaluate the global proteomics changes in transverse aortic constriction (TAC) induced heart failure, and the associated signaling pathway changes using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). We found 538 proteins significantly changed after TAC, which mapped to 53 pathways. The top pathways were in the categories of actin cytoskeleton, mitochondrial function, intermediate metabolism, glycolysis / gluconeogenesis and citrate cycle. Concomitant treatment with SS31 ameliorated the congestive heart failure phenotypes and mitochondrial damage induced by TAC, in parallel with global attenuation of mitochondrial proteome changes, with an average of 84% protection of mitochondrial and 69% of non-mitochondrial protein changes. This included significant amelioration of All the IPA pathways noted above. SS20 had only modest effects on heart failure and this tracked with only partial attenuation of global proteomics changes; furthermore, while actin cytoskeleton pathways were significantly protected in SS20, mitochondrial and metabolic pathways essentially were not. Conclusions This study elucidates the signaling pathways significantly changed in pressure-overload induced heart failure. The global attenuation of TAC-induced proteomic alterations by the mitochondrial targeted peptide SS-31 suggests that perturbed mitochondrial function may be an upstream signal to many of pathway alterations in TAC and supports the potential clinical application of mitochondrial-targeted peptide drugs for the treatment heart failure. PMID:23935006

  17. The NALP3 inflammasome is involved in neurotoxic prion peptide-induced microglial activation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prion diseases are neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the accumulation of an abnormal disease-associated prion protein, PrPSc. In prion-infected brains, activated microglia are often present in the vicinity of PrPSc aggregates, and microglial activation is thought to play a key role in the pathogenesis of prion diseases. Although interleukin (IL)-1β release by prion-induced microglia has been widely reported, the mechanism by which primed microglia become activated and secrete IL-1β in prion diseases has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of the NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein (NALP)3 inflammasome in IL-1β release from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-primed microglia after exposure to a synthetic neurotoxic prion fragment (PrP106-126). Methods The inflammasome components NALP3 and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC) were knocked down by gene silencing. IL-1β production was assessed using ELISA. The mRNA expression of NALP3, ASC, and pro-inflammatory factors was measured by quantitative PCR. Western blot analysis was used to detect the protein level of NALP3, ASC, caspase-1 and nuclear factor-κB. Results We found that that PrP106-126-induced IL-1β release depends on NALP3 inflammasome activation, that inflammasome activation is required for the synthesis of pro-inflammatory and chemotactic factors by PrP106-126-activated microglia, that inhibition of NF-κB activation abrogated PrP106-126-induced NALP3 upregulation, and that potassium efflux and production of reactive oxygen species were implicated in PrP106-126-induced NALP3 inflammasome activation in microglia. Conclusions We conclude that the NALP3 inflammasome is involved in neurotoxic prion peptide-induced microglial activation. To our knowledge, this is the first time that strong evidence for the involvement of NALP3 inflammasome in prion-associated inflammation has been found. PMID:22531291

  18. Carbohydrate-induced secretion of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1.

    PubMed

    Seino, Yusuke; Maekawa, Ryuya; Ogata, Hidetada; Hayashi, Yoshitaka

    2016-04-01

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are the incretin hormones secreted from enteroendocrine K-cells and L-cells, respectively, by oral ingestion of various nutrients including glucose. K-cells, L-cells and pancreatic β-cells are glucose-responsive cells with similar glucose-sensing machinery including glucokinase and an adenosine triphosphate-sensitive K(+) channel comprising KIR6.2 and sulfonylurea receptor 1. However, the physiological role of the adenosine triphosphate-sensitive K(+) channel in GIP secretion in K-cells and GLP-1 secretion in L-cells is not elucidated. Recently, it was reported that GIP and GLP-1-producing cells are present also in pancreatic islets, and islet-derived GIP and GLP-1 contribute to glucose-induced insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells. In this short review, we focus on GIP and GLP-1 secretion by monosaccharides, such as glucose or fructose, and the role of the adenosine triphosphate-sensitive K(+) channel in GIP and GLP-1 secretion. PMID:27186352

  19. IKK NBD peptide inhibits LPS induced pulmonary inflammation and alters sphingolipid metabolism in a murine model.

    PubMed

    von Bismarck, Philipp; Winoto-Morbach, Supandi; Herzberg, Mona; Uhlig, Ulrike; Schütze, Stefan; Lucius, Ralph; Krause, Martin F

    2012-06-01

    Airway epithelial NF-κB is a key regulator of host defence in bacterial infections and has recently evolved as a target for therapeutical approaches. Evidence is accumulating that ceramide, generated by acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase), and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1-P) are important mediators in host defence as well as in pathologic processes of acute lung injury. Little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of pulmonary sphingolipid metabolism in bacterial infections of the lung. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of NF-κB on sphingolipid metabolism in Pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation. In a murine acute lung injury model with intranasal Pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS we investigated TNF-α, KC (murine IL-8), IL-6, MCP-1 and neutrophilic infiltration next to aSMase activity and ceramide and S1-P lung tissue concentrations. Airway epithelial NF-κB was inhibited by topically applied IKK NBD, a cell penetrating NEMO binding peptide. This treatment resulted in significantly reduced inflammation and suppression of aSMase activity along with decreased ceramide and S1-P tissue concentrations down to levels observed in healthy animals. In conclusion our results confirm that changes in sphingolipid metabolim due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS inhalation are regulated by NF-κB translocation. This confirms the critical role of airway epithelial NF-κB pathway for the inflammatory response to bacterial pathogens and underlines the impact of sphingolipids in inflammatory host defence mechanisms. PMID:22469869

  20. Yeast β-d-glucans induced antimicrobial peptide expressions against Salmonella infection in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yujing; Wang, Zhong; Tian, Xiangyu; Guo, Yuming; Zhang, Haibo

    2016-04-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of yeast β-d-glucans (YG) on gene expression of endogenous β-defensins (AvBDs), cathelicidins (Cath) and liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide-2 (LEAP-2) in broilers challenged with Salmonella enteritidis (SE). 240 day-old Cobb male broilers were randomly assigned to 2×2 factorial arrangements of treatments with two levels of dietary YG (0 or 200mg/kg in diet) and two levels of SE challenge (0 or 1×10(9) SE at 7-9 days of age). The results showed SE infection reduced growth performance,and increased salmonella cecal colonization and internal organs invasion, increased concentration of intestinal specific IgA and serum specific IgG antibody, as compared to uninfected birds. SE challenge differentially regulated AvBDs, Caths and LEAP-2 gene expression in the jejunum and spleen of broiler chickens during the infection period. However, YG supplementation inhibited the growth depression by SE challenge, and further increased level of serum specific IgG and intestinal specific IgA antibody. Higher level of salmonella colonization and internal organs invasion in the SE-infected birds were reduced by YG. SE-induced differentially expression patterns of AMPs genes was inhibited or changed by YG. Results indicated YG enhance chicken's resistance to salmonella infection. PMID:26794312

  1. The role of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in cold-induced diuresis (CID)

    SciTech Connect

    Agnew, J.W.; Freund, B.J.; DuBose, D.A.; McKay, J.M.; Hashiro, G.M. Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI )

    1991-03-11

    The hormonal control of cold-induced diuresis (CID) remains unresolved. This study investigated the role of ANP, plasma vasopressin (AVP), and aldosterone (ALDO) on CID. Four semi-nude men participated in a 210 min exposure to 15C and 29C air, on separate days. These subjects drank 300 mL of water and had an intravenous saline drip throughout both exposures to replace blood and insensible fluid losses. CID was observed in 15C but not in the 29C experiment, as indicated by a greater urine output. In 15C, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) increased after 90 min by 41% and remained elevated for 2 h relative to 29C. No differences were observed in AVP between 15C and 29C. In the 15C versus the 29C experiment, ALDO was approximately 37% lower at the pre, 15 and 90 min time periods. Mean arterial blood pressure was generally greater but only significant at 60 min during the 15C versus the 29C experiment. Urinary NA{sup +} excretion was elevated in 15C relative to 29C while no difference in K{sup +} excretion was observed. Although pressure effects may contribute, the observed natriuresis in the absence of a kaliuresis in the cold suggests a physiological role of ANP in CID.

  2. Serum B-type natriuretic peptide levels as a marker for anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YA-DI; CHEN, SU-XIAN; REN, LI-QUN

    2016-01-01

    Observational and experimental studies have produced inconsistent evidence about the association of serum levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) with anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (AIC). Therefore, the current meta-analysis examined the association between serum BNP levels and AIC by using data from high quality studies published in peer-reviewed journals. Relevant studies were identified through literature searches of China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scolar and China BioMedicine (CBM). STATA software was used in this meta-analysis for statistical analysis. In addition, the crude standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for the highest vs. the lowest category of serum BNP levels was calculated. A total of 8 independent case-control studies, containing 126 AIC patients and 569 healthy controls, were included for the current meta-analysis. The results indicated a significant difference in serum BNP levels between the cardiotoxic group and normal group, with respect to post-treatment and pretreatment with anthracyclines. Specifically, the serum levels of BNP increased remarkably after treatment with anthracyclines in the cardiotoxic group, compared with the normal group. No publication bias was detected in this meta-analysis. The findings of the present study provide strong evidence that serum BNP levels may be associated with AIC. PMID:27123140

  3. Lassa fever virus peptides predicted by computational analysis induce epitope-specific cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte responses in HLA-A2.1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Boesen, Agnieszka; Sundar, Krishnan; Coico, Richard

    2005-10-01

    Lassa fever is a hemorrhagic disease caused by Lassa fever virus (LV). Although the precise host defense mechanism(s) that affords protection against LV is not completely understood, cellular immunity mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) plays a pivotal role in controlling viral replication and LV infection. To date, there have been no reports mapping major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-binding CTL epitopes for LV. Using computer-assisted algorithms, we identified five HLA-A2.1-binding peptides of LV glycoprotein (GP) and two peptides from LV nucleoprotein (NP). Synthesized peptides were examined for their ability to bind to MHC class I molecules using a flow cytometric assay that measures peptide stabilization of class I. Three of the LV-GP peptides tested (LLGTFTWTL, SLYKGVYEL, and YLISIFLHL) stabilized HLA-A2. The LV-NP peptides tested failed to stabilize this HLA-A2. We then investigated the ability of the HLA-A2-binding LV-GP peptides to generate peptide-specific CTLs in HLA-A2.1 transgenic mice. Functional assays used to confirm CTL activation included gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays and intracellular cytokine staining of CD8+ T cells from peptide-primed mice. CTL assays were also performed to verify the cytolytic activity of peptide-pulsed target cells. Each of the LV-GP peptides induced CTL responses in HLA-A2-transgenic mice. MHC class I tetramers prepared using one LV-GP peptide that showed the highest cytolytic index (LLGTFTWTL) confirmed that peptide-binding CD8+ T cells were present in pooled lymphocytes harvested from peptide-primed mice. These findings provide direct evidence for the existence of LV-derived GP epitopes that may be useful in the development of protective immunogens for this hemorrhagic virus. PMID:16210487

  4. Lassa Fever Virus Peptides Predicted by Computational Analysis Induce Epitope-Specific Cytotoxic-T-Lymphocyte Responses in HLA-A2.1 Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Boesen, Agnieszka; Sundar, Krishnan; Coico, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Lassa fever is a hemorrhagic disease caused by Lassa fever virus (LV). Although the precise host defense mechanism(s) that affords protection against LV is not completely understood, cellular immunity mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) plays a pivotal role in controlling viral replication and LV infection. To date, there have been no reports mapping major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-binding CTL epitopes for LV. Using computer-assisted algorithms, we identified five HLA-A2.1-binding peptides of LV glycoprotein (GP) and two peptides from LV nucleoprotein (NP). Synthesized peptides were examined for their ability to bind to MHC class I molecules using a flow cytometric assay that measures peptide stabilization of class I. Three of the LV-GP peptides tested (LLGTFTWTL, SLYKGVYEL, and YLISIFLHL) stabilized HLA-A2. The LV-NP peptides tested failed to stabilize this HLA-A2. We then investigated the ability of the HLA-A2-binding LV-GP peptides to generate peptide-specific CTLs in HLA-A2.1 transgenic mice. Functional assays used to confirm CTL activation included gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays and intracellular cytokine staining of CD8+ T cells from peptide-primed mice. CTL assays were also performed to verify the cytolytic activity of peptide-pulsed target cells. Each of the LV-GP peptides induced CTL responses in HLA-A2-transgenic mice. MHC class I tetramers prepared using one LV-GP peptide that showed the highest cytolytic index (LLGTFTWTL) confirmed that peptide-binding CD8+ T cells were present in pooled lymphocytes harvested from peptide-primed mice. These findings provide direct evidence for the existence of LV-derived GP epitopes that may be useful in the development of protective immunogens for this hemorrhagic virus. PMID:16210487

  5. Peptide identification

    DOEpatents

    Jarman, Kristin H [Richland, WA; Cannon, William R [Richland, WA; Jarman, Kenneth D [Richland, WA; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro [Richland, WA

    2011-07-12

    Peptides are identified from a list of candidates using collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry data. A probabilistic model for the occurrence of spectral peaks corresponding to frequently observed partial peptide fragment ions is applied. As part of the identification procedure, a probability score is produced that indicates the likelihood of any given candidate being the correct match. The statistical significance of the score is known without necessarily having reference to the actual identity of the peptide. In one form of the invention, a genetic algorithm is applied to candidate peptides using an objective function that takes into account the number of shifted peaks appearing in the candidate spectrum relative to the test spectrum.

  6. BMAP-28, an Antibiotic Peptide of Innate Immunity, Induces Cell Death through Opening of the Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore

    PubMed Central

    Risso, Angela; Braidot, Enrico; Sordano, Maria Concetta; Vianello, Angelo; Macrì, Francesco; Skerlavaj, Barbara; Zanetti, Margherita; Gennaro, Renato; Bernardi, Paolo

    2002-01-01

    BMAP-28, a bovine antimicrobial peptide of the cathelicidin family, induces membrane permeabilization and death in human tumor cell lines and in activated, but not resting, human lymphocytes. In addition, we found that BMAP-28 causes depolarization of the inner mitochondrial membrane in single cells and in isolated mitochondria. The effect of the peptide was synergistic with that of Ca2+ and inhibited by cyclosporine, suggesting that depolarization depends on opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. The occurrence of a permeability transition was investigated on the basis of mitochondrial permeabilization to calcein and cytochrome c release. We show that BMAP-28 permeabilizes mitochondria to entrapped calcein in a cyclosporine-sensitive manner and that it releases cytochrome c in situ. Our results demonstrate that BMAP-28 is an inducer of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and that its cytotoxic potential depends on its effects on mitochondrial permeability. PMID:11865069

  7. Parabrachial Nucleus Contributions to Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist-Induced Hypophagia

    PubMed Central

    Swick, Jennifer C; Alhadeff, Amber L; Grill, Harvey J; Urrea, Paula; Lee, Stephanie M; Roh, Hyunsun; Baird, John-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Exendin-4 (Ex4), a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist approved to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus, is well known to induce hypophagia in human and animal models. We evaluated the contributions of the hindbrain parabrachial nucleus (PBN) to systemic Ex4-induced hypophagia, as the PBN receives gustatory and visceral afferent relays and descending input from several brain nuclei associated with feeding. Rats with ibotenic-acid lesions targeted to the lateral PBN (PBNx) and sham controls received Ex4 (1 μg/kg) before 24 h home cage chow or 90 min 0.3 M sucrose access tests, and licking microstructure was analyzed to identify components of feeding behavior affected by Ex4. PBN lesion efficacy was confirmed using conditioned taste aversion (CTA) tests. As expected, sham control but not PBNx rats developed a CTA. In sham-lesioned rats, Ex4 reduced chow intake within 4 h of injection and sucrose intake within 90 min. PBNx rats did not show reduced chow or sucrose intake after Ex4 treatment, indicating that the PBN is necessary for Ex4 effects under the conditions tested. In sham-treated rats, Ex4 affected licking microstructure measures associated with hedonic taste evaluation, appetitive behavior, oromotor coordination, and inhibitory postingestive feedback. Licking microstructure responses in PBNx rats after Ex4 treatment were similar to sham-treated rats with the exception of inhibitory postingestive feedback measures. Together, the results suggest that the PBN critically contributes to the hypophagic effects of systemically delivered GLP-1R agonists by enhancing visceral feedback. PMID:25703200

  8. Parabrachial Nucleus Contributions to Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist-Induced Hypophagia.

    PubMed

    Swick, Jennifer C; Alhadeff, Amber L; Grill, Harvey J; Urrea, Paula; Lee, Stephanie M; Roh, Hyunsun; Baird, John-Paul

    2015-07-01

    Exendin-4 (Ex4), a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist approved to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus, is well known to induce hypophagia in human and animal models. We evaluated the contributions of the hindbrain parabrachial nucleus (PBN) to systemic Ex4-induced hypophagia, as the PBN receives gustatory and visceral afferent relays and descending input from several brain nuclei associated with feeding. Rats with ibotenic-acid lesions targeted to the lateral PBN (PBNx) and sham controls received Ex4 (1 μg/kg) before 24 h home cage chow or 90 min 0.3 M sucrose access tests, and licking microstructure was analyzed to identify components of feeding behavior affected by Ex4. PBN lesion efficacy was confirmed using conditioned taste aversion (CTA) tests. As expected, sham control but not PBNx rats developed a CTA. In sham-lesioned rats, Ex4 reduced chow intake within 4 h of injection and sucrose intake within 90 min. PBNx rats did not show reduced chow or sucrose intake after Ex4 treatment, indicating that the PBN is necessary for Ex4 effects under the conditions tested. In sham-treated rats, Ex4 affected licking microstructure measures associated with hedonic taste evaluation, appetitive behavior, oromotor coordination, and inhibitory postingestive feedback. Licking microstructure responses in PBNx rats after Ex4 treatment were similar to sham-treated rats with the exception of inhibitory postingestive feedback measures. Together, the results suggest that the PBN critically contributes to the hypophagic effects of systemically delivered GLP-1R agonists by enhancing visceral feedback. PMID:25703200

  9. Exercise-induced changes in atrial peptides in relation to neuroendocrine responses and fluid balance in the horse.

    PubMed

    Kokkonen, U M; Pösö, A R; Hyyppä, S; Huttunen, P; Leppäluoto, J

    2002-04-01

    Previous data show that, in horses, plasma atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP and NT-ANP) remain elevated for a long time after exercise. To study whether exercise-induced changes in hormonal and fluid balance explain this, we measured plasma concentrations of COOH- and NH2-terminal atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP(99-129) and NT-ANP(1-98) together with arginine vasopressin (AVP), adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH), beta-endorphin, cortisol, catecholamines, and indicators of fluid balance in six Finnhorses after a graded submaximal exercise test on a treadmill. After exercise, AVP and catecholamines diminished rapidly; atrial peptides, ACTH, beta-endorphin, and cortisol remained elevated longer. ANP reached its peak value at 5 min and NT-ANP at 30 min post-exercise. At 60 min, ANP was still significantly increased and NT-ANP even above its level at the end of exercise. The different temporal patterns of ANP and NT-ANP are most probably explained by differences in their plasma half-lives. The post-exercise increase in NT-ANP indicates that the release of atrial peptides is stimulated during recovery after exercise. The rapid decrease in AVP and catecholamines suggests that these hormones do not explain the long-lasting increase in atrial peptides. Cortisol remained elevated longer and it may have contributed to some extent. After exercise, the packed cell volume (PCV) decreased more slowly than plasma total protein and electrolytes, which refers to a slow post-exercise return in blood volume. Taken together, the present results show that the long-lasting post-exercise increase in plasma atrial peptides in horses is most probably explained by elevated central blood volume and that the role of vasoactive hormones is small. PMID:12019955

  10. Alcohol-Induced Changes in Opioid Peptide Levels in Adolescent Rats Are Dependent on Housing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Palm, Sara; Nylander, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Background Endogenous opioids are implicated in the mechanism of action of alcohol and alcohol affects opioids in a number of brain areas, although little is known about alcohol's effects on opioids in the adolescent brain. One concern, in particular when studying young animals, is that alcohol intake models often are based on single housing that may result in alcohol effects confounded by the lack of social interactions. The aim of this study was to investigate short- and long-term alcohol effects on opioids and the influence of housing conditions on these effects. Methods In the first part, opioid peptide levels were measured after one 24-hour session of single housing and 2-hour voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent and adult rats. In the second part, a model with a cage divider inserted during 2-hour drinking sessions was tested and the effects on opioids were examined after 6 weeks of adolescent voluntary intake in single-and pair-housed rats, respectively. Results The effects of single housing were age specific and affected Met-enkephalin-Arg6Phe7 (MEAP) in particular. In adolescent rats, it was difficult to distinguish between effects induced by alcohol and single housing, whereas alcohol-specific effects were seen in dynorphin B (DYNB), beta-endorphin (BEND), and MEAP levels in adults. Voluntary drinking affected several brain areas and the majority of alcohol-induced effects were not dependent on housing. However, alcohol effects on DYNB and BEND in the amygdala were dependent on housing. Housing alone affected MEAP in the cingulate cortex. Conclusions Age-specific housing- and alcohol-induced effects on opioids were found. In addition, prolonged voluntary alcohol intake under different housing conditions produced several alcohol-induced effects independent of housing. However, housing-dependent effects were found in areas implicated in stress, emotionality, and alcohol use disorder. Housing condition and age may therefore affect the reasons and

  11. Release of Periplasmic Nucleotidase Induced by Human Antimicrobial Peptide in E. coli Causes Accumulation of the Immunomodulator Adenosine

    PubMed Central

    Estrela, Andreia Bergamo; Türck, Patrick; Stutz, Elaine; Abraham, Wolf-Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Previous work by our group described that human β-defensin-2 induces accumulation of extracellular adenosine (Ado) in E. coli cultures through a non-lytic mechanism causing severe plasmolysis. Here, we investigate the presence of AMP as a direct precursor and the involvement of a bacterial enzyme in the generation of extracellular Ado by treated bacteria. Following hBD-2 treatment, metabolites were quantified in the supernatants using targeted HPLC-MS/MS analysis. Microbial growth was monitored by optical density and cell viability was determined by colony forming units counts. Phosphatase activity was measured using chromogenic substrate pNPP. The results demonstrate that defensin-treated E. coli strain W releases AMP in the extracellular space, where it is converted to Ado by a bacterial soluble factor. An increase in phosphatase activity in the supernatant was observed after peptide treatment, similar to the effect of sucrose-induced osmotic stress, suggesting that the periplasmic 5'nucleotidase (5'-NT) is released following the plasmolysis event triggered by the peptide. Ado accumulation was enhanced in the presence of Co2+ ion and inhibited by EDTA, further supporting the involvement of a metallo-phosphatase such as 5’-NT in extracellular AMP conversion into Ado. The comparative analysis of hBD-induced Ado accumulation in different E. coli strains and in Pseudomonas aeruginosa revealed that the response is not correlated to the peptide's effect on cell viability, but indicates it might be dependent on the subcellular distribution of the nucleotidase. Taken together, these data shed light on a yet undescribed mechanism of host-microbial interaction: a human antimicrobial peptide inducing selective release of a bacterial enzyme (E. coli 5'-NT), leading to the formation of a potent immunomodulator metabolite (Ado). PMID:26371472

  12. Release of Periplasmic Nucleotidase Induced by Human Antimicrobial Peptide in E. coli Causes Accumulation of the Immunomodulator Adenosine.

    PubMed

    Estrela, Andreia Bergamo; Türck, Patrick; Stutz, Elaine; Abraham, Wolf-Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Previous work by our group described that human β-defensin-2 induces accumulation of extracellular adenosine (Ado) in E. coli cultures through a non-lytic mechanism causing severe plasmolysis. Here, we investigate the presence of AMP as a direct precursor and the involvement of a bacterial enzyme in the generation of extracellular Ado by treated bacteria. Following hBD-2 treatment, metabolites were quantified in the supernatants using targeted HPLC-MS/MS analysis. Microbial growth was monitored by optical density and cell viability was determined by colony forming units counts. Phosphatase activity was measured using chromogenic substrate pNPP. The results demonstrate that defensin-treated E. coli strain W releases AMP in the extracellular space, where it is converted to Ado by a bacterial soluble factor. An increase in phosphatase activity in the supernatant was observed after peptide treatment, similar to the effect of sucrose-induced osmotic stress, suggesting that the periplasmic 5'nucleotidase (5'-NT) is released following the plasmolysis event triggered by the peptide. Ado accumulation was enhanced in the presence of Co2+ ion and inhibited by EDTA, further supporting the involvement of a metallo-phosphatase such as 5'-NT in extracellular AMP conversion into Ado. The comparative analysis of hBD-induced Ado accumulation in different E. coli strains and in Pseudomonas aeruginosa revealed that the response is not correlated to the peptide's effect on cell viability, but indicates it might be dependent on the subcellular distribution of the nucleotidase. Taken together, these data shed light on a yet undescribed mechanism of host-microbial interaction: a human antimicrobial peptide inducing selective release of a bacterial enzyme (E. coli 5'-NT), leading to the formation of a potent immunomodulator metabolite (Ado). PMID:26371472

  13. STAT1, STAT3 and p38MAPK are involved in the apoptotic effect induced by a chimeric cyclic interferon-{alpha}2b peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, Viviana C.; Pena, Clara; Roguin, Leonor P.

    2010-02-15

    In the search of mimetic peptides of the interferon-{alpha}2b molecule (IFN-{alpha}2b), we have previously designed and synthesized a chimeric cyclic peptide of the IFN-{alpha}2b that inhibits WISH cell proliferation by inducing an apoptotic response. Here, we first studied the ability of this peptide to activate intracellular signaling pathways and then evaluated the participation of some signals in the induction of apoptosis. Stimulation of WISH cells with the cyclic peptide showed tyrosine phosphorylation of Jak1 and Tyk2 kinases, tyrosine and serine phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3 transcription factors and activation of p38 MAPK pathway, although phosphorylation levels or kinetics were in some conditions different to those obtained under IFN-{alpha}2b stimulus. JNK and p44/42 pathways were not activated by the peptide in WISH cells. We also showed that STAT1 and STAT3 downregulation by RNA interference decreased the antiproliferative activity and the amount of apoptotic cells induced by the peptide. Pharmacological inhibition of p38 MAPK also reduced the peptide growth inhibitory activity and the apoptotic effect. Thus, we demonstrated that the cyclic peptide regulates WISH cell proliferation through the activation of Jak/STAT signaling pathway. In addition, our results indicate that p38 MAPK may also be involved in cell growth regulation. This study suggests that STAT1, STAT3 and p38 MAPK would be mediating the antitumor and apoptotic response triggered by the cyclic peptide in WISH cells.

  14. An ALS-mutant TDP-43 neurotoxic peptide adopts an anti-parallel β-structure and induces TDP-43 redistribution.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li; Xu, Meng; Yang, Mengxue; Yang, Yanlian; Li, Yang; Deng, Jianwen; Ruan, Linhao; Liu, Jianghong; Du, Sidan; Liu, Xuehui; Feng, Wei; Fushimi, Kazuo; Bigio, Eileen H; Mesulam, Marsel; Wang, Chen; Wu, Jane Y

    2014-12-20

    TDP-43 proteinopathies are clinically and genetically heterogeneous diseases that had been considered distinct from classical amyloid diseases. Here, we provide evidence for the structural similarity between TDP-43 peptides and other amyloid proteins. Atomic force microscopy and electron microscopy examination of peptides spanning a previously defined amyloidogenic fragment revealed a minimal core region that forms amyloid fibrils similar to the TDP-43 fibrils detected in FTLD-TDP brain tissues. An ALS-mutant A315E amyloidogenic TDP-43 peptide is capable of cross-seeding other TDP-43 peptides and an amyloid-β peptide. Sequential Nuclear Overhauser Effects and double-quantum-filtered correlation spectroscopy in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses of the A315E-mutant TDP-43 peptide indicate that it adopts an anti-parallel β conformation. When added to cell cultures, the amyloidogenic TDP-43 peptides induce TDP-43 redistribution from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Neuronal cultures in compartmentalized microfluidic-chambers demonstrate that the TDP-43 peptides can be taken up by axons and induce axonotoxicity and neuronal death, thus recapitulating key neuropathological features of TDP-43 proteinopathies. Importantly, a single amino acid change in the amyloidogenic TDP-43 peptide that disrupts fibril formation also eliminates neurotoxicity, supporting that amyloidogenesis is critical for TDP-43 neurotoxicity. PMID:25113748

  15. An Amphiphilic Peptide Induces Apoptosis Through the miR29b-p53 Pathway in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soyoung; Lee, Jung Hyun; Kang, Igojo; Hyun, Soonsil; Yu, Jaehoon; Shin, Chanseok

    2016-01-01

    Peptides have been in the limelight, as therapeutic agents for cancer treatment through various applications due to their high target selectivity and exceptional ability to penetrate the cell membrane. Recent studies have revealed that synthesized peptides bind to hairpin structures of RNA that affect their activities such as changing the efficacy of microRNA maturation. MicroRNA-mediated p53 activation by the microRNA-29 (miR29) family is one of the most important regulatory pathways in cancer therapeutics. By targeting the suppressors of p53, a tumor suppressor protein, miR29 induces apoptosis of cancer cells through p53 stabilization. Here, we identify a novel synthesized amphiphilic peptide, LK-L1C/K6W/L8C, which enhances expression of miR29b and promotes p53 activity. In the presence of LK-L1C/K6W/L8C, pre-miR29b preferentially forms a complex with the Dicer protein through interaction of LK-L1C/K6W/L8C with the terminal loop region of pre-miR29b, leading to an increase in Dicer processing. Furthermore, LK-L1C/K6W/L8C stimulates apoptosis by improving p53 stability in miR29-inducible HeLa and MCF7 cells. Collectively, our study shows that a peptide can directly influence the miR29b-mediated p53 activation pathway in cancer cells. Therefore, our findings provide the basis for a new, potentially promising peptide-based drug for cancer therapy. PMID:27377134

  16. The delta EEG (sleep)-inducing peptide (DSIP). XI. Amino-acid analysis, sequence, synthesis and activity of the nonapeptide.

    PubMed

    Schoenenberger, G A; Maier, P F; Tobler, H J; Wilson, K; Monnier, M

    1978-09-01

    A peptide which induces slow-wave EEG (sleep) after intraventricular infusion into the brain has been isolated from the extracorporeal dialysate of cerebral venous blood in rabbits submitted to hypnogenic electrical stimulation of the intralaminar thalamic area. It was shown by amino-acid analysis and sequence determination to be Trp-Ala-Gly-Gly-Asp-Ala-Ser-Gly-Glu and named "Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide" (DSIP). This compound was synthesized as well as 5 possible metabolic products (1--8, 2--9, 2--8, 1--4 and 5--9), 2 nonapeptide analogues (with one and two amino-acids exchanged) and a related tripeptide (Trp-Ser-Glu). All 9 synthetic peptides were infused intraventricularly in rabbits (6 nmol/kg in 0.05 ml of CSF-like solution over 3.5 min) and tested under double-blind conditions. A total of 61 rabbits including controls were used. The EEG from the frontal neocortex and the limbic archicortex were subjected to direct fast-Fourier transformation and analyzed by an 1108 computer system. A highly specific delta and spindle EEG-enhancing effect of the synthetic DSIP could be demonstrated. The mean increase of EEG delta activity reached 35% in the neocortex and limbic cortex as compared to control animals receiving CSF-like solution or any of the other 8 peptides. The final chemical characterization of the synthetic DSIP revealed that only the pure alpha-aspartyl peptide is highly active in contrast to its beta-Asp isomer. A neurohumoral modulating and programming activity was suggested. PMID:568769

  17. Peptide-Induced AIEgen Self-Assembly: A New Strategy to Realize Highly Sensitive Fluorescent Light-Up Probes.

    PubMed

    Han, Aitian; Wang, Huaimin; Kwok, Ryan T K; Ji, Shenglu; Li, Jun; Kong, Deling; Tang, Ben Zhong; Liu, Bin; Yang, Zhimou; Ding, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Fluorescent light-up probes with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) characteristics have recently attracted great research interest due to their intelligent fluorescence activation mechanism and excellent photobleaching resistance. In this work, we report a new, simple, and generic strategy to design and prepare highly sensitive AIE fluorescent light-up bioprobe through facile incorporation of a self-assembling peptide sequence GFFY between the recognition element and the AIE luminogen (AIEgen). After the bioprobes respond to the targets, the peptide GFFY is capable of inducing the ordered self-assembly of AIEgens, yielding close and tight intermolecular steric interactions to restrict the intramolecular motions of AIEgens for excellent signal output. Using two proof-of-concepts, we have demonstrated that self-assembling peptide-incorporating AIE light-up probes show much higher sensitivity in sensing the corresponding targets in both solutions and cancer cells as compared to those without GFFY induced self-assembly. Taking the probe TPE-GFFYK(DVEDEE-Ac), for example, a detection limit as low as 0.54 pM can be achieved for TPE-GFFYK(DVEDEE-Ac) in caspase-3 detection, which is much lower than that of TPE-K(DVED-Ac) (3.50 pM). This study may inspire new insights into the design of advanced fluorescent molecular probes. PMID:26948051

  18. Influenza peptide-induced self-lysis and down-regulation of cloned cytotoxic T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Pemberton, R M; Wraith, D C; Askonas, B A

    1990-01-01

    Virus-specific cytotoxic T-cell (Tc) clones can lyse target cells in vitro in the presence of their specific peptide epitopes. The lytic potency of murine influenza nucleoprotein (NP)-specific Tc clones was investigated after observing that target cell killing was reduced in the presence of high (greater than 0.2 microM) concentrations of specific NP peptide antigen. Following incubation of Tc for 16 hr in the presence of a range of peptide concentrations, two effects were observed; (i) a peptide dose-dependent mortality of Tc, which has been attributed to self-lysis by clonal Tc in the presence of specific peptide; (ii) and a reduced ability to specifically lyse NP-expressing target cells whilst retaining lectin-dependent lytic activity in the surviving Tc. This functional down-regulation was reversible after 24 hr incubation in the absence of peptide. Toxic effects were excluded, since inhibition of specific target lysis by Tc was mediated only be pretreatment with specifically recognized peptide. PMID:2373520

  19. Potential Biomarker Peptides Associated with Acute Alcohol-Induced Reduction of Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Wakabayashi, Ichiro; Marumo, Mikio; Nonaka, Daisuke; Shimomura, Tomoko; Eguchi, Ryoji; Lee, Lyang-Ja; Tanaka, Kenji; Hatake, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the peptides that are related to acute reduction of blood pressure after alcohol drinking. Venous blood was collected from male healthy volunteers before and after drinking white wine (3 ml/kg weight) containing 13% of ethanol. Peptidome analysis for serum samples was performed using a new target plate, BLOTCHIP®. Alcohol caused significant decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels at 45 min. The peptidome analysis showed that the levels of three peptides of m/z 1467, 2380 and 2662 changed significantly after drinking. The m/z 1467 and 2662 peptides were identified to be fragments of fibrinogen alpha chain, and the m/z 2380 peptide was identified to be a fragment of complement C4. The intensities of the m/z 2380 and m/z 1467 peptides before drinking were associated with % decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels at 45 min after drinking compared with the levels before drinking, while there were no significant correlations between the intensity of the m/z 2662 peptide and % decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels after drinking. The m/z 1467 and 2380 peptides are suggested to be markers for acute reduction of blood pressure after drinking alcohol. PMID:26815288

  20. Fragmentation of peptide negative molecular ions induced by resonance electron capture

    PubMed Central

    Vasil’ev, Yury V.; Figard, Benjamin J.; Morré, Jeff; Deinzer, Max L.

    2009-01-01

    A simple robust method to study resonance gas-phase reactions between neutral peptides of low volatility and free electrons has been designed and implemented. Resonance electron capture (REC) experiments were performed by several neutral model peptides and two naturally occurring peptides. The assignment of negative ions (NIs) formed in these gas-phase reactions was based on high mass-resolving power experiments. From these accurate mass measurements, it was concluded that fragment NIs formed by low (1–2 eV) energy REC are of the same types as those observed in electron capture∕transfer dissociation, where the positive charge is a factor. The main feature resulting from these REC experiments by peptides is the occurrence of zn−1 ions, which are invariably of the highest abundances in the negative ion mass spectra of larger peptides. [M–H]− NIs presumably the carboxylate anion structure dominate the REC spectra of smaller peptides. There was no evidence for the occurrence of the complementary reaction, i.e., the formations of cn+1 ions. Instead, cn ions arose without hydrogen∕proton transfer albeit with lower abundances than that observed for zn−1 ions. Only the amide forms of small peptides showed more abundant ion peaks for the cn ions than for the zn−1 ions. The mechanisms for the N–Cα bond cleavage are discussed. PMID:19655877

  1. A Huntingtin-based peptide inhibitor of caspase-6 provides protection from mutant Huntingtin-induced motor and behavioral deficits

    PubMed Central

    Aharony, Israel; Ehrnhoefer, Dagmar E.; Shruster, Adi; Qiu, Xiaofan; Franciosi, Sonia; Hayden, Michael R.; Offen, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, increasing evidence has implied a significant connection between caspase-6 activity and the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease (HD). Consequently, inhibiting caspase-6 activity was suggested as a promising therapeutic strategy to reduce mutant Huntingtin toxicity, and to provide protection from mutant Huntingtin-induced motor and behavioral deficits. Here, we describe a novel caspase-6 inhibitor peptide based on the huntingtin caspase-6 cleavage site, fused with a cell-penetrating sequence. The peptide reduces mutant Huntingtin proteolysis by caspase-6, and protects cells from mutant Huntingtin toxicity. Continuous subcutaneous administration of the peptide protected pre-symptomatic BACHD mice from motor deficits and behavioral abnormalities. Moreover, administration of the peptide in an advanced disease state resulted in the partial recovery of motor performance, and an alleviation of depression-related behavior and cognitive deficits. Our findings reveal the potential of substrate-based caspase inhibition as a therapeutic strategy, and present a promising agent for the treatment of HD. PMID:25616965

  2. Temperature-induced reversible self-assembly of diphenylalanine peptide and the structural transition from organogel to crystalline nanowires.

    PubMed

    Huang, Renliang; Wang, Yuefei; Qi, Wei; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

    2014-01-01

    Controlling the self-assembly of diphenylalanine peptide (FF) into various nanoarchitectures has received great amounts of attention in recent years. Here, we report the temperature-induced reversible self-assembly of diphenylalanine peptide to microtubes, nanowires, or organogel in different solvents. We also find that the organogel in isopropanol transforms into crystalline flakes or nanowires when the temperature increases. The reversible self-assembly in polar solvents may be mainly controlled by electronic and aromatic interactions between the FF molecules themselves, which is associated with the dissociation equilibrium and significantly influenced by temperature. We found that the organogel in the isopropanol solvent made a unique transition to crystalline structures, a process that is driven by temperature and may be kinetically controlled. During the heating-cooling process, FF preferentially self-assembles to metastable nanofibers and organogel. They further transform to thermodynamically stable crystal structures via molecular rearrangement after introducing an external energy, such as the increasing temperature used in this study. The strategy demonstrated in this study provides an efficient way to controllably fabricate smart, temperature-responsive peptide nanomaterials and enriches the understanding of the growth mechanism of diphenylalanine peptide nanostructures. PMID:25520600

  3. Temperature-induced reversible self-assembly of diphenylalanine peptide and the structural transition from organogel to crystalline nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Controlling the self-assembly of diphenylalanine peptide (FF) into various nanoarchitectures has received great amounts of attention in recent years. Here, we report the temperature-induced reversible self-assembly of diphenylalanine peptide to microtubes, nanowires, or organogel in different solvents. We also find that the organogel in isopropanol transforms into crystalline flakes or nanowires when the temperature increases. The reversible self-assembly in polar solvents may be mainly controlled by electronic and aromatic interactions between the FF molecules themselves, which is associated with the dissociation equilibrium and significantly influenced by temperature. We found that the organogel in the isopropanol solvent made a unique transition to crystalline structures, a process that is driven by temperature and may be kinetically controlled. During the heating-cooling process, FF preferentially self-assembles to metastable nanofibers and organogel. They further transform to thermodynamically stable crystal structures via molecular rearrangement after introducing an external energy, such as the increasing temperature used in this study. The strategy demonstrated in this study provides an efficient way to controllably fabricate smart, temperature-responsive peptide nanomaterials and enriches the understanding of the growth mechanism of diphenylalanine peptide nanostructures. PMID:25520600

  4. Thiosemicarbazone modification of 3-acetyl coumarin inhibits Aβ peptide aggregation and protect against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Ranade, Dnyanesh S; Bapat, Archika M; Ramteke, Shefali N; Joshi, Bimba N; Roussel, Pascal; Tomas, Alain; Deschamps, Patrick; Kulkarni, Prasad P

    2016-10-01

    Aggregation of amyloid β peptide (Aβ) is an important event in the progression of Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, among the available therapeutic approaches to fight with disease, inhibition of Aβ aggregation is widely studied and one of the promising approach for the development of treatments for Alzheimer's disease. Thiosemicarbazone compounds are known for their variety of biological activities. However, the potential of thiosemicarbazone compounds towards inhibition of Aβ peptide aggregation and the subsequent toxicity is little explored. Herein, we report synthesis and x-ray crystal structure of novel compound 3-acetyl coumarin thiosemicarbazone and its efficacy toward inhibition of Aβ(1-42) peptide aggregation. Our results indicate that 3-acetyl coumarin thiosemicarbazone inhibits Aβ(1-42) peptide aggregation up to 80% compared to the parent 3-acetyl coumarin which inhibits 52%. Further, 3-acetyl coumarin thiosemicarbazone provides neuroprotection against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cell line. These findings indicate that thiosemicarbazone modification renders 3-acetyl coumarin neuroprotective properties. PMID:26232353

  5. Synthetic. cap alpha. subunit peptide 125-147 of human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor induces antibodies to native receptor

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, D.J.; Griesmann, G.E.; Huang, Z.; Lennon, V.A.

    1986-03-05

    A synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 125-147 of the Torpedo acetylcholine receptor (AChR) ..cap alpha.. subunit proved to be a major antigenic region of the AChR. Rats inoculated with 50 ..mu..g of peptide (T ..cap alpha.. 125-147) developed T cell immunity and antibodies to native AChR and signs of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. They report the synthesis and preliminary testing of a disulfide-looped peptide comprising residues 125-147 of the human AChR ..cap alpha.. subunit. Peptide H ..cap alpha.. 125-147 differs from T ..cap alpha.. 125-147 at residues 139 (Glu for Gln) and 143 (Ser for Thr). In immunoprecipitation assays, antibodies to Torpedo AChR bound /sup 125/I-labelled H..cap alpha.. 125-147 antibody bound H..cap alpha.. 125-147, but monoclonal antibodies to an immunodominant region of native AChR bound neither H..cap alpha.. 125-147 nor T ..cap alpha.. 125-147. Rats immunized with H ..cap alpha.. 125-147 produced anti-mammalian muscle AChR antibodies that induced modulation of AChRs from cultured human myotubes. Thus, region 125-147 of the human AChR ..cap alpha.. subunit is extracellular in muscle, and is both antigenic and immunogenic. It remains to be determined whether or not autoantibodies to this region may in part cause the weakness or myasthenia gravis in man.

  6. Glucagon like peptide-2 induces intestinal restitution through VEGF release from subepithelial myofibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Kerem; Pennartz, Christian; Felderbauer, Peter; Meier, Juris J; Banasch, Matthias; Bulut, Daniel; Schmitz, Frank; Schmidt, Wolfgang E; Hoffmann, Peter

    2008-01-14

    Glucagon like peptide-2 (GLP-2) exerts intestinotrophic actions, but the underlying mechanisms are still a matter of debate. Recent studies demonstrated the expression of the GLP-2 receptor on fibroblasts located in the subepithelial tissue, where it might induce the release of growth factors such as keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Therefore, in the present studies we sought to elucidate the downstream mechanisms involved in improved intestinal adaptation by GLP-2. Human colonic fibroblasts (CCD-18Co), human colonic cancer cells (Caco-2 cells) and rat ileum IEC-18 cells were used. GLP-2 receptor mRNA expression was determined using real time RT-PCR. Conditioned media from CCD-18Co cells were obtained following incubation with GLP-2 (50-250 nM) for 24 h. Cell viability was assessed by a 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT)-assay, and wound healing was determined with an established migration-assay. Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-beta), VEGF and KGF mRNA levels were determined by RT-PCR. Protein levels of VEGF and TGF-beta in CCD-18Co cells following GLP-2 stimulation were determined using ELISA. Neutralizing TGF-beta and VEGF-A antibodies were utilized to assess the role of TGF-beta and VEGF-A in the process of wound healing. GLP-2 receptor expression was detected in CCD-18Co cells. Conditioned media from CCD-18Co cells dose-dependently induced proliferation in Caco-2 cells, but not in IEC-18 cells. Conditioned media also enhanced cell migration in IEC-18 cells (P<0.01), while migration was even inhibited in Caco-2 cells (P<0.0012). GLP-2 significantly stimulated mRNA expression of VEGF and TGF-beta, but not of KGF in CCD-18Co. The migratory effects of GLP-2 were completely abolished in the presence of TGF-beta and VEGF-A antibodies. GLP-2 exerts differential effects on the epithelium of the small intestine and the colon. Thus, in small intestinal cells GLP-2 stimulates wound

  7. Structural transformation of peptide amphiphile self-assembly induced by headgroup charge and size regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Changrui; Bedzyk, Michael; Olvera, Monica; Kewalramani, Sumit; Palmer, Liam

    The ability to control the nano and the meso-scale architecture of molecular assemblies is one of the major challenges in nanoscience. Significantly, structural transformations of amphiphilic aggregates induced by variations in environmental conditions have attracted attention due to their biotechnological relevance. Here, we study the assembly in aqueous solution for a modular series of peptide amphiphiles with 3, 2 or 1 lysine groups conjugated to a C16 carbon tail (C16K3, C16K2 and C16K1) . This system design allow us to probe how the equilibrium structure of the self-assembly can be tuned by controlling the coupling between steric (via choice of headgroup: K3, K2, or K1) and electrostatic (via solution pH) interactions. Solution small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies reveal that depending on pH and number of lysines in the lipid headgroup, amphiphiles can assemble into a range of structures: spherical micelles, bilayer ribbons and vesicles. We also perform detailed phase space mapping of pH-and headgroup size dependency of the structures of assembly over 0.1-100 nm length scales via SAXS/WAXS. The experimental results in conjunction with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations deduce quantitative relations between pH-dependent molecular charges, steric constraints and self-assembly morphologies, which is significant for developing experimental routes to obtain assembly structures with specific nano- and meso-scale features through controlled external stimuli.

  8. Subpopulation-Specific Transcriptome Analysis of Competence-Stimulating-Peptide-Induced Streptococcus mutans▿†

    PubMed Central

    Lemme, André; Gröbe, Lothar; Reck, Michael; Tomasch, Jürgen; Wagner-Döbler, Irene

    2011-01-01

    Competence-stimulating-peptide (CSP)-mediated competence development in Streptococcus mutans is a transient and biphasic process, since only a subpopulation induces the expression of ComX in the presence of CSP, and the activation of the DNA uptake machinery in this fraction shuts down ∼3 to 4 h postinduction. Here, we combine for the first time, to our knowledge, the bacterial flow-cytometric sorting of cells and subpopulation-specific transcriptome analysis of both the competent and noncompetent fraction of CSP-treated S. mutans cells. Sorting was guided by a ComX-green fluorescent protein (ComX-GFP) reporter, and the transcriptome analysis demonstrated the successful combination of both methods, because a strong enrichment of transcripts for comX and its downstream genes was achieved. Three two-component systems were expressed in the competent fraction, and among them was ComDE. Moreover, the recently identified regulator system ComR/S was expressed exclusively in the competent fraction. In contrast, the expression of bacteriocin-related genes was at the same level in all cells. GFP reporter strains for ComE and CipB (mutacin V) confirmed this expression pattern on the single-cell level. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that some ComX-expressing cells committed autolysis in an early stage of competence initiation. In viable ComX-expressing cells, the uptake of DNA could be shown on the single-cell level. This study demonstrates that all cells in the population respond to CSP through the activation of bacteriocin-related genes. Some of these cells start to activate ComX expression but then segregate into two subpopulations, one becoming competent and another one that lyses, resulting in intrapopulation diversity. PMID:21317319

  9. The oncolytic peptide LTX-315 induces cell death and DAMP release by mitochondria distortion in human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Eike, Liv-Marie; Yang, Nannan; Rekdal, Øystein; Sveinbjørnsson, Baldur

    2015-10-27

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are naturally occurring molecules found in most species, in which they play a significant role in the first line defense against intruding pathogens, and several HDPs have been shown to possess anticancer activity. Structure-activity relationship studies on the HDP bovine lactoferricin revealed a de novo design of a nonamer peptide LTX-315, with oncolytic properties. In the present study, we investigated the oncolytic activity of LTX-315 in human melanoma cells (A375). LTX-315 induced a rapid plasma membrane disruption and cell death within 2 hours. At a low concentration, fluorescence-labeled LTX-315 was internalized and accumulated in cytoplasmic vacuoles in close proximity to the mitochondria. The mitochondrial membrane potential was shown to depolarize as a consequence of LTX-315 treatment and at ultrastructural level, the mitochondria morphology was significantly altered. Release of danger signals (DAMPs) such as ATP, Cytochrome C and HMGB1 into the cell supernatant of cultured cells was evident minutes after peptide treatment. The oncolytic effect of LTX-315 involving perturbation of both the cell membrane and the mitochondria with subsequent release of DAMPs may highlight the ability of LTX-315 to induce complete regression and long-term protective immune responses as previously reported in experimental animal models. PMID:26472184

  10. The oncolytic peptide LTX-315 induces cell death and DAMP release by mitochondria distortion in human melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Eike, Liv-Marie; Yang, Nannan; Rekdal, Øystein; Sveinbjørnsson, Baldur

    2015-01-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are naturally occurring molecules found in most species, in which they play a significant role in the first line defense against intruding pathogens, and several HDPs have been shown to possess anticancer activity. Structure-activity relationship studies on the HDP bovine lactoferricin revealed a de novo design of a nonamer peptide LTX-315, with oncolytic properties. In the present study, we investigated the oncolytic activity of LTX-315 in human melanoma cells (A375). LTX-315 induced a rapid plasma membrane disruption and cell death within 2 hours. At a low concentration, fluorescence-labeled LTX-315 was internalized and accumulated in cytoplasmic vacuoles in close proximity to the mitochondria. The mitochondrial membrane potential was shown to depolarize as a consequence of LTX-315 treatment and at ultrastructural level, the mitochondria morphology was significantly altered. Release of danger signals (DAMPs) such as ATP, Cytochrome C and HMGB1 into the cell supernatant of cultured cells was evident minutes after peptide treatment. The oncolytic effect of LTX-315 involving perturbation of both the cell membrane and the mitochondria with subsequent release of DAMPs may highlight the ability of LTX-315 to induce complete regression and long-term protective immune responses as previously reported in experimental animal models. PMID:26472184

  11. Synthetic peptides from a conserved region of gp120 induce broadly reactive anti-HIV responses.

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, W J; Williams, W M; Whalley, A S; Ryskamp, T; Newman, R; Kang, C Y; Chamat, S; Köhler, H; Kieber-Emmons, T

    1992-01-01

    In our efforts to identify products that might be used for active immunotherapy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, we have studied synthetic peptides derived from the CD4 attachment site of gp120. Two peptides have emerged with particularly interesting properties. The first (B138) is linear and spans the envelope residues 421-438; the second (1005/45) encompasses amino acids 418-445 and is cyclized by way of a disulphide bond joining its terminal cysteines. Both species have been shown to inhibit syncytial formation in a conventional bioassay, B138 being the most efficient. Both peptides elicit high titres of anti-peptide antibodies in immunized mice, rabbits and goats, with titres exceeding 1:10(5) in many cases. A substantial portion of this response is directed against gp120 as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Analysis by flow cytometry has demonstrated that the antisera are broadly reactive with multiple diverse strains of HIV. The anti-gp120 activity of the anti-peptide antiserum was further confirmed by radioimmuno-precipitation (RIP) assays. Furthermore, RIP analysis and inhibition experiments in a GD4-gp120 binding assay have revealed that anti-peptide sera contain antibodies directed against the CD4 attachment site on gp120 and interfere with this receptor-ligand interaction. Images Figure 4 PMID:1592430

  12. Characterizing Peptide Neutral Losses Induced by Negative Electron-Transfer Dissociation (NETD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumachik, Neil G.; McAlister, Graeme C.; Russell, Jason D.; Bailey, Derek J.; Wenger, Craig D.; Coon, Joshua J.

    2012-04-01

    We implemented negative electron-transfer dissociation (NETD) on a hybrid ion trap/Orbitrap mass spectrometer to conduct ion/ion reactions using peptide anions and radical reagent cations. In addition to sequence-informative ladders of a•- and x-type fragment ions, NETD generated intense neutral loss peaks corresponding to the entire or partial side-chain cleavage from amino acids constituting a given peptide. Thus, a critical step towards the characterization of this recently introduced fragmentation technique is a systematic study of synthetic peptides to identify common neutral losses and preferential fragmentation pathways. Examining 46 synthetic peptides with high mass accuracy and high resolution analysis permitted facile determination of the chemical composition of each neutral loss. We identified 19 unique neutral losses from 14 amino acids and three modified amino acids, and assessed the specificity and sensitivity of each neutral loss using a database of 1542 confidently identified peptides generated from NETD shotgun experiments employing high-pH separations and negative electrospray ionization. As residue-specific neutral losses indicate the presence of certain amino acids, we determined that many neutral losses have potential diagnostic utility. We envision this catalogue of neutral losses being incorporated into database search algorithms to improve peptide identification specificity and to further advance characterization of the acidic proteome.

  13. Prediction of optimal peptide mixtures to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Holley, L H; Goudsmit, J; Karplus, M

    1991-01-01

    Sequences of the principal neutralizing determinant (PND) of the external envelope protein, gp120, from 245 isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 are analyzed. The minimal set of peptides that would elicit antibodies to neutralize a majority of U.S. and European isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is determined with the assumption that peptides of a given length including the central Gly-Pro-Gly triad are required. In spite of the hypervariability of the PND, 90% of these 245 sequences include peptides from a set of 7 pentapeptides, 13 hexapeptides, or 17 heptapeptides. Tests of these peptide sets on 78 additional PND sequences show that 95% are covered by the 7 pentapeptides, 94% by the 13 hexapeptides, and 86% by the 17 heptapeptides. To anticipate variants not yet observed, single amino acid mutation frequencies from the 245 isolates are used to calculate an expanded set of the 10,000 most probable PND sequences. These sequences cover 86% of the total distribution expected for the central portion of the PND. Peptide lists derived from this expanded set when tested on the 78 additional sequences show that 7 pentapeptides cover 95%, 13 hexapeptides cover 94%, and 17 heptapeptides cover 94%. These results suggest that peptide cocktails of limited size with the potential to cover a large fraction of PND sequence variation may be feasible vaccine candidates. PMID:1862103

  14. Rational Optimization of Conformational Effects Induced By Hydrocarbon Staples in Peptides and their Binding Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lama, Dilraj; Quah, Soo T.; Verma, Chandra S.; Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Beuerman, Roger W.; Lane, David P.; Brown, Christopher J.

    2013-12-01

    eIF4E is frequently over-expressed in different cancers and causes increased translation of oncogenic proteins via deregulated cap-dependent translation. Inhibitors of the eIF4E:eIF4G interactions represent an approach that would normalize cap-dependent translation. Stapled peptides represent an emerging class of therapeutics that can target protein: protein interactions. We present here molecular dynamics simulations for a set of rationally designed stapled peptides in solution and in complex with eIF4E, supported with biophysical and crystallographic data. Clustering of the simulated structures revealed the favoured conformational states of the stapled peptides in their bound or free forms in solution. Identifying these populations has allowed us to design peptides with improved affinities by introducing mutations into the peptide sequence to alter their conformational distributions. These studies emphasise the effects that engineered mutations have on the conformations of free and bound peptides, and illustrate that both states must be considered in efforts to attain high affinity binding.

  15. Exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist, protects against amyloid-β peptide-induced impairment of spatial learning and memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiao-Tao; Ye-Tian; Yuan-Li; Zhang, Ge-Juan; Liu, Zhi-Qin; Di, Zheng-Li; Ying, Xiao-Ping; Fang, Yan; Song, Er-Fei; Qi, Jin-Shun; Pan, Yan-Fang

    2016-05-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) share specific molecular mechanisms, and agents with proven efficacy in one may be useful against the other. The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist exendin-4 has similar properties to GLP-1 and is currently in clinical use for T2DM treatment. Thus, this study was designed to characterize the effects of exendin-4 on the impairment of learning and memory induced by amyloid protein (Aβ) and its probable molecular underlying mechanisms. The results showed that (1) intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of Aβ1-42 resulted in a significant decline of spatial learning and memory of rats in water maze tests; (2) pretreatment with exendin-4 effectively and dose-dependently protected against the Aβ1-42-induced impairment of spatial learning and memory; (3) exendin-4 treatment significantly decreased the expression of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 and increased the expression of Bcl2 in Aβ1-42-induced Alzheimer's rats. The vision and swimming speed of the rats among all groups in the visible platform tests did not show any difference. These findings indicate that systemic pretreatment with exendin-4 can effectively prevent the behavioral impairment induced by neurotoxic Aβ1-42, and the underlying protective mechanism of exendin-4 may be involved in the Bcl2, Bax and caspase-3 pathways. Thus, the application of exendin-4 or the activation of its signaling pathways may be a promising strategy to ameliorate the degenerative processes observed in AD. PMID:26992957

  16. Tuning the autophagy-inducing activity of lanthanide-based nanocrystals through specific surface-coating peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunjiao; Zheng, Fang; Yang, Tianlong; Zhou, Wei; Liu, Yun; Man, Na; Zhang, Li; Jin, Nan; Dou, Qingqing; Zhang, Yong; Li, Zhengquan; Wen, Long-Ping

    2012-09-01

    The induction of autophagy on exposure of cells to a variety of nanoparticles represents both a safety concern and an application niche for engineered nanomaterials. Here, we show that a short synthetic peptide, RE-1, identified by means of phage display, binds to lanthanide (LN) oxide and upconversion nanocrystals (UCN), forms a stable coating layer on the nanoparticles’ surface, and effectively abrogates their autophagy-inducing activity. Furthermore, RE-1 peptide variants exhibit a differentially reduced binding capability, and correspondingly, a varied ability to reduce the autophagic response. We also show that the addition of an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif to RE-1 enhances autophagy for LN UCN through the interaction with integrins. RE-1 and its variants provide a versatile tool for tuning material-cell interactions to achieve the desired level of autophagy, and may prove useful for the various diagnostic and therapeutic applications of LN-based nanomaterials and nanodevices.

  17. Effect of Leu-enkephalin and delta sleep inducing peptide (DSIP) on endogenous noradrenaline release by rat brain synaptosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Lozhanets, V.V.; Anosov, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    The nonapeptide delta-sleep inducing peptide (DSIP) causes specific changes in the encephalogram of recipient animals: It prolongs the phase of long-wave or delta sleep. The cellular mechanism of action of DSIP has not yet been explained. To test the hyporhesis that this peptide or its degradation product may be presynaptic regulators of catecholamine release, the action of Leu-enkephaline, DSIP, and amino acids composing DSIP on release of endogenous noradrenalin (NA) from synaptosomes during depolarization was compared. Subcellular fractions from cerebral hemisphere of noninbred male albino rats were isolated. Lactate dehydrogenase activity was determined in the suspension of synaptosomes before and after addition of 0.5% Triton X-100. The results were subjected to statistical analysis, using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney nonparametric test.

  18. The cell aggregating propensity of probiotic actinobacterial isolates: isolation and characterization of the aggregation inducing peptide pheromone.

    PubMed

    Muthu Selvam, Ramu; Vinothini, Gopal; Palliyarai Thaiyammal, Sethuramalingam; Latha, Selvanathan; Chinnathambi, Arunachalam; Dhanasekaran, Dharumadurai; Padmanabhan, Parasuraman; Ali Alharbi, Sulaiman; Archunan, Govindaraju

    2016-01-01

    The auto-aggregating ability of a probiotic is a prerequisite for colonization and protection of the gastrointestinal tract, whereas co-aggregation provides a close interaction with pathogenic bacteria. Peptide pheromone mediated signaling has been studied in several systems. However, it has not yet been explored in prokaryotes, especially actinobacteria. Hence, in the present study, the diffusible aggregation promoting factor was purified from the culture supernatant of a potent actinobacterial probiont and characterized using 20 different actinobacterial cultures isolated from the gut region of chicken and goat. The results showed that the pheromone-like compound induces the aggregation propensity of treated isolates. The factor was found to be a heat stable, acidic pH resistant, low molecular weight peptide which enhances the biofilm forming ability of other actinobacterial isolates. The aggregation promoting factor represents a bacterial sex factor (pheromone) and its characterization confirms its usage in the probiotic formulation. PMID:26754920

  19. Cell-penetrating peptides do not cross mitochondrial membranes even when conjugated to a lipophilic cation: evidence against direct passage through phospholipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    CPPs (cell-penetrating peptides) facilitate the cellular uptake of covalently attached oligonucleotides, proteins and other macromolecules, but the mechanism of their uptake is disputed. Two models are proposed: direct movement through the phospholipid bilayer and endocytic uptake. Mitochondria are a good model system to distinguish between these possibilities, since they have no vesicular transport systems. Furthermore, CPP-mediated delivery of macromolecules to the mitochondrial matrix would be a significant breakthrough in the study of mitochondrial function and dysfunction, and could also lead to new therapies for diseases caused by mitochondrial damage. Therefore we investigated whether two CPPs, penetratin and Tat, could act as mitochondrial delivery vectors. We also determined whether conjugation of the lipophilic cation TPP (triphenylphosphonium) to penetratin or Tat facilitated their uptake into mitochondria, since TPP leads to uptake of attached molecules into mitochondria driven by the membrane potential. Neither penetratin nor Tat, nor their TPP conjugates, are internalized by isolated mitochondria, indicating that these CPPs cannot cross mitochondrial phospholipid bilayers. Tat and TPP–Tat are taken up by cells, but they accumulate in endosomes and do not reach mitochondria. We conclude that CPPs cannot cross mitochondrial phospholipid bilayers, and therefore cannot deliver macromolecules directly to mitochondria. Our findings shed light on the mechanism of uptake of CPPs by cells. The lack of direct movement of CPPs through mitochondrial phospholipid bilayers, along with the observed endosomal accumulation of Tat and TPP–Tat in cells, makes it unlikely that CPPs enter cells by direct membrane passage, and instead favours cellular uptake via an endocytic pathway. PMID:15270716

  20. HINT1 peptide/Hsp70 complex induces NK-cell-dependent immunoregulation in a model of autoimmune demyelination.

    PubMed

    Galazka, Grazyna; Jurewicz, Anna; Domowicz, Malgorzata; Cannella, Barbara; Raine, Cedric S; Selmaj, Krzysztof

    2014-10-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) interact with the immune system and have been shown to contribute to immunoregulation. As efficient chaperones, Hsps bind many peptides and these complexes have many yet-to-be-clarified functions. We have shown that Hsp70 is complexed within the mouse CNS with peptide CLAFHDISPQAPTHFLVIPK derived from histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein-1 (HINT1₃₈₋₅₇/Hsp70). Only this complex, in contrast to other peptides complexed with Hsp70, was able to prevent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) by induction of immunoregulatory mechanisms dependent on NK cells. Pretreatment of proteolipid protein peptide ₁₃₉₋₁₅₁(PLP₁₃₉₋₁₅₁) sensitized SJL/J mice with HINT1₃₈₋₅₇/Hsp70 prevented the development of EAE, suppressed PLP₁₃₉₋₁₅₁-induced T-cell proliferation, and blocked secretion of IL-17. HINT1₃₈₋₅₇ /Hsp70 stimulation of NK cells depended on synergistic activation of two NK-cell receptors, CD94 and NKG2D. NK cells with depleted CD94 or with blocked NKG2D did not inhibit PLP₁₃₉₋₁₅₁-induced spleen cell (SC) proliferation. The HINT1₃₈₋₅₇/Hsp70 complex enhanced surface expression of the NKG2D ligand-H60. Downstream signaling of CD94 and NKG2D converged at the adaptor proteins DAP10 and DAP12, and in response to HINT1₃₈₋₅₇ /Hsp70 stimulation, expression of DAP10 and DAP12 was significantly increased in NK cells. Thus, we have shown that the HINT1₃₈₋₅₇ /Hsp70 complex affects NK-cell function by enhancing NK-cell-dependent immunoregulation in the EAE model of autoimmune demyelination. PMID:25092109

  1. The vaccine-site microenvironment induced by injection of incomplete Freund's adjuvant, with or without melanoma peptides

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Rebecca C.; Chianese-Bullock, Kimberly A.; Petroni, Gina R.; Schaefer, Jochen T.; Brill, Louis B.; Molhoek, Kerrington R.; Deacon, Donna H.; Patterson, James W.; Slingluff, Craig L.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer vaccines have not been optimized. They depend on adjuvants to create an immunogenic microenvironment for antigen presentation. However, remarkably little is understood about cellular and molecular changes induced by these adjuvants in the vaccine microenvironment. We hypothesized that vaccination induces dendritic cell activation in the dermal vaccination microenvironment but that regulatory processes may also limit the effectiveness of repeated vaccination. We evaluated biopsies from immunization sites in two clinical trials of melanoma patients. In one study (Mel38), patients received one injection with an adjuvant mixture alone, comprised of incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) plus granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). In a second study, patients received multiple vaccinations with melanoma peptide antigens plus IFA. Single injections with adjuvant alone induced dermal inflammatory infiltrates consisting of B cells, T cells, mature dendritic cells (DC) and vessels resembling high endothelial venules (HEV). These cellular aggregates usually lacked organization and were transient. In contrast, multiple repeated vaccinations with peptides in adjuvant induced more organized and persistent lymphoid aggregates containing separate B and T cell areas, mature DC, HEV-like vessels, and lymphoid chemokines. Within these structures, there are proliferating CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, as well as FoxP3+CD4+ lymphocytes, suggesting a complex interplay of lymphoid expansion and regulation within the dermal immunization microenvironment. Further study of the physiology of the vaccine site microenvironment promises to identify opportunities for enhancing cancer vaccine efficacy by modulating immune activation and regulation at the site of vaccination. PMID:22130163

  2. Phospholipase C gamma mediates endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor-regulated calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in colitis-induced visceral pain

    PubMed Central

    Hashmi, Fiza; Liu, Miao; Shen, Shanwei

    2016-01-01

    Background Visceral hypersensitivity is a complex pathophysiological paradigm with unclear mechanisms. Primary afferent neuronal plasticity marked by alterations in neuroactive compounds such as calcitonin gene-related peptide is suggested to underlie the heightened sensory responses. Signal transduction that leads to calcitonin gene-related peptide expression thereby sensory neuroplasticity during colitis remains to be elucidated. Results In a rat model with colitis induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid, we found that endogenously elevated brain-derived neurotrophic factor elicited an up-regulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide in the lumbar L1 dorsal root ganglia. At seven days of colitis, neutralization of brain-derived neurotrophic factor with a specific brain-derived neurotrophic factor antibody reversed calcitonin gene-related peptide up-regulation in the dorsal root ganglia. Colitis-induced calcitonin gene-related peptide transcription was also inhibited by brain-derived neurotrophic factor antibody treatment. Signal transduction studies with dorsal root ganglia explants showed that brain-derived neurotrophic factor-induced calcitonin gene-related peptide expression was mediated by the phospholipase C gamma, but not the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt or the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase pathway. Application of PLC inhibitor U73122 in vivo confirmed that colitis-induced and brain-derived neurotrophic factor-mediated calcitonin gene-related peptide up-regulation in the dorsal root ganglia was regulated by the phospholipase C gamma pathway. In contrast, suppression of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity in vivo had no effect on colitis-induced calcitonin gene-related peptide expression. During colitis, calcitonin gene-related peptide also co-expressed with phospholipase C gamma but not with p-Akt. Calcitonin gene-related peptide up-regulation during colitis correlated to the activation

  3. Peptide induced crystallization of calcium carbonate on wrinkle patterned substrate: implications for chitin formation in molluscs.

    PubMed

    Ghatak, Anindita Sengupta; Koch, Marcus; Guth, Christina; Weiss, Ingrid M

    2013-01-01

    We here present the nucleation and growth of calcium carbonate under the influence of synthetic peptides on topographically patterned poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) substrates, which have a controlled density of defects between the wrinkles. Experiments with two lysine-rich peptides derived from the extracellular conserved domain E22 of the mollusc chitin synthase Ar-CS1, AKKKKKAS (AS8) and EEKKKKKES (ES9) on these substrates showed their influence on the calcium carbonate morphology. A transition from polycrystalline composites to single crystalline phases was achieved with the peptide AS8 by changing the pH of the buffer solution. We analyzed three different pH values as previous experiments showed that E22 interacts with aragonite biominerals more strongly at pH 7.75 than at pH 9.0. At any given pH, crystals appeared in characteristic morphologies only on wrinkled substrates, and did not occur on the flat, wrinkle-free PDMS substrate. These results suggest that these wrinkled substrates could be useful for controlling the morphologies of other mineral/peptide and mineral/protein composites. In nature, these templates are formed enzymatically by glycosyltransferases containing pH-sensitive epitopes, similar to the peptides investigated here. Our in vitro test systems may be useful to gain understanding of the formation of distinct 3D morphologies in mollusc shells in response to local pH shifts during the mineralization of organic templates. PMID:23736692

  4. C-Type Natriuretic Peptide Induces Anti-contractile Effect Dependent on Nitric Oxide, Oxidative Stress, and NPR-B Activation in Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Pernomian, Laena; Prado, Alejandro F.; Silva, Bruno R.; Azevedo, Aline; Pinheiro, Lucas C.; Tanus-Santos, José E.; Bendhack, Lusiane M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the role of nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and natriuretic peptide receptor-B activation in C-type natriuretic peptide-anti-contractile effect on Phenylephrine-induced contraction in aorta isolated from septic rats. Methods and Results: Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) surgery was used to induce sepsis in male rats. Vascular reactivity was conducted in rat aorta and resistance mesenteric artery (RMA). Measurement of survival rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), plasma nitric oxide, specific protein expression, and localization were evaluated. Septic rats had a survival rate about 37% at 4 h after the surgery, and these rats presented hypotension compared to control-operated (Sham) rats. Phenylephrine-induced contraction was decreased in sepsis. C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) induced anti-contractile effect in aortas. Plasma nitric oxide was increased in sepsis. Nitric oxide-synthase but not natriuretic peptide receptor-B expression was increased in septic rat aortas. C-type natriuretic peptide-anti-contractile effect was dependent on nitric oxide-synthase, ROS, and natriuretic peptide receptor-B activation. Natriuretic peptide receptor-C, protein kinase-Cα mRNA, and basal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent ROS production were lower in septic rats. Phenylephrine and CNP enhanced ROS production. However, stimulated ROS production was low in sepsis. Conclusion: CNP induced anti-contractile effect on Phenylephrine contraction in aortas from Sham and septic rats that was dependent on nitric oxide-synthase, ROS, and natriuretic peptide receptor-B activation. PMID:27445832

  5. Cell Death of Streptococcus mutans Induced by a Quorum-Sensing Peptide Occurs via a Conserved Streptococcal Autolysin

    PubMed Central

    Dufour, Delphine

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a member of the human indigenous oral microbiome, produces a quorum-sensing peptide called the competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) pheromone. We previously demonstrated that S. mutans expresses its CSP pheromone under specific stresses and responds to high levels of CSP by inducing cell death in a fraction of the bacterial population. Streptococci lack the classical SOS response, and the induction of the SigX regulon has been proposed to act as a general stress response in Gram-positive bacteria. We show here that inactivation of SigX abolished the CSP-induced cell death phenotype. Among SigX-regulated genes, SMU.836 (now named lytFSm), encoding a conserved streptococcal protein, is a functional peptidoglycan hydrolase involved in CSP-induced cell lysis. We also demonstrated that LytFSm is most likely a self-acting autolysin, since LytFSm produced by attacker cells cannot trigger CSP-induced lysis of LytFSm-deficient target cells present in the same environment. Electron microscopy revealed important morphological changes accompanying autolysis of CSP-induced wild-type cultures that were absent in the LytFSm-deficient mutant. The LytFSm promoter was activated in the physiological context of elevated concentrations of the CSP pheromone under stress conditions, such as exposure to heat, hydrogen peroxide, and acid. In a long-term survival assay, the viability of a mutant deficient in LytFSm autolysin was significantly lower than that observed for the wild-type strain. The results of this study suggest that cell death of S. mutans induced by its quorum-sensing CSP pheromone may represent a kind of altruistic act that provides a way for the species to survive environmental stresses at the expense of some of its cells. PMID:23104806

  6. Large-scale production of soluble recombinant amyloid-β peptide 1-42 using cold-inducible expression system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Jeong Chan; Lee, Jeong Mi; Jeong, Min Seop; Oh, Choongseob; Ahn, Sung-Min; Yoo, Yung Joon; Jang, Ho Hee

    2012-11-01

    Amyloid-β peptide 1-42 (Aβ(1-42)), the predominant form in senile plaques, plays important roles in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Because Aβ(1-42) has aggregation-prone nature, it has been difficult to produce in a soluble state in bacterial expression systems. In this study, we modified our expression system to increase the soluble fraction of Aβ(1-42) in Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells. The expression level and solubility of recombinant Aβ(1-42) induced at the low temperature (16°C) is highly increased compared to that induced at 37°C. To optimize expression temperature, the coding region of Aβ(1-42) was constructed in a pCold vector, pCold-TF, which has a hexahistidine-tagged trigger factor (TF). Recombinant Aβ(1-42) was expressed primarily as a soluble protein using pCold vector system and purified with a nickel-chelating resin. When the toxic effect of recombinant Aβ(1-42) examined on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, the purified Aβ(1-42) induced cell toxicity on SH-SY5Y cells. In conclusion, the system developed in this study will provide a useful method for the production of aggregation prone-peptide such as Aβ(1-42). PMID:22982229

  7. TRAIL-expressing CD8+ T cells mediate tolerance following soluble peptide-induced peripheral T cell deletion

    PubMed Central

    Gurung, Prajwal; Kucaba, Tamara A.; Schoenberger, Stephen P.; Ferguson, Thomas A.; Griffith, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    Peripheral tolerance controls the action of self-reactive T cells that escape thymic deletion. We showed previously that deletion of Ag-specific CD4+ T cells induced a CD8+ Treg population that maintained tolerance by deleting T cells with the same Ag specificity. The present study explored the mechanism of action of these CD8+ Treg. Following OT-II T cell deletion by soluble OVA323–339, B6 mice were unresponsive to challenge after CFA/OVA immunization, and Trail−/− or Dr5−/− mice were immune, although all strains displayed similar OT-II peripheral deletion. Interestingly, B6 mice remained tolerant to OVA even after a second infusion of OT-II T cells. Tolerance could be transferred to naïve recipients using CD8+ T cells from B6 or Dr5−/− mice that experienced peptide-induced peripheral OT-II deletion but not from Trail−/− mice. Subsequent investigation found that the mechanism of action of the CD8+ Treg was TRAIL-mediated OT-II T cell deletion in a TCR-specific manner. Furthermore, the tolerance was transient, as it was established by 14 days after peptide injection but lost by Day 56. Together, these data provide evidence to suggest that the mechanism behind transient peripheral tolerance induced following T cell deletion is the cytotoxic activity of TRAIL-expressing CD8+ Treg. PMID:20807702

  8. Tryptic amaranth glutelin digests induce endothelial nitric oxide production through inhibition of ACE: antihypertensive role of amaranth peptides.

    PubMed

    de la Rosa, A P Barba; Montoya, A Barba; Martínez-Cuevas, Pedro; Hernández-Ledesma, B; León-Galván, M F; De León-Rodríguez, A; González, C

    2010-09-15

    Amaranth seed proteins have a better balance of essential amino acids than cereals and legumes. In addition, the tryptic hydrolysis of amaranth proteins generates, among other peptides, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory (ACEi) peptides. ACE converts angiotensin I (Ang I) into Ang II, but is also responsible for the degradation of bradykinin (BK). In contrast to Ang II, BK stimulates vasodilation modulated through endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production. The aim of the present study was to characterize the ACEi activity of amaranth trypsin-digested glutelins (TDGs) and their ability to induce endothelial NO production. An IC(50) value of 200microgml(-1) was measured for TDG inhibition of ACE. TDGs stimulated endothelial NO production in coronary endothelial cells (CEC) by 52% compared to control. The effects of TDGs were comparable to those of BK and Captopril, both used as positive controls of NO production. Consistent with these effects, TDGs induced, in a dose-dependent manner, endothelial NO-dependent vasodilation in isolated rat aortic rings. These results suggest that TDGs induce endothelial NO production and consequent vasodilation through their ACEi activity. Amaranth TDGs have a high potential as a nutraceutical food in prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Further molecular, cellular and physiological studies are currently under way and the results may contribute to a better understanding and control of cardiovascular disorders. PMID:20435155

  9. Bax-derived membrane-active peptides act as potent and direct inducers of apoptosis in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Valero, Juan Garcia; Sancey, Lucie; Kucharczak, Jérôme; Guillemin, Yannis; Gimenez, Diana; Prudent, Julien; Gillet, Germain; Salgado, Jesús; Coll, Jean-Luc; Aouacheria, Abdel

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Although many cancer cells are primed for apoptosis, they usually develop resistance to cell death at multiple levels. Permeabilization of the outer mitochondrial membrane, which is mediated by proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members like Bax, is considered as a point-of-no-return for initiating apoptotic cell death. This crucial role has placed Bcl-2 family proteins as recurrent targets for anticancer drug development. Here, we propose and demonstrate a new concept based on using minimal active version of Bax to induce cell death independently of endogenous Bcl-2 proteins. We show that membrane-active segments of Bax can directly induce the release of mitochondria-residing apoptogenic factors and commit tumor cells promptly and irreversibly to caspase-dependent apoptosis. On this basis, we designed a peptide encompassing part of the Bax pore-forming domain, able to target mitochondria, induce cytochrome c release and trigger caspase-dependent apoptosis. Moreover, this Bax-derived poropeptide produced effective tumor regression after peritumoral injection in a nude mouse xenograft model. Thus, peptides derived from proteins evolutionary functionalized to form pores in the mitochondrial outer membrane represent novel templates for anticancer agents. PMID:21245196

  10. H2-M polymorphism in mice susceptible to collagen-induced arthritis involves the peptide binding groove

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W.; Loos, M.; Maeurer, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    The ability to develop type II collagen (CII)-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice is associated with the major histocompatibility I-A gene and with as yet poorly defined regulatory molecules of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen processing and presentation pathway. H2-M molecules are thought to be involved in the loading of antigenic peptides into the MHC class II binding cleft. We sequenced H2-Ma, H2-Mb1, and H2-Mb2 genes from CIA-susceptible and -resistant mouse strains and identified four different Ma and Mb2 alleles, and three different Mb1 alleles defined by polymorphic residues within the predicted peptide binding groove. Most CIA-resistant mouse strains share common Ma, Mb1, and Mb2 alleles. In contrast, H2-M alleles designated Ma-III, Ma-IV, Mb1-III, and Mb2-IV could be exclusively identified in the CIA-susceptible H2{sup r} and H2{sup q} haplotypes, suggesting that allelic H2-M molecules may modulate the composition of different CII peptides loaded onto MHC class II molecules, presumably presenting {open_quotes}arthritogenic{close_quotes} epitopes to T lymphocytes. 42 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Cationic Cell-Penetrating Peptide Binds to Planar Lipid Bilayers Containing Negatively Charged Lipids but does not Induce Conductive Pores

    PubMed Central

    Gurnev, Philip A.; Yang, Sung-Tae; Melikov, Kamran C.; Chernomordik, Leonid V.; Bezrukov, Sergey M.

    2013-01-01

    Using a cation-selective gramicidin A channel as a sensor of the membrane surface charge, we studied interactions of oligoarginine peptide R9C, a prototype cationic cell-penetrating peptide (CPP), with planar lipid membranes. We have found that R9C sorption to the membrane depends strongly on its lipid composition from virtually nonexistent for membranes made of uncharged lipids to very pronounced for membranes containing negatively charged lipids, with charge overcompensation at R9C concentrations exceeding 1 μM. The sorption was reversible as it was removed by addition of polyanionic dextran sulfate to the membrane bathing solution. No membrane poration activity of R9C (as would be manifested by increased bilayer conductance) was detected in the charged or neutral membranes, including those with asymmetric negative/neutral and negative/positive lipid leaflets. We conclude that interaction of R9C with planar lipid bilayers does not involve pore formation in all studied lipid combinations up to 20 μM peptide concentration. However, R9C induces leakage of negatively charged but not neutral liposomes in a process that involves lipid mixing between liposomes. Our findings suggest that direct traversing of CPPs through the uncharged outer leaflet of the plasma membrane bilayer is unlikely and that permeabilization necessarily involves both anionic lipids and CPP-dependent fusion between opposing membranes. PMID:23663836

  12. Alnus peptides modify membrane porosity and induce the release of nitrogen-rich metabolites from nitrogen-fixing Frankia

    PubMed Central

    Carro, Lorena; Pujic, Petar; Alloisio, Nicole; Fournier, Pascale; Boubakri, Hasna; Hay, Anne E; Poly, Franck; François, Philippe; Hocher, Valerie; Mergaert, Peter; Balmand, Severine; Rey, Marjolaine; Heddi, Abdelaziz; Normand, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Actinorhizal plant growth in pioneer ecosystems depends on the symbiosis with the nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium Frankia cells that are housed in special root organs called nodules. Nitrogen fixation occurs in differentiated Frankia cells known as vesicles. Vesicles lack a pathway for assimilating ammonia beyond the glutamine stage and are supposed to transfer reduced nitrogen to the plant host cells. However, a mechanism for the transfer of nitrogen-fixation products to the plant cells remains elusive. Here, new elements for this metabolic exchange are described. We show that Alnus glutinosa nodules express defensin-like peptides, and one of these, Ag5, was found to target Frankia vesicles. In vitro and in vivo analyses showed that Ag5 induces drastic physiological changes in Frankia, including an increased permeability of vesicle membranes. A significant release of nitrogen-containing metabolites, mainly glutamine and glutamate, was found in N2-fixing cultures treated with Ag5. This work demonstrates that the Ag5 peptide is central for Frankia physiology in nodules and uncovers a novel cellular function for this large and widespread defensin peptide family. PMID:25603394

  13. beta. -Endorphin and related peptides suppress phorbol myristate acetate-induced respiratory burst in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Diamant, M.; Henricks, P.A.J.; Nijkamp, F.P.; de Wied, D. )

    1989-01-01

    In the present study, the immunomodulatory effect of {beta}-endorphin ({beta}-E) and shorter pro-opiomelancortin (POMC) fragments was evaluated by assessing their influence on respiratory burst in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). The effect of the peptides on phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-stimulated production of reactive oxygen metabolites was measured in a lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) assay. Both POMC peptides with opiate-like activity and their non-opioid derivatives were tested. With the exception of {alpha}-E, PMA-stimulated respiratory burst was suppressed by all POMC fragments tested. A U-shaped dose-response relation was observed. Doses lower than 10{sup {minus}17}M and higher than 10{sup {minus}8}M were without effect. {beta}-E and dT{beta}E both suppressed PMA-induced oxidative burst in human PMN at physiological concentrations. {gamma}-E and dT{gamma}E proved to be less potent inhibitors, reaching maximal effect at higher concentrations. DE{gamma}E exerted an even less pronounced but still significant suppressive effect at the concentration of 10{sup {minus}10}M. None of the endorphins tested was shown to affect resting oxidative metabolism in the PMN. The modulatory effects of the opioid peptides could not be blocked by the opioid antagonist naloxone.

  14. Alnus peptides modify membrane porosity and induce the release of nitrogen-rich metabolites from nitrogen-fixing Frankia.

    PubMed

    Carro, Lorena; Pujic, Petar; Alloisio, Nicole; Fournier, Pascale; Boubakri, Hasna; Hay, Anne E; Poly, Franck; François, Philippe; Hocher, Valerie; Mergaert, Peter; Balmand, Severine; Rey, Marjolaine; Heddi, Abdelaziz; Normand, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    Actinorhizal plant growth in pioneer ecosystems depends on the symbiosis with the nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium Frankia cells that are housed in special root organs called nodules. Nitrogen fixation occurs in differentiated Frankia cells known as vesicles. Vesicles lack a pathway for assimilating ammonia beyond the glutamine stage and are supposed to transfer reduced nitrogen to the plant host cells. However, a mechanism for the transfer of nitrogen-fixation products to the plant cells remains elusive. Here, new elements for this metabolic exchange are described. We show that Alnus glutinosa nodules express defensin-like peptides, and one of these, Ag5, was found to target Frankia vesicles. In vitro and in vivo analyses showed that Ag5 induces drastic physiological changes in Frankia, including an increased permeability of vesicle membranes. A significant release of nitrogen-containing metabolites, mainly glutamine and glutamate, was found in N2-fixing cultures treated with Ag5. This work demonstrates that the Ag5 peptide is central for Frankia physiology in nodules and uncovers a novel cellular function for this large and widespread defensin peptide family. PMID:25603394

  15. CopA3 peptide prevents ultraviolet-induced inhibition of type-I procollagen and induction of matrix metalloproteinase-1 in human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hee; Kim, Han-Hyuk; Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Jung, Hyun-Gug; Yu, Jae-Myo; Lee, Eun-Su; Cho, Yong-Hun; Kim, Dong-In; An, Bong-Jeun

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) exposure is well-known to induce premature aging, which is mediated by matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) activity. A 9-mer peptide, CopA3 (CopA3) was synthesized from a natural peptide, coprisin, which is isolated from the dung beetle Copris tripartitus. As part of our continuing search for novel bioactive natural products, CopA3 was investigated for its in vitro anti-skin photoaging activity. UV-induced inhibition of type-I procollagen and induction of MMP-1 were partially prevented in human skin fibroblasts by CopA3 peptide in a dose-dependent manner. At a concentration of 25 μM, CopA3 nearly completely inhibited MMP-1 expression. These results suggest that CopA3, an insect peptide, is a potential candidate for the prevention and treatment of skin aging. PMID:24853614

  16. Down-regulation of poison ivy/oak-induced contact sensitivity by treatment with a class II MHC binding peptide:hapten conjugate.

    PubMed

    Gelber, C; Gemmell, L; McAteer, D; Homola, M; Swain, P; Liu, A; Wilson, K J; Gefter, M

    1997-03-01

    Immune regulation of contact sensitivity to the poison ivy/oak catechol was studied at the level of class II MHC-restricted T cell recognition of hapten:peptide conjugates. In this study we have shown that 1) T cells from C3H/HeN (H-2k) mice, immunized with a synthetic I-Ak binding peptide coupled to 3-pentadecyl-catechol (PDC; a representative catechol in urushiol), recognized peptides derived from syngeneic cells linked to the same catechol; 2) T cells from draining lymph nodes of C3H/HeN mice skin-painted with PDC proliferated in response to a peptide carrier:PDC conjugate only when it was linked at the 7th, but not the 4th or the 10th, position on the peptide carrier; and 3) tolerization studies confirmed down-regulation of PDC-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity following treatment with a single I-Ak binding peptide carrying PDC covalently bound to a lysine residue at the middle (7th) TCR contact position. Tolerization with peptide:PDC conjugate resulted in abrogation of hapten-specific T cell proliferative responses that correlated with diminished IL-2 secretion. On the basis of these data we propose that it may be sufficient to couple the hapten at a single, well-chosen position on a carrier peptide to target a relevant population of T cells involved in contact sensitivity. PMID:9036993

  17. Peptide-induced de novo bone formation after tooth extraction prevents alveolar bone loss in a murine tooth extraction model.

    PubMed

    Arai, Yuki; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Ono, Takashi; Murali, Ramachandran; Mise-Omata, Setsuko; Wakabayashi, Noriyuki

    2016-07-01

    Tooth extraction causes bone resorption of the alveolar bone volume. Although recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) markedly promotes de novo bone formation after tooth extraction, the application of high-dose rhBMP-2 may induce side effects, such as swelling, seroma, and an increased cancer risk. Therefore, reduction of the necessary dose of rhBMP-2 which can still obtain sufficient bone mass is necessary by developing a new osteogenic reagent. Recently, we showed that the systemic administration of OP3-4 peptide, which was originally designed as a bone resorption inhibitor, had osteogenic ability both in vitro and in vivo. This study evaluated the ability of the local application of OP3-4 peptide to promote bone formation in a murine tooth extraction model with a very low-dose of BMP. The mandibular incisor was extracted from 10-week-old C57BL6/J male mice and a gelatin hydrogel containing rhBMP-2 with or without OP3-4 peptide (BMP/OP3-4) was applied to the socket of the incisor. Bone formation inside the socket was examined radiologically and histologically at 21 days after the extraction. The BMP/OP3-4-group showed significant bone formation inside the mandibular extraction socket compared to the gelatin-hydrogel-carrier-control group or rhBMP-2-applied group. The BMP/OP3-4-applied mice showed a lower reduction of alveolar bone and fewer osteoclast numbers, suggesting that the newly formed bone inside the socket may prevent resorption of the cortical bone around the extraction socket. Our data revealed that OP3-4 peptide promotes BMP-mediated bone formation inside the extraction socket of mandibular bone, resulting in preservation from the loss of alveolar bone. PMID:27118173

  18. Hypothalamic Agouti-Related Peptide mRNA is Elevated During Natural and Stress-Induced Anorexia.

    PubMed

    Dunn, I C; Wilson, P W; D'Eath, R B; Boswell, T

    2015-09-01

    As part of their natural lives, animals can undergo periods of voluntarily reduced food intake and body weight (i.e. animal anorexias) that are beneficial for survival or breeding, such as during territorial behaviour, hibernation, migration and incubation of eggs. For incubation, a change in the defended level of body weight or 'sliding set point' appears to be involved, although the neural mechanisms reponsible for this are unknown. We investigated how neuropeptide gene expression in the arcuate nucleus of the domestic chicken responded to a 60-70% voluntary reduction in food intake measured both after incubation and after an environmental stressor involving transfer to unfamiliar housing. We hypothesised that gene expression would not change in these circumstances because the reduced food intake and body weight represented a defended level in birds with free access to food. Unexpectedly, we observed increased gene expression of the orexigenic peptide agouti-related peptide (AgRP) in both incubating and transferred animals compared to controls. Also pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA was higher in incubating hens and significantly increased 6 days after exposure to the stressor. Conversely expression of neuropeptide Y and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript gene was unchanged in both experimental situations. We conclude that AgRP expression remains sensitive to the level of energy stores during natural anorexias, which is of adaptive advantage, although its normal orexigenic effects are over-ridden by inhibitory signals. In the case of stress-induced anorexia, increased POMC may contribute to this inhibitory role, whereas, for incubation, reduced feeding may also be associated with increased expression in the hypothalamus of the anorexigenic peptide vasoactive intestinal peptide. PMID:26017156

  19. Natriuretic peptides induce weak VASP phosphorylation at Serine 239 in platelets

    PubMed Central

    Borgognone, Alessandra; Lowe, Kate L; Watson, Stephen P; Madhani, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic guanosine-3′,5′-monophoshate (cGMP) is the common second messenger for the cardiovascular effects of nitric oxide (NO) and natriuretic peptides (NP; for example, atrial natriuretic peptide [ANP]), which activate soluble and particulate guanylyl cyclases (sGC and pGC), respectively. The role of NO in regulating cGMP and platelet function is well documented, whereas there is little evidence supporting a role for NPs in regulating platelet reactivity. By studying platelet aggregation and secretion in response to a PAR-1 peptide, collagen and ADP, and phosphorylation of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) substrate VASP at serine 239, we evaluated the effects of NPs in the absence or presence of the non-selective cGMP and cAMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor, 3-isobutyl-1-methylanxthine (IBMX). Our results show that NPs, possibly through the clearance receptor (natriuretic peptide receptor-C, NPR-C) expressed on platelet membranes, increase VASP phosphorylation but only following PDE inhibition, indicating a small, localised cGMP synthesis. As platelet aggregation and secretion measured under the same conditions were not affected, we conclude that the magnitude of PKG activation achieved by NPs in platelets per se is not sufficient to exert functional inhibition of platelet involvement in haemostasis. PMID:23469931

  20. Glucagon-like peptide-2 induces rapid digestive adaptation following intestinal resection in preterm neonates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a frequent complication after intestinal resection in infants suffering from intestinal disease. We tested whether treatment with the intestinotrophic hormone glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) increases intestinal volume and function in the period immediately following in...

  1. Inducible Resistance of Fish Bacterial Pathogens to the Antimicrobial Peptide Cecropin B

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cecropin B is a cationic antimicrobial peptide originally isolated from the diapausing pupae of the giant silk moth, Hylphora cecropia. Cecropin B elicits its antimicrobial effects through disruption of the anionic cell membranes of gram-negative bacteria. Previous work by our laboratory demonstra...

  2. Nucleation in mesoscopic systems under transient conditions: Peptide-induced pore formation in vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P.; Höök, Fredrik

    2013-04-01

    Attachment of lytic peptides to the lipid membrane of virions or bacteria is often accompanied by their aggregation and pore formation, resulting eventually in membrane rupture and pathogen neutralization. The membrane rupture may occur gradually via formation of many pores or abruptly after the formation of the first pore. In academic studies, this process is observed during interaction of peptides with lipid vesicles. We present an analytical model and the corresponding Monte Carlo simulations focused on the pore formation in such situations. Specifically, we calculate the time of the first nucleation-limited pore-formation event and show the distribution of this time in the regime when the fluctuations of the number of peptides attached to a vesicle are appreciable. The results obtained are used to clarify the mechanism of the pore formation and membrane destabilization observed recently during interaction of highly active α-helical peptide with sub-100-nm lipid vesicles that mimic enveloped viruses with nanoscale membrane curvature. The model proposed and the analysis presented are generic and may be applicable to other meso- and nanosystems.

  3. Butyrate enhances disease resistance of chickens by inducing antimicrobial host defense peptide gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) constitute a large group of natural broad-spectrum antimicrobials and an important first line of immunity in virtually all forms of life. Specific augmentation of synthesis of endogenous HDPs may represent a promising antibiotic-alternative approach to disease control. I...

  4. Immunologically active peptides capable of inducing immunization against malaria and genes encoding therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Dame, J.B.; Williams, J.L.; McCutchan, T.F.; Schneider, I.

    1987-11-17

    An antimalarial immunogenic stimulant is described comprising an immunogenic carrier and a peptide sequence of between 2 and 1000 consecutive repeats of a sequence Asn-X-Y-Pro, wherein X is Ala or Val and Y is Asn or Asp.

  5. C-peptide reverses TGF-beta1-induced changes in renal proximal tubular cells: implications for treatment of diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Hills, Claire E; Al-Rasheed, Nawal; Al-Rasheed, Nouf; Willars, Gary B; Brunskill, Nigel J

    2009-03-01

    The crucial pathology underlying progressive chronic kidney disease in diabetes is tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Central to this process is epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) of proximal tubular epithelial cells driven by maladaptive transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) signaling. Novel signaling roles for C-peptide have recently been discovered with evidence emerging that C-peptide may mitigate microvascular complications of diabetes. We studied the potential for C-peptide to interrupt injurious TGF-beta1 signaling pathways and thus block development of EMT in HK2 human kidney proximal tubular cells. Cells were incubated with TGF-beta1 either alone or with C-peptide in low or high glucose. Changes in cell morphology, TGF-beta1 receptor expression, vimentin, E-cadherin, and phosphorylated Smads were assessed. Luciferase reporters were used to assess Smad activity. The cytoskeleton was visualized by TRITC-phalloidin staining. The typical TGF-beta1-stimulated, EMT-associated morphological alterations of proximal tubular cells, including increased vimentin expression, decreased E-cadherin expression, and cytoskeletal rearrangements, were prevented by C-peptide treatment. C-peptide also blocked TGF-beta1-induced upregulation of expression of both type I and type II TGF-beta1 receptors and attenuated TGF-beta1-mediated Smad phosphorylation and Smad transcriptional activity. These effects of C-peptide were inhibited by pertussis toxin. The results demonstrate that C-peptide almost completely reversed the morphological changes in PT cells induced by TGF-beta1 and suggest a role or C-peptide as a renoprotective agent in diabetic nephropathy. PMID:19091788

  6. Electron-Induced Dissociation of Peptides in a Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer Retrofitted with an Electromagnetostatic Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voinov, Valery G.; Bennett, Samuel E.; Barofsky, Douglas F.

    2015-05-01

    Dissociation of peptides induced by interaction with (free) electrons (electron-induced dissociation, EID) at electron energies ranging from near 0 to >30 eV was carried out using a radio-frequency-free electromagnetostatic (EMS) cell retrofitted into a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The product-ion mass spectra exhibited EID originating from electronically excited even-electron precursor ions, reduced radical cations formed by capture of low-energy electrons, and oxidized radical cations produced by interaction with high-energy electrons. The spectra demonstrate, within the limits of the triple quadrupole's resolving power, that high-energy EID product-ion spectra produced with an EMS cell exhibit essentially the same qualitative structural information, i.e., amino acid side-chain (SC) losses and backbone cleavages, as observed in high-energy EID spectra produced with a Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. The levels of fragmentation efficiency evident in the product-ion spectra recorded in this study, as was the case for those recorded in earlier studies with FT ICR mass spectrometers, is currently at the margin of analytical utility. Given that this shortcoming can be remedied, EMS cells incorporated into QqQ or QqTOF mass spectrometers could make tandem high-energy EID mass spectrometry more widely accessible for analysis of peptides, small singly charged molecules, pharmaceuticals, and clinical samples.

  7. Inhibition of phagocytosis and lysosomal acidification suppresses neurotoxic prion peptide-induced NALP3 inflammasome activation in BV2 microglia.

    PubMed

    Shi, Fushan; Yang, Yang; Kouadir, Mohammed; Fu, Yongyao; Yang, Lifeng; Zhou, Xiangmei; Yin, Xiaomin; Zhao, Deming

    2013-07-15

    Prion diseases are neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the accumulation of misfolded prion protein. In a previous study, we showed that neurotoxic prion peptide (PrP106-126) induced NALP3 inflammasome activation in mouse primary and immortalized microglia. In the present work, we examined the relevance of phagocytosis and lysosomal acidification to the activation of the NALP3 inflammasome in PrP106-126-stimulated microglia. Our results showed that the inhibition of phagocytosis or lysosomal acidification significantly reduced IL-1β and IL-18 production, downregulated NALP3 and ASC expression, and decreased the expression of proinflammatory factors. We concluded that phagocytosis and lysosomal acidification are necessary for PrP106-126-induced NALP3 activation in BV2 cells. PMID:23680490

  8. Altered Regulation of Renal Nitric Oxide and Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Systems in Lipopolysaccharide-induced Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Eun Hui; Kim, In Jin; Ma, Seong Kwon; Lee, Jong Un

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) may induce vascular relaxation by increasing the production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), an important mediator of vascular tone during sepsis. This study aimed to determine whether regulation of NO and the ANP system is altered in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced kidney injury. LPS (10 mg.kg-1) was injected in the tail veins of male Sprague-Dawley rats; 12 hours later, the kidneys were removed. Protein expression of NO synthase (NOS) and neutral endopeptidase (NEP) was determined by semiquantitative immunoblotting. As an index of synthesis of NO, its stable metabolites (nitrite/nitrate, NOx) were measured using colorimetric assays. mRNA expression of the ANP system was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. To determine the activity of guanylyl cyclase (GC), the amount of cGMP generated in response to sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and ANP was calculated. Creatinine clearance decreased and fractional excretion of sodium increased in LPS-treated rats compared with the controls. Inducible NOS protein expression increased in LPS-treated rats, while that of endothelial NOS, neuronal NOS, and NEP remained unchanged. Additionally, urinary and plasma NOx levels increased in LPS-treated rats. SNP-stimulated GC activity remained unchanged in the glomerulus and papilla in the LPS-treated rats. mRNA expression of natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR)-C decreased in LPS-treated rats, while that of ANP and NPR-A did not change. ANP-stimulated GC activity reduced in the glomerulus and papilla. In conclusion, enhancement of the NO/cGMP pathway and decrease in ANP clearance were found play a role in the pathogenesis of LPS-induced kidney injury. PMID:22128259

  9. Direct Observation of Aggregation-Induced Backbone Conformational Changes in Tau Peptides.

    PubMed

    Jiji, A C; Shine, A; Vijayan, Vinesh

    2016-09-12

    In tau proteins, the hexapeptides in the R2 and R3 repeats are known to initiate tau fibril formation, which causes a class of neurodegenerative diseases called the taupathies. We show that in R3, in addition to the presence of the hexapeptides, the correct turn conformation upstream to it is also essential for producing prion-like fibrils that are capable of propagation. A time-dependent NMR aggregation assay of a slow fibril forming R3-S316P peptide revealed a trans to cis equilibrium shift in the peptide-bond conformation preceding P316 during the growth phase of the aggregation process. S316 was identified as the key residue in the turn that confers templating capacity on R3 fibrils to accelerate the aggregation of the R3-S316P peptide. These results on the specific interactions and conformational changes responsible for tau aggregation could prove useful for developing an efficient therapeutic intervention in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27513615

  10. The applied side of antimicrobial peptide-inducible promoters from Firmicutes bacteria: expression systems and whole-cell biosensors.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Diana; Mascher, Thorsten

    2016-06-01

    The cell envelope is an essential bacterial structure that consists of the cytoplasmic membrane, the cell wall, and-in Gram-negative bacteria-the outer membrane. Because of its crucial functions, it represents a prime antibiotic target. Monitoring and maintaining its integrity are therefore keys to survival, especially in competitive environments where antibiotics represent one means of suppressing the growth of competitors. Resistance against external antibiotic threat, as well as auto-immunity against self-produced antibiotics, is often mediated by two-component systems (2CSs). They respond to antibiotic threat by inducing gene expression that results in the production of specific resistance determinants. The underlying transcriptional control is exhibited at the level of specific target promoters, which usually share a number of relevant features: They are tightly controlled and only induced in the presence of specific (sets of) antibiotics. This induction is dose dependent and often very sensitive, that is, it occurs well below inhibitory antibiotic concentrations. Because of these characteristics, a number of well-characterized cell envelope stress-inducible promoters have been developed for two different applied purposes: first, as whole-cell biosensors for antibiotic detection and mechanism-of-action studies, and second, as antibiotic-inducible expression systems for biotechnological purposes. The current state of research in both fields will be discussed in this review, focusing on 2CS-regulated promoters from Firmicutes bacteria that are induced to mediate resistance against antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) targeting the cell envelope. PMID:27102123

  11. Administration of antioxidant peptide SS-31 attenuates transverse aortic constriction-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hung-i; Huang, Tien-hung; Sung, Pei-hsun; Chen, Yung-lung; Chua, Sarah; Chai, Han-yan; Chung, Sheng-ying; Liu, Chu-feng; Sun, Cheuk-kwan; Chang, Hsueh-wen; Zhen, Yen-yi; Lee, Fan-yen; Yip, Hon-kan

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Antioxidant peptide SS-31 is a class of cell-permeable small peptides, which selectively resides on the inner mitochondrial membrane and possesses intrinsic mitochondrial protective capacities. In this study we investigated the therapeutic effects of antioxidant peptide SS-31 on transverse aortic constriction (TAC)-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in a murine model. Methods: Adult male mice were divided into 3 groups: sham-operated mice, TAC mice, and TAC+SS-31 mice that underwent TAC surgery and received SS-31 (2 mg/d, ip) for 60 d. The right ventricular systolic blood pressure (RVSBP) was measured on d 60 prior to sacrificing the mice; then their right heart and lung tissues were collected for histological and biochemical examinations. Lung injury scores were defined by the increased crowded area and decreased number of alveolar sacs. Results: TAC mice showed significantly higher RVSBP compared with sham-operated mice, the elevation was substantially suppressed in TAC+SS-31 mice. The same pattern of changes was found in pulmonary levels of oxidative stress proteins (NOX-1/NOX-2/oxidized proteins), cytosolic cytochrome c, biomarkers related to inflammation (MMP-9/TNF-α/iNOS), calcium overload index (TRPC1, 2, 4, 6), apoptosis (mitochondrial BAX, cleaved caspase 3/PARP), fibrosis (Smad3/TGF-β), hypoxic (HIF-1α), DNA damage (γ-H2AX) and endothelial function (eNOS/ET-1R), as well as in lung injury score, number of muscularized vessels in lungs, number of TRPC1+ and HIF-1α+ cells in pulmonary artery, and number of γ-H2AX+ and Ki-67+ cells in lung parenchyma. An opposite pattern of changes was observed in pulmonary anti-fibrotic markers (Smad1/5, BMP-2), number of small vessels, and number of alveolar sacs. In contrast, the levels of antioxidant proteins (HO-1/NQO-1/GR/GPx) in lung parenchyma were progressively and significantly increased from sham-operated mice, TAC mice to TAC+SS-31 mice. Conclusion: Antioxidant peptide SS-31 administration

  12. Formyl peptide-induced chemotaxis of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes does not require either marked changes in cytosolic calcium or specific granule discharge. Role of formyl peptide receptor reexpression (or recycling).

    PubMed Central

    Perez, H D; Elfman, F; Marder, S; Lobo, E; Ives, H E

    1989-01-01

    We examined the role of intracellular and extracellular calcium on the ability of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes to migrate chemotactically and reexpress (or recycle) formyl peptide receptors when challenged with the synthetic chemotactic peptide, N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP). Extracellular calcium was not required for either optimal chemotactic responses or receptor reexpression. Depletion and chelation of intracellular calcium resulted in significant diminution in the ability of polymorphonuclear leukocytes to release the specific granule constituents lactoferrin and vitamin B12-binding protein during the process of chemotaxis, but had no effect on the capability of these cells to respond chemotactically. Similarly, chelation of intracellular calcium did not affect the ability of these cells to reexpress a population of formyl peptide receptors. Inhibition of receptor reexpression, by a nonagglutinating derivative of wheat-germ agglutinin, was associated with inhibition of chemotactic responses to FMLP. Thus, it appears that large changes in cytosolic free calcium are not necessary for formyl peptide-induced polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis. In contrast, continuous reexpression (or recycling) of formyl peptide receptors is required for polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotactic responses to FMLP, a process that appears to be independent from specific granule fusion with plasma membrane. PMID:2723068

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of amphiphilic peptides as nanostructures and drug delivery tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayeh, Naser Ali

    conjugates although one limitation lies in the effort of controlling the rate of drug release. The encapsulated or complexed drugs tend to be released rapidly (before reaching the target site) and in the dendrimer--drug conjugates, it is the chemical linkage that controls the drug release. Thus, future studies in this field are urgently required to create more efficient and stable biomaterials. Peptides are considered as efficient vectors for achieving optimal cellular uptake. The potential use of peptides as drug delivery vectors received much attention by the discovery of several cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs). The first CPPs discovered in 1988, that were sequences from HIV-1 encoded TAT protein, TAT (48--60), and penetrated very efficiently through cell membranes of cultured mammalian cells. CPPs are a class of diverse peptides, typically with 8--25 amino acids, and unlike most peptides, they can cross the cellular membrane with more efficiency. CPPs have also shown to undergo self-assembly and generate nanostructures. The generation of self-assembled peptides and nanostructures occur through various types of interactions between functional groups of amino acid residues, such as electrostatic, hydrophobic, and hydrogen bonding. Appropriate design and functionalization of peptides are critical for generating nanostructures. Chemically CPPs are classified into two major groups: linear and cyclic peptides. It has been previously reported that linear peptides containing hydrophilic and hydrophobic amino acids could act as membrane protein stabilizers. These compounds are short hydrophilic or amphiphilic peptides that have positively charged amino acids, such as arginine, lysine or histidine, which can interact with the negative charge phospholipids layer on the cell membrane and translocate the cargo into the cells. Conjugation to cationic linear CPPs, such as TAT, penetratin, or oligoarginine efficiently improves the cellular uptake of large hydrophilic molecules, but the

  14. Topical application of superoxide dismutase mediated by HIV-TAT peptide attenuates UVB-induced damages in human skin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaochao; Liu, Shutao; Rao, Pingfan; Bradshaw, Jeremy; Weller, Richard

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether topical application of superoxide dismutase with cell penetrating peptide (HIV-TAT) could protect against skin damage induced by UVB irradiation in humans. The permeability through stratum corneum of large proteins linked to TAT peptide was firstly confirmed by confocal microscopy and tape stripping. Ten healthy volunteers with either Fitzpatrick skin type II or III were recruited in this clinical study. TAT-SOD (300units/cm(2)) and vehicle cream were applied on two symmetric areas of both inner upper arms 1h prior to UVB irradiation. After one hour of pretreatment, subjects received 10 incremental doses of UVB on pretreated areas. 24h later, erythema, blood flow and apoptotic cells were measured. Pretreatment with TAT-SOD 1h prior to UVB radiation promoted a mean minimal erythema dose (MED) increase of 36.6±18.4% (p=0.013<0.05. n=10) compared to vehicle control. The median blood flow values of all subjects following 2 and 3-MED of UVB were 107.8±51.0units and 239.5±88.0units respectively, which account for 26% and 25% decrease with respect to vehicle groups. These data suggest that TAT-SOD significantly suppresses UVB induced erythema formation and blood flow rise. Furthermore, pretreatment with TAT-SOD 1h prior to 2-MED of UVB irradiation reduced the apoptotic sunburn cell formation by 47.6±8.6% (p<0.0001) in all subjects. Evaluating results generated from all measurements, we conclude that topical application of TAT-SOD significantly attenuates UVB-induced skin damage in man. These biological effects of TAT-SOD are probably mediated via its free radical scavenging properties, clearly differentiating it from other physical sunscreen agents. PMID:27460952

  15. An oncofetal antigen, IMP-3-derived long peptides induce immune responses of both helper T cells and CTLs

    PubMed Central

    Hirayama, Masatoshi; Tomita, Yusuke; Yuno, Akira; Tsukamoto, Hirotake; Senju, Satoru; Imamura, Yuya; Sayem, Mohammad Abu; Irie, Atsushi; Yoshitake, Yoshihiro; Fukuma, Daiki; Shinohara, Masanori; Hamada, Akinobu; Jono, Hirofumi; Yuba, Eiji; Kono, Kenji; Yoshida, Koji; Tsunoda, Takuya; Nakayama, Hideki; Nishimura, Yasuharu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 3 (IMP-3), an oncofetal antigen identified using genome-wide cDNA microarray analyses, is overexpressed in several malignancies. IMP-3-derived cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes have been used for peptide-based immunotherapies against various cancers. In addition to CTLs, induction of tumor-associated antigen (TAA)-specific helper T (Th) cells is crucial for establishment of effective antitumor immunity. In this study, we aimed to identify IMP-3-derived long peptides (IMP-3-LPs) carrying CTL and promiscuous Th-cell epitopes for use in cancer immunotherapy. IMP-3-derived Th-cell epitopes that bind to multiple HLA-class II molecules were predicted by in silico analysis, and their immunogenicity was determined by utilizing human T cells. We identified two highly immunogenic IMP-3-LPs presented by multiple HLA-class II molecules. One of the IMP-3-LPs encompassed two CTL epitopes that have been used for peptide-vaccine immunotherapy in ongoing clinical trials. IMP-3-LPs-specific Th cells responded to autologous dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with the recombinant IMP-3 proteins, suggesting that these s (LPs) can be naturally processed and presented. The IMP-3-LPs and specific Th cells augmented the expansion of IMP-3-specific CTLs, which was further enhanced by programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) blockade. In addition, IMP-3-LP encapsulated in liposomes was efficiently cross-presented in vitro, and this LP successfully cross-primed CTLs in HLA-A2 transgenic mice (Tgm) in vivo. Furthermore, one of the IMP-3-LPs induced IMP-3-specific Th cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of head-and-neck malignant tumor (HNMT) patients. These findings suggest the potential usefulness of IMP-3-LPs in propagating both Th cells and CTLs and may have implications for IMP-3-LPs-based cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27471607

  16. An oncofetal antigen, IMP-3-derived long peptides induce immune responses of both helper T cells and CTLs.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Masatoshi; Tomita, Yusuke; Yuno, Akira; Tsukamoto, Hirotake; Senju, Satoru; Imamura, Yuya; Sayem, Mohammad Abu; Irie, Atsushi; Yoshitake, Yoshihiro; Fukuma, Daiki; Shinohara, Masanori; Hamada, Akinobu; Jono, Hirofumi; Yuba, Eiji; Kono, Kenji; Yoshida, Koji; Tsunoda, Takuya; Nakayama, Hideki; Nishimura, Yasuharu

    2016-06-01

    Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 3 (IMP-3), an oncofetal antigen identified using genome-wide cDNA microarray analyses, is overexpressed in several malignancies. IMP-3-derived cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes have been used for peptide-based immunotherapies against various cancers. In addition to CTLs, induction of tumor-associated antigen (TAA)-specific helper T (Th) cells is crucial for establishment of effective antitumor immunity. In this study, we aimed to identify IMP-3-derived long peptides (IMP-3-LPs) carrying CTL and promiscuous Th-cell epitopes for use in cancer immunotherapy. IMP-3-derived Th-cell epitopes that bind to multiple HLA-class II molecules were predicted by in silico analysis, and their immunogenicity was determined by utilizing human T cells. We identified two highly immunogenic IMP-3-LPs presented by multiple HLA-class II molecules. One of the IMP-3-LPs encompassed two CTL epitopes that have been used for peptide-vaccine immunotherapy in ongoing clinical trials. IMP-3-LPs-specific Th cells responded to autologous dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with the recombinant IMP-3 proteins, suggesting that these s (LPs) can be naturally processed and presented. The IMP-3-LPs and specific Th cells augmented the expansion of IMP-3-specific CTLs, which was further enhanced by programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) blockade. In addition, IMP-3-LP encapsulated in liposomes was efficiently cross-presented in vitro, and this LP successfully cross-primed CTLs in HLA-A2 transgenic mice (Tgm) in vivo. Furthermore, one of the IMP-3-LPs induced IMP-3-specific Th cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of head-and-neck malignant tumor (HNMT) patients. These findings suggest the potential usefulness of IMP-3-LPs in propagating both Th cells and CTLs and may have implications for IMP-3-LPs-based cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27471607

  17. A peptide corresponding to the neuropilin-1-binding site on VEGF165 induces apoptosis of neuropilin-1-expressing breast tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    Barr, M P; Byrne, A M; Duffy, A M; Condron, C M; Devocelle, M; Harriott, P; Bouchier-Hayes, D J; Harmey, J H

    2005-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has autocrine as well as paracrine functions in tumour biology. Vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated cell survival signalling occurs via the classical tyrosine kinase receptors Flt-1, KDR/Flk-1 and the more novel neuropilin (NP) receptors, NP-1 and NP-2. A 24-mer peptide, which binds to neuropilin-1, induced apoptosis of murine and human breast carcinoma cells, whereas a peptide directed against KDR had no effect. Both anti-NP1 and anti-KDR peptides induced endothelial cell apoptosis. Confocal microscopy using 5-(6)-carboxyfluorescein-labelled peptides showed that anti-NP1 bound to both tumour and endothelial cells, whereas anti-KDR bound endothelial cells only. This study demonstrates that NP-1 plays an essential role in autocrine antiapoptotic signalling by VEGF in tumour cells and that NP1-blockade induces tumour cell and endothelial cell apoptosis. Specific peptides can therefore be used to target both autocrine (tumour cells) and paracrine (endothelial cells) signalling by VEGF. PMID:15655556

  18. Synthesis of peptides of Carapax Trionycis and their inhibitory effects on TGF-β1-induced hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, C L; Peng, X Z; Tang, Y P; Liu, Y W

    2013-12-01

    We previous identified the antifibrotic active ingredients from Carapax Trionycis as two peptides. Here, we synthesized these two peptides (peptide 1 and peptide 2) by a solid phase method and examined their effects on proliferation and activation of cultured hepatic stellate cells (HSC) which are the main ECM (extracellular matrix)-producing cells in fibrosis progression. We demonstrated that peptide 1 and peptide 2 significantly reduced HSC proliferation and activation in a dose dependent manner. Further, peptide 1 and peptide 2 could interfere with TGF-signaling by down-regulating Smad 3 phosphorylation. Thus, these synthetic peptides of Carapax Trionycis could inhibit proliferation and activation of HSC and might be used as a candidate for treatment of liver fibrosis. PMID:24423656

  19. Delivery of RANKL-Binding Peptide OP3-4 Promotes BMP-2-Induced Maxillary Bone Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Uehara, T; Mise-Omata, S; Matsui, M; Tabata, Y; Murali, R; Miyashin, M; Aoki, K

    2016-06-01

    Although bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) is known to stimulate osteogenesis, there is evidence that high doses of BMP-2 can lead to side effects, including inflammation and carcinogenesis. The supplementation of other bone-augmenting agents is considered helpful in preventing such side effects by reducing the amount of BMP-2 required to obtain a sufficient amount of bone. We recently showed that a receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-binding peptide promotes osteoblast differentiation. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether OP3-4, a RANKL-binding peptide, promotes BMP-2-induced bone formation in the murine maxilla using an injectable gelatin hydrogel (GH) carrier. A GH carrier containing OP3-4 with BMP-2 was subperiosteally injected into the murine maxillary right diastema between the incisor and the first molar. The mice were sacrificed 28 d after the injections. The local bone formation in the OP3-4-BMP-2-injected group was analyzed in comparison to the carrier-injected, BMP-2-injected, and control-peptide-BMP-2-injected groups. The GH carrier containing OP3-4 with BMP-2 enlarged the radio-opaque area and increased the bone mineral content and density in the radiological analyses in comparison to the other experimental groups. Interestingly, fluorescence-based histological analyses revealed that the mineralization had started from the outside, then proceeded inward, suggesting that the size of the newly formed bone had already been set before calcification started and that the effects of OP3-4 might be involved in accelerating the early steps of osteogenesis. Actually, OP3-4 enhanced the BMP-2-induced 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cell numbers at the injected site on day 7 and the expression of Runx2 and Col1a1, which are early osteogenic cell markers, on day 10 after the subperiosteal injections. In summary, we demonstrated, for the first time, that the application of OP3-4 by subperiosteal injection promoted BMP

  20. Lipid polymorphism induced by surfactant peptide SP-B(1-25).

    PubMed

    Farver, R Suzanne; Mills, Frank D; Antharam, Vijay C; Chebukati, Janetricks N; Fanucci, Gail E; Long, Joanna R

    2010-09-22

    Pulmonary surfactant protein B (SP-B) is an essential protein for lowering surface tension in the alveoli. SP-B(1-25), a peptide comprised of the N-terminal 25 amino-acid residues of SP-B, is known to retain much of the biological activity of SP-B. Circular dichroism has shown that when SP-B(1-25) interacts with negatively charged lipid vesicles, it contains significant helical structure for the lipid compositions and peptide/lipid ratios studied here. The effect of SP-B(1-25) on lipid organization and polymorphisms was investigated via DSC, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. At 1-3 mol% peptide and physiologic temperature, SP-B(1-25) partitions at the interface of negatively charged PC/PG lipid bilayers. In lipid mixtures containing 1-5 mol% peptide, the structure of SP-B(1-25) remains constant, but (2)H and (31)P NMR spectra show the presence of an isotropic lipid phase in exchange with the lamellar phase below the T(m) of the lipids. This behavior is observed for both DPPC/POPG and POPC/POPG lipid mixtures as well as for both the PC and PG components of the mixtures. For 1-3 mol% SP-B(1-25), a return to a single lamellar phase above the lipid mixture T(m) is observed, but for 5 mol% SP-B(1-25) a significant isotropic component is observed at physiologic temperatures for DPPC and exchange broadening is observed in (2)H and (31)P NMR spectra of the other lipid components in the two mixtures. DLS and TEM rule out the formation of micellar structures and suggest that SP-B(1-25) promotes the formation of a fluid isotropic phase. The ability of SP-B(1-25) to fuse lipid lamellae via this mechanism, particularly those enriched in DPPC, suggests a specific role for the highly conserved N-terminus of SP-B in the packing of lipid lamellae into surfactant lamellar bodies or in stabilizing multilayer structures at the air-liquid interface. Importantly, this behavior has not been seen for the other SP-B fragments of

  1. Lipid Polymorphism Induced by Surfactant Peptide SP-B1-25

    PubMed Central

    Farver, R. Suzanne; Mills, Frank D.; Antharam, Vijay C.; Chebukati, Janetricks N.; Fanucci, Gail E.; Long, Joanna R.

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant protein B (SP-B) is an essential protein for lowering surface tension in the alveoli. SP-B1-25, a peptide comprised of the N-terminal 25 amino-acid residues of SP-B, is known to retain much of the biological activity of SP-B. Circular dichroism has shown that when SP-B1-25 interacts with negatively charged lipid vesicles, it contains significant helical structure for the lipid compositions and peptide/lipid ratios studied here. The effect of SP-B1-25 on lipid organization and polymorphisms was investigated via DSC, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. At 1-3 mol% peptide and physiologic temperature, SP-B1-25 partitions at the interface of negatively charged PC/PG lipid bilayers. In lipid mixtures containing 1-5 mol% peptide, the structure of SP-B1-25 remains constant, but 2H and 31P NMR spectra show the presence of an isotropic lipid phase in exchange with the lamellar phase below the Tm of the lipids. This behavior is observed for both DPPC/POPG and POPC/POPG lipid mixtures as well as for both the PC and PG components of the mixtures. For 1-3 mol% SP-B1-25, a return to a single lamellar phase above the lipid mixture Tm is observed, but for 5 mol% SP-B1-25 a significant isotropic component is observed at physiologic temperatures for DPPC and exchange broadening is observed in 2H and 31P NMR spectra of the other lipid components in the two mixtures. DLS and TEM rule out the formation of micellar structures and suggest that SP-B1-25 promotes the formation of a fluid isotropic phase. The ability of SP-B1-25 to fuse lipid lamellae via this mechanism, particularly those enriched in DPPC, suggests a specific role for the highly conserved N-terminus of SP-B in the packing of lipid lamellae into surfactant lamellar bodies or in stabilizing multilayer structures at the air-liquid interface. Importantly, this behavior has not been seen for the other SP-B fragments of SP-B8-25 and SP-B59

  2. Inhibition of the Electrostatic Interaction between β -amyloid Peptide and Membranes Prevents β -amyloid-induced Toxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertel, C.; Terzi, E.; Hauser, N.; Jakob-Rotne, R.; Seelig, J.; Kemp, J. A.

    1997-08-01

    The accumulation of β -amyloid peptides (Aβ ) into senile plaques is one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer disease. Aggregated Aβ is toxic to cells in culture and this has been considered to be the cause of neurodegeneration that occurs in the Alzheimer disease brain. The discovery of compounds that prevent Aβ toxicity may lead to a better understanding of the processes involved and ultimately to possible therapeutic drugs. Low nanomolar concentrations of Aβ 1-42 and the toxic fragment Aβ 25-35 have been demonstrated to render cells more sensitive to subsequent insults as manifested by an increased sensitivity to formazan crystals following MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) reduction. Formation of the toxic β -sheet conformation by Aβ peptides is increased by negatively charged membranes. Here we demonstrate that phloretin and exifone, dipolar compounds that decrease the effective negative charge of membranes, prevent association of Aβ 1-40 and Aβ 25-35 to negatively charged lipid vesicles and Aβ induced cell toxicity. These results suggest that Aβ toxicity is mediated through a nonspecific physicochemical interaction with cell membranes.

  3. Peptide-conjugated hyaluronic acid surface for the culture of human induced pluripotent stem cells under defined conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Zhou, Ping; Zhao, Yinghui; Wang, Mengke; Wei, Shicheng

    2016-01-20

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) has been cross-linked to form hydrogel for potential applications in the self-renewal and differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) for years. However, HA hydrogel with improved residence time and mechanical integrity that allows the survival of hPSCs under defined conditions is still much needed for clinical applications. In this study, HA was modified with methacrylate functional groups (MeHA) and cross-linked by photo-crosslinking method. After subsequent conjugation with adhesive peptide, these MeHA surfaces demonstrated performance in facilitating human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) proliferation, and good pluripotency maintenance of hiPSCs under defined conditions. Moreover, MeHA films on glass-slides exhibited long residence time and mechanical stability throughout hiPSC culture. Our photo-crosslinkable MeHA possesses great value in accelerating the application of HA hydrogel in hiPSCs proliferation and differentiation with the conjugation of adhesive peptides. PMID:26572447

  4. Heterologous Prime-Boost Oral Immunization with GK-1 Peptide from Taenia crassiceps Cysticerci Induces Protective Immunity▿

    PubMed Central

    Fragoso, Gladis; Esquivel-Guadarrama, Fernando; Santana, M. Angélica; Bobes, Raul J.; Hernández, Beatriz; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Segura, René; Goldbaum, Fernando A.; Sciutto, Edda; Rosas, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    Oral immunization is a goal in vaccine development, particularly for pathogens that enter the host through the mucosal system. This study was designed to explore the immunogenic properties of the Taenia crassiceps protective peptide GK-1 administered orally. Mice were orally immunized with the synthetic GK-1 peptide in its linear form with or without the Brucella lumazine synthase (BLS) protein adjuvant or as a chimera recombinantly bound to BLS (BLS-GK-1). Mice were boosted twice with GK-1 only at 15-day intervals. A significant rate of protection of 64.7% was achieved in GK-1-immunized mice, and that rate significantly increased to 91.8 and 96% when mice were primed with GK-1 coadministered with BLS as an adjuvant and BLS as a carrier, respectively. Specific antibodies and T cell activation and proliferation accompanied the protection induced, revealing the potent immunogenicity of GK-1. Through immunohistochemical studies, GK-1 was detected in T and B cell zones of the Peyer's patches (PP) and mesenteric lymph nodes. In the latter, abundant proliferating cells were detected by 5′-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine incorporation. No proliferation was detected in PP. Altogether, these results portray the potent immunogenic properties of GK-1 administered orally and reinforce the usefulness of BLS as an adjuvant and adequate vaccine delivery system for oral vaccines. PMID:21593234

  5. Sera from Children with Autism Induce Autistic Features Which Can Be Rescued with a CNTF Small Peptide Mimetic in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kazim, Syed Faraz; Cardenas-Aguayo, Maria del Carmen; Arif, Mohammad; Blanchard, Julie; Fayyaz, Fatima; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized clinically by impairments in social interaction and verbal and non-verbal communication skills as well as restricted interests and repetitive behavior. It has been hypothesized that altered brain environment including an imbalance in neurotrophic support during early development contributes to the pathophysiology of autism. Here we report that sera from children with autism which exhibited abnormal levels of various neurotrophic factors induced cell death and oxidative stress in mouse primary cultured cortical neurons. The effects of sera from autistic children were rescued by pre-treatment with a ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) small peptide mimetic, Peptide 6 (P6), which was previously shown to exert its neuroprotective effect by modulating CNTF/JAK/STAT pathway and LIF signaling and by enhancing brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. Similar neurotoxic effects and neuroinflammation were observed in young Wistar rats injected intracerebroventricularly with autism sera within hours after birth. The autism sera injected rats demonstrated developmental delay and deficits in social communication, interaction, and novelty. Both the neurobiological changes and the behavioral autistic phenotype were ameliorated by P6 treatment. These findings implicate the involvement of neurotrophic imbalance during early brain development in the pathophysiology of autism and a proof of principle of P6 as a potential therapeutic strategy for autism. PMID:25769033

  6. Firefly luciferase inhibitor-conjugated peptide quenches bioluminescence: a versatile tool for real time monitoring cellular uptake of biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Poutiainen, Pekka K; Rönkkö, Teemu; Hinkkanen, Ari E; Palvimo, Jorma J; Närvänen, Ale; Turhanen, Petri; Laatikainen, Reino; Weisell, Janne; Pulkkinen, Juha T

    2014-01-15

    In this paper, novel firefly luciferase-specific inhibitor compounds (FLICs) are evaluated as potential tools for cellular trafficking of transporter conjugates. As a proof-of-concept, we designed FLICs that were suitable for solid phase peptide synthesis and could be covalently conjugated to peptides via an amide bond. The spacer between inhibitor and peptide was optimized to gain efficient inhibition of recombinant firefly luciferase (FLuc) without compromising the activity of the model peptides. The hypothesis of using FLICs as tools for cellular trafficking studies was ensured with U87Fluc glioblastoma cells expressing firefly luciferase. Results show that cell penetrating peptide (penetratin) FLIC conjugate 9 inhibited FLuc penetrated cells efficiently (IC50 = 1.6 μM) and inhibited bioluminescence, without affecting the viability of the cells. Based on these results, peptide-FLIC conjugates can be used for the analysis of cellular uptake of biomolecules in a new way that can at the same time overcome some downsides seen with other methods. Thus, FLICs can be considered as versatile tools that broaden the plethora of methods that take advantage of the bioluminescence phenomena. PMID:24341748

  7. Glycosylated cell-penetrating peptides and their conjugates to a proapoptotic peptide: preparation by click chemistry and cell viability studies

    PubMed Central

    Dutot, Laurence; Lécorché, Pascaline; Burlina, Fabienne; Marquant, Rodrigue; Point, Vanessa; Sagan, Sandrine; Chassaing, Gérard; Mallet, Jean-Maurice

    2009-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), which are usually short basic peptides, are able to cross cell membranes and convey bioactive cargoes inside cells. CPPs have been widely used to deliver inside cells peptides, proteins, and oligonucleotides; however, their entry mechanisms still remain controversial. A major problem concerning CPPs remains their lack of selectivity to target a specific type of cell and/or an intracellular component. We have previously shown that myristoylation of one of these CPPs affected the intracellular distribution of the cargo. We report here on the synthesis of glycosylated analogs of the cell-penetrating peptide (R6/W3): Ac-RRWWRRWRR-NH2. One, two, or three galactose(s), with or without a spacer, were introduced into the sequence of this nonapeptide via a triazole link, the Huisgen reaction being achieved on a solid support. Four of these glycosylated CPPs were coupled via a disulfide bridge to the proapoptotic KLAK peptide, (KLAKLAKKLAKLAK), which alone does not enter into cells. The effect on cell viability and the uptake efficiency of different glycosylated conjugates were studied on CHO cells and were compared to those of the nonglycosylated conjugates: (R6/W3)S-S-KLAK and penetratinS-S-KLAK. We show that glycosylation significantly increases the cell viability of CHO cells compared to the nonglycosylated conjugates and concomitantly decreases the internalization of the KLAK cargo. These results suggest that glycosylation of CPP may be a key point in targeting specific cells. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12154-009-0031-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:19899012

  8. Sustained Dystrophin Expression Induced by Peptide-conjugated Morpholino Oligomers in the Muscles of mdx Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jearawiriyapaisarn, Natee; Moulton, Hong M; Buckley, Brian; Roberts, Jennifer; Sazani, Peter; Fucharoen, Suthat; Iversen, Patrick L; Kole, Ryszard

    2009-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), containing arginine (R), 6-aminohexanoic acid (X), and/or β-alanine (B) conjugated to phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs), enhance their delivery in cell culture. In this study, the potency, functional biodistribution, and toxicity of these conjugates were evaluated in vivo, in EGFP-654 transgenic mice that ubiquitously express the aberrantly spliced EGFP-654 pre-mRNA reporter. Correct splicing and enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) upregulation serve as a positive readout for peptide-PMO (PPMO) entry into cells and access to EGFP-654 pre-mRNA in the nucleus. Intraperitoneal injections of a series of PPMOs, A-N (12 mg/kg), administered once a day for four successive days resulted in splicing correction in numerous tissues. PPMO-B was highly potent in the heart, diaphragm, and quadriceps, which are key muscles in the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We therefore investigated PPMO M23D-B, designed to force skipping of stop-codon containing dystrophin exon 23, in an mdx mouse model of the disease. Systemic delivery of M23D-B yielded persistent exon 23 skipping, yielding high and sustained dystrophin protein expression in body-wide muscles, including cardiac muscle, without detectable toxicity. The rescued dystrophin reduced serum creatinine kinase to near-wild-type levels, indicating improvement in muscle integrity. This is the first report of oligonucleotide-mediated exon skipping and dystrophin protein induction in the heart of treated animals. PMID:18545222

  9. Superior Cervical Ganglia Neurons Induce Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells via Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Szklany, Kirsten; Ruiter, Evelyn; Mian, Firoz; Kunze, Wolfgang; Bienenstock, John; Forsythe, Paul; Karimi, Khalil

    2016-01-01

    The nervous and immune systems communicate bidirectionally, utilizing diverse molecular signals including cytokines and neurotransmitters to provide an integrated response to changes in the body’s internal and external environment. Although, neuro-immune interactions are becoming better understood under inflammatory circumstances and it has been evidenced that interaction between neurons and T cells results in the conversion of encephalitogenic T cells to T regulatory cells, relatively little is known about the communication between neurons and naïve T cells. Here, we demonstrate that following co-culture of naïve CD4+ T cells with superior cervical ganglion neurons, the percentage of Foxp3 expressing CD4+CD25+ cells significantly increased. This was mediated in part by immune-regulatory cytokines TGF-β and IL-10, as well as the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide while vasoactive intestinal peptide was shown to play no role in generation of T regulatory cells. Additionally, T cells co-cultured with neurons showed a decrease in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-γ released upon in vitro stimulation. These findings suggest that the generation of Tregs may be promoted by naïve CD4+ T cell: neuron interaction through the release of neuropeptide CGRP. PMID:27022966

  10. Solvent-induced conformational changes in cyclic peptides: a vibrational circular dichroism study.

    PubMed

    Merten, Christian; Li, Fee; Bravo-Rodriguez, Kenny; Sanchez-Garcia, Elsa; Xu, Yunjie; Sander, Wolfram

    2014-03-28

    The three-dimensional structure of a peptide is strongly influenced by its solvent environment. In the present study, we study three cyclic tetrapeptides which serve as model peptides for β-turns. They are of the general structure cyclo(Boc-Cys-Pro-X-Cys-OMe) with the amino acid X being either glycine (1), or L- or D-leucine (L- or D-2). Using vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy, we confirm previous NMR results which showed that D-2 adopts predominantly a βII turn structure in apolar and polar solvents. Our results for L-2 indicate a preference for a βI structure over βII. With increasing solvent polarity, the preference for 1 is shifted from βII towards βI. This conformational change goes along with the breaking of an intramolecular hydrogen bond which stabilizes the βII conformation. Instead, a hydrogen bond with a solvent molecule can stabilize the βI turn conformation. PMID:24513908

  11. Synthesis of CNS active thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)-like peptides: Biological evaluation and effect on cognitive impairment induced by cerebral ischemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Meena, Chhuttan L; Thakur, Avinash; Nandekar, Prajwal P; Sangamwar, Abhay T; Sharma, Shyam S; Jain, Rahul

    2015-09-01

    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)-like peptides were synthesized by replacing critical histidine and pGlu residues in the native peptide. The peptides were evaluated in vitro for receptor binding activity assay and in the cell functional assay; the peptides exhibit selective basal signaling agonist behavior toward TRH-R2. For example, peptides 8a, 8b, 8c, 8 f, 8 h, 8 l and 12 d activated TRH-R2 with potency (EC50) of 0.53 μM, 0.048 μM, 0.05 μM, 0.006 μM, 0.31 μM, 0.034 μM and 0.004 μM, respectively. In contrast for signaling activation of TRH-R1, the same peptide required higher concentration of 19.35 μM, 3.98 μM, 2.54 μM, 0.287 μM, 11.28 μM, 0.986 μM and 0.944 μM, respectively. The results showed that peptides were 36.5, 82.9, 50.8, 47.8, 36.3, 32.6 and 235-fold selective to TRH-R2 receptor subtype. The peptides were investigated for CNS activity at 10 μmol/kg in pentobarbital-induced sleep assay study. Peptides 8c (16.5 ± 1.4 min) and 8l (16.5 ± 2.1 min) displayed excellent CNS activity. In an in vivo study, peptide 8c did not cause significant change in the rat plasma TSH levels. The peptide 8c was further investigated for neuroprotective potential, and significantly reduced infracts volume and neurological score in the focal cerebral ischemia model in mice. Peptide 8c also significantly lowered MDA levels, indicating reduction of oxidative and enhanced percentage cell survival in CA1 region, when compared to ischemic brain. PMID:26216015

  12. Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide-2 Attenuation of Protein Kinase C-Induced Inflammation in Human Ovarian Granulosa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Yi-Ning; Sun, David; Peng, Yen-Chun; Wu, Yuh-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) are two important inflammatory mediators in ovulation. Ghrelin may modulate inflammatory signaling via growth hormone secretagogue receptors. We investigated the role of ghrelin in KGN human ovarian granulosa cells using protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12, 13-didecanoate (PDD) and synthetic ghrelin analog growth hormone releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2). GHRP-2 attenuated PDD-induced expression of protein and mRNA, the promoter activity of COX-2 and IL-8 genes, and the secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and IL-8. GHRP-2 promoted the degradation of PDD-induced COX-2 and IL-8 proteins with the involvement of proteasomal and lysosomal pathways. PDD-mediated COX-2 production acts via the p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) pathways; PDD-mediated IL-8 production acts via the p38, JNK and ERK pathways. GHRP-2 reduced the PDD-induced phosphorylation of p38 and JNK and activator protein 1 (AP-1) reporter activation and PDD-induced NF-κB nuclear translocation and reporter activation. The inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) and protein phosphatase 2 (PP2A) reduced the inhibitory effect of GHRP-2 on PDD-induced COX-2 and IL-8 expression. Our findings demonstrate an anti-inflammatory role for ghrelin (GHRP-2) in PKC-mediated inflammation of granulosa cells, at least in part, due to its inhibitory effect on PKC-induced activation of p38, JNK and NF-κB, possibly by targeting to MKP-1 and PP2A. PMID:27548147

  13. Antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling-Juan; Gallo, Richard L

    2016-01-11

    Antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMPs) are a diverse class of naturally occurring molecules that are produced as a first line of defense by all multicellular organisms. These proteins can have broad activity to directly kill bacteria, yeasts, fungi, viruses and even cancer cells. Insects and plants primarily deploy AMPs as an antibiotic to protect against potential pathogenic microbes, but microbes also produce AMPs to defend their environmental niche. In higher eukaryotic organisms, AMPs can also be referred to as 'host defense peptides', emphasizing their additional immunomodulatory activities. These activities are diverse, specific to the type of AMP, and include a variety of cytokine and growth factor-like effects that are relevant to normal immune homeostasis. In some instances, the inappropriate expression of AMPs can also induce autoimmune diseases, thus further highlighting the importance of understanding these molecules and their complex activities. This Primer will provide an update of our current understanding of AMPs. PMID:26766224

  14. A rare complication of transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis: parathyroid hormone-related peptide-induced hypercalcaemia.

    PubMed

    O Sullivan, Eoin; Plant, William

    2014-01-01

    We describe a rare occurrence of parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrp) associated hypercalcaemia with a recurrence of transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis. Our patient presented with serum calcium of 3.9 mmol/L, PTH of 5 ng/L and a PTHrp of 9.8 pmol/L (<2 pmol/L). He had no evidence of metastatic disease. His hypercalcaemia responded to bisphosphonate therapy. He chose to be treated conservatively and died 5 weeks after presentation. This is the seventh such case described in the literature. PTHrp-induced hypercalcaemia is associated with a grave prognosis, with a mean survival of 65 days from presentation. PMID:24951595

  15. RasGAP-derived peptide GAP159 enhances cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HCT116 cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Shenghua; He, Hongwei; Zhang, Caixia; Chen, Yi; Yu, Dongke; Chen, Jianhua; Shao, Rongguang

    2014-01-01

    To increase the efficacy of currently used anti-cancer genotoxins, one of the current efforts is to find agents that can sensitize cancer cells to genotoxins so that the efficacious doses of genotoxins can be lowered to reduce deleterious side-effects. In this study, we reported that a synthetic RasGAP-derived peptide GAP159 could enhance the effect of chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin (CDDP) in human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells. Our results showed that GAP159 significantly increased the CDDP-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HCT116 cells. This synergistic effect was associated with the inhibitions of phospho-AKT, phospho-ERK and NF-κB. In mouse colon tumor CT26 animal models, GAP159 combined with CDDP significantly suppressed CT26 tumor growth, and GAP159 alone showed slight inhibitory effect. Our data suggests that co-treatment of GAP159 and chemotherapeutics will become a potential therapeutic strategy for colon cancers. PMID:26579374

  16. Cell-Penetrating Peptide as a Means of Directing the Differentiation of Induced-Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Kaitsuka, Taku; Tomizawa, Kazuhito

    2015-01-01

    Protein transduction using cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) is useful for the delivery of large protein molecules, including some transcription factors. This method is safer than gene transfection methods with a viral vector because there is no risk of genomic integration of the exogenous DNA. Recently, this method was reported as a means for the induction of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, directing the differentiation into specific cell types and supporting gene editing/correction. Furthermore, we developed a direct differentiation method to obtain a pancreatic lineage from mouse and human pluripotent stem cells via the protein transduction of three transcription factors, Pdx1, NeuroD, and MafA. Here, we discuss the possibility of using CPPs as a means of directing the differentiation of iPS cells and other stem cell technologies. PMID:26561805

  17. Orthogonally Functionalizable Polyurethane with Subsequent Modification with Heparin and Endothelium-Inducing Peptide Aiming for Vascular Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jun; Zhang, Jialing; Du, Jun; Pan, Yanjun; Shi, Jing; Peng, Yongxuan; Chen, Weiming; Yuan, Liu; Ye, Sang-Ho; Wagner, William R; Yin, Meng; Mo, Xiumei

    2016-06-15

    Surface coimmobilization modifications of blood-contacting devices with both antithrombogenic moieties and endothelium-inducing biomolecules may create a synergistic effect to improve their performance. However, it is difficult to perform covalent dual-functionalization with both biomolecules on the surface of normally used synthetic polymeric substrates. Herein, we developed and characterized an orthogonally functionalizable polymer, biodegradable elastic poly(ester urethane)urea with disulfide and amino groups (PUSN), which was further fabricated into electropun fibrous scaffolds and surface modified with heparin and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) recruiting peptide (TPS). The modification effects were assessed through platelet adhesion, EPC, and HUVEC proliferation. Results showed the dual modified PUSN scaffolds demonstrated a synergistic effect of reduced platelet deposition and improved EPC proliferation in vitro study, and demonstrated their potential application in small diameter vascular regeneration. PMID:27224957

  18. Formation of multicellular tumor spheroids induced by cyclic RGD-peptides and use for anticancer drug testing in vitro.

    PubMed

    Akasov, Roman; Zaytseva-Zotova, Daria; Burov, Sergey; Leko, Maria; Dontenwill, Monique; Chiper, Manuela; Vandamme, Thierry; Markvicheva, Elena

    2016-06-15

    Development of novel anticancer formulations is a priority challenge in biomedicine. However, in vitro models based on monolayer cultures (2D) which are currently used for cytotoxicity tests leave much to be desired. More and more attention is focusing on 3D in vitro systems which can better mimic solid tumors. The aim of the study was to develop a novel one-step highly reproducible technique for multicellular tumor spheroid (MTS) formation using synthetic cyclic RGD-peptides, and to demonstrate availability of the spheroids as 3D in vitro model for antitumor drug testing. Cell self-assembly effect induced by addition of both linear and cyclic RGD-peptides directly to monolayer cultures was studied for 12 cell lines of various origins, including tumor cells (e.i. U-87 MG, MCF-7, M-3, HCT-116) and normal cells, in particular L-929, BNL.CL2, HepG2. Cyclo-RGDfK and its modification with triphenylphosphonium cation (TPP), namely cyclo-RGDfK(TPP) in a range of 10-100μM were found to induce spheroid formation. The obtained spheroids were unimodal with mean sizes in a range of 60-120μm depending on cell line and serum content in culture medium. The spheroids were used as 3D in vitro model, in order to evaluate cytotoxicity effects of antitumor drugs (doxorubicin, curcumin, temozolomide). The developed technique could be proposed as a promising tool for in vitro test of novel antitumor drugs. PMID:27107900

  19. Novel Peptide for Attenuation of Hyperoxia-induced Disruption of Lung Endothelial Barrier and Pulmonary Edema via Modulating Peroxynitrite Formation*

    PubMed Central

    Kondrikov, Dmitry; Gross, Christine; Black, Stephen M.; Su, Yunchao

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary damages of oxygen toxicity include vascular leakage and pulmonary edema. We have previously reported that hyperoxia increases the formation of NO and peroxynitrite in lung endothelial cells via increased interaction of endothelial nitric oxide (eNOS) with β-actin. A peptide (P326TAT) with amino acid sequence corresponding to the actin binding region of eNOS residues 326–333 has been shown to reduce the hyperoxia-induced formation of NO and peroxynitrite in lung endothelial cells. In the present study, we found that exposure of pulmonary artery endothelial cells to hyperoxia (95% oxygen and 5% CO2) for 48 h resulted in disruption of monolayer barrier integrity in two phases, and apoptosis occurred in the second phase. NOS inhibitor NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester attenuated the endothelial barrier disruption in both phases. Peroxynitrite scavenger uric acid did not affect the first phase but ameliorated the second phase of endothelial barrier disruption and apoptosis. P326TAT inhibited hyperoxia-induced disruption of monolayer barrier integrity in two phases and apoptosis in the second phase. More importantly, injection of P326TAT attenuated vascular leakage, pulmonary edema, and endothelial apoptosis in the lungs of mice exposed to hyperoxia. P326TAT also significantly reduced the increase in eNOS-β-actin association and protein tyrosine nitration. Together, these results indicate that peptide P326TAT ameliorates barrier dysfunction of hyperoxic lung endothelial monolayer and attenuates eNOS-β-actin association, peroxynitrite formation, endothelial apoptosis, and pulmonary edema in lungs of hyperoxic mice. P326TAT can be a novel therapeutic agent to treat or prevent acute lung injury in oxygen toxicity. PMID:25315770

  20. A Conserved Peptide Pattern from a Widespread Microbial Virulence Factor Triggers Pattern-Induced Immunity in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Oome, Stan; Raaymakers, Tom M.; Van den Ackerveken, Guido; Nürnberger, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Microbe- or host damage-derived patterns mediate activation of pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) in plants. Microbial virulence factor (effector)-triggered immunity (ETI) constitutes a second layer of plant protection against microbial attack. Various necrosis and ethylene-inducing peptide 1 (Nep1)-like proteins (NLPs) produced by bacterial, oomycete and fungal microbes are phytotoxic virulence factors that exert immunogenic activities through phytotoxin-induced host cell damage. We here show that multiple cytotoxic NLPs also carry a pattern of 20 amino acid residues (nlp20) that triggers immunity-associated plant defenses and immunity to microbial infection in Arabidopsis thaliana and related plant species with similar characteristics as the prototype pattern, bacterial flagellin. Characteristic differences in flagellin and nlp20 plant responses exist however, as nlp20s fail to trigger extracellular alkalinization in Arabidopsis cell suspensions and seedling growth inhibition. Immunogenic nlp20 peptide motifs are frequently found in bacterial, oomycete and fungal NLPs. Such an unusually broad taxonomic distribution within three phylogenetic kingdoms is unprecedented among microbe-derived triggers of immune responses in either metazoans or plants. Our findings suggest that cytotoxic NLPs carrying immunogenic nlp20 motifs trigger PTI in two ways as typical patterns and by inflicting host cell damage. We further propose that conserved structures within a microbial virulence factor might have driven the emergence of a plant pattern recognition system mediating PTI. As this is reminiscent of the evolution of immune receptors mediating ETI, our findings support the idea that there is a continuum between PTI and ETI. PMID:25375108

  1. Sequential on-line C-terminal sequencing of peptides based on carboxypeptidase Y digestion and optically gated capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Tian, Miaomiao; Zhang, Ning; Liu, Xiaoxia; Guo, Liping; Yang, Li

    2016-08-12

    We report a novel method for sequential on-line C-terminal sequencing of peptides, which combines carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) digestion with on-line derivatization and optically gated capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (OGCE-LIF). Various factors that may affect the C-terminal sequencing were investigated and optimized. High repeatability of on-line derivatization and the sequential OGCE-LIF assay of amino acids (AAs) was achieved with relative standard deviation (RSD) (n=20) less than 1.5% and 3.2% for migration time and peak height, respectively. A total of 13 AAs was efficiently separated in the present study, indicating that the method can be used for sequencing of peptides consisting of the 13 AAs studied. Using two synthesized N-terminally blocked peptides as test examples, we show that the present method can on-line monitor the released AAs with a temporal resolution of 50s during the entire CPY digestion process. The rates of AA release as a function of digestion time were easily measured; thus, the AA sequence of the peptide was determined with just one OGCE assay. Our study indicates the present approach is an effective, reliable, and convenient method for rapid analysis of the C-terminal sequence of peptides, with potential application in peptide analysis and proteome research. PMID:27425760

  2. Vibrational analysis of amino acids and short peptides in hydrated media. II. Role of KLLL repeats to induce helical conformations in minimalist LK-peptides.

    PubMed

    Guiffo-Soh, Guy; Hernandez, Belén; Coïc, Yves-Marie; Boukhalfa-Heniche, Fatima-Zohra; Ghomi, Mahmoud

    2007-11-01

    Aqueous solution secondary structures of minimalist LK-peptides, with the generic sequence defined as KLL(KLLL)nKLLK, have been analyzed by means of circular dichroism (CD) and Raman scattering techniques. Our discussion in the present paper is mainly focused on four synthetic peptides (from 5 to 19 amino acids), KLLLK, KLLKLLLKLLK, KLLKLLLKLLLKLLK, and KLLKLLLKLLLKLLLKLLK, corresponding to the repeat unit, and to the peptide chains with the values of n = 1-3, respectively. CD and Raman spectra were analyzed in order to study both structural features of the peptide chains and their capability to form aggregates. On the basis of the obtained results it was concluded that the conformational flexibility of the shortest peptides (5-mer and 11-mer) is high enough to adopt random, beta-type, and helical chains in aqueous solution. However, the 11-mer shows a clear tendency to form beta-strands in phosphate buffer. The conformational equilibrium can be completely shifted to beta-type structures upon increasing ionic strength, i.e., in PBS and tris buffers. This equilibrium can also be shifted toward helical chains in the presence of methanol. Finally, the longest peptides (15-mer and 19-mer) are shown to form alpha-helical chains with an amphipathic character in aqueous solution. The possibility of bundle formation between helical chains is discussed over the temperature-dependent H-D exchange on labile hydrogens and particularly by considering the particular behavior of an intense Raman mode at 1127 cm-1 originating from the leucine residue side chain. The conformational dependence of this mode observed upon selective deuteration has never been documented up to now. PMID:17918991

  3. Influence of ETR-p1/f1 antisense peptide on endothelin-induced constriction in rat renal arcuate arteries

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaochun; Richards, Nicholas T; Johns, Edward J; Kohsaka, Takeo; Nakamura, Akio; Okada, Hidechika

    1997-01-01

    This study set out to examine the endothelin receptor subtypes mediating vasoconstriction in the rat renal arcuate artery. This was done in isolated vessels 120–200 μm in diameter, incubated with a selective agonist and the novel ‘antisense' peptide to part of the human endothelinA receptor. Groups of vessels (n=6) were incubated with increasing concentrations of endothelin-1 (ET-1), from 1 to 100 nM, which caused a 65% maximal contraction at the highest dose with an pEC50 of 8.16±0.11 M. By contrast, in six other vessels sarafotoxin 6c over the same dose range gave a minimal contraction (around 5% of maximum). Preincubation of six vessels with the antisense peptide ETR p1/f1 at 1 μM had no effect on the ET-1 induced vasoconstriction, in terms of displacement of the concentration-response curve or the maximal tension achieved by the agonist. In the six vessels exposed to 4 μM ETR p1/f1, there was a significant shift of the concentration-response curve and a lower pEC50 at 7.78±0.09 M (P<0.05). At the highest concentrations of ETR p1/f1, there was a marked suppression of all responses to ET-1, which at the maximal concentrations tested, 0.1 μM, only reached some 10% of the maximal achievable contraction. Increasing ET-1 concentrations up to 2 μM in vessels incubated with 40 μM ETR-p1/f1 showed that the blockade could be overcome and that the relationship was shifted to the right (P<0.001) by approximately one log unit with a pEC50 of 7.13±0.11 M. A Schild plot of the data indicated the antagonist to be acting competitively at a single population of receptors. At the highest concentrations tested, 40 μM, ETR-p1/f1 had no effect on noradrenaline-induced contractions, indicating a lack of non-specific actions. Together, these data suggest that at the rat renal arcuate artery the endothelinA receptor is the predominant functional receptor mediating contraction. Furthermore, this study has shown the potential usefulness of this novel

  4. Protective Effect of Cod (Gadus macrocephalus) Skin Collagen Peptides on Acetic Acid-Induced Gastric Ulcer in Rats.

    PubMed

    Niu, Huina; Wang, Zhicong; Hou, Hu; Zhang, Zhaohui; Li, Bafang

    2016-07-01

    This research was performed to explore the protective effect of cod skin collagen peptides (CCP) on gastric ulcer induced by acetic acid. The CCP were fractionated into low molecular CCP (LMCCP, Mw < 3 kDa) and high molecular CCP (HMCCP, Mw > 3 kDa). In HMCCP and LMCCP, glycine of accounted for about one-third of the total amino acids without cysteine and tryptophan, and hydrophobic amino acids accounted for about 50%. After 21 d CCP treatment (60 or 300 mg/kg, p.o./daily), the healing effects on acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers were evaluated by macroscopic measure, microscopic measure, and immune histochemistry. Moreover, the expression levels of the growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor, epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), and the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was detected. The results showed that both LMCCP and HMCCP could significantly decrease the ulcer areas and promote the healing of the lesions. They also could improve the levels of hexosamine, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase, and reduce the content of malondialdehyde and inducible nitric oxide synthase. In addition, the expression level of TGFβ1 gene and HSP70 mRNA was significantly improved by the treatment. It suggested that CCP could be able to improve symptoms of gastric ulcer and probably be used in the treatment of gastric ulcer. PMID:27219644

  5. The AF4-mimetic peptide, PFWT, induces necrotic cell death in MV4-11 leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, Christine M.; Bennett, Cecily A.; Winters, Amanda C.; Hemenway, Charles S.

    2008-01-01

    Despite ongoing success in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, patients harboring translocations involving the MLL gene at chromosome 11q23 remain resistant to treatment. To improve outcomes, novel therapeutics designed to target the unusual biology of these leukemias need to be developed. Previously, we identified an interaction between the two most common MLL fusion proteins, AF4 and AF9, and designed a synthetic peptide (PFWT) capable of disrupting this interaction. PFWT induced cell death in leukemia cells expressing MLL-AF4 with little effect on the colony forming potential of hematopoietic progenitor cells, suggesting the AF4–AF9 complex is an important pharmacological target for leukemia therapy and PFWT is a promising chemotherapeutic prototype. In these studies, we demonstrate that PFWT induces death by necrosis in MV4-11 cells. Cell death is characterized by rapid loss of plasma membrane integrity with maintenance of nuclear membrane integrity, and is independent of caspase activation, DNA fragmentation, and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. PFWT-mediated necrosis is inhibited by the serine protease inhibitor TLCK, suggesting this death pathway is regulated. Given the resistance of t(4;11) leukemias to conventional chemotherapeutic agents that induce apoptosis, further identification of the molecular events mediating this death process should uncover new avenues for therapeutic intervention. PMID:17875318

  6. Inhibition of formyl peptide receptor 1 reduces the efficacy of anticancer chemotherapy against carcinogen-induced breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Baracco, Elisa E; Pietrocola, Federico; Buqué, Aitziber; Bloy, Norma; Senovilla, Laura; Zitvogel, Laurence; Vacchelli, Erika; Kroemer, Guido

    2016-06-01

    The loss-of-function mutation of formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) has a negative impact on the progression-free and overall survival of breast cancer patients treated with anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy. This effect may be attributed to the fact that chemotherapy-induced antitumor immunity requires FPR1 and that such anticancer immune responses are responsible for the long-term effects of chemotherapy. Here, we investigated the possible contribution of FPR1 to the efficacy of a combination of mitoxantrone (MTX) and cyclophosphamide (CTX) for the treatment of hormone-induced breast cancer. Breast cancer induced by a combination of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) could be successfully treated with MTX plus CTX in thus far that tumor growth was retarded and overall survival was extended (as compared to vehicle-only treated controls). However, the therapeutic efficacy of the combination therapy was completely abolished when FPR1 receptors were blocked by means of cyclosporin H (CsH). Future genetic studies on neoadjuvant chemotherapy-treated breast cancers are warranted to validate these findings at the clinical level. PMID:27471610

  7. Triplex-forming Peptide Nucleic Acids Induce Heritable Elevations in Gamma-globin Expression in Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Joanna Y; Reza, Faisal; Glazer, Peter M

    2013-01-01

    Potentiating homologous recombination using triplex-forming peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) can be used to mediate targeted sequence editing by donor DNAs and thereby induce functional gene expression to supplant non-functional counterparts. Mutations that disrupt the normal function of the β-globin subunit cause hemoglobinopathies such as sickle cell disease and β-thalassemias. However, expression of the functional γ-globin subunit in adults, a benign condition called hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH), can ameliorate the severity of these disorders, but this expression is normally silenced. Here, we harness triplex-forming PNA-induced donor DNA recombination to create HPFH mutations that increase the expression of γ-globin in adult mammalian cells, including β-yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) bone marrow and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). Transfection of human cells led to site-specific modification frequencies of 1.63% using triplex-forming PNA γ-194-3K in conjunction with donor DNAs, compared with 0.29% using donor DNAs alone. We also concurrently modified the γ-globin promoter to insert both HPFH-associated point mutations and a hypoxia-responsive element (HRE), conferring increased expression that was also regulated by oxygen tension. This work demonstrates application of oligonucleotide-based gene therapy to induce a quiescent gene promoter in mammalian cells and regulate its expression via an introduced HRE transcription factor binding site for potential therapeutic purposes. PMID:23337982

  8. Role of Notch-1 signaling pathway in PC12 cell apoptosis induced by amyloid beta-peptide (25–35)

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Huimin; Zhang, Yaozhou; Shi, Xiaoyan; Wei, Tianxiang; Lou, Jiyu

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that Notch-1 expression is increased in the hippocampus of Alzheimer's disease patients. We speculate that Notch-1 signaling may be involved in PC12 cell apoptosis induced by amyloid beta-peptide (25–35) (Aβ25–35). In the present study, PC12 cells were cultured with different doses (0, 0.1, 1.0, 10 and 100 nmol/L) of N-[N-(3,5-Difluorophenacetyl)-L-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester, a Notch-1 signaling pathway inhibitor, for 30 minutes. Then cultured cells were induced with Aβ25–35 for 48 hours. Pretreatment of PC12 cells with high doses of N-[N-(3,5-Difluorophenacetyl)-L-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (> 10 nmol/L) prolonged the survival of PC12 cells after Aβ25–35 induction, decreased the expression of apoptosis-related proteins caspase-3, -8, -9, increased the activity of oxidative stress-related superoxide dismutase and catalase, inhibited the production of active oxygen, and reduced nuclear factor kappa B expression. This study indicates that the Notch-1 signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in Aβ25–35-induced PC12 apoptosis. PMID:25221582

  9. Induced Bacterial Cross-Resistance toward Host Antimicrobial Peptides: A Worrying Phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Fleitas, Osmel; Franco, Octávio L.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics has reached alarming levels, threatening to return to the pre-antibiotic era. Therefore, the search for new antimicrobial compounds that overcome the resistance phenomenon has become a priority. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) appear as one of the most promising antibiotic medicines. However, in recent years several AMP-resistance mechanisms have been described. Moreover, the AMP-resistance phenomenon has become more complex due to its association with cross-resistance toward AMP effectors of the host innate immune system. In this context, the use of AMPs as a therapeutic option could be potentially hazardous, since bacteria could develop resistance toward our innate immune system. Here, we review the findings of major studies that deal with the AMP cross-resistance phenomenon. PMID:27047486

  10. Apparent involvement of opioid peptides in stress-induced enhancement of tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J W; Shavit, Y; Terman, G W; Nelson, L R; Gale, R P; Liebeskind, J C

    1983-01-01

    Exposure to stress has been associated with alterations in both immune function and tumor development in man and laboratory animals. In the present study, we investigated the effect of a particular type of inescapable footshock stress, known to cause an opioid mediated form of analgesia, on survival time of female Fischer 344 rats injected with a mammary ascites tumor. Rats subjected to inescapable footshock manifested an enhanced tumor growth indicated by a decreased survival time and decreased percent survival. This tumor enhancing effect of stress was prevented by the opiate antagonist, naltrexone, suggesting a role for endogenous opioid peptides in this process. In the absence of stress, naltrexone did not affect tumor growth. PMID:6686324

  11. Glucagon like peptide-1 attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, involving the inactivation of NF-κB in mice.

    PubMed

    Gou, Si; Zhu, Tao; Wang, Wei; Xiao, Min; Wang, Xi-chen; Chen, Zhong-hua

    2014-10-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive lung disease with high mortality and poor prognosis. Previous studies confirmed that NF-κB plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis and glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has a property of anti-inflammation by inactivation of NF-κB. Furthermore, the GLP-1 receptor was detected in the lung tissues. Our aim was to investigate the potential value and mechanisms of GLP-1 on BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Mice with BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis were treated with or without GLP-1 administration. 28 days after BLM infusion, the number of total cells, macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and the content of TGF-β1 in BALF were measured. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and Masson's trichrome (MT) staining were performed. The Ashcroft score and hydroxyproline content were analyzed. RT-qPCR and western blot were used to evaluate the expression of α-SMA and VCAM-1. The phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 was also assessed by western blot. DNA binding of NF-κB p65 was measured through Trans(AM) p65 transcription factor ELISA kit. GLP-1 reduced inflammatory cell infiltration and the content of TGF-β1 in BLAF in mice with BLM injection. The Ashcroft score and hydroxyproline content were decreased by GLP-1 administration. Meanwhile, BLM-induced overexpression of α-SMA and VCAM-1 were blocked by GLP-1 treatment in mice. GLP-1 also reduced the ratio of phosphor-NF-κB p65/total-NF-κB p65 and NF-κB p65 DNA binding activity in BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Our data found that BLM-induced lung inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis were significantly alleviated by GLP-1 treatment in mice, possibly through inactivation of NF-κB. PMID:25111852

  12. Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors can antagonize neurogenic and calcitonin gene-related peptide induced dilation of dural meningeal vessels

    PubMed Central

    Akerman, S; Williamson, D J; Kaube, H; Goadsby, P J

    2002-01-01

    The detailed pathophysiology of migraine is beginning to be understood and is likely to involve activation of trigeminovascular afferents. Clinically effective anti-migraine compounds are believed to have actions that include peripheral inhibition of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release from trigeminal neurones, or preventing dural vessel dilation, or both. CGRP antagonists can block both neurogenic and CGRP-induced dural vessel dilation. Nitric oxide (NO) can induce headache in migraine patients and often triggers a delayed migraine. The initial headache is thought to be caused via a direct action of the NO–cGMP pathway that causes vasodilation by vascular smooth muscle relaxation, while the delayed headache is likely to be a result of triggering trigeminovascular activation. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors are effective in the treatment of acute migraine. The present studies used intravital microscopy to examine the effects of specific NOS inhibitors on neurogenic dural vasodilation (NDV) and CGRP-induced dilation. The non-specific and neuronal NOS (nNOS) inhibitors were able to partially inhibit NDV, while the non-specific and endothelial NOS (eNOS) inhibitors were able to partially inhibit the CGRP induced dilation. There was no effect of the inducible NOS (iNOS) inhibitor. The data suggest that the delayed headache response triggered by NO donors in humans may be due, in part, to increased nNOS activity in the trigeminal system that causes CGRP release and dural vessel dilation. Further, eNOS activity in the endothelium causes NO production and smooth muscle relaxation by direct activation of the NO–cGMP pathway, and may be involved in the initial headache response. PMID:12183331

  13. Nitric oxide, and not vasoactive intestinal peptide, as the main neurotransmitter of vagally induced relaxation of the guinea pig stomach.

    PubMed Central

    Desai, K M; Warner, T D; Bishop, A E; Polak, J M; Vane, J R

    1994-01-01

    1. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was localized in the guinea pig stomach by immunocytochemistry. In vitro experiments were carried out on the isolated stomach of the guinea pig to study any possible links between nitric oxide (NO) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in mediating relaxations induced by vagal stimulation. 2. NOS was localized to nerve cell bodies and nerve fibre varicosities of the myenteric plexus in wholemounts of the longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus of the stomach fundus. The NOS-positive cells had a Dogiel type I morphology characteristic of motor neurones. 3. The cross-sections of the stomach wall showed NOS-positive neurones mainly in the myenteric plexus ganglia and NOS-positive nerve fibre varicosities in the circular muscle layer. 4. Relaxations induced by vagal stimulation were almost completely prevented by L-NAME with an IC50 value of 5.5 x 10(-6) M. This inhibition was reversed by L-arginine (2 mM). 5. VIP (100 nM) induced reproducible relaxations of the stomach. These were unaffected by tetrodotoxin (2 microM) or N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 microM). 6. Desensitization to the relaxant effect of VIP partially reduced relaxations induced by vagal stimulation, glyceryl trinitrate or sodium nitroprusside but not noradrenaline. 7. These results show that NO has a neuronal origin in the guinea pig stomach, and support NO, and not VIP, as the major neurotransmitter of vagally induced gastric relaxation in the guinea pig. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7534182

  14. Vascular Relaxation Induced by C-Type Natriuretic Peptide Involves the Ca2+/NO-Synthase/NO Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Fernanda A.; Restini, Carolina B. A.; Grando, Marcella D.; Ramalho, Leandra N. Z.; Bendhack, Lusiane M.

    2014-01-01

    Aims C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) and nitric oxide (NO) are endothelium-derived factors that play important roles in the regulation of vascular tone and arterial blood pressure. We hypothesized that NO produced by the endothelial NO-synthase (NOS-3) contributes to the relaxation induced by CNP in isolated rat aorta via activation of endothelial NPR-C receptor. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the putative contribution of NO through NPR-C activation in the CNP induced relaxation in isolated conductance artery. Main Methods Concentration-effect curves for CNP were constructed in aortic rings isolated from rats. Confocal microscopy was used to analyze the cytosolic calcium mobilization induced by CNP. The phosphorylation of the residue Ser1177 of NOS was analyzed by Western blot and the expression and localization of NPR-C receptors was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Key Findings CNP was less potent in inducing relaxation in denuded endothelium aortic rings than in intact ones. L-NAME attenuated the potency of CNP and similar results were obtained in the presence of hydroxocobalamin, an intracellular NO0 scavenger. CNP did not change the phosphorylation of Ser1177, the activation site of NOS-3, when compared with control. The addition of CNP produced an increase in [Ca2+]c in endothelial cells and a decrease in [Ca2+]c in vascular smooth muscle cells. The NPR-C-receptors are expressed in endothelial and adventitial rat aortas. Significance These results suggest that CNP-induced relaxation in intact aorta isolated from rats involves NO production due to [Ca2+]c increase in endothelial cells possibly through NPR-C activation expressed in these cells. The present study provides a breakthrough in the understanding of the close relationship between the vascular actions of nitric oxide and CNP. PMID:24787693

  15. Brain RVD-haemopressin, a haemoglobin-derived peptide, inhibits bombesin-induced central activation of adrenomedullary outflow in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Kenjiro; Shimizu, Takahiro; Yanagita, Toshihiko; Nemoto, Takayuki; Nakamura, Kumiko; Taniuchi, Keisuke; Dimitriadis, Fotios; Yokotani, Kunihiko; Saito, Motoaki

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Haemopressin and RVD-haemopressin, derived from the haemoglobin α-chain, are bioactive peptides found in brain and are ligands for cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Activation of brain CB1 receptors inhibited the secretion of adrenal catecholamines (noradrenaline and adrenaline) induced by i.c.v. bombesin in the rat. Here, we investigated the effects of two haemoglobin-derived peptides on this bombesin-induced response EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Anaesthetised male Wistar rats were pretreated with either haemoglobin-derived peptide, given i.c.v., 30 min before i.c.v. bombesin and plasma catecholamines were subsequently measured electrochemically after HPLC. Direct effects of bombesin on secretion of adrenal catecholamines were examined using bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Furthermore, activation of haemoglobin α-positive spinally projecting neurons in the rat hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN, a regulatory centre of central adrenomedullary outflow) after i.c.v. bombesin was assessed by immunohistochemical techniques. KEY RESULTS Bombesin given i.c.v. dose-dependently elevated plasma catecholamines whereas incubation with bombesin had no effect on spontaneous and nicotine-induced secretion of catecholamines from chromaffin cells. The bombesin-induced increase in catecholamines was inhibited by pretreatment with i.c.v. RVD-haemopressin (CB1 receptor agonist) but not after pretreatment with haemopressin (CB1 receptor inverse agonist). Bombesin activated haemoglobin α-positive spinally projecting neurons in the PVN. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The haemoglobin-derived peptide RVD-haemopressin in the brain plays an inhibitory role in bombesin-induced activation of central adrenomedullary outflow via brain CB1 receptors in the rat. These findings provide basic information for the therapeutic use of haemoglobin-derived peptides in the modulation of central adrenomedullary outflow. PMID:24138638

  16. Adaptive Evolution of Escherichia coli to an α-Peptide/β-Peptoid Peptidomimetic Induces Stable Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Hein-Kristensen, Line; Franzyk, Henrik; Holch, Anne; Gram, Lone

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and synthetic analogues thereof target conserved structures of bacterial cell envelopes and hence, development of resistance has been considered an unlikely event. However, recently bacterial resistance to AMPs has been observed, and the aim of the present study was to determine whether bacterial resistance may also evolve against synthetic AMP analogues, e.g. α-peptide/β-peptoid peptidomimetics. E. coli ATCC 25922 was exposed to increasing concentrations of a peptidomimetic (10 lineages), polymyxin B (10 lineages), or MilliQ water (4 lineages) in a re-inoculation culturing setup covering approx. 500 generations. All 10 lineages exposed to the peptidomimetic adapted to 32×MIC while this occurred for 8 out of 10 of the polymyxin B-exposed lineages. All lineages exposed to 32×MIC of either the peptidomimetic or polymyxin B had a significantly increased MIC (16–32×) to the selection agent. Five transfers (∼35 generations) in unsupplemented media did not abolish resistance indicating that resistance was heritable. Single isolates from peptidomimetic-exposed lineage populations displayed MICs against the peptidomimetic from wild-type MIC to 32×MIC revealing heterogeneous populations. Resistant isolates showed no cross-resistance against a panel of membrane-active AMPs. These isolates were highly susceptible to blood plasma antibacterial activity and were killed when plasma concentrations exceeded ∼30%. Notably, MIC of the peptidomimetic against resistant isolates returned to wild-type level upon addition of 25% plasma. Whole-genome sequencing of twenty isolates from four resistant lineages revealed mutations, in murein transglycosylase D (mltD) and outer-membrane proteins, which were conserved within and between lineages. However, no common resistance-conferring mutation was identified. We hypothesise that alterations in cell envelope structure result in peptidomimetic resistance, and that this may occur via several distinct

  17. The Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Human Telomerase-Derived Peptide on P. gingivalis Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Cytokine Production and Its Mechanism in Human Dental Pulp Cells.

    PubMed

    Ko, Yoo-Jin; Kwon, Kil-Young; Kum, Kee-Yeon; Lee, Woo-Cheol; Baek, Seung-Ho; Kang, Mo K; Shon, Won-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is considered with inducing pulpal inflammation and has lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as an inflammatory stimulator. GV1001 peptide has anticancer and anti-inflammation activity due to inhibiting activation of signaling molecules after penetration into the various types of cells. Therefore, this study examined inhibitory effect of GV1001 on dental pulp cells (hDPCs) stimulated by P. gingivalis LPS. The intracellular distribution of GV1001 was analyzed by confocal microscopy. Real-time RT-PCR was performed to determine the expression levels of TNF-α and IL-6 cytokines. The role of signaling by MAP kinases (ERK and p38) was explored using Western blot analysis. The effect of GV1001 peptide on hDPCs viability was measured by MTT assay. GV1001 was predominantly located in hDPC cytoplasm. The peptide inhibited P. gingivalis LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 production in hDPCs without significant cytotoxicity. Furthermore, GV1001 treatment markedly inhibited the phosphorylation of MAP kinases (ERK and p38) in LPS-stimulated hDPCs. GV1001 may prevent P. gingivalis LPS-induced inflammation of apical tissue. Also, these findings provide mechanistic insight into how GV1001 peptide causes anti-inflammatory actions in LPS-stimulated pulpitis without significantly affecting cell viability. PMID:26604431

  18. The Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Human Telomerase-Derived Peptide on P. gingivalis Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Cytokine Production and Its Mechanism in Human Dental Pulp Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Yoo-Jin; Kwon, Kil-Young; Kum, Kee-Yeon; Lee, Woo-Cheol; Baek, Seung-Ho; Kang, Mo K.; Shon, Won-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is considered with inducing pulpal inflammation and has lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as an inflammatory stimulator. GV1001 peptide has anticancer and anti-inflammation activity due to inhibiting activation of signaling molecules after penetration into the various types of cells. Therefore, this study examined inhibitory effect of GV1001 on dental pulp cells (hDPCs) stimulated by P. gingivalis LPS. The intracellular distribution of GV1001 was analyzed by confocal microscopy. Real-time RT-PCR was performed to determine the expression levels of TNF-α and IL-6 cytokines. The role of signaling by MAP kinases (ERK and p38) was explored using Western blot analysis. The effect of GV1001 peptide on hDPCs viability was measured by MTT assay. GV1001 was predominantly located in hDPC cytoplasm. The peptide inhibited P. gingivalis LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 production in hDPCs without significant cytotoxicity. Furthermore, GV1001 treatment markedly inhibited the phosphorylation of MAP kinases (ERK and p38) in LPS-stimulated hDPCs. GV1001 may prevent P. gingivalis LPS-induced inflammation of apical tissue. Also, these findings provide mechanistic insight into how GV1001 peptide causes anti-inflammatory actions in LPS-stimulated pulpitis without significantly affecting cell viability. PMID:26604431

  19. AMPK activation by glucagon-like peptide-1 prevents NADPH oxidase activation induced by hyperglycemia in adult cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Balteau, Magali; Van Steenbergen, Anne; Timmermans, Aurélie D; Dessy, Chantal; Behets-Wydemans, Gaetane; Tajeddine, Nicolas; Castanares-Zapatero, Diego; Gilon, Patrick; Vanoverschelde, Jean-Louis; Horman, Sandrine; Hue, Louis; Bertrand, Luc; Beauloye, Christophe

    2014-10-15

    Exposure of cardiomyocytes to high glucose concentrations (HG) stimulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by NADPH oxidase (NOX2). NOX2 activation is triggered by enhanced glucose transport through a sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) but not by a stimulation of glucose metabolism. The aim of this work was to identify potential therapeutic approaches to counteract this glucotoxicity. In cultured adult rat cardiomyocytes incubated with 21 mM glucose (HG), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation by A769662 or phenformin nearly suppressed ROS production. Interestingly, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), a new antidiabetic drug, concomitantly induced AMPK activation and prevented the HG-mediated ROS production (maximal effect at 100 nM). α2-AMPK, the major isoform expressed in cardiomyocytes (but not α1-AMPK), was activated in response to GLP-1. Anti-ROS properties of AMPK activators were not related to changes in glucose uptake or glycolysis. Using in situ proximity ligation assay, we demonstrated that AMPK activation prevented the HG-induced p47phox translocation to caveolae, whatever the AMPK activators used. NOX2 activation by either α-methyl-d-glucopyranoside, a glucose analog transported through SGLT, or angiotensin II was also counteracted by GLP-1. The crucial role of AMPK in limiting HG-mediated NOX2 activation was demonstrated by overexpressing a constitutively active form of α2-AMPK using adenoviral infection. This overexpression prevented NOX2 activation in response to HG, whereas GLP-1 lost its protective action in α2-AMPK-deficient mouse cardiomyocytes. Under HG, the GLP-1/AMPK pathway inhibited PKC-β2 phosphorylation, a key element mediating p47phox translocation. In conclusion, GLP-1 induces α2-AMPK activation and blocks HG-induced p47phox translocation to the plasma membrane, thereby preventing glucotoxicity. PMID:25128166

  20. A scorpion venom peptide fraction induced prostaglandin biosynthesis in guinea pig kidneys: incorporation of 14C-linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    el-Saadani, Muhammad A

    2004-01-01

    A peptide fraction isolated from the venom of the Egyptian scorpion Buthus occitanus was proved to have a bradykinin- potentiating activity. In vivo and in vitro modes of action of the isolated bradykinin-potentiating peptide (BPP) on kidneys of guinea pigs were investigated. Animals received five successive i.p. doses of the scorpion BPP (1 microg/g body weight) at one-week intervals. The control animals were i.p. injected with saline solution only. In vivo experiments showed a significant increase in renal tissue PGE(2) content and lipid peroxides of the treated guinea pigs compared to the control animals (p < 0.05). Nonsignificant changes were detected in the levels of tissue c-AMP and 5-nucleotidase activity (p > 0.05) of the treated animals, while the changes in c-GMP and c-AMP/c-GMP ratio were both significant (p < 0.05). In vitro experiments demonstrated enhanced capacity of guinea pig-renal tissue to convert (14)C-linoleic acid to its metabolites, 6-keto-PGF(1)alpha, PGF(2)alpha, PGE(2), TxB(2), PGD(2), and arachidonic acid, in response to the added PBP (1 microg/ml) and bradykinin (1 microg/ml). This enhanced response was abolished upon the addition of 1 microg/ml of BK-inhibitor (D-Arg- [Hyp(3), Thi(5,6), Phe(7)]). The capacity for labeled metabolites recovery in BPP treated renal tissue was 19.78%, while it was 13.00% in the basal control. The total increase that evoked by BPP was 62.78%. The results clearly indicate that the isolated BPP induced prostaglandin biosynthesis, which may trigger enhanced glomerular filtration in guinea pigs. PMID:14999016

  1. A Synthetic, Xeno-Free Peptide Surface for Expansion and Directed Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Sha; Yao, Huantong; Weber, Jennifer L.; Melkoumian, Zara K.; Ye, Kaiming

    2012-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells have the potential to become an unlimited cell source for cell replacement therapy. The realization of this potential, however, depends on the availability of culture methods that are robust, scalable, and use chemically defined materials. Despite significant advances in hiPSC technologies, the expansion of hiPSCs relies upon the use of animal-derived extracellular matrix extracts, such as Matrigel, which raises safety concerns over the use of these products. In this work, we investigated the feasibility of expanding and differentiating hiPSCs on a chemically defined, xeno-free synthetic peptide substrate, i.e. Corning Synthemax® Surface. We demonstrated that the Synthemax Surface supports the attachment, spreading, and proliferation of hiPSCs, as well as hiPSCs’ lineage-specific differentiation. hiPSCs colonies grown on Synthemax Surfaces exhibit less spread and more compact morphology compared to cells grown on Matrigel™. The cytoskeleton characterization of hiPSCs grown on the Synthemax Surface revealed formation of denser actin filaments in the cell-cell interface. The down-regulation of vinculin and up-regulation of zyxin expression were also observed in hiPSCs grown on the Synthemax Surface. Further examination of cell-ECM interaction revealed that hiPSCs grown on the Synthemax Surface primarily utilize αvβ5 integrins to mediate attachment to the substrate, whereas multiple integrins are involved in cell attachment to Matrigel. Finally, hiPSCs can be maintained undifferentiated on the Synthemax Surface for more than ten passages. These studies provide a novel approach for expansion of hiPSCs using synthetic peptide engineered surface as a substrate to avoid a potential risk of contamination and lot-to-lot variability with animal derived materials. PMID:23226418

  2. Insulin/glucose induces natriuretic peptide clearance receptor in human adipocytes: a metabolic link with the cardiac natriuretic pathway.

    PubMed

    Bordicchia, M; Ceresiani, M; Pavani, M; Minardi, D; Polito, M; Wabitsch, M; Cannone, V; Burnett, J C; Dessì-Fulgheri, P; Sarzani, R

    2016-07-01

    Cardiac natriuretic peptides (NP) are involved in cardiorenal regulation and in lipolysis. The NP activity is largely dependent on the ratio between the signaling receptor NPRA and the clearance receptor NPRC. Lipolysis increases when NPRC is reduced by starving or very-low-calorie diet. On the contrary, insulin is an antilipolytic hormone that increases sodium retention, suggesting a possible functional link with NP. We examined the insulin-mediated regulation of NP receptors in differentiated human adipocytes and tested the association of NP receptor expression in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) with metabolic profiles of patients undergoing renal surgery. Differentiated human adipocytes from VAT and Simpson-Golabi-Behmel Syndrome (SGBS) adipocyte cell line were treated with insulin in the presence of high-glucose or low-glucose media to study NP receptors and insulin/glucose-regulated pathways. Fasting blood samples and VAT samples were taken from patients on the day of renal surgery. We observed a potent insulin-mediated and glucose-dependent upregulation of NPRC, through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway, associated with lower lipolysis in differentiated adipocytes. No effect was observed on NPRA. Low-glucose medium, used to simulate in vivo starving conditions, hampered the insulin effect on NPRC through modulation of insulin/glucose-regulated pathways, allowing atrial natriuretic peptide to induce lipolysis and thermogenic genes. An expression ratio in favor of NPRC in adipose tissue was associated with higher fasting insulinemia, HOMA-IR, and atherogenic lipid levels. Insulin/glucose-dependent NPRC induction in adipocytes might be a key factor linking hyperinsulinemia, metabolic syndrome, and higher blood pressure by reducing NP effects on adipocytes. PMID:27101299

  3. The antibacterial peptide from Bombyx mori cecropinXJ induced growth arrest and apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    XIA, LIJIE; WU, YANLING; MA, JI; YANG, JIANHUA; ZHANG, FUCHUN

    2016-01-01

    CecropinXJ is a cationic antimicrobial peptide originally isolated from the larvae of Bombyx mori. The anticancer effect of cecropinXJ has been reported in various tumor cells, including leukemia, gastric and esophageal cancer cells. However, the activity of cecropinXJ on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its underlying mechanism have not been investigated to date. Therefore, the present study investigated the efficacy and associated mechanism of cecropinXJ in Huh-7 cells. Flow cytometric analysis was performed to determine the presence of cell cycle arrested and apoptotic cells. CecropinXJ significantly inhibited the growth of Huh-7 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. CecropinXJ treatment for 24 h induced S cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, in addition to loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential, in hepatoma cells. CecropinXJ induced HCC cell apoptosis by activating caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Furthermore, cecropinXJ downregulated the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), while upregulated the expression of Bcl-2-associated death promoter and Bcl-2-associated X protein. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that cecropinXJ may be an active anti-HCC agent and provide novel insights into the mechanism of cecropinXJ. PMID:27347099

  4. Peptides in pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysates from commercially available soy products that inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Dia, Vermont P; Bringe, Neal A; de Mejia, Elvira G

    2014-01-01

    The potential of pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysates, from different foods, to inhibit inflammation using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages as an in vitro model was evaluated. Eight different products were digested sequentially with pepsin and pancreatin and were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory properties. Hydrolysates from strawberry-banana soymilk (SBH), mixed berry soymilk (MXH) and vanilla soymilk (SVMH) inhibited the production of nitric oxide (27.9%, 16.4% and 28.6%, respectively), interleukin-1β (26.3%, 39.5% and 21.6%, respectively) and tumour necrosis factor-α (50.2%, 47.5% and 33.3%, respectively). In addition, SBH, MXH and SVMH inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory enzymes: inducible nitric oxide synthase (66.7%, 65.1% and 88.0%, respectively) and cyclooxygenase-2 (62.0%, 69.9% and 40.6%, respectively). Bioactive peptides (RQRK and VIK) were generated. In conclusion, soymilk products can potentially be used to maintain health under inflammatory stress. PMID:24444957

  5. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced foam cell formation is mediated by formyl peptide receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ha Young; Oh, Eunseo; Kim, Sang Doo; Seo, Jeong Kon; Bae, Yoe-Sik

    2014-01-17

    The increased level of LDL and its modification into oxLDL has been regarded as an important risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. Although some scavenger receptors including CD36 and RAGE have been considered as target receptors for oxLDL, involvement of other receptors should be investigated for oxLDL-induced pathological responses. In this study, we found that oxLDL-induced foam cell formation was inhibited by formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) antagonist WRW(4). oxLDL also stimulated calcium signaling and chemotactic migration in FPR2-expressing RBL-2H3 cells but not in vector-expressing RBL-2H3 cells. Moreover, oxLDL stimulated TNF-α production, which was also almost completely inhibited by FPR2 antagonist. Our findings therefore suggest that oxLDL stimulates macrophages, resulting in chemotactic migration, TNF-α production, and foam cell formation via FPR2 signaling, and thus likely contributes to atherogenesis. PMID:24361884

  6. Methylglyoxal produced by amyloid-β peptide-induced nitrotyrosination of triosephosphate isomerase triggers neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Tajes, Marta; Eraso-Pichot, Abel; Rubio-Moscardó, Fanny; Guivernau, Biuse; Ramos-Fernández, Eva; Bosch-Morató, Mònica; Guix, Francesc Xavier; Clarimón, Jordi; Miscione, Gian Pietro; Boada, Mercé; Gil-Gómez, Gabriel; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Molina, Henrik; Villà-Freixa, Jordi; Vicente, Rubén; Muñoz, Francisco J

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) aggregates induce nitro-oxidative stress, contributing to the characteristic neurodegeneration found in Alzheimer's disease (AD). One of the most strongly nitrotyrosinated proteins in AD is the triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) enzyme which regulates glycolytic flow, and its efficiency decreased when it is nitrotyrosinated. The main aims of this study were to analyze the impact of TPI nitrotyrosination on cell viability and to identify the mechanism behind this effect. In human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y), we evaluated the effects of Aβ42 oligomers on TPI nitrotyrosination. We found an increased production of methylglyoxal (MG), a toxic byproduct of the inefficient nitro-TPI function. The proapoptotic effects of Aβ42 oligomers, such as decreasing the protective Bcl2 and increasing the proapoptotic caspase-3 and Bax, were prevented with a MG chelator. Moreover, we used a double mutant TPI (Y165F and Y209F) to mimic nitrosative modifications due to Aβ action. Neuroblastoma cells transfected with the double mutant TPI consistently triggered MG production and a decrease in cell viability due to apoptotic mechanisms. Our data show for the first time that MG is playing a key role in the neuronal death induced by Aβ oligomers. This occurs because of TPI nitrotyrosination, which affects both tyrosines associated with the catalytic center. PMID:24614897

  7. Chronic ethanol consumption induces gene expression of pancreatic monitor peptide, but not SPINK1/PSTI-56, in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, H S; Deng, X Y; Thompson, B S; Zhang, J Y; Wood, P G; Eagon, P K; Whitcomb, D C

    2001-08-01

    The primary factors that predispose humans to the development of alcoholic pancreatitis are unknown. One of the earliest observations in humans in whom this disease develops is pancreatic hypersecretion caused by unknown mechanisms. Messenger RNA (mRNA) differential display was performed in a rat model to investigate the molecular mechanisms associated with ethanol-induced pancreatic hypersecretion. Male Wistar rats were pair-fed Lieber-DeCarli diets with or without ethanol for 7 days or 4 weeks. Total RNA was extracted from the pancreas and its neurohormonal control sites. Differentially expressed complementary DNA (cDNA) tags were isolated, cloned, and sequenced. One 248-bp cDNA was consistently and strongly induced in the pancreata of rats fed ethanol for 4 weeks. The sequence was highly homologous to both rat pancreatic monitor peptide (MP) and pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor (PSTI-56), also known as serine protease inhibitor, Kazal type 1 (SPINK1). Confirmatory reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that PSTI-56 expression remained unchanged, whereas MP mRNA levels were elevated more than four times in the pancreata of ethanol-fed rats. These results indicate that long-term ethanol ingestion increases MP mRNA levels in the rat pancreas. Because MP stimulates cholecystokinin release and cholecystokinin is an important stimulant of pancreatic secretion, the enhanced MP gene expression may contribute to pancreatic hypersecretion. PMID:11484913

  8. The influence of Leucine-rich amelogenin peptide on MSC fate by inducing Wnt10b expression.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xin; Cawthorn, William P; MacDougald, Ormond A; Stupp, Samuel I; Snead, Malcolm L; Zhou, Yan

    2011-09-01

    Amelogenin is the most abundant protein of the enamel organic matrix and is a structural protein indispensable for enamel formation. One of the amelogenin splicing isoforms, Leucine-rich Amelogenin Peptide (LRAP) induces osteogenesis in various cell types. Previously, we demonstrated that LRAP activates the canonical Wnt signaling pathway to induce osteogenic differentiation of mouse ES cells through the concerted regulation of Wnt agonists and antagonists. There is a reciprocal relationship between osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs). Wnt10b-mediated activation of canonical Wnt signaling has been shown to regulate mesenchymal stem cell fate. Using the bipotential bone marrow stromal cell line ST2, we have demonstrated that LRAP activates the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. A specific Wnt inhibitor sFRP-1 abolishes the effect of LRAP on the stimulation of osteogenesis and the inhibition of adipogenesis of ST2 cells. LRAP treatment elevates the Wnt10b expression level whereas Wnt10b knockdown by siRNA abrogates the effect of LRAP. We show here that LRAP promotes osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells at the expense of adipogenesis through upregulating Wnt10b expression to activate Wnt signaling. PMID:21663957

  9. Suppression of ischaemia-induced injuries in rat brain by protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) activating peptide.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Xia; Ng, Ethel Sau Kuen; Lam, Francis Fu Yuen

    2016-09-01

    Ischaemic stroke has become one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. The role of protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) in this disease is uncertain. In the present study, the actions of a protease activated receptor-1 activating peptide (PAR-1 AP) SFLLRN-NH2 were investigated in an in vivo rat model of ischaemic stroke induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and in an in vitro model induced by oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) in primary cultured rat embryonic cortical neurones. Rats subjected to MCAO exhibited increased brain infarct volume, oedema, and neurological deficit. Rat cortical neurones subjected to OGD showed increased lactate dehydrogenase, caspase-3 activity and TUNEL positive cells, whereas, mitochondrial membrane potential and cell viability were decreased. Furthermore, both models had elevated levels of reactive oxygen species, nitrite, and malondialdehyde, while anti-oxidant enzymes and bcl-2/bax ratio were decreased. These detrimental changes were suppressed by SFLLRN-NH2, and its protective actions were inhibited by a PAR-1 antagonist (BMS-200261). In summary, SFLLRN-NH2 was found to possess anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic properties, and it produced marked inhibition on the detrimental effects of ischaemia in in vivo and in vitro models of ischaemic stroke. The present findings suggest PAR-1 is a promising target for development of novel treatments of ischaemic brain disease. PMID:27238976

  10. Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor Is an Inducible Antimicrobial Peptide Expressed in Staphylococcus aureus Endophthalmitis

    PubMed Central

    Reviglio, Victor E.; Sambuelli, Ruben H.; Olmedo, Alejandra; Falco, Micaela; Echenique, Jose; O'Brien, Terrence P.; Kuo, Irene C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose. To describe the presence of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), a cationic peptide with antimicrobial and antiprotease activity, in the innate ocular immune reaction in a rat model of Staphylococcus aureus endophthalmitis. Methods. Seventy-five female Lewis rats were divided into three groups: the endophthalmitis group received an intravitreal injection of 65 colony-forming units of viable S. aureus, the vehicle-injected group received balanced sterile saline solution (BSS), and the control group was not injected. Eyes were enucleated at 24 and 48 hours and processed for immunohistochemical staining and Western blot studies for SLPI. Results. In S. aureus endophthalmitis eyes, there was strong immunostaining for SLPI in the retina and vitreous with associated neutrophilic infiltrates. At 48 hours, corneas also stained for SLPI. Western blots confirmed increased SLPI expression in all infected eyes. By immunohistochemical assays, SLPI was absent in the BSS and control eyes. The causative pathogen was identified in all samples from the endophthalmitis group by traditional culture methods. Conclusions. To our knowledge, this report is the first to demonstrate the presence of SLPI in the inflamed cornea, vitreous, and retina tissues of rat eyes with S. aureus endophthalmitis, suggesting that SLPI has an active role in the innate immunity of the eye. Release of SLPI by inflammatory cells in the anterior and posterior segments may contribute to the host defense response against infectious endophthalmitis. PMID:18274645

  11. Changes in the Mechanical Properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bacterial Cells Induced by Antimicrobial Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Shun; Dutcher, John

    2011-03-01

    In our research group, we have developed an atomic force microscopy nano-creep technique to study the mechanical properties of individual Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial cells in a liquid environment. In the present study, we have used this technique to measure changes to the mechanical properties of the cells produced by exposing the cells to well-studied antimicrobial peptides: polymyxin B (PMB) and its derivative polymyxin B nonapeptide (PMBN). We find that the creep response of cells under a fixed applied load is very different after exposure of the cells to PMB and PMBN, which is possibly due to the disruption of its outer membrane. To describe the viscoelastic properties of the cells exposed to PMB and PMBN, we found that it was necessary to use a four element spring and dashpot model, instead of the three element standard linear solid model that describes the viscoelastic properties of cells in Millipore water. We also found that PMB and PMBN have qualitatively different effects on the stiffness of the cell membrane. These measurements provide a first step towards understanding the different mechanisms of action of PMB and PMBN on bacterial cells.

  12. New selective glucocorticoid receptor modulators reverse amyloid-β peptide-induced hippocampus toxicity.

    PubMed

    Pineau, Fanny; Canet, Geoffrey; Desrumaux, Catherine; Hunt, Hazel; Chevallier, Nathalie; Ollivier, Matthias; Belanoff, Joseph K; Givalois, Laurent

    2016-09-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), cognitive deficits and psychological symptoms are associated with an early deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Here, in an acute model of AD, we investigated if antiglucocorticoid strategies with selective glucocorticoid receptor (GR) modulators (CORT108297 and CORT113176) that combine antagonistic and agonistic GR properties could offer an interesting therapeutic approach in the future. We confirm the expected properties of the nonselective GR antagonist (mifepristone) because in addition to restoring basal circulating glucocorticoids levels, mifepristone totally reverses synaptic deficits and hippocampal apoptosis processes. However, mifepristone only partially reverses cognitive deficit, effects of the hippocampal amyloidogenic pathway, and neuroinflammatory processes, suggesting limits in its efficacy. By contrast, selective GR modulators CORT108297 and CORT113176 at a dose of 20 and 10 mg/kg, respectively, reverse hippocampal amyloid-β peptide generation, neuroinflammation, and apoptotic processes, restore the hippocampal levels of synaptic markers, re-establish basal plasma levels of glucocorticoids, and improve cognitive function. In conclusion, selective GR modulators are particularly attractive and may pave the way to new strategies for AD treatment. PMID:27459932

  13. Electrospun Scaffolds for Osteoblast Cells: Peptide-Induced Concentration-Dependent Improvements of Polycaprolactone

    PubMed Central

    Dettin, Monica; Zamuner, Annj; Roso, Martina; Gloria, Antonio; Iucci, Giovanna; Messina, Grazia M. L.; D'Amora, Ugo; Marletta, Giovanni; Modesti, Michele; Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Brun, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The design of hybrid poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL)-self-assembling peptides (SAPs) matrices represents a simple method for the surface functionalization of synthetic scaffolds, which is essential for cell compatibility. This study investigates the influence of increasing concentrations (2.5%, 5%, 10% and 15% w/w SAP compared to PCL) of three different SAPs on the physico-chemical/mechanical and biological properties of PCL fibers. We demonstrated that physico-chemical surface characteristics were slightly improved at increasing SAP concentrations: the fiber diameter increased; surface wettability increased with the first SAP addition (2.5%) and slightly less for the following ones; SAP-surface density increased but no change in the conformation was registered. These results could allow engineering matrices with structural characteristics and desired wettability according to the needs and the cell system used. The biological and mechanical characteristics of these scaffolds showed a particular trend at increasing SAP concentrations suggesting a prevailing correlation between cell behavior and mechanical features of the matrices. As compared with bare PCL, SAP enrichment increased the number of metabolic active h-osteoblast cells, fostered the expression of specific osteoblast-related mRNA transcripts, and guided calcium deposition, revealing the potential application of PCL-SAP scaffolds for the maintenance of osteoblast phenotype. PMID:26361004

  14. Electrostatically induced recruitment of membrane peptides into clusters requires ligand binding at both interfaces.

    PubMed

    Antonenko, Yuri N; Horner, Andreas; Pohl, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Protein recruitment to specific membrane locations may be governed or facilitated by electrostatic attraction, which originates from a multivalent ligand. Here we explored the energetics of a model system in which this simple electrostatic recruitment mechanism failed. That is, basic poly-L-lysine binding to one leaflet of a planar lipid bilayer did not recruit the triply-charged peptide (O-Pyromellitylgramicidin). Clustering was only observed in cases where PLL was bound to both channel ends. Clustering was indicated (i) by the decreased diffusional PLL mobility D(PLL) and (ii) by an increased lifetime τ(PLL) of the clustered channels. In contrast, if PLL was bound to only one leaflet, neither D(PLL) nor τ(P) changed. Simple calculations suggest that electrostatic repulsion of the unbound ends prevented neighboring OPg dimers from approaching each other. We believe that a similar mechanism may also operate in cell signaling and that it may e.g. contribute to the controversial results obtained for the ligand driven dimerization of G protein-coupled receptors. PMID:23285199

  15. Electrostatically Induced Recruitment of Membrane Peptides into Clusters Requires Ligand Binding at Both Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Protein recruitment to specific membrane locations may be governed or facilitated by electrostatic attraction, which originates from a multivalent ligand. Here we explored the energetics of a model system in which this simple electrostatic recruitment mechanism failed. That is, basic poly-L-lysine binding to one leaflet of a planar lipid bilayer did not recruit the triply-charged peptide (O-Pyromellitylgramicidin). Clustering was only observed in cases where PLL was bound to both channel ends. Clustering was indicated (i) by the decreased diffusional PLL mobility DPLL and (ii) by an increased lifetime τPLL of the clustered channels. In contrast, if PLL was bound to only one leaflet, neither DPLL nor τP changed. Simple calculations suggest that electrostatic repulsion of the unbound ends prevented neighboring OPg dimers from approaching each other. We believe that a similar mechanism may also operate in cell signaling and that it may e.g. contribute to the controversial results obtained for the ligand driven dimerization of G protein-coupled receptors. PMID:23285199

  16. Cytosolic amyloid-{beta} peptide 42 escaping from degradation induces cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eun Kyung; Park, Yong Wook; Shin, Dong Yeon; Mook-Jung, Inhee; Yoo, Yung Joon . E-mail: yjyoo@gist.ac.kr

    2006-06-02

    Accumulating evidence suggests that intracellular amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}) peptide triggers the early pathological events in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, little is known about the consequence of cytosolic A{beta}. In this study, we ectopically expressed A{beta}42 in the cytoplasm of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells by expressing a fusion protein of GFP-tagged ubiquitin and A{beta}42 (GFPUb-A{beta}42). Although GFPUb and A{beta}42 are stochastically produced with the same molar ratio in the cytoplasm, A{beta}42 was completely degraded in more than 50% of the GFPUb-expressing cells. However, if A{beta}42 was not degraded in their cytoplasm, then A{beta}42-expressing cells underwent apoptosis. The number of A{beta}42-expressing cells is significantly increased by the inhibition of proteasome with MG132. Cytosolic A{beta}42 which has escaped degradation inhibits proteasome and thereby may accelerate the accumulation of A{beta}42 and its detrimental effects. Our findings suggest that cells have the potential to degrade A{beta}42 in their cytoplasm but if A{beta}42 appears in the cytoplasm due to its incomplete degradation, it accumulates and may trigger the fatal cascade of pathology of AD.

  17. Immunization with antigenic peptides complexed with β-glucan induces potent cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity in combination with CpG-ODNs.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Shinichi; Morishita, Hiromi; Kobiyama, Kouji; Aoshi, Taiki; Ishii, Ken J; Sakurai, Kazuo

    2015-12-28

    The induction of antigen-specific immune responses requires immunization with not only antigens, but also adjuvants. CpG oligonucleotides (CpG-ODNs) are well-known ligands for Toll-like receptor 9 and a potent adjuvant that induces both Th1-type humoral and cellular immune responses including cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses. We previously demonstrated that β-glucan schizophyllan (SPG) can form complexes with CpG-ODNs with attached dA40 (CpG-dA/SPG), which can accumulate in macrophages in the draining inguinal lymph nodes and induce strong immune responses by co-administration of antigenic proteins, namely ovalbumin (OVA). Immunization with antigenic peptides, OVA257-264, did not induce these antigen-specific immune responses even in combination with CpG-dA/SPG, indicating that peptides require a carrier to antigen presenting cells. In this study, we prepared conjugates comprising OVA257-264 and dA40, and made complexes with SPG. Immunization with OVA257-264-dA/SPG induced peptide-specific immune responses in combination with CpG-dA regardless of complexation with SPG both in vitro and in vivo. When splenocytes from immunized mice were incubated with E.G7-OVA tumor model cells presenting OVA peptides, the number of cells drastically decreased after 24h. Furthermore, mice pre-immunized with OVA257-264-dA/SPG and CpG-ODNs exhibited a long delay in tumor growth after tumor inoculation. Therefore, these peptide-dA/SPG and CpG-dA/SPG complexes could be used as a potent vaccine for the treatment of cancers and infectious diseases. PMID:26562685

  18. Purification of a peptide from seahorse, that inhibits TPA-induced MMP, iNOS and COX-2 expression through MAPK and NF-kappaB activation, and induces human osteoblastic and chondrocytic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ryu, BoMi; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2010-03-30

    Ongoing efforts to search for naturally occurring, bioactive substances for the amelioration of arthritis have led to the discovery of natural products with substantial bioactive properties. The seahorse (Hippocampus kuda Bleeler), a telelost fish, is one source of known beneficial products, yet has not been utilized for arthritis research. In the present work, we have purified and characterized a bioactive peptide from seahorse hydrolysis. Among the hydrolysates tested, pronase E-derived hydrolysate exhibited the highest alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, a phenotype marker of osteoblast and chondrocyte differentiation. After its separation from the hydrolysate by several purification steps, the peptide responsible for the ALP activity was isolated and its sequence was identified as LEDPFDKDDWDNWK (1821Da). We have shown that the isolated peptide induces differentiation of osteoblastic MG-63 and chondrocytic SW-1353 cells by measuring ALP activity, mineralization and collagen synthesis. Our results indicate that the peptide acts during early to late stages of differentiation in MG-63 and SW-1353 cells. We also assessed the concentration dependence of the peptide's inhibition of MMP (-1, -3 and -13), iNOS and COX-2 expression after treatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a common form of phorbol ester. The peptide also inhibited NO production in MG-63 and SW-1353 cells. To elucidate the mechanisms by which the peptide acted, we examined its effects on TPA-induced MAPKs/NF-kappaB activation and determined that the peptide treatment significantly reduced p38 kinase/NF-kappaB in MG-63 cells and MAPKs/NF-kappaB in SW-1353 cells. PMID:20004183

  19. The Positively Charged COOH-terminal Glycosaminoglycan-binding CXCL9(74-103) Peptide Inhibits CXCL8-induced Neutrophil Extravasation and Monosodium Urate Crystal-induced Gout in Mice.

    PubMed

    Vanheule, Vincent; Janssens, Rik; Boff, Daiane; Kitic, Nikola; Berghmans, Nele; Ronsse, Isabelle; Kungl, Andreas J; Amaral, Flavio Almeida; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Van Damme, Jo; Proost, Paul; Mortier, Anneleen

    2015-08-28

    The ELR(-)CXC chemokine CXCL9 is characterized by a long, highly positively charged COOH-terminal region, absent in most other chemokines. Several natural leukocyte- and fibroblast-derived COOH-terminally truncated CXCL9 forms missing up to 30 amino acids were identified. To investigate the role of the COOH-terminal region of CXCL9, several COOH-terminal peptides were chemically synthesized. These peptides display high affinity for glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and compete with functional intact chemokines for GAG binding, the longest peptide (CXCL9(74-103)) being the most potent. The COOH-terminal peptide CXCL9(74-103) does not signal through or act as an antagonist for CXCR3, the G protein-coupled CXCL9 receptor, and does not influence neutrophil chemotactic activity of CXCL8 in vitro. Based on the GAG binding data, an anti-inflammatory role for CXCL9(74-103) was further evidenced in vivo. Simultaneous intravenous injection of CXCL9(74-103) with CXCL8 injection in the joint diminished CXCL8-induced neutrophil extravasation. Analogously, monosodium urate crystal-induced neutrophil migration to the tibiofemural articulation, a murine model of gout, is highly reduced by intravenous injection of CXCL9(74-103). These data show that chemokine-derived peptides with high affinity for GAGs may be used as anti-inflammatory peptides; by competing with active chemokines for binding and immobilization on GAGs, these peptides may lower chemokine presentation on the endothelium and disrupt the generation of a chemokine gradient, thereby preventing a chemokine from properly performing its chemotactic function. The CXCL9 peptide may serve as a lead molecule for further development of inhibitors of inflammation based on interference with chemokine-GAG interactions. PMID:26183778

  20. Pigment Epithelium Derived Factor Peptide Protects Murine Hepatocytes from Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Injury

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Shou-Chuan; Ho, Tsung-Chuan; Chen, Show-Li; Tsao, Yeou-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Fibrogenesis is induced by repeated injury to the liver and reactive regeneration and leads eventually to liver cirrhosis. Pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF) has been shown to prevent liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). A 44 amino acid domain of PEDF (44-mer) was found to have a protective effect against various insults to several cell types. In this study, we investigated the capability of synthetic 44-mer to protect against liver injury in mice and in primary cultured hepatocytes. Acute liver injury, induced by CCl4, was evident from histological changes, such as cell necrosis, inflammation and apoptosis, and a concomitant reduction of glutathione (GSH) and GSH redox enzyme activities in the liver. Intraperitoneal injection of the 44-mer into CCl4-treated mice abolished the induction of AST and ALT and markedly reduced histological signs of liver injury. The 44-mer treatment can reduce hepatic oxidative stress as evident from lower levels of lipid hydroperoxide, and higher levels of GSH. CCl4 caused a reduction of Bcl-xL, PEDF and PPARγ, which was markedly restored by the 44-mer treatment. Consequently, the 44-mer suppressed liver fibrosis induced by repeated CCl4 injury. Furthermore, our observations in primary culture of rat hepatocytes showed that PEDF and the 44-mer protected primary rat hepatocytes against apoptosis induced by serum deprivation and TGF-β1. PEDF/44-mer induced cell protective STAT3 phosphorylation. Pharmacological STAT3 inhibition prevented the antiapoptotic action of PEDF/44-mer. Among several PEDF receptor candidates that may be responsible for hepatocyte protection, we demonstrated that PNPLA2 was essential for PEDF/44-mer-mediated STAT3 phosphorylation and antiapoptotic activity by using siRNA to selectively knockdown PNPLA2. In conclusion, the PEDF 44-mer protects hepatocytes from single and repeated CCl4 injury. This protective effect may stem from strengthening the counter oxidative stress capacity and

  1. Nanoliposomes protect against human arteriole endothelial dysfunction induced by β-amyloid peptide.

    PubMed

    Truran, Seth; Weissig, Volkmar; Madine, Jillian; Davies, Hannah A; Guzman-Villanueva, Diana; Franco, Daniel A; Karamanova, Nina; Burciu, Camelia; Serrano, Geidy; Beach, Thomas G; Migrino, Raymond Q

    2016-02-01

    We tested whether nanoliposomes containing phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and phosphatidic acid (NLPA) prevent β-amyloid 1-42 (Aβ42) fibrillation and Aβ42-induced human arteriole endothelial dysfunction. NLPA abolished Aβ42 fibril formation (thioflavin-T fluorescence/electron microscopy). In ex-vivo human adipose and leptomeningeal arterioles, Aβ42 impaired dilator response to acetylcholine that was reversed by NLPA; this protection was abolished by L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester. Aβ42 reduced human umbilical vein endothelial cell NO production that was restored by NLPA. Nanoliposomes prevented Aβ42 amyloid formation, reversed Aβ42-induced human microvascular endothelial dysfunction and may be useful in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26661197

  2. Microbial challenge promotes the regenerative process of the injured central nervous system of the medicinal leech by inducing the synthesis of antimicrobial peptides in neurons and microglia.

    PubMed

    Schikorski, David; Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie; Leippe, Matthias; Boidin-Wichlacz, Céline; Slomianny, Christian; Macagno, Eduardo; Salzet, Michel; Tasiemski, Aurélie

    2008-07-15

    Following trauma, the CNS of the medicinal leech, unlike the mammalian CNS, has a strong capacity to regenerate neurites and synaptic connections that restore normal function. In this study, we show that this regenerative process is enhanced by a controlled bacterial infection, suggesting that induction of regeneration of normal CNS function may depend critically upon the coinitiation of an immune response. We explore the interaction between the activation of a neuroimmune response and the process of regeneration by assaying the potential roles of two newly characterized antimicrobial peptides. Our data provide evidence that microbial components differentially induce the transcription, by microglial cells, of both antimicrobial peptide genes, the products of which accumulate rapidly at sites in the CNS undergoing regeneration following axotomy. Using a preparation of leech CNS depleted of microglial cells, we also demonstrate the production of antimicrobial peptides by neurons. Interestingly, in addition to exerting antibacterial properties, both peptides act as promoters of the regenerative process of axotomized leech CNS. These data are the first to report the neuronal synthesis of antimicrobial peptides and their participation in the immune response and the regeneration of the CNS. Thus, the leech CNS appears as an excellent model for studying the implication of immune molecules in neural repair. PMID:18606660

  3. Inducible ASABF-Type Antimicrobial Peptide from the Sponge Suberites domuncula: Microbicidal and Hemolytic Activity in Vitro and Toxic Effect on Molluscs in Vivo†

    PubMed Central

    Wiens, Matthias; Schröder, Heinz C.; Korzhev, Michael; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Batel, Renato; Müller, Werner E. G.

    2011-01-01

    Since sponges, as typical filter-feeders, are exposed to a high load of attacking prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, they are armed with a wide arsenal of antimicrobial/cytostatic low-molecular-weight, non-proteinaceous bioactive compounds. Here we present the first sponge agent belonging to the group of ASABF-type antimicrobial peptides. The ASABF gene was identified and cloned from the demosponge Suberites domuncula. The mature peptide, with a length of 64 aa residues has a predicted pI of 9.24, and comprises the characteristic CSα β structural motif. Consequently, the S. domuncula ASABF shares high similarity with the nematode ASABFs; it is distantly related to the defensins. The recombinant peptide was found to display besides microbicidal activity, anti-fungal activity. In addition, the peptide lyses human erythrocytes. The expression of ASABF is upregulated after exposure to the apoptosis-inducing agent 2,2′-dipyridyl. During the process of apoptosis of surface tissue of S. domuncula, grazing gastropods (Bittium sp.) are attracted by quinolinic acid which is synthesized through the kynurenine pathway by the enzyme 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase (HAD). Finally, the gastropods are repelled from the sponge tissue by the ASABF. It is shown that the effector peptide ASABF is sequentially expressed after the induction of the HAD gene and a caspase, as a central enzyme executing apoptosis. PMID:22073005

  4. Inducible ASABF-type antimicrobial peptide from the sponge Suberites domuncula: microbicidal and hemolytic activity in vitro and toxic effect on molluscs in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wiens, Matthias; Schröder, Heinz C; Korzhev, Michael; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Batel, Renato; Müller, Werner E G

    2011-01-01

    Since sponges, as typical filter-feeders, are exposed to a high load of attacking prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, they are armed with a wide arsenal of antimicrobial/cytostatic low-molecular-weight, non-proteinaceous bioactive compounds. Here we present the first sponge agent belonging to the group of ASABF-type antimicrobial peptides. The ASABF gene was identified and cloned from the demosponge Suberites domuncula. The mature peptide, with a length of 64 aa residues has a predicted pI of 9.24, and comprises the characteristic CSα β structural motif. Consequently, the S. domuncula ASABF shares high similarity with the nematode ASABFs; it is distantly related to the defensins. The recombinant peptide was found to display besides microbicidal activity, anti-fungal activity. In addition, the peptide lyses human erythrocytes. The expression of ASABF is upregulated after exposure to the apoptosis-inducing agent 2,2'-dipyridyl. During the process of apoptosis of surface tissue of S. domuncula, grazing gastropods (Bittium sp.) are attracted by quinolinic acid which is synthesized through the kynurenine pathway by the enzyme 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase (HAD). Finally, the gastropods are repelled from the sponge tissue by the ASABF. It is shown that the effector peptide ASABF is sequentially expressed after the induction of the HAD gene and a caspase, as a central enzyme executing apoptosis. PMID:22073005

  5. Microbial challenge promotes the regenerative process of the injured central nervous system of the medicinal leech by inducing the synthesis of antimicrobial peptides in neurons and microglia

    PubMed Central

    Schikorski, David; Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie; Leippe, Matthias; Boidin-Wichlacz, Céline; Slomianny, Christian; Macagno, Eduardo; Salzet, Michel; Tasiemski, Aurélie

    2010-01-01

    Following trauma, the central nervous system (CNS) of the medicinal leech, unlike the mammalian CNS, has a strong capacity to regenerate neurites and synaptic connections that restore normal function. Here, we show that this regenerative process is enhanced by a controlled bacterial infection, suggesting that induction of regeneration of normal CNS function may depend critically upon the co-initiation of an immune response. We explore the interaction between the activation of a neuroimmune response and the process of regeneration by assaying the potential roles of two newly characterized antimicrobial peptides. Our data provide evidence that microbial components differentially induce the transcription, by microglial cells, of both antimicrobial peptide genes, the products of which accumulate rapidly at sites in the CNS undergoing regeneration following axotomy. Using a preparation of leech CNS depleted of microglial cells, we also demonstrate the production of antimicrobial peptides by neurons. Interestingly, in addition to exerting antibacterial properties, both peptides act as promoters of the regenerative process of axotomized leech CNS. These data are the first to report the neuronal synthesis of antimicrobial peptides and their participation in the immune response and the regeneration of the CNS. Thus, the leech CNS appears as an excellent model for studying the implication of immune molecules in neural repair. PMID:18606660

  6. Antimicrobial Peptides and Complement in Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia Induced Brain Damage

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-Ferreira, Eridan; Hristova, Mariya

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a clinical condition in the neonate, resulting from oxygen deprivation around the time of birth. HIE affects 1–5/1000 live births worldwide and is associated with the development of neurological deficits, including cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and cognitive disabilities. Even though the brain is considered as an immune-privileged site, it has innate and adaptive immune response and can produce complement (C) components and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Dysregulation of cerebral expression of AMPs and C can exacerbate or ameliorate the inflammatory response within the brain. Brain ischemia triggers a prolonged inflammatory response affecting the progression of injury and secondary energy failure and involves both innate and adaptive immune systems, including immune-competent and non-competent cells. Following injury to the central nervous system (CNS), including neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI), resident microglia, and astroglia are the main cells providing immune defense to the brain in a stimulus-dependent manner. They can express and secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines and therefore trigger prolonged inflammation, resulting in neurodegeneration. Microglial cells express and release a wide range of inflammation-associated molecules including several components of the complement system. Complement activation following neonatal HI injury has been reported to contribute to neurodegeneration. Astrocytes can significantly affect the immune response of the CNS under pathological conditions through production and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and immunomodulatory AMPs. Astrocytes express β-defensins, which can chemoattract and promote maturation of dendritic cells (DC), and can also limit inflammation by controlling the viability of these same DC. This review will focus on the balance of complement components and AMPs within the CNS following neonatal HI injury and the effect of that balance on the subsequent brain damage

  7. Soy peptide lunasin induces pten-mediated apoptosis in human breast cancer cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tumor suppressor PTEN inhibits the AKT signaling pathway whose unrestrained activity underlies many human malignancies. Previously we showed that dietary intake of soy protein isolate (SPI) enhanced PTEN expression in mammary tissue of rats with lower NMU-induced mammary tumor incidence relative...

  8. Strong thermo-induced single and two-photon green luminescence in self-organized peptide microtubes.

    PubMed

    Semin, S; van Etteger, A; Cattaneo, L; Amdursky, N; Kulyuk, L; Lavrov, S; Sigov, A; Mishina, E; Rosenman, G; Rasing, Th

    2015-03-01

    Diphenylalanine peptide nano- and microtubes formed by self-assembly demonstrate strongly enhanced and tunable single-photon and two-photon luminescence in the visible range, which appears after heat- or laser treatment of these self-organized peptide microtubes. This process significantly extends the functionality of these microstructures and can trigger a new interest in the optical properties of structures based on short peptides. PMID:25074710

  9. Kinesin superfamily protein-derived peptides with the ability to induce glioma-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes in human leukocyte antigen-A24+ glioma patients.

    PubMed

    Harada, Mamoru; Ishihara, Yuki; Itoh, Kyogo; Yamanaka, Ryuya

    2007-03-01

    One promising modality in the treatment of malignant glioma is specific immunotherapy. However, this modality requires information about target antigens and their epitope peptides that are recognized by T cells. In this study, we searched for new target candidates in specific immunotherapy for malignant glioma by utilizing cDNA microarray technology to compare gene expressions in malignant glioma tissues to those in benign glioma and a panel of normal tissues. The selected genes included three members of the kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs): KIF1C, KIF3C, and KIF21B. RT-PCR showed that these three genes were expressed in the majority of glioma cell lines. These antigen-derived 25 peptides, which had the ability to bind to human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A24 molecules, were first screened for their ability to be recognized by the immunoglobulin G of glioma patients, and then tested for their potential to induce peptide-specific and glioma-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HLA-A24+ glioma patients. The results showed that the KIF1C149-158 and KIF3C512-520 peptides efficiently induced HLA-A24-restricted and glioma-reactive CD8+ T cells. These results suggest the existence of KIF-reactive CTL precursors in glioma patients, and should facilitate the development of specific immunotherapies for malignant glioma. PMID:17273744

  10. Diet-induced neuropeptide expression: feasibility of quantifying extended and highly charged endogenous peptide sequences by selected reaction monitoring.

    PubMed

    Schmidlin, Thierry; Boender, Arjen J; Frese, Christian K; Heck, Albert J R; Adan, Roger A H; Altelaar, A F Maarten

    2015-10-01

    Understanding regulation and action of endogenous peptides, especially neuropeptides, which serve as inter- and intracellular signal transmitters, is key in understanding a variety of functional processes, such as energy balance, memory, circadian rhythm, drug addiction, etc. Therefore, accurate and reproducible quantification of these bioactive endogenous compounds is highly relevant. The biosynthesis of endogenous peptides, involving multiple possible trimming and modification events, hinders the de novo prediction of the active peptide sequences, making MS-based measurements very valuable in determining the actual active compounds. Here, we report an extended selected reaction monitoring (SRM)-based strategy to reproducibly and quantitatively monitor the abundances of a set of 15 endogenously occurring peptides from Rattus norvegicus hypothalamus. We demonstrate that SRM can be extended toward reproducible detection and quantification of peptides, bearing characteristics very different from tryptic peptides. We show that long peptide sequences, producing precursors with up to five and MS2 fragment ions with up to three charges, can be targeted by SRM on a triple quadrupole instrument. Using this approach to quantify endogenous peptide levels in hypothalami of animals subjected to different diets revealed several significant changes, most notably the significant upregulation of VGF-derived signaling peptide AQEE-30 upon high caloric feeding. PMID:26376940

  11. Intracellular monitoring of target protein production in Staphylococcus aureus by peptide tag‐induced reporter fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Gauger, Tina; Weihs, Felix; Mayer, Sonja; Krismer, Bernhard; Liese, Jan; Kull, Melanie; Bertram, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Summary An intracellular approach for monitoring protein production in Staphylococcus aureus is described. mCherry, fused to the dodecapeptide Tip, was capable of inducing tetracycline repressor (TetR). Time‐ and concentration‐dependent production of mCherry could be correlated to TetR‐controlled GFPmut2 activity. This approach can potentially be extended to native S. aureus proteins. PMID:21958360

  12. Cellular immune responses induced in vitro by Ehrlichia ruminantium secreted proteins and identification of vaccine candidate peptides.

    PubMed

    Thema, Nontobeko; Pretorius, Alri; Tshilwane, Selaelo I; Liebenberg, Junita; Steyn, Helena; Van Kleef, Mirinda

    2016-01-01

    Secreted proteins are reported to induce cell-mediated immunity characterised by the production of interferon-gamma (IFN)-γ. In this study three open reading frames (ORFs) (Erum8060, Erum7760, Erum5000) encoding secreted proteins were selected from the Ehrlichia ruminantium (Welgevonden) genome sequence using bioinformatics tools to determine whether they induce a cellular immune response in vitro with mononuclear cells from needle and tick infected animals. The whole recombinant protein of the three ORFs as well as four adjacent fragments of the Erum5000 protein (Erum5000A, Erum5000B, Erum5000C, Erum5000D) were successfully expressed in a bacterial expression system which was confirmed by immunoblots using anti-His antibodies and sheep sera. These recombinant proteins were assayed with immune sheep and cattle peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), spleen and lymph node (LN) cells to determine whether they induce recall cellular immune responses in vitro. Significant proliferative responses and IFN-γ production were evident for all recombinant proteins, especially Erum5000A, in both ruminant species tested. Thus overlapping peptides spanning Erum5000A were synthesised and peptides that induce proliferation of memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and production of IFN-γ were identified. These results illustrate that a Th1 type immune response was elicited and these recombinant proteins and peptides may therefore be promising candidates for development of a heartwater vaccine. PMID:27608502

  13. A bradykinin-potentiating peptide (BPP-10c) from Bothrops jararaca induces changes in seminiferous tubules

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The testis-specific isoform of angiotensin-converting enzyme (tACE) is exclusively expressed in germ cells during spermatogenesis. Although the exact role of tACE in male fertility is unknown, it clearly plays a critical function in spermatogenesis. The dipeptidase domain of tACE is identical to the C-terminal catalytic domain of somatic ACE (sACE). Bradykinin potentiating peptides (BPPs) from snake venoms are the first natural sACE inhibitors described and their structure–activity relationship studies were the basis for the development of antihypertensive drugs such as captopril. In recent years, it has been showed that a number of BPPs – including BPP-10c – are able to distinguish between the N- and C-active sites of sACE, what is not applicable to captopril. Considering the similarity between tACE and sACE (and since BPPs are able to distinguish between the two active sites of sACE), the effects of the BPP-10c and captopril on the structure and function of the seminiferous epithelium were characterized in the present study. BPP-10c and captopril were administered in male Swiss mice by intraperitoneal injection (4.7 μmol/kg for 15 days) and histological sections of testes were analyzed. Classification of seminiferous tubules and stage analysis were carried out for quantitative evaluation of germ cells of the seminiferous epithelium. The blood-testis barrier (BTB) permeability and distribution of claudin-1 in the seminiferous epithelium were analyzed by hypertonic fixative method and immunohistochemical analyses of testes, respectively. Results The morphology of seminiferous tubules from animals treated with BPP-10c showed an intense disruption of the epithelium, presence of atypical multinucleated cells in the lumen and degenerated germ cells in the adluminal compartment. BPP-10c led to an increase in the number of round spermatids and total support capacity of Sertoli cell in stages I, V, VII/VIII of the seminiferous epithelium cycle, without

  14. Tenuifolin, a secondary saponin from hydrolysates of polygalasaponins, counteracts the neurotoxicity induced by Aβ25-35 peptides in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya-min; Li, Zong-yang; Hu, Han; Xu, Shu-ping; Chang, Qi; Liao, Yong-hong; Pan, Rui-le; Liu, Xin-min

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with damage to hippocampal neurons and declines in cognitive functions. The accumulation of amyloid peptides is regarded as a crucial event in the initiation of AD. The neurotoxicity induced by Aβ25-35 peptides was used to screen for cytoprotective factors in vitro, and the cognitive deficits induced by the injection of Aβ25-35 into the hippocampus were used to evaluate effect on learning and memory. Our previous study revealed that hydrolysate of polygalasaponins (HPS) clearly improve the cognitive deficits induced by the injection of Aβ25-35 in mice, but the potential active constituent of HPS remains unclear. The purposes of this study were to separate and purify the secondary saponins of HPS, screen for neuroprotective effects of the constituents in vitro, and to evaluate the effect of cognition in vivo. Various chromatographic methods were used to separate and purify the HPS. The neuroprotective effects were examined in Aβ25-35-damage-induced PC12 cells. The protective effect of tenuifolin on the cognitive impairments induced by Aβ25-35 injection was assessed using the Morris water maze and step-through passive avoidance tests. Tenuifolin and fallaxsaponin A were isolated from the HPS. Tenuifolin possessed neuroprotective effects against Aβ25-35-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells and significantly improved the cognitive deficits induced by the intrahippocampal injection of Aβ25-35 in mice. Thus, tenuifolin is one of the active constituents of HPS against the neurotoxicity induced by Aβ25-35 peptides in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25444865

  15. Role of Krev Interaction Trapped-1 in Prostacyclin-Induced Protection against Lung Vascular Permeability Induced by Excessive Mechanical Forces and Thrombin Receptor Activating Peptide 6.

    PubMed

    Meliton, Angelo; Meng, Fanyong; Tian, Yufeng; Shah, Alok A; Birukova, Anna A; Birukov, Konstantin G

    2015-12-01

    Mechanisms of vascular endothelial cell (EC) barrier regulation during acute lung injury (ALI) or other pathologies associated with increased vascular leakiness are an active area of research. Adaptor protein krev interaction trapped-1 (KRIT1) participates in angiogenesis, lumen formation, and stabilization of EC adherens junctions (AJs) in mature vasculature. We tested a role of KRIT1 in the regulation of Rho-GTPase signaling induced by mechanical stimulation and barrier dysfunction relevant to ventilator-induced lung injury and investigated KRIT1 involvement in EC barrier protection by prostacyclin (PC). PC stimulated Ras-related protein 1 (Rap1)-dependent association of KRIT1 with vascular endothelial cadherin at AJs, with KRIT1-dependent cortical cytoskeletal remodeling leading to EC barrier enhancement. KRIT1 knockdown exacerbated Rho-GTPase activation and EC barrier disruption induced by pathologic 18% cyclic stretch and thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP) 6 and attenuated the protective effects of PC. In the two-hit model of ALI caused by high tidal volume (HTV) mechanical ventilation and TRAP6 injection, KRIT1 functional deficiency in KRIT1(+/-) mice increased basal lung vascular leak and augmented vascular leak and lung injury caused by exposure to HTV and TRAP6. Down-regulation of KRIT1 also diminished the protective effects of PC against TRAP6/HTV-induced lung injury. These results demonstrate a KRIT1-dependent mechanism of vascular EC barrier control in basal conditions and in the two-hit model of ALI caused by excessive mechanical forces and TRAP6 via negative regulation of Rho activity and enhancement of cell junctions. We also conclude that the stimulation of the Rap1-KRIT1 signaling module is a major mechanism of vascular endothelial barrier protection by PC in the injured lung. PMID:25923142

  16. Cyclotriveratrylene (CTV) as a new chiral triacid scaffold capable of inducing triple helix formation of collagen peptides containing either a native sequence or Pro-Hyp-Gly repeats.

    PubMed

    Rump, Erik T; Rijkers, Dirk T S; Hilbers, Hans W; de Groot, Philip G; Liskamp, Rob M J

    2002-10-18

    A new triacid scaffold is described based on the cone-shaped cyclotriveratrylene (CTV) molecule that facilitates the triple helical folding of peptides containing either a unique blood platelet binding collagen sequence or collagen peptides composed of Pro-Hyp-Gly repeats. The latter were synthesized by segment condensation using Fmoc-Pro-Hyp-Gly-OH. Peptides were coupled to this CTV scaffold and also coupled to the Kemp's triacid (KTA) scaffold. After assembly of peptide H-Gly-[Pro-Hyp-Gly]2-Phe-Hyp-Gly-Glu(OAll)-Arg-Gly-Val-Glu (OAll)-Gly-[Pro-Hyp-Gly]2-NH2 (13) by an orthogonal synthesis strategy to both triacid scaffolds, followed by deprotection of the allyl groups, the molecular constructs spontaneously folded into a triple helical structure. In contrast, the non-assembled peptides did not. The melting temperature (Tm) of (+/-) CTV[CH2C(O)N(H)Gly-[Pro-Hyp-Gly]2-Phe-Hyp-Gly-Glu-Arg-Gly-Val-Glu-Gly- [Pro-Hyp-Gly]2-NH2]3 (14) is 19 degrees C, whereas KTA[Gly-Gly-[Pro-Hyp-Gly]2-Phe-Hyp-Gly-Glu-Arg-Gly-Val-Glu-Gly- [Pro-Hyp-Gly]2-NH2]3 (15) has a Tm of 20 degrees C. Thus, it was shown for the first time that scaffolds were also effective in stabilizing the triple helix of native collagen sequences. The different stabilizing properties of the two CTV enantiomers could be measured after coupling of racemic CTV triacid to the collagen peptide, and subsequent chromatographic separation of the diastereomers. After assembly of the two chiral CTV scaffolds to the model peptide H-Gly-Gly-(Pro-Hyp-Gly)5-NH2 (24), the (+)-enantiomer of CTV 28b was found to serve as a better triple helix-inducing scaffold than the (-)-enantiomer 28a. In addition to an effect of the chirality of the CTV scaffold, a certain degree of flexibility between the CTV cone and the folded peptide was also shown to be of importance. Restricting the flexibility from two to one glycine residues resulted in a significant difference between the two collagen mimics 20a and 20b, whereas the difference was

  17. Characterization of the cadmium complex of peptide 49-61: a putative nucleation center for cadmium-induced folding in rabbit liver metallothionein IIA.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, A; Laib, F; Petering, D H; Shaw, C F

    1999-08-01

    The synthetic peptide fragment containing residues 49-61 of rabbit liver metallothionein II (MT-II) (Ac-Ile-Cys-Lys-Gly-Ala-Ser-Asp-Lys-Cys-Ser-Cys-Cys-Ala-COOH), which includes the only sequential four cysteines bound to the same metal ion in Cd7MT, forms a stable, monomeric Cd-peptide complex with 1:1 stoichiometry (Cd:peptide) via Cd-thiolate interactions. This represents the first synthesis of a single metal-binding site of MT independent of the domains. The 111Cd NMR chemical shift at 716 ppm indicates that the 111Cd2+ in the metal site is terminally coordinated to four side-chain thiolates of the cysteine residues. The pH of half dissociation for this Cd-peptide derivative, approximately 3.3, demonstrates an affinity similar to that for Cd7MT. Molecular mechanics calculations show that the thermodynamically most stable folding for this isolated Cd2+ center has the same counterclockwise chirality (lambda or S) observed in the native holo-protein. These properties are consistent with its proposed role as a nucleation center for cadmium-induced protein folding. However, the kinetic reactivity of the CdS4 structure toward 5,5'-dithiobis(5-nitrobenzoate) (DTNB) and EDTA is greatly increased compared to the complete cluster (a-domain or holo-protein). The rate law for the reaction with DTNB is rate = (k(uf) + k(1,f) + k(2,f) [DTNB])[peptide], where k(uf) = 0.15 s(-1), k(1,f)= 2.59x10(-3) s(-1), and k(2,f) = 0.88 M(-1) s(-1). The ultrafast step (uf), observable only by stopped-flow measurement, is unprecedented for mammalian (M7MT) and crustacean (M6MT) holo-proteins or the isolated domains. The accommodation of other metal ions by the peptide indicates a rich coordination chemistry, including stoichiometries of M-peptide for Hg2+, Cd2+, and Zn2+, M2-peptide for Hg2+ and Au+, and (Et3PAu)2-peptide. PMID:10555583

  18. Sea cucumber peptides exert anti-inflammatory activity through suppressing NF-κB and MAPK and inducing HO-1 in RAW264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiajia; Li, Tiange; Cheng, Xue; Ji, Xiaomin; Gao, Dongxiao; Du, Min; Jiang, Naiyi; Liu, Xueling; Mao, Xueying

    2016-06-15

    The anti-inflammatory effect of sea cucumber peptides (SCP) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 murine macrophages was tested. SCP significantly reduced LPS-induced nitric oxide release by inhibiting the inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA expression without affecting the cell viability. The mRNA expression of LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines including tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 was suppressed. SCP inhibited LPS-induced degradation of the inhibitor of κBα (IκBα) and nuclear transposition of NF-κB p65, resulting in decreased NF-κB transactivation. Moreover, SCP suppressed the LPS-induced phosphorylation of JNK, ERK and p38. In addition, the expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 in macrophages was up-regulated by SCP in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition effect of SCP on the mRNA expression of LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines was partially reversed by co-treatment with a HO-1 inhibitor. The SCP with anti-inflammatory activity was made up of low-molecular-weight peptides rich in glycine, glutamic acid and aspartic acid. Collectively, these results demonstrate that SCP exerts anti-inflammatory function through inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK activation and inducing HO-1 expression in macrophages. PMID:27220344

  19. Interplay of histidine residues of the Alzheimer’s disease Aβ peptide governs its Zn-induced oligomerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istrate, Andrey N.; Kozin, Sergey A.; Zhokhov, Sergey S.; Mantsyzov, Alexey B.; Kechko, Olga I.; Pastore, Annalisa; Makarov, Alexander A.; Polshakov, Vladimir I.

    2016-02-01

    Conformational changes of Aβ peptide result in its transformation from native monomeric state to the toxic soluble dimers, oligomers and insoluble aggregates that are hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Interactions of zinc ions with Aβ are mediated by the N-terminal Aβ1-16 domain and appear to play a key role in AD progression. There is a range of results indicating that these interactions trigger the Aβ plaque formation. We have determined structure and functional characteristics of the metal binding domains derived from several Aβ variants and found that their zinc-induced oligomerization is governed by conformational changes in the minimal zinc binding site 6HDSGYEVHH14. The residue H6 and segment 11EVHH14, which are part of this site are crucial for formation of the two zinc-mediated interaction interfaces in Aβ. These structural determinants can be considered as promising targets for rational design of the AD-modifying drugs aimed at blocking pathological Aβ aggregation.

  20. Rational design of thermostable vaccines by engineered peptide-induced virus self-biomineralization under physiological conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangchuan; Cao, Rui-Yuan; Chen, Rong; Mo, Lijuan; Han, Jian-Feng; Wang, Xiaoyu; Xu, Xurong; Jiang, Tao; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Lyu, Ke; Zhu, Shun-Ya; Qin, E-De; Tang, Ruikang; Qin, Cheng-Feng

    2013-05-01

    The development of vaccines against infectious diseases represents one of the most important contributions to medical science. However, vaccine-preventable diseases still cause millions of deaths each year due to the thermal instability and poor efficacy of vaccines. Using the human enterovirus type 71 vaccine strain as a model, we suggest a combined, rational design approach to improve the thermostability and immunogenicity of live vaccines by self-biomineralization. The biomimetic nucleating peptides are rationally integrated onto the capsid of enterovirus type 71 by reverse genetics so that calcium phosphate mineralization can be biologically induced onto vaccine surfaces under physiological conditions, generating a mineral exterior. This engineered self-biomineralized virus was characterized in detail for its unique structural, virological, and chemical properties. Analogous to many exteriors, the mineral coating confers some new properties on enclosed vaccines. The self-biomineralized vaccine can be stored at 26 °C for more than 9 d and at 37 °C for approximately 1 wk. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate that this engineered vaccine can be used efficiently after heat treatment or ambient temperature storage, which reduces the dependence on a cold chain. Such a combination of genetic technology and biomineralization provides an economic solution for current vaccination programs, especially in developing countries that lack expensive refrigeration infrastructures. PMID:23589862

  1. Neuroprotective Effect of a DJ-1 Based Peptide in a Toxin Induced Mouse Model of Multiple System Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Glat, Micaela Johanna; Ben-Zur, Tali; Barhum, Yael; Offen, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia and dysautonomia, in various combinations. In MSA with parkinsonism (MSA-P), the degeneration is mainly restricted to the substantia nigra pars compacta and putamen. Studies have identified alterations in DJ-1 (PARK7), a key component of the anti-oxidative stress response, in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and MSA patients. Previously we have shown that a short DJ-1-based peptide named ND-13, protected cultured cells against neurotoxic insults and improved behavioral outcome in animal models of Parkinson’s disease (PD). In this study, we used the 3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP)-induced mouse model of MSA and treated the animals with ND-13 in order to evaluate its therapeutic effects. Our results show that ND-13 protects cultured cells against oxidative stress generated by the mitochondrial inhibitor, 3-NP. Moreover, we show that ND-13 attenuates nigrostriatal degeneration and improves performance in motor-related behavioral tasks in 3-NP-treated mice. Our findings suggest a rationale for using ND-13 as a promising therapeutic approach for treatment of MSA. PMID:26901405

  2. Interplay of histidine residues of the Alzheimer’s disease Aβ peptide governs its Zn-induced oligomerization

    PubMed Central

    Istrate, Andrey N.; Kozin, Sergey A.; Zhokhov, Sergey S.; Mantsyzov, Alexey B.; Kechko, Olga I.; Pastore, Annalisa; Makarov, Alexander A.; Polshakov, Vladimir I.

    2016-01-01

    Conformational changes of Aβ peptide result in its transformation from native monomeric state to the toxic soluble dimers, oligomers and insoluble aggregates that are hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Interactions of zinc ions with Aβ are mediated by the N-terminal Aβ1–16 domain and appear to play a key role in AD progression. There is a range of results indicating that these interactions trigger the Aβ plaque formation. We have determined structure and functional characteristics of the metal binding domains derived from several Aβ variants and found that their zinc-induced oligomerization is governed by conformational changes in the minimal zinc binding site 6HDSGYEVHH14. The residue H6 and segment 11EVHH14, which are part of this site are crucial for formation of the two zinc-mediated interaction interfaces in Aβ. These structural determinants can be considered as promising targets for rational design of the AD-modifying drugs aimed at blocking pathological Aβ aggregation. PMID:26898943

  3. Spergularia marina Induces Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Secretion in NCI-H716 Cells Through Bile Acid Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyong; Lee, Yu Mi; Rhyu, Mee-Ra

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Spergularia marina Griseb. (SM) is a halophyte that grows in mud flats. The aerial portions of SM have been eaten as vegetables and traditionally used to prevent chronic diseases in Korea. However, there has been no scientific report that demonstrates the pharmacological effects of SM. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is important for the maintenance of glucose and energy homeostasis through acting as a signal in peripheral and neural systems. To discover a functional food for regulating glucose and energy homeostasis, we evaluated the effect of an aqueous ethanolic extract (AEE) of SM on GLP-1 release from enteroendocrine NCI-H716 cells. In addition, we explored the Takeda G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5) agonist activity of AEE-SM in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells transiently transfected with human TGR5. As a result, treatment of NCI-H716 cells with AEE-SM increased GLP-1 secretion and intracellular Ca2+ and cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels in a dose-dependent manner. Transfection of NCI-H716 cells with TGR5-specific small interference RNA inhibited AEE-SM-induced GLP-1 secretion and the increase in Ca2+ and cAMP levels. Moreover, AEE-SM showed that the TGR5 agonist activity in CHO-K1 cells transiently transfected with TGR5. The results suggest that AEE-SM might be a candidate for a functional food to regulate glucose and energy homeostasis. PMID:25260089

  4. Intracerebroventricular Injection of Amyloid-β Peptides in Normal Mice to Acutely Induce Alzheimer-like Cognitive Deficits.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Yun; Lee, Dongkeun K; Chung, Bo-Ryehn; Kim, Hyunjin V; Kim, YoungSoo

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) is a major pathological mediator of both familial and sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the brains of AD patients, progressive accumulation of Aβ oligomers and plaques is observed. Such Aβ abnormalities are believed to block long-term potentiation, impair synaptic function, and induce cognitive deficits. Clinical and experimental evidences have revealed that the acute increase of Aβ levels in the brain allows development of Alzheimer-like phenotypes. Hence, a detailed protocol describing how to acutely generate an AD mouse model via the intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of Aβ is necessary in many cases. In this protocol, the steps of the experiment with an Aβ-injected mouse are included, from the preparation of peptides to the testing of behavioral abnormalities. The process of preparing the tools and animal subjects before the injection, of injecting the Aβ into the mouse brain via ICV injection, and of assessing the degree of cognitive impairment are easily explained throughout the protocol, with an emphasis on tips for effective ICV injection of Aβ. By mimicking certain aspects of AD with a designated injection of Aβ, researchers can bypass the aging process and focus on the downstream pathology of Aβ abnormalities. PMID:27023127

  5. Rational design of thermostable vaccines by engineered peptide-induced virus self-biomineralization under physiological conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guangchuan; Cao, Rui-Yuan; Chen, Rong; Mo, Lijuan; Han, Jian-Feng; Wang, Xiaoyu; Xu, Xurong; Jiang, Tao; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Lyu, Ke; Zhu, Shun-Ya; Tang, Ruikang; Qin, Cheng-Feng

    2013-01-01

    The development of vaccines against infectious diseases represents one of the most important contributions to medical science. However, vaccine-preventable diseases still cause millions of deaths each year due to the thermal instability and poor efficacy of vaccines. Using the human enterovirus type 71 vaccine strain as a model, we suggest a combined, rational design approach to improve the thermostability and immunogenicity of live vaccines by self-biomineralization. The biomimetic nucleating peptides are rationally integrated onto the capsid of enterovirus type 71 by reverse genetics so that calcium phosphate mineralization can be biologically induced onto vaccine surfaces under physiological conditions, generating a mineral exterior. This engineered self-biomineralized virus was characterized in detail for its unique structural, virological, and chemical properties. Analogous to many exteriors, the mineral coating confers some new properties on enclosed vaccines. The self-biomineralized vaccine can be stored at 26 °C for more than 9 d and at 37 °C for approximately 1 wk. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate that this engineered vaccine can be used efficiently after heat treatment or ambient temperature storage, which reduces the dependence on a cold chain. Such a combination of genetic technology and biomineralization provides an economic solution for current vaccination programs, especially in developing countries that lack expensive refrigeration infrastructures. PMID:23589862

  6. S-Nitrosylation activates Cdk5 and contributes to synaptic spine loss induced by β-amyloid peptide

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Jing; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Cao, Gang; Holland, Emily A.; McKercher, Scott R.; Lipton, Stuart A.

    2011-01-01

    The activity of Cdk5 and its regulatory subunit p35 is thought to be important in both normal brain function and neurodegenerative disease pathogenesis. Increased Cdk5 activity, via proteolytic cleavage of p35 to a p25 fragment by the calcium-activated protease calpain or by phosphorylation at Cdk5(Tyr15), can contribute to neurotoxicity. Nonetheless, our knowledge of regulation of Cdk5 activity in disease states is still emerging. Here we demonstrate that Cdk5 is activated by S-nitrosylation or reaction of nitric oxide (NO)-related species with the thiol groups of cysteine residues 83 and 157, to form SNO-Cdk5. We then show that S-nitrosylation of Cdk5 contributes to amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide-induced dendritic spine loss. Furthermore, we observed significant levels of SNO-Cdk5 in postmortem Alzheimer’s disease (AD) but not in normal human brains. These findings suggest that S-nitrosylation of Cdk5 is an aberrant regulatory mechanism of enzyme activity that may contribute to the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:21844361

  7. Degradation and aggregation of delta sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP) and two analogs in plasma and serum

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, M.V.; Saegesser, B.; Schoenenberger, G.A.

    1987-07-01

    The biostability of DSIP (delta sleep-inducing peptide) and two analogs in blood was investigated in order to determine if rates of inactivation contribute to variable effects in vivo. Incubation of DSIP in human or rat blood led to release of products having retention times on a gel filtration column equivalent to Trp. Formation of products was dependent on temperature, time, and species. Incubation of /sup 125/I-N-Tyr-DSIP and /sup 125/I-N-Tyr-P-DSIP, a phosphorylated analog, revealed slower degradation and, in contrast to DSIP, produced complex formation. An excess of unlabeled material did not displace the radioactivity supporting the assumption of non-specific binding/aggregation. It was concluded that the rapid disappearance of injected DSIP in blood was due to degradation, whereas complex formation together with slower degradation resulted in longer persistence of apparently intact analogs. Whether this could explain the sometimes stronger and more consistent effects of DSIP-analogs remains to be examined.

  8. Brain natriuretic peptide levels in six basic underwater demolitions/SEAL recruits presenting with swimming induced pulmonary edema (SIPE).

    PubMed

    Shearer, Damon; Mahon, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Swimming induced pulmonary edema (SIPE) is associated with both SCUBA diving and strenuous surface swimming; however, the majority of reported cases and clinically observed cases tend to occur during or after aggressive surface swimming. Capillary stress failure appears to be central to the pathophysiology of this disorder. Regional pulmonary capillaries are exposed to relatively high pressures secondary to increased vascular volume, elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance, and regional differences in perfusion secondary to forces of gravity and high cardiac output. Acute pulmonary edema can be classified as either cardiogenic or noncardiogenic or both. Cardiogenic pulmonary edema occurs when the pulmonary capillary hydrostatic pressure exceeds plasma oncotic pressure. Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema occurs when pulmonary capillary permeability is increased. Given the pathophysiology noted above, SIPE can be described as a cardiogenic pulmonary edema, at least in part, since an increased transalveolar pressure gradient has been implicated in the pathogenesis of SIPE. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is used in the clinical setting to differentiate cardiac from pulmonary sources of dyspnea, specifically to diagnose cardiogenic pulmonary edema. During clinical management, BNP levels were drawn on six BUD/S recruits simultaneously presenting with pulmonary complaints consistent with SIPE, after an extended surface bay swim. This paper analyzes that data after de-identification and reviews the pathophysiology and clinical management of SIPE. PMID:19739476

  9. Platelet-released growth factors induce the antimicrobial peptide human beta-defensin-2 in primary keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Andreas; Lammel, Justus; Rademacher, Franziska; Groß, Justus; Siggelkow, Markus; Lippross, Sebastian; Klüter, Tim; Varoga, Deike; Tohidnezhad, Mersedeh; Pufe, Thomas; Cremer, Jochen; Gläser, Regine; Harder, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    Platelet-released growth factors (PRGF) and its related clinically used formulations [e.g. Vivostat platelet-rich fibrin (PRF(®) )] are thrombocyte concentrate lysates that support healing of chronic, hard-to-heal and infected wounds. Human beta-defensin-2 (hBD-2) is an antimicrobial peptide expressed in human keratinocytes exhibiting potent antimicrobial activity against wound-related bacteria. In this study, we analysed the influence of PRGF on hBD-2 expression in human primary keratinocytes and the influence of Vivostat PRF(®) on hBD-2 expression in experimentally generated skin wounds in vivo. Treatment of primary keratinocytes with PRGF caused a significant increase in hBD-2 gene and protein expressions in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The use of blocking antibodies revealed that the PRGF-mediated hBD-2 induction was partially mediated by the epidermal growth factor receptor and the interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R). Luciferase gene reporter assays indicated that the hBD-2 induction through PRGF required activation of the transcription factor activator protein 1 (AP-1), but not of NF-kappaB. In concordance with these cell culture data, Vivostat PRF(®) induced hBD-2 expression when applied to experimentally generated skin wounds. Together, our results indicate that the induction of hBD-2 by thrombocyte concentrate lysates can contribute to the observed beneficial effects in the treatment of chronic and infected wounds. PMID:26843467

  10. Interaction of histamine and calcitonin gene-related peptide in the formalin induced pain perception in rats.

    PubMed

    Mobarakeh, Jalal Izadi; Torkaman-Boutorabi, Anahita; Rahimi, Amir Abbas; Ghasri, Shahrooz; Nezhad, Reza Mohammad Ali; Hamzely, Arash; Khoshkholgh Sima, Baharak; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Nunoki, Kazuo; Yanai, Kazuhiko

    2011-06-01

    Histamine and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) contribute to the pain perception. The aim of the present study is to clarify the interaction of histamine and CGRP in the perception of inflammatory pain. The effects of a histamine H1 receptor antagonist (pyrilamine, i.p.), an H2 receptor antagonist (ranitidine, i.p.) and a CGRP antagonist (CGRP 8-37, i.t.) on the formalininduced pain was studied in rats. Pyrilamine and ranitidine produced a dose-dependent antinociceptive response in the first and the second phases of the formalin test. A single administration of pyrilamine (1 mg/kg, i.p.), ranitidine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or CGRP 8-37 (10 µg/µL, i.t.) had no significant effects on the pain perception in the second phase. A combination of CGRP 8-37 and pyrilamine or ranitidine at these sub-effective doses, however, showed nociceptive response in the second phase. Moreover, a histamine (i.t.)-induced hyperalgesia was completely prevented by treatment with GGRP 8-37 at this dose. Our findings have raised the possibility that the CGRP system has interaction with histamine in the perception of inflammatory pain. PMID:21673449

  11. Interleukin-4 receptor α-based hybrid peptide effectively induces antitumor activity in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Seto, Kahori; Shoda, Junichi; Horibe, Tomohisa; Warabi, Eiji; Ishige, Kazunori; Yamagata, Kenji; Kohno, Masayuki; Yanagawa, Toru; Bukawa, Hiroki; Kawakami, Koji

    2013-06-01

    Interleukin-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα) is highly expressed on the surface of various human solid tumors including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We designed a novel IL-4Rα-lytic hybrid peptide composed of a binding peptide to IL-4Rα and a cell-lytic peptide. In the present study, we evaluated the antitumor activity of the IL-4Rα-lytic hybrid peptide as a novel molecular-targeted therapy in HNSCC. Immunoblot analysis revealed that IL-4Rα was expressed in all tested HNSCC cell lines (HSC-2, HSC-3, HSC-4, Ca9-22 and OSC-19), but not in a human normal keratinocyte (HaCaT) cell line. Immunohistochemical expression levels of IL-4Rα in HNSCC tissues were higher compared to those in normal epithelial tissue. The IL-4Rα-lytic hybrid peptide showed cytotoxic activity in all five cancer cell lines with a concentration that killed 50% of all cells (IC50) as low as 10 µM. HaCaT cells were less sensitive to this peptide with an IC50 of >30 µM. In addition, intratumoral administration of IL-4Rα-lytic hybrid peptide significantly inhibited tumor growth in a xenograft model of human HNSCC in vivo. These results indicate that the IL-4Rα-lytic hybrid peptide may serve as a potent agent to provide a novel therapy for patients with HNSCC. PMID:23563734

  12. Transient Focal Membrane Deformation Induced by Arginine-rich Peptides Leads to Their Direct Penetration into Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Hisaaki; Takeuchi, Toshihide; Osakada, Hiroko; Pujals, Sílvia; Katayama, Sayaka; Nakase, Ikuhiko; Kobayashi, Shouhei; Haraguchi, Tokuko; Futaki, Shiroh

    2012-01-01

    Endocytosis has been implicated in the cellular uptake of arginine-rich, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs). However, accumulating evidence suggests that certain conditions allow the direct, non-endocytic penetration of arginine-rich peptides through the plasma membrane. We previously showed that Alexa Fluor 488-labeled dodeca-arginine (R12-Alexa488) directly enters cells at specific sites on the plasma membrane and subsequently diffuses throughout cells. In this study, we found that the peptide influx was accompanied by the formation of unique, “particle-like” multivesicular structures on the plasma membrane, together with topical inversion of the plasma membrane. Importantly, the conjugation of dodeca-arginine (R12) to Alexa Fluor 488 or a peptide tag derived from hemagglutinin (HAtag) significantly accelerated particle formation, suggesting that the chemical properties of the attached molecules (cargo molecules) may contribute to translocation of the R12 peptide. Coincubation with R12-HAtag allowed the membrane-impermeable R4-Alexa488 to permeate cells. These results suggest that R12 peptides attached to hydrophobic cargo molecules stimulate dynamic morphological alterations in the plasma membrane, and that these structural changes allow the peptides to permeate the plasma membrane. These findings may provide a novel mode of cell permeabilization by arginine-rich peptides as a means of drug delivery. PMID:22334015

  13. The effect of adrenomedullin and proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide on angiotensin II induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jian; Feng, Yinglu; Li, Zaiquan; Tang, Chaoshu

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): The study aimed to investigate the effects of adrenomedullin (ADM) and proadrenomedullin N- terminal 20 peptide (PAMP) on angiotensin (AngII)-stimulated proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Materials and Methods: Thoracic aorta was obtained from Wistar rats and VSMCs were isolated from aorta tissues and then cultured. In vitro cultured VSMCs were stimulated with Ang II (10-8 mol/l) followed by various doses of PAMP or ADM (10-9, 10-8, or 10-7 mol/l). Cell proliferation as assessed by 3H-TdR incorporation. Protein kinase C (PKC) activity was measured by counting γ-32P radioactivity with liquid scintillation. In a separate cohort, in vitro cultured rat aortic vessels were treated with different doses of Ang II or PAMP (10-9, 10-8, or 10-7 mol/l). Cellular and secreted levels of PAMP, ADM and Ang II were measured using radioimmunoassay in the tissues and intubation mediums, respectively. Results: Ang II (10-8 mol/l) treatment significantly increased both 3H-TdR incorporation and PKC activity in VSMCs (by 2.68 and 1.02-fold, respectively; both P<0.01 vs. the control). However, Ang II-induced elevation of 3H-TdR incorporation, and PKC activity was significantly inhibited by various doses of ADM and PAMP (all P<0.01 vs. the Ang II group). In rat aortic vascular tissues or intubation media, Ang II treatments stimulated the expression and secretion of PAMP and ADM in a dose-dependent manner, while PAMP treatments had no significant effects on Ang II levels. Conclusion: ADM and PAMP inhibit Ang II-induced VSMCs proliferation. The interaction of Ang II, ADM and PAMP may regulate VSMCs and cardiovascular function. PMID:27096064

  14. Protective effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide on bone destruction in the collagen-induced arthritis model of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Juarranz, Yasmina; Abad, Catalina; Martinez, Carmen; Arranz, Alicia; Gutierrez-Cañas, Irene; Rosignoli, Florencia; Gomariz, Rosa P; Leceta, Javier

    2005-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease of unknown etiology, characterized by the presence of inflammatory synovitis accompanied by destruction of joint cartilage and bone. Treatment with vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) prevents experimental arthritis in animal models by downregulation of both autoimmune and inflammatory components of the disease. The aim of this study was to characterize the protective effect of VIP on bone erosion in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. We have studied the expression of different mediators implicated in bone homeostasis, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB (RANK), receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-11 and IL-17. Circulating cytokine levels were assessed by ELISA and the local expression of mediators were determined by RT-PCR in mRNA extracts from joints. VIP treatment resulted in decreased levels of circulating IL-6, IL-1beta and TNFalpha, and increased levels of IL-4 and IL-10. CIA-mice treated with VIP presented a decrease in mRNA expression of IL-17, IL-11 in the joints. The ratio of RANKL to OPG decreased drastically in the joint after VIP treatment, which correlated with an increase in levels of circulating OPG in CIA mice treated with VIP. In addition, VIP treatment decreased the expression of mRNA for RANK, iNOS and COX-2. To investigate the molecular mechanisms involved, we tested the activity of NFkappaB and AP-1, two transcriptional factors closely related to joint erosion, by EMSA in synovial cells from CIA mice. VIP treatment in vivo was able to affect the transcriptional activity of both factors. Our data indicate that VIP is a viable candidate for the development of treatments for RA. PMID:16207319

  15. Novel Regenerative Peptide TP508 Mitigates Radiation-Induced Gastrointestinal Damage By Activating Stem Cells and Preserving Crypt Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Kantara, Carla; Moya, Stephanie M.; Houchen, Courtney W.; Umar, Shahid; Ullrich, Robert L.; Singh, Pomila; Carney, Darrell H.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, increasing threats of radiation exposure and nuclear disasters have become a significant concern for the United States and countries worldwide. Exposure to high doses of radiation triggers a number of potentially lethal effects. Among the most severe is the gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity syndrome caused by the destruction of the intestinal barrier, resulting in bacterial translocation, systemic bacteremia, sepsis and death. The lack of effective radioprotective agents capable of mitigating radiation-induced damage has prompted a search for novel countermeasures that can mitigate the effects of radiation post-exposure, accelerate tissue repair in radiation-exposed individuals, and prevent mortality. We report that a single injection of regenerative peptide TP508 (rusalatide acetate, Chrysalin®) 24h after lethal radiation exposure (9Gy, LD100/15) appears to significantly increase survival and delay mortality by mitigating radiation-induced intestinal and colonic toxicity. TP508 treatment post-exposure prevents the disintegration of gastrointestinal crypts, stimulates the expression of adherens junction protein E-cadherin, activates crypt cell proliferation, and decreases apoptosis. TP508 post-exposure treatment also up-regulates the expression of DCLK1 and LGR5 markers of stem cells that have been shown to be responsible for maintaining and regenerating intestinal crypts. Thus, TP508 appears to mitigate the effects of GI toxicity by activating radioresistant stem cells and increasing the stemness potential of crypts to maintain and restore intestinal integrity. These results suggest that TP508 may be an effective emergency nuclear countermeasure that could be delivered within 24h post-exposure to increase survival and delay mortality, giving victims time to reach clinical sites for advanced medical treatment. PMID:26280221

  16. Transducible P11-CNTF rescues the learning and memory impairments induced by amyloid-beta peptide in mice.

    PubMed

    Qu, Heng Yan; Zhang, Ting; Li, Xu Ling; Zhou, Jian Ping; Zhao, Bao Quan; Li, Qian; Sun, Man Ji

    2008-10-10

    Alzheimer's disease is a progressive brain disorder with the loss of memory and other intellectual abilities. Amyloid species and neurofibrillary tangles are the prime suspects in damaging and killing nerve cells. Abnormal accumulation of Amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) may cause synaptic dysfunction and degeneration of neurons. Drugs that can prevent its formation and accumulation or stimulate its clearance might ultimately be of therapeutic benefit. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), a neurotrophic cytokine, promotes the survival of various neurons in brain. However, the blood-brain barrier hinders the systemic delivery of CNTF to brain. Recently the 11-amino acid of protein transduction domain TAT has successfully assisted the delivery of many macromolecules to treat preclinical models of human disease. The present study aimed to evaluate whether P11-CNTF fusion protein (P11-CNTF) is protective against the Abeta25-35-induced dementia in mice. Immunofluorescence experiments showed that P11 effectively carried CNTF to the SH-SY5Y cells in vitro, and to the brains of mice in vivo. The learning and memory impairments of mice induced by Abeta were substantially rescued by supplement with the P11-CNTF. Furthermore, mRNAs of enzymes involved in the Abeta metabolism, e.g. neprilysin (NEP), endothelin-converting enzyme 1 (ECE-1) and insulin degrading enzyme (IDE), increased in the P11-CNTF treated dementia mice, accompanied by the proliferation of nestin- and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive cells in hippocampus. It implies that the delivery of P11-CNTF may be a novel treatment for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:18644361

  17. Antitumor activity of adenoviral vector containing T42 and 4xT42 peptide gene through inducing apoptosis of tumor cells and suppressing angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiong; Qi, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Chen, Qing-Xin; Wang, Guang-Zhi; Sui, Guang-Yu; Hao, Xue-Wei; Sun, Shouli; Song, Xue; Chen, Ying-Li

    2015-03-01

    The T42 peptide, generated from two active fragments of tumstatin, has been shown to have anti‑tumor activity. The adenoviral vector is the most frequently used vector in research and clinical trials for gene therapy. In the present study, the anti‑tumor activity of the T42 peptide and quadruple T42 (4xT42) peptide adenoviral vectors were elucidated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. Human embryonic kidney 293 cells were infected with plasmid adenovirus (pAd)‑enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)‑T42 or pAd‑EGFP‑4xT42 and the expression of the T42 and 4xT42 genes was confirmed by the identification of GFP expression and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction experiments. The anti‑cancer effects of pAd‑EGFP‑T42 and pAd‑EGFP‑4xT42 on breast cancer cells in vivo and in vitro were subsequently investigated. The results indicated that the packaging of the recombinant adenoviruses with the viral titer was successful, following purification at 5x109 plaque forming units/ml. The results also revealed that the recombinant adenoviruses promoted apoptosis in MCF‑7 breast cancer cells and inhibited cancer growth. Through the analysis of caspase‑3, B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2) and Bcl‑2‑associated X protein expression, it was demonstrated that the T42/4xT42 peptide may induce apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway. In addition, mouse xenograft experiments confirmed that the T42 peptide inhibited tumor growth and reduced angiogenesis in vivo. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that the T42 and 4xT42 peptide genes, transfected by a recombinant adenovirus, may provide a potential novel strategy for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:25384346

  18. The metabolic enhancer piracetam ameliorates the impairment of mitochondrial function and neurite outgrowth induced by ß-amyloid peptide

    PubMed Central

    Kurz, C; Ungerer, I; Lipka, U; Kirr, S; Schütt, T; Eckert, A; Leuner, K; Müller, WE

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: β-Amyloid peptide (Aβ) is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease by initiating a cascade of events from mitochondrial dysfunction to neuronal death. The metabolic enhancer piracetam has been shown to improve mitochondrial dysfunction following brain aging and experimentally induced oxidative stress. Experimental approach: We used cell lines (PC12 and HEK cells) and murine dissociated brain cells. The protective effects of piracetam in vitro and ex vivo on Aβ-induced impairment of mitochondrial function (as mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production), on secretion of soluble Aβ and on neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells were investigated. Key results: Piracetam improves mitochondrial function of PC12 cells and acutely dissociated brain cells from young NMRI mice following exposure to extracellular Aβ1-42. Similar protective effects against Aβ1-42 were observed in dissociated brain cells from aged NMRI mice, or mice transgenic for mutant human amyloid precursor protein (APP) treated with piracetam for 14 days. Soluble Aβ load was markedly diminished in the brain of those animals after treatment with piracetam. Aβ production by HEK cells stably transfected with mutant human APP was elevated by oxidative stress and this was reduced by piracetam. Impairment of neuritogenesis is an important consequence of Aβ-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and Aβ-induced reduction of neurite growth in PC12 cells was substantially improved by piracetam. Conclusion and implications: Our findings strongly support the concept of improving mitochondrial function as an approach to ameliorate the detrimental effects of Aβ on brain function. This article is commented on by Moncada, pp. 217–219 of this issue. To view this commentary visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00706.x and to view related papers by Pravdic et al. and Puerta et al. visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00698.x and http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j

  19. WT1 PEPTIDE VACCINATIONS INDUCE CD4 AND CD8 T CELL IMMUNE RESPONSES IN PATIENTS WITH MESOTHELIOMA AND NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Krug, Lee M.; Dao, Tao; Brown, Andrew B.; Maslak, Peter; Travis, William; Bekele, Sara; Korontsvit, Tatyana; Zakhaleva, Victoria; Wolchok, Jedd; Yuan, Jianda; Li, Hao; Tyson, Leslie; Scheinberg, David A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The transcription factor, WT1, is highly overexpressed in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) and immunohistochemical stains for WT1 are used routinely to aid in its diagnosis. Using computer prediction analysis we designed analog peptides derived from WT1 sequences by substituting amino acids at key HLA-A0201 binding positions. We tested the safety and immunogenicity of a WT1 vaccine comprised of four class 1 and class 2 peptides in patients with thoracic neoplasms expressing WT1. METHODS Therapy consisted of six subcutaneous vaccinations administered with Montanide adjuvant on weeks 0, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12, with 6 additional monthly injections for responding patients. Injection sites were pre-stimulated with GM-CSF (70mcg). Immune responses were evaluated by DTH, CD4 T-cell proliferation, CD8 T-cell interferon gamma release, intracellular cytokine staining, WT1 peptide MHC-tetramer staining, and cytotoxicity against WT1 positive tumor cells. RESULTS Nine patients with MPM and 3 with NSCLC were vaccinated, with 8 patients receiving at least 6 vaccinations; in total, 10 patients were evaluable for immune response. Six out of nine patients tested demonstrated CD4 T-cell proliferation to WT1 specific peptides, and five of the six HLA-A0201 patients tested mounted a CD8 T-cell response. Stimulated T cells were capable of cytotoxicity against WT-1 positive cells. Vaccination also induced polyfunctional CD8 T cell responses. CONCLUSIONS This multivalent WT1 peptide analog vaccine induces immune responses in a high proportion of patients with thoracic malignancies with minimal toxicity. A randomized trial testing this vaccine as adjuvant therapy in MPM is planned. PMID:20532500

  20. Changes in liraglutide-induced body composition are related to modifications in plasma cardiac natriuretic peptides levels in obese type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims Liraglutide treatment can improve glycemic control with a concomitant weight loss, but the underlying mechanism on weight loss is not completely understood. Cardiac natriuretic peptides (NPs) can resist body fat accumulation through increasing adipocytes lypolysis. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that liraglutide-induced weight loss was associated with increased plasma NPs concentrations. Methods Thirty-one outpatients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) treated with metformin and other oral antidiabetic drugs except for thiazolidinediones (TZDs) were subcutaneously administered with liraglutide for 12 weeks. Body composition, abdominal visceral adipose tissue areas (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue areas (SAT) were assessed at pre- and post-treatment by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning and abdominal computerized tomography (CT). Plasma atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP) and B-type ventricular natriuretic peptides (BNP) concentrations were tested by commercial ELISA Kit quantitatively. Results Following 12-week liraglutide treatment, body weight, waist circumference, total fat and lean mass, fat percentage, SAT and VAT areas were significantly reduced from baseline. Concurrently, plasma ANP and BNP levels were significantly increased following 12-week liraglutide treatment. There were significant correlations between the reductions in body compositions and the increases in both plasma ANP and BNP levels. Conclusions There were significant correlations between increases in both plasma ANP and BNP levels and changes in liraglutide-induced body composition. Our data implied that increases in plasma NPs may add a novel dimension to explain how liraglutide induces weight loss. PMID:24498905

  1. Immunosuppression by Co-stimulatory Molecules: Inhibition of CD2-CD48/CD58 Interaction by Peptides from CD2 to Suppress Progression of Collagen-induced Arthritis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gokhale, Ameya; Kanthala, Shanthi; Latendresse, John; Taneja, Veena; Satyanarayanajois, Seetharama

    2013-01-01

    Targeting co-stimulatory molecules to modulate the immune response has been shown to have useful therapeutic effects for autoimmune diseases. Among the co-stimulatory molecules, CD2 and CD58 are very important in the early stages of generation of an immune response. Our goal was to utilize CD2-derived peptides to modulate protein-protein interactions between CD2 and CD58, thereby modulating the immune response. Several peptides were designed based on the structure of the CD58 binding domain of CD2 protein. Among the CD2-derived peptides, peptide 6 from the F and C β-strand region of CD2 protein exhibited inhibition of cell-cell adhesion in the nanomolar concentration range. Peptide 6 was evaluated for its ability to bind to CD58 in Caco-2 cells and to CD48 in T cells from rodents. A molecular model was proposed for binding a peptide to CD58 and CD48 using docking studies. Furthermore, in vivo studies were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic ability of the peptide to modulate the immune response in the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse model. In vivo studies indicated that peptide 6 was able to suppress the progression of CIA. Evaluation of the antigenicity of peptides in CIA and transgenic animal models indicated that this peptide is not immunogenic. PMID:23530775

  2. Calcineurin Regulates Homologous Desensitization of Natriuretic Peptide Receptor-A and Inhibits ANP-Induced Testosterone Production in MA-10 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Henesy, Michelle B.; Britain, Andrea L.; Zhu, Bing; Amable, Lauren; Honkanen, Richard E.; Corbin, Jackie D.; Francis, Sharron H.; Rich, Thomas C.

    2012-01-01

    Receptor desensitization is a ubiquitous regulatory mechanism that defines the activatable pool of receptors, and thus, the ability of cells to respond to environmental stimuli. In recent years, the molecular mechanisms controlling the desensitization of a variety of receptors have been established. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that underlie desensitization of natriuretic peptide receptors, including natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPR-A). Here we report that calcineurin (protein phosphatase 2B, PP2B, PPP3C) regulates homologous desensitization of NPR-A in murine Leydig tumor (MA-10) cells. We demonstrate that both pharmacological inhibition of calcineurin activity and siRNA-mediated suppression of calcineurin expression potentiate atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)-induced cGMP synthesis. Treatment of MA-10 cells with inhibitors of other phosphoprotein phosphatases had little or no effect on ANP-induced cGMP accumulation. In addition, overexpression of calcineurin blunts ANP-induced cGMP synthesis. We also present data indicating that the inhibition of calcineurin potentiates ANP-induced testosterone production. To better understand the contribution of calcineurin in the regulation of NPR-A activity, we examined the kinetics of ANP-induced cGMP signals. We observed transient ANP-induced cGMP signals, even in the presence of phosphodiesterase inhibitors. Inhibition of both calcineurin and phosphodiesterase dramatically slowed the decay in the response. These observations are consistent with a model in which calcineurin mediated dephosphorylation and desensitization of NPR-A is associated with significant inhibition of cGMP synthesis. PDE activity hydrolyzes cGMP, thus lowering intracellular cGMP toward the basal level. Taken together, these data suggest that calcineurin plays a previously unrecognized role in the desensitization of NPR-A and, thereby, inhibits ANP-mediated increases in testosterone production. PMID:22876290

  3. CD47 Agonist Peptides Induce Programmed Cell Death in Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B Cells via PLCγ1 Activation: Evidence from Mice and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Attout, Tarik; Boullet, Heloïse; Herbi, Linda; Vela, Laura; Barbier, Sandrine; Chateau, Danielle; Chapiro, Elise; Nguyen-Khac, Florence; Davi, Frédéric; Le Garff-Tavernier, Magali; Moumné, Roba; Sarfati, Marika; Karoyan, Philippe; Merle-Béral, Hélène; Launay, Pierre; Susin, Santos A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the most common adulthood leukemia, is characterized by the accumulation of abnormal CD5+ B lymphocytes, which results in a progressive failure of the immune system. Despite intense research efforts, drug resistance remains a major cause of treatment failure in CLL, particularly in patients with dysfunctional TP53. The objective of our work was to identify potential approaches that might overcome CLL drug refractoriness by examining the pro-apoptotic potential of targeting the cell surface receptor CD47 with serum-stable agonist peptides. Methods and Findings In peripheral blood samples collected from 80 patients with CLL with positive and adverse prognostic features, we performed in vitro genetic and molecular analyses that demonstrate that the targeting of CD47 with peptides derived from the C-terminal domain of thrombospondin-1 efficiently kills the malignant CLL B cells, including those from high-risk individuals with a dysfunctional TP53 gene, while sparing the normal T and B lymphocytes from the CLL patients. Further studies reveal that the differential response of normal B lymphocytes, collected from 20 healthy donors, and leukemic B cells to CD47 peptide targeting results from the sustained activation in CLL B cells of phospholipase C gamma-1 (PLCγ1), a protein that is significantly over-expressed in CLL. Once phosphorylated at tyrosine 783, PLCγ1 enables a Ca2+-mediated, caspase-independent programmed cell death (PCD) pathway that is not down-modulated by the lymphocyte microenvironment. Accordingly, down-regulation of PLCγ1 or pharmacological inhibition of PLCγ1 phosphorylation abolishes CD47-mediated killing. Additionally, in a CLL-xenograft model developed in NOD/scid gamma mice, we demonstrate that the injection of CD47 agonist peptides reduces tumor burden without inducing anemia or toxicity in blood, liver, or kidney. The limitations of our study are mainly linked to the affinity of the peptides

  4. The production of recombinant cationic α-helical antimicrobial peptides in plant cells induces the formation of protein bodies derived from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Company, Nuri; Nadal, Anna; La Paz, José-Luis; Martínez, Sílvia; Rasche, Stefan; Schillberg, Stefan; Montesinos, Emilio; Pla, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic linear antimicrobial peptides with cationic α-helical structures, such as BP100, are valuable as novel therapeutics and preservatives. However, they tend to be toxic when expressed at high levels as recombinant peptides in plants, and they can be difficult to detect and isolate from complex plant tissues because they are strongly cationic and display low extinction coefficient and extremely limited immunogenicity. We therefore expressed BP100 with a C-terminal tag which preserved its antimicrobial activity and demonstrated significant accumulation in plant cells. We used a fluorescent tag to trace BP100 following transiently expression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves and showed that it accumulated in large vesicles derived from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) along with typical ER luminal proteins. Interestingly, the formation of these vesicles was induced by BP100. Similar vesicles formed in stably transformed Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, but the recombinant peptide was toxic to the host during latter developmental stages. This was avoided by selecting active BP100 derivatives based on their low haemolytic activity even though the selected peptides remained toxic to plant cells when applied exogenously at high doses. Using this strategy, we generated transgenic rice lines producing active BP100 derivatives with a yield of up to 0.5% total soluble protein. PMID:24102775

  5. Sulindac Sulfide Induces the Formation of Large Oligomeric Aggregates of the Alzheimer's Disease Amyloid-β Peptide Which Exhibit Reduced Neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Prade, Elke; Barucker, Christian; Sarkar, Riddhiman; Althoff-Ospelt, Gerhard; Lopez del Amo, Juan Miguel; Hossain, Shireen; Zhong, Yifei; Multhaup, Gerd; Reif, Bernd

    2016-03-29

    Alzheimer's disease is characterized by deposition of the amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) in brain tissue of affected individuals. In recent years, many potential lead structures have been suggested that can potentially be used for diagnosis and therapy. However, the mode of action of these compounds is so far not understood. Among these small molecules, the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) sulindac sulfide received a lot of attention. In this manuscript, we characterize the interaction between the monomeric Aβ peptide and the NSAID sulindac sulfide. We find that sulindac sulfide efficiently depletes the pool of toxic oligomers by enhancing the rate of fibril formation. In vitro, sulindac sulfide forms colloidal particles which catalyze the formation of fibrils. Aggregation is immediate, presumably by perturbing the supersaturated Aβ solution. We find that sulindac sulfide induced Aβ aggregates are structurally homogeneous. The C-terminal part of the peptide adopts a β-sheet structure, whereas the N-terminus is disordered. The salt bridge between D23 and K28 is present, similar as in wild type fibril structures. (13)C-(19)F transferred echo double resonance experiments suggest that sulindac sulfide colocalizes with the Aβ peptide in the aggregate. PMID:26900939

  6. Combined use of ion mobility and collision-induced dissociation to investigate the opening of disulfide bridges by electron-transfer dissociation in peptides bearing two disulfide bonds.

    PubMed

    Massonnet, Philippe; Upert, Gregory; Smargiasso, Nicolas; Gilles, Nicolas; Quinton, Loïc; De Pauw, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Disulfide bonds are post-translational modifications (PTMs) often found in peptides and proteins. They increase their stability toward enzymatic degradations and provide the structure and (consequently) the activity of such folded proteins. The characterization of disulfide patterns, i.e., the cysteine connectivity, is crucial to achieve a global picture of the active conformation of the protein of interest. Electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) constitutes a valuable tool to cleave the disulfide bonds in the gas phase, avoiding chemical reduction/alkylation in solution. To characterize the cysteine pairing, the present work proposes (i) to reduce by ETD one of the two disulfide bridges of model peptides, resulting in the opening of the cyclic structures, (ii) to separate the generated species by ion mobility, and (iii) to characterize the species using collision-induced dissociation (CID). Results of this strategy applied to several peptides show different behaviors depending on the connectivity. The loss of SH· radical species, observed for all the peptides, confirms the cleavage of the disulfides during the ETD process. PMID:25915795

  7. PAI-1-Derived Peptide EEIIMD Prevents Hypoxia/Ischemia-Induced Aggravation of Endothelin- and Thromboxane-Induced Cerebrovasoconstriction

    PubMed Central

    Riley, John; Cines, Douglas B.; Higazi, Abd Al-Roof

    2015-01-01

    Background Babies are frequently exposed to cerebral hypoxia and ischemia (H/I) during the perinatal period as a result of stroke, problems with delivery or post delivery respiratory management. The sole FDA approved treatment for acute stroke is tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). Endogenous tPA is upregulated and potentiates impairment of pial artery dilation in response to hypotension after H/I in pigs. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), a family of at least 3 kinases, ERK, p38 and JNK, is also upregulated after H/I, with ERK contributing to impaired vasodilation. This study examined the hypothesis that H/I aggravates the vascular response to two important procontractile mediators released during CNS ischemia, endothelin-1 (ET-1) and thromboxane, which is further enhanced by tPA and ERK MAPK. Methods Cerebral hypoxia (pO2 35 mmHg for 10 min via inhalation of N2) followed immediately by ischemia (global intracranial pressure elevation for 20 min) was produced in chloralose anesthetized piglets equipped with a closed cranial window. Results H/I aggravated pial artery vasconstriction induced by ET-1 and the thromboxane mimetic U 46619. Potentiated vasoconstrictor responses were blocked by EEIIMD, an inhibitor of tPA’s signaling and vascular activities, but unchanged by its inactive analogue EEIIMR. The cerebrospinal fluid concentration of ERK MAPK determined by ELISA was increased by H/I, potentiated by tPA, but blocked by EEIIMD. The ERK MAPK antagonist U 0126 blocked H/I augmented enhancement of ET-1 and U 46619 vasoconstriction. Conclusions These data indicate that H/I aggravates ET-1 and thromboxane mediated cerebral vasoconstriction by upregulating endogenous tPA and ERK MAPK. PMID:24248736

  8. Protection against morbillivirus-induced encephalitis by immunization with a rationally designed synthetic peptide vaccine containing B- and T-cell epitopes from the fusion protein of measles virus.

    PubMed Central

    Obeid, O E; Partidos, C D; Howard, C R; Steward, M W

    1995-01-01

    Synthetic peptides representing T- and B-cell epitopes from the fusion (F) protein of measles virus (MV) were tested for their ability to induce a protective immune response against intracerebral challenge with neuroadapted strains of MV and canine distemper virus (CDV) in mice. Of the panel of peptides tested, only a chimeric peptide consisting of two copies of a promiscuous T-cell epitope (representing residues 288 to 302 of MV F protein) synthesized at the amino terminus of a B-cell epitope (representing residues 404 to 414 of MV F protein) was able to induce a protective response against challenge with MV and CDV in inbred mice. The protective response induced by this peptide (TTB) was associated with a significant reduction in mortality, histological absence of acute encephalitis, and greatly reduced titers of virus in the brains of TTB-immune mice following challenge compared with the results for nonimmunized controls. A chimeric peptide comprising one copy of the T-cell epitope and one copy of the B-cell epitope (TB) did not induce a protective response. A comparison of the antibody responses induced by the two chimeras suggested that differences in protective efficacy following immunization may be a result of the higher affinity of the antibody induced by the TTB peptide than that of the antibody induced by the TB peptide. In addition, differences in the immunoglobulin G subclass of the antipeptide antibody responses were observed, and these may play a role in the differences in protection observed. These results indicate that appropriately designed synthetic peptides have potential as vaccines for the induction of cross-reactive protection against morbilliviruses. PMID:7531779

  9. Protein kinase A mediates glucagon-like peptide 1-induced nitric oxide production and muscle microvascular recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zhenhua; Chai, Weidong; Wang, Wenhui; Zhao, Lina; Fu, Zhuo; Cao, Wenhong

    2013-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) causes vasodilation and increases muscle glucose uptake independent of insulin. Recently, we have shown that GLP-1 recruits muscle microvasculature and increases muscle glucose use via a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent mechanism. Protein kinase A (PKA) is a major signaling intermediate downstream of GLP-1 receptors. To examine whether PKA mediates GLP-1's microvascular action in muscle, GLP-1 was infused to overnight-fasted male rats for 120 min in the presence or absence of H89, a PKA inhibitor. Hindleg muscle microvascular recruitment and glucose use were determined. GLP-1 infusion acutely increased muscle microvascular blood volume within 30 min without altering microvascular blood flow velocity or blood pressure. This effect persisted throughout the 120-min infusion period, leading to a significant increase in muscle microvascular blood flow. These changes were paralleled with an approximately twofold increase in plasma NO levels and hindleg glucose extraction. Systemic infusion of H89 completely blocked GLP-1-mediated muscle microvascular recruitment and increases in NO production and muscle glucose extraction. In cultured endothelial cells, GLP-1 acutely increased PKA activity and stimulated endothelial NO synthase phosphorylation at Ser1177 and NO production. PKA inhibition abolished these effects. In ex vivo studies, perfusion of the distal saphenous artery with GLP-1 induced significant vasorelaxation that was also abolished by pretreatment of the vessels with PKA inhibitor H89. We conclude that GLP-1 recruits muscle microvasculature by expanding microvascular volume and increases glucose extraction in muscle via a PKA/NO-dependent pathway in the vascular endothelium. This may contribute to postprandial glycemic control and complication prevention in diabetes. PMID:23193054

  10. The Expression of B-Type Natriuretic Peptide After CaCl2-Induced Arrhythmias in Rats.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhi-Peng; Zhang, Yuan; Mi, Li; Luo, Xin-Yi; Tian, Mei-Hui; Zhu, Bao-Li

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the patterns of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) expression after arrhythmia, BNP was assessed at different time points (0 minute, 10 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 3 hours, and 6 hours) in CaCl2-induced arrhythmia in rats through various methods such as immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Immunohistochemistry results showed that the expression of BNP in the endocardium was higher than that in the epicardium in rats undergoing sustained arrhythmias. The BNP-to-GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) ratios determined by Western blotting analysis revealed no change at 0 minute but increased at 10 minutes and reached the first peak (0.48 [0.03]) at 30 minutes. After a brief decline, the second peak was observed at 6 hours (0.54 [0.03]). Similar patterns of BNP messenger RNA expression were also observed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The plasma BNP concentrations did not change after initial bouts of cardiac arrhythmias but significantly increased 30 minutes after CaCl2 injections. The results demonstrate that arrhythmia causes an elevation of BNP in the myocardium and blood, and BNP messenger RNA increases in initial arrhythmia while its protein in myocardium and plasma does not; however, both of them were elevated after sustained arrhythmia. Such an elevated BNP expression, which is directly related to the severity and duration of the arrhythmias, may suggest the existence of fatal arrhythmia in sudden cardiac death. PMID:27258852

  11. Velvet antler peptide prevents pressure overload-induced cardiac fibrosis via transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 pathway inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lihong; Mi, Yang; Guan, Hongya; Xu, Yan; Mei, Yingwu

    2016-07-15

    Velvet antlers (VAs) are commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine and invigorant and contain many functional components for health promotion. The velvet antler peptide sVAP32 is one of active components in VAs; based on structural study, the sVAP32 interacts with TGF-β1 receptors and disrupts the TGF-β1 pathway. We hypothesized that sVAP32 prevents cardiac fibrosis from pressure overload by blocking TGF-β1 signaling. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or a sham operation. After one month, rats received either sVAP32 (15mg/kg/day) or vehicle for an additional one month. TAC surgery induced significant cardiac dysfunction, fibroblast activation and fibrosis; these effects were improved by treatment with sVAP32. In the heart tissue, TAC remarkably increased the expression of TGF-β1 and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), reactive oxygen species levels, and the phosphorylation levels of Smad2/3 and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). SVAP32 inhibited the increases in reactive oxygen species levels, CTGF expression and the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 and ERK1/2, but not TGF-β1 expression. In cultured cardiac fibroblasts, angiotensin II (Ang II) had similar effects compared to TAC surgery, such as increases in α-SMA-positive cardiac fibroblasts and collagen synthesis. SVAP32 eliminated these effects by disrupting TGF-β1 binding to its receptors and blocking Ang II/TGF-β1 downstream signaling. These results demonstrated that sVAP32 has anti-fibrotic effects by blocking the TGF-β1 pathway in cardiac fibroblasts. PMID:27108788

  12. Atypical behavior in the electron capture induced dissociation of biologically relevant transition metal ion complexes of the peptide hormone oxytocin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinnijenhuis, Anne J.; Mihalca, Romulus; Heeren, Ron M. A.; Heck, Albert J. R.

    2006-07-01

    Doubly protonated ions of the disulfide bond containing nonapeptide hormone oxytocin and oxytocin complexes with different transition metal ions, that have biological relevance under physiological conditions, were subjected to electron capture dissociation (ECD) to probe their structural features in the gas phase. Although, all the ECD spectra were strikingly different, typical ECD behavior was observed for complexes of the nonapeptide hormone oxytocin with Ni2+, Co2+ and Zn2+, i.e., abundant c/z' and a'/y backbone cleavages and ECD characteristic S-S and S-C bond cleavages were observed. We propose that, although in the oxytocin-transition metal ion complexes the metal ions serve as the main initial capture site, the captured electron is transferred to other sites in the complex to form a hydrogen radical, which drives the subsequent typical ECD fragmentations. The complex of oxytocin with Cu2+ displayed noticeably different ECD behavior. The fragment ions were similar to fragment ions typically observed with low-energy collision induced dissociation (CID). We propose that the electrons captured by the oxytocin-Cu2+ complex might be favorably involved in reducing the Cu2+ metal ion to Cu+. Subsequent energy redistribution would explain the observed low-energy CID-type fragmentations. Electron capture resulted also in quite different specific cleavage sites for the complexes of oxytocin with Ni2+, Co2+ and Zn2+. This is an indication for structural differences in these complexes possibly linked to their significantly different biological effects on oxytocin-receptor binding, and suggests that ECD may be used to study subtle structural differences in transition metal ion-peptide complexes.

  13. Antimicrobial peptides

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    With increasing antibiotics resistance, there is an urgent need for novel infection therapeutics. Since antimicrobial peptides provide opportunities for this, identification and optimization of such peptides have attracted much interest during recent years. Here, a brief overview of antimicrobial peptides is provided, with focus placed on how selected hydrophobic modifications of antimicrobial peptides can be employed to combat also more demanding pathogens, including multi-resistant strains, without conferring unacceptable toxicity. PMID:24758244

  14. On-column digestion of protein for peptide mapping by capillary zone electrophoresis with laser-induced native fluorescence detection

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, H.T.; Yeung, E.S. Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA )

    1993-10-15

    We have developed a novel technique to separate and detect peptide fragments which are digested on the same column. In this procedure, pepsin is used to digest low femtomole amounts of [beta]-lactoglobulin on the column. Then, CZE and LINF are applied to separate and detect the peptide fragments. The advantages of this method are its simplicity, high sensitivity, high selectivity, efficient operation, and high speed. 38 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Processing of thyrotropin-releasing hormone prohormone (pro-TRH) generates a biologically active peptide, prepro-TRH-(160-169), which regulates TRH-induced thyrotropin secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Bulant, M; Roussel, J P; Astier, H; Nicolas, P; Vaudry, H

    1990-01-01

    Rat thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) prohormone contains five copies of the TRH progenitor sequence Gln-His-Pro-Gly linked together by connecting sequences whose biological activity is unknown. Both the predicted connecting peptide prepro-TRH-(160-169) (Ps4) and TRH are predominant storage forms of TRH precursor-related peptides in the hypothalamus. To determine whether Ps4 is co-released with TRH, rat median eminence slices were perifused in vitro. Infusion of depolarizing concentrations of KCl induced stimulation of release of Ps4- and TRH-like immunoreactivity. The possible effect of Ps4 on thyrotropin release was investigated in vitro using quartered anterior pituitaries. Infusion of Ps4 alone had no effect on thyrotropin secretion but potentiated TRH-induced thyrotropin release in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the occurrence of specific binding sites for 125I-labeled Tyr-Ps4 in the distal lobe of the pituitary was demonstrated by binding analysis and autoradiographic localization. These findings indicate that these two peptides that arise from a single multifunctional precursor, the TRH prohormone, act in a coordinate manner on the same target cells to promote hormonal secretion. These data suggest that differential processing of the TRH prohormone may have the potential to modulate the biological activity of TRH. Images PMID:2162041

  16. Antibody-Mediated and Cellular Immune Responses Induced in Naive Volunteers by Vaccination with Long Synthetic Peptides Derived from the Plasmodium vivax Circumsporozoite Protein

    PubMed Central

    Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Soto, Liliana; Perlaza, Blanca Liliana; Céspedes, Nora; Vera, Omaira; Lenis, Ana Milena; Bonelo, Anilza; Corradin, Giampietro; Herrera, Sócrates

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite (CS) protein is a leading malaria vaccine candidate. We describe the characterization of specific immune responses induced in 21 malaria-naive volunteers vaccinated with long synthetic peptides derived from the CS protein formulated in Montanide ISA 720. Both antibody- and cell-mediated immune responses were analyzed. Antibodies were predominantly of IgG1 and IgG3 isotypes, recognized parasite proteins on the immunofluorescent antibody test, and partially blocked sporozoite invasion of hepatoma cell lines in vitro. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from most volunteers (94%) showed IFN-γ production in vitro upon stimulation with both long signal peptide and short peptides containing CD8+ T-cell epitopes. The relatively limited sample size did not allow conclusions about HLA associations with the immune responses observed. In summary, the inherent safety and tolerability together with strong antibody responses, invasion blocking activity, and the IFN-γ production induced by these vaccine candidates warrants further testing in a phase II clinical trial. PMID:21292876

  17. Antagonistic Effect of a Salivary Proline-Rich Peptide on the Cytosolic Ca2+ Mobilization Induced by Progesterone in Oral Squamous Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Palmerini, Carlo Alberto; Mazzoni, Michela; Radicioni, Giorgia; Marzano, Valeria; Granieri, Letizia; Iavarone, Federica; Longhi, Renato; Messana, Irene; Cabras, Tiziana; Sanna, Maria Teresa; Castagnola, Massimo; Vitali, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    A salivary proline-rich peptide of 1932 Da showed a dose-dependent antagonistic effect on the cytosolic Ca2+ mobilization induced by progesterone in a tongue squamous carcinoma cell line. Structure-activity studies showed that the activity of the peptide resides in the C-terminal region characterized by a proline stretch flanked by basic residues. Furthermore, lack of activity of the retro-inverso peptide analogue suggested the involvement of stereospecific recognition. Mass spectrometry-based shotgun analysis, combined with Western blotting tests and biochemical data obtained with the Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 (PGRMC1) inhibitor AG205, showed strong evidence that p1932 performs its modulatory action through an interaction with the progesterone receptor PGRMC1, which is predominantly expressed in this cell line and, clearly, plays a role in progesterone induced Ca2+ response. Thus, our results point to p1932 as a modulator of the transduction signal pathway mediated by this protein and, given a well-established involvement of PGRMC1 in tumorigenesis, highlight a possible therapeutic potential of p1932 for the treatment of oral cancer. PMID:26814504

  18. Processing of thyrotropin-releasing hormone prohormone (pro-TRH) generates a biologically active peptide, prepro-TRH-(160-169), which regulates TRH-induced thyrotropin secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Bulant, M.; Vaudry, H. ); Roussel, J.P.; Astier, H. ); Nicolas, P. )

    1990-06-01

    Rat thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) prohormone contains five copies of the TRH progenitor sequence Gln-His-Pro-Gly linked together by connecting sequences whose biological activity is unknown. Both the predicted connecting peptide prepro-TRH-(160-169) (Ps4) and TRH are predominant storage forms of TRH precursor-related peptides in the hypothalamus. To determine whether Ps4 is co-released with TRH, rat median eminence slices were perfused in vitro. Infusion of depolarizing concentrations of KCl induced stimulation of release of Ps4- and TRH-like immunoreactivity. The possible effect of Ps4 on thyrotropin release was investigated in vitro using quartered anterior pituitaries. Infusion of Ps4 alone had no effect on thyrotropin secretion but potentiated TRH-induced thyrotropin release in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the occurrence of specific binding sites for {sup 125}I-labeled Tyr-Ps4 in the distal lobe of the pituitary was demonstrated by binding analysis and autoradiographic localization. These findings indicate that these two peptides that arise from a single multifunctional precursor, the TRH prohormone, act in a coordinate manner on the same target cells to promote hormonal secretion. These data suggest that differential processing of the TRH prohormone may have the potential to modulate the biological activity of TRH.

  19. Astrocytes Protect Neurons from Aβ1-42 Peptide-Induced Neurotoxicity Increasing TFAM and PGC-1 and Decreasing PPAR-γ and SIRT-1

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre-Rueda, Diana; Guerra-Ojeda, Sol; Aldasoro, Martin; Iradi, Antonio; Obrador, Elena; Ortega, Angel; Mauricio, M. Dolores; Vila, Jose Mª; Valles, Soraya L.

    2015-01-01

    One of the earliest neuropathological events in Alzheimer's disease is accumulation of astrocytes at sites of Aβ1-42 depositions. Our results indicate that Aβ1-42 toxic peptide increases lipid peroxidation, apoptosis and cell death in neurons but not in astrocytes in primary culture. Aβ1-42-induced deleterious neuronal effects are not present when neurons and astrocytes are mixed cultured. Stimulation of astrocytes with toxic Aβ1-42 peptide increased p-65 and decreased IκB resulting in inflammatory process. In astrocytes Aβ1-42 decreases protein expressions of sirtuin 1 (SIRT-1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) and over-expresses peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1 (PGC-1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), protecting mitochondria against Aβ1-42-induced damage and promoting mitochondrial biogenesis. In summary our data suggest that astrocytes may have a key role in protecting neurons, increasing neural viability and mitochondrial biogenesis, acquiring better oxidative stress protection and perhaps modulating inflammatory processes against Aβ1-42 toxic peptide. This might be a sign of a complex epigenetic process in Alzheimer's disease development. PMID:25552918

  20. Peptide-induced Asymmetric Distribution of Charged Lipids in a Vesicle Bilayer Revealed by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, William; Qian, Shuo

    2012-02-01

    Cellular membranes are complex mixtures of lipids, proteins and other small molecules that provide functional, dynamic barriers between the cell and its environment, as well as between environments within the cell. The lipid composition of the membrane is highly specific and controlled in terms of both content and lipid localization. Here, small-angle neutron scattering and selective deuterium labeling were used to probe the impact of the membrane-active peptides melittin and alamethicin on the structure of lipid bilayers composed of a mixture of the lipids dimyristoyl phosphatidylglycerol (DMPG) and chain-perdeuterated dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC). We found that both peptides enriched the outer leaflet of the bilayer with the negatively charged DMPG, creating an asymmetric distribution of lipids. The level of enrichment is peptide concentration-dependent and is stronger for melittin than alamethicin. The enrichment between the inner and outer bilayer leaflets occurs at very low peptide concentrations, and increases with peptide concentration, including when the peptide adopts a membrane-spanning, pore-forming state.

  1. Calcitonin gene-related peptide contributes to peripheral nerve injury-induced mechanical hypersensitivity through CCL5 and p38 pathways.

    PubMed

    Malon, Jennifer T; Cao, Ling

    2016-08-15

    The role of calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) in neuropathic pain was investigated in a mouse model of neuropathic pain, spinal nerve L5 transection (L5Tx). Intrathecal injection (i.t.) of CGRP8-37, a CGRP antagonist, significantly reduced L5Tx-induced mechanical hypersensitivity and lumbar spinal cord CCL5 expression. i.t. injection of a CCL5 neutralizing antibody significantly inhibited L5Tx-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. Further, pre-treatment with a p38-inhibitor, SB203580, was able to reduce CGRP-induced mechanical hypersensitivity, but not CGRP-induced CCL5 production. Our data indicate that CGRP can play its pro-nociceptive role through both a spinal cord CCL5-dependent, p38-independent pathway, and a p38-depenented, CCL5-independent pathway. PMID:27397078

  2. Identification of a synthetic peptide inducing cross-reactive antibodies binding to Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus BM86 homologues.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Nadja; Diaz, Diana; Amacker, Mario; Odongo, David O; Beier, Konstantin; Nitsch, Cordula; Bishop, Richard P; Daubenberger, Claudia A

    2009-12-10

    The BM86 antigen, originally identified in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, is the basis of the only commercialized anti-tick vaccine. The long-term goal of our study is to improve BM86 based vaccines by induction of high levels of tick gut binding antibodies that are also cross-reactive with a range of BM86 homologues expressed in other important tick species. Here we have used a BD86 derived synthetic peptide, BD86-3, to raise a series of mouse monoclonal antibodies. One of these mAbs, named 12.1, recognized BM86 homologues in immuno-histochemical analyses in four out of five tick species including R. (B.) microplus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. Our results indicate that broadly cross-reactive tick gut binding antibodies can be induced after immunization with a synthetic peptide derived from the protein BD86. PMID:19808026

  3. A peptide fraction from germinated soybean protein down-regulates PTTG1 and TOP2A mRNA expression, inducing apoptosis in cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Robles-Ramírez, María del Carmen; Ramón-Gallegos, Eva; Mora-Escobedo, Rosalva; Torres-Torres, Nimbe

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a peptide fraction, obtained from a germinated soybean protein hydrolysate, on the viability, apoptosis and cancer related gene expression in HeLa cells. Soybean was germinated for 0-6 days and proteins were isolated from the seeds. Protein isolates, without ethanol-soluble phytochemicals, were hydrolyzed with digestive enzymes and their effect on growth in HeLa cells was evaluated. The most active hydrolysate was separated by ultrafiltration into five peptide fractions. A >10 kDa fraction was the most active against cancer cells. This fraction down-regulated PTTG1 and TOP2A mRNA expression (two genes considered as therapeutic targets) and induced apoptosis in cancer cells activating the caspase cascade and causing DNA fragmentation. Germinated soy protein isolates could be a bioactive ingredient of functional food. PMID:22545419

  4. Synthetic B- and T-cell epitope peptides of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus with Gp96 as adjuvant induced humoral and cell-mediated immunity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Caiwei; Li, Jing; Bi, Yuhai; Yang, Limin; Meng, Shanshan; Zhou, Yuancheng; Jia, Xiaojuan; Meng, Songdong; Sun, Lei; Liu, Wenjun

    2013-04-01

    Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) has recently caused huge economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. Commercial vaccines, including inactivated vaccines and attenuated live vaccines, are available but fail to provide sustainable protection, especially against genetically heterologous strains. Thus several approaches have been used to develop more effective PRRSV vaccines and/or immune modulators to accelerate and magnify immune responses to PRRSV vaccines. Heat shock protein Gp96 is one such modulator that enhances both the innate and adaptive immune responses. In the present study, two B-cell epitopes and seven T-cell epitopes from PRRSV and a Pan DR T-helper cell epitope were synthesized and mixed with the N-terminal 22-355 aa of Gp96 (Gp96N) as an adjuvant, and immune responses were evaluated. Our results show that Gp96N activated PRRSV-specific humoral immune responses elicited by BCE-peptides and promoted the PRRSV-specific cellular immunity induced by TCE-peptides. Moreover, higher levels of IL-12 and TNF-α and lower levels of IL-4 and IL-10 were observed in the serum of Gp96N-vaccinated piglets compared to piglets immunized with no Gp96N, displaying a predominant Th1 type of immune response induced by Gp96N. Following challenge with the virulent HP-PRRSV isolate JXwn06, piglets vaccinated with the mixture of peptides and Gp96N presented with milder clinical symptoms, lower viremia, and less pathological lesions in their lungs, however, this vaccine could not provide lasting and effective protection against HP-PRRSV infection. These data provide important bases for the development of PRRSV epitope-based synthetic peptide vaccines combined with Gp96N as attractive immunomodulators in swine. PMID:23395588

  5. Microinjection of CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptide into the nucleus accumbens inhibits the cocaine-induced upregulation of dopamine receptors and locomotor sensitization.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qinghua; Sun, Xi; Liu, Ziyong; Yang, Jianghua; Oh, Ki-Wan; Hu, Zhenzhen

    2014-09-01

    Repeated exposure to addictive drugs enhances dopamine receptor (DR) signaling and the ultimate phosphorylation of the cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-response element-binding protein (CREB)-regulated cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). These effects are known to contribute to the expression of behavioral sensitization. CART peptides are neuropeptides that modulate drug reward and reinforcement. The present experiments investigated the effects of CART 55-102 microinjection into the NAcc on (1) the phosphorylation of CREB, (2) cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling and (3) extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylated kinase signaling. Here, we show that repeated microinjections into the NAcc of CART 55-102 peptides (1.0 or 2.5μg, 0.5μl/side) attenuates cocaine-induced enhancements of D1R, D2R and D3R phosphorylation in this sites. Furthermore, the microinjection of CART 55-102 followed by repeated injections of cocaine (15mg/kg) dose-dependently blocked the enhancement of cAMP levels, PKA activity and pERK and pCREB levels on the fifth day of cocaine administration. The cocaine-induced locomotor activity and behavioral sensitization in rats were also inhibited by the 5-day-microinjection of CART peptides. These results suggest that the phosphorylation of CREB by cocaine in the NAcc was blocked by the CART 55-102 peptide via the inhibition of D1R and D2R stimulation, D3R phosphorylation, cAMP/PKA signaling and ERK phosphorylated kinase signaling. These effects may have played a compensatory inhibitory role in the behavioral sensitization of rats that received microinjections of CART 55-102. PMID:24953280

  6. Early endosomal escape of a cyclic cell-penetrating peptide allows effective cytosolic cargo delivery.

    PubMed

    Qian, Ziqing; LaRochelle, Jonathan R; Jiang, Bisheng; Lian, Wenlong; Hard, Ryan L; Selner, Nicholas G; Luechapanichkul, Rinrada; Barrios, Amy M; Pei, Dehua

    2014-06-24

    Cyclic heptapeptide cyclo(FΦRRRRQ) (cFΦR4, where Φ is l-2-naphthylalanine) was recently found to be efficiently internalized by mammalian cells. In this study, its mechanism of internalization was investigated by perturbing various endocytic events through the introduction of pharmacologic agents and genetic mutations. The results show that cFΦR4 binds directly to membrane phospholipids, is internalized into human cancer cells through endocytosis, and escapes from early endosomes into the cytoplasm. Its cargo capacity was examined with a wide variety of molecules, including small-molecule dyes, linear and cyclic peptides of various charged states, and proteins. Depending on the nature of the cargos, they may be delivered by endocyclic (insertion of cargo into the cFΦR4 ring), exocyclic (attachment of cargo to the Gln side chain), or bicyclic approaches (fusion of cFΦR4 and cyclic cargo rings). The overall delivery efficiency (i.e., delivery of cargo into the cytoplasm and nucleus) of cFΦR4 was 4-12-fold higher than those of nonaarginine, HIV Tat-derived peptide, or penetratin. The higher delivery efficiency, coupled with superior serum stability, minimal toxicity, and synthetic accessibility, renders cFΦR4 a useful transporter for intracellular cargo delivery and a suitable system for investigating the mechanism of endosomal escape. PMID:24896852

  7. The many futures for cell-penetrating peptides: how soon is now?

    PubMed

    Howl, J; Nicholl, I D; Jones, S

    2007-08-01

    Studies of CPPs (cell-penetrating peptides), sequences that are also commonly designated as protein transduction domains, now extend to a second decade of exciting and far-reaching discoveries. CPPs are proven vehicles for the intracellular delivery of macromolecules that include oligonucleotides, peptides and proteins, low-molecular-mass drugs, nanoparticles and liposomes. The biochemical properties of different classes of CPP, including various sequences derived from the HIV-1 Tat (transactivator of transcription) [e.g. Tat-(48-60), GRKKRRQRRRPPQ], and the homeodomain of the Drosophila homeoprotein Antennapaedia (residues 43-58, commonly named penetratin, RQIKIWFQNRRMKWKK), also provide novel insights into the fundamental mechanisms of translocation across biological membranes. Thus the efficacy of CPP-mediated cargo delivery continues to provide valuable tools for biomedical research and, as witnessed in 2007, candidate and emerging therapeutics. Thus it is anticipated that the further refinement of CPP technologies will provide drug-delivery vectors, cellular imaging tools, nanoparticulate devices and molecular therapeutics that will have a positive impact on the healthcare arena. The intention of this article is to provide both a succinct overview of current developments and applications of CPP technologies, and to illustrate key developments that the concerted efforts of the many researchers contributing to the Biochemical Society's Focused Meeting in Telford predict for the future. The accompanying papers in this issue of Biochemical Society Transactions provide additional details and appropriate references. Hopefully, the important and eagerly anticipated biomedical and clinical developments within the CPP field will occur sooner rather than later. PMID:17635144

  8. The Composition of Metals Bound to Class III Metallothionein (Phytochelatin and Its Desglycyl Peptide) Induced by Various Metals in Root Cultures of Rubia tinctorum.

    PubMed Central

    Maitani, T.; Kubota, H.; Sato, K.; Yamada, T.

    1996-01-01

    The induction of phytochelatins (PCs) and their desglycyl peptides (both are referred to as class III metallothionein [CIIIMT]) by exposure to various metals (Ag+, As3+, As5+, Cd2+, Cu2+, Ga3+, Hg2+, In3+, Ni2+, Pb2+, Pd2+, Se4+, and Zn2+) and the metal composition in the CIIIMTs were investigated in root cultures of Rubia tinctorum L. All of these metal species induced PCs to various degrees when analyzed by the postcolumn derivatization high-performance liquid chromatography method. The desglycyl peptides of PCs often were also present. However, only Ag, Cd, and Cu were bound to the CIIIMTs that they induced when analyzed by the high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry method. Cu was also bound to the CIIIMTs induced by Ag+, As3+, and Cd2+. After Ag+ exposure, an Fe peak that may be of Fe-CIIIMT was also observed. However, most of the metal species studied were not bound to the CIIIMTs that they induced. PMID:12226248

  9. Inhibition of Angiotensin II-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy and Associated Ventricular Arrhythmias by a p21 Activated Kinase 1 Bioactive Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wee K.; Zhang, Yanmin; Liu, Wei; Huang, Kai; Terrar, Derek A.; Solaro, R. John; Wang, Xin; Ke, Yunbo; Lei, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy increases the risk of morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease and thus inhibiting such hypertrophy is beneficial. In the present study, we explored the effect of a bioactive peptide (PAP) on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertrophy and associated ventricular arrhythmias in in vitro and in vivo models. PAP enhances p21 activated kinase 1 (Pak1) activity by increasing the level of phosphorylated Pak1 in cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs). Such PAP-induced Pak1 activation is associated with a significant reduction of Ang II-induced hypertrophy in NRVMs and C57BL/6 mice, in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Furthermore, PAP antagonizes ventricular arrhythmias associated with Ang II-induced hypertrophy in mice. Its antiarrhythmic effect is likely to be involved in multiple mechanisms to affect both substrate and trigger of ventricular arrhythmogenesis. Thus our results suggest that Pak1 activation achieved by specific bioactive peptide represents a potential novel therapeutic strategy for cardiac hypertrophy and associated ventricular arrhythmias. PMID:25014109

  10. The Composition of Metals Bound to Class III Metallothionein (Phytochelatin and Its Desglycyl Peptide) Induced by Various Metals in Root Cultures of Rubia tinctorum.

    PubMed

    Maitani, T.; Kubota, H.; Sato, K.; Yamada, T.

    1996-04-01

    The induction of phytochelatins (PCs) and their desglycyl peptides (both are referred to as class III metallothionein [CIIIMT]) by exposure to various metals (Ag+, As3+, As5+, Cd2+, Cu2+, Ga3+, Hg2+, In3+, Ni2+, Pb2+, Pd2+, Se4+, and Zn2+) and the metal composition in the CIIIMTs were investigated in root cultures of Rubia tinctorum L. All of these metal species induced PCs to various degrees when analyzed by the postcolumn derivatization high-performance liquid chromatography method. The desglycyl peptides of PCs often were also present. However, only Ag, Cd, and Cu were bound to the CIIIMTs that they induced when analyzed by the high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry method. Cu was also bound to the CIIIMTs induced by Ag+, As3+, and Cd2+. After Ag+ exposure, an Fe peak that may be of Fe-CIIIMT was also observed. However, most of the metal species studied were not bound to the CIIIMTs that they induced. PMID:12226248

  11. PID15, a novel 6 kDa secreted peptide, mediates Naja naja venom phospholipase A2 induced apoptosis in isolated human peripheral lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Snake venoms are a complex mixture of active principles mainly peptides and proteins also including amino acids, nucleotides, free lipids, carbohydrates and metallic elements bound to proteins that interfere in several biological systems. In this study, we aimed to understand the mode of action of the apoptosis inducing ability of Naja naja venom phospholipase A2 (NV-PLA2) using isolated human peripheral lymphocytes. Results Human peripheral lymphocytes when incubated with Naja naja venom phospholipase A2 (NV-PLA2) induced up to 68% DNA fragmentation. The dialysed conditioned media obtained by incubating lymphocytes with NV-PLA2 at 15th min induced 44% DNA fragmentation, referred to as cmlp-active. Cmlp-active showed 20.5% increased protein concentration than the corresponding control condition media cmlp-c-15. Test for creatine kinase activity in cmlp-active proved negative and negligible amount of lactate dehydrogenase did not show significant DNA fragmentation. Fractionation of cmlp-active on Sephadex G-25 showed two peaks, major peak induced 38% DNA fragmentation, which was further rechromatographed on Sephadex G-25. The single peak obtained was named PID15 (Phospholipase A 2 Induced DNA fragmentation factor secreted at 15 th min). Q-Tof MS/MS analysis of PID-15 showed it is a 6 kDa peptide. PID15 sequence analysis gave 40 amino acids in the following order, msilpcknvs iwvikdtaas dkevvlgsdr aikflylatg. The homology search for the sequence revealed it to be an Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF). Conclusion Results indicate that the secretion of PID15 is dependent on concentration of NV-PLA2 treatment, incubation time and also on temperature and the probable membrane origin of PID15 and not of cytosolic origin with apoptosis inducing ability. PMID:25030355

  12. Peptide vaccination after repeated resection of metastases can induce a prolonged relapse-free interval in melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Letsch, Anne; Keilholz, Ulrich; Fluck, Michael; Nagorsen, Dirk; Asemissen, Anne Marie; Schmittel, Alexander; Thiel, Eckhard; Scheibenbogen, Carmen

    2005-05-10

    This pilot study was carried out to gain a first insight into the effects of peptide vaccination in melanoma patients in the high-risk adjuvant disease setting. From the adjuvant peptide vaccination studies carried out in our institution since 1998, we identified all melanoma patients with a history of at least 3 completely resected metastases during the year preceding enrollment into the trial and describe the clinical and immunologic observations. Out of a total of 44 patients with resected cutaneous melanoma entered into adjuvant peptide vaccination trials, 9 patients were identified with more than 3 metastases in the year before vaccination. After initiation of vaccination, 2 patients remained relapse-free for 27 and 42+ months, 2 patients experienced single or several initial relapses and subsequent relapse-free intervals of 18 and 65+ months, whereas 5 patients progressed. In both patients with relapse after prolonged relapse-free intervals, the relapses were initially confined to the small intestine and could be resected. Induction or boosting of functional tyrosinase peptide-specific T cells was noted in 6 of 8 patients, including all 4 patients with prolonged relapse-free intervals. In conclusion, adjuvant peptide vaccination was associated with cessation of recurrences in 4 of 9 patients, of whom all 4 had an immunologic response to the vaccine. PMID:15645483

  13. Enhanced Peptide Stability Against Protease Digestion Induced by Intrinsic Factor Binding of a Vitamin B12 Conjugate of Exendin-4

    PubMed Central

    Bonaccorso, Ron L.; Chepurny, Oleg G.; Becker-Pauly, Christoph; Holz, George G.; Doyle, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    Peptide digestion from proteases is a significant limitation in peptide therapeutic development. It has been hypothesized that the dietary pathway of vitamin B12 (B12) may be exploited in this area, but an open question is whether B12-peptide conjugates bound to the B12 gastric uptake protein intrinsic factor (IF) can provide any stability against proteases. Herein, we describe a new conjugate of B12 with the incretin peptide exendin 4 that demonstrates picomolar agonism of the glugacon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1-R). Stability studies reveal that Ex-4 is digested by pancreatic proteases trypsin and chymotrypsin and by the kidney endopeptidase meprin β. Prebinding the B12 conjugate to IF, however, resulted in up to a 4-fold greater activity of the B12-Ex-4 conjugate relative to Ex-4, when the IF-B12-Ex-4 complex was exposed to 22 µg/mL of trypsin, 2.3-fold greater activity when exposed to 1.25 µg/mL of chymotrypsin, and there was no decrease in function at up to 5 µg/mL of meprin β. PMID:26260673

  14. ACTIVITY-DEPENDENT NEUROPROTECTIVE PROTEIN–DERIVED PEPTIDE, NAP, PREVENTING ALCOHOL-INDUCED APOPTOSIS IN FETAL BRAIN OF C57BL/6 MOUSE

    PubMed Central

    SARI, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Possible prevention of the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure has been investigated using peptides that were previously shown to be involved in neuroprotection both in vitro and in vivo. I focused in this study on investigating the neuro-protective effects of one of these peptides with regard to the determination of the downstream signaling pathways involved in neuroprotection. This peptide with the sequence NAPVSIPQ, known as NAP, a fragment of activity-dependent neuroprotective protein, demonstrated a potent protective effect against oxidative stress associated with alcohol exposure. On embryonic day 7 (E7), weight-matched C57BL/6 pregnant females were assigned the following groups: (1) Ethanol liquid diet group (ALC) 25% (4.49%, v/v) ethano-derived calories, (2) Pair-fed (PF) control group (3) Chow control group, (4) treatment groups with alcohol alongside i.p. injections of d-NAP (ALC/d-NAP, 20 or 30 μg/20 g body weight), (5) PF/d-NAP control group. On E13, fetal brains were collected and assayed for TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, caspase-3 colorimetric assay and ELISA for cytochrome c detection. My results show that NAP significantly prevented alcohol-induced weight reduction of the fetal brain. Apoptosis was determined by TUNEL staining; NAP administration significantly prevented alcohol-induced increases in TUNEL-positive cells in primordium cingulate cortex and basal ganglia eminence. The investigation of downstream signaling pathways involving NAP neuroprotection revealed that this peptide significantly prevented alcohol-induced increase in the concentrations of caspase-3 in E13 fetal brains. Moreover, ELISA for cytochrome c shows that NAP significantly prevented both alcohol-induced increases in the level of cytosolic cytochrome c and alcohol-induced decreases in the level of mitochondrial cytochrome c. These data provide an understanding of NAP intracellular target, and the downstream mechanisms of action that will pave a path

  15. Design of a dual-function peptide probe as a binder of angiotensin II and an inducer of silver nanoparticle aggregation for use in label-free colorimetric assays.

    PubMed

    Okochi, Mina; Kuboyama, Masashi; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2015-09-01

    Label-free colorimetric assays using metallic nanoparticles have received much recent attention, for their application in simple and sensitive methods for detection of biomolecules. Short peptide probes that can bind to analyte biomolecules are attractive ligands in molecular nanotechnology; however, identification of biological recognition motifs is usually based on trial-and-error experiments. Herein, a peptide probe was screened for colorimetric detection of angiotensin II (Ang II) using a mechanism for non-crosslinking aggregation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The dual-function peptides, which bind to the analyte and induce AgNP aggregation, were identified using a two-step strategy: (1) screening of an Ang II-binding peptide from an Ang II receptor sequence library, using SPOT technology, which enable peptides synthesis on cellulose membranes via an Fmoc method and (2) selection of peptide probes that effectively induce aggregation of AgNPs using a photolinker modified peptide array. Using the identified peptide probe, KGKNKRRR, aggregation of AgNPs was detected by observation of a pink color in the absence of Ang II, whereas AgNPs remained dispersed in the presence of Ang II (yellow). The color changes were not observed in the presence of other hormone molecules. Ang II could be detected within 15 min, with a detection limit of 10 µM, by measuring the ratio of absorbance at 400 nm and 568 nm; the signal could also be observed with the naked eye. These data suggest that the peptide identified here could be used as a probe for simple and rapid colorimetric detection of Ang II. This strategy for the identification of functional peptides shows promise for the development of colorimetric detection of various diagnostically important biomolecules. PMID:26003717

  16. The involvement of sigma1 receptors in donepezil-induced rescue of hippocampal LTP impaired by beta-amyloid peptide.

    PubMed

    Solntseva, E I; Kapai, N A; Popova, O V; Rogozin, P D; Skrebitsky, V G

    2014-07-01

    Donepezil is a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Additional therapeutically relevant target for donepezil is sigma1 receptor (Sig1-R). Beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ) is believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of AD. In our previous work (Kapai et al., 2012), we have shown that donepezil antagonizes the suppressive action of Aβ(1-42) on long-term potentiation (LTP) in rat hippocampal slices. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether Sig1-R is involved into the mechanisms of donepezil action. For this purpose, we have tested whether agonist of Sig1-R PRE-084 mimics, and antagonist of Sig1-R haloperidol abolishes the effect of donepezil. Population spikes (PSs) were recorded from the pyramidal layer of the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices. Drugs were applied by addition to the perfusate starting 15 min before and ending 5 min after the tetanus. In the control group, the amplitude of PS 30 min post-tetanus reached 153±10%. Aβ (200 nM) markedly suppressed the LTP magnitude or even caused the suppression of baseline PS (82±8%, P<0.001). This suppression of LTP could be markedly prevented when 1 μM donepezil was co-administered with Aβ (136±11%, P<0.05). Further, we co-administered three substances: Aβ, donepezil and 0.5 μM haloperidol and have found that haloperidol antagonized the stimulating effect of donepezil on LTP (92±6%, P<0.05). Agonist of Sig1-R PRE-084 (0.1-10 μM) enhanced control LTP and abolished the inhibitory effect of Aβ on LTP in a concentration-dependent manner. The amplitude of PS 30 min post-tetanus reached 183±7% (P<0.01) for 10 μM PRE-084. The results suggest that activation of Sig1-R is involved into the mechanisms of donepezil-induced rescue of hippocampal LTP impaired by Aβ. PMID:24956443

  17. Conserved peptides within the E2 region of Hepatitis C virus induce humoral and cellular responses in goats

    PubMed Central

    El-Awady, Mostafa K; Tabll, Ashraf A; El-Abd, Yasmine S; Yousif, Hassan; Hegab, Mohsen; Reda, Mohamed; El Shenawy, Reem; Moustafa, Rehab I; Degheidy, Nabila; El Din, Noha G Bader

    2009-01-01

    The reason(s) why human antibodies raised against hepatitis C virus (HCV) E2 epitopes do not offer protection against multiple viral infections may be related to either genetic variations among viral strains particularly within the hypervariable region-1 (HVR-1), low titers of anti E2 antibodies or interference of non neutralizing antibodies with the function of neutralizing antibodies. This study was designed to assess the immunogenic properties of genetically conserved peptides derived from the C-terminal region of HVR-1 as potential therapeutic and/or prophylactic vaccines against HCV infection. Goats immunized with E2-conserved synthetic peptides termed p36 (a.a 430–446), p37(a.a 517–531) and p38 (a.a 412–419) generated high titers of anti-p36, anti-p37 and anti-P38 antibody responses of which only anti- p37 and anti- p38 were neutralizing to HCV particles in sera from patients infected predominantly with genotype 4a. On the other hand anti-p36 exhibited weak viral neutralization capacity on the same samples. Animals super-immunized with single epitopes generated 2 to 4.5 fold higher titers than similar antibodies produced in chronic HCV patients. Also the studied peptides elicited approximately 3 fold increase in cell proliferation of specific antibody-secreting peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from immunized goats. These results indicate that, besides E1 derived peptide p35 (a.a 315–323) described previously by this laboratory, E2 conserved peptides p37 and p38 represent essential components of a candidate peptide vaccine against HCV infection. PMID:19473491

  18. Formation of y + 10 and y + 11 Ions in the Collision-Induced Dissociation of Peptide Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilpatrick, Lisa E.; Neta, Pedatsur; Yang, Xiaoyu; Simón-Manso, Yamil; Liang, Yuxue; Stein, Stephen E.

    2012-04-01

    Tandem mass spectra of peptide ions, acquired in shotgun proteomic studies of selected proteins, tissues, and organisms, commonly include prominent peaks that cannot be assigned to the known fragmentation product ions (y, b, a, neutral losses). In many cases these persist even when creating consensus spectra for inclusion in spectral libraries, where it is important to determine whether these peaks represent new fragmentation paths or arise from impurities. Using spectra from libraries and synthesized peptides, we investigate a class of fragment ions corresponding to yn-1 + 10 and yn-1 + 11, where n is the number of amino acid residues in the peptide. These 10 and 11 Da differences in mass of the y ion were ascribed before to the masses of [+ CO - H2O] and [+ CO - NH3], respectively. The mechanism is suggested to involve dissociation of the N-terminal residue at the CH-CO bond following loss of H2O or NH3. MS3 spectra of these ions show that the location of the additional 10 or 11 Da is at the N-terminal residue. The yn-1 + 10 ion is most often found in peptides with N-terminal proline, asparagine, and histidine, and also with serine and threonine in the adjacent position. The yn-1 + 11 ion is observed predominantly with histidine and asparagine at the N-terminus, but also occurs with asparagine in positions two through four. The intensities of the yn-1 + 10 ions decrease with increasing peptide length. These data for yn-1 + 10 and yn-1 + 11 ion formation may be used to improve peptide identification from tandem mass spectra.

  19. Prion protein (PrP) synthetic peptides induce cellular PrP to acquire properties of the scrapie isoform.

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, K; Peretz, D; Pan, K M; Blochberger, T C; Wille, H; Gabizon, R; Griffith, O H; Cohen, F E; Baldwin, M A; Prusiner, S B

    1995-01-01

    Conversion of the cellular isoform of prion protein (PrPC) into the scrapie isoform (PrPSc) involves an increase in the beta-sheet content, diminished solubility, and resistance to proteolytic digestion. Transgenetic studies argue that PrPC and PrPSc form a complex during PrPSc formation; thus, synthetic PrP peptides, which mimic the conformational pluralism of PrP, were mixed with PrPC to determine whether its properties were altered. Peptides encompassing two alpha-helical domains of PrP when mixed with PrPC produced a complex that displayed many properties of PrPSc. The PrPC-peptide complex formed fibrous aggregates and up to 65% of complexed PrPC sedimented at 100,000 x g for 1 h, whereas PrPC alone did not. These complexes were resistant to proteolytic digestion and displayed a high beta-sheet content. Unexpectedly, the peptide in a beta-sheet conformation did not form the complex, whereas the random coil did. Addition of 2% Sarkosyl disrupted the complex and rendered PrPC sensitive to protease digestion. While the pathogenic A117V mutation increased the efficacy of complex formation, anti-PrP monoclonal antibody prevented interaction between PrPC and peptides. Our findings in concert with transgenetic investigations argue that PrPC interacts with PrPSc through a domain that contains the first two putative alpha-helices. Whether PrPC-peptide complexes possess prion infectivity as determined by bioassays remains to be established. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7479957

  20. Generation of the First TCR Transgenic Mouse with CD4(+) T Cells Recognizing an Anti-inflammatory Regulatory T Cell-Inducing Hsp70 Peptide.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Manon A A; van Herwijnen, Martijn J C; van Kooten, Peter J S; Hoek, Aad; van der Zee, Ruurd; van Eden, Willem; Broere, Femke

    2016-01-01

    Antigen-specific regulatory T cells (Tregs) directed at self-antigens are difficult to study since suitable specific tools to isolate and characterize these cells are lacking. A T cell receptor (TCR)-transgenic mouse would generate possibilities to study such -antigen-specific T cells. As was shown previously, immunization with the mycobacterial heat shock protein (Hsp) 70-derived peptide B29 and its mouse homologs mB29a and mB29b induced anti-inflammatory responses. Furthermore, B29 induced antigen--specific Tregs in vivo. To study mB29b-specific Tregs, we isolated the TCR from T cell hybridomas generated against mB29b and produced a TCR transgenic mouse that expresses a MHC-class II restricted mB29b-specific TCR. These TCR transgenic CD4(+) T cells were found to cross-react with the B29 epitope as identified with peptide-induced proliferation and IL-2 production. Thus, we have successfully generated a novel mouse model with antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells that recognize self and bacterial Hsp 70-derived peptides. With this novel mouse model, it will be possible to study primary antigen-specific T cells with specificity for a regulatory Hsp70 T cell epitope. This will enable the isolation and characterization CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs with a proven specificity. This will provide useful knowledge of the induction, activation, and mode of action of Hsp70-specific Tregs, for instance, during experimental arthritis. PMID:27014269

  1. Generation of the First TCR Transgenic Mouse with CD4+ T Cells Recognizing an Anti-inflammatory Regulatory T Cell-Inducing Hsp70 Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Manon A. A.; van Herwijnen, Martijn J. C.; van Kooten, Peter J. S.; Hoek, Aad; van der Zee, Ruurd; van Eden, Willem; Broere, Femke

    2016-01-01

    Antigen-specific regulatory T cells (Tregs) directed at self-antigens are difficult to study since suitable specific tools to isolate and characterize these cells are lacking. A T cell receptor (TCR)-transgenic mouse would generate possibilities to study such ­antigen-specific T cells. As was shown previously, immunization with the mycobacterial heat shock protein (Hsp) 70-derived peptide B29 and its mouse homologs mB29a and mB29b induced anti-inflammatory responses. Furthermore, B29 induced antigen-­specific Tregs in vivo. To study mB29b-specific Tregs, we isolated the TCR from T cell hybridomas generated against mB29b and produced a TCR transgenic mouse that expresses a MHC-class II restricted mB29b-specific TCR. These TCR transgenic CD4+ T cells were found to cross-react with the B29 epitope as identified with peptide-induced proliferation and IL-2 production. Thus, we have successfully generated a novel mouse model with antigen-specific CD4+ T cells that recognize self and bacterial Hsp 70-derived peptides. With this novel mouse model, it will be possible to study primary antigen-specific T cells with specificity for a regulatory Hsp70 T cell epitope. This will enable the isolation and characterization CD4+CD25+ Tregs with a proven specificity. This will provide useful knowledge of the induction, activation, and mode of action of Hsp70-specific Tregs, for instance, during experimental arthritis. PMID:27014269

  2. Antibody-mediated inhibition of integrin α5β1 blocks neurotoxic prion peptide PrP106-126-induced activation of BV2 microglia.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jiaxin; Yang, Lifeng; Kouadir, Mohammed; Peng, Yun; Zhang, Siming; Shi, Fushan; Zhou, Xiangmei; Yin, Xiaomin; Zhao, Deming

    2012-09-01

    Microglial activation is a characteristic feature of the pathogenesis of prion diseases. The identification of cell surface molecules that mediate the prion protein (PrP) synthetic peptide interaction with microglia is of great significance as it represents potential target molecules to modulate the events leading to the pathophysiology of prion diseases. Here, we carried out in vitro experiments to investigate the involvement of α5β1 integrin in neurotoxic prion peptide PrP(106-126)-induced activation of BV2 microglia. The results showed that the exposure to PrP(106-126) upregulated the mRNA expression of proinflammatory factors (IL-1 β, IL-6, and iNOS) and NALP3 inflammasome components (NALP3 and ASC), increased the release of iNOS and its product nitric oxide, and stimulated NF-κB activation. Blockade of α5β1 integrin with monoclonal antibody BMC5 prior to PrP(106-126) treatment abrogated the upregulation of the mRNA expression of IL-1 β, IL-6, iNOS, and ASC, but had no effect on the mRNA expression of NALP3, blocked the release of iNOS and nitric oxide, and inhibited NF-κB activation. These results suggest that α5β1 integrin is involved in the PrP(106-126)-induced microglial activation through the participation in the activation of NF-κB and NALP3/ASC inflammasome. Our study unveils a previously unidentified role of α5β1 integrin as an intermediate signaling molecule in neurotoxic prion peptides-microglia interactions and identifies a potential molecular target for the modulation of prion-induced microglial activation. PMID:22648512

  3. Immediate and prolonged patterns of Agouti-related peptide-(83--132)-induced c-Fos activation in hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic sites.

    PubMed

    Hagan, M M; Benoit, S C; Rushing, P A; Pritchard, L M; Woods, S C; Seeley, R J

    2001-03-01

    Several lines of evidence substantiate the important role of the central nervous system melanocortin 3- and 4-receptor (MC3/4-R) system in the control of food intake and energy balance. Agouti-related peptide (AgRP), an endogenous antagonist of these receptors, produces a robust and unique pattern of increased food intake that lasts up to 7 days after a single injection. Little is known about brain regions that may mediate this powerful effect of AgRP on food intake. To this end we compared c-Fos-like immunoreactivity (c-FLI) in several brain sites of rats injected intracerebroventricularly with 1 nmol AgRP-(83--132) 2 and 24 h before death and compared c-FLI patterns to those induced by another potent orexigenic peptide, neuropeptide Y (NPY). Although both NPY and AgRP induced c-FLI in hypothalamic areas, AgRP also produced increased c-FLI in the accumbens shell and lateral septum. Although NPY elicited no changes in c-FLI 24 h after administration, AgRP induced c-FLI in the accumbens shell, nucleus of the solitary tract, central amygdala, and lateral hypothalamus. These results indicate that an NPY-like hypothalamic circuit mediates the short-term effects of AgRP, but that the unique sustained effect of AgRP on food intake involves a complex circuit of key extrahypothalamic reward and feeding regulatory nuclei. PMID:11181518

  4. Development of gold nanoparticle based colorimetric method for quantitatively studying the inhibitors of Cu(2+)/Zn(2+) induced β-amyloid peptide assembly.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengke; Wang, Kun; Wang, Zhenxin

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a kind of gold nanoparticle (GNP)-based colorimetric assay has been developed for studying the reversible interaction of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) with Cu(2+) and Zn(2+), and quantitatively analyzing four inhibitors (i.e., EDTA, EGTA, histidine and clioquinol) of Cu(2+)/Zn(2+) induced Aβ assembly. The inhibition efficiencies (e.g., half maximal inhibitory concentration, IC50 value) of these inhibitors could be measured in this work. As far as we know, these IC50 values were reported at the first time. In this assay, the streptavidin conjugated GNPs (SA-GNPs) were employed as indicators to monitor the Cu(2+)/Zn(2+) induced aggregating/disaggregating behaviors of biotin modified β-amyloid 1-16 peptides (Aβ1-16(biotin)). Because of high affinity of streptavidin (SA) with biotin, the aggregating/disaggregating of Aβ1-16(biotin) results in the significant color change of SA-GNPs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the assay can be used as an effective tool for designing anti-dementia drugs through quantitative analysis of the interactions of four representative inhibitors with Cu(2+)/Zn(2+) induced Aβ assembly. PMID:25597800

  5. The yydFGHIJ Operon of Bacillus subtilis Encodes a Peptide That Induces the LiaRS Two-Component System▿

    PubMed Central

    Butcher, Bronwyn G.; Lin, Yi-Pin; Helmann, John D.

    2007-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis LiaRS two-component system (TCS) responds to perturbations of the cell envelope induced by lipid II-interacting antibiotics, such as vancomycin, ramoplanin, nisin, and bacitracin. Here, we characterize Tn7-generated mutations that induce the liaRS TCS. In addition to insertions in liaF, a known negative regulator of the LiaRS TCS, we identified two disruptions in the last two genes of the yydFGHIJ operon. This operon is predicted to encode a 49-amino-acid peptide (YydF), a modification enzyme (YydG), a membrane-embedded protease (YydH), and an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter (YydIJ). Genome sequence comparisons suggest that the yydFGHIJ operon may have been acquired by horizontal transfer. Inactivation of the YydIJ transporter resulted in increased expression from the LiaR-dependent PliaI promoter only in the presence of the yydFGH genes. Cells harboring the complete yydFGHIJ operon induced LiaR activity in cocultured cells lacking either this transporter or the complete operon. These results suggest that this operon is involved in the synthesis and export of a modified peptide (YydF*) that elicits cell envelope stress sensed by the LiaRS TCS. PMID:17921301

  6. NKLP27: A Teleost NK-Lysin Peptide that Modulates Immune Response, Induces Degradation of Bacterial DNA, and Inhibits Bacterial and Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li

    2014-01-01

    NK-lysin is an antimicrobial protein produced by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. In this study, we examined the biological property of a peptide, NKLP27, derived from tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) NK-lysin. NKLP27 is composed of 27 amino acids and shares little sequence identity with known NK-lysin peptides. NKLP27 possesses bactericidal activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including common aquaculture pathogens. The bactericidal activity of NKLP27 was dependent on the C-terminal five residues, deletion of which dramatically reduced the activity of NKLP27. During its interaction with the target bacterial cells, NKLP27 destroyed cell membrane integrity, penetrated into the cytoplasm, and induced degradation of genomic DNA. In vivo study showed that administration of tongue sole with NKLP27 before bacterial and viral infection significantly reduced pathogen dissemination and replication in tissues. Further study revealed that fish administered with NKLP27 exhibited significantly upregulated expression of the immune genes including those that are known to be involved in antibacterial and antiviral defense. These results indicate that NKLP27 is a novel antimicrobial against bacterial and viral pathogens, and that the observed effect of NKLP27 on bacterial DNA and host gene expression adds new insights to the action mechanism of fish antimicrobial peptides. PMID:25180858

  7. Immunization against an IL-6 peptide induces anti-IL-6 antibodies and modulates the Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity reaction in cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Desallais, Lucille; Bouchez, Caroline; Mouhsine, Hadley; Moreau, Gabriel; Ratsimandresy, Rojo; Montes, Matthieu; Do, Hervé; Quintin-Colonna, Françoise; Zagury, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) overproduction has been involved in the pathogenesis of several chronic inflammatory diseases and the administration of an anti-IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody has been proven clinically efficient to treat them. However, the drawbacks of monoclonal antibodies have led our group to develop an innovative anti-IL-6 strategy using a peptide-based active immunization. This approach has previously shown its efficacy in a mouse model of systemic sclerosis. Here the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of this strategy was assessed in non human primates. No unscheduled death and clinical signs of toxicity was observed during the study. Furthermore, the cynomolgus monkeys immunized against the IL-6 peptide produced high levels of anti-IL-6 antibodies as well as neutralizing antibodies compared to control groups. They also showed an important decrease of the cumulative inflammatory score following a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction induced by the Tetanus vaccine compared to control groups (minus 57,9%, P = 0.014). These findings are highly significant because the immunizing IL-6 peptide used in this study is identical in humans and in monkeys and this novel anti-IL-6 strategy could thus represent a promising alternative to monoclonal antibodies. PMID:26782790

  8. Immunization against an IL-6 peptide induces anti-IL-6 antibodies and modulates the Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity reaction in cynomolgus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Desallais, Lucille; Bouchez, Caroline; Mouhsine, Hadley; Moreau, Gabriel; Ratsimandresy, Rojo; Montes, Matthieu; Do, Hervé; Quintin-Colonna, Françoise; Zagury, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) overproduction has been involved in the pathogenesis of several chronic inflammatory diseases and the administration of an anti-IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody has been proven clinically efficient to treat them. However, the drawbacks of monoclonal antibodies have led our group to develop an innovative anti-IL-6 strategy using a peptide-based active immunization. This approach has previously shown its efficacy in a mouse model of systemic sclerosis. Here the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of this strategy was assessed in non human primates. No unscheduled death and clinical signs of toxicity was observed during the study. Furthermore, the cynomolgus monkeys immunized against the IL-6 peptide produced high levels of anti-IL-6 antibodies as well as neutralizing antibodies compared to control groups. They also showed an important decrease of the cumulative inflammatory score following a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction induced by the Tetanus vaccine compared to control groups (minus 57,9%, P = 0.014). These findings are highly significant because the immunizing IL-6 peptide used in this study is identical in humans and in monkeys and this novel anti-IL-6 strategy could thus represent a promising alternative to monoclonal antibodies. PMID:26782790

  9. Permeabilization and fusion of uncharged lipid vesicles induced by the HIV-1 fusion peptide adopting an extended conformation: dose and sequence effects.

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, F B; Goñi, F M; Muga, A; Nieva, J L

    1997-01-01

    The peptide HIV(arg), corresponding to a sequence of 23 amino acid residues at the N-terminus of HIV-1 gp41 (LAV1a strain), has the capacity to destabilize negatively charged large unilamellar vesicles. As revealed by infrared spectroscopy, the peptide associated with those vesicles showed conformational polymorphism: in the absence of cations the main structure was a pore-forming alpha-helix, whereas in the presence of Ca2+ the conformation switched to a fusogenic, predominantly extended beta-type structure. Here we show that an extended structure can also be involved in electrically neutral vesicle destabilization induced by the HIV-1 fusion peptide when it binds the vesicle from the aqueous phase. In the absence of cations, neutral liposomes composed of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and cholesterol (molar ratio 1:1:1) selected for an extended structure that became fusogenic in a dose-dependent fashion. At subfusogenic doses this structure caused the release of trapped 8-aminonaphtalene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid sodium salt/p-xylenebis(pyridinium)bromide from liposomes, indicating the existence of a peptide-mediated membrane destabilizing process before and independent of the development of fusion. When compared to HIV(arg), the fusion activity of HIV(ala) (bearing the R22 --> A substitution) was reduced by 70%. Fusogenicity was completely abolished when a second substitution (V2 --> E) was included to generate HIV(ala-E2), a sequence representing the N-terminus of an inactive gp41. However, the three sequences associated with vesicles to the same extent, and the three adopted a similar extended structure in the membrane. Whereas 1-(4-trimethylaminophenyl)-6-phenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene emission anisotropy was unaffected by the three peptides, DPH emission anisotropy in membranes was increased only by the fusogenic sequences. Taken together, our observations strongly argue that it is not an alpha-helical but an extended structure adopted by the HIV-1

  10. Enantioselective Collision-Activated Dissociation of Gas-Phase Tryptophan Induced by Chiral Recognition of Protonated uc(l)-Alanine Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujihara, Akimasa; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Tajiri, Michiko; Wada, Yoshinao; Hayakawa, Shigeo

    2016-06-01

    Enantioselective dissociation in the gas phase is important for enantiomeric enrichment and chiral transmission processes in molecular clouds regarding the origin of homochirality in biomolecules. Enantioselective collision-activated dissociation (CAD) of tryptophan (Trp) and the chiral recognition ability of uc(l)-alanine peptides (uc(l)-Ala n ; n = 2-4) were examined using a linear ion trap mass spectrometer. CAD spectra of gas-phase heterochiral H+(uc(d)-Trp)(uc(l)-Ala n ) and homochiral H+(uc(l)-Trp)(uc(l)-Ala n ) noncovalent complexes were obtained as a function of the peptide size n. The H2O-elimination product was observed in CAD spectra of both heterochiral and homochiral complexes for n = 2 and 4, and in homochiral H+(uc(l)-Trp)(uc(l)-Ala3), indicating that the proton is attached to the uc(l)-alanine p