Science.gov

Sample records for peptide penetratin induces

  1. Alternative Mechanisms for the Interaction of the Cell-Penetrating Peptides Penetratin and the TAT Peptide with Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Yesylevskyy, Semen; Marrink, Siewert-Jan; Mark, Alan E.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have recently attracted much interest due to their apparent ability to penetrate cell membranes in an energy-independent manner. Here molecular-dynamics simulation techniques were used to study the interaction of two CPPs: penetratin and the TAT peptide with 1,2-Dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) phospolipid bilayers shed light on alternative mechanisms by which these peptides might cross biological membranes. In contrast to previous simulation studies of charged peptides interacting with lipid bilayers, no spontaneous formation of transmembrane pores was observed. Instead, the simulations suggest that the peptides may enter the cell by micropinocytosis, whereby the peptides induce curvature in the membrane, ultimately leading to the formation of small vesicles within the cell that encapsulate the peptides. Specifically, multiple peptides were observed to induce large deformations in the lipid bilayer that persisted throughout the timescale of the simulations (hundreds of nanoseconds). Pore formation could be induced in simulations in which an external potential was used to pull a single penetratin or TAT peptide into the membrane. With the use of umbrella-sampling techniques, the free energy of inserting a single penetratin peptide into a DPPC bilayer was estimated to be ∼75 kJmol−1, which suggests that the spontaneous penetration of single peptides would require a timescale of at least seconds to minutes. This work also illustrates the extent to which the results of such simulations can depend on the initial conditions, the extent of equilibration, the size of the system, and the conditions under which the simulations are performed. The implications of this with respect to the current systems and to simulations of membrane-peptide interactions in general are discussed. PMID:19580742

  2. Relationships between Membrane Binding, Affinity and Cell Internalization Efficacy of a Cell-Penetrating Peptide: Penetratin as a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Isabel D.; Bechara, Cherine; Walrant, Astrid; Zaltsman, Yefim; Jiao, Chen-Yu; Sagan, Sandrine

    2011-01-01

    Background Penetratin is a positively charged cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) that has the ability to bind negatively charged membrane components, such as glycosaminoglycans and anionic lipids. Whether this primary interaction of penetratin with these cell surface components implies that the peptide will be further internalized is not clear. Methodology Using mass spectrometry, the amount of internalized and membrane bound penetratin remaining after washings, were quantified in three different cell lines: wild type (WT), glycosaminoglycans- (GAGneg) and sialic acid-deficient (SAneg) cells. Additionally, the affinity and kinetics of the interaction of penetratin to membrane models composed of pure lipids and membrane fragments from the referred cell lines was investigated, as well as the thermodynamics of such interactions using plasmon resonance and calorimetry. Principal Findings Penetratin internalized with the same efficacy in the three cell lines at 1 µM, but was better internalized at 10 µM in SAneg>WT>GAGneg. The heat released by the interaction of penetratin with these cells followed the ranking order of internalization efficiency. Penetratin had an affinity of 10 nM for WT cells and µM for SAneg and GAGneg cells and model membrane of phospholipids. The remaining membrane-bound penetratin after cells washings was similar in WT and GAGneg cells, which suggested that these binding sites relied on membrane phospholipids. The interaction of penetratin with carbohydrates was more superficial and reversible while it was stronger with phospholipids, likely because the peptide can intercalate between the fatty acid chains. Conclusion/Significance These results show that accumulation and high-affinity binding of penetratin at the cell-surface do not reflect the internalization efficacy of the peptide. Altogether, these data further support translocation (membrane phospholipids interaction) as being the internalization pathway used by penetratin at low

  3. Calpastatin exon 1B-derived peptide, a selective inhibitor of calpain: enhancing cell permeability by conjugation with penetratin.

    PubMed

    Gil-Parrado, Shirley; Assfalg-Machleidt, Irmgard; Fiorino, Ferdinando; Deluca, Dominga; Pfeiler, Dietmar; Schaschke, Norbert; Moroder, Luis; Machleidt, Werner

    2003-03-01

    The ubiquitous calpains, mu- and m-calpain, have been implicated in essential physiological processes and various pathologies. Cell-permeable specific inhibitors are important tools to elucidate the roles of calpains in cultivated cells and animal models. The synthetic N-acetylated 27-mer peptide derived from exon B of the inhibitory domain 1 of human calpastatin (CP1B) is unique as a potent and highly selective reversible calpain inhibitor, but is poorly cell-permeant. By addition of N-terminal cysteine residues we have generated a disulfide-conjugated CP1B with the cell-penetrating 16-mer peptide penetratin derived from the third helix of the Antennapedia homeodomain protein. The inhibitory potency and selectivity of CP1B for calpain versus cathepsin B and L, caspase 3 and the proteasome was not affected by the conjugation with penetratin. The conjugate was shown to efficiently penetrate into living LCLC 103H cells, since it prevents ionomycin-induced calpain activation at 200-fold lower concentration than the non-conjugated inhibitor and is able to reduce calpain-triggered apoptosis of these cells. Penetratin-conjugated CP1B seems to be a promising alternative to the widely used cell-permeable peptide aldehydes (e.g. calpain inhibitor 1) which inhibit the lysosomal cathepsins and partially the proteasome as well or even better than the calpains. PMID:12715890

  4. Cell-Penetrating Peptide Penetratin as a Potential Tool for Developing Effective Nasal Vaccination Systems.

    PubMed

    Muto, Keiya; Kamei, Noriyasu; Yoshida, Mia; Takayama, Kozo; Takeda-Morishita, Mariko

    2016-06-01

    Nasal vaccination is considered an attractive strategy to prevent the infection and spread of viruses. However, the vaccine formulations available on the market remain imperfect on account of their limited effectiveness. In the present study, we hypothesized that the nasal coadministration of antigens with cell-penetrating peptides promotes antigen delivery immune response in the nasal mucosa, thereby enhancing the production of mucosal IgA and systemic IgG. The levels of ovalbumin (OVA)-specific IgG and IgA in plasma and nasal perfusate, respectively, increased after 2 or 4 weeks on nasal coadministration of OVA with l- or d-penetratin, suggesting that OVA antigen was effectively delivered by penetratin to the nasal epithelium. An additional study demonstrated that the production of systemic IgG and nasal mucosal IgA against influenza A virus was specifically promoted by nasal coadministration of influenza A virus with d-penetratin. The results of this study suggested that cell-penetrating peptides are a promising tool for the delivery of vaccines to the nasal mucosa and for the subsequent dual stimulation of systemic and mucosal immune responses. PMID:27155764

  5. Small Peptides Derived from Penetratin as Antibacterial Agents.

    PubMed

    Parravicini, Oscar; Somlai, Csaba; Andujar, Sebastián A; Garro, Adriana D; Lima, Beatriz; Tapia, Alejandro; Feresin, Gabriela; Perczel, Andras; Tóth, Gabor; Cascales, Javier López; Rodríguez, Ana M; Enriz, Ricardo D

    2016-04-01

    The synthesis, in vitro evaluation and conformational study of several small-size peptides acting as antibacterial agents are reported. Among the compounds evaluated, the peptides Arg-Gln-Ile-Lys-Ile-Trp-Arg-Arg-Met-Lys-Trp-Lys-Lys-NH2 , Arg-Gln-Ile-Lys-Ile-Arg-Arg-Met-Lys-Trp-Arg-NH2 , and Arg-Gln-Ile-Trp-Trp-Trp-Trp-Gln-Arg-NH2 exhibited significant antibacterial activity. These were found to be very active antibacterial compounds, considering their small molecular size. In order to better understand the antibacterial activity obtained for these peptides, an exhaustive conformational analysis was performed, using both theoretical calculations and experimental measurements. Molecular dynamics simulations using two different media (water and trifluoroethanol/water) were employed. The results of these theoretical calculations were corroborated by experimental circular dichroism measurements. A brief discussion on the possible mechanism of action of these peptides at molecular level is also presented. Some of the peptides reported here constitute very interesting structures to be used as starting compounds for the design of new small-size peptides possessing antibacterial activity. PMID:26972341

  6. In vivo proof of concept of oral insulin delivery based on a co-administration strategy with the cell-penetrating peptide penetratin.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Ebbe Juel Bech; Yoshida, Shinya; Kamei, Noriyasu; Iwamae, Ruisha; Khafagy, El-Sayed; Olsen, Jørgen; Rahbek, Ulrik Lytt; Pedersen, Betty Lomstein; Takayama, Kozo; Takeda-Morishita, Mariko

    2014-09-10

    Oral delivery of insulin is blocked by low intestinal absorption caused by the poor permeability of insulin across cellular membranes and the susceptibility to enzymatic degradation in the gastrointestinal tract. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been investigated for a number of years as oral absorption enhancers for hydrophilic macromolecules. Penetratin, a cationic and amphipathic CPP, effectively enhances insulin absorption and we were able to alleviate the enzymatic barrier by using the enzymatic resistant D-form of penetratin. In this study, mice were dosed orally with a physical mixture of insulin and penetratin. Blood glucose concentrations were measured and a pharmacological availability (PA) of 18.2% was achieved in mice dosed with insulin and D-penetratin. Following the promising data, we investigated the degradation parameters of insulin and penetratin in rat intestinal fluid. As expected, L-penetratin was degraded rapidly whereas D-penetratin had a halflife of 67±7min in 10-fold diluted gastrointestinal fluid. Insulin degradation was slowed by the presence of penetratin in intestinal fluid. The half-life of insulin increased from 24.9±4.5min to 55.6±14min and 90.5±11.8min in the presence of L- and D-penetratin respectively. In conclusion, both Land D-penetratin acted as oral absorption enhancers at select CPP concentrations for insulin and the current study is the first solid evidence of pharmacological activity of oral insulin delivery systems based on non-covalent intermolecular interactions with penetratin. PMID:24973720

  7. A proapoptotic peptide conjugated to penetratin selectively inhibits tumor cell growth.

    PubMed

    Alves, Isabel D; Carré, Manon; Montero, Marie-Pierre; Castano, Sabine; Lecomte, Sophie; Marquant, Rodrigue; Lecorché, Pascaline; Burlina, Fabienne; Schatz, Christophe; Sagan, Sandrine; Chassaing, Gérard; Braguer, Diane; Lavielle, Solange

    2014-08-01

    The peptide KLA (acetyl-(KLAKLAK)2-NH2), which is rather non toxic for eukaryotic cell lines, becomes active when coupled to the cell penetrating peptide, penetratin (Pen), by a disulfide bridge. Remarkably, the conjugate KLA-Pen is cytotoxic, at low micromolar concentrations, against a panel of seven human tumor cell lines of various tissue origins, including cells resistant to conventional chemotherapy agents but not to normal human cell lines. Live microscopy on cells possessing fluorescent labeled mitochondria shows that in tumor cells, KLA-Pen had a strong impact on mitochondria tubular organization instantly resulting in their aggregation, while the unconjugated KLA and pen peptides had no effect. But, mitochondria in various normal cells were not affected by KLA-Pen. The interaction with membrane models of KLA-Pen, KLA and penetratin were studied using dynamic light scattering, calorimetry, plasmon resonance, circular dichroism and ATR-FTIR to unveil the mode of action of the conjugate. To understand the selectivity of the conjugate towards tumor cell lines and its action on mitochondria, lipid model systems composed of zwitterionic lipids were used as mimics of normal cell membranes and anionic lipids as mimics of tumor cell and mitochondria membrane. A very distinct mode of interaction with the two model systems was observed. KLA-Pen may exert its deleterious and selective action on cancer cells by the formation of pores with an oblique membrane orientation and establishment of important hydrophobic interactions. These results suggest that KLA-Pen could be a lead compound for the design of cancer therapeutics. PMID:24796502

  8. Penetratin Peptide-Functionalized Gold Nanostars: Enhanced BBB Permeability and NIR Photothermal Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease Using Ultralow Irradiance.

    PubMed

    Yin, Tiantian; Xie, Wenjie; Sun, Jing; Yang, Licong; Liu, Jie

    2016-08-01

    The structural changes of amyloid-beta (Aβ) from nontoxic monomers into neurotoxic aggregates are implicated with pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Over the past decades, weak disaggregation ability and low permeability to the blood-brain barrier (BBB) may be the main obstacles for major Aβ aggregation blockers. Here, we synthesized penetratin (Pen) peptide loaded poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-stabilized gold nanostars (AuNS) modified with ruthenium complex (Ru@Pen@PEG-AuNS), and Ru(II) complex as luminescent probes for tracking drug delivery. We revealed that Ru@Pen@PEG-AuNS could obviously inhibit the formation of Aβ fibrils as well as dissociate preformed fibrous Aβ under the irradiation of near-infrared (NIR) due to the NIR absorption characteristic of AuNS. More importantly, this novel design could be applied in medicine as an appropriate nanovehicle, being highly biocompatible and hemocompatible. In addition, Ru@Pen@PEG-AuNS had excellent neuroprotective effect on the Aβ-induced cellular toxicity by applying NIR irradiation. Meanwhile, Pen peptide could effectively improve the delivery of nanoparticles to the brain in vitro and in vivo, which overcame the major limitation of Aβ aggregation blockers. These consequences illustrated that the enhanced BBB permeability and efficient photothermolysis of Ru@Pen@PEG-AuNS are promising agents in AD therapy. PMID:27411476

  9. Penetratin Story: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Edmond; Prochiantz, Alain; Joliot, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides are short, often hydrophilic peptides that get access to the intracellular milieu. They have aroused great interest both in academic and applied research. First, cellular internalization of CPPs often involves the crossing of a biological membrane (plasma or vesicular), thus challenging the view of the non-permeability of these structures to large hydrophilic molecules. Secondly, CPPs can drive the internalization of hydrophilic cargoes into cells, a rate-limiting step in the development of many therapeutic substances. Interestingly, the two most used CPPs, TAT and penetratin peptides, are derived from natural proteins, HIV Tat and Antennapedia homeoprotein, respectively. The identification of the penetratin peptide, summarized in this review, is intimately linked to the study of its parental natural protein. PMID:26202260

  10. A Critical Reassessment of Penetratin Translocation Across Lipid Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Bárány-Wallje, Elsa; Keller, Sandro; Serowy, Steffen; Geibel, Sebastian; Pohl, Peter; Bienert, Michael; Dathe, Margitta

    2005-01-01

    Penetratin is a short, basic cell-penetrating peptide able to induce cellular uptake of a vast variety of large, hydrophilic cargos. We have reassessed the highly controversial issue of direct permeation of the strongly cationic peptide across negatively charged lipid membranes. Confocal laser scanning microscopy on rhodamine-labeled giant vesicles incubated with carboxyfluorescein-labeled penetratin yielded no evidence of transbilayer movement, in contradiction to previously reported results. Confocal fluorescence spectroscopy on black lipid membranes confirmed this finding, which was also not affected by application of a transmembrane electric potential difference. A novel dialysis assay based on tryptophan absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy demonstrated that the permeability of small and large unilamellar vesicles to penetratin is <10−13 m/s. Taken together, the results show that penetratin is not capable of overcoming model membrane systems irrespective of the bilayer curvature or the presence of a transmembrane voltage. Thus, direct translocation across the hydrophobic core of the plasma membrane cannot account for the efficient uptake of penetratin into live cells, which is in accord with recent in vitro studies underlining the importance of endocytosis in the internalization process of cationic cell-penetrating peptides. PMID:16040762

  11. Effect of different intestinal conditions on the intermolecular interaction between insulin and cell-penetrating peptide penetratin and on its contribution to stimulation of permeation through intestinal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Noriyasu; Aoyama, Yukina; Khafagy, El-Sayed; Henmi, Mao; Takeda-Morishita, Mariko

    2015-08-01

    Our recent studies have shown that the coadministration of cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) is a potential strategy for oral delivery of peptide- and protein-based biopharmaceuticals. The intermolecular interaction between drug and CPP is an essential factor in the effective delivery of these drugs, but the characteristics of the interaction under the conditions of the intestinal lumen remain unknown. In this study, therefore, we examined the characteristics of binding of the amphipathic CPP penetratin to insulin and the efficiency of its enhancement of epithelial insulin transport at different pH and in simulated intestinal fluids (SIFs). The binding between insulin and penetratin was pH dependent and particularly decreased at pH 5.0. In addition, we clarified that the sodium taurocholate (NaTC) present in two types of SIF (fasted-state SIF [FaSSIF] and fed-state SIF [FeSSIF]) affected binding efficiency. However, the permeation of insulin through a Caco-2 cell monolayer was significantly facilitated by coincubation with l- or d-penetratin at various pH values. Moreover, the permeation-stimulating effect of l-penetratin was observed in FaSSIF containing NaTC and lecithin, but not in 3mM NaTC solution, suggesting that the presence of lecithin was the key factor in maintaining the ability of penetratin to enhance the intestinal absorption of biopharmaceuticals. This report describes the essential considerations for in vivo use and clinical application of a CPP-based oral delivery strategy. PMID:25960330

  12. Non-Metabolic Membrane Tubulation and Permeability Induced by Bioactive Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Lamazière, Antonin; Burlina, Fabienne; Wolf, Claude; Chassaing, Gérard; Trugnan, Germain; Ayala-Sanmartin, Jesus

    2007-01-01

    Background Basic cell-penetrating peptides are potential vectors for therapeutic molecules and display antimicrobial activity. The peptide-membrane contact is the first step of the sequential processes leading to peptide internalization and cell activity. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in peptide-membrane interaction are not well understood and are frequently controversial. Herein, we compared the membrane activities of six basic peptides with different size, charge density and amphipaticity: Two cell-penetrating peptides (penetratin and R9), three amphipathic peptides and the neuromodulator substance P. Methodology/Principal Findings Experiments of X ray diffraction, video-microscopy of giant vesicles, fluorescence spectroscopy, turbidimetry and calcein leakage from large vesicles are reported. Permeability and toxicity experiments were performed on cultured cells. The peptides showed differences in bilayer thickness perturbations, vesicles aggregation and local bending properties which form lipidic tubular structures. These structures invade the vesicle lumen in the absence of exogenous energy. Conclusions/Significance We showed that the degree of membrane permeabilization with amphipathic peptides is dependent on both peptide size and hydrophobic nature of the residues. We propose a model for peptide-induced membrane perturbations that explains the differences in peptide membrane activities and suggests the existence of a facilitated “physical endocytosis,” which represents a new pathway for peptide cellular internalization. PMID:17299584

  13. Bacteriocin Inducer Peptides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel peptides produced by bacteriocin-producing bacteria stimulate the production of bacteriocins in vitro. The producer bacteria are cultured in the presence of a novel inducer bacteria and a peptide having a carboxy terminal sequence of VKGLT in order to achieve an increase in bacteriocin produc...

  14. Synthesis and studies on cell-penetrating peptides.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Jean-Remi; Malvy, Claude; Auguste, Tiphanie; Tóth, Gábor K; Kiss-Ivánkovits, Orsolya; Illyés, Eszter; Hollósi, Miklós; Bottka, Sándor; Laczkó, Ilona

    2009-07-01

    The ability of different synthetic cell penetrating peptides, as Antennapedia (wild and Phe(6) mutated penetratins), flock house virus, and integrin peptides to form complexes with a 25mer antisense oligonucleotide was compared and their conformation was determined by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The efficiency for oligonucleotide delivery into cells was measured using peptides labeled with a coumarin derivative showing blue fluorescence and the fluorescein-labeled antisense oligonucleotide showing green fluorescence. Fluorescence due to the excitation energy transfer confirmed the interaction of the antisense oligonucleotide and cell-penetrating peptides. The most efficient oligonucleotide delivery was found for penetratins. Comparison of the two types of penetratins shows that the wild-type penetratin proved to be more efficient than mutated penetratin. The paper also emphasizes that the attachment of a fluorescent label may have an effect on the conformation and flexibility of cell-penetrating peptides that must be taken into consideration when evaluating biological experiments. PMID:19552459

  15. Region-Dependent Role of Cell-Penetrating Peptides in Insulin Absorption Across the Rat Small Intestinal Membrane.

    PubMed

    Khafagy, El-Sayed; Iwamae, Ruisha; Kamei, Noriyasu; Takeda-Morishita, Mariko

    2015-11-01

    We have reported that the cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) penetratin acts as a potential absorption enhancer in oral insulin delivery systems and that this action occurs through noncovalent intermolecular interactions. However, the region-dependent role of CPPs in intestinal insulin absorption has not been clarified. To identify the intestinal region where CPPs have the most effect in increasing insulin absorption, the region-dependent action of penetratin was investigated using in situ closed intestinal loops in rats. The order of the insulin area under the insulin concentration-time curve (AUC) increase effect by L-penetratin was ileum > jejunum > duodenum > colon. By contrast, the AUC order after coadministration of insulin with D-penetratin was colon > duodenum ≥ jejunum and ileum. We also compared the effects of the L- and D-forms of penetratin, R8, and PenetraMax on ileal insulin absorption. Along with the CPPs used in this study, L- and D-PenetraMax produced the largest insulin AUCs. An absorption study using ilea pretreated with CPPs showed that PenetraMax had no irreversible effect on the intestinal epithelial membrane. The degradation of insulin in the presence of CPPs was assessed in rat intestinal enzymatic fluid. The half-life (t 1/2) of insulin increased from 14.5 to 23.7 and 184.7 min in the presence of L- and D-PenetraMax, respectively. These enzymatic degradation-resistant effects might contribute partly to the increased ileal absorption of insulin induced by D-PenetraMax. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the ability of the L- and D-forms of penetratin to increase intestinal insulin absorption was maximal in the ileum and the colon, respectively, and that D-PenetraMax is a powerful but transient enhancer of oral insulin absorption. PMID:26216471

  16. Vaccine delivery by penetratin: mechanism of antigen presentation by dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Pouniotis, Dodie; Tang, Choon-Kit; Apostolopoulos, Vasso; Pietersz, Geoffrey

    2016-08-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPP) or membrane-translocating peptides such as penetratin from Antennapedia homeodomain or TAT from human immunodeficiency virus are useful vectors for the delivery of protein antigens or their cytotoxic (Tc) or helper (Th) T cell epitopes to antigen-presenting cells. Mice immunized with CPP containing immunogens elicit antigen-specific Tc and/or Th responses and could be protected from tumor challenges. In the present paper, we investigate the mechanism of class I and class II antigen presentation of ovalbumin covalently linked to penetratin (AntpOVA) by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells with the use of biochemical inhibitors of various pathways of antigen processing and presentation. Results from our study suggested that uptake of AntpOVA is via a combination of energy-independent (membrane fusion) and energy-dependent pathways (endocytosis). Once internalized by either mechanism, multiple tap-dependent or independent antigen presentation pathways are accessed while not completely dependent on proteasomal processing but involving proteolytic trimming in the ER and Golgi compartments. Our study provides an understanding on the mechanism of antigen presentation mediated by CPP and leads to greater insights into future development of vaccine formulations. PMID:27138940

  17. Facile Noninvasive Retinal Gene Delivery Enabled by Penetratin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Jiang, Kuan; Tai, Lingyu; Liu, Yu; Wei, Gang; Lu, Weiyue; Pan, Weisan

    2016-08-01

    Gene delivery to the posterior segment of the eye is severely hindered by the impermeability of defensive barriers; therefore, in clinical settings, genomic medicines are mainly administered by intravitreal injection. We previously found that penetratin could transport the covalently conjugated fluorophore to the fundus oculi by topical instillation. In this study, gene delivery systems enabled by penetratin were designed based on electrostatic binding to target the retina via a noninvasive administration route and prepared with red fluorescent protein plasmid (pRFP) and/or poly(amidoamine) dendrimer of low molecular weight (G3 PAMAM). Formulation optimization, structure confirmation, and characterization were subsequently conducted. Penetratin alone showed limited ability to condense the plasmid but had powerful uptake and transfection by corneal and conjunctival cells. G3 PAMAM was nontoxic to the ocular cells, and when introduced into the penetratin-incorporated complex, the plasmid was condensed more compactly. Therefore, further improved cellular uptake and transfection were observed. After being instilled in the conjunctival sac of rats, the intact complexes penetrated rapidly from the ocular surface into the fundus and resided in the retina for more than 8 h, which resulted in efficient expression of RFP in the posterior segment. Intraocular distribution of the complexes suggested that the plasmids were absorbed into the eyes through a noncorneal pathway during which penetratin played a crucial role. This study provides a facile and friendly approach for intraocular gene delivery and is an important step toward the development of noninvasive gene therapy for posterior segment diseases. PMID:27400087

  18. Elucidating the Function of Penetratin and a Static Magnetic Field in Cellular Uptake of Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Suman; Smith, Carol Anne; del Pino, Pablo; de la Fuente, Jesus M.; Mullin, Margaret; Hursthouse, Andrew; Stirling, David; Berry, Catherine C.

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology plays an increasingly important role in the biomedical arena. In particular, magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) have become important tools in molecular diagnostics, in vivo imaging and improved treatment of disease, with the ultimate aim of producing a more theranostic approach. Due to their small sizes, the nanoparticles can cross most of the biological barriers such as the blood vessels and the blood brain barrier, thus providing ubiquitous access to most tissues. In all biomedical applications maximum nanoparticle uptake into cells is required. Two promising methods employed to this end include functionalization of mNPs with cell-penetrating peptides to promote efficient translocation of cargo into the cell and the use of external magnetic fields for enhanced delivery. This study aimed to compare the effect of both penetratin and a static magnetic field with regards to the cellular uptake of 200 nm magnetic NPs and determine the route of uptake by both methods. Results demonstrated that both techniques increased particle uptake, with penetratin proving more cell specific. Clathrin- medicated endocytosis appeared to be responsible for uptake as shown via PCR and western blot, with Pitstop 2 (known to selectively block clathrin formation) blocking particle uptake. Interestingly, it was further shown that a magnetic field was able to reverse or overcome the blocking, suggesting an alternative route of uptake. PMID:24275948

  19. Self-assembled penetratin-deferasirox micelles as potential carriers for hydrophobic drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Dibakar; Vitorino, Hector Aguilar; Machini, M Teresa; Espósito, Breno P

    2015-11-01

    There has been a growing interest in the use of micelles with nanofiber geometry as nanocarriers for hydrophobic drugs. Here we show that the conjugate of penetratin, a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) with blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, and deferasirox (DFX), a hydrophobic iron chelator, self-assembles to form micelles at a very low concentration (∼15 mg/L). The critical micelle concentration (CMC) was determined, and the micelles were used for solubilizing curcumin, a hydrophobic anti-neurodegenerative drug, for successful delivery across RBE4 cells, a BBB model. Transmission Electron Microscope images of the curcumin-loaded micelles confirmed the formation of nanofibers. These results indicate the potential of CPP-drug conjugates for use as nanocarriers. PMID:25973759

  20. Massive glycosaminoglycan-dependent entry of Trp-containing cell-penetrating peptides induced by exogenous sphingomyelinase or cholesterol depletion.

    PubMed

    Bechara, Chérine; Pallerla, Manjula; Burlina, Fabienne; Illien, Françoise; Cribier, Sophie; Sagan, Sandrine

    2015-02-01

    Among non-invasive cell delivery strategies, cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) vectors represent interesting new tools. To get fundamental knowledge about the still debated internalisation mechanisms of these peptides, we modified the membrane content of cells, typically by hydrolysis of sphingomyelin or depletion of cholesterol from the membrane outer leaflet. We quantified and visualised the effect of these viable cell surface treatments on the internalisation efficiency of different CPPs, among which the most studied Tat, R9, penetratin and analogues, that all carry the N-terminal biotin-Gly4 tag cargo. Under these cell membrane treatments, only penetratin and R6W3 underwent a massive glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-dependent entry in cells. Internalisation of the other peptides was only slightly increased, similarly in the absence or the presence of GAGs for R9, and only in the presence of GAGs for Tat and R6L3. Ceramide formation (or cholesterol depletion) is known to lead to the reorganisation of membrane lipid domains into larger platforms, which can serve as a trap and cluster receptors. These results show that GAG clustering, enhanced by formation of ceramide, is efficiently exploited by penetratin and R6W3, which contains Trp residues in their sequence but not Tat, R9 and R6L3. Hence, these data shed new lights on the differences in the internalisation mechanism and pathway of these peptides that are widely used in delivery of cargo molecules. PMID:25112713

  1. An eIF4E-interacting peptide induces cell death in cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Masse, M; Glippa, V; Saad, H; Le Bloas, R; Gauffeny, I; Berthou, C; Czjzek, M; Cormier, P; Cosson, B

    2014-01-01

    The eukaryotic initiation factor eIF4E is essential for cap-dependent initiation of translation in eukaryotes. Abnormal regulation of eIF4E has been implicated in oncogenic transformation. We developed an eIF4E-binding peptide derived from Angel1, a partner of eIF4E that we recently identified. We show here that this peptide fused to a penetratin motif causes drastic and rapid cell death in several epithelial cancer cell lines. This necrotic cell death was characterized by a drop in ATP levels with F-actin network injury being a key step in extensive plasma membrane blebbing and membrane permeabilization. This synthetic eIF4E-binding peptide provides a candidate pharmacophore for a promising new cancer therapy strategy. PMID:25356869

  2. Effect of cell-penetrating peptides on the nasal absorption of insulin.

    PubMed

    Khafagy, El-Sayed; Morishita, Mariko; Isowa, Koichi; Imai, Jun; Takayama, Kozo

    2009-01-19

    The goal of this study was to evaluate whether cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) affect the nasal absorption of insulin. L- or D-forms of penetratin, or the L- or D-forms of octaarginine (L- or D-R8), was used as first time for nasal insulin delivery. Furthermore, the concentration of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in nasal lavage fluid was determined and a histopathological study of nasal respiratory epithelium was conducted. CPPs dramatically increased nasal insulin absorption, and it was more pronounced for L- and D-penetratin than L- or D-R8. L-penetratin was the most effective promoter of insulin absorption compared with others CPPs. A dose-dependent relationship of L-penetratin and insulin bioavailability was statically significant. The pharmacological availability and bioavailability of nasally administered insulin was up to 76.7% and 50.7% relative to the subcutaneous route, respectively. In contrast, increasing the D-penetratin concentration decreased the efficiency of nasal insulin absorption. There was no significant difference in the release of LDH in nasal lavage fluid and the integrity of nasal respiratory epithelium when L-penetratin was present. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that L-penetratin markedly increased the permeability of insulin across the nasal membrane without causing detectable damage to the integrity of cells in the nasal respiratory mucosa. PMID:18930084

  3. Visualization and Quantitative Assessment of the Brain Distribution of Insulin through Nose-to-Brain Delivery Based on the Cell-Penetrating Peptide Noncovalent Strategy.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Noriyasu; Shingaki, Tomotaka; Kanayama, Yousuke; Tanaka, Misa; Zochi, Riyo; Hasegawa, Koki; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Takeda-Morishita, Mariko

    2016-03-01

    Our recent work suggested that intranasal coadministration with the cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) penetratin increased the brain distribution of the peptide drug insulin. The present study aimed to distinctly certify the ability of penetratin to facilitate the nose-to-brain delivery of insulin by quantitatively evaluating the distribution characteristics in brain using radioactive (64)Cu-NODAGA-insulin. Autoradiography and analysis using a gamma counter of brain areas demonstrated that the accumulation of radioactivity was greatest in the olfactory bulb, the anterior part of the brain closest to the administration site, at 15 min after intranasal administration of (64)Cu-NODAGA-insulin with l- or d-penetratin. The brain accumulation of (64)Cu-NODAGA-insulin with penetratin was confirmed by ELISA using unlabeled insulin in which intact insulin was delivered to the brain after intranasal coadministration with l- or d-penetratin. By contrast, quantification of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples showed increased insulin concentration in only the anterior portion of the CSF at 15 min after intranasal coadministration with l-penetratin. This study gives the first concrete proof that penetratin can accelerate the direct transport of insulin from the nasal cavity to the brain parenchyma. Further optimization of intranasal administration with CPP may increase the efficacy of delivery of biopharmaceuticals to the brain while reducing the risk of systemic drug exposure. PMID:26795701

  4. An unusual cell penetrating peptide identified using a plasmid display-based functional selection platform

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shan; Simon, Melissa J.; Hue, Christopher D.; Morrison, Barclay; Banta, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) have tremendous potential for use in gene and drug delivery applications. The selection of new CPPs with desired capabilities from randomized peptide libraries is challenging, since the CPP phenotype is a complex selection target. Here we report the discovery of an unusual new CPP from a randomized peptide library using a functional selection system based on plasmid display (PD). After four rounds of screening of a 14-mer peptide library over PC12 cells, several peptides were identified and tested for their ability to deliver the green fluorescent protein (GFP). One peptide (SG3) exhibited a cell penetrating phenotype, however unlike other well-known CPPs such as TAT or Penetratin, the newly identified peptide was not highly cationic. The PD protocol necessitated the addition of a cationic lipid (Lipofectamine2000), and in the presence of this compound, the SG3 peptide significantly outperformed the well-known TAT CPP in the delivery of GFP to PC12 cells and primary astrocytes. When the SG3 peptide was fused to the pro-apoptotic BH3 peptide from the Bak protein, significant cell death was induced in cultured primary astrocytes, indicating relevant, intracellular delivery of a functional cargo. The PD platform is a useful method for identifying functional new CPPs from randomized libraries with unique delivery capabilities. PMID:21291271

  5. Surfactant-induced assembly of enzymatically-stable peptide hydrogels

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Brad H.; Martinez, Alina M.; Wheeler, Jill S.; Spoerke, Erik D.

    2015-04-07

    The secondary structure of peptides in the presence of interacting additives is an important topic of study, having implications in the application of peptide science to a broad range of modern technologies. Surfactants constitute a class of biologically relevant compounds that are known to influence both peptide conformation and aggregation or assembly. In addition, we have characterized the secondary structure of a linear nonapeptide composed of a hydrophobic alanine/phenylalanine core flanked by hydrophilic acid/amine units. We show that the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) induces the formation of β-sheets and macroscopic gelation in this otherwise unstructured peptide. Through comparison to related additives, we propose that SDS-induced secondary structure formation is the result of amphiphilicity created by electrostatic binding of SDS to the peptide. In addition, we demonstrate a novel utility of surfactants in manipulating and stabilizing peptide nanostructures. SDS is used to simultaneously induce secondary structure in a peptide and to inhibit the activity of a model enzyme, resulting in a peptide hydrogel that is impervious to enzymatic degradation. These results complement our understanding of the behavior of peptides in the presence of interacting secondary molecules and provide new potential pathways for programmable organization of peptides by the addition of such components.

  6. Surfactant-induced assembly of enzymatically-stable peptide hydrogels

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jones, Brad H.; Martinez, Alina M.; Wheeler, Jill S.; Spoerke, Erik D.

    2015-04-07

    The secondary structure of peptides in the presence of interacting additives is an important topic of study, having implications in the application of peptide science to a broad range of modern technologies. Surfactants constitute a class of biologically relevant compounds that are known to influence both peptide conformation and aggregation or assembly. In addition, we have characterized the secondary structure of a linear nonapeptide composed of a hydrophobic alanine/phenylalanine core flanked by hydrophilic acid/amine units. We show that the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) induces the formation of β-sheets and macroscopic gelation in this otherwise unstructured peptide. Through comparisonmore » to related additives, we propose that SDS-induced secondary structure formation is the result of amphiphilicity created by electrostatic binding of SDS to the peptide. In addition, we demonstrate a novel utility of surfactants in manipulating and stabilizing peptide nanostructures. SDS is used to simultaneously induce secondary structure in a peptide and to inhibit the activity of a model enzyme, resulting in a peptide hydrogel that is impervious to enzymatic degradation. These results complement our understanding of the behavior of peptides in the presence of interacting secondary molecules and provide new potential pathways for programmable organization of peptides by the addition of such components.« less

  7. The impact of cell-penetrating peptides on membrane bilayer structure during binding and insertion.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Daniel J; Lee, Tzong-Hsien; Kulkarni, Ketav; Wilce, Jacqueline A; Aguilar, Marie-Isabel

    2016-08-01

    We have studied the effect of penetratin and a truncated analogue on the bilayer structure using dual polarisation interferometry, to simultaneously measure changes in mass per unit area and birefringence (an optical parameter representing bilayer order) with high sensitivity during the binding and dissociation from the membrane. Specifically, we studied penetratin (RQIKIWFQNRRMKWKK), along with a shortened and biotinylated version known as R8K-biotin (RRMKWKKK(Biotin)-NH2). Overall both peptides bound only weakly to the neutral DMPC and POPC bilayers, while much higher binding was observed for the anionic DMPC/DMPG and POPC/POPG. The binding of penetratin to gel-phase DMPC/DMPG was adequately represented by a two-state model, whereas on the fluid-phase POPC/POPG it exhibited a distinctly different binding pattern, best represented by a three-state kinetic model. However, R8K-biotin did not bind well to DMPC/DMPG and showed a more transitory and superficial binding to POPC/POPG. Comparing the modelling results for both peptides binding to POPC/POPG suggests an important role for a securely bound intermediate prior to penetratin insertion and translocation. Overall these results further elucidate the mechanism of penetratin, and provide another example of the significance of the ability of DPI to measure structural changes and the use of kinetic analysis to investigate the stages of peptide-membrane interactions. PMID:27163492

  8. Radiation-induced products of peptides and their enzymatic digestibility

    SciTech Connect

    Gajewski, E.

    1983-01-01

    Chemical characterization of radiation-induced products of peptides and proteins is essential for understanding the effect of ionizing radiation on peptides and proteins. Furthermore, peptides containing radiation-altered amino acid residues might not be completely digestible by proteolytic enzymes. In this work, small homopeptides of Ala, Phe and Met were chosen as model peptides. Lysozyme was used to investigate the effect of ionizing radiation on a small protein. All peptides and lysozyme were irradiated in diluted, oxygen free, N/sub 2/O-saturated aqueous solutions, using a /sup 60/Co-..gamma..-source. HPLC, capillary GC and GC-MS were applied to isolate and characterize the radiation-induced products. The enzymatic digestibility of the products was investigated using aminopeptidase M, leucine aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase A and carboxypeptidase Y. It was found that irradiation of peptides examined in this work leads to racemization and alteration of amino acid residues and crosslinks between the peptide chains. In addition, it was established that exopeptidases act differently on radiation-induced dimers of peptides composed of aliphatic, aromatic and sulfur-containing amino acids.

  9. Characterization of a delta-electroencephalogram (-sleep)-inducing peptide.

    PubMed

    Schoenenberger, G A; Monnier, M

    1977-03-01

    A peptide that induces slow-wave (delta) and spindles electroencephalogram enhancement after intraventricular (brain) infusion has been isolated from rabbits and given the name delta-sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP). Amino acid seqeunce: Trp-Ala-Gly-Gly-Asp-Ala-Ser-Gly-Glu. This compound, five possible metabolic products (containing residues 1--8, 2--9, 2--8, 1--4, and 5--9), two nonapeptide analogues with two amino acids exchanged, and a related tripeptide (Trp-Ser-Glu) were synthesized. All nine synthetic peptides were infused intraventricularly in rabbits under double-blind conditions. A total of 58 rabbits including controls were evaluated. The electroencephalogram leads from the neocortex and the archicortex were directly fast-Fourier transformed and analyzed by a Univac 1108 computer system. Only the delta-sleep-inducing peptide (snythetic) showed significant and specific enhancement/induction of delta and spindle electroencephalogram patterns. PMID:265572

  10. Synthesis, cellular uptake and HIV-1 Tat-dependent trans-activation inhibition activity of oligonucleotide analogues disulphide-conjugated to cell-penetrating peptides

    PubMed Central

    Turner, John J.; Arzumanov, Andrey A.; Gait, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Oligonucleotides composed of 2′-O-methyl and locked nucleic acid residues complementary to HIV-1 trans-activation responsive element TAR block Tat-dependent trans-activation in a HeLa cell assay when delivered by cationic lipids. We describe an improved procedure for synthesis and purification under highly denaturing conditions of 5′-disulphide-linked conjugates of 3′-fluorescein labelled oligonucleotides with a range of cell-penetrating peptides and investigate their abilities to enter HeLa cells and block trans-activation. Free uptake of 12mer OMe/LNA oligonucleotide conjugates to Tat (48–58), Penetratin and R9F2 was observed in cytosolic compartments of HeLa cells. Uptake of the Tat conjugate was enhanced by N-terminal addition of four Lys or Arg residues or a second Tat peptide. None of the conjugates entered the nucleus or inhibited trans-activation when freely delivered, but inhibition was obtained in the presence of cationic lipids. Nuclear exclusion was seen for free delivery of Tat (48–58), Penetratin and R9 conjugates of 16mer phosphorothioate OMe oligonucleotide. Uptake into human fibroblast cytosolic compartments was seen for Tat, Penetratin, R9F2 and Transportan conjugates. Large enhancements of HeLa cell uptake into cytosolic compartments were seen when free Tat peptide was added to Tat conjugate of 12mer OMe/LNA oligonucleotide or Penetratin peptide to Penetratin conjugate of the same oligonucleotide. PMID:15640444

  11. Coarse Graining to Investigate Membrane Induced Peptide Folding of Anticancer Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, Sai; Xu, Hongcheng; Matysiak, Silvina

    Information about membrane induced peptide folding mechanisms using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations is a challenge due to time and length scale issues.We recently developed a low resolution Water Explicit Polarizable PROtein coarse-grained Model by adding oppositely charged dummy particles inside protein backbone beads.These two dummy particles represent a fluctuating dipole,thus introducing structural polarization into the coarse-grained model.With this model,we were able to achieve significant α- β secondary structure content de novo,without any added bias.We extended the model to zwitterionic and anionic lipids,by adding oppositely charged dummy particles inside polar beads, to capture the ability of the head group region to form hydrogen bonds.We use zwitterionic POPC and anionic POPS as our model lipids, and a cationic anticancer peptide,SVS1,as our model peptide.We have characterized the driving forces for SVS1 folding on lipid bilayers with varying anionic and zwitterionic lipid compositions.Based on our results, dipolar interactions between peptide backbone and lipid head groups contribute to stabilize folded conformations.Cooperativity in folding is induced by both intra peptide and membrane-peptide interaction.

  12. Enhanced oral bioavailability of insulin using PLGA nanoparticles co-modified with cell-penetrating peptides and Engrailed secretion peptide (Sec).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Siqi; Chen, Shuangxi; Gao, Yuan; Guo, Feng; Li, Fengying; Xie, Baogang; Zhou, Jianliang; Zhong, Haijun

    2016-07-01

    Biodegradable polymer nanoparticle drug carriers are an attractive strategy for oral delivery of peptide and protein drugs. However, their ability to cross the intestinal epithelium membrane is largely limited. Therefore, in the present study, cell-penetrating peptides (R8, Tat, penetratin) and a secretion peptide (Sec) with N-terminal stearylation were introduced to modify nanoparticles (NPs) on the surface to improve oral bioavailability of peptide and protein drugs. In vitro studies conducted in Caco-2 cells showed the value of the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of the nanoparticles co-modified with Sec and penetratin (Sec-Pen-NPs) was about two-times greater than that of the nanoparticles modified with only penetratin (Pen-NPs), while the increase of transcellular transport of nanoparticles modified together with Sec and R8 (Sec-R8-NPs), or Sec and Tat (Sec-Tat-NPs), was not significant compared with nanoparticles modified with only R8 (R8-NPs) or Tat (Tat-NPs). Using insulin as the model drug, in vivo studies performed on rats indicated that compared to Pen-NPs, the relative bioavailability of insulin for Sec-Pen-NPs was 1.71-times increased after ileal segments administration, and stronger hypoglycemic effects was also observed. Therefore, the nanoparticles co-modified with penetratin and Sec could act as attractive carriers for oral delivery of insulin. PMID:26181841

  13. Peptide and non-peptide opioid-induced hyperthermia in rabbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandasamy, S. B.; Williams, B. A.

    1983-01-01

    The intracerebroventricular administration of prototype nonpeptide opioid receptor (mu, kappa, and sigma) agonists, morphine, ketocyclazocine, and N-allyl-normetazocine was found to induce hyperthermia in rabbits. The similar administration of peptide opioids like beta-endorphin (BE), methionine-enkephalin (ME), and its synthetic analogue D-ala2-methionine-enkephalinamide (DAME) was also found to cause hyperthermia. Results indicate that only the liver-like transport system is important to the ventricular inactivation of BE and DAME. Prostaglandins and norepinephrine were determined not to be involved in peptide and nonpeptide opioid-induced hyperthermia. In addition, cAMP was not required since a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, theophylline, did not accentuate the hyperthermia due to peptide and nonpeptide opioids. Naloxone-sensitive receptors were found to be involved in the induction of hyperthermia by morphine, BE, ME, and DAME since naloxone attenuated them. However, the hyperthermic response to ketocyclazocine and N-allyl-normetazocine was not antagonized by naloxone.

  14. Steric-electronic effects in malarial peptides inducing sterile immunity

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno-Vranich, Armando; Patarroyo, Manuel E.

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Is it evident that the residues position are relevant regarding of {phi} angular value. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The geometry considered for detailing the alterations undergone by HABPs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The inter planar interactions ruled by clashes between the atoms making them up. -- Abstract: Conserved Plasmodium falciparum high activity binding peptides' (HABPs) most relevant proteins involved in malaria parasite invasion are immunologically silent; critical binding residues must therefore be specifically replaced to render them highly immunogenic and protection-inducing. Such changes have a tremendous impact on these peptides' steric-electronic effects, such as modifications to peptide length peptide bonds and electronic orbitals' disposition, to allow a better fit into immune system MHCII molecules and better interaction with the TCR which might account for the final immunological outcome.

  15. Peptide-Induced Antiviral Protection by Cytotoxic T Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Manfred; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.; Hengartner, Hans

    1991-02-01

    A specific antiviral cytotoxic immune response in vivo could be induced by the subcutaneous injection of the T-cell epitope of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) nucleoprotein as an unmodified free synthetic peptide (Arg-Pro-Gln-Ala-Ser-Gly-Val-Tyr-Met-Gly-Asn-Leu-Thr-Ala-Gln) emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant. This immunization rendered mice into a LCMV-specific protective state as shown by the inhibition of LCMV replication in spleens of such mice. The protection level of these mice correlated with the ability to respond to the peptide challenge by CD8^+ virus-specific cytotoxic T cells. This is a direct demonstration that peptide vaccines can be antivirally protective in vivo, thus encouraging further search for appropriate mixtures of stable peptides that may be used as T-cell vaccines.

  16. PFR peptide, one of the antimicrobial peptides identified from the derivatives of lactoferrin, induces necrosis in leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yan; Zhang, Teng-Fei; Shi, Yue; Zhou, Han-Wei; Chen, Qi; Wei, Bu-Yun; Wang, Xi; Yang, Tian-Xin; Chinn, Y. Eugene; Kang, Jian; Fu, Cai-Yun

    2016-01-01

    LF11-322 (PFWRIRIRR-NH2) (PFR peptide), a nine amino acid-residue peptide fragment derived from human lactoferricin, possesses potent cytotoxicity against bacteria. We report here the discovery and characterization of its antitumor activity in leukemia cells. PFR peptide inhibited the proliferation of MEL and HL-60 leukemia cells by inducing cell death in the absence of the classical features of apoptosis, including chromatin condensation, Annexin V staining, Caspase activation and increase of abundance of pro-apoptotic proteins. Instead, necrotic cell death as evidenced by increasing intracellular PI staining and LDH release, inducing membrane disruption and up-regulating intracellular calcium level, was observed following PFR peptide treatment. In addition to necrotic cell death, PFR peptide also induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. Moreover, PFR peptide exhibited favorable antitumor activity and tolerability in vivo. These findings thus provide a new clue of antimicrobial peptides as a potential novel therapy for leukemia. PMID:26860588

  17. Assembly of naphthalenediimide conjugated peptides: aggregation induced changes in fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Basak, Shibaji; Nanda, Jayanta; Banerjee, Arindam

    2013-08-01

    Naphthalenediimide appended peptide based self-assembly was studied. Interestingly, an aggregation induced drastic change in the fluorescence property and gel formation were observed depending on the solvent composition (chloroform : methylcyclohexane) at a fixed concentration of 1.6 mM at room temperature. PMID:23799544

  18. Peptide hydrogelation triggered by enzymatic induced pH switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Wei; Li, Ying

    2016-07-01

    It remains challenging to develop methods that can precisely control the self-assembling kinetics and thermodynamics of peptide hydrogelators to achieve hydrogels with optimal properties. Here we report the hydrogelation of peptide hydrogelators by an enzymatically induced pH switch, which involves the combination of glucose oxidase and catalase with D-glucose as the substrate, in which both the gelation kinetics and thermodynamics can be controlled by the concentrations of D-glucose. This novel hydrogelation method could result in hydrogels with higher mechanical stability and lower hydrogelation concentrations. We further illustrate the application of this hydrogelation method to differentiate different D-glucose levels.

  19. Surface-Induced Dissociation of Peptide Ions: Kinetics and Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Laskin, Julia; Futrell, Jean H.; Shukla, Anil K.

    2003-12-01

    Kinetics and dynamics studies have been carried out for the surface-induced dissociation (SID) of a set of model peptides utilizing a specially designed electrospray ionization Fourier Transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer in which mass-selected and vibrationally relaxed ions are collided on a orthogonally-mounted fluorinated self-assembled monolayer on Au{l_brace}111{r_brace} crystal. The sampling time in this apparatus can be varied from hundreds of microseconds to tens of seconds, enabling the investigation of kinetics of ion decomposition over an extended range of decomposition rates. RRKM-based modeling of these reactions for a set of polyalanines demonstrates that SID kinetics of these simple peptides is very similar to slow, multiple-collision activation and that the distribution of internal energies following collisional activation is indistinguishable from a thermal distribution. For more complex peptides comprised of several amino acids and with internal degrees of freedom ( DOF) of the order of 350 there is a dramatic change in kinetics in which RRKM kinetics is no longer capable of describing the decomposition of these complex ions. A combination of RRKM kinetics and the sudden death approximation, according to which decomposition occurs instantaneously, is a satisfactory description. This implies that a population of ions-which is dependant on the nature of the peptide, kinetic energy and sampling time-decomposes on or very near the surface. The shattering transition is described quantitatively for the limited set of molecules examined to date

  20. Surface-Induced Dissociation of Peptide Ions: Kinetics and Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Laskin, Julia; Futrell, Jean H.

    2003-12-01

    Kinetics and dynamics studies have been carried out for the surface-induced dissociation (SID) of a set of model peptides utilizing a specially designed electro spray ionization Fourier Transform Ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer in which mass-selected and vibrationally relaxed ions are collided on an orthogonally-mounted fluorinated self-assembled monolayer on Au {111} crystal. The sampling time in this apparatus can be varied from hundreds of microseconds to tens of seconds, enabling the investigation of kinetics of ion decomposition over an extended range of decomposition rates. RRKM-based modeling of these reactions for a set of polyalanines demonstrates that kinetics of these simple peptides is very similar to slow, multiple-collision activation and that the distribution of internal energies following collisional activation is indistinguishable from a thermal distribution. For more complex peptides comprised of several amino acids and with internal degrees of freedom (DOF) of the order of 350 there is a dramatic change in kinetics in which RRKM kinetics is no longer capable of describing the decomposition of these complex ions. A combination of RRKM kinetics and the “sudden death” approximation, according to which decomposition occurs instantaneously, is a satisfactory description. This implies that a population of ions – which is dependant on the nature of the peptide, kinetic energy and sampling time – decomposes on or very near the surface. The shattering transition is described quantitatively for the limited set of molecules examined to date.

  1. PARP-1 modulates amyloid beta peptide-induced neuronal damage.

    PubMed

    Martire, Sara; Fuso, Andrea; Rotili, Dante; Tempera, Italo; Giordano, Cesare; De Zottis, Ivana; Muzi, Alessia; Vernole, Patrizia; Graziani, Grazia; Lococo, Emanuela; Faraldi, Martina; Maras, Bruno; Scarpa, Sigfrido; Mosca, Luciana; d'Erme, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) causes neurodegeneration by several mechanisms including oxidative stress, which is known to induce DNA damage with the consequent activation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1). To elucidate the role of PARP-1 in the neurodegenerative process, SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were treated with Aβ25-35 fragment in the presence or absence of MC2050, a new PARP-1 inhibitor. Aβ25-35 induces an enhancement of PARP activity which is prevented by cell pre-treatment with MC2050. These data were confirmed by measuring PARP-1 activity in CHO cells transfected with amylod precursor protein and in vivo in brains specimens of TgCRND8 transgenic mice overproducing the amyloid peptide. Following Aβ25-35 exposure a significant increase in intracellular ROS was observed. These data were supported by the finding that Aβ25-35 induces DNA damage which in turn activates PARP-1. Challenge with Aβ25-35 is also able to activate NF-kB via PARP-1, as demonstrated by NF-kB impairment upon MC2050 treatment. Moreover, Aβ25-35 via PARP-1 induces a significant increase in the p53 protein level and a parallel decrease in the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein. These overall data support the hypothesis of PARP-1 involvment in cellular responses induced by Aβ and hence a possible rationale for the implication of PARP-1 in neurodegeneration is discussed. PMID:24086258

  2. PARP-1 Modulates Amyloid Beta Peptide-Induced Neuronal Damage

    PubMed Central

    Martire, Sara; Fuso, Andrea; Rotili, Dante; Tempera, Italo; Giordano, Cesare; De Zottis, Ivana; Muzi, Alessia; Vernole, Patrizia; Graziani, Grazia; Lococo, Emanuela; Faraldi, Martina; Maras, Bruno; Scarpa, Sigfrido; Mosca, Luciana; d'Erme, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) causes neurodegeneration by several mechanisms including oxidative stress, which is known to induce DNA damage with the consequent activation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1). To elucidate the role of PARP-1 in the neurodegenerative process, SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were treated with Aβ25–35 fragment in the presence or absence of MC2050, a new PARP-1 inhibitor. Aβ25–35 induces an enhancement of PARP activity which is prevented by cell pre-treatment with MC2050. These data were confirmed by measuring PARP-1 activity in CHO cells transfected with amylod precursor protein and in vivo in brains specimens of TgCRND8 transgenic mice overproducing the amyloid peptide. Following Aβ25–35 exposure a significant increase in intracellular ROS was observed. These data were supported by the finding that Aβ25–35 induces DNA damage which in turn activates PARP-1. Challenge with Aβ25–35 is also able to activate NF-kB via PARP-1, as demonstrated by NF-kB impairment upon MC2050 treatment. Moreover, Aβ25–35 via PARP-1 induces a significant increase in the p53 protein level and a parallel decrease in the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein. These overall data support the hypothesis of PARP-1 involvment in cellular responses induced by Aβ and hence a possible rationale for the implication of PARP-1 in neurodegeneration is discussed. PMID:24086258

  3. Development of a peptide-based inducer of nuclear receptors degradation.

    PubMed

    Demizu, Yosuke; Ohoka, Nobumichi; Nagakubo, Takaya; Yamashita, Hiroko; Misawa, Takashi; Okuhira, Keiichiro; Naito, Mikihiko; Kurihara, Masaaki

    2016-06-01

    A peptide-based protein knockdown system for inducing nuclear receptors degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system was developed. Specifically, the designed molecules were composed of two biologically active scaffolds: a peptide that binds to the estrogen receptor α (ERα) surface and an MV1 molecule that binds to cellular inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAP: cIAP1/cIAP2/XIAP) to induce ubiquitylation of the ERα. The hybrid peptides induced IAP-mediated ubiquitylation followed by proteasomal degradation of the ERα. Those peptides were also applicable for inducing androgen receptor (AR) degradation. PMID:27086122

  4. Inhibition of NF-kappa B activation by peptides targeting NF-kappa B essential modulator (nemo) oligomerization.

    PubMed

    Agou, Fabrice; Courtois, Gilles; Chiaravalli, Jeanne; Baleux, Françoise; Coïc, Yves-Marie; Traincard, François; Israël, Alain; Véron, Michel

    2004-12-24

    NF-kappa B essential modulator/IKK-gamma (NEMO/IKK-gamma) plays a key role in the activation of the NF-kappa B pathway in response to proinflammatory stimuli. Previous studies suggested that the signal-dependent activation of the IKK complex involves the trimerization of NEMO. The minimal oligomerization domain of this protein consists of two coiled-coil subdomains named Coiled-coil 2 (CC2) and leucine zipper (LZ) (Agou, F., Traincard, F., Vinolo, E., Courtois, G., Yamaoka, S., Israel, A., and Veron, M. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 27861-27869). To search for drugs inhibiting NF-kappa B activation, we have rationally designed cell-permeable peptides corresponding to the CC2 and LZ subdomains that mimic the contact areas between NEMO subunits. The peptides were tagged with the Antennapedia/Penetratin motif and delivered to cells prior to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. Peptide transduction was monitored by fluorescence-activated cell sorter, and their effect on lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-kappa B activation was quantified using an NF-kappa B-dependent beta-galactosidase assay in stably transfected pre-B 70Z/3 lymphocytes. We show that the peptides corresponding to the LZ and CC2 subdomains inhibit NF-kappa B activation with an IC(50) in the mum range. Control peptides, including mutated CC2 and LZ peptides and a heterologous coiled-coil peptide, had no inhibitory effect. The designed peptides are able to induce cell death in human retinoblastoma Y79 cells exhibiting constitutive NF-kappa B activity. Our results provide the "proof of concept" for a new and promising strategy for the inhibition of NF-kappa B pathway activation through targeting the oligomerization state of the NEMO protein. PMID:15466857

  5. Chemotherapy-induced antitumor immunity requires formyl peptide receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Vacchelli, Erika; Ma, Yuting; Baracco, Elisa E; Sistigu, Antonella; Enot, David P; Pietrocola, Federico; Yang, Heng; Adjemian, Sandy; Chaba, Kariman; Semeraro, Michaela; Signore, Michele; De Ninno, Adele; Lucarini, Valeria; Peschiaroli, Francesca; Businaro, Luca; Gerardino, Annamaria; Manic, Gwenola; Ulas, Thomas; Günther, Patrick; Schultze, Joachim L; Kepp, Oliver; Stoll, Gautier; Lefebvre, Céline; Mulot, Claire; Castoldi, Francesca; Rusakiewicz, Sylvie; Ladoire, Sylvain; Apetoh, Lionel; Bravo-San Pedro, José Manuel; Lucattelli, Monica; Delarasse, Cécile; Boige, Valérie; Ducreux, Michel; Delaloge, Suzette; Borg, Christophe; André, Fabrice; Schiavoni, Giovanna; Vitale, Ilio; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Mattei, Fabrizio; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido

    2015-11-20

    Antitumor immunity driven by intratumoral dendritic cells contributes to the efficacy of anthracycline-based chemotherapy in cancer. We identified a loss-of-function allele of the gene coding for formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) that was associated with poor metastasis-free and overall survival in breast and colorectal cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. The therapeutic effects of anthracyclines were abrogated in tumor-bearing Fpr1(-/-) mice due to impaired antitumor immunity. Fpr1-deficient dendritic cells failed to approach dying cancer cells and, as a result, could not elicit antitumor T cell immunity. Experiments performed in a microfluidic device confirmed that FPR1 and its ligand, annexin-1, promoted stable interactions between dying cancer cells and human or murine leukocytes. Altogether, these results highlight the importance of FPR1 in chemotherapy-induced anticancer immune responses. PMID:26516201

  6. Sensing lymphoma cells based on a cell-penetrating/apoptosis-inducing/electron-transfer peptide probe.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Kazuharu; Shinohara, Hiroki; Kadoya, Toshihiko; Kuramitz, Hideki

    2016-06-14

    To electrochemically sense lymphoma cells (U937), we fabricated a multifunctional peptide probe that consists of cell-penetrating/apoptosis-inducing/electron-transfer peptides. Electron-transfer peptides derive from cysteine residue combined with the C-terminals of four tyrosine residues (Y4). A peptide whereby Y4C is bound to the C-terminals of protegrin 1 (RGGRLCYCRRRFCVCVGR-NH2) is known to be an apoptosis-inducing agent against U937 cells, and is referred to as a peptide-1 probe. An oxidation response of the peptide-1 probe has been observed due to a phenolic hydroxyl group, and this response is decreased by the uptake of the peptide probe into the cells. To improve the cell membrane permeability against U937 cells, the RGGR at the N-terminals of the peptide-1 probe was replaced by RRRR (peptide-2 probe). In contrast, RNRCKGTDVQAWY4C (peptide-3 probe), which recognizes ovalbumin, was constructed as a control. Compared with the other probes, the change in the peak current of the peptide-2 probe was the greatest at low concentrations and occurred in a short amount of time. Therefore, the cell membrane permeability of the peptide-2 probe was increased based on the arginine residues and the apoptosis-inducing peptides. The peak current was linear and ranged from 100 to 1000 cells/ml. The relative standard deviation of 600 cells/ml was 5.0% (n = 5). Furthermore, the membrane permeability of the peptide probes was confirmed using fluorescent dye. PMID:27181650

  7. Euler buckling, membrane corrugation and pore formation induced by antimicrobial peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubovic, Leonardo; Gao, Lianghui; Chen, Licui; Jia, Nana; Fang, Weihai

    2014-03-01

    Antimicrobial peptides serve as defense weapons against bacteria. They are secreted by organisms of plants and animals and have a wide variety in composition and structure. In this study, we theoretically explore the effects of the antimicrobial peptides on the lipid bilayer membrane by using analytic arguments and the coarse grained dissipative particle dynamics simulations. We study peptide/lipid membrane complexes by considering peptides with various structure, hydrophobicity and peptide/lipid interaction strength. The role of lipid/water interaction is also discussed. We discuss a rich variety of membrane morphological changes induced by peptides, such as pore formation, membrane corrugation and Euler buckling. Such buckled membrane states have been indeed seen in a number of experiments with bacteria affected by peptide, yet this is the first theoretical study addressing these phenomena more deeply.

  8. Peptide Fragmentation by Corona Discharge Induced Electrochemical Ionization

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, John R.; Hess, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental studies have greatly improved our understanding of electrospray, including the underlying electrochemical reactions. Generally regarded as disadvantageous, we have recently shown that corona discharge (CD) can be used as an effective method to create a radical cation species [M]+•, thus optimizing the electrochemical reactions that occur on the surface of the stainless steel (SS) electrospray capillary tip. This technique is known as CD initiated electrochemical ionization (CD-ECI). Here, we report on the fundamental studies using CD-ECI to induce analytically useful in-source fragmentation of a range of molecules that complex transition metals. Compounds that have been selectively fragmented using CD-ECI include enolate forming phenylglycine containing peptides, glycopeptides, nucleosides and phosphopeptides. Collision induced dissociation (CID) or other activation techniques were not necessary for CD-ECI fragmentation. A four step mechanism was proposed: 1. Complexation using either Fe in the SS capillary tip material or Cu(II) as an offline complexation reagent; 2. Electrochemical oxidation of the complexed metal and thus formation of a radical cation (e.g.; Fe - e− → Fe +•); 3. Radical fragmentation of the complexed compound. 4. Electrospray ionization of the fragmented neutrals. Fragmentation patterns resembling b- and y-type ions were observed and allowed the localization of the phosphorylation sites. PMID:20869880

  9. Peptide fragmentation by corona discharge induced electrochemical ionization.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, John R; Hess, Sonja

    2010-12-01

    Fundamental studies have greatly improved our understanding of electrospray, including the underlying electrochemical reactions. Generally regarded as disadvantageous, we have recently shown that corona discharge (CD) can be used as an effective method to create a radical cation species [M](+·), thus optimizing the electrochemical reactions that occur on the surface of the stainless steel (SS) electrospray capillary tip. This technique is known as CD initiated electrochemical ionization (CD-ECI). Here, we report on the fundamental studies using CD-ECI to induce analytically useful in-source fragmentation of a range of molecules that complex transition metals. Compounds that have been selectively fragmented using CD-ECI include enolate forming phenylglycine containing peptides, glycopeptides, nucleosides, and phosphopeptides. Collision induced dissociation (CID) or other activation techniques were not necessary for CD-ECI fragmentation. A four step mechanism was proposed: (1) complexation using either Fe in the SS capillary tip material or Cu(II) as an offline complexation reagent; (2) electrochemical oxidation of the complexed metal and thus formation of a radical cation (e.g.; Fe - e(-) → Fe(+·)); (3) radical fragmentation of the complexed compound; (4) electrospray ionization of the fragmented neutrals. Fragmentation patterns resembling b- and y-type ions were observed and allowed the localization of the phosphorylation sites. PMID:20869880

  10. Protective Effect of Wheat Peptides against Indomethacin-Induced Oxidative Stress in IEC-6 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Hong; Pan, Xingchang; Song, Zhixiu; Wang, Shaokang; Yang, Ligang; Sun, Guiju

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that wheat peptides protected rats against non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-induced small intestinal epithelial cells damage, but the mechanism of action is unclear. In the present study, an indomethacin-induced oxidative stress model was used to investigate the effect of wheat peptides on the nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB)-inducible nitric oxide synthase-nitric oxide signal pathway in intestinal epithelial cells-6 cells. IEC-6 cells were treated with wheat peptides (0, 125, 500 and 2000 mg/L) for 24 h, followed by 90 mg/L indomethacin for 12 h. Wheat peptides significantly attenuated the indomethacin-induced decrease in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity. Wheat peptides at 2000 mg/L markedly decreased the expression of the NF-κB in response to indomethacin-induced oxidative stress. This study demonstrated that the addition of wheat peptides to a culture medium significantly inhibited the indomethacin-induced release of malondialdehyde and nitrogen monoxide, and increased antioxidant enzyme activity in IEC-6 cells, thereby providing a possible explanation for the protective effect proposed for wheat peptides in the prevention of indomethacin-induced oxidative stress in small intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:24481130

  11. Brain delivery of insulin boosted by intranasal coadministration with cell-penetrating peptides.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Noriyasu; Takeda-Morishita, Mariko

    2015-01-10

    Intranasal administration is considered as an alternative route to enable effective drug delivery to the central nervous system (CNS) by bypassing the blood-brain barrier. Several reports have proved that macromolecules can be transferred directly from the nasal cavity to the brain. However, strategies to enhance the delivery of macromolecules from the nasal cavity to CNS are needed because of their low delivery efficiencies via this route in general. We hypothesized that the delivery of biopharmaceuticals to the brain parenchyma can be facilitated by increasing the uptake of drugs by the nasal epithelium including supporting and neuronal cells to maximize the potentiality of the intranasal pathway. To test this hypothesis, the CNS-related model peptide insulin was intranasally coadministered with the cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) penetratin to mice. As a result, insulin coadministered with l- or d-penetratin reached the distal regions of the brain from the nasal cavity, including the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and brain stem. In particular, d-penetratin could intranasally deliver insulin to the brain with a reduced risk of systemic insulin exposure. Thus, the results obtained in this study suggested that CPPs are potential tools for the brain delivery of peptide- and protein-based pharmaceuticals via intranasal administration. PMID:25445695

  12. Atrial natriuretic peptide mediates oxytocin secretion induced by osmotic stimulus.

    PubMed

    Chriguer, Rosengela S; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Franci, Celso R

    2003-02-15

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), first discovered in the heart, has been also detected in various brain regions involved in the control of cardiovascular function and water and sodium balance. The anteroventral region of the third ventricle (AV3V) and the subfornical organ (SFO) have ANP-immunoreactive projections towards the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei of the hypothalamus. Extracellular fluid (ECF) hyperosmolality stimulates the secretion of oxytocin (OT) which induces ANP release by the atrium. On the other hand, passive immunoneutralization of ANP reduces OT secretion in response to ECF hypertonicity. Previous studies have shown the co-localization of ANP and OT in PVN and SON neurons and in the periventricular region, as well as the presence of ANPergic and oxytocinergic neurons in the median eminence. The aim of the present study was to investigate the OT and ANP content in the SON and PVN of the hypothalamus and in the posterior pituitary (PP) after an osmotic stimulus that induces OT secretion. The results showed that intracerebroventricular microinjection of normal rabbit serum (NRS) or of ANP antiserum followed or not by an intraperitoneal injection of isotonic saline did not alter OT secretion or OT content in the PVN, SON, and PP; passive ANP immunoneutralization reduced the basal content of ANP in the PVN, SON, and PP of animals in a situation of isotonicity; the ANP antiserum inhibited the increase of OT secretion and content of OT and ANP in the PVN, SON and PP induced by the osmotic stimulus. Thus, the increase in plasma OT and oxytocinergic neurons of the hypothalamus-posterior pituitary system in response to hypertonicity depends on the action of endogenous ANP, i.e., ECF hypertonicity must activate ANPergic neurons which directly or indirectly stimulate OT release. PMID:12576148

  13. Fluctuations and the Rate-Limiting Step of Peptide-Induced Membrane Leakage

    PubMed Central

    Mazzuca, C.; Orioni, B.; Coletta, M.; Formaggio, F.; Toniolo, C.; Maulucci, G.; De Spirito, M.; Pispisa, B.; Venanzi, M.; Stella, L.

    2010-01-01

    Peptide-induced vesicle leakage is a common experimental test for the membrane-perturbing activity of antimicrobial peptides. The leakage kinetics is usually very slow, requiring minutes to hours for complete release of vesicle contents, and exhibits a biphasic behavior. We report here that, in the case of the peptaibol trichogin GA IV, all processes involved in peptide-membrane interaction, such as peptide-membrane association, peptide aggregation, and peptide translocation, take place on a timescale much shorter than the leakage kinetics. On the basis of these findings, we propose a stochastic model in which the leakage kinetics is determined by the discrete nature of a vesicle suspension: peptides are continuously exchanging among vesicles, producing significant fluctuations over time in the number of peptide molecules bound to each vesicle, and in the formation of pores. According to this model, the fast initial leakage is caused by vesicles that contain at least one pore after the peptides are randomly distributed among the liposomes, whereas the slower release is associated with the time needed to occasionally reach in an intact vesicle the critical number of bound peptides necessary for pore formation. Fluctuations due to peptide exchange among vesicles therefore represent the rate-limiting step of such a slow mechanism. PMID:20858423

  14. Reversible Sheet–Turn Conformational Change of a Cell-Penetrating Peptide in Lipid Bilayers Studied by Solid-State NMR

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yongchao; Mani, Rajeswari; Doherty, Tim; Waring, Alan J.

    2014-01-01

    The membrane-bound conformation of a cell-penetrating peptide, penetratin, is investigated using solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The 13C chemical shifts of 13C, 15N-labeled residues in the peptide indicate a reversible conformational change from β-sheet at low temperature to coil-like at high temperature. This conformational change occurs for all residues examined between positions 3 and 13, at peptide/lipid molar ratios of 1:15 and 1:30, in membranes with 25–50% anionic lipids, and in both saturated DMPC/DMPG (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylchloline/1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylglycerol) membranes and unsaturated POPC/POPG (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylglycerol) membranes. Thus, it is an intrinsic property of penetratin. The coil state of the peptide has C– H order parameters of 0.23–0.52 for Cα and Cβ sites, indicating that the peptide backbone is unstructured. Moreover, chemical shift anisotropy lineshapes are uniaxially averaged, suggesting that the peptide backbone undergoes uniaxial rotation around the bilayer normal. These observations suggest that the dynamic state of penetratin at high temperature is a structured turn instead of an isotropic random coil. The thermodynamic parameters of this sheet–turn transition are extracted and compared to other membrane peptides reported to exhibit conformational changes. We suggest that the function of this turn conformation may be to reduce hydrophobic interactions with the lipid chains and facilitate penetratin translocation across the bilayer without causing permanent membrane damage. PMID:18656895

  15. The Antimicrobial Peptide Lysozyme Is Induced after Multiple Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Klüter, Tim; Fitschen-Oestern, Stefanie; Lippross, Sebastian; Weuster, Matthias; Pufe, Thomas; Tohidnezhad, Mersedeh; Beyer, Andreas; Seekamp, Andreas; Varoga, Deike

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial peptide lysozyme is an important factor of innate immunity and exerts high potential of antibacterial activity. In the present study we evaluated the lysozyme expression in serum of multiple injured patients and subsequently analyzed their possible sources and signaling pathways. Expression of lysozyme was examined in blood samples of multiple trauma patients from the day of trauma until 14 days after trauma by ELISA. To investigate major sources of lysozyme, its expression and regulation in serum samples, different blood cells, and tissue samples were analysed by ELISA and real-time PCR. Neutrophils and hepatocytes were stimulated with cytokines and supernatant of Staphylococcus aureus. The present study demonstrates the induction and release of lysozyme in serum of multiple injured patients. The highest lysozyme expression of all tested cells and tissues was detected in neutrophils. Stimulation with trauma-related factors such as interleukin-6 and S. aureus induced lysozyme expression. Liver tissue samples of patients without trauma show little lysozyme expression compared to neutrophils. After stimulation with bacterial fragments, lysozyme expression of hepatocytes is upregulated significantly. Toll-like receptor 2, a classic receptor of Gram-positive bacterial protein, was detected as a possible target for lysozyme induction. PMID:25258475

  16. The antimicrobial peptide lysozyme is induced after multiple trauma.

    PubMed

    Klüter, Tim; Fitschen-Oestern, Stefanie; Lippross, Sebastian; Weuster, Matthias; Mentlein, Rolf; Steubesand, Nadine; Neunaber, Claudia; Hildebrand, Frank; Pufe, Thomas; Tohidnezhad, Mersedeh; Beyer, Andreas; Seekamp, Andreas; Varoga, Deike

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial peptide lysozyme is an important factor of innate immunity and exerts high potential of antibacterial activity. In the present study we evaluated the lysozyme expression in serum of multiple injured patients and subsequently analyzed their possible sources and signaling pathways. Expression of lysozyme was examined in blood samples of multiple trauma patients from the day of trauma until 14 days after trauma by ELISA. To investigate major sources of lysozyme, its expression and regulation in serum samples, different blood cells, and tissue samples were analysed by ELISA and real-time PCR. Neutrophils and hepatocytes were stimulated with cytokines and supernatant of Staphylococcus aureus. The present study demonstrates the induction and release of lysozyme in serum of multiple injured patients. The highest lysozyme expression of all tested cells and tissues was detected in neutrophils. Stimulation with trauma-related factors such as interleukin-6 and S. aureus induced lysozyme expression. Liver tissue samples of patients without trauma show little lysozyme expression compared to neutrophils. After stimulation with bacterial fragments, lysozyme expression of hepatocytes is upregulated significantly. Toll-like receptor 2, a classic receptor of Gram-positive bacterial protein, was detected as a possible target for lysozyme induction. PMID:25258475

  17. Superoxide generation catalyzed by the ozone-inducible plant peptides analogous to prion octarepeat motif.

    PubMed

    Yokawa, Ken; Kagenishi, Tomoko; Kawano, Tomonori

    2011-04-01

    Ozone-inducible (OI) peptides found in plants contain repeated sequences consisting of a hexa-repeat unit (YGH GGG) repeated 7-9 times in tandem, and each unit tightly binds copper. To date, the biochemical roles for OI peptides are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrated that the hexa-repeat unit from OI peptides behaves as metal-binding motif catalytically active in the O2•--generation. Lastly, possible mechanisms of the reaction and biological consequence of the reactions are discussed by analogy to the action of human prion octarepeat peptides. PMID:21350332

  18. Hierarchical, interface-induced self-assembly of diphenylalanine: formation of peptide nanofibers and microvesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Renliang; Su, Rongxin; Qi, Wei; Zhao, Jun; He, Zhimin

    2011-06-01

    To gain insight into the hierarchical self-assembly of peptides and the surface effect on assembly formation, an aromatic peptide of diphenylalanine (FF) was used in this study as the model peptide. We found that the diphenylalanine peptide could self-assemble into a core-branched nanostructure through non-covalent interactions in aqueous solution. The pre-assemblies further assembled into nanofibers and microvesicles on the glass surface and microporous membrane, respectively, showing a significant dependence on surface characteristics. The structural and morphological differences between nanofibers and microvesicles were investigated directly using several spectroscopy and microscopy techniques. Our results revealed a hierarchical and interface-induced assembly behavior of diphenylalanine peptide. The novel strategy based on the surface effect allows one to controllably fabricate various peptide-based nanostructures.

  19. Hierarchical, interface-induced self-assembly of diphenylalanine: formation of peptide nanofibers and microvesicles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Renliang; Su, Rongxin; Qi, Wei; Zhao, Jun; He, Zhimin

    2011-06-17

    To gain insight into the hierarchical self-assembly of peptides and the surface effect on assembly formation, an aromatic peptide of diphenylalanine (FF) was used in this study as the model peptide. We found that the diphenylalanine peptide could self-assemble into a core-branched nanostructure through non-covalent interactions in aqueous solution. The pre-assemblies further assembled into nanofibers and microvesicles on the glass surface and microporous membrane, respectively, showing a significant dependence on surface characteristics. The structural and morphological differences between nanofibers and microvesicles were investigated directly using several spectroscopy and microscopy techniques. Our results revealed a hierarchical and interface-induced assembly behavior of diphenylalanine peptide. The novel strategy based on the surface effect allows one to controllably fabricate various peptide-based nanostructures. PMID:21543826

  20. Low-Energy Collision-Induced Dissociation Fragmentation Analysis of Cysteinyl-Modified Peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Borisov, Oleg V.; Goshe, Michael B. ); Conrads, Thomas P. ); Rakov, Vsevolod S. ); Veenstra, Timothy D. ); Smith, Richard D. )

    2002-05-15

    The development of methods to chemically modify and isolate cysteinyl-residue containing peptides (Cys-peptides) for LC-MS/MS analysis has generated considerable interest in the field of proteomics. Methods using isotope-coded affinity tags (ICAT) and (+)-biotinyl-iodoacetamidyl-3,6-dioxaoctanediamine (iodoacetyl-PEO-biotin) employ similar Cys-modifying reagents that contain a thiolate-specific biotin group to modify and isolate Cys-containing peptides in conjunction with immobilized avidin. For these strategies to be effective on a proteome-wide level, the presence of the ICAT or acetyl-PEO-biotin tag should not interfere with the efficiency of induced dissociation in MS/MS experiments or with the identification of the modified Cys-peptides by automated database searching algorithms. We have compared the collision-induced dissociation (CID) fragmentation patterns of peptides labeled with iodoacetyl-PEO-biotin and the ICAT reagent to those of the unmodified peptides. CID of Cys-peptides modified with either reagent resulted in the formation of ions attributed to the modified Cys-peptides as well as those unique to the labeling reagent. As demonstrated by analyzing acetyl-PEO-biotin labeled peptides from ribonuclease A and the ICAT-labeled proteome of D. radiodurans, the presence of these labeled-specific product ions provides a useful identifier to discern whether a peptide has been modified with the Cys-specific reagent, especially when a number of peptides analyzed using these methods do not contain a modified Cys-residue, and to differentiate identical Cys-peptides labeled with either ICAT-D0 or ICAT-D8.

  1. Epitope spreading induced by immunization with synthetic SSB peptides

    PubMed Central

    DING, MIN; ZHANG, JIANZHONG

    2016-01-01

    Sjogren's syndrome type B (SSB)/La antibody is an autoantibody generally observed in connective tissue diseases whereas double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (dsDNA) antibodies are the most characteristic autoantibodies found in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. The relationship of these autoantibodies remains unclear. The aim of the study was to determine the profile of antibody production in rabbits immunized with synthetic SSB peptides alone or with dsDNA. For this purpose, 214–225aa peptide of SSB antigen was synthesized based on the organic chemistry solid-phase peptide synthesis. Rabbits were immunized with the following antigens: i) synthetic SSB peptides linked with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH); ii) dsDNA; iii) SSB plus dsDNA; iv) KLH; and v) phosphate-buffered saline. SSB peptide antibody was measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay while extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) antibody and dsDNA antibody were measured by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence, respectively. The results showed that a specific anti-SSB peptide antibody was produced following immunization with SSB epitope alone or with dsDNA. The SSB peptide antibody titer in the coimmunization group was higher than that of the SSB alone group. In addition, antibodies against ribonucleoprotein (RNP), Smith and/or dsDNA were detected in rabbits of the coimmunization group. The presence of anti-dsDNA antibodies in the rabbits immunized with SSB peptide suggested the induction of epitope spreading. In conclusions, SSB antibodies were produced in rabbits immunized with SSB peptide or SSB+dsDNA, whereas SSB antibody titers were higher in the coimmunization group. Furthermore, coimmunization was associated with epitope spreading. PMID:27347030

  2. Requirements of the engineered leader peptide of nisin for inducing modification, export, and cleavage.

    PubMed

    Plat, Annechien; Kluskens, Leon D; Kuipers, Anneke; Rink, Rick; Moll, Gert N

    2011-01-01

    Nisin A is a pentacyclic peptide antibiotic produced by Lactococcus lactis. The leader peptide of prenisin keeps nisin inactive and has a role in inducing NisB- and NisC-catalyzed modifications of the propeptide and NisT-mediated export. The highly specific NisP cleaves off the leader peptide from fully modified and exported prenisin. We present here a detailed mutagenesis analysis of the nisin leader peptide. For alternative cleavage, we successfully introduced a putative NisP autocleavage site and sites for thrombin, enterokinase, Glu-C, and factor Xa in the C-terminal part of the leader peptide. Replacing residue F-18 with Trp or Thr strongly reduced production. On the other hand, D-19A, F-18H, F-18M, L-16D, L-16K, and L-16A enhanced production. Substitutions within and outside the FNLD box enhanced or reduced the transport efficiency. None of the above substitutions nor even an internal 6His tag from positions -13 to -8 had any effect on the capacity of the leader peptide to induce NisB and NisC modifications. Therefore, these data demonstrate a large mutational freedom. However, simultaneous replacement of the FNLD amino acids by four alanines strongly reduced export and even led to a complete loss of the capacity to induce modifications. Reducing the leader peptide to MSTKDFNLDLR led to 3- or 4-fold dehydration. Taken together, the FNLD box is crucial for inducing posttranslational modifications. PMID:21097596

  3. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Induces Postprandial Lipid Oxidation in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Birkenfeld, Andreas L.; Budziarek, Petra; Boschmann, Michael; Moro, Cedric; Adams, Frauke; Franke, Gabriele; Berlan, Michel; Marques, Marie A.; Sweep, Fred C.G.J.; Luft, Friedrich C.; Lafontan, Max; Jordan, Jens

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) regulates arterial blood pressure. In addition, ANP has recently been shown to promote human adipose tissue lipolysis through cGMP-mediated hormone-sensitive lipase activation. We hypothesized that ANP increases postprandial free fatty acid (FFA) availability and energy expenditure while decreasing arterial blood pressure. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We infused human ANP (25 ng · kg−1 · min−1) in 12 men (age 32 ± 0.8 years, BMI 23.3 ± 0.4 kg/m2) before, during, and 2 h after ingestion of a standardized high-fat test meal in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over fashion. Cardiovascular changes were monitored by continuous electrocardiogram and beat-by-beat blood pressure recordings. Metabolism was monitored through venous blood sampling, intramuscular and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue microdialysis, and indirect calorimetry. RESULTS—ANP infusion decreased mean arterial blood pressure by 4 mmHg during the postprandial phase (P < 0.01 vs. placebo). At the same time, ANP induced lipolysis systemically (P < 0.05 vs. placebo) and locally in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (P < 0.0001 vs. placebo), leading to a 50% increase in venous glycerol (P < 0.01) and FFA (P < 0.05) concentrations compared with placebo. The increase in FFA availability with ANP was paralleled by a 15% increase in lipid oxidation rates (P < 0.05 vs. placebo), driving a substantial increase in postprandial energy expenditure (P < 0.05 vs. placebo). CONCLUSIONS—Our data identify the ANP system as a novel pathway regulating postprandial lipid oxidation, energy expenditure, and concomitantly arterial blood pressure. The findings could have therapeutic implications. PMID:18835931

  4. Novel inducible antibacterial peptides from a hemipteran insect, the sap-sucking bug Pyrrhocoris apterus.

    PubMed Central

    Cociancich, S; Dupont, A; Hegy, G; Lanot, R; Holder, F; Hetru, C; Hoffmann, J A; Bulet, P

    1994-01-01

    Insects belonging to the recent orders of the endopterygote clade (Lepidoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Coleoptera) respond to bacterial challenge by the rapid and transient synthesis of a battery of potent antibacterial peptides which are secreted into their haemolymph. Here we present the first report on inducible antibacterial molecules in the sap-sucking bug Pyrrhocoris apterus, a representative species of the Hemiptera, which predated the Endoptergotes by at least 50 million years in evolution. We have isolated and characterized from immune blood of this species three novel peptides or polypeptides: (i) a 43-residue cysteine-rich anti-(Gram-positive bacteria) peptide which is a new member of the family of insect defensins; (ii) a 20-residue proline-rich peptide carrying an O-glycosylated substitution (N-acetylgalactosamine), active against Gram-negative bacteria; (iii) a 133-residue glycine-rich polypeptide also active against Gram-negative bacteria. The proline-rich peptide shows high sequence similarities with drosocin, an O-glycosylated antibacterial peptide from Drosophila, and also with the N-terminal domain of diptericin, an inducible 9 kDa antibacterial peptide from members of the order Diptera, whereas the glycine-rich peptide has similarities with the glycine-rich domain of diptericin. We discuss the evolutionary aspects of these findings. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:8002963

  5. Effect of Curcumin on the metal ion induced fibrillization of Amyloid-β peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Rona

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Curcumin on Cu(II) and Zn(II) induced oligomerization and protofibrillization of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide has been studied by spectroscopic and microscopic methods. Curcumin could significantly reduce the β-sheet content of the peptide in a time dependent manner. It also plays an antagonistic role in β-sheet formation that is promoted by metal ions like Cu(II) and Zn(II) as observed by Circular Dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopic (AFM) images show that spontaneous fibrillization of the peptide occurs in presence of Cu(II) and Zn(II) but is inhibited on incubation of the peptide with Curcumin indicating the beneficial role of Curcumin in preventing the aggregation of Aβ peptide.

  6. Cognate peptides induce self-destruction of CD8+ cytolytic T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Walden, P R; Eisen, H N

    1990-01-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) have been shown to be relatively resistant to cytolytic attack by other CTLs. We show here, however, that cloned CTLs, in the absence of other cells, are destroyed by exposure to their cognate peptides (defined as those that in association with major histocompatibility complex proteins are recognized by the antigen-specific receptor of the T cell). Destruction is proportional to peptide concentration and can be prevented by a second peptide that competes with the cognate peptide for presentation by the class I major histocompatibility complex proteins of the CTLs. The speed and extent of peptide-induced changes in the appearance of CTLs suggest that the destruction may be due primarily to self-recognition and self-destruction of individual CTLs (suicide) rather than to the destruction of some CTLs by others of the same clone in the same culture (fratricide). This effect may also take place in vivo because the appropriately timed injection of a cognate peptide into ovalbumin-immunized mice appeared to deplete their spleens of primed anti-ovalbumin CTLs. The results point to a possible physiologic mechanism for postthymic elimination of cytolytic T cells that recognize their own peptides in association with their own major histocompatibility complex protein. The results also raise the possibility that cognate peptides might eventually prove therapeutically useful for eliminating CTL clones that cause pathological cell destruction, as in some autoimmune diseases and some viral infections. Images PMID:2123347

  7. KL4 Peptide Induces Reversible Collapse Structures on Multiple Length Scales in Model Lung Surfactant

    PubMed Central

    Holten-Andersen, Niels; Michael Henderson, J.; Walther, Frans J.; Waring, Alan J.; Ruchala, Piotr; Notter, Robert H.; Lee, Ka Yee C.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effects of KL4, a 21-residue amphipathic peptide approximating the overall ratio of positively charged to hydrophobic amino acids in surfactant protein B (SP-B), on the structure and collapse of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol monolayers. As reported in prior work on model lung surfactant phospholipid films containing SP-B and SP-B peptides, our experiments show that KL4 improves surfactant film reversibility during repetitive interfacial cycling in association with the formation of reversible collapse structures on multiple length scales. Emphasis is on exploring a general mechanistic connection between peptide-induced nano- and microscale reversible collapse structures (silos and folds). PMID:22208194

  8. Visible-Light-Induced Specific Desulfurization of Cysteinyl Peptide and Glycopeptide in Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiao-Fei; Du, Jing-Jing; Liu, Zheng; Guo, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Visible-light-induced specific desulfurization of cysteinyl peptides has been explored. The photocatalytic desulfurization catalyzed by Ru(bpy)3(2+) can proceed efficiently at room temperature in aqueous solution or in binary mixtures of aqueous/organic solvent and be compatible with the presence of residues of amino acids, carbohydrates, and various sulfur-containing functional groups. This approach was successfully applied to synthesize linear and cyclic peptides through the ligation-desulfurization protocol. PMID:26892036

  9. An analogue peptide from the Cancer/Testis antigen PASD1 induces CD8+ T cell responses against naturally processed peptide

    PubMed Central

    Hardwick, Nicola; Buchan, Sarah; Ingram, Wendy; Khan, Ghazala; Vittes, Gisella; Rice, Jason; Pulford, Karen; Mufti, Ghulam; Stevenson, Freda; Guinn, Barbara-ann

    2013-01-01

    We have previously identified the novel Cancer/Testis antigen PASD1 by immunoscreening a testis library with pooled acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patient sera. To develop a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-inducing vaccine, we have now investigated the carboxy-terminal region, known to contain serological determinants, for MHC class I (HLA-A⋆0201)-binding peptides. Algorithm-selected natural peptides failed to show detectable HLA-A⋆0201 binding in T2 assays. However, anchor-modified analogue peptides showed enhanced binding, with decreased off-rates. Analogue peptide-loaded antigen-presenting cells (APCs) induced IFN-γ production by T cells from normal donors and patients. In addition, peptide-specific T cells could be expanded from cancer patients by stimulation with the PASD1 analogue peptide Pa14. For clinical application, a DNA fusion gene vaccine encoding Pa14 was designed and tested in “humanized” mice. Splenocytes from vaccinated mice showed in vitro cytotoxicity against tumour cells, either exogenously loaded with the corresponding wild-type peptide (Pw8) or expressing endogenously processed PASD1 protein. We show for the first time that a DNA vaccine encoding an altered PASD1 epitope can induce CTLs to target the natural peptide expressed by human tumour cells. PMID:23882161

  10. Cathelicidin peptide sheep myeloid antimicrobial peptide-29 prevents endotoxin-induced mortality in rat models of septic shock.

    PubMed

    Giacometti, Andrea; Cirioni, Oscar; Ghiselli, Roberto; Mocchegiani, Federico; D'Amato, Giuseppina; Circo, Raffaella; Orlando, Fiorenza; Skerlavaj, Barbara; Silvestri, Carmela; Saba, Vittorio; Zanetti, Margherita; Scalise, Giorgio

    2004-01-15

    The present study was designed to investigate the antiendotoxin activity and therapeutic efficacy of sheep myeloid antimicrobial peptide (SMAP)-29, a cathelicidin-derived peptide. The in vitro ability of SMAP-29 to bind LPS from Escherichia coli 0111:B4 was determined using a sensitive limulus chromogenic assay. Two rat models of septic shock were performed: (1) rats were injected intraperitoneally with 1 mg E. coli 0111:B4 LPS and (2) intraabdominal sepsis was induced via cecal ligation and single puncture. All animals were randomized to receive parenterally isotonic sodium chloride solution, 1 mg/kg SMAP-29, 1 mg/kg polymyxin B or 20 mg/kg imipenem. The main outcome measures were: abdominal exudate and plasma bacterial growth, plasma endotoxin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations, and lethality. The in vitro study showed that SMAP-29 completely inhibited the LPS procoagulant activity at approximately 10 microM peptide concentration. The in vivo experiments showed that all compounds reduced the lethality when compared with control animals. SMAP-29 achieved a substantial decrease in endotoxin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha plasma concentrations when compared with imipenem and saline treatment and exhibited a slightly lower antimicrobial activity than imipenem. No statistically significant differences were noted between SMAP-29 and polymyxin B. SMAP-29, because of its double antiendotoxin and antimicrobial activities, could be an interesting compound for septic shock treatment. PMID:14563656

  11. A Study into the Collision-induced Dissociation (CID) Behavior of Cross-Linked Peptides*

    PubMed Central

    Giese, Sven H.; Fischer, Lutz; Rappsilber, Juri

    2016-01-01

    Cross-linking/mass spectrometry resolves protein–protein interactions or protein folds by help of distance constraints. Cross-linkers with specific properties such as isotope-labeled or collision-induced dissociation (CID)-cleavable cross-linkers are in frequent use to simplify the identification of cross-linked peptides. Here, we analyzed the mass spectrometric behavior of 910 unique cross-linked peptides in high-resolution MS1 and MS2 from published data and validate the observation by a ninefold larger set from currently unpublished data to explore if detailed understanding of their fragmentation behavior would allow computational delivery of information that otherwise would be obtained via isotope labels or CID cleavage of cross-linkers. Isotope-labeled cross-linkers reveal cross-linked and linear fragments in fragmentation spectra. We show that fragment mass and charge alone provide this information, alleviating the need for isotope-labeling for this purpose. Isotope-labeled cross-linkers also indicate cross-linker-containing, albeit not specifically cross-linked, peptides in MS1. We observed that acquisition can be guided to better than twofold enrich cross-linked peptides with minimal losses based on peptide mass and charge alone. By help of CID-cleavable cross-linkers, individual spectra with only linear fragments can be recorded for each peptide in a cross-link. We show that cross-linked fragments of ordinary cross-linked peptides can be linearized computationally and that a simplified subspectrum can be extracted that is enriched in information on one of the two linked peptides. This allows identifying candidates for this peptide in a simplified database search as we propose in a search strategy here. We conclude that the specific behavior of cross-linked peptides in mass spectrometers can be exploited to relax the requirements on cross-linkers. PMID:26719564

  12. Role of chirality in peptide-induced formation of cholesterol-rich domains

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The chiral specificity of the interactions of peptides that induce the formation of cholesterol-rich domains has not been extensively investigated. Both the peptide and most lipids are chiral, so there is a possibility that interactions between peptide and lipid could require chiral recognition. On the other hand, in our models with small peptides, the extent of folding of the peptide to form a specific binding pocket is limited. We have determined that replacing cholesterol with its enantiomer, ent-cholesterol, alters the modulation of lipid organization by peptides. The phase-transition properties of SOPC (1-stearoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine):cholesterol [in a 6:4 ratio with 0.2 mol% PtdIns(4,5)P2] are not significantly altered when ent-cholesterol replaces cholesterol. However, in the presence of 10 mol% of a 19-amino-acid, N-terminally myristoylated fragment (myristoyl-GGKLSKKKKGYNVNDEKAK-amide) of the protein NAP-22 (neuronal axonal membrane protein), the lipid mixture containing cholesterol undergoes separation into cholesterol-rich and cholesterol-depleted domains. This does not occur when ent-cholesterol replaces cholesterol. In another example, when N-acetyl-Leu-Trp-Tyr-Ile-Lys-amide (N-acetyl-LWYIK-amide) is added to SOPC:cholesterol (7:3 ratio), there is a marked increase in the transition enthalpy of the phospholipid, indicating separation of a cholesterol-depleted domain of SOPC. This phenomenon completely disappears when ent-cholesterol replaces cholesterol. The all-D-isomer of N-acetyl-LWYIK-amide also induces the formation of cholesterol-rich domains with natural cholesterol, but does so to a lesser extent with ent-cholesterol. Thus specific peptide chirality is not required for interaction with cholesterol-containing membranes. However, a specific chirality of membrane lipids is required for peptide-induced formation of cholesterol-rich domains. PMID:15929726

  13. Intracellular delivery of fluorescent protein into viable wheat microspores using cationic peptides

    PubMed Central

    Bilichak, Andriy; Luu, Justin; Eudes, François

    2015-01-01

    Microspores are specialized generative cells with haploid genome that demonstrate the amenability toward embryogenesis under certain conditions. The induced microspore culture technique is largely exploited by the breeding programs of wheat and other crops due to its high efficiency for generation of the large number of haploid plants in the relatively short period of time. The ability to produce mature double haploid plant from a single cell has also attracted attention of the plant biotechnologists in the past few years. More importantly, the possibility to deliver proteins for improvement of embryogenesis and the genome modification purposes holds great potential for transgene-free wheat biotechnology. In the present study, we examined the ability of cationic and amphipathic cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) to convey a covalently-linked mCherry protein inside the viable microspores. We demonstrate that the affinity of CPPs to the microspore cells dependents on their charge with the highest efficiency of CPP-mCherry binding to the cells achieved by cationic CPPs (penetratin and R9). Additionally, due to overall negative charge of the microspore cell wall, the successful uptake of the protein cargo by live microspore cells is attained by utilization of a reversible disulfide bond between the R9 CPP and mCherry protein. Overall, the approach proposed herein can be applied by the other biotechnology groups for the fast and efficient screening of the different CPP candidates for their ability to deliver proteins inside the viable plant cells. PMID:26379691

  14. Identification of an HLA-A2-Restricted Epitope Peptide Derived from Hypoxia-Inducible Protein 2 (HIG2)

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Sachiko; Tsunoda, Takuya; Osawa, Ryuji; Harada, Makiko; Watanabe, Tomohisa; Hikichi, Tetsuro; Katsuda, Masahiro; Miyazawa, Motoki; Tani, Masaji; Iwahashi, Makoto; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Katagiri, Toyomasa; Nakamura, Yusuke; Yamaue, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    We herein report the identification of an HLA-A2 supertype-restricted epitope peptide derived from hypoxia-inducible protein 2 (HIG2), which is known to be a diagnostic marker and a potential therapeutic target for renal cell carcinoma. Among several candidate peptides predicted by the HLA-binding prediction algorithm, HIG2-9-4 peptide (VLNLYLLGV) was able to effectively induce peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). The established HIG2-9-4 peptide-specific CTL clone produced interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in response to HIG2-9-4 peptide-pulsed HLA-A*02:01-positive cells, as well as to cells in which HLA-A*02:01 and HIG2 were exogenously introduced. Moreover, the HIG2-9-4 peptide-specific CTL clone exerted cytotoxic activity against HIG2-expressing HLA-A*02:01-positive renal cancer cells, thus suggesting that the HIG2-9-4 peptide is naturally presented on HLA-A*02:01 of HIG-2-expressing cancer cells and is recognized by CTLs. Furthermore, we found that the HIG2-9-4 peptide could also induce CTLs under HLA-A*02:06 restriction. Taken together, these findings indicate that the HIG2-9-4 peptide is a novel HLA-A2 supertype-restricted epitope peptide that could be useful for peptide-based immunotherapy against cancer cells with HIG2 expression. PMID:24416375

  15. Potassium ions are more effective than sodium ions in salt induced peptide formation.

    PubMed

    Dubina, Michael V; Vyazmin, Sergey Yu; Boitsov, Vitali M; Nikolaev, Eugene N; Popov, Igor A; Kononikhin, Alexey S; Eliseev, Igor E; Natochin, Yuri V

    2013-04-01

    Prebiotic peptide formation under aqueous conditions in the presence of metal ions is one of the plausible triggers of the emergence of life. The salt-induced peptide formation reaction has been suggested as being prebiotically relevant and was examined for the formation of peptides in NaCl solutions. In previous work we have argued that the first protocell could have emerged in KCl solution. Using HPLC-MS/MS analysis, we found that K(+) is more than an order of magnitude more effective in the L-glutamic acid oligomerization with 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole in aqueous solutions than the same concentration of Na(+), which is consistent with the diffusion theory calculations. We anticipate that prebiotic peptides could have formed with K(+) as the driving force, not Na(+), as commonly believed. PMID:23536046

  16. Potassium Ions are More Effective than Sodium Ions in Salt Induced Peptide Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubina, Michael V.; Vyazmin, Sergey Yu.; Boitsov, Vitali M.; Nikolaev, Eugene N.; Popov, Igor A.; Kononikhin, Alexey S.; Eliseev, Igor E.; Natochin, Yuri V.

    2013-04-01

    Prebiotic peptide formation under aqueous conditions in the presence of metal ions is one of the plausible triggers of the emergence of life. The salt-induced peptide formation reaction has been suggested as being prebiotically relevant and was examined for the formation of peptides in NaCl solutions. In previous work we have argued that the first protocell could have emerged in KCl solution. Using HPLC-MS/MS analysis, we found that K+ is more than an order of magnitude more effective in the L-glutamic acid oligomerization with 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole in aqueous solutions than the same concentration of Na+, which is consistent with the diffusion theory calculations. We anticipate that prebiotic peptides could have formed with K+ as the driving force, not Na+, as commonly believed.

  17. Angiotensin peptides attenuate platelet-activating factor-induced inflammatory activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Sato, Akira; Yokoyama, Izumi; Ebina, Keiichi

    2015-11-01

    Angiotensin (Ang)--a peptide that is part of the renin-angiotensin system-induces vasoconstriction and a subsequent increase in blood pressure; Ang peptides, especially AngII, can also act as potent pro-inflammatory mediators. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a potent phospholipid mediator that is implicated in many inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of Ang peptides (AngII, AngIII, and AngIV) on PAF-induced inflammatory activity. In experiments using a rat hind-paw oedema model, AngII markedly and dose-dependently attenuated the paw oedema induced by PAF. The inhibitory effects of AngIII and AngIV on PAF-induced paw oedema were lower than that of AngII. Two Ang receptors, the AT1 and AT2 receptors, did not affect the AngII-mediated attenuation of PAF-induced paw oedema. Moreover, intrinsic tyrosine fluorescence studies demonstrated that AngII, AngIII, and AngIV interact with PAF, and that their affinities were closely correlated with their inhibitory effects on PAF-induced rat paw oedema. Also, AngII interacted with metabolite/precursor of PAF (lyso-PAF), and an oxidized phospholipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-(5'-oxo-valeroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POVPC), which bears a marked structural resemblance to PAF. Furthermore, POVPC dose-dependently inhibited AngII-mediated attenuation of PAF-induced paw oedema. These results suggest that Ang peptides can attenuate PAF-induced inflammatory activity through binding to PAF and lyso-PAF in rats. Therefore, Ang peptides may be closely involved in the regulation of many inflammatory diseases caused by PAF. PMID:26348270

  18. Laminin peptide YIGSR induces collagen synthesis in Hs27 human dermal fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Jong Hyuk; Kim, Jaeyoon; Lee, Hyeongjoo; Kim, So Young; Jang, Hwan-Hee; Ryu, Sung Ho; Kim, Beom Joon; Lee, Taehoon G.

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We identify a function of the YIGSR peptide to enhance collagen synthesis in Hs27. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer YIGSR peptide enhanced collagen type 1 synthesis both of gene and protein levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There were no changes in cell proliferation and MMP-1 level in YIGSR treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The YIGSR effect on collagen synthesis mediated activation of FAK, pyk2 and ERK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The YIGSR-induced FAK and ERK activation was modulated by FAK and MEK inhibitors. -- Abstract: The dermal ECM is synthesized from fibroblasts and is primarily compromised of fibrillar collagen and elastic fibers, which support the mechanical strength and resiliency of skin, respectively. Laminin, a major glycoprotein located in the basement membrane, promotes cell adhesion, cell growth, differentiation, and migration. The laminin tyrosine-isoleucine-glycine-serine-arginine (YIGSR) peptide, corresponding to the 929-933 sequence of the {beta}1 chain, is known to be a functional motif with effects on the inhibition of tumor metastasis, the regulation of sensory axonal response and the inhibition of angiogenesis through high affinity to the 67 kDa laminin receptor. In this study, we identified a novel function of the YIGSR peptide to enhance collagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblasts. To elucidate this novel function regarding collagen synthesis, we treated human dermal fibroblasts with YIGSR peptide in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. According to subsequent experiments, we found that the YIGSR peptide strongly enhanced collagen type 1 synthesis without changing cell proliferation or cellular MMP-1 level. This YIGSR peptide-mediated collagen type 1 synthesis was modulated by FAK inhibitor and MEK inhibitor. This study clearly reveals that YIGSR peptide plays a novel function on the collagen type 1 synthesis of dermal fibroblasts and also suggests that YIGSR is a strong candidate

  19. Duck-billed platypus venom peptides induce Ca2+ influx in neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kita, Masaki; Black, David StC; Ohno, Osamu; Yamada, Kaoru; Kigoshi, Hideo; Uemura, Daisuke

    2009-12-23

    The duck-billed platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) is one of the few venomous Australian mammals. We previously found that its crude venom potently induces Ca(2+) influx in human neuroblastoma IMR-32 cells. Guided by this bioassay, we identified 11 novel peptides, including the heptapeptide H-His-Asp-His-Pro-Asn-Pro-Arg-OH (1). Compounds 1-4 and 5-11 coincided with the 6-9 N-terminal residues of Ornithorhynchus venom C-type natriuretic peptide (OvCNP) and the 132-150 part of OvCNP precursor peptide, respectively. Heptapeptide 1, which is one of the primary components of the venom fluid (approximately 200 ng/microL), induced a significant increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in IMR-32 cells at 75 microM. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of the isolation of the N-terminal linear fragments of CNPs in any mammal. PMID:19928958

  20. Inhibitory Effects of Antimicrobial Peptides on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yue; Shang, Dejing

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are usually small molecule peptides, which display broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, high efficiency, and stability. For the multiple-antibiotic-resistant strains, AMPs play a significant role in the development of novel antibiotics because of their broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities and specific antimicrobial mechanism. Besides broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, AMPs also have anti-inflammatory activity. The neutralization of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) plays a key role in anti-inflammatory action of AMPs. On the one hand, AMPs can readily penetrate the cell wall barrier by neutralizing LPS to remove Gram-negative bacteria that can lead to infection. On the contrary, AMPs can also inhibit the production of biological inflammatory cytokines to reduce the inflammatory response through neutralizing circulating LPS. In addition, AMPs also modulate the host immune system by chemotaxis of leukocytes, to promote immune cell proliferation, epithelialization, and angiogenesis and thus play a protective role. This review summarizes some recent researches about anti-inflammatory AMPs, with a focus on the interaction of AMPs and LPS on the past decade. PMID:26612970

  1. Photo-induced reversible structural transition of cationic diphenylalanine peptide self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongchao; Fei, Jinbo; Li, Qi; Li, Junbai

    2015-04-17

    The photo-induced self-assembly of a cationic diphenylalanine peptide (CDP) is investigated using a photoswitchable sulfonic azobenzene as the manipulating unit. A reversible structural transition between a branched structure and a vesicle-like structure is observed by alternating between UV and visible light irradiation. PMID:25405602

  2. Lipoproteins/peptides are sepsis-inducing toxins from bacteria that can be neutralized by synthetic anti-endotoxin peptides

    PubMed Central

    de Tejada, Guillermo Martinez; Heinbockel, Lena; Ferrer-Espada, Raquel; Heine, Holger; Alexander, Christian; Bárcena-Varela, Sergio; Goldmann, Torsten; Correa, Wilmar; Wiesmüller, Karl-Heinz; Gisch, Nicolas; Sánchez-Gómez, Susana; Fukuoka, Satoshi; Schürholz, Tobias; Gutsmann, Thomas; Brandenburg, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis, a life-threatening syndrome with increasing incidence worldwide, is triggered by an overwhelming inflammation induced by microbial toxins released into the bloodstream during infection. A well-known sepsis-inducing factor is the membrane constituent of Gram-negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), signalling via Toll-like receptor-4. Although sepsis is caused in more than 50% cases by Gram-positive and mycoplasma cells, the causative compounds are still poorly described. In contradicting investigations lipoproteins/-peptides (LP), lipoteichoic acids (LTA), and peptidoglycans (PGN), were made responsible for eliciting this pathology. Here, we used human mononuclear cells from healthy donors to determine the cytokine-inducing activity of various LPs from different bacterial origin, synthetic and natural, and compared their activity with that of natural LTA and PGN. We demonstrate that LP are the most potent non-LPS pro-inflammatory toxins of the bacterial cell walls, signalling via Toll-like receptor-2, not only in vitro, but also when inoculated into mice: A synthetic LP caused sepsis-related pathological symptoms in a dose-response manner. Additionally, these mice produced pro-inflammatory cytokines characteristic of a septic reaction. Importantly, the recently designed polypeptide Aspidasept® which has been proven to efficiently neutralize LPS in vivo, inhibited cytokines induced by the various non-LPS compounds protecting animals from the pro-inflammatory activity of synthetic LP. PMID:26390973

  3. Inhibition of Hepatocyte Apoptosis: An Important Mechanism of Corn Peptides Attenuating Liver Injury Induced by Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhili; Hou, Tao; Shi, Wen; Liu, Weiwei; He, Hui

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effects of mixed corn peptides and synthetic pentapeptide (QLLPF) on hepatocyte apoptosis induced by ethanol were investigated in vivo. QLLPF, was previously characterized from corn protein hydrolysis, which had been shown to exert good facilitating alcohol metabolism activity. Mice were pre-treated with the mixed corn peptides and the pentapeptide for 1 week and then treated with ethanol. After treatment of three weeks, the biochemical indices and the key ethanol metabolizing enzymes, the serum TNF-α, liver TGF-β1 concentrations and the protein expressions related to apoptosis were determined. We found that the Bcl-2, Bax and cytochrome c expressions in the intrinsic pathway and the Fas, FasL and NF-κB expressions in the extrinsic pathway together with higher TNF-α and TGF-β1 concentrations were reversed compared with the model group by both the mixed corn peptides and the pentapeptide. The activation of caspase3 was also suppressed. Additionally, apoptosis was further confirmed with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and the TUNEL assay demonstrated peptides suppressed hepatocyte apoptosis. Our results suggest that apoptosis induced by ethanol is alleviated in response to the treatment of corn peptides, potentially due to reversing the related protein expression. PMID:26378531

  4. Peptide Scrambling During Collision-Induced Dissociation is Influenced by N-terminal Residue Basicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chawner, Ross; Holman, Stephen W.; Gaskell, Simon J.; Eyers, Claire E.

    2014-08-01

    `Bottom up' proteomic studies typically use tandem mass spectrometry data to infer peptide ion sequence, enabling identification of the protein whence they derive. The majority of such studies employ collision-induced dissociation (CID) to induce fragmentation of the peptide structure giving diagnostic b-, y-, and a- ions. Recently, rearrangement processes that result in scrambling of the original peptide sequence during CID have been reported for these ions. Such processes have the potential to adversely affect ion accounting (and thus scores from automated search algorithms) in tandem mass spectra, and in extreme cases could lead to false peptide identification. Here, analysis of peptide species produced by Lys-N proteolysis of standard proteins is performed and sequences that exhibit such rearrangement processes identified. The effect of increasing the gas-phase basicity of the N-terminal lysine residue through derivatization to homoarginine toward such sequence scrambling is then assessed. The presence of a highly basic homoarginine (or arginine) residue at the N-terminus is found to disfavor/inhibit sequence scrambling with a coincident increase in the formation of b(n-1)+H2O product ions. Finally, further analysis of a sequence produced by Lys-C proteolysis provides evidence toward a potential mechanism for the apparent inhibition of sequence scrambling during resonance excitation CID.

  5. Aggregation and hemi-fusion of anionic vesicles induced by the antimicrobial peptide cryptdin-4.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Jason E; Vanderlick, T Kyle

    2007-07-01

    We show that cryptdin-4 (Crp4), an antimicrobial peptide found in mice, induces the aggregation and hemi-fusion of charged phospholipid vesicles constructed of the anionic lipid POPG and the zwitterionic lipid POPC. Hemi-fusion is confirmed with positive total lipid-mixing assay results, negative inner monolayer lipid-mixing assay results, and negative results from contents-mixing assays. Aggregation, as quantified by absorbance and dynamic light scattering, is self-limiting, creating finite-sized vesicle assemblies. The rate limiting step in the formation process is the mixing of juxtaposed membrane leaflets, which is regulated by bound peptide concentration as well as vesicle radius (with larger vesicles less prone to hemi-fusion). Bound peptide concentration is readily controlled by total peptide concentration and the fraction of anionic lipid in the vesicles. As little as 1% PEGylated lipid significantly reduces aggregate size by providing a steric barrier for membrane apposition. Finally, as stable hemi-fusion is a rare occurrence, we compare properties of Crp4 to those of many peptides known to induce complete fusion and lend insight into conditions necessary for this unusual type of membrane merger. PMID:17531950

  6. Peptide-Lipid Interactions of the Stress-Response Peptide TisB That Induces Bacterial Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Steinbrecher, Thomas; Prock, Sebastian; Reichert, Johannes; Wadhwani, Parvesh; Zimpfer, Benjamin; Bürck, Jochen; Berditsch, Marina; Elstner, Marcus; Ulrich, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial stress-response peptide TisB in Escherichia coli has been suggested to dissipate the transmembrane potential, such that the depletion of ATP levels induces the formation of dormant persister cells which can eventually form biofilms. We studied the structure and membrane interactions of TisB to find out whether it forms pores or other proton-selective channels. Circular dichroism revealed an amphiphilic α-helical structure when reconstituted in lipid vesicles, and oriented circular dichroism showed that the helix assumes a transmembrane alignment. The addition of TisB to dye-loaded vesicles caused leakage only at very high peptide concentration, notably with a Hill coefficient of 2, which suggests that dimers must be involved. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations showed that membrane binding of monomeric TisB is rapid and spontaneous, and transmembrane insertion is energetically feasible. When TisB oligomers are assembled as transmembrane pores, these channels collapse during the simulations, but transmembrane dimers are found to be stable. Given the pattern of charges on the amphiphilic TisB helix, we postulate that antiparallel dimers could be assembled via a ladder of salt bridges. This electrostatic charge-zipper could enable protons to pass along a wire of trapped water molecules across the hydrophobic membrane. PMID:23062338

  7. The thrombin receptor extracellular domain contains sites crucial for peptide ligand-induced activation.

    PubMed Central

    Bahou, W F; Coller, B S; Potter, C L; Norton, K J; Kutok, J L; Goligorsky, M S

    1993-01-01

    A thrombin receptor (TR) demonstrating a unique activation mechanism has recently been isolated from a megakaryocytic (Dami) cell line. To further study determinants of peptide ligand-mediated activation phenomenon, we have isolated, cloned, and stably expressed the identical receptor from a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) library. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing a functional TR (CHO-TR), platelets, and HUVECs were then used to specifically characterize alpha-thrombin- and peptide ligand-induced activation responses using two different antibodies: anti-TR34-52 directed against a 20-amino acid peptide spanning the thrombin cleavage site, and anti-TR1-160 generated against the NH2-terminal 160 amino acids of the TR expressed as a chimeric protein in Escherichia coli. Activation-dependent responses to both alpha-thrombin (10 nM) and peptide ligand (20 microM) were studied using fura 2-loaded cells and microspectrofluorimetry. Whereas preincubation of CHO-TR with anti-TR34-52 abolished only alpha-thrombin-induced [Ca2+]i transients, preincubation with anti-TR1-160 abrogated both alpha-thrombin- and peptide ligand-induced responses. This latter inhibitory effect was dose dependent and similar for both agonists, with an EC50 of approximately 90 micrograms/ml. Anti-TR1-160 similarly abolished peptide ligand-induced [Ca2+]i transients in platelets and HUVECs, whereas qualitatively different responses characterized by delayed but sustained elevations in [Ca2+]i transients were evident using alpha-thrombin. Platelet aggregation to low concentrations of both ligands was nearly abolished by anti-TR1-160, although some shape change remained; anti-TR34-52 only inhibited alpha-thrombin-induced aggregation. These data establish that a critical recognition sequence for peptide ligand-mediated receptor activation is contained on the NH2-terminal portion of the receptor, upstream from the first transmembrane domain. Furthermore, alpha-thrombin-induced

  8. Membrane Thinning and Thickening Induced by Membrane-Active Amphipathic Peptides.

    PubMed

    Grage, Stephan L; Afonin, Sergii; Kara, Sezgin; Buth, Gernot; Ulrich, Anne S

    2016-01-01

    Membrane thinning has been discussed as a fundamental mechanism by which antimicrobial peptides can perturb cellular membranes. To understand which factors play a role in this process, we compared several amphipathic peptides with different structures, sizes and functions in their influence on the lipid bilayer thickness. PGLa and magainin 2 from X. laevis were studied as typical representatives of antimicrobial cationic amphipathic α-helices. A 1:1 mixture of these peptides, which is known to possess synergistically enhanced activity, allowed us to evaluate whether and how this synergistic interaction correlates with changes in membrane thickness. Other systems investigated here include the α-helical stress-response peptide TisB from E. coli (which forms membrane-spanning dimers), as well as gramicidin S from A. migulanus (a natural antibiotic), and BP100 (designer-made antimicrobial and cell penetrating peptide). The latter two are very short, with a circular β-pleated and a compact α-helical structure, respectively. Solid-state (2)H-NMR and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) on oriented phospholipid bilayers were used as complementary techniques to access the hydrophobic thickness as well as the bilayer-bilayer repeat distance including the water layer in between. This way, we found that magainin 2, gramicidin S, and BP100 induced membrane thinning, as expected for amphiphilic peptides residing in the polar/apolar interface of the bilayer. PGLa, on the other hand, decreased the hydrophobic thickness only at very high peptide:lipid ratios, and did not change the bilayer-bilayer repeat distance. TisB even caused an increase in the hydrophobic thickness and repeat distance. When reconstituted as a mixture, PGLa and magainin 2 showed a moderate thinning effect which was less than that of magainin 2 alone, hence their synergistically enhanced activity does not seem to correlate with a modulation of membrane thickness. Overall, the absence of

  9. Peptide-induced emesis in dogs: possible relevance to radiation-induced emesis. Final report Oct 80-Sep 81

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, D.O.

    1982-09-01

    Results of earlier investigators indicate that radioemesis is mediated by some humoral agent(s). Peptides are likely candiates since they exert a number of biological effects and are released from storage sites by various stimuli, including radiation. Peptides at various concentrations were injected singly intravenously into conscious dogs, and the dog's emetic response was observed. Of the peptides tested, neurotensin, angiotensin II, vasopressin, oxytocin, and TRH produced consistent emetic responses. Inhibition of drug-induced emesis was studied both centrally (chlorpromazine) and peripherally (domperidone) acting dopamine antagonists. Results indicate inhibition by chlorpromazine, which crosses the blood brain barrier, but only partial blockade by domperidone, which does not cross the blood brain barrier. Preliminary studies were conducted attempting to characterize types of receptors on area postrema neurons. Single-cell recordings from these neurons, challenged by iontophoretic administration of various neurotransmitters, show stimulation by glutamic acid and serotonin and inhibiiton by norepinephrine.

  10. Inhibition of peptide binding to DR molecules by a leupeptin-induced invariant chain fragment.

    PubMed

    Demotz, S; Danieli, C; Wallny, H J; Majdic, O

    1994-08-01

    Loading of peptides onto DR molecules was studied by characterizing precursors of the mature peptide-DR complexes expressed at the surface of B cells. Since invariant chain (Ii) prevents binding of peptides by DR molecules, it was speculated that analysis of complexes between DR heterodimers and proteolytic fragments of Ii offers the possibility to examine how DR molecules and peptides assemble. Using a procedure combining a two-step affinity chromatography and gel filtration, we isolated from leupeptin-treated B cells complexes between DR molecules and N-terminal Ii fragments previously called "leupeptin-induced polypeptides" (LIP; Blum and Cresswell, 1988, Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85, 3975-3979). It was observed that the most prominent LIP fragment has a relative molecular mass (M(r)) of 16 kDa. In addition, we show that this polypeptide species does not bear N-linked glycans, indicating that this fragment does not extend beyond residue 129 of Ii. Similarly to DR alpha beta heterodimers associated with the full length 33 and 35 kDa Ii forms, DR alpha beta heterodimers associated with LIP fragments are unstable in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at ambient temperature, whereas mature DR alpha beta heterodimers are resistant to dissociation with SDS. These results are indirect evidence that LIP-DR complexes are devoid of bound peptides. This possibility was supported by showing that LIP-DR complexes fail to bind a radioiodinated tetanus toxin peptide (125I-p2), while DR molecules, which are spontaneously released from complexes with LIP fragments, bind the labeled peptide. These results demonstrate that association with LIP fragments is sufficient to prevent binding of peptides by DR molecules. This notion was further documented by showing that binding of 125I-p2 on DR heterodimers is inhibited by preparations of LIP fragment. By contrast, a soluble recombinant fragment corresponding to the extracytoplasmic region of Ii did not block 125I-p2 binding. The results

  11. Vv-AMP1, a ripening induced peptide from Vitis vinifera shows strong antifungal activity

    PubMed Central

    de Beer, Abré; Vivier, Melané A

    2008-01-01

    Background Latest research shows that small antimicrobial peptides play a role in the innate defense system of plants. These peptides typically contribute to preformed defense by developing protective barriers around germinating seeds or between different tissue layers within plant organs. The encoding genes could also be upregulated by abiotic and biotic stimuli during active defense processes. The peptides display a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities. Their potent anti-pathogenic characteristics have ensured that they are promising targets in the medical and agricultural biotechnology sectors. Results A berry specific cDNA sequence designated Vv-AMP1, Vitis vinifera antimicrobial peptide 1, was isolated from Vitis vinifera. Vv-AMP1 encodes for a 77 amino acid peptide that shows sequence homology to the family of plant defensins. Vv-AMP1 is expressed in a tissue specific, developmentally regulated manner, being only expressed in berry tissue at the onset of berry ripening and onwards. Treatment of leaf and berry tissue with biotic or abiotic factors did not lead to increased expression of Vv-AMP1 under the conditions tested. The predicted signal peptide of Vv-AMP1, fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP), showed that the signal peptide allowed accumulation of its product in the apoplast. Vv-AMP1 peptide, produced in Escherichia coli, had a molecular mass of 5.495 kDa as determined by mass spectrometry. Recombinant Vv-AMP1 was extremely heat-stable and showed strong antifungal activity against a broad spectrum of plant pathogenic fungi, with very high levels of activity against the wilting disease causing pathogens Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae. The Vv-AMP1 peptide did not induce morphological changes on the treated fungal hyphae, but instead strongly inhibited hyphal elongation. A propidium iodide uptake assay suggested that the inhibitory activity of Vv-AMP1 might be associated with altering the membrane permeability of the fungal

  12. Cationic Peptides Facilitate Iron-induced Mutagenesis in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Rojas, Alexandro; Makarova, Olga; Müller, Uta; Rolff, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the causative agent of chronic respiratory infections and is an important pathogen of cystic fibrosis patients. Adaptive mutations play an essential role for antimicrobial resistance and persistence. The factors that contribute to bacterial mutagenesis in this environment are not clear. Recently it has been proposed that cationic antimicrobial peptides such as LL-37 could act as mutagens in P. aeruginosa. Here we provide experimental evidence that mutagenesis is the product of a joint action of LL-37 and free iron. By estimating mutation rate, mutant frequencies and assessing mutational spectra in P. aeruginosa treated either with LL-37, iron or a combination of both we demonstrate that mutation rate and mutant frequency were increased only when free iron and LL-37 were present simultaneously. Colistin had the same effect. The addition of an iron chelator completely abolished this mutagenic effect, suggesting that LL-37 enables iron to enter the cells resulting in DNA damage by Fenton reactions. This was also supported by the observation that the mutational spectrum of the bacteria under LL-37-iron regime showed one of the characteristic Fenton reaction fingerprints: C to T transitions. Free iron concentration in nature and within hosts is kept at a very low level, but the situation in infected lungs of cystic fibrosis patients is different. Intermittent bleeding and damage to the epithelial cells in lungs may contribute to the release of free iron that in turn leads to generation of reactive oxygen species and deterioration of the respiratory tract, making it more susceptible to the infection. PMID:26430769

  13. Cationic Peptides Facilitate Iron-induced Mutagenesis in Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rojas, Alexandro; Makarova, Olga; Müller, Uta; Rolff, Jens

    2015-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the causative agent of chronic respiratory infections and is an important pathogen of cystic fibrosis patients. Adaptive mutations play an essential role for antimicrobial resistance and persistence. The factors that contribute to bacterial mutagenesis in this environment are not clear. Recently it has been proposed that cationic antimicrobial peptides such as LL-37 could act as mutagens in P. aeruginosa. Here we provide experimental evidence that mutagenesis is the product of a joint action of LL-37 and free iron. By estimating mutation rate, mutant frequencies and assessing mutational spectra in P. aeruginosa treated either with LL-37, iron or a combination of both we demonstrate that mutation rate and mutant frequency were increased only when free iron and LL-37 were present simultaneously. Colistin had the same effect. The addition of an iron chelator completely abolished this mutagenic effect, suggesting that LL-37 enables iron to enter the cells resulting in DNA damage by Fenton reactions. This was also supported by the observation that the mutational spectrum of the bacteria under LL-37-iron regime showed one of the characteristic Fenton reaction fingerprints: C to T transitions. Free iron concentration in nature and within hosts is kept at a very low level, but the situation in infected lungs of cystic fibrosis patients is different. Intermittent bleeding and damage to the epithelial cells in lungs may contribute to the release of free iron that in turn leads to generation of reactive oxygen species and deterioration of the respiratory tract, making it more susceptible to the infection. PMID:26430769

  14. Peptide-induced membrane curvature in edge-stabilized open bilayers: a theoretical and molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Pannuzzo, Martina; Raudino, Antonio; Böckmann, Rainer A

    2014-07-14

    Peptide- or protein-induced curvatures of lipid membranes may be studied in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In these, membranes are usually modeled as infinitely extended bilayers by using periodic boundary conditions. However, the enforced periodicity results in an underestimation of the bending power of peptides, unless the patch size is much larger than the induced curvature radii. In this letter, we propose a novel approach to evaluate the bending power of a given distribution and/or density of peptides based on the use of flat open-edged lipid patches. To ensure long-lived metastable structures, the patch rim is stabilized in MD simulations by a local enrichment with short-chain lipids. By combining the theory of continuum elastic media with MD simulations, we prove that open-edged patches evolve from a planar state to a closed vesicle, with a transition rate that strongly depends on the concentration of lipid soluble peptides. For close-to-critical values for the patch size and edge energy, the response to even small changes in peptide concentration adopts a transition-like behavior (buckling instability). The usage of open-edged membrane patches amplifies the bending power of peptides, thereby enabling the analysis of the structural properties of membrane-peptide systems. We applied the presented method to investigate the curvature induced by aggregating β -amyloid peptides, unraveling a strong sensitivity of membrane deformation to the peptide concentration. PMID:25028040

  15. Peptide-induced membrane curvature in edge-stabilized open bilayers: A theoretical and molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pannuzzo, Martina; Raudino, Antonio; Böckmann, Rainer A.

    2014-07-01

    Peptide- or protein-induced curvatures of lipid membranes may be studied in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In these, membranes are usually modeled as infinitely extended bilayers by using periodic boundary conditions. However, the enforced periodicity results in an underestimation of the bending power of peptides, unless the patch size is much larger than the induced curvature radii. In this letter, we propose a novel approach to evaluate the bending power of a given distribution and/or density of peptides based on the use of flat open-edged lipid patches. To ensure long-lived metastable structures, the patch rim is stabilized in MD simulations by a local enrichment with short-chain lipids. By combining the theory of continuum elastic media with MD simulations, we prove that open-edged patches evolve from a planar state to a closed vesicle, with a transition rate that strongly depends on the concentration of lipid soluble peptides. For close-to-critical values for the patch size and edge energy, the response to even small changes in peptide concentration adopts a transition-like behavior (buckling instability). The usage of open-edged membrane patches amplifies the bending power of peptides, thereby enabling the analysis of the structural properties of membrane-peptide systems. We applied the presented method to investigate the curvature induced by aggregating β -amyloid peptides, unraveling a strong sensitivity of membrane deformation to the peptide concentration.

  16. Role of extracellular domain dimerization in agonist-induced activation of natriuretic peptide receptor A.

    PubMed

    Parat, Marie; McNicoll, Normand; Wilkes, Brian; Fournier, Alain; De Léan, André

    2008-02-01

    Natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR) A is composed of an extracellular domain (ECD) with a ligand binding site, a single transmembrane region, a kinase homology domain, and a guanylyl cyclase domain. The natural agonists atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP) bind and activate NPRA, leading to cyclic GMP production, which is responsible for their role in cardiovascular homeostasis. Previous studies suggested that stabilization of a dimeric form of NPRA by agonist is essential for receptor activation. However, ligand specificity and sequential steps of this dimerization process have not been investigated. We used radioligand binding, fluorescence resonance energy transfer homoquenching, and molecular modeling to characterize the interaction of human NPRA-ECD with ANP, BNP, the superagonist (Arg(10),Leu(12),Ser(17),Leu(18))-rANP-(1-28), the minimized analog mini-ANP and the antagonist (Arg(6),beta-cyclohexyl-Ala(8),d-Tic(16),Arg(17),Cys(18))-rANP-(6-18)-amide (A71915). ANP binds to preformed ECD dimers and spontaneous dimerization is the rate-limiting step of the ligand binding process. All the studied peptides, including A71915 antagonist, induce a dose-dependent fluorescence homoquenching, specific to dimerization, with potencies highly correlated with their binding affinities. A71915 induced more quenching than other peptides, suggesting stabilization by the antagonist of ECD dimer in a distinct inactive conformation. In summary, these results indicate that the ligand-induced dimerization process of NPRA is different from that for cytokine receptor model. Agonists or antagonists bind to preformed dimeric ECD, leading to dimer stabilization in an active or inactive conformation, respectively. Furthermore, the highly sensitive fluorescence assay designed to assess dimerization could serve as a powerful tool for further detailing the kinetic steps involved in natriuretic peptide receptor binding and activation. PMID:17965196

  17. Mitophagy induced by nanoparticle-peptide conjugates enabling an alternative intracellular trafficking route.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaolei; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Yanqing; Liu, Jinyin; Xing, Xiaoyun; Zhong, Jun; Xu, Guoqiang; Kang, Zhenhui; Liu, Jian

    2015-10-01

    The intracellular behaviors of nanoparticles are fundamentally important for the evaluation of their biosafety and the designs of nano carrier-assisted drug delivery with high therapeutic efficacy. It is still in a great need to discover how functionalized nanoparticles are transported inside the cells, for instance, in a complicated fashion of translocation between different types of cell organelles. Here we report a new understanding of the interactions between nanoparticles and cells by the development of polyoxometalates nanoparticle-peptide conjugates and investigation of their intracellular trafficking behaviors. The as-prepared nanoparticles are featured with a unique combination of fluorescence and high contrast for synchrotron X-ray-based imaging. Functional surface modification with peptides facilitates effective delivery of the nanoparticles onto the target organelle (mitochondria) and subsequent intracellular trafficking in a dynamic mode. Interestingly, our experimental results have revealed that autophagy of mitochondria (mitophagy) can be induced by NP-peptide as a cellular response for recycling the damaged organelles, through molecular mediation associated with the change of mitochondrial membrane potential. The biological effects induced by NP-peptide reciprocally affect the distribution patterns and fates of nanoparticles in the cell metabolism by providing an alternative route of intracellular trafficking. The new understanding of the mutual activities between nanoparticles and cells will enrich our approaches in the development of nanobiotechnology and nano-medicine for disease treatments. PMID:26142776

  18. Distinct Membrane Disruption Pathways Are Induced by 40-Residue β-Amyloid Peptides.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Dennis A; Doherty, Katelynne; Cheng, Qinghui; Kim, Hyeongeun; Xu, Dawei; Dong, He; Grewer, Christof; Qiang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Cellular membrane disruption induced by β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides has been considered one of the major pathological mechanisms for Alzheimer disease. Mechanistic studies of the membrane disruption process at a high-resolution level, on the other hand, are hindered by the co-existence of multiple possible pathways, even in simplified model systems such as the phospholipid liposome. Therefore, separation of these pathways is crucial to achieve an in-depth understanding of the Aβ-induced membrane disruption process. This study, which utilized a combination of multiple biophysical techniques, shows that the peptide-to-lipid (P:L) molar ratio is an important factor that regulates the selection of dominant membrane disruption pathways in the presence of 40-residue Aβ peptides in liposomes. Three distinct pathways (fibrillation with membrane content leakage, vesicle fusion, and lipid uptake through a temporarily stable ionic channel) become dominant in model liposome systems under specific conditions. These individual systems are characterized by both the initial states of Aβ peptides and the P:L molar ratio. Our results demonstrated the possibility to generate simplified Aβ-membrane model systems with a homogeneous membrane disruption pathway, which will benefit high-resolution mechanistic studies in the future. Fundamentally, the possibility of pathway selection controlled by P:L suggests that the driving forces for Aβ aggregation and Aβ-membrane interactions may be similar at the molecular level. PMID:27056326

  19. Cell-Penetrating Peptide Induces Leaky Fusion of Liposomes Containing Late Endosome-Specific Anionic Lipid

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sung-Tae; Zaitseva, Elena; Chernomordik, Leonid V.; Melikov, Kamran

    2010-01-01

    Cationic cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are a promising vehicle for the delivery of macromolecular drugs. Although many studies have indicated that CPPs enter cells by endocytosis, the mechanisms by which they cross endosomal membranes remain elusive. On the basis of experiments with liposomes, we propose that CPP escape into the cytosol is based on leaky fusion (i.e., fusion associated with the permeabilization of membranes) of the bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP)-enriched membranes of late endosomes. In our experiments, prototypic CPP HIV-1 TAT peptide did not interact with liposomes mimicking the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane, but it did induce lipid mixing and membrane leakage as it translocated into liposomes mimicking the lipid composition of late endosome. Both membrane leakage and lipid mixing depended on the BMP content and were promoted at acidic pH, which is characteristic of late endosomes. Substitution of BMP with its structural isomer, phosphatidylglycerol (PG), significantly reduced both leakage of the aqueous probe from liposomes and lipid mixing between liposomes. Although affinity of binding to TAT was similar for BMP and PG, BMP exhibited a higher tendency to support the inverted hexagonal phase than PG. Finally, membrane leakage and peptide translocation were both inhibited by inhibitors of lipid mixing, further substantiating the hypothesis that cationic peptides cross BMP-enriched membranes by inducing leaky fusion between them. PMID:20959093

  20. Antigen-oriented T cell migration contributes to myelin peptide induced-EAE and immune tolerance.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Peiguo; Fu, Hanxiao; Wei, Gaohui; Wei, Zhongwei; Zhang, Junhua; Ma, Xuehan; Rui, Dong; Meng, Xianchun; Ming, Liang

    2016-08-01

    Treatment with soluble myelin peptide can efficiently and specifically induce tolerance to demyelination autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis, however the mechanism underlying this therapeutic effect remains to be elucidated. In actively induced mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) we analyzed T cell and innate immune cell responses in the central nervous system (CNS) and spleen after intraperitoneal (i.p.) infusion of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). We found that i.p. MOG infusion blocked effector T cell recruitment to the CNS and protected mice from EAE and lymphoid organ atrophy. Innate immune CD11b(+) cells preferentially recruited MOG-specific effector T cells, particularly when activated to become competent antigen presenting cells (APCs). During EAE development, mature APCs were enriched in the CNS rather than in the spleen, attracting effector T cells to the CNS. Increased myelin antigen exposure induced CNS-APC maturation, recruiting additional effector T cells to the CNS, causing symptoms of disease. MOG triggered functional maturation of splenic APCs. MOG presenting APCs interacted with MOG-specific T cells in the spleen, aggregating to cluster around CD11b(+) cells, and were trapped in the periphery. This process was MHC II dependent as an MHC II directed antibody blocked CD4(+) T cell cluster formation. These findings highlight the role of myelin peptide-loaded APCs in myelin peptide-induced EAE and immune tolerance. PMID:27327113

  1. Anti-apoptotic peptides protect against radiation-induced cell death

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, Kevin W.; Muenzer, Jared T.; Chang, Kathy C.; Davis, Chris G.; McDunn, Jonathan E.; Coopersmith, Craig M.; Hilliard, Carolyn A.; Hotchkiss, Richard S.; Grigsby, Perry W.; Hunt, Clayton R. . E-mail: chunt@radonc.wustl.edu

    2007-04-06

    The risk of terrorist attacks utilizing either nuclear or radiological weapons has raised concerns about the current lack of effective radioprotectants. Here it is demonstrated that the BH4 peptide domain of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL can be delivered to cells by covalent attachment to the TAT peptide transduction domain (TAT-BH4) and provide protection in vitro and in vivo from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Isolated human lymphocytes treated with TAT-BH4 were protected against apoptosis following exposure to 15 Gy radiation. In mice exposed to 5 Gy radiation, TAT-BH4 treatment protected splenocytes and thymocytes from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Most importantly, in vivo radiation protection was observed in mice whether TAT-BH4 treatment was given prior to or after irradiation. Thus, by targeting steps within the apoptosis signaling pathway it is possible to develop post-exposure treatments to protect radio-sensitive tissues.

  2. Hydroxymethyl-phytochelatins [(gamma-glutamylcysteine)n-serine] are metal-induced peptides of the Poaceae.

    PubMed

    Klapheck, S; Fliegner, W; Zimmer, I

    1994-04-01

    Exposure of several species of the family Poaceae to cadmium results in the formation of metal-induced peptides of the general structure (gamma-Glu-Cys)n-Ser (n=2-4). They are assumed to be formed from hydroxymethyl-glutathione (gamma-Glu-Cys-Ser) and are termed hydroxymethyl-phytochelatins (hm-PCs) in analogy to the homo-phytochelatins [(gamma-Glu-Cys)n-beta-Ala], discovered in legumes, and the phytochelatins [PCs, (gamma-Glu-Cys)n-Gly] found in most other plants and many fungi. The hm-PCs were isolated from the roots of cadmium-exposed rice (Oryza sativa L. cv Strella), and their structure was confirmed by amino acid analysis after total and enzymic hydrolysis and by tandem mass spectrometry. The hm-PCs probably play a significant role in heavy metal detoxication in rice. In addition to this new form of gamma-Glu-Cys (gamma EC) peptide, PCs and gamma EC peptides without C-terminal Ser or Gly are found. All gamma EC peptides are synthesized without delay after incubation of rice plants in 100 microM CdCl2 in the roots as well as in the shoots. Incubation times exceeding 24 h or higher concentrations of cadmium result in a selective enrichment of gamma EC peptides with higher chain length and an increased ratio of PCs to hm-PCs. gamma EC peptide synthesis is accompanied by a decrease of the glutathione content and an increase of the hydroxymethyl-glutathione content in roots and shoots of rice plants. PMID:8016264

  3. Hydroxymethyl-phytochelatins [(gamma-glutamylcysteine)n-serine] are metal-induced peptides of the Poaceae.

    PubMed Central

    Klapheck, S; Fliegner, W; Zimmer, I

    1994-01-01

    Exposure of several species of the family Poaceae to cadmium results in the formation of metal-induced peptides of the general structure (gamma-Glu-Cys)n-Ser (n=2-4). They are assumed to be formed from hydroxymethyl-glutathione (gamma-Glu-Cys-Ser) and are termed hydroxymethyl-phytochelatins (hm-PCs) in analogy to the homo-phytochelatins [(gamma-Glu-Cys)n-beta-Ala], discovered in legumes, and the phytochelatins [PCs, (gamma-Glu-Cys)n-Gly] found in most other plants and many fungi. The hm-PCs were isolated from the roots of cadmium-exposed rice (Oryza sativa L. cv Strella), and their structure was confirmed by amino acid analysis after total and enzymic hydrolysis and by tandem mass spectrometry. The hm-PCs probably play a significant role in heavy metal detoxication in rice. In addition to this new form of gamma-Glu-Cys (gamma EC) peptide, PCs and gamma EC peptides without C-terminal Ser or Gly are found. All gamma EC peptides are synthesized without delay after incubation of rice plants in 100 microM CdCl2 in the roots as well as in the shoots. Incubation times exceeding 24 h or higher concentrations of cadmium result in a selective enrichment of gamma EC peptides with higher chain length and an increased ratio of PCs to hm-PCs. gamma EC peptide synthesis is accompanied by a decrease of the glutathione content and an increase of the hydroxymethyl-glutathione content in roots and shoots of rice plants. PMID:8016264

  4. Hypochlorite-induced oxidation of amino acids, peptides and proteins.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, C L; Pattison, D I; Davies, M J

    2003-12-01

    Activated phagocytes generate the potent oxidant hypochlorite (HOCl) via the release of the enzyme myeloperoxidase and hydrogen peroxide. HOCl is known to react with a number of biological targets including proteins, DNA, lipids and cholesterol. Proteins are likely to be major targets for reaction with HOCl within a cell due to their abundance and high reactivity with HOCl. This review summarizes information on the rate of reaction of HOCl with proteins, the nature of the intermediates formed, the mechanisms involved in protein oxidation and the products of these reactions. The predicted targets for reaction with HOCl from kinetic modeling studies and the consequences of HOCl-induced protein oxidation are also discussed. PMID:14661089

  5. Inhibition of atrial natriuretic peptide-induced natriuresis by plasma hydrolysates containing pepsanurin.

    PubMed

    Borić, M P; Croxatto, H R; Albertini, R; Roblero, J S

    1992-02-01

    The specificity of antidiuretic actions of pepsanurin, a peptidic fraction obtained by pepsin hydrolysis of plasma, was studied in anesthetized rats and in isolated perfused rat kidneys. Pepsanurin was obtained from fresh dialyzed human plasma digested with pepsin (2,400 units/ml, 18 hours at 37 degrees C, pH 2.5), deproteinized (10 minutes at 80 degrees C), and centrifuged. In the rat, intraperitoneal injections of pepsanurin (0.5 ml/100 g body wt) significantly inhibited the effects of an intravenous bolus of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) (0.5 micrograms) on water, sodium, and potassium excretion without altering systemic blood pressure. In addition, pepsanurin abolished the peak in glomerular filtration rate and reduced the ANP-induced rise in fractional sodium excretion. Pepsanurin also inhibited the natriuretic effects of amiloride (10 micrograms/100 g body wt i.v.) without changing glomerular filtration rate, but it did not inhibit the potassium-retaining effect of amiloride. In contrast, pepsanurin had no effect on basal urinary excretion, and it did not affect the diuretic response induced by furosemide (doses of 25, 50, or 100 micrograms i.v.). Control peptidic hydrolysates prepared from human plasma preincubated 48 hours at 37 degrees C (PIPH), bovine albumin (BSAH), or human albumin did not inhibit ANP, amiloride, or furosemide. In perfused kidneys, pepsanurin significantly and reversibly reduced sodium and water excretion. Furthermore, pepsanurin, but not PIPH or BSAH, blocked the natriuretic and diuretic effects of ANP. These results support the existence of a specific plasma substrate able to release a peptide or peptides that counteract distal tubule diuresis and natriuresis by an intrarenal mechanism. PMID:1531208

  6. An alpha-chain TCR CDR3 peptide can enhance EAE induced by myelin basic protein or proteolipid protein.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, T; Geng, T C; Kozovska, M F; Yokoyama, K; Cohen, I R; Tabira, T

    1996-09-15

    Regulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) can be induced by anti-idiotype immunity against T cell receptor (TCR) fragments associated with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. However, we have recently found that preimmunization with an alpha-chain TCR CDR3 peptide (LYFCAARSNYQL) derived from myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific clones did not suppress but rather augmented the severity of EAE induced by MBP-specific T cells in SJL/J mice. To test whether CDR3 vaccination could control only a highly restricted T cell population, we studied the effect of the peptide against EAE induced by T cells specific for different Ag/MHC ligands and autoimmune diseases affecting non-neural tissues. In contrast to expectations, the peptide was found to augment not only EAE induced by MBP-specific T cells, but also proteolipid protein (PLP)-specific T cell- or PLP peptide-induced EAE in SJL/J mice, and MBP-induced EAE and adjuvant arthritis (AA) in rats. The CDR3 peptide was neither inhibitory nor supportive for Ag-induced activation of an encephalitogenic clone in vitro. In addition, the peptide treatment neither inhibited the induction of Ag-specific T cells nor altered the APC function of spleen cells. These findings, on the one hand, confirm previous results showing TCR peptide-induced enhancement of the disease and, on the other hand, indicate that the TCR CDR3 peptide may control T cells with broader Ag/MHC specificities than could be expected. Structural similarity among TCR idiotypes of autoimmune T cells may partly account for these results. PMID:8892082

  7. Peptides Targeting the Desmoglein 3 Adhesive Interface Prevent Autoantibody-induced Acantholysis in Pemphigus*

    PubMed Central

    Heupel, Wolfgang-Moritz; Müller, Thomas; Efthymiadis, Athina; Schmidt, Enno; Drenckhahn, Detlev; Waschke, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) autoantibodies directly inhibit desmoglein (Dsg) 3-mediated transinteraction. Because cellular signaling also seems to be required for PV pathogenesis, it is important to characterize the role of direct inhibition in pemphigus acantholysis to allow establishment of new therapeutic approaches. Therefore, we modeled the Dsg1 and Dsg3 sequences into resolved cadherin structures and predicted peptides targeting the adhesive interface of both Dsg3 and Dsg1. In atomic force microscopy single molecule experiments, the self-designed cyclic single peptide specifically blocked homophilic Dsg3 and Dsg1 transinteraction, whereas a tandem peptide (TP) consisting of two combined single peptides did not. TP did not directly block binding of pemphigus IgG to their target Dsg antigens but prevented PV-IgG-induced inhibition of Dsg3 transinteraction in cell-free (atomic force microscopy) and cell-based (laser tweezer) experiments, indicating stabilization of Dsg3 bonds. Similarly, PV-IgG-mediated acantholysis and disruption of Dsg3 localization in HaCaT keratinocytes was partially blocked by TP. This is the first evidence that direct inhibition of Dsg3 binding is important for PV pathogenesis and that peptidomimetics stabilizing Dsg transinteraction may provide a novel approach for PV treatment. PMID:19164289

  8. A Novel Intracellular Peptide Derived from G1/S Cyclin D2 Induces Cell Death*

    PubMed Central

    de Araujo, Christiane B.; Russo, Lilian C.; Castro, Leandro M.; Forti, Fábio L.; do Monte, Elisabete R.; Rioli, Vanessa; Gozzo, Fabio C.; Colquhoun, Alison; Ferro, Emer S.

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular peptides are constantly produced by the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and many are probably functional. Here, the peptide WELVVLGKL (pep5) from G1/S-specific cyclin D2 showed a 2-fold increase during the S phase of HeLa cell cycle. pep5 (25–100 μm) induced cell death in several tumor cells only when it was fused to a cell-penetrating peptide (pep5-cpp), suggesting its intracellular function. In vivo, pep5-cpp reduced the volume of the rat C6 glioblastoma by almost 50%. The tryptophan at the N terminus of pep5 is essential for its cell death activity, and N terminus acetylation reduced the potency of pep5-cpp. WELVVL is the minimal active sequence of pep5, whereas Leu-Ala substitutions totally abolished pep5 cell death activity. Findings from the initial characterization of the cell death/signaling mechanism of pep5 include caspase 3/7 and 9 activation, inhibition of Akt2 phosphorylation, activation of p38α and -γ, and inhibition of proteasome activity. Further pharmacological analyses suggest that pep5 can trigger cell death by distinctive pathways, which can be blocked by IM-54 or a combination of necrostatin-1 and q-VD-OPh. These data further support the biological and pharmacological potential of intracellular peptides. PMID:24764300

  9. Photo-Crosslinking Induced Geometric Restriction Controls the Self-Assembly of Diphenylalanine Based Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tie, Zuo-Xiu; Qin, Meng; Zou, Da-Wei; Cao, Yi; Wang, Wei

    2011-02-01

    The diphenylalanine (FF) motif has been widely used in the design of peptides that are capable of forming various ordered structures, such as nanotubes, nanospheres and hydrogels. In these assemblies, FF based peptides adopt an antiparallel structure and are stabilized by π — π stacking among the phenyl groups. Here we show that assembly of FF-based peptides can be controlled by their geometric restrictions. Using tripeptide FFY (L-Phe-L-Phe-L-Tyr) as an example, we demonstrate that photo-crosslinking of C-terminal tyrosine can impose a geometric restriction to the formation of an antiparallel structure, leading to a structural change of the assemblies from nanosphere to amorphous. This finding is confirmed using far-UV circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Based on such a mechanism, we are able to control the gel-sol transition of Fmoc-FFY using the geometric restriction induced by photo-crosslinking of C-terminal tyrosine groups. We believe that geometric restriction should be considered as an important factor in the design of peptide-based materials. It can also be implemented as a useful strategy for the construction of environment-responsive “smart" materials.

  10. Granulosa Cell Apoptosis Induced by a Novel FSH Binding Inhibitory Peptide From Human Ovarian Follicular Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Chitnis, Swati S.; Navlakhe, Rajshri M.; Shinde, Gayatri C.; Barve, Sharmila J.; D'Souza, Serena; Mahale, Smita D.; Nandedkar, Tarala D.

    2008-01-01

    Pituitary gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, are the key regulators of ovarian folliculogenesis; these are known to be directly or indirectly modulated by many intraovarian factors. Our group has identified and studied one such novel peptide from human ovarian follicular fluid. Its partial N-terminal eight amino acid sequence has been deduced, referred to as octapeptide (OP). OP induces follicular atresia in mice and interferes with normal ovarian function in non-human primates, this action being similar to the native peptide. Thus, in this study, an attempt has been made to elucidate the mechanism of action of the synthetic OP by studying the pathway of follicular atresia in mouse ovary. Changes in granulosa cells were studied using various apoptotic markers by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. An increase in apoptotic cell population in atretic- and peptide-treated groups was observed compared with normal controls. Interestingly, both these groups exhibited differences in the apoptotic pathway. Results showed that the mitochondrial pathway was predominant in the atretic group, whereas the Fas-FasL pathway was predominant in the peptide-treated groups. The ultrastructural study also showed apoptotic changes in the OP-treated and atretic groups; the pattern of apoptosis differed at the subcellular level. (J Histochem Cytochem 56:961–968, 2008) PMID:18645207

  11. Pharmacological characterization of the receptors mediating vasoactive intestinal peptide-induced vasodilation in rat aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.T.; Bylund, D.B.

    1986-03-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-contain nerve fibers associated with blood vessels are widely distributed, both in the central nervous system and in the periphery. VIP has been shown to be a potent vasodilator in a variety of vascular preparations. The authors have evaluated VIP, the VIP fragment 10-28, and several related peptides including PHI-27, PHM-27 and secretin in terms of their potencies in (1) stimulating the synthesis of cyclic AMP, using the method of Shimizu, in aortic rings; and (2) reversing norepinephrine induced contraction in aortic rings. The authors results indicate that VIP is the most potent of the peptides in both experimental protocols and that the rank order potencies of the various peptides are consistent between the two parameters measured. The authors are currently conducting radioligand binding studies with (/sup 125/I)VIP to further characterize the receptors involved. Additionally, the authors experiments in rat aorta indicate that the presence of the endothelial layer is not required for VIP receptor mediated effects to occur. A potential role for synthetic compounds with high specificity for the VIP receptor in treating hypertension is suggested.

  12. Acaloleptins A: inducible antibacterial peptides from larvae of the beetle, Acalolepta luxuriosa.

    PubMed

    Imamura, M; Wada, S; Koizumi, N; Kadotani, T; Yaoi, K; Sato, R; Iwahana, H

    1999-01-01

    We purified and characterized three structurally related antibacterial peptides with a molecular mass of 8 kDa (acaloleptins A1, A2, and A3) from the hemolymph of immunized larvae of the Udo longicorn beetle, Acalolepta luxuriosa. These peptides have the same 6 N-terminal amino acid residues and show potent antibacterial activity against some Gram-negative bacteria. The three peptides are thought to be isoforms. Reverse phase HPLC analysis of the hemolymph of immunized and naive larvae showed that acaloleptins A1, A2, and A3 were inducible and suggested that all three peptides were produced in a single insect. We determined the complete amino acid sequence of acaloleptin A1: Acaloleptin A1 consists of 71 amino acid residues and shares significant sequence similarity with coleoptericin and holotricin 2, which were isolated from other coleopteran insects. Furthermore, the 29 C-terminal residues of acaloleptin A1 had 40% identity with the 30 C-terminal residues of hymenoptaecin found in honeybees. Arch. Insect Biochem. PMID:10077828

  13. Molecular basis for T cell response induced by altered peptide ligand of type II collagen.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeoung-Eun; Cullins, David; Zalduondo, Lillian; Barnett, Stacey L; Yi, Ae-Kyung; Kleinau, Sandra; Stuart, John M; Kang, Andrew H; Myers, Linda K

    2012-06-01

    Mounting evidence from animal models has demonstrated that alterations in peptide-MHC interactions with the T cell receptor (TCR) can lead to dramatically different T cell outcomes. We have developed an altered peptide ligand of type II collagen, referred to as A9, which differentially regulates TCR signaling in murine T cells leading to suppression of arthritis in the experimental model of collagen-induced arthritis. This study delineates the T cell signaling pathway used by T cells stimulated by the A9·I-A(q) complex. We have found that T cells activated by A9 bypass the requirement for Zap-70 and CD3-ζ and signal via FcRγ and Syk. Using collagen-specific T cell hybridomas engineered to overexpress either Syk, Zap-70, TCR-FcRγ, or CD3-ζ, we demonstrate that A9·I-A(q) preferentially activates FcRγ/Syk but not CD3-ζ/Zap-70. Moreover, a genetic absence of Syk or FcRγ significantly reduces the altered peptide ligand induction of the nuclear factor GATA3. By dissecting the molecular mechanism of A9-induced T cell signaling we have defined a new alternate pathway that is dependent upon FcRγ and Syk to secrete immunoregulatory cytokines. Given the interest in using Syk inhibitors to treat patients with rheumatoid arthritis, understanding this pathway may be critical for the proper application of this therapy. PMID:22511761

  14. Antimicrobial peptide protonectin disturbs the membrane integrity and induces ROS production in yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kairong; Dang, Wen; Xie, Junqiu; Zhu, Ranran; Sun, Mengyang; Jia, Fengjing; Zhao, Yanyan; An, Xiaoping; Qiu, Shuai; Li, Xiaoyuan; Ma, Zelin; Yan, Wenjin; Wang, Rui

    2015-10-01

    Candidiasis is often observed in immunocompromised patients and is the 4th most common cause of bloodstream infections. However, antifungals are limited, so novel antifungal agents are urgently needed. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are considered as potential alternatives of conventional antibiotics. In the present study, antimicrobial peptide protonectin was chemically synthesized and its antifungal activity and mode of action were studied. Our results showed that protonectin has potent antifungal activity and fungicidal activity against the tested fungi cells. Its action mode involved the disruption of the membrane integrity and the inducing of the production of cellular ROS. Furthermore, protonectin could inhibit the formation of biofilm and kill the adherent fungi cells. In conclusion, with the increase of fungal infection, protonectin may offer a new strategy and be considered as a potential therapeutic agent against fungal disease. PMID:26209560

  15. Thioredoxin-mimetic peptides (TXM) reverse auranofin induced apoptosis and restore insulin secretion in insulinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Kutner, Moshe; Khomsky, Lena; Trus, Michael; Aisner, Yonatan; Niv, Masha Y; Benhar, Moran; Atlas, Daphne

    2013-04-01

    The thioredoxin reductase/thioredoxin system (TrxR/Trx1) plays a major role in protecting cells from oxidative stress. Disruption of the TrxR-Trx1 system keeps Trx1 in the oxidized state leading to cell death through activation of the ASK1-Trx1 apoptotic pathway. The potential mechanism and ability of tri- and tetra-oligopeptides derived from the canonical -CxxC- motif of the Trx1-active site to mimic and enhance Trx1 cellular activity was examined. The Trx mimetics peptides (TXM) protected insulinoma INS 832/13 cells from oxidative stress induced by selectively inhibiting TrxR with auranofin (AuF). TXM reversed the AuF-effects preventing apoptosis, and increasing cell-viability. The TXM peptides were effective in inhibiting AuF-induced MAPK, JNK and p38(MAPK) phosphorylation, in correlation with preventing caspase-3 cleavage and thereby PARP-1 dissociation. The ability to form a disulfide-bridge-like conformation was estimated from molecular dynamics simulations. The TXM peptides restored insulin secretion and displayed Trx1 denitrosylase activity. Their potency was 10-100-fold higher than redox reagents like NAC, AD4, or ascorbic acid. Unable to reverse ERK1/2 phosphorylation, TXM-CB3 (NAc-Cys-Pro-Cys amide) appeared to function in part, through inhibiting ASK1-Trx dissociation. These highly effective anti-apoptotic effects of Trx1 mimetic peptides exhibited in INS 832/13 cells could become valuable in treating adverse oxidative-stress related disorders such as diabetes. PMID:23327993

  16. Gliadin Induces Neutrophil Migration via Engagement of the Formyl Peptide Receptor, FPR1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Song; Omatsu, Tatsushi; Janka-Junttila, Mirkka; Casolaro, Vincenzo; Reinecker, Hans-Christian; Parent, Carole A.; Fasano, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Background Gliadin, the immunogenic component within gluten and trigger of celiac disease, is known to induce the production of Interleukin-8, a potent neutrophil-activating and chemoattractant chemokine. We sought to study the involvement of neutrophils in the early immunological changes following gliadin exposure. Methods Utilizing immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, the redistribution of major tight junction protein, Zonula occludens (ZO)-1, and neutrophil recruitment were assessed in duodenal tissues of gliadin-gavaged C57BL/6 wild-type and Lys-GFP reporter mice, respectively. Intravital microscopy with Lys-GFP mice allowed monitoring of neutrophil recruitment in response to luminal gliadin exposure in real time. In vitro chemotaxis assays were used to study murine and human neutrophil chemotaxis to gliadin, synthetic alpha-gliadin peptides and the neutrophil chemoattractant, fMet-Leu-Phe, in the presence or absence of a specific inhibitor of the fMet-Leu-Phe receptor-1 (FPR1), cyclosporine H. An irrelevant protein, zein, served as a control. Results Redistribution of ZO-1 and an influx of CD11b+Lys6G+ cells in the lamina propria of the small intestine were observed upon oral gavage of gliadin. In vivo intravital microscopy revealed a slowing down of GFP+ cells within the vessels and influx in the mucosal tissue within 2 hours after challenge. In vitro chemotaxis assays showed that gliadin strongly induced neutrophil migration, similar to fMet-Leu-Phe. We identified thirteen synthetic gliadin peptide motifs that induced cell migration. Blocking of FPR1 completely abrogated the fMet-Leu-Phe-, gliadin- and synthetic peptide-induced migration. Conclusions Gliadin possesses neutrophil chemoattractant properties similar to the classical neutrophil chemoattractant, fMet-Leu-Phe, and likewise uses FPR1 in the process. PMID:26378785

  17. Peptide LSARLAF induces integrin β3 dependent outside-in signaling in platelets

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Haixia; Xu, Zhenlu; Li, Ding; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Kemin; Taylor, Donald B.; Liu, Junling; Gartner, T. Kent

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Peptide LSARLAF (LSA) can bind and activate integrin αIIbβ3 in the absence of ‘inside-out’ signal. The active αIIbβ3 mediates ‘outside-in’ signaling that elicits platelet aggregation, granule secretion and TxA2 production. Here we identify the membrane glycoproteins which mediate LSA-induced platelet activation other than αIIbβ3, and determine the roles of Src, PLCγ2, FcRγ-chain, and SLP-76 in LSA-induced platelet activation. Method Ligand-receptor binding assay was performed to study the effect of peptide LSA or its control peptide FRALASL (FRA) on integrins binding to their ligands. Spreading of CHO cells expressing αIIbβ3 or αVβ3 on immobilized fibrinogen was measured in the presence of LSA or FRA. Washed β3, Src, FcRγ-chain, LAT and SLP-76 deficient platelets aggregation and secretion were tested in response to LSA. Results Ligand-receptor binding assay indicated that LSA promoted the binding of multiple ligands to αIIbβ3 or αVβ3. LSA also enhanced CHO cells with αIIbβ3 or αVβ3 expression spreading on immobilized fibrinogen. β3 deficient platelets failed to aggregate and secrete in response to LSA. The phosphorylation of PLCγ2 and Syk was also β3 dependent. Src, FcRγ-chain, LAT and SLP-76 deficient platelets did not aggregate, secrete ATP or produce TxA2 in response to LSA. Conclusion LSA-induced platelet activation is β3 dependent, and signaling molecules Src, FcRγ-chain, SLP-76 and LAT play crucial roles in LSA-induced β3 mediated signaling. PMID:22482832

  18. Injection of Cocaine-Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART) peptide into the nucleus accumbens does not inhibit caffeine-induced locomotor activity: Implications for CART peptide mechanism.

    PubMed

    Job, Martin O

    2016-09-01

    Much evidence suggests that intra-nucleus accumbens (NAc) CART peptide (CART 55-102) injection inhibits locomotor activity (LMA) when there is an increase in the release and activity of dopamine (DA) in the NAc. However, this hypothesis has not been fully tested. One way to examine this is to determine if there is a lack of effect of intra-NAc CART peptide on LMA that does not involve increases in DA release in the NAc. Several studies have suggested that caffeine-induced LMA does not involve extracellular DA release in the NAc core. Therefore, in this study, we have examined the effect of injections of CART peptide (2.5μg) into the NAc core on the locomotor effects of caffeine in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Several LMA relevant doses of caffeine were used (0, 10, 20mg/kg i.p.), and an inverted U response curve was found as expected. We determined, in the same animals, that intra-NAc CART peptide had no effect on caffeine-induced LMA whereas it blunted cocaine-mediated LMA, as shown by other reports. We also extended a previous observation in mice by showing that at a LMA activating dose of caffeine there is no alteration of CART peptide levels in the NAc of rats. Our study supports the hypothesis that the inhibitory effects of CART peptide in the NAc may be exerted only under conditions of increased extracellular DA release and activity in this region. Our results also suggest that intra-NAc CART 55-102 does not generally inhibit increases in LMA due to all drugs, but has a more specific inhibitory effect on dopaminergic neurotransmission. PMID:27168116

  19. Amyloid beta-peptide induces cell monolayer albumin permeability, impairs glucose transport, and induces apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Blanc, E M; Toborek, M; Mark, R J; Hennig, B; Mattson, M P

    1997-05-01

    Amyloid beta-peptide (A beta) is deposited as insoluble fibrils in the brain parenchyma and cerebral blood vessels in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition to neuronal degeneration, cerebral vascular alterations indicative of damage to vascular endothelial cells and disruption of the blood-brain barrier occur in AD. Here we report that A beta25-35 can impair regulatory functions of endothelial cells (ECs) from porcine pulmonary artery and induce their death. Subtoxic exposures to A beta25-35 induced albumin transfer across EC monolayers and impaired glucose transport into ECs. Cell death induced by A beta25-35 was of an apoptotic form, characterized by DNA condensation and fragmentation, and prevented by inhibitors of macromolecular synthesis and endonucleases. The effects of A beta25-35 were specific because A beta1-40 also induced apoptosis in ECs with the apoptotic cells localized to the microenvironment of A beta1-40 aggregates and because astrocytes did not undergo similar changes after exposure to A beta25-35. Damage and death of ECs induced by A beta25-35 were attenuated by antioxidants, a calcium channel blocker, and a chelator of intracellular calcium, indicating the involvement of free radicals and dysregulation of calcium homeostasis. The data show that A beta induces increased permeability of EC monolayers to macromolecules, impairs glucose transport, and induces apoptosis. If similar mechanisms are operative in vivo, then A beta and other amyloidogenic peptides may be directly involved in vascular EC damage documented in AD and other disorders that involve vascular amyloid accumulation. PMID:9109512

  20. Stress-induced analgesia and endogenous opioid peptides: the importance of stress duration.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Drupad; Hamid, Abdul; Friedman, Theodore C; Nguyen, Khanh; Tseng, Andy; Marquez, Paul; Lutfy, Kabirullah

    2011-01-15

    Stress is known to elicit pain relief, a phenomenon referred to as stress-induced analgesia. Based on stress parameters, opioid and non-opioid intrinsic pain inhibitory systems can be activated. In the present study, we assessed whether changing the duration of stress would affect the involvement of endogenous opioids in antinociception elicited by swim in warm water (32 °C), known to be opioid-mediated. Using mice lacking beta-endorphin, enkephalins or dynorphins and their respective wild-type littermates, we assessed the role of each opioid peptide in antinociception induced by a short (3 min) vs. long (15 min) swim. Mice were tested for baseline hot plate latency, exposed to swim (3 or 15 min) in warm water (32 °C) and then tested for antinociception at 5, 15 and 30 min. Our results revealed that both swim paradigms induced significant antinociception in wild-type mice. However, the short swim failed to induce antinociception in beta-endorphin-deficient mice, illustrating that beta-endorphin is important in this form of stress-induced antinociception. On the other hand, antinociception elicited by the long swim was only slightly reduced in beta-endorphin-deficient mice despite pretreatment with naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, significantly attenuated the antinociception elicited by the long swim. Nevertheless, a delayed hyperalgesic response developed in mice lacking beta-endorphin following exposure to either swim paradigm. On the other hand, mice lacking enkephalins or dynorphins and their respective wild-type littermates expressed a comparable antinociceptive response and did not exhibit the delayed hyperalgesic response. Together, our results suggest that the endogenous opioid peptide beta-endorphin not only mediates antinociception induced by the short swim but also prevents the delayed hyperalgesic response elicited by either swim paradigm. PMID:21044625

  1. Stress-induced analgesia and endogenous opioid peptides: the importance of stress duration

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Drupad; Hamid, Abdul; Friedman, Theodore C.; Nguyen, Khanh; Tseng, Andy; Marquez, Paul; Lutfy, Kabirullah

    2010-01-01

    Stress is known to elicit pain relief, a phenomenon referred to as stress-induced analgesia. Based on stress parameters, opioid and non-opioid intrinsic pain inhibitory systems can be activated. In the present study, we assessed whether changing the duration of stress would affect the involvement of endogenous opioids in antinociception elicited by swim in warm water (32°C), known to be opioid-mediated. Using mice lacking beta-endorphin, enkephalins or dynorphins and their respective wild-type littermates, we assessed the role of each opioid peptide in antinociception induced by a short (3 min) vs. long (15 min) swim. Mice were tested for baseline hot plate latency, exposed to swim (3 or 15 min) in warm water (32°C) and then tested for antinociception at 5, 15 and 30 min. Our results revealed that both swim paradigms induced significant antinociception in wild-type mice. However, the short swim failed to induce antinociception in beta-endorphin-deficient mice, illustrating that beta-endorphin is important in this form of stress-induced antinociception. On the other hand, antinociception elicited by the long swim was only slightly reduced in beta-endorphin-deficient mice despite pretreatment with naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, significantly attenuated the antinociception elicited by the long swim. Nevertheless, a delayed hyperalgesic response developed in mice lacking beta-endorphin following exposure to either swim paradigm. On the other hand, mice lacking enkephalins or dynorphins and their respective wild-type littermates expressed a comparable antinociceptive response and did not exhibit the delayed hyperalgesic response. Together, our results suggest that the endogenous opioid peptide beta-endorphin not only mediates antinociception induced by the short swim but also prevents the delayed hyperalgesic response elicited by either swim paradigm. PMID:21044625

  2. A proinflammatory peptide from Helicobacter pylori activates monocytes to induce lymphocyte dysfunction and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Betten, Åsa; Bylund, Johan; Cristophe, Thierry; Boulay, François; Romero, Ana; Hellstrand, Kristoffer; Dahlgren, Claes

    2001-01-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori causes chronic gastritis, which is characterized by a dense mucosal infiltration by inflammatory cells such as monocytes/macrophages. H. pylori–induced inflammation is a risk factor for the development of gastric adenocarcinoma, but the mechanisms involved in H. pylori–associated carcinogenesis are poorly understood. A cecropin-like H. pylori peptide, Hp(2-20), was found to be a monocyte chemoattractant and activated the monocyte NADPH-oxidase to produce oxygen radicals. The receptors mediating monocyte activation were identified as FPRL1 and the monocyte-specific orphan receptor FPRL2. Hp(2-20)–activated monocytes inhibited lymphocytes with antitumor properties, such as CD56+ natural killer (NK) cells and CD3ε+ T cells. The changes observed in NK cells and T cells — a reduced antitumor cytotoxicity, downregulation of CD3ζ expression, and apoptosis — were mediated by Hp(2-20)–induced oxygen radicals. Histamine, a gastric mucosal constituent, rescued NK cells and T cells from inhibition and apoptosis by suppressing Hp(2-20)–induced oxygen radical formation. We conclude that H. pylori expression of this monocyte-activating peptide contributes to its ability to attract and activate monocytes and reduces the function and viability of antineoplastic lymphocytes. These novel mechanisms may be subject to local, histaminergic regulation in the gastric mucosa. PMID:11602630

  3. Mystixin-7 Peptide Protects Ionotropic Glutamatergic Mechanisms against Glutamate-Induced Excitotoxicity In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Hyperactivation of the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) causes glutamate excitotoxicity, a process potentially important for many neurological diseases. This study aims to investigate protective effects of the synthetic corticotrophin-releasing factor-like peptide, mystixin-7 (MTX), on model glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in vitro. The technique online monitoring of electrophysiological parameters (excitatory glutamatergic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic (AMPAR) and NMDAR-dependent postsynaptic mechanisms) in the olfactory cortex slices was used. Application of L-glutamate in toxic concentration (20 mM) on slices evoked hyperactivation of NMDARs and weaker activation of the AMPARs. Upon further action agonist, the excessive activation of glutamate receptors was replaced by their irreversible blockade. Pretreatment of the slices using MTX in different concentrations (50 and 100 mg/mL) protected both NMDARs and AMPARs from glutamate-induced damage. An enzymatic treatment of MTX reduced hyperactivation of both NMDARs and AMPARs. The present study demonstrated that MTX minipeptide protected the functioning of both NMDARs and AMPARs against glutamate-induced damage. The MTX peptide is a prospective candidate for elaborated medication in treatment of neurological diseases. PMID:27504123

  4. Cold denaturation induces inversion of dipole and spin transfer in chiral peptide monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckshtain-Levi, Meital; Capua, Eyal; Refaely-Abramson, Sivan; Sarkar, Soumyajit; Gavrilov, Yulian; Mathew, Shinto P.; Paltiel, Yossi; Levy, Yaakov; Kronik, Leeor; Naaman, Ron

    2016-02-01

    Chirality-induced spin selectivity is a recently-discovered effect, which results in spin selectivity for electrons transmitted through chiral peptide monolayers. Here, we use this spin selectivity to probe the organization of self-assembled α-helix peptide monolayers and examine the relation between structural and spin transfer phenomena. We show that the α-helix structure of oligopeptides based on alanine and aminoisobutyric acid is transformed to a more linear one upon cooling. This process is similar to the known cold denaturation in peptides, but here the self-assembled monolayer plays the role of the solvent. The structural change results in a flip in the direction of the electrical dipole moment of the adsorbed molecules. The dipole flip is accompanied by a concomitant change in the spin that is preferred in electron transfer through the molecules, observed via a new solid-state hybrid organic-inorganic device that is based on the Hall effect, but operates with no external magnetic field or magnetic material.

  5. Membrane aggregation and perturbation induced by antimicrobial peptide of S-thanatin

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Guoqiu; Wu, Hongbin; Li, Linxian; Fan, Xiaobo; Ding, Jiaxuan; Li, Xiaofang; Xi, Tao; Shen, Zilong

    2010-04-23

    Thanatin, a 21-residue peptide, is an inducible insect peptide. In our previous study, we have identified a novel thanatin analog of S-thanatin, which exhibited a broad antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi with low hemolytic activity. This study was aimed to delineate the antimicrobial mechanism of S-thanatin and identify its interaction with bacterial membranes. In this study, membrane phospholipid was found to be the target for S-thanatin. In the presence of vesicles, S-thanatin interestingly led to the aggregation of anionic vesicles and sonicated bacteria. Adding S-thanatin to Escherichia coli suspension would result in the collapse of membrane and kill bacteria. The sensitivity assay of protoplast elucidated the importance of outer membrane (OM) for S-thanatin's antimicrobial activity. Compared with other antimicrobial peptide, S-thanatin produced chaotic membrane morphology and cell debris in electron microscopic appearance. These results supported our hypothesis that S-thanatin bound to negatively charged LPS and anionic lipid, impeded membrane respiration, exhausted the intracellular potential, and released periplasmic material, which led to cell death.

  6. Production of phytotoxic cationic α-helical antimicrobial peptides in plant cells using inducible promoters.

    PubMed

    Company, Nuri; Nadal, Anna; Ruiz, Cristina; Pla, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic linear antimicrobial peptides with cationic α-helical structures, such as BP100, have potent and specific activities against economically important plant pathogenic bacteria. They are also recognized as valuable therapeutics and preservatives. However, highly active BP100 derivatives are often phytotoxic when expressed at high levels as recombinant peptides in plants. Here we demonstrate that production of recombinant phytotoxic peptides in transgenic plants is possible by strictly limiting transgene expression to certain tissues and conditions, and specifically that minimization of this expression during transformation and regeneration of transgenic plants is essential to obtain viable plant biofactories. On the basis of whole-genome transcriptomic data available online, we identified the Os.hsp82 promoter that fulfilled this requirement and was highly induced in response to heat shock. Using this strategy, we generated transgenic rice lines producing moderate yields of severely phytotoxic BP100 derivatives on exposure to high temperature. In addition, a threshold for gene expression in selected tissues and stages was experimentally established, below which the corresponding promoters should be suitable for driving the expression of recombinant phytotoxic proteins in genetically modified plants. In view of the growing transcriptomics data available, this approach is of interest to assist promoter selection for specific purposes. PMID:25387106

  7. NPYFa, A Chimeric Peptide of Met-Enkephalin, and NPFF Induces Tolerance-Free Analgesia.

    PubMed

    Mudgal, Annu; Kumar, Krishan; Mollereau, Catherine; Pasha, Santosh

    2016-06-01

    Methionine-enkephalin-Arg-Phe is an endogenous amphiactive analgesic peptide. Neuropeptide FF, on the other hand, is reported for its role in opioid modulation and tolerance development. Based on these reports, in the present study we designed a chimeric peptide NPYFa (YGGFMKKKPQRFamide), having the Met-enkephalin (opioid) and PQRFamide sequence of neuropeptide FF, which can then target both the opioid and neuropeptide FF receptors. We hypothesized that the chimeric peptide so designed would have both analgesic properties and further aid in understanding of the role of neuropeptide FF in the development of opiate tolerance. Our studies indicated that NPYFa induced an early onset, potent, dose-dependent and prolonged antinociception. Additionally, antagonists (MOR, KOR, and DOR) pretreatment studies determined a KOR-mediated antinociception activity of the ligand. Further, in vitro binding studies using the Eu-GTP-γS binding assay on cell lines expressing opioid and NPFF receptors showed binding to both the opioid and neuropeptide FF receptors suggesting a multiple receptor binding character of NPYFa. Moreover, chronic (6 days) treatment with NPYFa exhibited an absence of tolerance development subsequent to its analgesia. The current study proposes NPYFa as a potent, long-acting antinociceptor lacking tolerance development as well as a probe to study opioid analgesia and the associated complex mechanisms of tolerance development. PMID:26802437

  8. Prognostic Value of Adrenomedullin and Natriuretic Peptides in Uroseptic Patients Induced by Ureteroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei; Zhou, Pang-Hu; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Lijun; Zhang, Xiao-Bin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate whether urosepsis is related to irrigation pressure of ureteroscopy (URS) and evaluate the prognostic value of adrenomedullin (ADM) and atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP) in URS-induced uroseptic patients. From July 2008 to October 2013, we enrolled 332 patients with untreated unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). The UUO group included three subgroups of, respectively, 118, 132, and 82 patients who underwent URS under intermittent stable irrigation pressure of, respectively, 80, 120, and 160 mmHg. The plasma concentrations of ADM, ANP, and BNP were measured in all subjects. URS was performed for all UUO patients; the values of the three peptides were measured again after URS. Irrigation pressure and stone size were independent risk factors of urosepsis. After URS, the plasma concentrations of ADM, ANP, and BNP were significantly higher in uroseptic patients. Moreover, the concentrations were significantly higher depending on the disease severity. Plasma concentrations of the three peptides were correlated with plasma ET concentration in the uroseptic patients. The areas under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of ADM, ANP, and BNP for predicting urosepsis were 0.811, 0.728, and 0.764, respectively. In conclusion, ADM, along with ANP and BNP, is valuable for prognosis in urosepsis secondary to URS which is associated with irrigation pressure. PMID:26880865

  9. Production of Phytotoxic Cationic α-Helical Antimicrobial Peptides in Plant Cells Using Inducible Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Company, Nuri; Nadal, Anna; Ruiz, Cristina; Pla, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic linear antimicrobial peptides with cationic α-helical structures, such as BP100, have potent and specific activities against economically important plant pathogenic bacteria. They are also recognized as valuable therapeutics and preservatives. However, highly active BP100 derivatives are often phytotoxic when expressed at high levels as recombinant peptides in plants. Here we demonstrate that production of recombinant phytotoxic peptides in transgenic plants is possible by strictly limiting transgene expression to certain tissues and conditions, and specifically that minimization of this expression during transformation and regeneration of transgenic plants is essential to obtain viable plant biofactories. On the basis of whole-genome transcriptomic data available online, we identified the Os.hsp82 promoter that fulfilled this requirement and was highly induced in response to heat shock. Using this strategy, we generated transgenic rice lines producing moderate yields of severely phytotoxic BP100 derivatives on exposure to high temperature. In addition, a threshold for gene expression in selected tissues and stages was experimentally established, below which the corresponding promoters should be suitable for driving the expression of recombinant phytotoxic proteins in genetically modified plants. In view of the growing transcriptomics data available, this approach is of interest to assist promoter selection for specific purposes. PMID:25387106

  10. Comparison of Ultraviolet Photodissociation and Collision Induced Dissociation of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robotham, Scott A.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2015-09-01

    In an effort to better characterize the fragmentation pathways promoted by ultraviolet photoexcitation in comparison to collision induced dissociation (CID), six adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) peptides in a range of charge states were subjected to 266 nm ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD), 193 nm UVPD, and CID. Similar fragment ions and distributions were observed for 266 nm UVPD and 193 nm UVPD for all peptides investigated. While both UVPD and CID led to preferential cleavage of the Y-S bond for all ACTH peptides [except ACTH (1-39)], UVPD was far less dependent on charge state and location of basic sites for the production of C-terminal and N-terminal ions. For ACTH (1-16), ACTH (1-17), ACTH (1-24), and ACTH (1-39), changes in the distributions of fragment ion types ( a, b, c, x, y, z, and collectively N-terminal ions versus C-terminal ions) showed only minor changes upon UVPD for all charge states. In contrast, CID displayed significant changes in the fragment ion type distributions as a function of charge state, an outcome consistent with the dependence on the number and location of mobile protons that is not prominent for UVPD. Sequence coverages obtained by UVPD showed less dependence on charge state than those determined by CID, with the latter showing a consistent decrease in coverage as charge state increased.

  11. Cold denaturation induces inversion of dipole and spin transfer in chiral peptide monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Eckshtain-Levi, Meital; Capua, Eyal; Refaely-Abramson, Sivan; Sarkar, Soumyajit; Gavrilov, Yulian; Mathew, Shinto P.; Paltiel, Yossi; Levy, Yaakov; Kronik, Leeor; Naaman, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Chirality-induced spin selectivity is a recently-discovered effect, which results in spin selectivity for electrons transmitted through chiral peptide monolayers. Here, we use this spin selectivity to probe the organization of self-assembled α-helix peptide monolayers and examine the relation between structural and spin transfer phenomena. We show that the α-helix structure of oligopeptides based on alanine and aminoisobutyric acid is transformed to a more linear one upon cooling. This process is similar to the known cold denaturation in peptides, but here the self-assembled monolayer plays the role of the solvent. The structural change results in a flip in the direction of the electrical dipole moment of the adsorbed molecules. The dipole flip is accompanied by a concomitant change in the spin that is preferred in electron transfer through the molecules, observed via a new solid-state hybrid organic–inorganic device that is based on the Hall effect, but operates with no external magnetic field or magnetic material. PMID:26916536

  12. Peptides with dual mode of action: Killing bacteria and preventing endotoxin-induced sepsis.

    PubMed

    Brandenburg, Klaus; Heinbockel, Lena; Correa, Wilmar; Lohner, Karl

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial infections, with the most severe form being sepsis, can often not be treated adequately leading to high morbidity and lethality of infected patients in critical care units. In particular, the increase in resistant bacterial strains and the lack of new antibiotics are main reasons for the worsening of the current situation, As a new approach, the use of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) seems to be promising, combining the ability of broad-spectrum bactericidal activity and low potential of induction of resistance. Peptides based on natural defense proteins or polypeptides such as lactoferrin, Limulus anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (LALF), cathelicidins, and granulysins are candidates due to their high affinity to bacteria and to their pathogenicity factors, in first line lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) of Gram-negative origin. In this review, we discuss literature with the focus on the use of AMPs from natural sources and their variants as antibacterial as well as anti-endotoxin (anti-inflammatory) drugs. Considerable progress has been made by the design of new AMPs for acting efficiently against the LPS-induced inflammation reaction in vitro as well as in vivo (mouse) models of sepsis. Furthermore, the data indicate that efficient antibacterial compounds are not necessarily equally efficient as anti-endotoxin drugs and vice versa. The most important reason for this may be the different molecular geometry of LPS in bacteria and in free form. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antimicrobial peptides edited by Karl Lohner and Kai Hilpert. PMID:26801369

  13. Cold denaturation induces inversion of dipole and spin transfer in chiral peptide monolayers.

    PubMed

    Eckshtain-Levi, Meital; Capua, Eyal; Refaely-Abramson, Sivan; Sarkar, Soumyajit; Gavrilov, Yulian; Mathew, Shinto P; Paltiel, Yossi; Levy, Yaakov; Kronik, Leeor; Naaman, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Chirality-induced spin selectivity is a recently-discovered effect, which results in spin selectivity for electrons transmitted through chiral peptide monolayers. Here, we use this spin selectivity to probe the organization of self-assembled α-helix peptide monolayers and examine the relation between structural and spin transfer phenomena. We show that the α-helix structure of oligopeptides based on alanine and aminoisobutyric acid is transformed to a more linear one upon cooling. This process is similar to the known cold denaturation in peptides, but here the self-assembled monolayer plays the role of the solvent. The structural change results in a flip in the direction of the electrical dipole moment of the adsorbed molecules. The dipole flip is accompanied by a concomitant change in the spin that is preferred in electron transfer through the molecules, observed via a new solid-state hybrid organic-inorganic device that is based on the Hall effect, but operates with no external magnetic field or magnetic material. PMID:26916536

  14. Prognostic Value of Adrenomedullin and Natriuretic Peptides in Uroseptic Patients Induced by Ureteroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei; Zhou, Pang-hu; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Lijun; Zhang, Xiao-bin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate whether urosepsis is related to irrigation pressure of ureteroscopy (URS) and evaluate the prognostic value of adrenomedullin (ADM) and atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP) in URS-induced uroseptic patients. From July 2008 to October 2013, we enrolled 332 patients with untreated unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). The UUO group included three subgroups of, respectively, 118, 132, and 82 patients who underwent URS under intermittent stable irrigation pressure of, respectively, 80, 120, and 160 mmHg. The plasma concentrations of ADM, ANP, and BNP were measured in all subjects. URS was performed for all UUO patients; the values of the three peptides were measured again after URS. Irrigation pressure and stone size were independent risk factors of urosepsis. After URS, the plasma concentrations of ADM, ANP, and BNP were significantly higher in uroseptic patients. Moreover, the concentrations were significantly higher depending on the disease severity. Plasma concentrations of the three peptides were correlated with plasma ET concentration in the uroseptic patients. The areas under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of ADM, ANP, and BNP for predicting urosepsis were 0.811, 0.728, and 0.764, respectively. In conclusion, ADM, along with ANP and BNP, is valuable for prognosis in urosepsis secondary to URS which is associated with irrigation pressure. PMID:26880865

  15. Charge properties of peptides derived from casein affect their bioavailability and cytoprotection against H2O2-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Xie, Ningning; Li, Bo

    2016-04-01

    The effects of charge properties of casein peptides on absorption stability, antioxidant activity, and cytoprotection were evaluated. Alcalase hydrolysates of casein were separated into 4 fractions by cation-exchange chromatography according to charge properties. After simulated digestion and Caco-2 cell transmembrane transport, we determined the total antioxidant capacity (Trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity and oxygen radical antioxidant activity) and nitrogen content of peptide fractions to estimate available antioxidant efficacy and bioavailability (BA) of peptides. Results showed that negatively charged peptide fractions had greater BA and antioxidant activities after digestion and absorption. The peptide permeates were used to test the cytoprotective effect against H2O2-induced oxidative damage in HepG-2 cells. All peptide permeates increased cell viability, elevated catalase activity, and decreased superoxide dismutase activity. However, negatively charged peptide fractions preserved cell viability to a greater degree. Therefore, the negatively charged peptides from casein may be potential antioxidants and could be used as ingredients in functional foods and dietary supplements. PMID:26851854

  16. A rational approach to select immunogenic peptides that induce IFN-γ response against Toxoplasma gondii in human leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Néstor I; Moncada, Diego M; Gómez-Marin, Jorge E

    2015-12-01

    The ideal vaccine to prevent toxoplasmosis in humans would comprise antigens that elicit a protective T cell type 1 response with high IFN-γ production. Here, we report the use of a bioinformatics pipeline to discover peptides based on biochemical characteristics that predict strong IFN-γ response by human leukocytes. We selected peptide sequences that previously were reported to induce IFN-γ to identify the biophysical characteristics that will predict HLA-A*02 high-affinity epitopes. We found that the protein motif pattern FL...L..[VL] was common in previously reported highly immunogenic sequences. We have selected new peptides with a length of 9 residues with affinities from 2 to 21 nM with peptide signal and transmembrane domains and predicted to be cleaved at the proteasome to perform ELISPOT assays with human leukocytes. Within 9 peptides with the highest scores for IFN-γ production, four peptides elicited IFN-γ levels in a range from 252 to 1763 SFC/1e6. Our pipeline uncovered Toxoplasma proteins with peptides that are processed by MHC class 1 in humans. Our results suggest that our rational strategy for the selection of immunogenic epitopes could be used to select peptides as candidates for inclusion in epitope-based vaccines. PMID:26210043

  17. The effect of protonation site and conformation on surface-induced dissociation in a small, lysine containing peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, Kulsum; Blackwood, Jacob; Barnes, George L.

    2015-09-01

    Simulations of surface induced dissociation (SID) of protonated peptides have provided significant insight into the energy transfer and mechanism of SID; however, they have been limited to glycine and alanine containing peptides. The chemical simplicity of these systems forces N-terminus protonation. Here we present results from simulations involving a lysine containing peptide that allowed for multiple protonation sites and conformations. We found that when the excess proton is located on the basic lysine side chain, fragmentation dynamics are typically slower and occur through a 'charge-remote' pathway. Additionally, conformation alone has a significant effect on the observed proton transfer pathways.

  18. Synthetic Peptide Ligands of the Antigen Binding Receptor Induce Programmed Cell Death in a Human B-Cell Lymphoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renschler, Markus F.; Bhatt, Ramesh R.; Dower, William J.; Levy, Ronald

    1994-04-01

    Peptide ligands for the antigen binding site of the surface immunoglobulin receptor of a human B-cell lymphoma cell line were identified with the use of filamentous phage libraries displaying random 8- and 12-amino acid peptides. Corresponding synthetic peptides bound specifically to the antigen binding site of this immunoglobulin receptor and blocked the binding of an anti-idiotype antibody. The ligands, when conjugated to form dimers or tetramers, induced cell death by apoptosis in vitro with an IC50 between 40 and 200 nM. This effect was associated with specific stimulation of intracellular protein tyrosine phosphorylation.

  19. Peptide drugs accelerate BMP-2-induced calvarial bone regeneration and stimulate osteoblast differentiation through mTORC1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Sugamori, Yasutaka; Mise-Omata, Setsuko; Maeda, Chizuko; Aoki, Shigeki; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Murali, Ramachandran; Yasuda, Hisataka; Udagawa, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Honma, Masashi; Aoki, Kazuhiro

    2016-08-01

    Both W9 and OP3-4 were known to bind the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. Recently, both peptides were shown to stimulate osteoblast differentiation; however, the mechanism underlying the activity of these peptides remains to be clarified. A primary osteoblast culture showed that rapamycin, an mTORC1 inhibitor, which was recently demonstrated to be an important serine/threonine kinase for bone formation, inhibited the peptide-induced alkaline phosphatase activity. Furthermore, both peptides promoted the phosphorylation of Akt and S6K1, an upstream molecule of mTORC1 and the effector molecule of mTORC1, respectively. In the in vivo calvarial defect model, W9 and OP3-4 accelerated BMP-2-induced bone formation to a similar extent, which was confirmed by histomorphometric analyses using fluorescence images of undecalcified sections. Our data suggest that these RANKL-binding peptides could stimulate the mTORC1 activity, which might play a role in the acceleration of BMP-2-induced bone regeneration by the RANKL-binding peptides. PMID:27345003

  20. Intermedin/adrenomedullin-2 is a hypoxia-induced endothelial peptide that stabilizes pulmonary microvascular permeability

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad; Paddenberg, Renate; Quanz, Karin; Chang, Chia L.; Park, Jae-Il; Gries, Barbara; Rafiq, Amir; Faulhammer, Petra; Goldenberg, Anna; Papadakis, Tamara; Noll, Thomas; Hsu, Sheau Y. T.; Weissmann, Norbert; Kummer, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests a pivotal role of the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) signaling pathway in preventing damage of the lung by stabilizing pulmonary barrier function. Intermedin (IMD), also termed adrenomedullin-2, is the most recently identified peptide targeting this receptor. Here we investigated the effect of hypoxia on the expression of IMD in the murine lung and cultured murine pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMEC) as well as the role of IMD in regulating vascular permeability. Monoclonal IMD antibodies were generated, and transcript levels were assayed by quantitative RT-PCR. The promoter region of IMD gene was analyzed, and the effect of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α on IMD expression was investigated in HEK293T cells. Isolated murine lungs and a human lung microvascular endothelial cell monolayer model were used to study the effect of IMD on vascular permeability. IMD was identified as a pulmonary endothelial peptide by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Hypoxia caused an upregulation of IMD mRNA in the murine lung and PMEC. As shown by these results, HIF-1α enhances IMD promoter activity. Our functional studies showed that IMD abolished the increase in pressure-induced endothelial permeability. Moreover, IMD decreased basal and thrombin-induced hyperpermeability of an endothelial cell monolayer in a receptor-dependent manner and activated PKA in these cells. In conclusion, IMD is a novel hypoxia-induced gene and a potential interventional agent for the improvement of endothelial barrier function in systemic inflammatory responses and hypoxia-induced vascular leakage. PMID:19684198

  1. Quantification of the Binding Properties of Cu2+ to the Amyloid-Beta Peptide: Coordination Spheres for Human and Rat Peptides and Implication on Cu2+-Induced Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Lian; Carducci, Tessa M.; Bush, William D.; Dudzik, Christopher G.; Millhauser, Glenn L.; Simon, John D.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY There is no consensus on the coordinating ligands for Cu2+ by A β. Yet the differences in peptide sequence between human and rat have been hypothesized to alter metal ion binding in a manner that alters Cu2+-induced aggregation of A β. Herein, we employ isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), circular dichroism (CD) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to examine the Cu2+ coordination spheres to human and rat A β and an extensive set of A β(16) mutants. EPR of the mutant peptides is consistent with a 3N1O binding geometry, like the native human peptide at pH 7.4. The thermodynamic data reveal an equilibrium between three coordination spheres, {NH2, O-, NIm His6, amide N−}, {NH2, O-, NIm His6, NIm His13} and {NH2, O-, NIm His6, NIm His14} for human A β(16) but only one for rat A β(16), { NH2, O-, NIm His6, N−}, at pH 7.4 -6.5. ITC and CD data establish that the mutation R5G is sufficient for reproducing this difference in Cu2+ binding properties at pH 7.4. The substitution of bulky and positively charged Arg by Gly is proposed to stabilize the coordination {NH2, O-, NIm His6, amide N−} that then results in one dominating coordination sphere for the case of the rat peptide. The differences in the coordination geometries for Cu2+ by the human and rat A β are proposed to contribute to the variation in the ability of Cu2+ to induce aggregation of A β peptides. PMID:20690669

  2. Reconstructive Phase Transition in Ultrashort Peptide Nanostructures and Induced Visible Photoluminescence.

    PubMed

    Handelman, Amir; Kuritz, Natalia; Natan, Amir; Rosenman, Gil

    2016-03-29

    A reconstructive phase transition has been found and studied in ultrashort di- and tripeptide nanostructures, self-assembled from biomolecules of different compositions and origin such as aromatic, aliphatic, linear, and cyclic (linear FF-diphenylalanine, linear LL-dileucine, FFF-triphenylalanine, and cyclic FF-diphenylalanine). The native linear aromatic FF, FFF and aliphatic LL peptide nanoensembles of various shapes (nanotubes and nanospheres) have asymmetric elementary structure and demonstrate nonlinear optical and piezoelectric effects. At elevated temperature, 140-180 °C, these native supramolecular structures (except for native Cyc-FF nanofibers) undergo an irreversible thermally induced transformation via reassembling into a completely new thermodynamically stable phase having nanowire morphology similar to those of amyloid fibrils. This reconstruction process is followed by deep and similar modification at all levels: macroscopic (morphology), molecular, peptide secondary, and electronic structures. However, original Cyc-FF nanofibers preserve their native physical properties. The self-fabricated supramolecular fibrillar ensembles exhibit the FTIR and CD signatures of new antiparallel β-sheet secondary folding with intermolecular hydrogen bonds and centrosymmetric structure. In this phase, the β-sheet nanofibers, irrespective of their native biomolecular origin, do not reveal nonlinear optical and piezoelectric effects, but do exhibit similar profound modification of optoelectronic properties followed by the appearance of visible (blue and green) photoluminescence (PL), which is not observed in the original peptides and their native nanostructures. The observed visible PL effect, ascribed to hydrogen bonds of thermally induced β-sheet secondary structures, has the same physical origin as that of the fluorescence found recently in amyloid fibrils and can be considered to be an optical signature of β-sheet structures in both biological and bioinspired

  3. Roles of Arginine and Lysine Residues in the Translocation of a Cell-Penetrating Peptide from 13C, 31P and 19F Solid-State NMR

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yongchao; Doherty, Tim; Waring, Alan J.; Ruchala, Piotr; Hong, Mei

    2009-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are small cationic peptides that cross the cell membrane while carrying macromolecular cargoes. We use solid-state NMR to investigate the structure and lipid interaction of two cationic residues, Arg10 and Lys13, in the CPP penetratin. 13C chemical shifts indicate that Arg10 adopts a rigid β-strand conformation in the liquid-crystalline state of anionic lipid membranes. This behavior contrasts with all other residues observed so far in this peptide, which adopt a dynamic β-turn conformation with coil-like chemical shifts at physiological temperature. Low-temperature 13C-31P distances between the peptide and the lipid phosphates indicate that both the Arg10 guanidinium Cζ and the Lys13 Cε lie in close proximity to the lipid 31P (4.0 - 4.2 Å), proving the existence of charge-charge interaction for both Arg10 and Lys13 in the gel-phase membrane. However, since lysine substitution in CPPs are known to reduce their translocation ability, we propose that low temperature stabilizes both lysine and arginine interactions with the phosphates, whereas at high temperature the lysine-phosphate interaction is much weaker than the arginine-phosphate interaction. This is supported by the unusually high rigidity of the Arg10 sidechain and its β-strand conformation at high temperature. The latter is proposed to be important for ion pair formation by allowing close approach of the lipid headgroups to guanidinium sidechains. 19F and 13C spin diffusion experiments indicate that penetratin is oligomerized into β-sheets in gel-phase membranes. These solid-state NMR data indicate that guanidinium-phosphate interactions exist in penetratin, and guanidinium groups play a stronger structural role than ammonium groups in the lipid-assisted translocation of CPPs across liquid-crystalline cell membranes. PMID:19364134

  4. N-acylated peptides derived from human lactoferricin perturb organization of cardiolipin and phosphatidylethanolamine in cell membranes and induce defects in Escherichia coli cell division.

    PubMed

    Zweytick, Dagmar; Japelj, Bostjan; Mileykovskaya, Eugenia; Zorko, Mateja; Dowhan, William; Blondelle, Sylvie E; Riedl, Sabrina; Jerala, Roman; Lohner, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Two types of recently described antibacterial peptides derived from human lactoferricin, either nonacylated or N-acylated, were studied for their different interaction with membranes of Escherichia coli in vivo and in model systems. Electron microscopy revealed striking effects on the bacterial membrane as both peptide types induced formation of large membrane blebs. Electron and fluorescence microscopy, however demonstrated that only the N-acylated peptides partially induced the generation of oversized cells, which might reflect defects in cell-division. Further a different distribution of cardiolipin domains on the E. coli membrane was shown only in the presence of the N-acylated peptides. The lipid was distributed over the whole bacterial cell surface, whereas cardiolipin in untreated and nonacylated peptide-treated cells was mainly located at the septum and poles. Studies with bacterial membrane mimics, such as cardiolipin or phosphatidylethanolamine revealed that both types of peptides interacted with the negatively charged lipid cardiolipin. The nonacylated peptides however induced segregation of cardiolipin into peptide-enriched and peptide-poor lipid domains, while the N-acylated peptides promoted formation of many small heterogeneous domains. Only N-acylated peptides caused additional severe effects on the main phase transition of liposomes composed of pure phosphatidylethanolamine, while both peptide types inhibited the lamellar to hexagonal phase transition. Lipid mixtures of phosphatidylethanolamine and cardiolipin revealed anionic clustering by all peptide types. However additional strong perturbation of the neutral lipids was only seen with the N-acylated peptides. Nuclear magnetic resonance demonstrated different conformational arrangement of the N-acylated peptide in anionic and zwitterionic micelles revealing possible mechanistic differences in their action on different membrane lipids. We hypothesized that both peptides kill bacteria by

  5. Human lactoferricin derived di-peptides deploying loop structures induce apoptosis specifically in cancer cells through targeting membranous phosphatidylserine.

    PubMed

    Riedl, Sabrina; Leber, Regina; Rinner, Beate; Schaider, Helmut; Lohner, Karl; Zweytick, Dagmar

    2015-11-01

    Host defense-derived peptides have emerged as a novel strategy for the development of alternative anticancer therapies. In this study we report on characteristic features of human lactoferricin (hLFcin) derivatives which facilitate specific killing of cancer cells of melanoma, glioblastoma and rhabdomyosarcoma compared with non-specific derivatives and the synthetic peptide RW-AH. Changes in amino acid sequence of hLFcin providing 9-11 amino acids stretched derivatives LF11-316, -318 and -322 only yielded low antitumor activity. However, the addition of the repeat (di-peptide) and the retro-repeat (di-retro-peptide) sequences highly improved cancer cell toxicity up to 100% at 20 μM peptide concentration. Compared to the complete parent sequence hLFcin the derivatives showed toxicity on the melanoma cell line A375 increased by 10-fold and on the glioblastoma cell line U-87mg by 2-3-fold. Reduced killing velocity, apoptotic blebbing, activation of caspase 3/7 and formation of apoptotic DNA fragments proved that the active and cancer selective peptides, e.g. R-DIM-P-LF11-322, trigger apoptosis, whereas highly active, though non-selective peptides, such as DIM-LF11-318 and RW-AH seem to kill rapidly via necrosis inducing membrane lyses. Structural studies revealed specific toxicity on cancer cells by peptide derivatives with loop structures, whereas non-specific peptides comprised α-helical structures without loop. Model studies with the cancer membrane mimic phosphatidylserine (PS) gave strong evidence that PS only exposed by cancer cells is an important target for specific hLFcin derivatives. Other negatively charged membrane exposed molecules as sialic acid, heparan and chondroitin sulfate were shown to have minor impact on peptide activity. PMID:26239537

  6. Anti-apoptotic peptides protect against radiation-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Kevin W; Muenzer, Jared T; Chang, Kathy C; Davis, Chris G; McDunn, Jonathan E; Coopersmith, Craig M; Hilliard, Carolyn A; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Grigsby, Perry W; Hunt, Clayton R

    2007-04-01

    The risk of terrorist attacks utilizing either nuclear or radiological weapons has raised concerns about the current lack of effective radioprotectants. Here it is demonstrated that the BH4 peptide domain of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL can be delivered to cells by covalent attachment to the TAT peptide transduction domain (TAT-BH4) and provide protection in vitro and in vivo from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Isolated human lymphocytes treated with TAT-BH4 were protected against apoptosis following exposure to 15Gy radiation. In mice exposed to 5Gy radiation, TAT-BH4 treatment protected splenocytes and thymocytes from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Most importantly, in vivo radiation protection was observed in mice whether TAT-BH4 treatment was given prior to or after irradiation. Thus, by targeting steps within the apoptosis signaling pathway it is possible to develop post-exposure treatments to protect radio-sensitive tissues. PMID:17307150

  7. Mitochondria related peptide MOTS-c suppresses ovariectomy-induced bone loss via AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Ming, Wei; Lu, Gan; Xin, Sha; Huanyu, Lu; Yinghao, Jiang; Xiaoying, Lei; Chengming, Xu; Banjun, Ruan; Li, Wang; Zifan, Lu

    2016-08-01

    Therapeutic targeting bone loss has been the focus of the study in osteoporosis. The present study is intended to evaluate whether MOTS-c, a novel mitochondria related 16 aa peptide, can protect mice from ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis. After ovary removal, the mice were injected with MOTS-c at a dose of 5 mg/kg once a day for 12 weeks. Our results showed that MOTS-c treatment significantly alleviated bone loss, as determined by micro-CT examination. Mechanistically, we found that the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) induced osteoclast differentiation was remarkably inhibited by MOTS-c. Moreover, MOTS-c increased phosphorylated AMPK levels, and compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, could partially abrogate the effects of the MOTS-c on osteoclastogenesis. Thus, our findings provide evidence that MOTS-c may exert as an inhibitor of osteoporosis via AMPK dependent inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. PMID:27237975

  8. LEUCINE-RICH AMELOGENIN PEPTIDE INDUCES OSTEOGENESIS IN MOUSE EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Warotayanont, Rungnapa; Zhu, Danhong; Snead, Malcolm L.; Zhou, Yan

    2008-01-01

    Leucine-rich amelogenin peptide (LRAP), an alternatively spliced amelogenin protein, possesses a signaling property shown to induce osteogenic differentiation. In the current study, we detected LRAP expression during osteogenesis of wild-type (WT) embryonic stem (ES) cells and observed the absence of LRAP expression in amelogenin-null (KO) ES cells. We explored the signaling effect of LRAP on wild-type ES cells, and the ability of LRAP to rescue the impaired osteogenesis phenotype observed in KO ES cells. Our data indicate that LRAP treatment of WT and KO ES cells induces a significant increase in mineral matrix formation, and significant increases in bone sialoprotein and osterix gene expression. In addition, the amelogenin KO phenotype is partially rescued by the addition of exogenous LRAP. These data suggest a unique function of LRAP during ES cell differentiation along osteogenic lineage. PMID:18086559

  9. Role of peptide YY in 5-fluorouracil-induced reduction of dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiroyasu; Kai, Yuki; Takase, Kazuhide; Sato, Ken; Kimura, Minami; Tabata, Shoko; Yaegashi, Miyabi; Sato, Fumiaki; Yomoto, Tetsuro; Narita, Minoru

    2016-08-01

    5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is part of the standard care for cancer treatment but is associated with high incidences of appetite loss and reduced food intake, which may contribute to chemotherapy-induced cachexia (weakness and wasting of tissue). The role of gastrointestinal satiety hormones in chemotherapy-induced appetite loss has not been intensively investigated. Peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 are important signals of gastrointestinal satiety, so this study examined the roles of these gut hormones in 5-FU-induced reduction of dietary intake. Mice were given 5-FU (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i.p.]) every day for 4 consecutive days. Gene expression levels of proglucagon (Pro-Gcg), a precursor of GLP-1, and PYY in the colon were examined by real-time RT-PCR. Serum levels of GLP-1 and PYY were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Some mice were pretreated with the GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin9-39 (1 mg/kg) or the neuropeptide Y type 2 (NPY2) receptor antagonist BIIE0246 (2 mg/kg) via the i.p. route 30 minutes before 5-FU administration. Mice receiving 5-FU exhibited a significant reduction in food intake that was correlated with body weight loss. These mice also showed significantly enhanced expression levels of mRNAs encoding pro-GLP-1 and PYY in the transverse and distal colon as well as elevated serum concentrations of GLP-1 and PYY compared to vehicle-treated controls. The 5-FU-induced reduction in food intake was attenuated by BIIE0246 but not by exendin9-39. These data suggest that administration of a NPY2 receptor antagonist may be effective for attenuating the anorexia caused by 5-FU chemotherapy. PMID:27130783

  10. Spider peptide Phα1β induces analgesic effect in a model of cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Rigo, Flavia Karine; Trevisan, Gabriela; Rosa, Fernanda; Dalmolin, Gerusa D; Otuki, Michel Fleith; Cueto, Ana Paula; de Castro Junior, Célio José; Romano-Silva, Marco Aurelio; Cordeiro, Marta do N; Richardson, Michael; Ferreira, Juliano; Gomez, Marcus V

    2013-09-01

    The marine snail peptide ziconotide (ω-conotoxin MVIIA) is used as an analgesic in cancer patients refractory to opioids, but may induce severe adverse effects. Animal venoms represent a rich source of novel drugs, so we investigated the analgesic effects and the side-effects of spider peptide Phα1β in a model of cancer pain in mice with or without tolerance to morphine analgesia. Cancer pain was induced by the inoculation of melanoma B16-F10 cells into the hind paw of C57BL/6 mice. After 14 days, painful hypersensitivity was detected and Phα1β or ω-conotoxin MVIIA (10-100 pmol/site) was intrathecally injected to evaluate the development of antinociception and side-effects in control and morphine-tolerant mice. The treatment with Phα1β or ω-conotoxin MVIIA fully reversed cancer-related painful hypersensitivity, with long-lasting results, at effective doses 50% of 48 (32-72) or 33 (21-53) pmol/site, respectively. Phα1β produced only mild adverse effects, whereas ω-conotoxin MVIIA induced dose-related side-effects in mice at analgesic doses (estimated toxic dose 50% of 30 pmol/site). In addition, we observed that Phα1β was capable of controlling cancer-related pain even in mice tolerant to morphine antinociception (100% of inhibition) and was able to partially restore morphine analgesia in such animals (56 ± 5% of inhibition). In this study, Phα1β was as efficacious as ω-conotoxin MVIIA in inducing analgesia in a model of cancer pain without producing severe adverse effects or losing efficacy in opioid-tolerant mice, indicating that Phα1β has a good profile for the treatment of cancer pain in patients. PMID:23718272

  11. A newly identified tomato peptide induces cytosolic calcium and may correspond to pathogen defense-related endogenous peptides in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants recognize a variety of stimuli that invoke defenses against attacking pathogens and herbivores. This recognition primes the plant to mount defenses against herbivory and disease. These stimuli include molecules called damage-associated molecular patterns or DAMPs, among them signaling peptide...

  12. TAT-BH4 and TAT-Bcl-xL peptides protect against sepsis-induced lymphocyte apoptosis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hotchkiss, Richard S; McConnell, Kevin W; Bullok, Kristin; Davis, Christopher G; Chang, Katherine C; Schwulst, Steven J; Dunne, Jeffrey C; Dietz, Gunnar P H; Bähr, Mathias; McDunn, Jonathan E; Karl, Irene E; Wagner, Tracey H; Cobb, J Perren; Coopersmith, Craig M; Piwnica-Worms, David

    2006-05-01

    Apoptosis is a key pathogenic mechanism in sepsis that induces extensive death of lymphocytes and dendritic cells, thereby contributing to the immunosuppression that characterizes the septic disorder. Numerous animal studies indicate that prevention of apoptosis in sepsis improves survival and may represent a potential therapy for this highly lethal disorder. Recently, novel cell-penetrating peptide constructs such as HIV-1 TAT basic domain and related peptides have been developed to deliver bioactive cargoes and peptides into cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of sepsis-induced apoptosis in Bcl-x(L) transgenic mice and in wild-type mice treated with an antiapoptotic TAT-Bcl-x(L) fusion protein and TAT-BH4 peptide. Lymphocytes from Bcl-x(L) transgenic mice were resistant to sepsis-induced apoptosis, and these mice had a approximately 3-fold improvement in survival. TAT-Bcl-x(L) and TAT-BH4 prevented Escherichia coli-induced human lymphocyte apoptosis ex vivo and markedly decreased lymphocyte apoptosis in an in vivo mouse model of sepsis. In conclusion, TAT-conjugated antiapoptotic Bcl-2-like peptides may offer a novel therapy to prevent apoptosis in sepsis and improve survival. PMID:16622015

  13. Four different synthetic peptides of proteolipid protein induce a distinct antibody response in MP4-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Recks, Mascha S; Grether, Nicolai B; van der Broeck, Franziska; Ganscher, Alla; Wagner, Nicole; Henke, Erik; Ergün, Süleyman; Schroeter, Michael; Kuerten, Stefanie

    2015-07-01

    Here we studied the autoantibody specificity elicited by proteolipid protein (PLP) in MP4-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a mouse model of multiple sclerosis (MS). In C57BL/6 (B6) mice, antibodies were induced by immunization with one of the two extracellular and by the intracellular PLP domain. Antibodies against extracellular PLP were myelin-reactive in oligodendrocyte cultures and induced mild spinal cord demyelination upon transfer into B cell-deficient J(H)T mice. Remarkably, also antibodies against intracellular PLP showed binding to intact oligodendrocytes and were capable of inducing myelin pathology upon transfer into J(H)T mice. In MP4-immunized mice peptide-specific T(H)1/T(H)17 responses were mainly directed against the extracellular PLP domains, but also involved the intracellular epitopes. These data suggest that both extracellular and intracellular epitopes of PLP contribute to the pathogenesis of MP4-induced EAE already in the setting of intact myelin. It remains to be elucidated if this concept also applies to MS itself. PMID:25959684

  14. Non-fibrillar amyloid-{beta} peptide reduces NMDA-induced neurotoxicity, but not AMPA-induced neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Niidome, Tetsuhiro; Goto, Yasuaki; Kato, Masaru; Wang, Pi-Lin; Goh, Saori; Tanaka, Naoki; Akaike, Akinori; Kihara, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Hachiro

    2009-09-04

    Amyloid-{beta} peptide (A{beta}) is thought to be linked to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Recent studies suggest that A{beta} has important physiological roles in addition to its pathological roles. We recently demonstrated that A{beta}42 protects hippocampal neurons from glutamate-induced neurotoxicity, but the relationship between A{beta}42 assemblies and their neuroprotective effects remains largely unknown. In this study, we prepared non-fibrillar and fibrillar A{beta}42 based on the results of the thioflavin T assay, Western blot analysis, and atomic force microscopy, and examined the effects of non-fibrillar and fibrillar A{beta}42 on glutamate-induced neurotoxicity. Non-fibrillar A{beta}42, but not fibrillar A{beta}42, protected hippocampal neurons from glutamate-induced neurotoxicity. Furthermore, non-fibrillar A{beta}42 decreased both neurotoxicity and increases in the intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), but not by {alpha}-amino-3-hydrozy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA). Our results suggest that non-fibrillar A{beta}42 protects hippocampal neurons from glutamate-induced neurotoxicity through regulation of the NMDA receptor.

  15. Identification of a Possible Role for Atrial Natiuretic Peptide in MDMA-induced hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Hrometz, Sandra L; Thatcher, Karen E; Ebert, Jeremy A; Mills, Edward M; Sprague, Jon E

    2011-01-01

    MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) induces thermogenesis in a mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3-dependent manner. There is evidence that this hyperthermia is mediated in part by the lipolytic release of free fatty acids, that subsequently activate uncoupling protein 3 in skeletal muscle mitochondria. We hypothesize that atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a strong lipolytic mediator, may contribute to the induction and maintenance of MDMA-induced thermogenesis. The specific aims of this study were to 1) determine if ANP is released following MDMA administration, and 2) use the ANP receptor antagonist, Anantin, to ascertain the role of ANP in MDMA-induced hyperthermia. ANP levels were measured in plasma at baseline, 10, 20, 30 and 60 min following MDMA (40 mg/kg, sc) administration in 16 male Sprague-Dawley rats. A robust increase in ANP was seen within ten min of MDMA administration. ANP levels returned to baseline at 20 min and then gradually rose over the 60 min monitoring period. The administration of Anantin (40 mg, ip), 15 min before and after MDMA, significantly attenuated the MDMA-induced hyperthermia. We conclude that ANP signaling contributes to the hyperthermia induced by MDMA. PMID:21827841

  16. Amyloid beta-peptide disrupts carbachol-induced muscarinic cholinergic signal transduction in cortical neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, J F; Furukawa, K; Barger, S W; Rengen, M R; Mark, R J; Blanc, E M; Roth, G S; Mattson, M P

    1996-01-01

    Cholinergic pathways serve important functions in learning and memory processes, and deficits in cholinergic transmission occur in Alzheimer disease (AD). A subset of muscarinic cholinergic receptors are linked to G-proteins that activate phospholipase C, resulting in the liberation of inositol trisphosphate and Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. We now report that amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta), which forms plaques in the brain in AD, impairs muscarinic receptor activation of G proteins in cultured rat cortical neurons. Exposure of rodent fetal cortical neurons to Abeta25-35 and Abeta1-40 resulted in a concentration and time-dependent attenuation of carbachol-induced GTPase activity without affecting muscarinic receptor ligand binding parameters. Downstream events in the signal transduction cascade were similarly attenuated by Abeta. Carbachol-induced accumulation of inositol phosphates (IP, IP2, IP3, and IP4) was decreased and calcium imaging studies revealed that carbachol-induced release of calcium was severely impaired in neurons pretreated with Abeta. Muscarinic cholinergic signal transduction was disrupted with subtoxic levels of exposure to AP. The effects of Abeta on carbachol-induced GTPase activity and calcium release were attenuated by antioxidants, implicating free radicals in the mechanism whereby Abeta induced uncoupling of muscarinic receptors. These data demonstrate that Abeta disrupts muscarinic receptor coupling to G proteins that mediate induction of phosphoinositide accumulation and calcium release, findings that implicate Abeta in the impairment of cholinergic transmission that occurs in AD. PMID:8692890

  17. Amyloid beta-peptide disrupts carbachol-induced muscarinic cholinergic signal transduction in cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J F; Furukawa, K; Barger, S W; Rengen, M R; Mark, R J; Blanc, E M; Roth, G S; Mattson, M P

    1996-06-25

    Cholinergic pathways serve important functions in learning and memory processes, and deficits in cholinergic transmission occur in Alzheimer disease (AD). A subset of muscarinic cholinergic receptors are linked to G-proteins that activate phospholipase C, resulting in the liberation of inositol trisphosphate and Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. We now report that amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta), which forms plaques in the brain in AD, impairs muscarinic receptor activation of G proteins in cultured rat cortical neurons. Exposure of rodent fetal cortical neurons to Abeta25-35 and Abeta1-40 resulted in a concentration and time-dependent attenuation of carbachol-induced GTPase activity without affecting muscarinic receptor ligand binding parameters. Downstream events in the signal transduction cascade were similarly attenuated by Abeta. Carbachol-induced accumulation of inositol phosphates (IP, IP2, IP3, and IP4) was decreased and calcium imaging studies revealed that carbachol-induced release of calcium was severely impaired in neurons pretreated with Abeta. Muscarinic cholinergic signal transduction was disrupted with subtoxic levels of exposure to AP. The effects of Abeta on carbachol-induced GTPase activity and calcium release were attenuated by antioxidants, implicating free radicals in the mechanism whereby Abeta induced uncoupling of muscarinic receptors. These data demonstrate that Abeta disrupts muscarinic receptor coupling to G proteins that mediate induction of phosphoinositide accumulation and calcium release, findings that implicate Abeta in the impairment of cholinergic transmission that occurs in AD. PMID:8692890

  18. Early signaling events induced by the peptide elicitor PIP-1 necessary for acetosyringone accumulation in tobacco cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yonghyun; Miyashita, Masahiro; Miyagawa, Hisashi

    2016-06-01

    A peptide elicitor PIP-1 induces defense-related secondary metabolites such as phytoalexin capsidiol in tobacco cells. In this study, we identified one of other metabolites induced by PIP-1 as acetosyringone. Unlike capsidiol accumulation that requires long-term stimulation with PIP-1, acetosyringone was induced by short-term stimulation with PIP-1. The importance of NADPH oxidase in the acetosyringone induction was also demonstrated. PMID:26924306

  19. DCP-LA neutralizes mutant amyloid beta peptide-induced impairment of long-term potentiation and spatial learning.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Tetsu; Tomiyama, Takami; Tominaga, Takemi; Mori, Hiroshi; Yaguchi, Takahiro; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2010-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) was monitored from the CA1 region of the intact rat hippocampus by delivering high frequency stimulation (HFS) to the Schaffer collateral commissural pathway. Intraventricular injection with mutant amyloid beta(1-42) peptide lacking glutamate-22 (Abeta(1-42)E22Delta), favoring oligomerization, 10 min prior to HFS, inhibited expression of LTP, with the potency more than wild-type amyloid beta(1-42) peptide. Intraperitoneal injection with the linoleic acid derivative 8-[2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl]-octanoic acid (DCP-LA) 70 min prior to HFS neutralized mutant Abeta(1-42)E22Delta peptide-induced LTP inhibition. In the water maze test, continuous intraventricular injection with mutant Abeta(1-42)E22Delta peptide for 14 days prolonged the acquisition latency as compared with that for control, with the potency similar to wild-type Abeta(1-42) peptide, and intraperitoneal injection with DCP-LA shortened the prolonged latency to control levels. The results of the present study indicate that DCP-LA neutralizes mutant Abeta(1-42)E22Delta peptide-induced impairment of LTP and spatial learning. PMID:19716848

  20. Immunological features of T cells induced by human telomerase reverse transcriptase-derived peptides in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mizukoshi, Eishiro; Nakagawa, Hidetoshi; Kitahara, Masaaki; Yamashita, Tatsuya; Arai, Kuniaki; Sunagozaka, Hajime; Fushimi, Kazumi; Kobayashi, Eiji; Kishi, Hiroyuki; Muraguchi, Atsushi; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2015-08-10

    Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is a catalytic enzyme required for telomere elongation. In this study, we investigated the safety and immunogenicity of an hTERT-derived peptide (hTERT461) as a vaccine and characterized the hTERT-specific T cell responses induced. Fourteen hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients were enrolled in the study. The hTERT-derived peptide was emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant and administered via subcutaneous immunization three times biweekly. The maximum toxicity observed was grade 2 according to the common terminology criteria and mainly consisted of skin reactions at the site of vaccination. The vaccination induced hTERT-specific immunity in 71.4% of patients and 57.1% of patients administered with hTERT461 peptide-specific T cells could prevent HCC recurrence after vaccination. In phenotypic analysis, the post-vaccinated increase in hTERT-specific T cells was due to an increase in cells with the effector memory phenotype, with the potential to produce multiple cytokines. Seven hTERT-specific T cell receptors were obtained from the vaccinated patients, showing their cytotoxic activities to hTERT-derived peptide-bearing cells. In conclusion, the safety and effects of immune boosting by hTERT461 peptide have shown the potential of the peptide to provide clinical benefits in HCC patients. PMID:25982205

  1. Osmolyte Induced Changes in Peptide Conformational Ensemble Correlate with Slower Amyloid Aggregation: A Coarse-Grained Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Sukenik, Shahar; Sapir, Liel; Harries, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    Stabilizing osmolytes are known to impact the process of amyloid aggregation, often altering aggregation kinetics. Recent evidence further suggests that osmolytes modify the peptide conformational dynamics, as well as change the physical characteristics of assembling amyloid fibrils. To resolve how these variations emerge on the molecular level, we simulated the initial aggregation steps of an amyloid-forming peptide in the presence and absence of the osmolyte sorbitol, a naturally occurring polyol. To this end, a coarse-grained force field was extended and implemented to access larger aggregate sizes and longer time scales. The force field optimization procedure placed emphasis on calibrating the solution thermodynamics of sorbitol, the aggregating peptide in its monomeric form, and the interaction of both of these components with each other and with water. Our simulations show a difference in aggregation kinetics and structural parameters in the presence of sorbitol compared to water, which qualitatively agree well with our experimentally resolved aggregation kinetics of the same peptide. The kinetic changes induced by sorbitol can be traced in our simulations to changes in monomer conformations resulting from osmolyte presence. These translate into changes in peptide conformations within the aggregated clusters and into differences in rates of monomer nucleation and of association to formed fibrils. We find that, compared to pure water as solvent, the presence of sorbitol induces formation of more aggregates each containing fewer peptides, with an increased tendency toward parallel interpeptide contacts. PMID:26587669

  2. Apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide 4F blocks sphingomyelinase-induced LDL aggregation[S

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Su Duy; Javanainen, Matti; Rissanen, Sami; Zhao, Hongxia; Huusko, Jenni; Kivelä, Annukka M.; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Navab, Mohamad; Fogelman, Alan M.; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Kovanen, Petri T.; Öörni, Katariina

    2015-01-01

    Lipolytic modification of LDL particles by SMase generates LDL aggregates with a strong affinity for human arterial proteoglycans and may so enhance LDL retention in the arterial wall. Here, we evaluated the effects of apoA-I mimetic peptide 4F on structural and functional properties of the SMase-modified LDL particles. LDL particles with and without 4F were incubated with SMase, after which their aggregation, structure, and proteoglycan binding were analyzed. At a molar ratio of L-4F to apoB-100 of 2.5 to 20:1, 4F dose-dependently inhibited SMase-induced LDL aggregation. At a molar ratio of 20:1, SMase-induced aggregation was fully blocked. Binding of 4F to LDL particles inhibited SMase-induced hydrolysis of LDL by 10% and prevented SMase-induced LDL aggregation. In addition, the binding of the SMase-modified LDL particles to human aortic proteoglycans was dose-dependently inhibited by pretreating LDL with 4F. The 4F stabilized apoB-100 conformation and inhibited SMase-induced conformational changes of apoB-100. Molecular dynamic simulations showed that upon binding to protein-free LDL surface, 4F locally alters membrane order and fluidity and induces structural changes to the lipid layer. Collectively, 4F stabilizes LDL particles by preventing the SMase-induced conformational changes in apoB-100 and so blocks SMase-induced LDL aggregation and the resulting increase in LDL retention. PMID:25861792

  3. A Prosaposin-Derived Peptide Alleviates Kainic Acid-Induced Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Nabeka, Hiroaki; Shimokawa, Tetsuya; Doihara, Takuya; Saito, Shouichiro; Wakisaka, Hiroyuki; Hamada, Fumihiko; Kobayashi, Naoto; Matsuda, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    Four sphingolipid activator proteins (i.e., saposins A–D) are synthesized from a single precursor protein, prosaposin (PS), which exerts exogenous neurotrophic effects in vivo and in vitro. Kainic acid (KA) injection in rodents is a good model in which to study neurotrophic factor elevation; PS and its mRNA are increased in neurons and the choroid plexus in this animal model. An 18-mer peptide (LSELIINNATEELLIKGL; PS18) derived from the PS neurotrophic region prevents neuronal damage after ischemia, and PS18 is a potent candidate molecule for use in alleviating ischemia-induced learning disabilities and neuronal loss. KA is a glutamate analog that stimulates excitatory neurotransmitter release and induces ischemia-like neuronal degeneration; it has been used to define mechanisms involved in neurodegeneration and neuroprotection. In the present study, we demonstrate that a subcutaneous injection of 0.2 and 2.0 mg/kg PS18 significantly improved behavioral deficits of Wistar rats (n = 6 per group), and enhanced the survival of hippocampal and cortical neurons against neurotoxicity induced by 12 mg/kg KA compared with control animals. PS18 significantly protected hippocampal synapses against KA-induced destruction. To evaluate the extent of PS18- and KA-induced effects in these hippocampal regions, we performed histological evaluations using semithin sections stained with toluidine blue, as well as ordinal sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. We revealed a distinctive feature of KA-induced brain injury, which reportedly mimics ischemia, but affects a much wider area than ischemia-induced injury: KA induced neuronal degeneration not only in the CA1 region, where neurons degenerate following ischemia, but also in the CA2, CA3, and CA4 hippocampal regions. PMID:25993033

  4. Immunization of Patients with the hTERT:540-548 Peptide Induces Peptide-Reactive T Lymphocytes That Do Not Recognize Tumors Endogenously Expressing Telomerase

    PubMed Central

    Parkhurst, Maria R.; Riley, John P.; Igarashi, Takehito; Li, Yong; Robbins, Paul F.; Rosenberg, Steven A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Telomerase is an attractive target antigen for cancer immunotherapies because it is expressed in >85% of human tumors but is rarely found in normal tissues. A HLA-A*0201-restricted T-cell epitope was previously identified within telomerase reverse transcriptase hTERT:540-548. This peptide was reported to induce CTL that recognized tumor cells and transfectants that endogenously expressed telomerase. Therefore, we initiated a clinical protocol to evaluate the therapeutic and immunological efficacy of this peptide. Experimental Design Fourteen patients with metastatic cancers were vaccinated with hTERT:540-548 emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant. Results In 7 patients, peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected after immunization recognized hTERT:540-548, whereas those collected before vaccination did not. However, none of these CTLs recognized tumors that endogenously expressed telomerase, and none of the patients had an objective clinical response. Several highly avid T-cell clones were generated that recognized T2 cells pulsed with ≤1 nm hTERT:540-548, but none of these recognized HLA-A*0201+ hTERT+ tumors or cells transduced with the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene. Also, an antibody specific for hTERT:540-548/HLA-A*0201 complexes stained peptide-pulsed cells but not telomerase+ tumors. Conclusions Our results are discordant with previous studies and those of a clinical trial that claimed peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients vaccinated with peptide-pulsed dendritic cells lysed hTERT+ tumors. However, our findings are consistent with a previous study that demonstrated that the hTERT:540-548 peptide is cleaved in the proteasome. These results suggest that hTERT:540-548 is not presented on the surfaces of tumor cells in the context of HLA-A*0201 and will not be useful for the immunotherapy of patients with cancer. PMID:15269141

  5. Sodium dodecyl sulfate monomers induce XAO peptide polyproline II to α-helix transition.

    PubMed

    Hong, Zhenmin; Damodaran, Krishnan; Asher, Sanford A

    2014-09-11

    XAO peptide (Ac-X2A7O2-NH2; X: diaminobutyric acid side chain, -CH2CH2NH3(+); O: ornithine side chain, -CH2CH2CH2NH3(+)) in aqueous solution shows a predominantly polyproline II (PPII) conformation without any detectable α-helix-like conformations. Here we demonstrate by using circular dichroism (CD), ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy that sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) monomers bind to XAO and induce formation of α-helix-like conformations. The stoichiometry and the association constants of SDS and XAO were determined from the XAO-SDS diffusion coefficients measured by pulsed field gradient NMR. We developed a model for the formation of XAO-SDS aggregate α-helix-like conformations. Using UVRR spectroscopy, we calculated the Ramachandran ψ angle distributions of aggregated XAO peptides. We resolved α-, π- and 3(10)-helical conformations and a turn conformation. XAO nucleates SDS aggregation at SDS concentrations below the SDS critical micelle concentration. The XAO4-SDS16 aggregates have four SDS molecules bound to each XAO to neutralize the four side chain cationic charges. We propose that the SDS alkyl chains partition into a hydrophobic core to minimize the hydrophobic area exposed to water. Neutralization of the flanking XAO charges enables α-helix formation. Four XAO-SDS4 aggregates form a complex with an SDS alkyl chain-dominated hydrophobic core and a more hydrophilic shell where one face of the α-helix peptide contacts the water environment. PMID:25121643

  6. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Monomers Induce XAO Peptide Polyproline II to α-Helix Transition

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    XAO peptide (Ac–X2A7O2–NH2; X: diaminobutyric acid side chain, −CH2CH2NH3+; O: ornithine side chain, −CH2CH2CH2NH3+) in aqueous solution shows a predominantly polyproline II (PPII) conformation without any detectable α-helix-like conformations. Here we demonstrate by using circular dichroism (CD), ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy that sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) monomers bind to XAO and induce formation of α-helix-like conformations. The stoichiometry and the association constants of SDS and XAO were determined from the XAO–SDS diffusion coefficients measured by pulsed field gradient NMR. We developed a model for the formation of XAO–SDS aggregate α-helix-like conformations. Using UVRR spectroscopy, we calculated the Ramachandran ψ angle distributions of aggregated XAO peptides. We resolved α-, π- and 310- helical conformations and a turn conformation. XAO nucleates SDS aggregation at SDS concentrations below the SDS critical micelle concentration. The XAO4–SDS16 aggregates have four SDS molecules bound to each XAO to neutralize the four side chain cationic charges. We propose that the SDS alkyl chains partition into a hydrophobic core to minimize the hydrophobic area exposed to water. Neutralization of the flanking XAO charges enables α-helix formation. Four XAO–SDS4 aggregates form a complex with an SDS alkyl chain-dominated hydrophobic core and a more hydrophilic shell where one face of the α-helix peptide contacts the water environment. PMID:25121643

  7. Intranasal peptide-induced tolerance and linked suppression: consequences of complement deficiency.

    PubMed

    Fossati-Jimack, Liliane; Ling, Guang Sheng; Baudino, Lucie; Szajna, Marta; Manivannan, Kiruthika; Zhao, Jade Chen; Midgley, Robert; Chai, Jian-Guo; Simpson, Elizabeth; Botto, Marina; Scott, Diane

    2015-01-01

    A role for complement, particularly the classical pathway, in the regulation of immune responses is well documented. Deficiencies in C1q or C4 predispose to autoimmunity, while deficiency in C3 affects the suppression of contact sensitization and generation of oral tolerance. Complement components including C3 have been shown to be required for both B-cell and T-cell priming. The mechanisms whereby complement can mediate these diverse regulatory effects are poorly understood. Our previous work, using the mouse minor histocompatibility (HY) model of skin graft rejection, showed that both C1q and C3 were required for the induction of tolerance following intranasal peptide administration. By comparing tolerance induction in wild-type C57BL/6 and C1q-, C3-, C4- and C5-deficient C57BL/6 female mice, we show here that the classical pathway components including C3 are required for tolerance induction, whereas C5 plays no role. C3-deficient mice failed to generate a functional regulatory T (Treg) -dendritic cell (DC) tolerogenic loop required for tolerance induction. This was related to the inability of C3-deficient DC to up-regulate the arginine-consuming enzyme, inducible nitric oxide synthase (Nos-2), in the presence of antigen-specific Treg cells and peptide, leading to reduced Treg cell generation. Our findings demonstrate that the classical pathway and C3 play a critical role in the peptide-mediated induction of tolerance to HY by modulating DC function. PMID:25039245

  8. Intranasal peptide-induced tolerance and linked suppression: consequences of complement deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Fossati-Jimack, Liliane; Ling, Guang Sheng; Baudino, Lucie; Szajna, Marta; Manivannan, Kiruthika; Zhao, Jade Chen; Midgley, Robert; Chai, Jian-Guo; Simpson, Elizabeth; Botto, Marina; Scott, Diane

    2015-01-01

    A role for complement, particularly the classical pathway, in the regulation of immune responses is well documented. Deficiencies in C1q or C4 predispose to autoimmunity, while deficiency in C3 affects the suppression of contact sensitization and generation of oral tolerance. Complement components including C3 have been shown to be required for both B-cell and T-cell priming. The mechanisms whereby complement can mediate these diverse regulatory effects are poorly understood. Our previous work, using the mouse minor histocompatibility (HY) model of skin graft rejection, showed that both C1q and C3 were required for the induction of tolerance following intranasal peptide administration. By comparing tolerance induction in wild-type C57BL/6 and C1q-, C3-, C4- and C5-deficient C57BL/6 female mice, we show here that the classical pathway components including C3 are required for tolerance induction, whereas C5 plays no role. C3-deficient mice failed to generate a functional regulatory T (Treg) –dendritic cell (DC) tolerogenic loop required for tolerance induction. This was related to the inability of C3-deficient DC to up-regulate the arginine-consuming enzyme, inducible nitric oxide synthase (Nos-2), in the presence of antigen-specific Treg cells and peptide, leading to reduced Treg cell generation. Our findings demonstrate that the classical pathway and C3 play a critical role in the peptide-mediated induction of tolerance to HY by modulating DC function. PMID:25039245

  9. Nutrient-induced glucagon like peptide-1 release is modulated by serotonin.

    PubMed

    Ripken, Dina; van der Wielen, Nikkie; Wortelboer, Heleen M; Meijerink, Jocelijn; Witkamp, Renger F; Hendriks, Henk F J

    2016-06-01

    Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and serotonin are both involved in food intake regulation. GLP-1 release is stimulated upon nutrient interaction with G-protein coupled receptors by enteroendocrine cells (EEC), whereas serotonin is released from enterochromaffin cells (ECC). The central hypothesis for the current study was that nutrient-induced GLP-1 release from EECs is modulated by serotonin through a process involving serotonin receptor interaction. This was studied by assessing the effects of serotonin reuptake inhibition by fluoxetine on nutrient-induced GLP-1, PYY and CCK release from isolated pig intestinal segments. Next, serotonin-induced GLP-1 release was studied in enteroendocrine STC-1 cells, where effects of serotonin receptor inhibition were studied using specific and non-specific antagonists. Casein (1% w/v), safflower oil (3.35% w/v), sucrose (50mM) and rebaudioside A (12.5mM) stimulated GLP-1 release from intestinal segments, whereas casein only stimulated PYY and CCK release. Combining nutrients with fluoxetine further increased nutrient-induced GLP-1, PYY and CCK release. Serotonin release from intestinal tissue segments was stimulated by casein and safflower oil while sucrose and rebaudioside A had no effect. The combination with fluoxetine (0.155μM) further enhanced casein and safflower oil induced-serotonin release. Exposure of ileal tissue segments to serotonin (30μM) stimulated GLP-1 release whereas it did not induce PYY and CCK release. Serotonin (30 and 100μM) also stimulated GLP-1 release from STC-1 cells, which was inhibited by the non-specific 5HT receptor antagonist asenapine (1 and 10μM). These data suggest that nutrient-induced GLP-1 release is modulated by serotonin through a receptor mediated process. PMID:27142747

  10. Statistical Analysis of Peptide-Induced Graded and All-or-None Fluxes in Giant Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Wheaten, Sterling A.; Lakshmanan, Aruna; Almeida, Paulo F.

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial, cytolytic, and cell-penetrating peptides induce pores or perturbations in phospholipid membranes that result in fluxes of dyes into or out of lipid vesicles. Here we examine the fluxes induced by four of these membrane-active peptides in giant unilamellar vesicles. The type of flux is determined from the modality of the distributions of vesicles as a function of their dye content using the statistical Hartigan dip test. Graded and all-or-none fluxes correspond to unimodal and bimodal distributions, respectively. To understand how these distributions arise, we perform Monte Carlo simulations of peptide-induced dye flux into vesicles using a very simple model. The modality of the distributions depends on the rate constants of pore opening and closing, and dye flux. If the rate constants of pore opening and closing are both much smaller than that of dye flux through the pore, all-or-none influx occurs. However, if one of them, especially the rate constant for pore opening, increases significantly relative to the flux rate constant, the process becomes graded. In the experiments, we find that the flux type is the same in giant and large vesicles, for all peptides except one. But this one exception indicates that the flux type cannot be used to unambiguously predict the mechanism of membrane permeabilization by the peptides. PMID:23870264

  11. Atrial natriuretic peptide attenuates agonist-induced pulmonary edema in mice with targeted disruption of the gene for natriuretic peptide receptor-A

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Shu-Whei; Green, Sabrina; Grinnell, Katie L.; Machan, Jason T.; Harrington, Elizabeth O.

    2013-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) inhibits agonist-induced pulmonary edema formation, but the signaling pathway responsible is not well defined. To investigate the role of the particulate guanylate cyclase-linked receptor, natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPR-A), we measured acute lung injury responses in intact mice and pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVEC) with normal and disrupted expression of NPR-A. NPR-A wild-type (NPR-A+/+), heterozygous (NPR-A+/−), and knockout (NPR-A−/−) mice were anesthetized and treated with thrombin receptor agonist peptide (TRAP) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Lung injury was assessed by lung wet-to-dry (W/D) weight and by protein and cell concentration of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. No difference in pulmonary edema formation was seen between NPR-A genotypes under baseline conditions. TRAP and LPS increased lung W/D weight and BAL fluid cell counts more in NPR-A−/− mice than in NPR-A+/− or NPR-A+/+ mice, but no genotype-related differences were seen in TRAP-induced increases in bloodless lung W/D weight or LPS-induced increases in BAL protein concentration. Pretreatment with ANP infusion completely blocked TRAP-induced increases in lung W/D weight and blunted LPS-induced increases in BAL cell counts and protein concentration in both NPR-A−/− and NPR-A+/+ mice. Thrombin decreased transmembrane electrical resistance in monolayers of PMVECs in vitro, and this effect was attenuated by ANP in PMVECs isolated from both genotypes. Administration of the NPR-C-specific ligand, cANF, also blocked TRAP-induced increases in lung W/D weight and LPS-induced increases in BAL cell count and protein concentration in NPR-A+/+ and NPR-A−/− mice. We conclude that ANP is capable of attenuating agonist-induced lung edema in the absence of NPR-A. The protective effect of ANP on agonist-induced lung injury and pulmonary barrier function may be mediated by NPR-C. PMID:23195629

  12. Atrial natriuretic peptide attenuates agonist-induced pulmonary edema in mice with targeted disruption of the gene for natriuretic peptide receptor-A.

    PubMed

    Klinger, James R; Tsai, Shu-Whei; Green, Sabrina; Grinnell, Katie L; Machan, Jason T; Harrington, Elizabeth O

    2013-02-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) inhibits agonist-induced pulmonary edema formation, but the signaling pathway responsible is not well defined. To investigate the role of the particulate guanylate cyclase-linked receptor, natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPR-A), we measured acute lung injury responses in intact mice and pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVEC) with normal and disrupted expression of NPR-A. NPR-A wild-type (NPR-A+/+), heterozygous (NPR-A+/-), and knockout (NPR-A-/-) mice were anesthetized and treated with thrombin receptor agonist peptide (TRAP) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Lung injury was assessed by lung wet-to-dry (W/D) weight and by protein and cell concentration of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. No difference in pulmonary edema formation was seen between NPR-A genotypes under baseline conditions. TRAP and LPS increased lung W/D weight and BAL fluid cell counts more in NPR-A-/- mice than in NPR-A+/- or NPR-A+/+ mice, but no genotype-related differences were seen in TRAP-induced increases in bloodless lung W/D weight or LPS-induced increases in BAL protein concentration. Pretreatment with ANP infusion completely blocked TRAP-induced increases in lung W/D weight and blunted LPS-induced increases in BAL cell counts and protein concentration in both NPR-A-/- and NPR-A+/+ mice. Thrombin decreased transmembrane electrical resistance in monolayers of PMVECs in vitro, and this effect was attenuated by ANP in PMVECs isolated from both genotypes. Administration of the NPR-C-specific ligand, cANF, also blocked TRAP-induced increases in lung W/D weight and LPS-induced increases in BAL cell count and protein concentration in NPR-A+/+ and NPR-A-/- mice. We conclude that ANP is capable of attenuating agonist-induced lung edema in the absence of NPR-A. The protective effect of ANP on agonist-induced lung injury and pulmonary barrier function may be mediated by NPR-C. PMID:23195629

  13. Functionalization with C-terminal cysteine enhances transfection efficiency of cell-penetrating peptides through dimer formation

    SciTech Connect

    Amand, Helene L.

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reversible CPP dimerisation is a simple yet efficient strategy to improve delivery. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dimer formation enhances peptiplex stability, resulting in increased transfection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer By dimerisation, the CPP EB1 even gain endosomal escape properties while lowering cytotoxicity. -- Abstract: Cell-penetrating peptides have the ability to stimulate uptake of macromolecular cargo in mammalian cells in a non-toxic manner and therefore hold promise as efficient and well tolerated gene delivery vectors. Non-covalent peptide-DNA complexes ('peptiplexes') enter cells via endocytosis, but poor peptiplex stability and endosomal entrapment are considered as main barriers to peptide-mediated delivery. We explore a simple, yet highly efficient, strategy to improve the function of peptide-based vectors, by adding one terminal cysteine residue. This allows the peptide to dimerize by disulfide bond formation, increasing its affinity for nucleic acids by the 'chelate effect' and, when the bond is reduced intracellularly, letting the complex dissociate to deliver the nucleic acid. By introducing a single C-terminal cysteine in the classical CPP penetratin and the penetratin analogs PenArg and EB1, we show that this minor modification greatly enhances the transfection capacity for plasmid DNA in HEK293T cells. We conclude that this effect is mainly due to enhanced thermodynamic stability of the peptiplexes as endosome-disruptive chloroquine is still required for transfection and the effect is more pronounced for peptides with lower inherent DNA condensation capacity. Interestingly, for EB1, addition of one cysteine makes the peptide able to mediate transfection in absence of chloroquine, indicating that dimerisation can also improve endosomal escape properties. Further, the cytotoxicity of EB1 peptiplexes is considerably reduced, possibly due to lower concentration of free peptide dimer resulting from

  14. TGF-β-mediated airway tolerance to allergens induced by peptide-based immunomodulatory mucosal vaccination.

    PubMed

    Michael, H; Li, Y; Wang, Y; Xue, D; Shan, J; Mazer, B D; McCusker, C T

    2015-11-01

    We sought to modulate mucosal immune responses using neonatal vaccination to avert the development of allergic airways disease (AAD). Pulmonary pathology in AAD is driven by T helper (TH)2 cytokines, in particular interleukin (IL)4 and IL13, the expression and actions of which are regulated by the transcription factor STAT6. We developed a peptide homolog of STAT6, STAT6-IP. Neonatal mice given, intranasally, STAT6-IP, in an effort to modulate de novo airways immune responses, developed tolerance following subsequent allergen sensitization, with either ovalbumin or ragweed allergens, as demonstrated by reduced TH2 cytokines and specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E and the significant increases in the latency-associated peptide (LAP)(+) T-regulatory (Treg) cell subset and expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. This regulatory phenotype was transferrable by CD4(+) T cells or CD11c(+) dendritic cells (DCs) derived from STAT6-IP-vaccinated mice. Anti-TGF-β treatment during allergen sensitization, however, re-established the pro-inflammatory TH2 response. Thus, neonatal STAT6-IP vaccination induces prospective TGF-β-dependent tolerance to allergen and constitutes a novel highly effective immunomodulatory allergy prevention strategy. PMID:25783968

  15. Corn Peptides Protect Against Thioacetamide-Induced Hepatic Fibrosis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Jie; Nie, Zhi-Kui; Zhang, Jiu-Liang; Liu, Feng-Yan; Wang, Zhen-Zhen; Ma, Zhi-Li

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Certain bioactive peptides are reported to be able to alleviate hepatic fibrosis. Our previous work has confirmed the hepatoprotective effect of corn peptides (CPs) that are prepared from a high protein by-product, corn gluten meal, on acute liver injury in an animal model. However, the antifibrotic activity of CPs remained to be elucidated. In this study, the hepatoprotective effect of CPs on thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver fibrosis was tested. Results showed that CPs (100 mg/kg body weight) significantly decreased the levels of alanine transaminase/aspartate transaminase, laminin, type IV collagen, and type III collagen in serum and increased the serum albumin levels and total antioxidant capacity. Additionally, with CP treatment (100 mg/kg body weight), a significant decrease was observed in the levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, hydroxyproline, transforming growth factor β1, and lactate dehydrogenase activity as well as the liver index, while the activity of superoxidedismutase was significantly increased in livers. The histological and morphological analysis showed that the hepatocyte structure in CP-treated rats was superior to that of TAA-injured rats, and inflammation and fibrosis were also ameliorated. Therefore, CPs can be used as an option for prevention and adjuvant therapy of liver fibrosis. PMID:24063407

  16. Mechanisms of Ultrasonically Induced Fibrillation of Amyloid β1-40 Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uesugi, Kentaro; Ogi, Hirotsugu; Fukushima, Masahiko; So, Masatomo; Yagi, Hisashi; Goto, Yuji; Hirao, Masahiko

    2013-07-01

    We systematically study the relationship between the ultrasonically induced aggregation behavior of amyloid β1-40 peptide and acoustic pressures to clarify the dominant mechanism of the aggregation. With ultrasonic irradiation, the thioflavin-T (ThT) level of the Aβ solution rises after a lag time, takes a maximum at ˜5 h, and remains unchanged or decreases. Thus, we monitor the ThT level at 5 h to evaluate the progress of the β-sheet structure and investigate its correlation with the acoustic pressures of fundamental and harmonics waves. The second-harmonics-wave amplitude shows the highest correlation with the ThT level, indicating the dominant contribution of cavitation bubbles to the fibrillation phenomenon. The influence of solution pH and Ar gas are investigated to identify the aggregation mechanism. As a result, local condensation of the peptide due to the high affinity of hydrophobic residues to the bubble-solution interface causes a highly supersaturated solution, leading to precipitation of β-sheet-rich nuclei.

  17. Unique properties of cd-binding peptides induced in fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Y.; Nakagawa, C.W.; Murasugi, A.

    1986-03-01

    Metallothioneins, a class of low molecular weight cysteine-rich proteins that bind heavy metal ions, have been found in various eucaryotic organisms. When fission yeasts are grown in the presence of high concentration of CdCl/sub 2/, large amounts of Cd-binding peptides (Cd-BP1 and Cd-BP2) are synthesized. While Cd-BP2 shows similarities to mammalian Cd-thioneins in UV and CD spectra, Cd-BP1has a characteristic shoulder at 265 nm in the UV absorption spectrum and shows two marked Cotton bands at 257 nm (negative) and 275 nm (positive). These characteristics of Cd-BP1 are not found in the other Cd-thioneins. The UV and CD spectra differences between reconstituted and native Cd-BP1 suggest the requirement for some additional molecular architecture including another peptide-Cd/sup 2 +/ interaction. Induction of cadystin synthesis is almost exclusive for Cd, but an exception is a small amount of cadystin also induced by the higher concentration of CuCl/sub 2/ (2.5 mM). The UV spectrum of the natural Cu-cadystin complex was similar to that of Cd-BP1. On the basis of these findings the models for Cd-BP1 and Cd-BP2 are proposed.

  18. Stress-induced changes in the analgesic and thermic effects of opioid peptides in the rat.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, B D; Holtzman, S G

    1986-07-01

    Stress (e.g. restraint) potentiates analgesia and alters changes in body temperature induced by morphine administered either systemically or intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) in rats. In order to extend the generality of this phenomenon to opioid peptides, we determined whether the analgesic and thermic effects of i.c.v. D-Ala2-D-Leu5-enkephalin (DADLE) or D-Ala2-N-MePhe4-Gly5(ol)-enkephalin (DAGO), agonists selective for delta- and mu-opioid receptors, respectively, were affected by restraint stress. Analgesia was measured in the tail-flick test and core body temperature by rectal probe. The unstressed rats exhibited a dose-dependent increase in tail-flick latencies after administration of either DAGO or DADLE. Restrained rats treated with DAGO or DADLE had a greater analgesic response to each dose of peptide than did unstressed rats; both the magnitude and duration of the drug effect were increased. The unstressed group of rats responded to all doses of DAGO and DADLE with an increase of core temperature. In contrast, restrained rats showed a decrease of core temperature following injection with either DAGO or DADLE. Thus, restraint stress can significantly modify the effects of DAGO and DADLE on analgesia and body temperature in a manner that is qualitatively and quantitatively similar to that observed previously for morphine administered by the i.c.v. route. PMID:3015351

  19. Liquid Crystalline Nanodispersions Functionalized with Cell-Penetrating Peptides for Topical Delivery of Short-Interfering RNAs: A Proposal for Silencing a Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine in Cutaneous Diseases.

    PubMed

    Petrilli, R; Eloy, J O; Praça, F S G; Del Ciampo, J O; Fantini, M A C; Fonseca, M J V; Bentley, M V L B

    2016-05-01

    Short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are a potential strategy for the treatment of cutaneous diseases. In this context, liquid crystalline nanoparticles functionalized with specific proteins and peptide-transduction domains (PTDs), which act as penetration enhancers, are a promising carrier for siRNA delivery through the skin. Herein, hexagonal phase liquid crystal nanoparticles based on monoolein (MO) and/or oleic acid (OA) containing (or lacking) the cationic polymer polyethylenimine (PEI) and the cationic lipid oleylamine (OAM) were functionalized with the membrane transduction peptides transcriptional activator (TAT) or penetratin (PNT). These nanoparticles were complexed with siRNA and characterized by particle size, polydispersity, zeta potential, complexation efficiency and siRNA release. The formulations containing cationic agents presented positive zeta potentials, sizes on the nanometer scale, and complexed siRNAs at concentrations of 10 μM; these agents were successfully released in a heparin competition assay. Cell culture studies demonstrated that nanoparticles composed of MO:OA:PEI functionalized with TAT were the most efficient at transfecting L929 cells, and the uptake efficiency was enhanced by TAT peptide functionalization. Thereafter, the selected formulations were evaluated for in vivo skin irritation, penetration and in vivo efficacy using a chemically induced inflammatory animal model. These nanoparticles did not irritate the skin and provided higher siRNA penetration and delivery into the skin than control formulations. Additionally, efficacy studies in the animal model showed that the association of TAT with the nanodispersion provided higher suppression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Thus, the development of liquid crystalline nanodispersions containing TAT may lead to improved topical siRNA delivery for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:27305826

  20. Atrial natriuretic peptide and oxytocin induce natriuresis by release of cGMP

    PubMed Central

    Soares, T. J.; Coimbra, T. M.; Martins, A. R.; Pereira, A. G. F.; Carnio, E. C.; Branco, L. G. S.; Albuquerque-Araujo, W. I. C.; de Nucci, G.; Favaretto, A. L. V.; Gutkowska, J.; McCann, S. M.; Antunes-Rodrigues, J.

    1999-01-01

    Our hypothesis is that oxytocin (OT) causes natriuresis by activation of renal NO synthase that releases NO followed by cGMP that mediates the natriuresis. To test this hypothesis, an inhibitor of NO synthase, l-nitroarginine methyl ester (NAME), was injected into male rats. Blockade of NO release by NAME had no effect on natriuresis induced by atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). This natriuresis presumably is caused by cGMP because ANP also activates guanylyl cyclase, which synthesizes cGMP from GTP. The 18-fold increase in sodium (Na+) excretion induced by OT (1 μg) was accompanied by an increase in urinary cGMP and preceded by 20 min a 20-fold increase in NO3− excretion. NAME almost completely inhibited OT-induced natriuresis and increased NO3− excretion; however, when the dose of OT was increased 10-fold, a dose that markedly increases plasma ANP concentrations, NAME only partly inhibited the natriuresis. We conclude that the natriuretic action of OT is caused by a dual action: generation of NO leading to increased cGMP and at higher doses release of ANP that also releases cGMP. OT-induced natriuresis is caused mainly by decreased tubular Na+ reabsorption mediated by cGMP. In contrast to ANP that releases cGMP in the renal vessels and the tubules, OT acts on its receptors on NOergic cells demonstrated in the macula densa and proximal tubules to release cGMP that closes Na+ channels. Both ANP- and OT-induced kaliuresis also appear to be mediated by cGMP. We conclude that cGMP mediates natriuresis and kaliuresis induced by both ANP and OT. PMID:9874809

  1. Cell-Penetrating Peptide as a Means of Directing the Differentiation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kaitsuka, Taku; Tomizawa, Kazuhito

    2015-01-01

    Protein transduction using cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) is useful for the delivery of large protein molecules, including some transcription factors. This method is safer than gene transfection methods with a viral vector because there is no risk of genomic integration of the exogenous DNA. Recently, this method was reported as a means for the induction of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, directing the differentiation into specific cell types and supporting gene editing/correction. Furthermore, we developed a direct differentiation method to obtain a pancreatic lineage from mouse and human pluripotent stem cells via the protein transduction of three transcription factors, Pdx1, NeuroD, and MafA. Here, we discuss the possibility of using CPPs as a means of directing the differentiation of iPS cells and other stem cell technologies. PMID:26561805

  2. The gene expression of the hypothalamic feeding-regulating peptides in cisplatin-induced anorexic rats.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Mitsuhiro; Matsuura, Takanori; Ohkubo, Junichi; Ohno, Motoko; Maruyama, Takashi; Ishikura, Toru; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Kakuma, Tetsuya; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu; Terawaki, Kiyoshi; Uezono, Yasuhito; Ueta, Yoichi

    2013-08-01

    Cisplatin has been widely used; however, various disadvantageous side effects afflict patients. Rikkunshito (RKT), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, has been widely prescribed in Japan to improve anorexia; but the mechanisms are unknown. Here we studied whether RKT could improve anorexia induced by cisplatin and changes in feeding-regulating peptides in the hypothalamus in rats. Adult male rats were divided into 4 groups: water+saline (WS), water+cisplatin (WC), RKT+saline (RS), and RKT+cisplatin (RC) groups. Water or RKT (1g/kg) was intragastrically administered for 4 days, from day -1 to day 2, and saline or cisplatin (6mg/kg) was intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered at day 0. After i.p. administration, cumulative food intake, water intake, urine volume and body weight were measured. The rats were then decapitated, followed by removal of the brain, and feeding-regulating peptides in the hypothalamus were measured by in situ hybridization histochemistry. In the three-day measurements, there were no significant changes in cumulative water intake and urine volume. The body weight and cumulative food intake in WC significantly decreased compared to WS, whereas these were not observed in RC. Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) in WC significantly increased, and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the ARC decreased compared to WS, whereas those in RS and RC were comparable to WS. These results suggest that RKT may have therapeutic potential for anorexia induced by cisplatin. PMID:23684922

  3. Plant natriuretic peptides induce proteins diagnostic for an adaptive response to stress

    PubMed Central

    Turek, Ilona; Marondedze, Claudius; Wheeler, Janet I.; Gehring, Chris; Irving, Helen R.

    2014-01-01

    In plants, structural and physiological evidence has suggested the presence of biologically active natriuretic peptides (PNPs). PNPs are secreted into the apoplast, are systemically mobile and elicit a range of responses signaling via cGMP. The PNP-dependent responses include tissue specific modifications of cation transport and changes in stomatal conductance and the photosynthetic rate. PNP also has a critical role in host defense responses. Surprisingly, PNP-homologs are produced by several plant pathogens during host colonization suppressing host defense responses. Here we show that a synthetic peptide representing the biologically active fragment of the Arabidopsis thaliana PNP (AtPNP-A) induces the production of reactive oxygen species in suspension-cultured A. thaliana (Col-0) cells. To identify proteins whose expression changes in an AtPNP-A dependent manner, we undertook a quantitative proteomic approach, employing tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling, to reveal temporal responses of suspension-cultured cells to 1 nM and 10 pM PNP at two different time-points post-treatment. Both concentrations yield a distinct differential proteome signature. Since only the higher (1 nM) concentration induces a ROS response, we conclude that the proteome response at the lower concentration reflects a ROS independent response. Furthermore, treatment with 1 nM PNP results in an over-representation of the gene ontology (GO) terms “oxidation-reduction process,” “translation” and “response to salt stress” and this is consistent with a role of AtPNP-A in the adaptation to environmental stress conditions. PMID:25505478

  4. Ultrasensitive detection of closely related angiotensin I peptides using capillary electrophoresis with near-infrared laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Baars, M J; Patonay, G

    1999-02-01

    A novel near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye (NN382, LICOR, Inc.) was evaluated as an ultrasensitive peptide-labeling reagent for use with capillary electrophoresis (CE). Six angiotensin I (Ang-I) variants were selected as model peptides for the derivatization and separation studies. The closely related decapeptides were labeled with the NIR dye, separated using CE, and detected by NIR laser-induced fluorescence. Derivatization of the peptides was achieved under aqueous conditions using 2.5-500 pmol of Ang-I in a 50-microL sample (5 x 10(-8)-1 x 10(-5)M), and between 1.3 and 254 amol of the labeled peptides were injected on column. The fluorescence response was linear over a 200-fold range (correlation r > or = 0.9986). The limit of detection (SNR = 3, signal/RMS noise) ranged from 100 to 300 zmol, for the six Ang-I variants. Four of six peptides were resolved from each other and excess dye using capillary zone electrophoresis with a simple 50 mM phosphate run buffer, pH 7.2. Two pairs of coeluting peptides were successfully resolved using micellar electrokinetic chromatography with a nonionic surfactant, Triton X-100. The NIR amine-labeling reagent NN382 is a viable alternative to using visible fluorophores for CE methods requiring high sensitivity. PMID:9989384

  5. Self-assembly of diphenylalanine peptides into microtubes with "turn on" fluorescence using an aggregation-induced emission molecule.

    PubMed

    Na, Na; Mu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Qiuling; Wen, Jiying; Wang, Fangfang; Ouyang, Jin

    2013-10-01

    The self-assembly of diphenylalanine peptides (l-Phe-l-Phe) into microtubes with "turn on" bright yellow green fluorescence was described, which was achieved using an aggregation-induced emission (AIE) molecule of 9,10-bis[4-(3-sulfonatopropoxyl)-styryl] anthracene (BSPSA) sodium. PMID:24045462

  6. Isoflurane and desflurane at clinically relevant concentrations induce amyloid {beta}-peptide oligomerization: An NMR study

    SciTech Connect

    Mandal, Pravat K Fodale, Vincenzo

    2009-02-13

    Current understanding on Alzheimer's disease (AD) reveals that soluble amyloid {beta}-peptide (A{beta}) oligomeric formation plays an important role in AD pathophysiology. A potential role for several inhaled anesthetics in promoting A{beta} oligomer formation has been suggested. Using a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study, we previously demonstrated that at a high concentration (higher than clinically relevant concentrations), the inhaled anesthetics halothane and isoflurane, interact with specific amino acid residues (G29, A30, and I31) and induce A{beta} oligomerization. The present study confirms this is true at a clinically relevant concentration. Isoflurane and desflurane induce A{beta} oligomerization by inducing chemical shift changes of the critical amino acid residues (G29, A30, and I31), reinforcing the evidence that perturbation of these three crucial residues indeed plays an important role in oligomerization. These findings support the emerging hypothesis that several commonly used inhaled anesthetics could be involved in neurodegeneration, as well as risk factor for accelerating the onset of AD.

  7. Protective effects of luteolin against cognitive impairment induced by infusion of Aβ peptide in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Tian-Xia; Zhang, Peng; Guan, Yan; Wang, Min; Zhen, Ming-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Luteolin can be found in many traditional Chinese medicines, it’s a falconoid compound derived from Lonicera japonica Thunb. This study aims to investigate the neuroprotective effects of luteolin against cognitive impairment induced by amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide and the underlying mechanisms in rats. The animal behavioral tests showed that luteolin could ameliorate Aβ-induced learning and memory impairment. In hippocampal tissue, the activity of choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) increased after treated by luteolin. Luteolin also reversed the increased activity of acetylcholine esterase (AchE). In hippocampi homogenate, the content of acetylcholine (Ach) increased, but malondialdehyde (MDA) reduced. Moreover, luteolin can increase Bcl-2/Bax ratio. This study demonstrated that luteolin could protect Alzheimer’s disease (AD) rats against Aβ-induced cognitive impairment through regulating the cholinergic system and inhibiting oxidative injuries. The results suggesting that luteolin may have potential as a therapy for AD. PMID:26261557

  8. Induced expression of neuronal membrane attack complex and cell death by Alzheimer's beta-amyloid peptide.

    PubMed

    Shen, Y; Sullivan, T; Lee, C M; Meri, S; Shiosaki, K; Lin, C W

    1998-06-15

    beta-amyloid peptide (A beta) and complement-derived membrane attack complex (MAC) are co-localized in senile plaques of brains from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. But the relationship between A beta and complement activation is unclear. We have used human neurotypic cells, differentiated SH-SY5Y, as a model system to examine regulation of neuronal MAC expression and cell death by A beta. We demonstrated that mRNAs (C1q, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, C7, C8 and C9) and proteins (C1q, C3 and C9) for the major components of the classical complement cascade are present in the SH-SY5Y neurotypic cells, indicating that neuronal cells can synthesize the necessary proteins required for MAC formation. Furthermore, immunocytochemical studies showed the A beta-induced neuronal MAC expression on the SH-SY5Y cells after CD59 was removed by PIPLC or blocked by anti-CD59 antibody. Meanwhile, increased A beta-induced neuronal cell death was observed following treatment with anti-CD59. Taken together, these results suggest that A beta activates neuronal complement cascade to induce MAC, and a deficiency of endogenous complement regulatory proteins, e.g., CD59, may increase the vulnerability of neurons to complement-mediated cytotoxicity. PMID:9689469

  9. Differential patterns of spinal cord pathology induced by MP4, MOG peptide 35-55, and PLP peptide 178-191 in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Kuerten, Stefanie; Gruppe, Traugott L; Laurentius, Laura-Maria; Kirch, Christiane; Tary-Lehmann, Magdalena; Lehmann, Paul V; Addicks, Klaus

    2011-06-01

    In this study we demonstrate that experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced by the MBP-PLP fusion protein MP4, MOG peptide 35-55, or PLP peptide 178-191 in C57BL/6 mice, respectively, displays distinct features of CNS pathology. Major differences between the three models resided in (i) the region-/tract-specificity and disseminated nature of spinal cord degeneration, (ii) the extent and kinetics of demyelination, and (iii) the involvement of motoneurons in the disease. In contrast, axonal damage was present in all models and to a similar extent, proposing this feature as a possible morphological correlate for the comparable chronic clinical course of the disease induced by the three antigens. The data suggest that the antigen targeted in autoimmune encephalomyelitis is crucial to the induction of differential histopathological disease manifestations. The use of MP4-, MOG:35-55-, and PLP:178-191-induced EAE on the C57BL/6 background can be a valuable tool when it comes to reproducing and studying the structural-morphological diversity of multiple sclerosis. PMID:21569091

  10. Chlorella 11-Peptide Inhibits the Production of Macrophage-Induced Adhesion Molecules and Reduces Endothelin-1 Expression and Endothelial Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Mei Fen; Chen, Lih Chi; Cherng, Jong Yuh

    2013-01-01

    The inflammation process in large vessels involves the up-regulation of vascular adhesion molecules such as endothelial cell selectin (E-selectin), intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) which are also known as the markers of atherosclerosis. We have reported that Chlorella 11-peptide exhibited effective anti-inflammatory effects. This peptide with an amino sequence Val-Glu-Cys-Tyr-Gly-Pro-Asn-Arg-Pro-Gln-Phe was further examined for its potential in preventing atherosclerosis in this study. In particular, the roles of Chlorella 11-peptide in lowering the production of vascular adhesion molecules, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) and expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1) from endothelia (SVEC4-10 cells) were studied. The production of E-selectin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MCP-1 in SVEC4-10 cells was measured with ELISA. The mRNA expression of ET-1 was analyzed by RT-PCR and agarose gel. Results showed that Chlorella 11-peptide significantly suppressed the levels of E-selectin, ICAM, VCAM, MCP-1 as well as ET-1 gene expression. The inhibition of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 production by Chlorella 11-peptide was reversed in the presence of protein kinase A inhibitor (H89) which suggests that the cAMP pathway was involved in the inhibitory cause of the peptide. In addition, this peptide was shown to reduce the extent of increased intercellular permeability induced by combination of 50% of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 cells medium and 50% normal SEVC cell culture medium (referred to as 50% RAW-conditioned medium). These data demonstrate that Chlorella 11-peptide is a promising biomolecule in preventing chronic inflammatory-related vascular diseases. PMID:24129228

  11. Nisin-induced expression of a recombinant antihypertensive peptide in dairy lactic acid bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peptides with antihypertensive activity have been identified from the enzymatic hydrolysis of bovine milk proteins. A 12-residue peptide (FFVAPFPEVFGK) shown to inhibit the angiotensin I-converting enzyme is released from the enzymatic breakdown of aS1-casein. A synthetic gene encoding this peptid...

  12. Chloride-Inducible Expression Vector for Delivery of Antimicrobial Peptides Targeting Antibiotic-Resistant Enterococcus faecium

    PubMed Central

    Geldart, Kathryn; Borrero, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant enterococcal infections are a major concern in hospitals where patients with compromised immunity are readily infected. Enterococcus faecium bacteria are of particular interest as these pathogens account for over 80% of vancomycin-resistant enterococcal infections. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced at the site of infection by engineered bacteria may offer a potential alternative to traditional antibiotics for the treatment of resistant bacteria such as E. faecium. For this mode of delivery to be effective, it is essential to identify a suitable protein expression system that can be used in the desired delivery bacterium. In this study, we describe a promising chloride-inducible promoter and its application in the bacterial delivery of AMPs from Lactococcus lactis to reduce counts of E. faecium bacteria in vitro. Reporter gene studies show that at chloride concentrations found within the human intestines, the chloride-inducible promoter exhibits high levels of protein expression compared to those of the commonly used nisin-inducible promoter. These results indicate that this system is powerful and would not require the exogenous administration of an inducer molecule. In its application for AMP production against E. faecium in vitro, L. lactis producing AMPs under the chloride promoter rapidly decreased E. faecium counts by nearly 10,000-fold. As an extension of this application, we also demonstrate the potential in using this type of delivery system in combination with traditional antibiotics to slow the development of resistance. Collectively, this study shows the promise of using a chloride-inducible promoter for the bacterial delivery of AMPs in the body for the treatment of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and other antibiotic-resistant bacteria. PMID:25841002

  13. Synthetic Amphipathic Helical Peptides Targeting CD36 Attenuate Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation and Acute Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Bocharov, Alexander V; Wu, Tinghuai; Baranova, Irina N; Birukova, Anna A; Sviridov, Denis; Vishnyakova, Tatyana G; Remaley, Alan T; Eggerman, Thomas L; Patterson, Amy P; Birukov, Konstantin G

    2016-07-15

    Synthetic amphipathic helical peptides (SAHPs) designed as apolipoprotein A-I mimetics are known to bind to class B scavenger receptors (SR-Bs), SR-BI, SR-BII, and CD36, receptors that mediate lipid transport and facilitate pathogen recognition. In this study, we evaluated SAHPs, selected for targeting human CD36, by their ability to attenuate LPS-induced inflammation, endothelial barrier dysfunction, and acute lung injury (ALI). L37pA, which targets CD36 and SR-BI equally, inhibited LPS-induced IL-8 secretion and barrier dysfunction in cultured endothelial cells while reducing lung neutrophil infiltration by 40% in a mouse model of LPS-induced ALI. A panel of 20 SAHPs was tested in HEK293 cell lines stably transfected with various SR-Bs to identify SAHPs with preferential selectivity toward CD36. Among several SAHPs targeting both SR-BI/BII and CD36 receptors, ELK-B acted predominantly through CD36. Compared with L37pA, 5A, and ELK SAHPs, ELK-B was most effective in reducing the pulmonary barrier dysfunction, neutrophil migration into the lung, and lung inflammation induced by LPS. We conclude that SAHPs with relative selectivity toward CD36 are more potent at inhibiting acute pulmonary inflammation and dysfunction. These data indicate that therapeutic strategies using SAHPs targeting CD36, but not necessarily mimicking all apolipoprotein A-I functions, may be considered a possible new treatment approach for inflammation-induced ALI and pulmonary edema. PMID:27316682

  14. Chloride-Inducible Expression Vector for Delivery of Antimicrobial Peptides Targeting Antibiotic-Resistant Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Geldart, Kathryn; Borrero, Juan; Kaznessis, Yiannis N

    2015-06-01

    Antibiotic-resistant enterococcal infections are a major concern in hospitals where patients with compromised immunity are readily infected. Enterococcus faecium bacteria are of particular interest as these pathogens account for over 80% of vancomycin-resistant enterococcal infections. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced at the site of infection by engineered bacteria may offer a potential alternative to traditional antibiotics for the treatment of resistant bacteria such as E. faecium. For this mode of delivery to be effective, it is essential to identify a suitable protein expression system that can be used in the desired delivery bacterium. In this study, we describe a promising chloride-inducible promoter and its application in the bacterial delivery of AMPs from Lactococcus lactis to reduce counts of E. faecium bacteria in vitro. Reporter gene studies show that at chloride concentrations found within the human intestines, the chloride-inducible promoter exhibits high levels of protein expression compared to those of the commonly used nisin-inducible promoter. These results indicate that this system is powerful and would not require the exogenous administration of an inducer molecule. In its application for AMP production against E. faecium in vitro, L. lactis producing AMPs under the chloride promoter rapidly decreased E. faecium counts by nearly 10,000-fold. As an extension of this application, we also demonstrate the potential in using this type of delivery system in combination with traditional antibiotics to slow the development of resistance. Collectively, this study shows the promise of using a chloride-inducible promoter for the bacterial delivery of AMPs in the body for the treatment of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and other antibiotic-resistant bacteria. PMID:25841002

  15. Quantitative Peptidomics Study Reveals That a Wound-Induced Peptide from PR-1 Regulates Immune Signaling in Tomato[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Lan; Lee, Chi-Ying; Cheng, Kai-Tan; Chang, Wei-Hung; Huang, Rong-Nan; Nam, Hong Gil

    2014-01-01

    Many important cell-to-cell communication events in multicellular organisms are mediated by peptides, but only a few peptides have been identified in plants. In an attempt to address the difficulties in identifying plant signaling peptides, we developed a novel peptidomics approach and used this approach to discover defense signaling peptides in plants. In addition to the canonical peptide systemin, several novel peptides were confidently identified in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and quantified to be induced by both wounding and methyl jasmonate (MeJA). A wounding or wounding plus MeJA-induced peptide derived from the pathogenesis-related protein 1 (PR-1) family was found to induce significant antipathogen and minor antiherbivore responses in tomato. This study highlights a role for PR-1 in immune signaling and suggests the potential application of plant endogenous peptides in efforts to defeat biological threats in crop production. As PR-1 is highly conserved across many organisms and the putative peptide from At-PR1 was also found to be bioactive in Arabidopsis thaliana, our results suggest that this peptide may be useful for enhancing resistance to stress in other plant species. PMID:25361956

  16. The Peptide Vaccine Combined with Prior Immunization of a Conventional Diphtheria-Tetanus Toxoid Vaccine Induced Amyloid β Binding Antibodies on Cynomolgus Monkeys and Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Akira; Ito, Kaori; Miwa, Yoshikatsu; Kanazawa, Yoshito; Chiba, Akiko; Iigo, Yutaka; Kashimoto, Yoshinori; Kanda, Akira; Murata, Shinji; Makino, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The reduction of brain amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides by anti-Aβ antibodies is one of the possible therapies for Alzheimer's disease. We previously reported that the Aβ peptide vaccine including the T-cell epitope of diphtheria-tetanus combined toxoid (DT) induced anti-Aβ antibodies, and the prior immunization with conventional DT vaccine enhanced the immunogenicity of the peptide. Cynomolgus monkeys were given the peptide vaccine subcutaneously in combination with the prior DT vaccination. Vaccination with a similar regimen was also performed on guinea pigs. The peptide vaccine induced anti-Aβ antibodies in cynomolgus monkeys and guinea pigs without chemical adjuvants, and excessive immune responses were not observed. Those antibodies could preferentially recognize Aβ40, and Aβ42 compared to Aβ fibrils. The levels of serum anti-Aβ antibodies and plasma Aβ peptides increased in both animals and decreased the brain Aβ40 level of guinea pigs. The peptide vaccine could induce a similar binding profile of anti-Aβ antibodies in cynomolgus monkeys and guinea pigs. The peptide vaccination could be expected to reduce the brain Aβ peptides and their toxic effects via clearance of Aβ peptides by generated antibodies. PMID:26539559

  17. Antimicrobial Peptide Lactoferricin B-Induced Rapid Leakage of Internal Contents from Single Giant Unilamellar Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Moniruzzaman, Md; Alam, Jahangir Md; Dohra, Hideo; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2015-09-29

    Enzymatic digestion of bovine lactoferrin generates lactoferricin B (Lfcin B), a 25-mer peptide with strong antimicrobial activity of unknown mechanism. To elucidate the mechanistic basis of Lfcin B bactericidal activity, we investigated the interaction of Lfcin B with Escherichia coli and liposomes of lipid membranes. Lfcin B induced the influx of a membrane-impermeant fluorescent probe, SYTOX green, from the outside of E. coli into its cytoplasm. Lfcin B induced gradual leakage of calcein from large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) of dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol (DOPG)/dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) membranes. To clarify the cause of Lfcin B-induced leakage of calcein from the LUVs, we used the single giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV) method to investigate the interaction of Lfcin B with calcein-containing DOPG/DOPC-GUVs. We observed that a rapid leakage of calcein from a GUV started stochastically; statistical analysis provided a rate constant for Lfcin B-induced pore formation, kp. On the other hand, phase-contrast microscopic images revealed that Lfcin B induced a rapid leakage of sucrose from the single GUVs with concomitant appearance of a spherical GUV of smaller diameter. Because of the very fast leakage, and at the present time resolution of the experiments (33 ms), we could not follow the evolution of pore nor the process of the structural changes of the GUV. Here we used the term "local rupture" to express the rapid leakage of sucrose and determined the rate constant of local rupture, kL. On the basis of the comparison between kp and kL, we concluded that the leakage of calcein from single GUVs occurred as a result of a local rupture in the GUVs and that smaller pores inducing leakage of calcein were not formed before the local rupture. The results of the effect of the surface charge density of lipid membranes and that of salt concentration in buffer on kp clearly show that kp increases with an increase in the extent of electrostatic interactions due to

  18. Interferon-γ induces immunoproteasomes and the presentation of MHC I-associated peptides on human salivary gland cells.

    PubMed

    Arellano-Garcia, Martha E; Misuno, Kaori; Tran, Simon D; Hu, Shen

    2014-01-01

    A prominent histopathological feature of Sjögren's syndrome, an autoimmune disease, is the presence of lymphocytic infiltrates in the salivary and lachrymal glands. Such infiltrates are comprised of activated lymphocytes and macrophages, and known to produce multiple cytokines including interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). In this study, we have demonstrated that IFN-γ strongly induces the expression of immunoproteasome beta subunits (β1i, β2i and β5i) and immunoproteasome activity but conversely inhibits the expression of proteasome beta subunits (β1, β2 and β5) in human salivary gland (HSG) cells. Mass spectrometric analysis has revealed potential MHC I-associated peptides on the HSG cells, including a tryptic peptide derived from salivary amylase, due to IFN-γ stimulation. These results suggest that IFN-γ induces immunoproteasomes in HSG cells, leading to enhanced presentation of MHC I-associated peptides on cell surface. These peptide-presenting salivary gland cells may be recognized and targeted by auto-reactive T lymphocytes. We have also found that lactacystin, a proteasome inhibitor, inhibits the expression of β1 subunit in HSG cells and blocks the IFN-γ-induced expression of β1i and immunoproteasome activity. However, the expression of β2i and β5i in HSG cells is not affected by lactacystin. These results may add new insight into the mechanism regarding how lactacystin blocks the action of proteasomes or immunoproteasomes. PMID:25102056

  19. Mucosal Tolerance Induced by an Immunodominant Peptide from Rat α3(IV)NC1 in Established Experimental Autoimmune Glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, John; Abbott, Danielle S.; Karegli, Julieta; Evans, David J.; Pusey, Charles D.

    2009-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune glomerulonephritis (EAG), an animal model of Goodpasture’s disease, can be induced in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats by immunization with the noncollagenous domain of the α 3 chain of type IV collagen, α3(IV)NC1. Recent studies have identified an immunodominant peptide, pCol (24-38), from the N-terminus of rat α3(IV)NC1; this peptide contains the major B- and T-cell epitopes in EAG and can induce crescentic nephritis. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of mucosal tolerance in EAG by examining the effects of the nasal administration of this peptide after the onset of disease. A dose-dependent effect was observed: a dose of 300 μg had no effect, a dose of 1000 μg resulted in a moderate reduction in EAG severity, and a dose of 3000 μg produced a marked reduction in EAG severity accompanied by diminished antigen-specific, T-cell proliferative responses. These results demonstrate that mucosal tolerance in EAG can be induced by nasal administration of an immunodominant peptide from the N-terminus of α3(IV)NC1 and should be of value in designing new therapeutic strategies for patients with Goodpasture’s disease and other autoimmune disorders. PMID:19406992

  20. Smad-induced alterations of matrix metabolism by a myristoyl tetra peptide.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Haeyoung; Lee, Yun Sub; Kim, Myung Ok; Chang, Min Youl; Won, Bo Mi; Jin, Byung Suk; Park, Seyeon

    2014-12-01

    Regulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components is essential for tissue homeostasis and function. We screened a small peptide that induces ECM protein synthesis for its usefulness in protecting keratinocytes. In this report, we demonstrate that myristoyl tetrapeptide Ala-Ala-Pro-Val (mAAPV) stimulates the expression of ECM proteins and inhibits the expression of metalloproteinases (MMPs) that degrade ECM proteins in Hs68 human fibroblast cells. In order to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms for the effects of mAAVP, we investigated the changes in gene expression in the presence of mAAPV using a cDNA microarray. Treatment with mAAPV resulted in decreased expression of MMP-related genes such as MMP1, MMP3, TIMP1 and TIMP3 and increased expression of collagen genes, including COL1A1, COL1A2, COL3A1, COL5A1 and COL6A3. The pattern of gene expression regulated by mAAPV was very similar to that of gene expression induced by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, indicating that the TGF-β signaling pathway is crucial for simultaneous activation of several ECM-related genes by mAAPV. We examined whether the activation of SMAD, a downstream protein of TGF-β receptor, is involved in the signal transduction pathway induced by mAAPV. The results demonstrate that mAAVP directly activates SMAD2 and induces SMAD3 to bind to DNA. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that mAAPV both enhances the expression of collagen and inhibits its degradation via production of protease inhibitors that prevent enzymatic breakdown of the ECM. The results suggest that mAAPV would be a useful ECM-protecting agent. PMID:25289880

  1. Short Peptide Induces an “Uncultivable” Microorganism To Grow In Vitro ▿

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, D.; Lewis, K.; Orjala, J.; Mo, S.; Ortenberg, R.; O'Connor, P.; Zhao, C.; Vouros, P.; Kaeberlein, T.; Epstein, S. S.

    2008-01-01

    Microorganisms comprise the bulk of biodiversity, but only a small fraction of this diversity grows on artificial media. This phenomenon was noticed almost a century ago, repeatedly confirmed, and termed the “great plate count anomaly.” Advances in microbial cultivation improved microbial recovery but failed to explain why most microbial species do not grow in vitro. Here we show that at least some of such species can form domesticated variants capable of growth on artificial media. We also present evidence that small signaling molecules, such as short peptides, may be essential factors in initiating growth of nongrowing cells. We identified one 5-amino-acid peptide, LQPEV, that at 3.5 nM induces the otherwise “uncultivable” strain Psychrobacter sp. strain MSC33 to grow on standard media. This demonstrates that the restriction preventing microbial in vitro growth may be different from those offered to date to explain the “great plate count anomaly,” such as deficiencies in nutrient composition and concentrations in standard media, medium toxicity, and inappropriate incubation time. Growth induction of MSC33 illustrates that some microorganisms do not grow in vitro because they are removed from their native communities and the signals produced therein. “Uncultivable” species represent the largest source of unexplored biodiversity, and provide remarkable opportunities for both basic and applied research. Access to cultures of some of these species should be possible through identification of the signaling compounds necessary for growth, their addition to standard medium formulations, and eventual domestication. PMID:18515474

  2. LXXLL Peptide Converts Transportan 10 to a Potent Inducer of Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tints, Kairit; Prink, Madis; Neuman, Toomas; Palm, Kaia

    2014-01-01

    Degenerate expression of transcription coregulator proteins is observed in most human cancers. Therefore, in targeted anti-cancer therapy development, intervention at the level of cancer-specific transcription is of high interest. The steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) is highly expressed in breast, endometrial, and prostate cancer. It is present in various transcription complexes, including those containing nuclear hormone receptors. We examined the effects of a peptide that contains the LXXLL-motif of the human SRC-1 nuclear receptor box 1 linked to the cell-penetrating transportan 10 (TP10), hereafter referred to as TP10-SRC1LXXLL, on proliferation and estrogen-mediated transcription of breast cancer cells in vitro. Our data show that TP10-SRC1LXXLL induced dose-dependent cell death of breast cancer cells, and that this effect was not affected by estrogen receptor (ER) status. Surprisingly TP10-SRC1LXXLL severely reduced the viability and proliferation of hormone-unresponsive breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, the regulation of the endogenous ERα direct target gene pS2 was not affected by TP10-SRC1LXXLL in estrogen-stimulated MCF-7 cells. Dermal fibroblasts were similarly affected by treatment with higher concentrations of TP10-SRC1LXXLL and this effect was significantly delayed. These results suggest that the TP10-SRC1LXXLL peptide may be an effective drug candidate in the treatment of cancers with minimal therapeutic options, for example ER-negative tumors. PMID:24705462

  3. Human neutrophil peptides upregulate expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and endothelin-1 by inducing oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Syeda, Farisa; Tullis, Elizabeth; Slutsky, Arthur S.; Zhang, Haibo

    2016-01-01

    The human neutrophil peptides (HNP) bind to vascular smooth muscle cells and regulate vascular tone. We hypothesized that HNP act on endothelial cells to modulate the expression of vasoactive byproducts. We observed a time- and dose-dependent increase in the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in response to HNP stimulation, while COX-1 levels remained unchanged. Despite an upregulated expression of COX-2, HNP did not significantly enhance the production of the COX-2-derived prostaglandins PGI2 and PGE2. HNP significantly induced the release of endothelin-1 (ET-1) as well as the formation of nitrotyrosine. The HNP-induced COX-2 and ET-1 production was attenuated by the treatment with the oxygen free radical scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine, and the inhibitors of p38 MAPK and NF-κB, respectively. We conclude that HNP may play an important role in the regulation of the course of cardiovascular diseases by activating endothelial cells to produce vasoactive byproducts. PMID:18441204

  4. IR-induced conformational isomerization of a helical peptide in a cold ion trap.

    PubMed

    Seaiby, Caroline; Zabuga, Aleksandra V; Svendsen, Annette; Rizzo, Thomas R

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we use laser-induced population transfer techniques to study the conformational isomerization of a helical peptide, Ac-Phe-(Ala)5-LysH(+), in a cold ion trap. In one scheme, called IR-UV hole-filling spectroscopy, a single conformation is selectively excited with an IR pump laser via a distinct NH stretch vibration. After giving the vibrationally excited ions sufficient time to isomerize and re-cool in the trap, the new conformational redistribution is detected by UV photofragment spectroscopy. While we clearly observe a redistribution of the conformer populations due to isomerization, only those conformations that initially have population participate in this redistribution-we do not form conformers that were not initially present in the trap. In a second scheme, called IR-induced population transfer spectroscopy, we determine the fractional populations of the four stable conformations of Ac-Phe-(Ala)5-LysH(+) by scanning the IR laser while selectively detecting a specific conformation using UV photofragment spectroscopy. PMID:26747803

  5. The Arabidopsis peptide kiss of death is an inducer of programmed cell death

    PubMed Central

    Blanvillain, Robert; Young, Bennett; Cai, Yao-min; Hecht, Valérie; Varoquaux, Fabrice; Delorme, Valérie; Lancelin, Jean-Marc; Delseny, Michel; Gallois, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) has a key role in defence and development of all multicellular organisms. In plants, there is a large gap in our knowledge of the molecular machinery involved at the various stages of PCD, especially the early steps. Here, we identify kiss of death (KOD) encoding a 25-amino-acid peptide that activates a PCD pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. Two mutant alleles of KOD exhibited a reduced PCD of the suspensor, a single file of cells that support embryo development, and a reduced PCD of root hairs after a 55°C heat shock. KOD expression was found to be inducible by biotic and abiotic stresses. Furthermore, KOD expression was sufficient to cause death in leaves or seedlings and to activate caspase-like activities. In addition, KOD-induced PCD required light in leaves and was repressed by the PCD-suppressor genes AtBax inhibitor 1 and p35. KOD expression resulted in depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane, placing KOD above mitochondria dysfunction, an early step in plant PCD. A KOD∷GFP fusion, however, localized in the cytosol of cells and not mitochondria. PMID:21326210

  6. Molecular mechanism of cytotoxicity induced by Hsp90-targeted Antp-TPR hybrid peptide in glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is vital to cell survival under conditions of stress, and binds client proteins to assist in protein stabilization, translocation of polypeptides across cell membranes, and recovery of proteins from aggregates. Therefore, Hsp90 has emerged as an important target for the treatment of cancer. We previously reported that novel Antp-TPR hybrid peptide, which can inhibit the interaction of Hsp90 with the TPR2A domain of Hop, induces selective cytotoxic activity to discriminate between normal and cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Results In this study, we investigated the functional cancer-cell killing mechanism of Antp-TPR hybrid peptide in glioblastoma (GB) cell lines. It was demonstrated that Antp-TPR peptide induced effective cytotoxic activity in GB cells through the loss of Hsp90 client proteins such as p53, Akt, CDK4, and cRaf. Antp-TPR also did not induce the up-regulation of Hsp70 and Hsp90 proteins, although a small-molecule inhibitor of Hsp90, 17-AAG, induced the up-regulation of these proteins. It was also found that Antp-TPR peptide increased the endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response, and the cytotoxic activity of this hybrid peptide to GB cells in the endoplasmic reticulum stress condition. Conclusion These results show that targeting of Hsp90 by Antp-TPR could be an attractive approach to selective cancer-cell killing because no other Hsp90-targeted compounds show selective cytotoxic activity. Antp-TPR might provide potent and selective therapeutic options for the treatment of cancer. PMID:22913813

  7. Collision-Induced Dissociation Fragmentation Inside Disulfide C-Terminal Loops of Natural Non-Tryptic Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samgina, Tatiana Y.; Vorontsov, Egor A.; Gorshkov, Vladimir A.; Artemenko, Konstantin A.; Zubarev, Roman A.; Ytterberg, Jimmy A.; Lebedev, Albert T.

    2013-07-01

    Collision-induced dissociation (CID) spectra of long non-tryptic peptides are usually quite complicated and rather difficult to interpret. Disulfide bond formed by two cysteine residues at C-terminus of frog skin peptides precludes one to determine sequence inside the forming loop. Thereby, chemical modification of S-S bonds is often used in "bottom up" sequencing approach. However, low-energy CID spectra of natural non-tryptic peptides with C-terminal disulfide cycle demonstrate an unusual fragmentation route, which may be used to elucidate the "hidden" C-terminal sequence. Low charge state protonated molecules experience peptide bond cleavage at the N-terminus of C-terminal cysteine. The forming isomeric acyclic ions serve as precursors for a series of b-type ions revealing sequence inside former disulfide cycle. The reaction is preferable for peptides with basic lysine residues inside the cycle. It may also be activated by acidic protons of Asp and Glu residues neighboring the loop. The observed cleavages may be quite competitive, revealing the sequence inside disulfide cycle, although S-S bond rupture does not occur in this case.

  8. A mucin-like peptide from Fasciola hepatica induces parasite-specific Th1-type cell immunity.

    PubMed

    Noya, Verónica; Brossard, Natalie; Berasaín, Patricia; Rodríguez, Ernesto; Chiale, Carolina; Mazal, Daniel; Carmona, Carlos; Freire, Teresa

    2016-03-01

    Fasciolosis, caused by the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica, is a major parasitic disease of livestock that causes significant economic losses worldwide. Although drugs are effective against liver flukes, they do not prevent reinfection, and continuous treatment is costly. Moreover, resistant fluke strains are emerging. In this context, vaccination is a good alternative since it provides a cost-effective long-term prevention strategy to control fasciolosis. In this paper, we evaluate the Fhmuc peptide as a potential vaccine against fasciolosis. This peptide derives from a mucin-like protein highly expressed in the infective stage of Fasciola hepatica. Mucin-like molecules expressed by parasites can contribute to several infection processes by protecting the parasite from host proteases and recognition by the immune system. We show that the Fhmuc peptide induces Th1-like immune responses specific for F. hepatica excretion-secretion products (FhESP) with a high production of IFNγ. We also investigated whether this peptide could protect animals from infection, and present preliminary data indicating that animals treated with Fhmuc exhibited reduced liver damage compared to non-immunised animals and that this protection was associated with a recruitment of B and T lymphocytes in the peritoneum, as well as eosinophils and mature dendritic cells. These results suggest that the mucin-like peptide Fhmuc could constitute a potential vaccine candidate against fasciolosis and pave the way towards the development of vaccines against parasites. PMID:26637311

  9. SARS Coronavirus Fusion Peptide-Derived Sequence Suppresses Collagen-Induced Arthritis in DBA/1J Mice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zu T; Sigalov, Alexander B

    2016-01-01

    During the co-evolution of viruses and their hosts, the viruses have evolved numerous strategies to counter and evade host antiviral immune responses in order to establish a successful infection, replicate and persist in the host. Recently, based on our model of immune signaling, the Signaling Chain HOmoOLigomerization (SCHOOL) model, we suggested specific molecular mechanisms used by different viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) to modulate the host immune response mediated by members of the family of multichain immune recognition receptors (MIRRs). This family includes T cell receptor (TCR) that is critically involved in immune diseases such as autoimmune arthritis. In the present study, we provide compelling experimental in vivo evidence in support of our hypothesis. Using the SCHOOL approach and the SARS-CoV fusion peptide sequence, we rationally designed a novel immunomodulatory peptide that targets TCR. We showed that this peptide ameliorates collagen-induced arthritis in DBA/1J mice and protects against bone and cartilage damage. Incorporation of the peptide into self-assembling lipopeptide nanoparticles that mimic native human high density lipoproteins significantly increases peptide dosage efficacy. Together, our data further confirm that viral immune evasion strategies that target MIRRs can be transferred to therapeutic strategies that require similar functionalities. PMID:27349522

  10. Low-mass ions produced from peptides by high-energy collision-induced dissociation in tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Falick, A M; Hines, W M; Medzihradszky, K F; Baldwin, M A; Gibson, B W

    1993-11-01

    High-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID) mass spectrometry provides a rapid and sensitive means for determining the primary sequence of peptides. The low-mass region (below mass 300) of a large number of tandem CID spectra of peptides has been analyzed. This mass region contains several types of informative fragment ions, including dipeptide ions, immonium ions, and other related ions. Useful low-mass ions are also present in negative-ion CID spectra. Immonium ions (general structure [H2N=CH-R](+), where R is the amino acid side chain) and related ions characteristic of specific amino acid residues give information as to the presence or absence of these residues in the peptide being analyzed. Tables of observed immonium and reiated ions for the 20 standard amino acids and for a number of modified amino acids are presented. A database consisting of 228 high-energy CID spectra of peptides has been established, and the frequency of occurrence of various ions indicative of specific ammo acid residues has been determined. Two model computer-aided schemes for analysis of the ammo-acid content of unknown peptides have been developed and tested against the database. PMID:24227532

  11. SARS Coronavirus Fusion Peptide-Derived Sequence Suppresses Collagen-Induced Arthritis in DBA/1J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zu T.; Sigalov, Alexander B.

    2016-01-01

    During the co-evolution of viruses and their hosts, the viruses have evolved numerous strategies to counter and evade host antiviral immune responses in order to establish a successful infection, replicate and persist in the host. Recently, based on our model of immune signaling, the Signaling Chain HOmoOLigomerization (SCHOOL) model, we suggested specific molecular mechanisms used by different viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) to modulate the host immune response mediated by members of the family of multichain immune recognition receptors (MIRRs). This family includes T cell receptor (TCR) that is critically involved in immune diseases such as autoimmune arthritis. In the present study, we provide compelling experimental in vivo evidence in support of our hypothesis. Using the SCHOOL approach and the SARS-CoV fusion peptide sequence, we rationally designed a novel immunomodulatory peptide that targets TCR. We showed that this peptide ameliorates collagen-induced arthritis in DBA/1J mice and protects against bone and cartilage damage. Incorporation of the peptide into self-assembling lipopeptide nanoparticles that mimic native human high density lipoproteins significantly increases peptide dosage efficacy. Together, our data further confirm that viral immune evasion strategies that target MIRRs can be transferred to therapeutic strategies that require similar functionalities. PMID:27349522

  12. Elastin peptides prepared from piscine and mammalian elastic tissues inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation and stimulate migration and proliferation of human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Shiratsuchi, Eri; Ura, Megumi; Nakaba, Misako; Maeda, Iori; Okamoto, Kouji

    2010-11-01

    We obtained pure elastin peptides from bovine ligamentum nuchae, porcine aorta, and bonito bulbus arteriosus. The inhibitory activity of these elastin peptides on platelet aggregation induced by collagen and the migratory and proliferative responsivenesses of human skin fibroblasts to these elastin peptides were examined. All of bonito, bovine, and porcine elastin peptides found to inhibit platelet aggregation, but bonito elastin peptides showed a higher inhibitory activity than bovine and porcine elastin peptides did. All elastin peptides enhanced the proliferation of fibroblasts 3.5- to 4.5-fold at a concentration of 10 µg/ml. Bovine and porcine elastin peptides stimulated the migration of fibroblasts, with the optimal response occurring at 10(-1) µg/ml, while maximal response was at 10(2) µg/ml for bonito elastin peptides. Furthermore, pretreatment of fibroblasts by lactose depressed their ability to migrate in response to all elastin peptides, suggesting the involvement of elastin receptor in cell response. These results suggest that both mammalian and piscine elastin peptides can be applied as useful biomaterials in which elasticity, antithrombotic property, and the enhancement of cell migration and proliferation are required. PMID:20853312

  13. A relaxin-like peptide purified from radial nerves induces oocyte maturation and ovulation in the starfish, Asterina pectinifera

    PubMed Central

    Mita, Masatoshi; Yoshikuni, Michiyasu; Ohno, Kaoru; Shibata, Yasushi; Paul-Prasanth, Bindhu; Pitchayawasin, Suthasinee; Isobe, Minoru; Nagahama, Yoshitaka

    2009-01-01

    Gonad-stimulating substance (GSS) of starfish is the only known invertebrate peptide hormone responsible for final gamete maturation, rendering it functionally analogous to the vertebrate luteinizing hormone (LH). Here, we purified GSS of starfish, Asterina pectinifera, from radial nerves and determined its amino acid sequence. The purified GSS was a heterodimer composed of 2 different peptides, A and B chains, with disulfide cross-linkages. Based on its cysteine motif, starfish GSS was classified as a member of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)/relaxin superfamily. The cDNA of GSS encodes a preprohormone sequence with a C peptide between the A and B chains. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that starfish GSS was a relaxin-like peptide. Chemically synthesized GSS induced not only oocyte maturation and ovulation in isolated ovarian fragments, but also unique spawning behavior, followed by release of gametes shortly after the injection. Importantly, the action of the synthetic GSS on oocyte maturation and ovulation was mediated through the production of cAMP by isolated ovarian follicle cells, thereby producing the maturation-inducing hormone of this species, 1-methyladenine. In situ hybridization showed the transcription of GSS to occur in the periphery of radial nerves at the side of tube feet. Together, the structure, sequence, and mode of signal transduction strongly suggest that GSS is closely related to the vertebrate relaxin. PMID:19470645

  14. Amyloidogenic amyloid-β-peptide variants induce microbial agglutination and exert antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, Philipp; Condic, Mateja; Herrmann, Martin; Oberstein, Timo Jan; Scharin-Mehlmann, Marina; Gilbert, Daniel F; Friedrich, Oliver; Grömer, Teja; Kornhuber, Johannes; Lang, Roland; Maler, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides are the main components of the plaques found in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. However, Aβ peptides are also detectable in secretory compartments and peripheral blood contains a complex mixture of more than 40 different modified and/or N- and C-terminally truncated Aβ peptides. Recently, anti-infective properties of Aβ peptides have been reported. Here, we investigated the interaction of Aβ peptides of different lengths with various bacterial strains and the yeast Candida albicans. The amyloidogenic peptides Aβ1-42, Aβ2-42, and Aβ3p-42 but not the non-amyloidogenic peptides Aβ1-40 and Aβ2-40 bound to microbial surfaces. As observed by immunocytochemistry, scanning electron microscopy and Gram staining, treatment of several bacterial strains and Candida albicans with Aβ peptide variants ending at position 42 (Aβx-42) caused the formation of large agglutinates. These aggregates were not detected after incubation with Aβx-40. Furthermore, Aβx-42 exerted an antimicrobial activity on all tested pathogens, killing up to 80% of microorganisms within 6 h. Aβ1-40 only had a moderate antimicrobial activity against C. albicans. Agglutination of Aβ1-42 was accelerated in the presence of microorganisms. These data demonstrate that the amyloidogenic Aβx-42 variants have antimicrobial activity and may therefore act as antimicrobial peptides in the immune system. PMID:27624303

  15. Molecular organization in striated domains induced by transmembrane alpha-helical peptides in dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine bilayers.

    PubMed

    Sparr, Emma; Ganchev, Dragomir N; Snel, Margot M E; Ridder, Anja N J A; Kroon-Batenburg, Loes M J; Chupin, Vladimir; Rijkers, Dirk T S; Killian, J Antoinette; de Kruijff, Ben

    2005-01-11

    Transmembrane (TM) alpha-helical peptides with neutral flanking residues such as tryptophan form highly ordered striated domains when incorporated in gel-state 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) bilayers and inspected by atomic force microscopy (AFM) (1). In this study, we analyze the molecular organization of these striated domains using AFM, photo-cross-linking, fluorescence spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and X-ray diffraction techniques on different functionalized TM peptides. The results demonstrate that the striated domains consist of linear arrays of single TM peptides with a dominantly antiparallel organization in which the peptides interact with each other and with lipids. The peptide arrays are regularly spaced by +/-8.5 nm and are separated by somewhat perturbed gel-state lipids with hexagonally organized acyl chains, which have lost their tilt. This system provides an example of how domains of peptides and lipids can be formed in membranes as a result of a combination of specific peptide-peptide and peptide-lipid interactions. PMID:15628840

  16. Global Proteomics and Pathway Analysis of Pressure-overload Induced Heart Failure and Its Attenuation by Mitochondrial Targeted Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Dao-Fu; Hsieh, Edward J.; Chen, Tony; Menendez, Lorena G.; Basisty, Nathan B.; Tsai, Lauren; Beyer, Richard P.; Crispin, David A.; Shulman, Nicholas J.; Szeto, Hazel H.; Tian, Rong; MacCoss, Michael J.; Rabinovitch, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    Background We investigated the protective effects of mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant and protective peptides, SS31 and SS20, on cardiac function, proteomic remodeling and signaling pathways. Methods and Results We applied an improved label-free shotgun proteomics approach to evaluate the global proteomics changes in transverse aortic constriction (TAC) induced heart failure, and the associated signaling pathway changes using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). We found 538 proteins significantly changed after TAC, which mapped to 53 pathways. The top pathways were in the categories of actin cytoskeleton, mitochondrial function, intermediate metabolism, glycolysis / gluconeogenesis and citrate cycle. Concomitant treatment with SS31 ameliorated the congestive heart failure phenotypes and mitochondrial damage induced by TAC, in parallel with global attenuation of mitochondrial proteome changes, with an average of 84% protection of mitochondrial and 69% of non-mitochondrial protein changes. This included significant amelioration of All the IPA pathways noted above. SS20 had only modest effects on heart failure and this tracked with only partial attenuation of global proteomics changes; furthermore, while actin cytoskeleton pathways were significantly protected in SS20, mitochondrial and metabolic pathways essentially were not. Conclusions This study elucidates the signaling pathways significantly changed in pressure-overload induced heart failure. The global attenuation of TAC-induced proteomic alterations by the mitochondrial targeted peptide SS-31 suggests that perturbed mitochondrial function may be an upstream signal to many of pathway alterations in TAC and supports the potential clinical application of mitochondrial-targeted peptide drugs for the treatment heart failure. PMID:23935006

  17. The NALP3 inflammasome is involved in neurotoxic prion peptide-induced microglial activation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prion diseases are neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the accumulation of an abnormal disease-associated prion protein, PrPSc. In prion-infected brains, activated microglia are often present in the vicinity of PrPSc aggregates, and microglial activation is thought to play a key role in the pathogenesis of prion diseases. Although interleukin (IL)-1β release by prion-induced microglia has been widely reported, the mechanism by which primed microglia become activated and secrete IL-1β in prion diseases has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of the NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein (NALP)3 inflammasome in IL-1β release from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-primed microglia after exposure to a synthetic neurotoxic prion fragment (PrP106-126). Methods The inflammasome components NALP3 and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC) were knocked down by gene silencing. IL-1β production was assessed using ELISA. The mRNA expression of NALP3, ASC, and pro-inflammatory factors was measured by quantitative PCR. Western blot analysis was used to detect the protein level of NALP3, ASC, caspase-1 and nuclear factor-κB. Results We found that that PrP106-126-induced IL-1β release depends on NALP3 inflammasome activation, that inflammasome activation is required for the synthesis of pro-inflammatory and chemotactic factors by PrP106-126-activated microglia, that inhibition of NF-κB activation abrogated PrP106-126-induced NALP3 upregulation, and that potassium efflux and production of reactive oxygen species were implicated in PrP106-126-induced NALP3 inflammasome activation in microglia. Conclusions We conclude that the NALP3 inflammasome is involved in neurotoxic prion peptide-induced microglial activation. To our knowledge, this is the first time that strong evidence for the involvement of NALP3 inflammasome in prion-associated inflammation has been found. PMID:22531291

  18. The role of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in cold-induced diuresis (CID)

    SciTech Connect

    Agnew, J.W.; Freund, B.J.; DuBose, D.A.; McKay, J.M.; Hashiro, G.M. Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI )

    1991-03-11

    The hormonal control of cold-induced diuresis (CID) remains unresolved. This study investigated the role of ANP, plasma vasopressin (AVP), and aldosterone (ALDO) on CID. Four semi-nude men participated in a 210 min exposure to 15C and 29C air, on separate days. These subjects drank 300 mL of water and had an intravenous saline drip throughout both exposures to replace blood and insensible fluid losses. CID was observed in 15C but not in the 29C experiment, as indicated by a greater urine output. In 15C, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) increased after 90 min by 41% and remained elevated for 2 h relative to 29C. No differences were observed in AVP between 15C and 29C. In the 15C versus the 29C experiment, ALDO was approximately 37% lower at the pre, 15 and 90 min time periods. Mean arterial blood pressure was generally greater but only significant at 60 min during the 15C versus the 29C experiment. Urinary NA{sup +} excretion was elevated in 15C relative to 29C while no difference in K{sup +} excretion was observed. Although pressure effects may contribute, the observed natriuresis in the absence of a kaliuresis in the cold suggests a physiological role of ANP in CID.

  19. Carbohydrate-induced secretion of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1.

    PubMed

    Seino, Yusuke; Maekawa, Ryuya; Ogata, Hidetada; Hayashi, Yoshitaka

    2016-04-01

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are the incretin hormones secreted from enteroendocrine K-cells and L-cells, respectively, by oral ingestion of various nutrients including glucose. K-cells, L-cells and pancreatic β-cells are glucose-responsive cells with similar glucose-sensing machinery including glucokinase and an adenosine triphosphate-sensitive K(+) channel comprising KIR6.2 and sulfonylurea receptor 1. However, the physiological role of the adenosine triphosphate-sensitive K(+) channel in GIP secretion in K-cells and GLP-1 secretion in L-cells is not elucidated. Recently, it was reported that GIP and GLP-1-producing cells are present also in pancreatic islets, and islet-derived GIP and GLP-1 contribute to glucose-induced insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells. In this short review, we focus on GIP and GLP-1 secretion by monosaccharides, such as glucose or fructose, and the role of the adenosine triphosphate-sensitive K(+) channel in GIP and GLP-1 secretion. PMID:27186352

  20. Yeast β-d-glucans induced antimicrobial peptide expressions against Salmonella infection in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yujing; Wang, Zhong; Tian, Xiangyu; Guo, Yuming; Zhang, Haibo

    2016-04-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of yeast β-d-glucans (YG) on gene expression of endogenous β-defensins (AvBDs), cathelicidins (Cath) and liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide-2 (LEAP-2) in broilers challenged with Salmonella enteritidis (SE). 240 day-old Cobb male broilers were randomly assigned to 2×2 factorial arrangements of treatments with two levels of dietary YG (0 or 200mg/kg in diet) and two levels of SE challenge (0 or 1×10(9) SE at 7-9 days of age). The results showed SE infection reduced growth performance,and increased salmonella cecal colonization and internal organs invasion, increased concentration of intestinal specific IgA and serum specific IgG antibody, as compared to uninfected birds. SE challenge differentially regulated AvBDs, Caths and LEAP-2 gene expression in the jejunum and spleen of broiler chickens during the infection period. However, YG supplementation inhibited the growth depression by SE challenge, and further increased level of serum specific IgG and intestinal specific IgA antibody. Higher level of salmonella colonization and internal organs invasion in the SE-infected birds were reduced by YG. SE-induced differentially expression patterns of AMPs genes was inhibited or changed by YG. Results indicated YG enhance chicken's resistance to salmonella infection. PMID:26794312

  1. Serum B-type natriuretic peptide levels as a marker for anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YA-DI; CHEN, SU-XIAN; REN, LI-QUN

    2016-01-01

    Observational and experimental studies have produced inconsistent evidence about the association of serum levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) with anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (AIC). Therefore, the current meta-analysis examined the association between serum BNP levels and AIC by using data from high quality studies published in peer-reviewed journals. Relevant studies were identified through literature searches of China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scolar and China BioMedicine (CBM). STATA software was used in this meta-analysis for statistical analysis. In addition, the crude standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for the highest vs. the lowest category of serum BNP levels was calculated. A total of 8 independent case-control studies, containing 126 AIC patients and 569 healthy controls, were included for the current meta-analysis. The results indicated a significant difference in serum BNP levels between the cardiotoxic group and normal group, with respect to post-treatment and pretreatment with anthracyclines. Specifically, the serum levels of BNP increased remarkably after treatment with anthracyclines in the cardiotoxic group, compared with the normal group. No publication bias was detected in this meta-analysis. The findings of the present study provide strong evidence that serum BNP levels may be associated with AIC. PMID:27123140

  2. IKK NBD peptide inhibits LPS induced pulmonary inflammation and alters sphingolipid metabolism in a murine model.

    PubMed

    von Bismarck, Philipp; Winoto-Morbach, Supandi; Herzberg, Mona; Uhlig, Ulrike; Schütze, Stefan; Lucius, Ralph; Krause, Martin F

    2012-06-01

    Airway epithelial NF-κB is a key regulator of host defence in bacterial infections and has recently evolved as a target for therapeutical approaches. Evidence is accumulating that ceramide, generated by acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase), and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1-P) are important mediators in host defence as well as in pathologic processes of acute lung injury. Little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of pulmonary sphingolipid metabolism in bacterial infections of the lung. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of NF-κB on sphingolipid metabolism in Pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation. In a murine acute lung injury model with intranasal Pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS we investigated TNF-α, KC (murine IL-8), IL-6, MCP-1 and neutrophilic infiltration next to aSMase activity and ceramide and S1-P lung tissue concentrations. Airway epithelial NF-κB was inhibited by topically applied IKK NBD, a cell penetrating NEMO binding peptide. This treatment resulted in significantly reduced inflammation and suppression of aSMase activity along with decreased ceramide and S1-P tissue concentrations down to levels observed in healthy animals. In conclusion our results confirm that changes in sphingolipid metabolim due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS inhalation are regulated by NF-κB translocation. This confirms the critical role of airway epithelial NF-κB pathway for the inflammatory response to bacterial pathogens and underlines the impact of sphingolipids in inflammatory host defence mechanisms. PMID:22469869

  3. Lassa fever virus peptides predicted by computational analysis induce epitope-specific cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte responses in HLA-A2.1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Boesen, Agnieszka; Sundar, Krishnan; Coico, Richard

    2005-10-01

    Lassa fever is a hemorrhagic disease caused by Lassa fever virus (LV). Although the precise host defense mechanism(s) that affords protection against LV is not completely understood, cellular immunity mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) plays a pivotal role in controlling viral replication and LV infection. To date, there have been no reports mapping major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-binding CTL epitopes for LV. Using computer-assisted algorithms, we identified five HLA-A2.1-binding peptides of LV glycoprotein (GP) and two peptides from LV nucleoprotein (NP). Synthesized peptides were examined for their ability to bind to MHC class I molecules using a flow cytometric assay that measures peptide stabilization of class I. Three of the LV-GP peptides tested (LLGTFTWTL, SLYKGVYEL, and YLISIFLHL) stabilized HLA-A2. The LV-NP peptides tested failed to stabilize this HLA-A2. We then investigated the ability of the HLA-A2-binding LV-GP peptides to generate peptide-specific CTLs in HLA-A2.1 transgenic mice. Functional assays used to confirm CTL activation included gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays and intracellular cytokine staining of CD8+ T cells from peptide-primed mice. CTL assays were also performed to verify the cytolytic activity of peptide-pulsed target cells. Each of the LV-GP peptides induced CTL responses in HLA-A2-transgenic mice. MHC class I tetramers prepared using one LV-GP peptide that showed the highest cytolytic index (LLGTFTWTL) confirmed that peptide-binding CD8+ T cells were present in pooled lymphocytes harvested from peptide-primed mice. These findings provide direct evidence for the existence of LV-derived GP epitopes that may be useful in the development of protective immunogens for this hemorrhagic virus. PMID:16210487

  4. Lassa Fever Virus Peptides Predicted by Computational Analysis Induce Epitope-Specific Cytotoxic-T-Lymphocyte Responses in HLA-A2.1 Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Boesen, Agnieszka; Sundar, Krishnan; Coico, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Lassa fever is a hemorrhagic disease caused by Lassa fever virus (LV). Although the precise host defense mechanism(s) that affords protection against LV is not completely understood, cellular immunity mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) plays a pivotal role in controlling viral replication and LV infection. To date, there have been no reports mapping major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-binding CTL epitopes for LV. Using computer-assisted algorithms, we identified five HLA-A2.1-binding peptides of LV glycoprotein (GP) and two peptides from LV nucleoprotein (NP). Synthesized peptides were examined for their ability to bind to MHC class I molecules using a flow cytometric assay that measures peptide stabilization of class I. Three of the LV-GP peptides tested (LLGTFTWTL, SLYKGVYEL, and YLISIFLHL) stabilized HLA-A2. The LV-NP peptides tested failed to stabilize this HLA-A2. We then investigated the ability of the HLA-A2-binding LV-GP peptides to generate peptide-specific CTLs in HLA-A2.1 transgenic mice. Functional assays used to confirm CTL activation included gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays and intracellular cytokine staining of CD8+ T cells from peptide-primed mice. CTL assays were also performed to verify the cytolytic activity of peptide-pulsed target cells. Each of the LV-GP peptides induced CTL responses in HLA-A2-transgenic mice. MHC class I tetramers prepared using one LV-GP peptide that showed the highest cytolytic index (LLGTFTWTL) confirmed that peptide-binding CD8+ T cells were present in pooled lymphocytes harvested from peptide-primed mice. These findings provide direct evidence for the existence of LV-derived GP epitopes that may be useful in the development of protective immunogens for this hemorrhagic virus. PMID:16210487

  5. BMAP-28, an Antibiotic Peptide of Innate Immunity, Induces Cell Death through Opening of the Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore

    PubMed Central

    Risso, Angela; Braidot, Enrico; Sordano, Maria Concetta; Vianello, Angelo; Macrì, Francesco; Skerlavaj, Barbara; Zanetti, Margherita; Gennaro, Renato; Bernardi, Paolo

    2002-01-01

    BMAP-28, a bovine antimicrobial peptide of the cathelicidin family, induces membrane permeabilization and death in human tumor cell lines and in activated, but not resting, human lymphocytes. In addition, we found that BMAP-28 causes depolarization of the inner mitochondrial membrane in single cells and in isolated mitochondria. The effect of the peptide was synergistic with that of Ca2+ and inhibited by cyclosporine, suggesting that depolarization depends on opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. The occurrence of a permeability transition was investigated on the basis of mitochondrial permeabilization to calcein and cytochrome c release. We show that BMAP-28 permeabilizes mitochondria to entrapped calcein in a cyclosporine-sensitive manner and that it releases cytochrome c in situ. Our results demonstrate that BMAP-28 is an inducer of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and that its cytotoxic potential depends on its effects on mitochondrial permeability. PMID:11865069

  6. Peptide identification

    DOEpatents

    Jarman, Kristin H [Richland, WA; Cannon, William R [Richland, WA; Jarman, Kenneth D [Richland, WA; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro [Richland, WA

    2011-07-12

    Peptides are identified from a list of candidates using collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry data. A probabilistic model for the occurrence of spectral peaks corresponding to frequently observed partial peptide fragment ions is applied. As part of the identification procedure, a probability score is produced that indicates the likelihood of any given candidate being the correct match. The statistical significance of the score is known without necessarily having reference to the actual identity of the peptide. In one form of the invention, a genetic algorithm is applied to candidate peptides using an objective function that takes into account the number of shifted peaks appearing in the candidate spectrum relative to the test spectrum.

  7. Parabrachial Nucleus Contributions to Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist-Induced Hypophagia

    PubMed Central

    Swick, Jennifer C; Alhadeff, Amber L; Grill, Harvey J; Urrea, Paula; Lee, Stephanie M; Roh, Hyunsun; Baird, John-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Exendin-4 (Ex4), a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist approved to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus, is well known to induce hypophagia in human and animal models. We evaluated the contributions of the hindbrain parabrachial nucleus (PBN) to systemic Ex4-induced hypophagia, as the PBN receives gustatory and visceral afferent relays and descending input from several brain nuclei associated with feeding. Rats with ibotenic-acid lesions targeted to the lateral PBN (PBNx) and sham controls received Ex4 (1 μg/kg) before 24 h home cage chow or 90 min 0.3 M sucrose access tests, and licking microstructure was analyzed to identify components of feeding behavior affected by Ex4. PBN lesion efficacy was confirmed using conditioned taste aversion (CTA) tests. As expected, sham control but not PBNx rats developed a CTA. In sham-lesioned rats, Ex4 reduced chow intake within 4 h of injection and sucrose intake within 90 min. PBNx rats did not show reduced chow or sucrose intake after Ex4 treatment, indicating that the PBN is necessary for Ex4 effects under the conditions tested. In sham-treated rats, Ex4 affected licking microstructure measures associated with hedonic taste evaluation, appetitive behavior, oromotor coordination, and inhibitory postingestive feedback. Licking microstructure responses in PBNx rats after Ex4 treatment were similar to sham-treated rats with the exception of inhibitory postingestive feedback measures. Together, the results suggest that the PBN critically contributes to the hypophagic effects of systemically delivered GLP-1R agonists by enhancing visceral feedback. PMID:25703200

  8. Parabrachial Nucleus Contributions to Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist-Induced Hypophagia.

    PubMed

    Swick, Jennifer C; Alhadeff, Amber L; Grill, Harvey J; Urrea, Paula; Lee, Stephanie M; Roh, Hyunsun; Baird, John-Paul

    2015-07-01

    Exendin-4 (Ex4), a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist approved to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus, is well known to induce hypophagia in human and animal models. We evaluated the contributions of the hindbrain parabrachial nucleus (PBN) to systemic Ex4-induced hypophagia, as the PBN receives gustatory and visceral afferent relays and descending input from several brain nuclei associated with feeding. Rats with ibotenic-acid lesions targeted to the lateral PBN (PBNx) and sham controls received Ex4 (1 μg/kg) before 24 h home cage chow or 90 min 0.3 M sucrose access tests, and licking microstructure was analyzed to identify components of feeding behavior affected by Ex4. PBN lesion efficacy was confirmed using conditioned taste aversion (CTA) tests. As expected, sham control but not PBNx rats developed a CTA. In sham-lesioned rats, Ex4 reduced chow intake within 4 h of injection and sucrose intake within 90 min. PBNx rats did not show reduced chow or sucrose intake after Ex4 treatment, indicating that the PBN is necessary for Ex4 effects under the conditions tested. In sham-treated rats, Ex4 affected licking microstructure measures associated with hedonic taste evaluation, appetitive behavior, oromotor coordination, and inhibitory postingestive feedback. Licking microstructure responses in PBNx rats after Ex4 treatment were similar to sham-treated rats with the exception of inhibitory postingestive feedback measures. Together, the results suggest that the PBN critically contributes to the hypophagic effects of systemically delivered GLP-1R agonists by enhancing visceral feedback. PMID:25703200

  9. Exercise-induced changes in atrial peptides in relation to neuroendocrine responses and fluid balance in the horse.

    PubMed

    Kokkonen, U M; Pösö, A R; Hyyppä, S; Huttunen, P; Leppäluoto, J

    2002-04-01

    Previous data show that, in horses, plasma atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP and NT-ANP) remain elevated for a long time after exercise. To study whether exercise-induced changes in hormonal and fluid balance explain this, we measured plasma concentrations of COOH- and NH2-terminal atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP(99-129) and NT-ANP(1-98) together with arginine vasopressin (AVP), adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH), beta-endorphin, cortisol, catecholamines, and indicators of fluid balance in six Finnhorses after a graded submaximal exercise test on a treadmill. After exercise, AVP and catecholamines diminished rapidly; atrial peptides, ACTH, beta-endorphin, and cortisol remained elevated longer. ANP reached its peak value at 5 min and NT-ANP at 30 min post-exercise. At 60 min, ANP was still significantly increased and NT-ANP even above its level at the end of exercise. The different temporal patterns of ANP and NT-ANP are most probably explained by differences in their plasma half-lives. The post-exercise increase in NT-ANP indicates that the release of atrial peptides is stimulated during recovery after exercise. The rapid decrease in AVP and catecholamines suggests that these hormones do not explain the long-lasting increase in atrial peptides. Cortisol remained elevated longer and it may have contributed to some extent. After exercise, the packed cell volume (PCV) decreased more slowly than plasma total protein and electrolytes, which refers to a slow post-exercise return in blood volume. Taken together, the present results show that the long-lasting post-exercise increase in plasma atrial peptides in horses is most probably explained by elevated central blood volume and that the role of vasoactive hormones is small. PMID:12019955

  10. Alcohol-Induced Changes in Opioid Peptide Levels in Adolescent Rats Are Dependent on Housing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Palm, Sara; Nylander, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Background Endogenous opioids are implicated in the mechanism of action of alcohol and alcohol affects opioids in a number of brain areas, although little is known about alcohol's effects on opioids in the adolescent brain. One concern, in particular when studying young animals, is that alcohol intake models often are based on single housing that may result in alcohol effects confounded by the lack of social interactions. The aim of this study was to investigate short- and long-term alcohol effects on opioids and the influence of housing conditions on these effects. Methods In the first part, opioid peptide levels were measured after one 24-hour session of single housing and 2-hour voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent and adult rats. In the second part, a model with a cage divider inserted during 2-hour drinking sessions was tested and the effects on opioids were examined after 6 weeks of adolescent voluntary intake in single-and pair-housed rats, respectively. Results The effects of single housing were age specific and affected Met-enkephalin-Arg6Phe7 (MEAP) in particular. In adolescent rats, it was difficult to distinguish between effects induced by alcohol and single housing, whereas alcohol-specific effects were seen in dynorphin B (DYNB), beta-endorphin (BEND), and MEAP levels in adults. Voluntary drinking affected several brain areas and the majority of alcohol-induced effects were not dependent on housing. However, alcohol effects on DYNB and BEND in the amygdala were dependent on housing. Housing alone affected MEAP in the cingulate cortex. Conclusions Age-specific housing- and alcohol-induced effects on opioids were found. In addition, prolonged voluntary alcohol intake under different housing conditions produced several alcohol-induced effects independent of housing. However, housing-dependent effects were found in areas implicated in stress, emotionality, and alcohol use disorder. Housing condition and age may therefore affect the reasons and

  11. Release of Periplasmic Nucleotidase Induced by Human Antimicrobial Peptide in E. coli Causes Accumulation of the Immunomodulator Adenosine

    PubMed Central

    Estrela, Andreia Bergamo; Türck, Patrick; Stutz, Elaine; Abraham, Wolf-Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Previous work by our group described that human β-defensin-2 induces accumulation of extracellular adenosine (Ado) in E. coli cultures through a non-lytic mechanism causing severe plasmolysis. Here, we investigate the presence of AMP as a direct precursor and the involvement of a bacterial enzyme in the generation of extracellular Ado by treated bacteria. Following hBD-2 treatment, metabolites were quantified in the supernatants using targeted HPLC-MS/MS analysis. Microbial growth was monitored by optical density and cell viability was determined by colony forming units counts. Phosphatase activity was measured using chromogenic substrate pNPP. The results demonstrate that defensin-treated E. coli strain W releases AMP in the extracellular space, where it is converted to Ado by a bacterial soluble factor. An increase in phosphatase activity in the supernatant was observed after peptide treatment, similar to the effect of sucrose-induced osmotic stress, suggesting that the periplasmic 5'nucleotidase (5'-NT) is released following the plasmolysis event triggered by the peptide. Ado accumulation was enhanced in the presence of Co2+ ion and inhibited by EDTA, further supporting the involvement of a metallo-phosphatase such as 5’-NT in extracellular AMP conversion into Ado. The comparative analysis of hBD-induced Ado accumulation in different E. coli strains and in Pseudomonas aeruginosa revealed that the response is not correlated to the peptide's effect on cell viability, but indicates it might be dependent on the subcellular distribution of the nucleotidase. Taken together, these data shed light on a yet undescribed mechanism of host-microbial interaction: a human antimicrobial peptide inducing selective release of a bacterial enzyme (E. coli 5'-NT), leading to the formation of a potent immunomodulator metabolite (Ado). PMID:26371472

  12. Release of Periplasmic Nucleotidase Induced by Human Antimicrobial Peptide in E. coli Causes Accumulation of the Immunomodulator Adenosine.

    PubMed

    Estrela, Andreia Bergamo; Türck, Patrick; Stutz, Elaine; Abraham, Wolf-Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Previous work by our group described that human β-defensin-2 induces accumulation of extracellular adenosine (Ado) in E. coli cultures through a non-lytic mechanism causing severe plasmolysis. Here, we investigate the presence of AMP as a direct precursor and the involvement of a bacterial enzyme in the generation of extracellular Ado by treated bacteria. Following hBD-2 treatment, metabolites were quantified in the supernatants using targeted HPLC-MS/MS analysis. Microbial growth was monitored by optical density and cell viability was determined by colony forming units counts. Phosphatase activity was measured using chromogenic substrate pNPP. The results demonstrate that defensin-treated E. coli strain W releases AMP in the extracellular space, where it is converted to Ado by a bacterial soluble factor. An increase in phosphatase activity in the supernatant was observed after peptide treatment, similar to the effect of sucrose-induced osmotic stress, suggesting that the periplasmic 5'nucleotidase (5'-NT) is released following the plasmolysis event triggered by the peptide. Ado accumulation was enhanced in the presence of Co2+ ion and inhibited by EDTA, further supporting the involvement of a metallo-phosphatase such as 5'-NT in extracellular AMP conversion into Ado. The comparative analysis of hBD-induced Ado accumulation in different E. coli strains and in Pseudomonas aeruginosa revealed that the response is not correlated to the peptide's effect on cell viability, but indicates it might be dependent on the subcellular distribution of the nucleotidase. Taken together, these data shed light on a yet undescribed mechanism of host-microbial interaction: a human antimicrobial peptide inducing selective release of a bacterial enzyme (E. coli 5'-NT), leading to the formation of a potent immunomodulator metabolite (Ado). PMID:26371472

  13. STAT1, STAT3 and p38MAPK are involved in the apoptotic effect induced by a chimeric cyclic interferon-{alpha}2b peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, Viviana C.; Pena, Clara; Roguin, Leonor P.

    2010-02-15

    In the search of mimetic peptides of the interferon-{alpha}2b molecule (IFN-{alpha}2b), we have previously designed and synthesized a chimeric cyclic peptide of the IFN-{alpha}2b that inhibits WISH cell proliferation by inducing an apoptotic response. Here, we first studied the ability of this peptide to activate intracellular signaling pathways and then evaluated the participation of some signals in the induction of apoptosis. Stimulation of WISH cells with the cyclic peptide showed tyrosine phosphorylation of Jak1 and Tyk2 kinases, tyrosine and serine phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3 transcription factors and activation of p38 MAPK pathway, although phosphorylation levels or kinetics were in some conditions different to those obtained under IFN-{alpha}2b stimulus. JNK and p44/42 pathways were not activated by the peptide in WISH cells. We also showed that STAT1 and STAT3 downregulation by RNA interference decreased the antiproliferative activity and the amount of apoptotic cells induced by the peptide. Pharmacological inhibition of p38 MAPK also reduced the peptide growth inhibitory activity and the apoptotic effect. Thus, we demonstrated that the cyclic peptide regulates WISH cell proliferation through the activation of Jak/STAT signaling pathway. In addition, our results indicate that p38 MAPK may also be involved in cell growth regulation. This study suggests that STAT1, STAT3 and p38 MAPK would be mediating the antitumor and apoptotic response triggered by the cyclic peptide in WISH cells.

  14. An ALS-mutant TDP-43 neurotoxic peptide adopts an anti-parallel β-structure and induces TDP-43 redistribution.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li; Xu, Meng; Yang, Mengxue; Yang, Yanlian; Li, Yang; Deng, Jianwen; Ruan, Linhao; Liu, Jianghong; Du, Sidan; Liu, Xuehui; Feng, Wei; Fushimi, Kazuo; Bigio, Eileen H; Mesulam, Marsel; Wang, Chen; Wu, Jane Y

    2014-12-20

    TDP-43 proteinopathies are clinically and genetically heterogeneous diseases that had been considered distinct from classical amyloid diseases. Here, we provide evidence for the structural similarity between TDP-43 peptides and other amyloid proteins. Atomic force microscopy and electron microscopy examination of peptides spanning a previously defined amyloidogenic fragment revealed a minimal core region that forms amyloid fibrils similar to the TDP-43 fibrils detected in FTLD-TDP brain tissues. An ALS-mutant A315E amyloidogenic TDP-43 peptide is capable of cross-seeding other TDP-43 peptides and an amyloid-β peptide. Sequential Nuclear Overhauser Effects and double-quantum-filtered correlation spectroscopy in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses of the A315E-mutant TDP-43 peptide indicate that it adopts an anti-parallel β conformation. When added to cell cultures, the amyloidogenic TDP-43 peptides induce TDP-43 redistribution from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Neuronal cultures in compartmentalized microfluidic-chambers demonstrate that the TDP-43 peptides can be taken up by axons and induce axonotoxicity and neuronal death, thus recapitulating key neuropathological features of TDP-43 proteinopathies. Importantly, a single amino acid change in the amyloidogenic TDP-43 peptide that disrupts fibril formation also eliminates neurotoxicity, supporting that amyloidogenesis is critical for TDP-43 neurotoxicity. PMID:25113748

  15. An Amphiphilic Peptide Induces Apoptosis Through the miR29b-p53 Pathway in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soyoung; Lee, Jung Hyun; Kang, Igojo; Hyun, Soonsil; Yu, Jaehoon; Shin, Chanseok

    2016-01-01

    Peptides have been in the limelight, as therapeutic agents for cancer treatment through various applications due to their high target selectivity and exceptional ability to penetrate the cell membrane. Recent studies have revealed that synthesized peptides bind to hairpin structures of RNA that affect their activities such as changing the efficacy of microRNA maturation. MicroRNA-mediated p53 activation by the microRNA-29 (miR29) family is one of the most important regulatory pathways in cancer therapeutics. By targeting the suppressors of p53, a tumor suppressor protein, miR29 induces apoptosis of cancer cells through p53 stabilization. Here, we identify a novel synthesized amphiphilic peptide, LK-L1C/K6W/L8C, which enhances expression of miR29b and promotes p53 activity. In the presence of LK-L1C/K6W/L8C, pre-miR29b preferentially forms a complex with the Dicer protein through interaction of LK-L1C/K6W/L8C with the terminal loop region of pre-miR29b, leading to an increase in Dicer processing. Furthermore, LK-L1C/K6W/L8C stimulates apoptosis by improving p53 stability in miR29-inducible HeLa and MCF7 cells. Collectively, our study shows that a peptide can directly influence the miR29b-mediated p53 activation pathway in cancer cells. Therefore, our findings provide the basis for a new, potentially promising peptide-based drug for cancer therapy. PMID:27377134

  16. The delta EEG (sleep)-inducing peptide (DSIP). XI. Amino-acid analysis, sequence, synthesis and activity of the nonapeptide.

    PubMed

    Schoenenberger, G A; Maier, P F; Tobler, H J; Wilson, K; Monnier, M

    1978-09-01

    A peptide which induces slow-wave EEG (sleep) after intraventricular infusion into the brain has been isolated from the extracorporeal dialysate of cerebral venous blood in rabbits submitted to hypnogenic electrical stimulation of the intralaminar thalamic area. It was shown by amino-acid analysis and sequence determination to be Trp-Ala-Gly-Gly-Asp-Ala-Ser-Gly-Glu and named "Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide" (DSIP). This compound was synthesized as well as 5 possible metabolic products (1--8, 2--9, 2--8, 1--4 and 5--9), 2 nonapeptide analogues (with one and two amino-acids exchanged) and a related tripeptide (Trp-Ser-Glu). All 9 synthetic peptides were infused intraventricularly in rabbits (6 nmol/kg in 0.05 ml of CSF-like solution over 3.5 min) and tested under double-blind conditions. A total of 61 rabbits including controls were used. The EEG from the frontal neocortex and the limbic archicortex were subjected to direct fast-Fourier transformation and analyzed by an 1108 computer system. A highly specific delta and spindle EEG-enhancing effect of the synthetic DSIP could be demonstrated. The mean increase of EEG delta activity reached 35% in the neocortex and limbic cortex as compared to control animals receiving CSF-like solution or any of the other 8 peptides. The final chemical characterization of the synthetic DSIP revealed that only the pure alpha-aspartyl peptide is highly active in contrast to its beta-Asp isomer. A neurohumoral modulating and programming activity was suggested. PMID:568769

  17. Peptide-Induced AIEgen Self-Assembly: A New Strategy to Realize Highly Sensitive Fluorescent Light-Up Probes.

    PubMed

    Han, Aitian; Wang, Huaimin; Kwok, Ryan T K; Ji, Shenglu; Li, Jun; Kong, Deling; Tang, Ben Zhong; Liu, Bin; Yang, Zhimou; Ding, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Fluorescent light-up probes with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) characteristics have recently attracted great research interest due to their intelligent fluorescence activation mechanism and excellent photobleaching resistance. In this work, we report a new, simple, and generic strategy to design and prepare highly sensitive AIE fluorescent light-up bioprobe through facile incorporation of a self-assembling peptide sequence GFFY between the recognition element and the AIE luminogen (AIEgen). After the bioprobes respond to the targets, the peptide GFFY is capable of inducing the ordered self-assembly of AIEgens, yielding close and tight intermolecular steric interactions to restrict the intramolecular motions of AIEgens for excellent signal output. Using two proof-of-concepts, we have demonstrated that self-assembling peptide-incorporating AIE light-up probes show much higher sensitivity in sensing the corresponding targets in both solutions and cancer cells as compared to those without GFFY induced self-assembly. Taking the probe TPE-GFFYK(DVEDEE-Ac), for example, a detection limit as low as 0.54 pM can be achieved for TPE-GFFYK(DVEDEE-Ac) in caspase-3 detection, which is much lower than that of TPE-K(DVED-Ac) (3.50 pM). This study may inspire new insights into the design of advanced fluorescent molecular probes. PMID:26948051

  18. A Huntingtin-based peptide inhibitor of caspase-6 provides protection from mutant Huntingtin-induced motor and behavioral deficits

    PubMed Central

    Aharony, Israel; Ehrnhoefer, Dagmar E.; Shruster, Adi; Qiu, Xiaofan; Franciosi, Sonia; Hayden, Michael R.; Offen, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, increasing evidence has implied a significant connection between caspase-6 activity and the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease (HD). Consequently, inhibiting caspase-6 activity was suggested as a promising therapeutic strategy to reduce mutant Huntingtin toxicity, and to provide protection from mutant Huntingtin-induced motor and behavioral deficits. Here, we describe a novel caspase-6 inhibitor peptide based on the huntingtin caspase-6 cleavage site, fused with a cell-penetrating sequence. The peptide reduces mutant Huntingtin proteolysis by caspase-6, and protects cells from mutant Huntingtin toxicity. Continuous subcutaneous administration of the peptide protected pre-symptomatic BACHD mice from motor deficits and behavioral abnormalities. Moreover, administration of the peptide in an advanced disease state resulted in the partial recovery of motor performance, and an alleviation of depression-related behavior and cognitive deficits. Our findings reveal the potential of substrate-based caspase inhibition as a therapeutic strategy, and present a promising agent for the treatment of HD. PMID:25616965

  19. Temperature-induced reversible self-assembly of diphenylalanine peptide and the structural transition from organogel to crystalline nanowires.

    PubMed

    Huang, Renliang; Wang, Yuefei; Qi, Wei; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

    2014-01-01

    Controlling the self-assembly of diphenylalanine peptide (FF) into various nanoarchitectures has received great amounts of attention in recent years. Here, we report the temperature-induced reversible self-assembly of diphenylalanine peptide to microtubes, nanowires, or organogel in different solvents. We also find that the organogel in isopropanol transforms into crystalline flakes or nanowires when the temperature increases. The reversible self-assembly in polar solvents may be mainly controlled by electronic and aromatic interactions between the FF molecules themselves, which is associated with the dissociation equilibrium and significantly influenced by temperature. We found that the organogel in the isopropanol solvent made a unique transition to crystalline structures, a process that is driven by temperature and may be kinetically controlled. During the heating-cooling process, FF preferentially self-assembles to metastable nanofibers and organogel. They further transform to thermodynamically stable crystal structures via molecular rearrangement after introducing an external energy, such as the increasing temperature used in this study. The strategy demonstrated in this study provides an efficient way to controllably fabricate smart, temperature-responsive peptide nanomaterials and enriches the understanding of the growth mechanism of diphenylalanine peptide nanostructures. PMID:25520600

  20. Temperature-induced reversible self-assembly of diphenylalanine peptide and the structural transition from organogel to crystalline nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Controlling the self-assembly of diphenylalanine peptide (FF) into various nanoarchitectures has received great amounts of attention in recent years. Here, we report the temperature-induced reversible self-assembly of diphenylalanine peptide to microtubes, nanowires, or organogel in different solvents. We also find that the organogel in isopropanol transforms into crystalline flakes or nanowires when the temperature increases. The reversible self-assembly in polar solvents may be mainly controlled by electronic and aromatic interactions between the FF molecules themselves, which is associated with the dissociation equilibrium and significantly influenced by temperature. We found that the organogel in the isopropanol solvent made a unique transition to crystalline structures, a process that is driven by temperature and may be kinetically controlled. During the heating-cooling process, FF preferentially self-assembles to metastable nanofibers and organogel. They further transform to thermodynamically stable crystal structures via molecular rearrangement after introducing an external energy, such as the increasing temperature used in this study. The strategy demonstrated in this study provides an efficient way to controllably fabricate smart, temperature-responsive peptide nanomaterials and enriches the understanding of the growth mechanism of diphenylalanine peptide nanostructures. PMID:25520600

  1. Synthetic. cap alpha. subunit peptide 125-147 of human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor induces antibodies to native receptor

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, D.J.; Griesmann, G.E.; Huang, Z.; Lennon, V.A.

    1986-03-05

    A synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 125-147 of the Torpedo acetylcholine receptor (AChR) ..cap alpha.. subunit proved to be a major antigenic region of the AChR. Rats inoculated with 50 ..mu..g of peptide (T ..cap alpha.. 125-147) developed T cell immunity and antibodies to native AChR and signs of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. They report the synthesis and preliminary testing of a disulfide-looped peptide comprising residues 125-147 of the human AChR ..cap alpha.. subunit. Peptide H ..cap alpha.. 125-147 differs from T ..cap alpha.. 125-147 at residues 139 (Glu for Gln) and 143 (Ser for Thr). In immunoprecipitation assays, antibodies to Torpedo AChR bound /sup 125/I-labelled H..cap alpha.. 125-147 antibody bound H..cap alpha.. 125-147, but monoclonal antibodies to an immunodominant region of native AChR bound neither H..cap alpha.. 125-147 nor T ..cap alpha.. 125-147. Rats immunized with H ..cap alpha.. 125-147 produced anti-mammalian muscle AChR antibodies that induced modulation of AChRs from cultured human myotubes. Thus, region 125-147 of the human AChR ..cap alpha.. subunit is extracellular in muscle, and is both antigenic and immunogenic. It remains to be determined whether or not autoantibodies to this region may in part cause the weakness or myasthenia gravis in man.

  2. Thiosemicarbazone modification of 3-acetyl coumarin inhibits Aβ peptide aggregation and protect against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Ranade, Dnyanesh S; Bapat, Archika M; Ramteke, Shefali N; Joshi, Bimba N; Roussel, Pascal; Tomas, Alain; Deschamps, Patrick; Kulkarni, Prasad P

    2016-10-01

    Aggregation of amyloid β peptide (Aβ) is an important event in the progression of Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, among the available therapeutic approaches to fight with disease, inhibition of Aβ aggregation is widely studied and one of the promising approach for the development of treatments for Alzheimer's disease. Thiosemicarbazone compounds are known for their variety of biological activities. However, the potential of thiosemicarbazone compounds towards inhibition of Aβ peptide aggregation and the subsequent toxicity is little explored. Herein, we report synthesis and x-ray crystal structure of novel compound 3-acetyl coumarin thiosemicarbazone and its efficacy toward inhibition of Aβ(1-42) peptide aggregation. Our results indicate that 3-acetyl coumarin thiosemicarbazone inhibits Aβ(1-42) peptide aggregation up to 80% compared to the parent 3-acetyl coumarin which inhibits 52%. Further, 3-acetyl coumarin thiosemicarbazone provides neuroprotection against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cell line. These findings indicate that thiosemicarbazone modification renders 3-acetyl coumarin neuroprotective properties. PMID:26232353

  3. Potential Biomarker Peptides Associated with Acute Alcohol-Induced Reduction of Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Wakabayashi, Ichiro; Marumo, Mikio; Nonaka, Daisuke; Shimomura, Tomoko; Eguchi, Ryoji; Lee, Lyang-Ja; Tanaka, Kenji; Hatake, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the peptides that are related to acute reduction of blood pressure after alcohol drinking. Venous blood was collected from male healthy volunteers before and after drinking white wine (3 ml/kg weight) containing 13% of ethanol. Peptidome analysis for serum samples was performed using a new target plate, BLOTCHIP®. Alcohol caused significant decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels at 45 min. The peptidome analysis showed that the levels of three peptides of m/z 1467, 2380 and 2662 changed significantly after drinking. The m/z 1467 and 2662 peptides were identified to be fragments of fibrinogen alpha chain, and the m/z 2380 peptide was identified to be a fragment of complement C4. The intensities of the m/z 2380 and m/z 1467 peptides before drinking were associated with % decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels at 45 min after drinking compared with the levels before drinking, while there were no significant correlations between the intensity of the m/z 2662 peptide and % decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels after drinking. The m/z 1467 and 2380 peptides are suggested to be markers for acute reduction of blood pressure after drinking alcohol. PMID:26815288

  4. Fragmentation of peptide negative molecular ions induced by resonance electron capture

    PubMed Central

    Vasil’ev, Yury V.; Figard, Benjamin J.; Morré, Jeff; Deinzer, Max L.

    2009-01-01

    A simple robust method to study resonance gas-phase reactions between neutral peptides of low volatility and free electrons has been designed and implemented. Resonance electron capture (REC) experiments were performed by several neutral model peptides and two naturally occurring peptides. The assignment of negative ions (NIs) formed in these gas-phase reactions was based on high mass-resolving power experiments. From these accurate mass measurements, it was concluded that fragment NIs formed by low (1–2 eV) energy REC are of the same types as those observed in electron capture∕transfer dissociation, where the positive charge is a factor. The main feature resulting from these REC experiments by peptides is the occurrence of zn−1 ions, which are invariably of the highest abundances in the negative ion mass spectra of larger peptides. [M–H]− NIs presumably the carboxylate anion structure dominate the REC spectra of smaller peptides. There was no evidence for the occurrence of the complementary reaction, i.e., the formations of cn+1 ions. Instead, cn ions arose without hydrogen∕proton transfer albeit with lower abundances than that observed for zn−1 ions. Only the amide forms of small peptides showed more abundant ion peaks for the cn ions than for the zn−1 ions. The mechanisms for the N–Cα bond cleavage are discussed. PMID:19655877

  5. Influenza peptide-induced self-lysis and down-regulation of cloned cytotoxic T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Pemberton, R M; Wraith, D C; Askonas, B A

    1990-01-01

    Virus-specific cytotoxic T-cell (Tc) clones can lyse target cells in vitro in the presence of their specific peptide epitopes. The lytic potency of murine influenza nucleoprotein (NP)-specific Tc clones was investigated after observing that target cell killing was reduced in the presence of high (greater than 0.2 microM) concentrations of specific NP peptide antigen. Following incubation of Tc for 16 hr in the presence of a range of peptide concentrations, two effects were observed; (i) a peptide dose-dependent mortality of Tc, which has been attributed to self-lysis by clonal Tc in the presence of specific peptide; (ii) and a reduced ability to specifically lyse NP-expressing target cells whilst retaining lectin-dependent lytic activity in the surviving Tc. This functional down-regulation was reversible after 24 hr incubation in the absence of peptide. Toxic effects were excluded, since inhibition of specific target lysis by Tc was mediated only be pretreatment with specifically recognized peptide. PMID:2373520

  6. Glucagon like peptide-2 induces intestinal restitution through VEGF release from subepithelial myofibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Kerem; Pennartz, Christian; Felderbauer, Peter; Meier, Juris J; Banasch, Matthias; Bulut, Daniel; Schmitz, Frank; Schmidt, Wolfgang E; Hoffmann, Peter

    2008-01-14

    Glucagon like peptide-2 (GLP-2) exerts intestinotrophic actions, but the underlying mechanisms are still a matter of debate. Recent studies demonstrated the expression of the GLP-2 receptor on fibroblasts located in the subepithelial tissue, where it might induce the release of growth factors such as keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Therefore, in the present studies we sought to elucidate the downstream mechanisms involved in improved intestinal adaptation by GLP-2. Human colonic fibroblasts (CCD-18Co), human colonic cancer cells (Caco-2 cells) and rat ileum IEC-18 cells were used. GLP-2 receptor mRNA expression was determined using real time RT-PCR. Conditioned media from CCD-18Co cells were obtained following incubation with GLP-2 (50-250 nM) for 24 h. Cell viability was assessed by a 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT)-assay, and wound healing was determined with an established migration-assay. Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-beta), VEGF and KGF mRNA levels were determined by RT-PCR. Protein levels of VEGF and TGF-beta in CCD-18Co cells following GLP-2 stimulation were determined using ELISA. Neutralizing TGF-beta and VEGF-A antibodies were utilized to assess the role of TGF-beta and VEGF-A in the process of wound healing. GLP-2 receptor expression was detected in CCD-18Co cells. Conditioned media from CCD-18Co cells dose-dependently induced proliferation in Caco-2 cells, but not in IEC-18 cells. Conditioned media also enhanced cell migration in IEC-18 cells (P<0.01), while migration was even inhibited in Caco-2 cells (P<0.0012). GLP-2 significantly stimulated mRNA expression of VEGF and TGF-beta, but not of KGF in CCD-18Co. The migratory effects of GLP-2 were completely abolished in the presence of TGF-beta and VEGF-A antibodies. GLP-2 exerts differential effects on the epithelium of the small intestine and the colon. Thus, in small intestinal cells GLP-2 stimulates wound

  7. Structural transformation of peptide amphiphile self-assembly induced by headgroup charge and size regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Changrui; Bedzyk, Michael; Olvera, Monica; Kewalramani, Sumit; Palmer, Liam

    The ability to control the nano and the meso-scale architecture of molecular assemblies is one of the major challenges in nanoscience. Significantly, structural transformations of amphiphilic aggregates induced by variations in environmental conditions have attracted attention due to their biotechnological relevance. Here, we study the assembly in aqueous solution for a modular series of peptide amphiphiles with 3, 2 or 1 lysine groups conjugated to a C16 carbon tail (C16K3, C16K2 and C16K1) . This system design allow us to probe how the equilibrium structure of the self-assembly can be tuned by controlling the coupling between steric (via choice of headgroup: K3, K2, or K1) and electrostatic (via solution pH) interactions. Solution small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies reveal that depending on pH and number of lysines in the lipid headgroup, amphiphiles can assemble into a range of structures: spherical micelles, bilayer ribbons and vesicles. We also perform detailed phase space mapping of pH-and headgroup size dependency of the structures of assembly over 0.1-100 nm length scales via SAXS/WAXS. The experimental results in conjunction with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations deduce quantitative relations between pH-dependent molecular charges, steric constraints and self-assembly morphologies, which is significant for developing experimental routes to obtain assembly structures with specific nano- and meso-scale features through controlled external stimuli.

  8. Subpopulation-Specific Transcriptome Analysis of Competence-Stimulating-Peptide-Induced Streptococcus mutans▿†

    PubMed Central

    Lemme, André; Gröbe, Lothar; Reck, Michael; Tomasch, Jürgen; Wagner-Döbler, Irene

    2011-01-01

    Competence-stimulating-peptide (CSP)-mediated competence development in Streptococcus mutans is a transient and biphasic process, since only a subpopulation induces the expression of ComX in the presence of CSP, and the activation of the DNA uptake machinery in this fraction shuts down ∼3 to 4 h postinduction. Here, we combine for the first time, to our knowledge, the bacterial flow-cytometric sorting of cells and subpopulation-specific transcriptome analysis of both the competent and noncompetent fraction of CSP-treated S. mutans cells. Sorting was guided by a ComX-green fluorescent protein (ComX-GFP) reporter, and the transcriptome analysis demonstrated the successful combination of both methods, because a strong enrichment of transcripts for comX and its downstream genes was achieved. Three two-component systems were expressed in the competent fraction, and among them was ComDE. Moreover, the recently identified regulator system ComR/S was expressed exclusively in the competent fraction. In contrast, the expression of bacteriocin-related genes was at the same level in all cells. GFP reporter strains for ComE and CipB (mutacin V) confirmed this expression pattern on the single-cell level. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that some ComX-expressing cells committed autolysis in an early stage of competence initiation. In viable ComX-expressing cells, the uptake of DNA could be shown on the single-cell level. This study demonstrates that all cells in the population respond to CSP through the activation of bacteriocin-related genes. Some of these cells start to activate ComX expression but then segregate into two subpopulations, one becoming competent and another one that lyses, resulting in intrapopulation diversity. PMID:21317319

  9. The oncolytic peptide LTX-315 induces cell death and DAMP release by mitochondria distortion in human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Eike, Liv-Marie; Yang, Nannan; Rekdal, Øystein; Sveinbjørnsson, Baldur

    2015-10-27

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are naturally occurring molecules found in most species, in which they play a significant role in the first line defense against intruding pathogens, and several HDPs have been shown to possess anticancer activity. Structure-activity relationship studies on the HDP bovine lactoferricin revealed a de novo design of a nonamer peptide LTX-315, with oncolytic properties. In the present study, we investigated the oncolytic activity of LTX-315 in human melanoma cells (A375). LTX-315 induced a rapid plasma membrane disruption and cell death within 2 hours. At a low concentration, fluorescence-labeled LTX-315 was internalized and accumulated in cytoplasmic vacuoles in close proximity to the mitochondria. The mitochondrial membrane potential was shown to depolarize as a consequence of LTX-315 treatment and at ultrastructural level, the mitochondria morphology was significantly altered. Release of danger signals (DAMPs) such as ATP, Cytochrome C and HMGB1 into the cell supernatant of cultured cells was evident minutes after peptide treatment. The oncolytic effect of LTX-315 involving perturbation of both the cell membrane and the mitochondria with subsequent release of DAMPs may highlight the ability of LTX-315 to induce complete regression and long-term protective immune responses as previously reported in experimental animal models. PMID:26472184

  10. The oncolytic peptide LTX-315 induces cell death and DAMP release by mitochondria distortion in human melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Eike, Liv-Marie; Yang, Nannan; Rekdal, Øystein; Sveinbjørnsson, Baldur

    2015-01-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are naturally occurring molecules found in most species, in which they play a significant role in the first line defense against intruding pathogens, and several HDPs have been shown to possess anticancer activity. Structure-activity relationship studies on the HDP bovine lactoferricin revealed a de novo design of a nonamer peptide LTX-315, with oncolytic properties. In the present study, we investigated the oncolytic activity of LTX-315 in human melanoma cells (A375). LTX-315 induced a rapid plasma membrane disruption and cell death within 2 hours. At a low concentration, fluorescence-labeled LTX-315 was internalized and accumulated in cytoplasmic vacuoles in close proximity to the mitochondria. The mitochondrial membrane potential was shown to depolarize as a consequence of LTX-315 treatment and at ultrastructural level, the mitochondria morphology was significantly altered. Release of danger signals (DAMPs) such as ATP, Cytochrome C and HMGB1 into the cell supernatant of cultured cells was evident minutes after peptide treatment. The oncolytic effect of LTX-315 involving perturbation of both the cell membrane and the mitochondria with subsequent release of DAMPs may highlight the ability of LTX-315 to induce complete regression and long-term protective immune responses as previously reported in experimental animal models. PMID:26472184