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Sample records for peptidyl-prolyl isomerase prsa2

  1. Peptidyl prolyl cis-trans-isomerase activity associated with the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed Central

    Bose, S; Freedman, R B

    1994-01-01

    Peptidyl prolyl cis-trans-isomerase (PPI) activity was detected in microsomal fractions from bovine and rat liver. Extensive washing, proteinase and sonication treatments indicated that although some of this activity was due to adsorbed cytosolic enzymes, there was also an active but latent microsomal PPI activity. Density-gradient subfractionation indicated that activity was associated with vesicles derived from both the rough and the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER), suggesting that the activity was located within the ER lumen. The luminal PPI activity was inhibited by cyclosporin A and was active towards an unfolded protein substrate as well as towards the standard peptide substrate. PMID:8010971

  2. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of the Human Cyclophilin Family of Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerases

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Tara L.; Walker, John R.; Campagna-Slater, Valérie; Finerty, Jr., Patrick J.; Paramanathan, Ragika; Bernstein, Galina; MacKenzie, Farrell; Tempel, Wolfram; Ouyang, Hui; Lee, Wen Hwa; Eisenmesser, Elan Z.; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano

    2011-12-14

    Peptidyl-prolyl isomerases catalyze the conversion between cis and trans isomers of proline. The cyclophilin family of peptidyl-prolyl isomerases is well known for being the target of the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin, used to combat organ transplant rejection. There is great interest in both the substrate specificity of these enzymes and the design of isoform-selective ligands for them. However, the dearth of available data for individual family members inhibits attempts to design drug specificity; additionally, in order to define physiological functions for the cyclophilins, definitive isoform characterization is required. In the current study, enzymatic activity was assayed for 15 of the 17 human cyclophilin isomerase domains, and binding to the cyclosporin scaffold was tested. In order to rationalize the observed isoform diversity, the high-resolution crystallographic structures of seven cyclophilin domains were determined. These models, combined with seven previously solved cyclophilin isoforms, provide the basis for a family-wide structure:function analysis. Detailed structural analysis of the human cyclophilin isomerase explains why cyclophilin activity against short peptides is correlated with an ability to ligate cyclosporin and why certain isoforms are not competent for either activity. In addition, we find that regions of the isomerase domain outside the proline-binding surface impart isoform specificity for both in vivo substrates and drug design. We hypothesize that there is a well-defined molecular surface corresponding to the substrate-binding S2 position that is a site of diversity in the cyclophilin family. Computational simulations of substrate binding in this region support our observations. Our data indicate that unique isoform determinants exist that may be exploited for development of selective ligands and suggest that the currently available small-molecule and peptide-based ligands for this class of enzyme are insufficient for isoform

  3. Cellular peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase Pin1 facilitates replication of feline coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Amano, Arisa; Morisaki, Masateru; Sato, Yuka; Sasaki, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Although feline coronavirus (FCoV) causes feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), which is a fatal infectious disease, there are no effective therapeutic medicines or vaccines. Previously, in vitro studies have shown that cyclosporin (CsA) and FK506 inhibit virus replication in diverse coronaviruses. CsA and FK506 are targets of clinically relevant immunosuppressive drugs and bind to cellular cyclophilins (Cyps) or FK506 binding proteins (FKBPs), respectively. Both Cyp and FKBP have peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activity. However, protein interacting with NIMA (Pin1), a member of the parvulin subfamily of PPIases that differs from Cyps and FKBPs, is essential for various signaling pathways. Here we demonstrated that genetic silencing or knockout of Pin1 resulted in decreased FCoV replication in vitro. Dipentamethylene thiuram monosulfide, a specific inhibitor of Pin1, inhibited FCoV replication. These data indicate that Pin1 modulates FCoV propagation. PMID:26675666

  4. Peroxide-mediated oxidation and inhibition of the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1.

    PubMed

    Innes, Brendan T; Sowole, Modupeola A; Gyenis, Laszlo; Dubinsky, Michelle; Konermann, Lars; Litchfield, David W; Brandl, Christopher J; Shilton, Brian H

    2015-05-01

    Pin1 is a phosphorylation-dependent peptidyl-prolyl isomerase that plays a critical role in mediating protein conformational changes involved in signaling processes related to cell cycle control. Pin1 has also been implicated as being neuroprotective in aging-related neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease where Pin1 activity is diminished. Notably, recent proteomic analysis of brain samples from patients with mild cognitive impairment revealed that Pin1 is oxidized and also displays reduced activity. Since the Pin1 active site contains a functionally critical cysteine residue (Cys113) with a low predicted pK(a), we hypothesized that Cys113 is sensitive to oxidation. Consistent with this hypothesis, we observed that treatment of Pin1 with hydrogen peroxide results in a 32Da mass increase, likely resulting from the oxidation of Cys113 to sulfinic acid (Cys-SO(2)H). This modification results in loss of peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity. Notably, Pin1 with Cys113 substituted by aspartic acid retains activity and is no longer sensitive to oxidation. Structural studies by X-ray crystallography revealed increased electron density surrounding Cys113 following hydrogen peroxide treatment. At lower concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, oxidative inhibition of Pin1 can be partially reversed by treatment with dithiothreitol, suggesting that oxidation could be a reversible modification with a regulatory role. We conclude that the loss of Pin1 activity upon oxidation results from oxidative modification of the Cys113 sulfhydryl to sulfenic (Cys-SOH) or sulfinic acid (Cys-SO(2)H). Given the involvement of Pin1 in pathological processes related to neurodegenerative diseases and to cancer, these findings could have implications for the prevention or treatment of disease. PMID:25595659

  5. Kinetic isotope effects support the twisted amide mechanism of Pin1 peptidyl-prolyl isomerase.

    PubMed

    Mercedes-Camacho, Ana Y; Mullins, Ashley B; Mason, Matthew D; Xu, Guoyan G; Mahoney, Brendan J; Wang, Xingsheng; Peng, Jeffrey W; Etzkorn, Felicia A

    2013-11-01

    The Pin1 peptidyl-prolyl isomerase catalyzes isomerization of pSer/pThr-Pro motifs in regulating the cell cycle. Peptide substrates, Ac-Phe-Phe-phosphoSer-Pro-Arg-p-nitroaniline, were synthesized in unlabeled form, and with deuterium-labeled Ser-d3 and Pro-d7 amino acids. Kinetic data were collected as a function of Pin1 concentration to measure kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) on catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km). The normal secondary (2°) KIE value measured for the Ser-d3 substrate (kH/kD = 1.6 ± 0.2) indicates that the serine carbonyl does not rehybridize from sp(2) to sp(3) in the rate-determining step, ruling out a nucleophilic addition mechanism. The normal 2° KIE can be explained by hyperconjugation between Ser α-C-H/D and C═O and release of steric strain upon rotation of the amide bond from cis to syn-exo. The inverse 2° KIE value (kH/kD = 0.86 ± 0.08) measured for the Pro-d7 substrate indicates rehybridization of the prolyl nitrogen from sp(2) to sp(3) during the rate-limiting step of isomerization. No solvent kinetic isotope was measured by NMR exchange spectroscopy (kH2O/kD2O = 0.92 ± 0.12), indicating little or no involvement of exchangeable protons in the mechanism. These results support the formation of a simple twisted amide transition state as the mechanism for peptidyl prolyl isomerization catalyzed by Pin1. A model of the reaction mechanism is presented using crystal structures of Pin1 with ground state analogues and an inhibitor that resembles a twisted amide transition state. PMID:24116866

  6. Kinetic Isotope Effects Support the Twisted Amide Mechanism of Pin1 Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerase

    PubMed Central

    Mercedes-Camacho, Ana Y.; Mullins, Ashley B.; Mason, Matthew D.; Xu, Guoyan G.; Mahoney, Brendan J.; Wang, Xingsheng; Peng, Jeffrey W.; Etzkorn, Felicia A.

    2013-01-01

    The Pin1 peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase) catalyzes isomerization of pSer/pThr-Pro motifs in regulating the cell cycle. Peptide substrates, Ac–Phe–Phe–phosphoSer–Pro–Arg–p-nitroaniline, were synthesized in unlabeled form, and with deuterium labeled Ser-d3 and Pro-d7 amino acids. Kinetic data was collected as a function of Pin1 concentration to measure kinetic isotope effects (KIE) on catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km). The normal secondary (2°) KIE value measured for the Ser-d3 substrate (kH/kD = 1.6 ± 0.2) indicates that the serine carbonyl does not rehybridize from sp2 to sp3 in the rate-determining step, ruling out a nucleophilic addition mechanism. The normal 2° KIE can be explained by hyperconjugation between Ser α-C–H/D and C=O, and release of steric strain upon rotation of the amide bond from cis to syn-exo. The inverse 2° KIE value (kH/kD = 0.86 ± 0.08) measured for the Pro-d7 substrate indicates rehybridization of the prolyl nitrogen from sp2 to sp3 during the rate-limiting step of isomerization. No solvent kinetic isotope was measured by NMR exchange spectroscopy (EXSY) (kH2O/kD2O = 0.92 ± 0.12), indicating little or no involvement of exchangeable protons in the mechanism. These results support the formation of a simple twisted-amide transition state as the mechanism for peptidyl prolyl isomerization catalyzed by Pin1. A model of the reaction mechanism is presented using crystal structures of Pin1 with ground state analogues and an inhibitor that resembles a twisted amide transition state. PMID:24116866

  7. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of the Human Cyclophilin Family of Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerases

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Tara L.; Walker, John R.; Campagna-Slater, Valérie; Finerty, Patrick J.; Paramanathan, Ragika; Bernstein, Galina; MacKenzie, Farrell; Tempel, Wolfram; Ouyang, Hui; Lee, Wen Hwa; Eisenmesser, Elan Z.; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano

    2010-01-01

    Peptidyl-prolyl isomerases catalyze the conversion between cis and trans isomers of proline. The cyclophilin family of peptidyl-prolyl isomerases is well known for being the target of the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin, used to combat organ transplant rejection. There is great interest in both the substrate specificity of these enzymes and the design of isoform-selective ligands for them. However, the dearth of available data for individual family members inhibits attempts to design drug specificity; additionally, in order to define physiological functions for the cyclophilins, definitive isoform characterization is required. In the current study, enzymatic activity was assayed for 15 of the 17 human cyclophilin isomerase domains, and binding to the cyclosporin scaffold was tested. In order to rationalize the observed isoform diversity, the high-resolution crystallographic structures of seven cyclophilin domains were determined. These models, combined with seven previously solved cyclophilin isoforms, provide the basis for a family-wide structure∶function analysis. Detailed structural analysis of the human cyclophilin isomerase explains why cyclophilin activity against short peptides is correlated with an ability to ligate cyclosporin and why certain isoforms are not competent for either activity. In addition, we find that regions of the isomerase domain outside the proline-binding surface impart isoform specificity for both in vivo substrates and drug design. We hypothesize that there is a well-defined molecular surface corresponding to the substrate-binding S2 position that is a site of diversity in the cyclophilin family. Computational simulations of substrate binding in this region support our observations. Our data indicate that unique isoform determinants exist that may be exploited for development of selective ligands and suggest that the currently available small-molecule and peptide-based ligands for this class of enzyme are insufficient for isoform

  8. Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerase Pin1 Is a Cellular Factor Required for Hepatitis C Virus Propagation▿

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Yun-Sook; Tran, Huong T. L.; Park, Soo-Je; Yim, Seung-Ae; Hwang, Soon B.

    2011-01-01

    The life cycle of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highly dependent on cellular factors. Using small interfering RNA (siRNA) library screening, we identified peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1 (Pin1) as a host factor involved in HCV propagation. Here we demonstrated that silencing of Pin1 expression resulted in decreases in HCV replication in both HCV replicon cells and cell culture-grown HCV (HCVcc)-infected cells, whereas overexpression of Pin1 increased HCV replication. Pin1 interacted with both the NS5A and NS5B proteins. However, Pin1 expression was increased only by the NS5B protein. Both the protein binding and isomerase activities of Pin1 were required for HCV replication. Juglone, a natural inhibitor of Pin1, inhibited HCV propagation by inhibiting the interplay between the Pin1 and HCV NS5A/NS5B proteins. These data indicate that Pin1 modulates HCV propagation and may contribute to HCV-induced liver pathogenesis. PMID:21680504

  9. Microbial Peptidyl-Prolyl cis/trans Isomerases (PPIases): Virulence Factors and Potential Alternative Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Initially discovered in the context of immunomodulation, peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases (PPIases) were soon identified as enzymes catalyzing the rate-limiting protein folding step at peptidyl bonds preceding proline residues. Intense searches revealed that PPIases are a superfamily of proteins consisting of three structurally distinguishable families with representatives in every described species of prokaryote and eukaryote and, recently, even in some giant viruses. Despite the clear-cut enzymatic activity and ubiquitous distribution of PPIases, reports on solely PPIase-dependent biological roles remain scarce. Nevertheless, they have been found to be involved in a plethora of biological processes, such as gene expression, signal transduction, protein secretion, development, and tissue regeneration, underscoring their general importance. Hence, it is not surprising that PPIases have also been identified as virulence-associated proteins. The extent of contribution to virulence is highly variable and dependent on the pleiotropic roles of a single PPIase in the respective pathogen. The main objective of this review is to discuss this variety in virulence-related bacterial and protozoan PPIases as well as the involvement of host PPIases in infectious processes. Moreover, a special focus is given to Legionella pneumophila macrophage infectivity potentiator (Mip) and Mip-like PPIases of other pathogens, as the best-characterized virulence-related representatives of this family. Finally, the potential of PPIases as alternative drug targets and first tangible results are highlighted. PMID:25184565

  10. Peptidyl Prolyl Isomerase PIN1 Directly Binds to and Stabilizes Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hyeong-jun; Kwon, Nayoung; Choi, Min-A; Jung, Kyung Oh; Piao, Juan-Yu; Ngo, Hoang Kieu Chi; Kim, Su-Jung; Kim, Do-Hee; Chung, June-Key; Cha, Young-Nam; Youn, Hyewon; Choi, Bu Young; Min, Sang-Hyun; Surh, Young-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Peptidyl prolyl isomerase (PIN1) regulates the functional activity of a subset of phosphoproteins through binding to phosphorylated Ser/Thr-Pro motifs and subsequently isomerization of the phosphorylated bonds. Interestingly, PIN1 is overexpressed in many types of malignancies including breast, prostate, lung and colon cancers. However, its oncogenic functions have not been fully elucidated. Here, we report that PIN1 directly interacts with hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α in human colon cancer (HCT116) cells. PIN1 binding to HIF-1α occurred in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. We also found that PIN1 interacted with HIF-1α at both exogenous and endogenous levels. Notably, PIN1 binding stabilized the HIF-1α protein, given that their levels were significantly increased under hypoxic conditions. The stabilization of HIF-1α resulted in increased transcriptional activity, consequently upregulating expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, a major contributor to angiogenesis. Silencing of PIN1 or pharmacologic inhibition of its activity abrogated the angiogenesis. By utilizing a bioluminescence imaging technique, we were able to demonstrate that PIN1 inhibition dramatically reduced the tumor volume in a subcutaneous mouse xenograft model and angiogenesis as well as hypoxia-induced transcriptional activity of HIF-1α. These results suggest that PIN1 interacting with HIF-1α is a potential cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic target. PMID:26784107

  11. Peptidyl Prolyl Isomerase PIN1 Directly Binds to and Stabilizes Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α.

    PubMed

    Han, Hyeong-Jun; Kwon, Nayoung; Choi, Min-A; Jung, Kyung Oh; Piao, Juan-Yu; Ngo, Hoang Kieu Chi; Kim, Su-Jung; Kim, Do-Hee; Chung, June-Key; Cha, Young-Nam; Youn, Hyewon; Choi, Bu Young; Min, Sang-Hyun; Surh, Young-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Peptidyl prolyl isomerase (PIN1) regulates the functional activity of a subset of phosphoproteins through binding to phosphorylated Ser/Thr-Pro motifs and subsequently isomerization of the phosphorylated bonds. Interestingly, PIN1 is overexpressed in many types of malignancies including breast, prostate, lung and colon cancers. However, its oncogenic functions have not been fully elucidated. Here, we report that PIN1 directly interacts with hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α in human colon cancer (HCT116) cells. PIN1 binding to HIF-1α occurred in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. We also found that PIN1 interacted with HIF-1α at both exogenous and endogenous levels. Notably, PIN1 binding stabilized the HIF-1α protein, given that their levels were significantly increased under hypoxic conditions. The stabilization of HIF-1α resulted in increased transcriptional activity, consequently upregulating expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, a major contributor to angiogenesis. Silencing of PIN1 or pharmacologic inhibition of its activity abrogated the angiogenesis. By utilizing a bioluminescence imaging technique, we were able to demonstrate that PIN1 inhibition dramatically reduced the tumor volume in a subcutaneous mouse xenograft model and angiogenesis as well as hypoxia-induced transcriptional activity of HIF-1α. These results suggest that PIN1 interacting with HIF-1α is a potential cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic target. PMID:26784107

  12. Peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase-independent functional NifH mutant of Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed

    Gavini, Nara; Tungtur, Sudheer; Pulakat, Lakshmi

    2006-08-01

    Peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases (PPIases) play a pivotal role in catalyzing the correct folding of many prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteins that are implicated in a variety of biological functions, ranging from cell cycle regulation to bacterial infection. The nif accessory protein NifM, which is essential for the biogenesis of a functional NifH component of nitrogenase, is a PPIase. To understand the nature of the molecular signature that defines the NifM dependence of NifH, we screened a library of nifH mutants in the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii for mutants that acquired NifM independence. Here, we report that NifH can acquire NifM independence when the conserved Pro258 located in the C-terminal region of NifH, which wraps around the other subunit in the NifH dimer, is replaced by serine. PMID:16885471

  13. Determining the roles of a conserved tyrosine residue in a Mip-like peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase.

    PubMed

    Polley, Soumitra; Chakravarty, Devlina; Chakrabarti, Gopal; Sau, Subrata

    2016-06-01

    The FKBP22 and the related peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases dimerize using their N-terminal domains. Conversely, their C-terminal domains possess both the substrate and inhibitor binding sites. To delineate the roles of a conserved Tyr residue at their N-terminal domains, we have studied a FKBP22 mutant that carries an Ala in place of the conserved Tyr at position 15. We have demonstrated that the Tyr 15 of FKBP22 is indispensable for preserving its dimerization ability, catalytic activity, and structure. The residue, however, little contributed to its inhibitor binding ability and stability. The mode of action of Tyr 15 has been discussed at length. PMID:26944658

  14. The emerging role of peptidyl-prolyl isomerase chaperones in tau oligomerization, amyloid processing and Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Laura J.; Baker, Jeremy D.; Sabbagh, Jonathan J.; Dickey, Chad A.

    2015-01-01

    Peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases (PPIases), a unique family of molecular chaperones, regulate protein folding at proline residues. These residues are abundant within intrinsically disordered proteins, like the microtubule-associated protein tau. Tau has been shown to become hyperphosphorylated and accumulate as one of the two main pathological hallmarks in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the other being amyloid beta (Aβ). PPIases, including Pin1, FK506-binding protein (FKBP) 52, FKBP51, and FKBP12, have been shown to interact with and regulate tau biology. This interaction is particularly important given the numerous proline-directed phosphorylation sites found on tau and the role phosphorylation has been found to play in pathogenesis. This regulation then affects downstream aggregation and oligomerization of tau. However, many PPIases have yet to be explored for their effects on tau biology, despite the high likelihood of interaction based on proline content. Moreover, Pin1, FKBP12, FKBP52, cyclophilin (Cyp) A, CypB, and CypD have been shown to also regulate Aβ production or the toxicity associated with Aβ pathology. Therefore, PPIases directly and indirectly regulate pathogenic protein multimerization in AD and represent a family rich in targets for modulating the accumulation and toxicity. PMID:25628064

  15. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerases Also Exhibit Chaperone like Activity In-Vitro and In-Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Saurabh; Sharma, Ashish; Tripathi, Deeksha; Kumar, Ashutosh; Khubaib, Mohd; Bhuwan, Manish; Chaudhuri, Tapan Kumar; Hasnain, Seyed Ehtesham; Ehtesham, Nasreen Zafar

    2016-01-01

    Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases (Ppiases), also known as cyclophilins, are ubiquitously expressed enzymes that assist in protein folding by isomerization of peptide bonds preceding prolyl residues. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) is known to possess two Ppiases, PpiA and PpiB. However, our understanding about the biological significance of mycobacterial Ppiases with respect to their pleiotropic roles in responding to stress conditions inside the macrophages is restricted. This study describes chaperone-like activity of mycobacterial Ppiases. We show that recombinant rPpiA and rPpiB can bind to non-native proteins in vitro and can prevent their aggregation. Purified rPpiA and rPpiB exist in oligomeric form as evident from gel filtration chromatography.E. coli cells overexpressing PpiA and PpiB of M.tb could survive thermal stress as compared to plasmid vector control. HEK293T cells transiently expressing M.tb PpiA and PpiB proteins show increased survival as compared to control cells in response to oxidative stress and hypoxic conditions generated after treatment with H2O2 and CoCl2 thereby pointing to their likely role in adaption under host generated oxidative stress and conditions of hypoxia. The chaperone-like function of these M.tuberculosis cyclophilins may possibly function as a stress responder and consequently contribute to virulence. PMID:26981873

  16. Inhibition of the FKBP family of peptidyl prolyl isomerases induces abortive translocation and degradation of the cellular prion protein

    PubMed Central

    Stocki, Pawel; Sawicki, Maxime; Mays, Charles E.; Hong, Seo Jung; Chapman, Daniel C.; Westaway, David; Williams, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders for which there is no effective treatment. Because the cellular prion protein (PrPC) is required for propagation of the infectious scrapie form of the protein, one therapeutic strategy is to reduce PrPC expression. Recently FK506, an inhibitor of the FKBP family of peptidyl prolyl isomerases, was shown to increase survival in animal models of prion disease, with proposed mechanisms including calcineurin inhibition, induction of autophagy, and reduced PrPC expression. We show that FK506 treatment results in a profound reduction in PrPC expression due to a defect in the translocation of PrPC into the endoplasmic reticulum with subsequent degradation by the proteasome. These phenotypes could be bypassed by replacing the PrPC signal sequence with that of prolactin or osteopontin. In mouse cells, depletion of ER luminal FKBP10 was almost as potent as FK506 in attenuating expression of PrPC. However, this occurred at a later stage, after translocation of PrPC into the ER. Both FK506 treatment and FKBP10 depletion were effective in reducing PrPSc propagation in cell models. These findings show the involvement of FKBP proteins at different stages of PrPC biogenesis and identify FKBP10 as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of prion diseases. PMID:26764098

  17. Inhibition of the FKBP family of peptidyl prolyl isomerases induces abortive translocation and degradation of the cellular prion protein.

    PubMed

    Stocki, Pawel; Sawicki, Maxime; Mays, Charles E; Hong, Seo Jung; Chapman, Daniel C; Westaway, David; Williams, David B

    2016-03-01

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders for which there is no effective treatment. Because the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is required for propagation of the infectious scrapie form of the protein, one therapeutic strategy is to reduce PrP(C) expression. Recently FK506, an inhibitor of the FKBP family of peptidyl prolyl isomerases, was shown to increase survival in animal models of prion disease, with proposed mechanisms including calcineurin inhibition, induction of autophagy, and reduced PrP(C) expression. We show that FK506 treatment results in a profound reduction in PrP(C) expression due to a defect in the translocation of PrP(C) into the endoplasmic reticulum with subsequent degradation by the proteasome. These phenotypes could be bypassed by replacing the PrP(C) signal sequence with that of prolactin or osteopontin. In mouse cells, depletion of ER luminal FKBP10 was almost as potent as FK506 in attenuating expression of PrP(C). However, this occurred at a later stage, after translocation of PrP(C) into the ER. Both FK506 treatment and FKBP10 depletion were effective in reducing PrP(Sc) propagation in cell models. These findings show the involvement of FKBP proteins at different stages of PrP(C) biogenesis and identify FKBP10 as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of prion diseases. PMID:26764098

  18. Regulation of Estrogen Receptor α N-Terminus Conformation and Function by Peptidyl Prolyl Isomerase Pin1

    PubMed Central

    Rajbhandari, Prashant; Finn, Greg; Solodin, Natalia M.; Singarapu, Kiran K.; Sahu, Sarata C.; Markley, John L.; Kadunc, Kelley J.; Ellison-Zelski, Stephanie J.; Kariagina, Anastasia; Haslam, Sandra Z.; Lu, Kun Ping

    2012-01-01

    Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), a key driver of growth in the majority of breast cancers, contains an unstructured transactivation domain (AF1) in its N terminus that is a convergence point for growth factor and hormonal activation. This domain is controlled by phosphorylation, but how phosphorylation impacts AF1 structure and function is unclear. We found that serine 118 (S118) phosphorylation of the ERα AF1 region in response to estrogen (agonist), tamoxifen (antagonist), and growth factors results in recruitment of the peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase Pin1. Phosphorylation of S118 is critical for Pin1 binding, and mutation of S118 to alanine prevents this association. Importantly, Pin1 isomerizes the serine118-proline119 bond from a cis to trans isomer, with a concomitant increase in AF1 transcriptional activity. Pin1 overexpression promotes ligand-independent and tamoxifen-inducible activity of ERα and growth of tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells. Pin1 expression correlates with proliferation in ERα-positive rat mammary tumors. These results establish phosphorylation-coupled proline isomerization as a mechanism modulating AF1 functional activity and provide insight into the role of a conformational switch in the functional regulation of the intrinsically disordered transactivation domain of ERα. PMID:22064478

  19. Cytosolic Aryl sulfotransferase 4A1 interacts with the peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase Pin1.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Deanne J; Minchin, Rodney F

    2009-08-01

    Sulfonation by cytosolic sulfotransferases plays an important role in the metabolism of both endogenous and exogenous compounds. Sulfotransferase 4A1 (SULT4A1) is a novel sulfotransferase found primarily in neurons in the brain. It is highly conserved between species, but no substantial enzyme activity has been identified for the protein. Consequently, little is known about the role of this enzyme in the brain. We performed a yeast two-hybrid screen of a human brain library to isolate potential SULT4A1-interacting proteins that might identify the role or regulation of the sulfotransferase in humans. The screen isolated the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase Pin1. Its interaction with SULT4A1 was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation studies in HeLa cells and by in vitro pull-down of expressed proteins. Moreover, Pin1 binding was dependent on phosphorylation of the SULT4A1 protein. Pin1 destabilized SULT4A1, decreasing its half-life from more than 8 h to approximately 4.5 h. This effect was dependent on the isomerase activity of Pin1 and was inhibited by okadaic acid, suggesting a role for the phosphatase PP2A. Pin1-mediated SULT4A1 degradation did not involve the proteosomes or macroautophagy, but it was inhibited by the calpain antagonists N-acetyl-Leu-Leu-Nle-CHO and Z-Val-Phe-CHO. Finally, Pin1 binding was mapped to two threonine-proline motifs (Thr(8) and Thr(11)) that are not present in any of the other human cytosolic sulfotransferases. Our findings suggest that SULT4A1 is subject to post-translational modification that alters its stability in the cell. These modifications may also be important for enzyme activity, which explains why specific substrates for SULT4A1 have not yet been identified. PMID:19439498

  20. Domain structure and denaturation of a dimeric Mip-like peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Jana, Biswanath; Bandhu, Amitava; Mondal, Rajkrishna; Biswas, Anindya; Sau, Keya; Sau, Subrata

    2012-02-14

    FKBP22, a protein expressed by Escherichia coli, possesses PPIase (peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase) activity, binds FK506 (an immunosuppressive drug), and shares homology with Legionella Mip (a virulence factor) and its related proteins. To understand the domain structure and the folding-unfolding mechanism of Mip-like proteins, we investigated a recombinant E. coli FKBP22 (His-FKBP22) as a model protein. Limited proteolysis indicated that His-FKBP22 harbors an N-terminal domain (NTD), a C-terminal domain (CTD), and a long flexible region linking the two domains. His-FKBP22, NTD(+) (NTD with the entire flexible region), and CTD(+) (CTD with a truncated flexible region) were unfolded by a two-state mechanism in the presence of urea. Urea induced the swelling of dimeric His-FKBP22 molecules at the pretransition state but dissociated it at the early transition state. In contrast, guanidine hydrochloride (GdnCl)-induced equilibrium unfolding of His-FKBP22 or NTD(+) and CTD(+) seemed to follow three-step and two-step mechanisms, respectively. Interestingly, the intermediate formed during the unfolding of His-FKBP22 with GdnCl was not a molten globule but was thought to be composed of the partially unfolded dimeric as well as various multimeric His-FKBP22 molecules. Dimeric His-FKBP22 did not dissociate gradually with increasing concentrations of GdnCl. Very low GdnCl concentrations also had little effect on the molecular dimensions of His-FKBP22. Unfolding with either denaturant was found to be reversible, as refolding of the unfolded His-FKBP22 completely, or nearly completely, restored the structure and function of the protein. Additionally, denaturation of His-FKBP22 appeared to begin at the CTD(+). PMID:22263615

  1. Cyclophilin J Is a Novel Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerase and Target for Repressing the Growth of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian; Chen, Shuai; Wang, Jiahui; Zhang, Mingjun; Gong, Zhaohua; Wei, Youheng; Li, Li; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Xuemei; Jiang, Songmin; Yu, Long

    2015-01-01

    Cyclophilin J (CYPJ) is a new member of the peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans-isomerase (PPIase) identified with upregulated expression in human glioma. However, the biological function of CYPJ remained unclear. We aimed to study the role of CYPJ in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) carcinogenesis and its therapeutic potential. We determined the expression of CYPJ in HCC/adjacent normal tissues using Western blot, Northern blot and semi-quantitative RT-PCR, analyzed the biochemical characteristics of CYPJ, and resolved the 3D-structure of CYPJ/Cyclosporin A (CsA) complex. We also studied the roles of CYPJ in cell cycle, cyclin D1 regulation, in vitro and in vivo tumor growth. We found that CYPJ expression was upregulated in over 60% HCC tissues. The PPIase activity of CYPJ could be inhibited by the widely used immunosuppressive drug CsA. CYPJ was found expressed in the whole cell of HCC with preferential location at the cell nucleus. CYPJ promoted the transition of cells from G1 phase to S phase in a PPIase-dependent manner by activating cyclin D1 promoter. CYPJ overexpression accelerated liver cell growth in vitro (cell growth assay, colony formation) and in vivo (xenograft tumor formation). Inhibition of CYPJ by its inhibitor CsA or CYPJ-specific RNAi diminished the growth of liver cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, CYPJ could facilitate HCC growth by promoting cell cycle transition from G1 to S phase through the upregulation of cyclin D1. Suppression of CYPJ could repress the growth of HCC, which makes CYPJ a potential target for the development of new strategies to treat this malignancy. PMID:26020957

  2. Peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans-isomerase A1 (Pin1) is a target for modification by lipid electrophiles.

    PubMed

    Aluise, Christopher D; Rose, Kristie; Boiani, Mariana; Reyzer, Michelle L; Manna, Joseph D; Tallman, Keri; Porter, Ned A; Marnett, Lawrence J

    2013-02-18

    Oxidation of membrane phospholipids is associated with inflammation, neurodegenerative disease, and cancer. Oxyradical damage to phospholipids results in the production of reactive aldehydes that adduct proteins and modulate their function. 4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE), a common product of oxidative damage to lipids, adducts proteins at exposed Cys, His, or Lys residues. Here, we demonstrate that peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans-isomerase A1 (Pin1), an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of the peptide bond of pSer/pThr-Pro moieties in signaling proteins from cis to trans, is highly susceptible to HNE modification. Incubation of purified Pin1 with HNE followed by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry resulted in detection of Michael adducts at the active site residues His-157 and Cys-113. Time and concentration dependencies indicate that Cys-113 is the primary site of HNE modification. Pin1 was adducted in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells treated with 8-alkynyl-HNE as judged by click chemistry conjugation with biotin followed by streptavidin-based pulldown and Western blotting with anti-Pin1 antibody. Furthermore, orbitrap MS data support the adduction of Cys-113 in the Pin1 active site upon HNE treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells. siRNA knockdown of Pin1 in MDA-MB-231 cells partially protected the cells from HNE-induced toxicity. Recent studies indicate that Pin1 is an important molecular target for the chemopreventive effects of green tea polyphenols. The present study establishes that it is also a target for electrophilic modification by products of lipid peroxidation. PMID:23231502

  3. Characterization of Peptidyl-Prolyl Cis-Trans Isomerase- and Calmodulin-Binding Activity of a Cytosolic Arabidopsis thaliana Cyclophilin AtCyp19-3

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Gundeep; Singh, Supreet; Singh, Harpreet; Chawla, Mrinalini; Dutta, Tanima; Kaur, Harsimran; Bender, Kyle; Snedden, W. A.; Kapoor, Sanjay; Pareek, Ashwani; Singh, Prabhjeet

    2015-01-01

    Cyclophilins, which bind to immunosuppressant cyclosporin A (CsA), are ubiquitous proteins and constitute a multigene family in higher organisms. Several members of this family are reported to catalyze cis-trans isomerisation of the peptidyl-prolyl bond, which is a rate limiting step in protein folding. The physiological role of these proteins in plants, with few exceptions, is still a matter of speculation. Although Arabidopsis genome is predicted to contain 35 cyclophilin genes, biochemical characterization, imperative for understanding their cellular function(s), has been carried only for few of the members. The present study reports the biochemical characterization of an Arabidopsis cyclophilin, AtCyp19-3, which demonstrated that this protein is enzymatically active and possesses peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activity that is specifically inhibited by CsA with an inhibition constant (Ki) of 18.75 nM. The PPIase activity of AtCyp19-3 was also sensitive to Cu2+, which covalently reacts with the sulfhydryl groups, implying redox regulation. Further, using calmodulin (CaM) gel overlay assays it was demonstrated that in vitro interaction of AtCyp19-3 with CaM is Ca2+-dependent, and CaM-binding domain is localized to 35–70 amino acid residues in the N-terminus. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays showed that AtCyp19-3 interacts with CaM in vivo also, thus, validating the in vitro observations. However, the PPIase activity of the Arabidopsis cyclophilin was not affected by CaM. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of Ca2+ signaling and cyclophilin activity in Arabidopsis. PMID:26317213

  4. Rapamycin sensitivity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is mediated by a peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase related to human FK506-binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Koltin, Y; Faucette, L; Bergsma, D J; Levy, M A; Cafferkey, R; Koser, P L; Johnson, R K; Livi, G P

    1991-01-01

    Rapamycin is a macrolide antifungal agent with structural similarity to FK506. It exhibits potent immunosuppressive properties analogous to those of both FK506 and cyclosporin A (CsA). Unlike FK506 and CsA, however, rapamycin does not inhibit the transcription of early T-cell activation genes, including interleukin-2, but instead appears to block downstream events leading to T-cell activation. FK506 and CsA receptor proteins (FKBP and cyclophilin, respectively) have been identified and shown to be distinct members of a class of enzymes that possess peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activity. Despite the apparent differences in their mode of action, rapamycin and FK506 act as reciprocal antagonists in vivo and compete for binding to FKBP. As a means of rapidly identifying a target protein for rapamycin in vivo, we selected and genetically characterized rapamycin-resistant mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and isolated a yeast genomic fragment that confers drug sensitivity. We demonstrate that the resonse to rapamycin in yeast cells is mediated by a gene encoding a 114-amino-acid, approximately 13-kDa protein which has a high degree of sequence homology with human FKBP; we designated this gene RBP1 (for rapamycin-binding protein). The RBP1 protein (RBP) was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified to homogeneity, and shown to catalyze peptidyl-prolyl isomerization of a synthetic peptide substrate. PPIase activity was completely inhibited by rapamycin and FK506 but not by CsA, indicating that both macrolides bind to the recombinant protein. Expression of human FKBP in rapamycin-resistant mutants restored rapamycin sensitivity, indicating a functional equivalence between the yeast and human enzymes. Images PMID:1996117

  5. Enhancement of antibody fragment secretion into the Escherichia coli periplasm by co-expression with the peptidyl prolyl isomerase, FkpA, in the cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    Levy, Raphael; Ahluwalia, Kiran; Bohmann, David J; Giang, Hoa M; Schwimmer, Lauren J; Issafras, Hassan; Reddy, Nithin B; Chan, Chung; Horwitz, Arnold H; Takeuchi, Toshihiko

    2013-08-30

    Improper protein folding or aggregation can frequently be responsible for low expression and poor functional activity of antibody fragments secreted into the Escherichia coli periplasm. Expression issues also can affect selection of antibody candidates from phage libraries, since antibody fragments displayed on phage also are secreted into the E. coli periplasm. To improve secretion of properly folded antibody fragments into the periplasm, we have developed a novel approach that involves co-expressing the antibody fragments with the peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase, FkpA, lacking its signal sequence (cytFkpA) which consequently is expressed in the E. coli cytosol. Cytoplasmic expression of cytFkpA improved secretion of functional Fab fragments into the periplasm, exceeding even the benefits from co-expressing Fab fragments with native, FkpA localized in the periplasm. In addition, panning and subsequent screening of large Fab and scFv naïve phage libraries in the presence of cytFkpA significantly increased the number of unique clones selected, as well as their functional expression levels and diversity. PMID:23624043

  6. Isolation and characterization of a 17-kDa FKBP-type peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase from Vibrio anguillarum.

    PubMed

    Jo, Geon-A; Lee, Jong Min; No, Gyuyou; Kang, Dong Seop; Kim, So-Hyun; Ahn, Sun-Hee; Kong, In-Soo

    2015-06-01

    Peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) catalyzes the isomerization of peptide bonds to achieve conformational changes in native folded proteins. An FKBP-type PPIase with an approximate molecular weight of 17kDa was isolated from Vibrio anguillarum O1 and named VaFKBP17. To investigate its biochemical properties, the ppi gene from V. anguillarum O1 was isolated and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. A protease-coupled assay for isomerization activity, using Succinyl-Ala-Phe-Pro-Phe-p nitroanilide as substrate, indicated that the activity of VaFKBP17 was highest at low temperature (5°C) and alkaline conditions (pH 10). The immunosuppressant FK506 inhibited the isomerization activity of VaFKBP17. The chaperone activity of VaFKBP17 was assessed using a citrate synthase thermal aggregation activity assay. To evaluate its ability to catalyze protein refolding, the effect of VaFKBP17 on inclusion bodies was investigated during a dilution process. In this assay, VaFKBP17 was able to assist protein refolding. These results provide evidence that VaFKBP17 possesses chaperone-like activity. The structural homology of VaFKBP17 relative to other known bacterial FKBPs was also examined. PMID:25747528

  7. Nerve Growth Factor Stimulates Interaction of Cayman Ataxia Protein BNIP-H/Caytaxin with Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerase Pin1 in Differentiating Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Buschdorf, Jan Paul; Chew, Li Li; Soh, Unice Jim Kim; Liou, Yih-Cherng; Low, Boon Chuan

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in ATCAY that encodes the brain-specific protein BNIP-H (or Caytaxin) lead to Cayman cerebellar ataxia. BNIP-H binds to glutaminase, a neurotransmitter-producing enzyme, and affects its activity and intracellular localization. Here we describe the identification and characterization of the binding between BNIP-H and Pin1, a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase. BNIP-H interacted with Pin1 after nerve growth factor-stimulation and they co-localized in the neurites and cytosol of differentiating pheochromocytoma PC12 cells and the embryonic carcinoma P19 cells. Deletional mutagenesis revealed two cryptic binding sites within the C-terminus of BNIP-H such that single point mutants affecting the WW domain of Pin1 completely abolished their binding. Although these two sites do not contain any of the canonical Pin1-binding motifs they showed differential binding profiles to Pin1 WW domain mutants S16E, S16A and W34A, and the catalytically inert C113A of its isomerase domain. Furthermore, their direct interaction would occur only upon disrupting the ability of BNIP-H to form an intramolecular interaction by two similar regions. Furthermore, expression of Pin1 disrupted the BNIP-H/glutaminase complex formation in PC12 cells under nerve growth factor-stimulation. These results indicate that nerve growth factor may stimulate the interaction of BNIP-H with Pin1 by releasing its intramolecular inhibition. Such a mechanism could provide a post-translational regulation on the cellular activity of BNIP-H during neuronal differentiation. (213 words) PMID:18628984

  8. Identification and Comparative Analysis of the Peptidyl-Prolyl cis/trans Isomerase Repertoires of H. sapiens, D. melanogaster, C. elegans, S. cerevisiae and Sz. pombe

    PubMed Central

    Kay, John E.

    2005-01-01

    The peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) class of proteins comprises three member families that are found throughout nature and are present in all the major compartments of the cell. Their numbers appear to be linked to the number of genes in their respective genomes, although we have found the human repertoire to be smaller than expected due to a reduced cyclophilin repertoire. We show here that whilst the members of the cyclophilin family (which are predominantly found in the nucleus and cytoplasm) and the parvulin family (which are predominantly nuclear) are largely conserved between different repertoires, the FKBPs (which are predominantly found in the cytoplasm and endoplasmic reticulum) are not. It therefore appears that the cyclophilins and parvulins have evolved to perform conserved functions, while the FKBPs have evolved to fill ever-changing niches within the constantly evolving organisms. Many orthologous subgroups within the different PPIase families appear to have evolved from a distinct common ancestor, whereas others, such as the mitochondrial cyclophilins, appear to have evolved independently of one another. We have also identified a novel parvulin within Drosophila melanogaster that is unique to the fruit fly, indicating a recent evolutionary emergence. Interestingly, the fission yeast repertoire, which contains no unique cyclophilins and parvulins, shares no PPIases solely with the budding yeast but it does share a majority with the higher eukaryotes in this study, unlike the budding yeast. It therefore appears that, in comparison with Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a poor representation of the higher eukaryotes for the study of PPIases. PMID:18629211

  9. Single-Domain Peptidyl-Prolyl cis/trans Isomerase FkpA from Corynebacterium glutamicum Improves the Biomass Yield at Increased Growth Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Bott, Michael; van Ooyen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases (PPIases) catalyze the rate-limiting protein folding step at peptidyl bonds preceding proline residues and were found to be involved in several biological processes, including gene expression, signal transduction, and protein secretion. Representative enzymes were found in almost all sequenced genomes, including Corynebacterium glutamicum, a facultative anaerobic Gram-positive and industrial workhorse for the production of amino acids. In C. glutamicum, a predicted single-domain FK-506 (tacrolimus) binding protein (FKBP)-type PPIase (FkpA) is encoded directly downstream of gltA, which encodes citrate synthase (CS). This gene cluster is also present in other Actinobacteria. Here we carried out in vitro and in vivo experiments to study the function and influence of predicted FkpA in C. glutamicum. In vitro, FkpA indeed shows typical PPIase activity with artificial substrates and is inhibited by FK-506. Furthermore, FkpA delays the aggregation of CS, which is also inhibited by FK-506. Surprisingly, FkpA has a positive effect on the activity and temperature range of CS in vitro. Deletion of fkpA causes a 50% reduced biomass yield compared to that of the wild type when grown at 37°C, whereas there is only a 10% reduced biomass yield at the optimal growth temperature of 30°C accompanied by accumulation of 7 mM l-glutamate and 22 mM 2-oxoglutarate. Thus, FkpA may be exploited for improved product formation in biotechnical processes. Comparative transcriptome analysis revealed 69 genes which exhibit ≥2-fold mRNA level changes in C. glutamicum ΔfkpA, giving insight into the transcriptional response upon mild heat stress when FkpA is absent. PMID:26341203

  10. FK506-Binding Protein 22 from a Psychrophilic Bacterium, a Cold Shock-Inducible Peptidyl Prolyl Isomerase with the Ability to Assist in Protein Folding

    PubMed Central

    Budiman, Cahyo; Koga, Yuichi; Takano, Kazufumi; Kanaya, Shigenori

    2011-01-01

    Adaptation of microorganisms to low temperatures remains to be fully elucidated. It has been previously reported that peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerases (PPIases) are involved in cold adaptation of various microorganisms whether they are hyperthermophiles, mesophiles or phsycrophiles. The rate of cis-trans isomerization at low temperatures is much slower than that at higher temperatures and may cause problems in protein folding. However, the mechanisms by which PPIases are involved in cold adaptation remain unclear. Here we used FK506-binding protein 22, a cold shock protein from the psychrophilic bacterium Shewanella sp. SIB1 (SIB1 FKBP22) as a model protein to decipher the involvement of PPIases in cold adaptation. SIB1 FKBP22 is homodimer that assumes a V-shaped structure based on a tertiary model. Each monomer consists of an N-domain responsible for dimerization and a C-catalytic domain. SIB1 FKBP22 is a typical cold-adapted enzyme as indicated by the increase of catalytic efficiency at low temperatures, the downward shift in optimal temperature of activity and the reduction in the conformational stability. SIB1 FKBP22 is considered as foldase and chaperone based on its ability to catalyze refolding of a cis-proline containing protein and bind to a folding intermediate protein, respectively. The foldase and chaperone activites of SIB1 FKBP22 are thought to be important for cold adaptation of Shewanella sp. SIB1. These activities are also employed by other PPIases for being involved in cold adaptation of various microorganisms. Despite other biological roles of PPIases, we proposed that foldase and chaperone activities of PPIases are the main requirement for overcoming the cold-stress problem in microorganisms due to folding of proteins. PMID:21954357

  11. Single-Domain Peptidyl-Prolyl cis/trans Isomerase FkpA from Corynebacterium glutamicum Improves the Biomass Yield at Increased Growth Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Kallscheuer, Nicolai; Bott, Michael; van Ooyen, Jan; Polen, Tino

    2015-11-01

    Peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases (PPIases) catalyze the rate-limiting protein folding step at peptidyl bonds preceding proline residues and were found to be involved in several biological processes, including gene expression, signal transduction, and protein secretion. Representative enzymes were found in almost all sequenced genomes, including Corynebacterium glutamicum, a facultative anaerobic Gram-positive and industrial workhorse for the production of amino acids. In C. glutamicum, a predicted single-domain FK-506 (tacrolimus) binding protein (FKBP)-type PPIase (FkpA) is encoded directly downstream of gltA, which encodes citrate synthase (CS). This gene cluster is also present in other Actinobacteria. Here we carried out in vitro and in vivo experiments to study the function and influence of predicted FkpA in C. glutamicum. In vitro, FkpA indeed shows typical PPIase activity with artificial substrates and is inhibited by FK-506. Furthermore, FkpA delays the aggregation of CS, which is also inhibited by FK-506. Surprisingly, FkpA has a positive effect on the activity and temperature range of CS in vitro. Deletion of fkpA causes a 50% reduced biomass yield compared to that of the wild type when grown at 37°C, whereas there is only a 10% reduced biomass yield at the optimal growth temperature of 30°C accompanied by accumulation of 7 mM l-glutamate and 22 mM 2-oxoglutarate. Thus, FkpA may be exploited for improved product formation in biotechnical processes. Comparative transcriptome analysis revealed 69 genes which exhibit ≥2-fold mRNA level changes in C. glutamicum ΔfkpA, giving insight into the transcriptional response upon mild heat stress when FkpA is absent. PMID:26341203

  12. Identification of Conserved and Species-Specific Functions of the Listeria monocytogenes PrsA2 Secretion Chaperone.

    PubMed

    Cahoon, Laty A; Freitag, Nancy E

    2015-10-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative intracellular pathogen that relies on the regulated secretion and activity of a variety of proteins that sustain life within diverse environments. PrsA2 has recently been identified as a secreted peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase and chaperone that is dispensable for bacterial growth in broth culture but essential for L. monocytogenes virulence. Following host infection, PrsA2 contributes to the proper folding and activity of secreted proteins that are required for bacterial replication within the host cytosol and for bacterial spread to adjacent cells. PrsA2 is one member of a family of Gram-positive secretion chaperones that appear to play important roles in bacterial physiology; however, it is not known how these proteins recognize their substrate proteins or the degree to which their function is conserved across diverse Gram-positive species. We therefore examined PrsA proteins encoded by a variety of Gram-positive bacteria for functional complementation of L. monocytogenes mutants lacking prsA2. PrsA homologues encoded by Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Lactococcus lactis were examined for functional complementation of a variety of L. monocytogenes PrsA2-associated phenotypes central to L. monocytogenes pathogenesis and bacterial cell physiology. Our results indicate that while selected aspects of PrsA2 function are broadly conserved among diverse Gram-positive bacteria, PrsA2 exhibits unique specificity for L. monocytogenes target proteins required for pathogenesis. The L. monocytogenes PrsA2 chaperone thus appears evolutionarily optimized for virulence factor secretion within the host cell cytosol while still maintaining aspects of activity relevant to more general features of Gram-positive protein translocation. PMID:26216425

  13. Utilizing the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase pin1 as a probe of its phosphorylated target proteins. Examples of binding to nuclear proteins in a human kidney cell line and to tau in Alzheimer's diseased brain.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, J R; Morley, S J; Rulten, S L

    2001-01-01

    The human parvulin Pin1 is a member of the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase group of proteins, which modulate the assembly, folding, activity, and transport of essential cellular proteins. Pin1 is a mitotic regulator interacting with a range of proteins that are phosphorylated before cell division. In addition, an involvement of Pin1 in the tau-related neurodegenerative brain disorders has recently been shown. In this context, Pin1 becomes depleted from the nucleus in Alzheimer's disease (AD) neurons when it is redirected to the large amounts of hyperphosphorylated tau associated with the neurofibrillary tangles. This depletion from the nucleus may ultimately contribute to neuron cell death. Recently we have devised a novel methodology in which exogenous Pin1 is used as a TEM probe for its target proteins. Here we extend this methodology to provide further evidence that Pin1 binds at enhanced levels to mitotic nuclear proteins and to hyperphosphorylated tau in AD brain. We suggest that exogenous Pin1 labeling can be used to elucidate the phosphorylation status of its target proteins in general and could specifically provide important insights into the development of tau-related neurodegenerative brain disorders. PMID:11118482

  14. NF-κB transcriptional activity is modulated by FK506-binding proteins FKBP51 and FKBP52: a role for peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity.

    PubMed

    Erlejman, Alejandra G; De Leo, Sonia A; Mazaira, Gisela I; Molinari, Alejandro M; Camisay, María Fernanda; Fontana, Vanina; Cox, Marc B; Piwien-Pilipuk, Graciela; Galigniana, Mario D

    2014-09-19

    Hsp90 binding immunophilins FKBP51 and FKBP52 modulate steroid receptor trafficking and hormone-dependent biological responses. With the purpose to expand this model to other nuclear factors that are also subject to nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling, we analyzed whether these immunophilins modulate NF-κB signaling. It is demonstrated that FKBP51 impairs both the nuclear translocation rate of NF-κB and its transcriptional activity. The inhibitory action of FKBP51 requires neither the peptidylprolyl-isomerase activity of the immunophilin nor its association with Hsp90. The TPR domain of FKBP51 is essential. On the other hand, FKBP52 favors the nuclear retention time of RelA, its association to a DNA consensus binding sequence, and NF-κB transcriptional activity, the latter effect being strongly dependent on the peptidylprolyl-isomerase activity and also on the TPR domain of FKBP52, but its interaction with Hsp90 is not required. In unstimulated cells, FKBP51 forms endogenous complexes with cytoplasmic RelA. Upon cell stimulation with phorbol ester, the NF-κB soluble complex exchanges FKBP51 for FKBP52, and the NF-κB biological effect is triggered. Importantly, FKBP52 is functionally recruited to the promoter region of NF-κB target genes, whereas FKBP51 is released. Competition assays demonstrated that both immunophilins antagonize one another, and binding assays with purified proteins suggest that the association of RelA and immunophilins could be direct. These observations suggest that the biological action of NF-κB in different cell types could be positively regulated by a high FKBP52/FKBP51 expression ratio by favoring NF-κB nuclear retention, recruitment to the promoter regions of target genes, and transcriptional activity. PMID:25104352

  15. Calcineurin Undergoes a Conformational Switch Evoked via Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerization

    PubMed Central

    Guasch, Alicia; Aranguren-Ibáñez, Álvaro; Pérez-Luque, Rosa; Aparicio, David; Martínez-Høyer, Sergio; Mulero, M. Carmen; Serrano-Candelas, Eva

    2015-01-01

    A limited repertoire of PPP family of serine/threonine phosphatases with a highly conserved catalytic domain acts on thousands of protein targets to orchestrate myriad central biological roles. A major structural reorganization of human calcineurin, a ubiquitous Ser/Thr PPP regulated by calcium and calmodulin and targeted by immunosuppressant drugs cyclosporin A and FK506, is unveiled here. The new conformation involves trans- to cis- isomerization of proline in the SAPNY sequence, highly conserved across PPPs, and remodels the main regulatory site where NFATc transcription factors bind. Transitions between cis- and trans- conformations may involve peptidyl prolyl isomerases such as cyclophilin A and FKBP12, which are known to physically interact with and modulate calcineurin even in the absence of immunosuppressant drugs. Alternative conformations in PPPs provide a new perspective on interactions with substrates and other protein partners and may foster development of more specific inhibitors as drug candidates. PMID:26248042

  16. Internal Activation of Peptidyl Prolyl Thioesters in Native Chemical Ligation.

    PubMed

    Gui, Yue; Qiu, Lingqi; Li, Yaohao; Li, Hongxing; Dong, Suwei

    2016-04-13

    Prolyl thioesters have shown significantly lower reactivities in native chemical ligation (NCL) in comparison to that of the alanyl thioester. This report describes a mild and efficient internal activation protocol of peptidyl prolyl thioesters in NCL without using any thiol-based additives, where the introduction of a 4-mercaptan substituent on the C-terminal proline significantly improves the reactivity of prolyl thioesters via the formation of a bicyclic thiolactone intermediate. The kinetic data indicate that the reaction rate is comparable to that of the reported data of alanyl thioesters, and the mechanistic studies suggest that the ligation of two peptide segments proceeds through an NCL-like pathway instead of a direct aminolysis, which ensures the chemoselectivity and compatibility of various amino acid side chains. This 4-mercaptoprolyl thioester-based protocol also allows an efficient one-pot ligation-desulfurization procedure. The utility of this method has been further demonstrated in the synthesis of a proline-rich region of Wilms tumor protein 1. PMID:26982082

  17. Folding of barstar C40A/C82A/P27A and catalysis of the peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerization by human cytosolic cyclophilin (Cyp18).

    PubMed Central

    Golbik, R.; Fischer, G.; Fersht, A. R.

    1999-01-01

    Refolding of b*C40A/C82A/P27A is comprised of several kinetically detectable folding phases. The slowest phase in refolding originates from trans-->cis isomerization of the Tyr47-Pro48 peptide bond being in cis conformation in the native state. This refolding phase can be accelerated by the peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase human cytosolic cyclophilin (Cyp18) with a kcat/K(M) of 254,000 M(-1) s(-1). The fast refolding phase is not influenced by the enzyme. PMID:10422840

  18. A structural comparison of Listeria monocytogenes protein chaperones PrsA1 and PrsA2 reveals molecular features required for virulence.

    PubMed

    Cahoon, Laty A; Freitag, Nancy E; Prehna, Gerd

    2016-07-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive environmental bacterium that lives within soil but transitions into a pathogen upon contact with a mammalian host. The transition of L. monocytogenes from soil dweller to cytosolic pathogen is dependent upon secreted virulence factors that mediate cell invasion and intracellular growth. PrsA1 and PrsA2 are secreted bacterial lipoprotein chaperones that contribute to the folding of proteins translocated across the bacterial membrane; PrsA2 is required for L. monocytogenes virulence, whereas the function of PrsA1 remains to be determined. We have solved an X-ray crystal structure of PrsA1 and have used this model to guide comparison structure-based mutagenesis studies with PrsA2. Targeted mutagenesis of PrsA2 demonstrates that oligomerization of PrsA2 as well as molecular features of the foldase domain are required for protein secretion and virulence, whereas a functional role was uncovered for PrsA1 in bacterial resistance to alcohol. Interestingly, PrsA2 membrane localization is not required for all PrsA2-dependent activities, suggesting that the lipoprotein retains function when released from the bacterial cell. PrsA chaperones are thus multifaceted proteins with distinct domains adapted to accommodate the functional needs of a diverse array of secreted substrates. PMID:27007641

  19. Chaperone function of FkpA, a heat shock prolyl isomerase, in the periplasm of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Arié, J P; Sassoon, N; Betton, J M

    2001-01-01

    The nature of molecular chaperones in the periplasm of Escherichia coli that assist newly translocated proteins to reach their native state has remained poorly defined. Here, we show that FkpA, a heat shock periplasmic peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase), suppresses the formation of inclusion bodies from a defective-folding variant of the maltose-binding protein, MalE31. This chaperone-like activity of FkpA, which is independent of its PPIase activity, requires a full-length structure of the protein. In vitro, FkpA does not catalyse a slow rate-limiting step in the refolding of MalE31, but prevents its aggregation at stoichiometric amounts and promotes the reactivation of denaturated citrate synthase. We propose that FkpA functions as a chaperone for envelope proteins in the bacterial periplasm. PMID:11123702

  20. Phosphorylation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 capsid protein at serine 16, required for peptidyl-prolyl isomerase-dependent uncoating, is mediated by virion-incorporated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2.

    PubMed

    Dochi, Takeo; Nakano, Takashi; Inoue, Mutsumi; Takamune, Nobutoki; Shoji, Shozo; Sano, Kouichi; Misumi, Shogo

    2014-05-01

    We reported previously that Pin1 facilitates human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) uncoating by interacting with the capsid core through the phosphorylated Ser(16)-Pro(17) motif. However, the specific kinase responsible for Ser(16) phosphorylation has remained unknown. Here, we showed that virion-associated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) phosphorylates Ser(16). The characterization of immature virions produced by exposing chronically HIV-1LAV-1-infected CEM/LAV-1 cells to 10 µM saquinavir indicated that Ser(16) is phosphorylated after the initiation of Pr55(Gag) processing. Furthermore, a mass spectrometry-based in vitro kinase assay demonstrated that ERK2 specifically phosphorylated the Ser(16) residue in the Ser(16)-Pro(17) motif-containing substrate. The treatment of CEM/LAV-1 cells with the ERK2 inhibitor sc-222229 decreased the Ser(16) phosphorylation level inside virions, and virus partially defective in Ser(16) phosphorylation showed impaired reverse transcription and attenuated replication owing to attenuated Pin1-dependent uncoating. Furthermore, the suppression of ERK2 expression by RNA interference in CEM/LAV-1 cells resulted in suppressed ERK2 packaging inside virions and decreased the Ser(16) phosphorylation level inside virions. Interestingly, the ERK2-packaging-defective virus showed impaired reverse transcription and attenuated HIV-1 replication. Taken together, these findings provide insights into the as-yet-obscure processes in Pin1-dependent HIV-1 uncoating. PMID:24509437

  1. ShaPINg Cell Fate Upon DNA Damage: Role of Pin1 Isomerase in DNA Damage-Induced Cell Death and Repair.

    PubMed

    Polonio-Vallon, Tilman; Krüger, Daniel; Hofmann, Thomas G

    2014-01-01

    The peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase Pin1 acts as a molecular timer in proline-directed Ser/Thr kinase signaling and shapes cellular responses based on recognition of phosphorylation marks and implementing conformational changes in its substrates. Accordingly, Pin1 has been linked to numerous phosphorylation-controlled signaling pathways and cellular processes such as cell cycle progression, proliferation, and differentiation. In addition, Pin1 plays a pivotal role in DNA damage-triggered cell fate decisions. Whereas moderate DNA damage is balanced by DNA repair, cells confronted with massive genotoxic stress are eliminated by the induction of programed cell death or cellular senescence. In this review, we summarize and discuss the current knowledge on how Pin1 specifies cell fate through regulating key players of the apoptotic and the repair branch of the DNA-damage response. PMID:24982848

  2. Roles of Prolyl Isomerases in RNA-Mediated Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Thapar, Roopa

    2015-01-01

    The peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases (PPIases) that include immunophilins (cyclophilins and FKBPs) and parvulins (Pin1, Par14, Par17) participate in cell signaling, transcription, pre-mRNA processing and mRNA decay. The human genome encodes 19 cyclophilins, 18 FKBPs and three parvulins. Immunophilins are receptors for the immunosuppressive drugs cyclosporin A, FK506, and rapamycin that are used in organ transplantation. Pin1 has also been targeted in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, asthma, and a number of cancers. While these PPIases are characterized as molecular chaperones, they also act in a nonchaperone manner to promote protein-protein interactions using surfaces outside their active sites. The immunosuppressive drugs act by a gain-of-function mechanism by promoting protein-protein interactions in vivo. Several immunophilins have been identified as components of the spliceosome and are essential for alternative splicing. Pin1 plays roles in transcription and RNA processing by catalyzing conformational changes in the RNA Pol II C-terminal domain. Pin1 also binds several RNA binding proteins such as AUF1, KSRP, HuR, and SLBP that regulate mRNA decay by remodeling mRNP complexes. The functions of ribonucleoprotein associated PPIases are largely unknown. This review highlights PPIases that play roles in RNA-mediated gene expression, providing insight into their structures, functions and mechanisms of action in mRNP remodeling in vivo. PMID:25992900

  3. Theileria parasites secrete a prolyl isomerase to maintain host leukocyte transformation

    PubMed Central

    Marsolier, J.; Perichon, M.; DeBarry, JD.; Villoutreix, BO.; Chluba, J.; Lopez, T.; Garrido, C.; Zhou, XZ.; Lu, KP.; Fritsch, L.; Ait-Si-Ali, S.; Mhadhbi, M; Medjkane, S.; Weitzman, JB.

    2014-01-01

    Infectious agents develop intricate mechanisms to interact with host cell pathways and hijack the genetic and epigenetic machinery to change phenotypic states. Amongst the Apicomplexa phylum of obligate intracellular parasites which cause veterinary and human diseases, Theileria is the only genus which transforms its mammalian host cells1. Theileria infection of bovine leukocytes induces proliferative and invasive phenotypes associated with activated signalling pathways, notably JNK and AP-12. The transformed phenotypes are reversed by treatment with the theilericidal drug Buparvaquone3. We used comparative genomics to identify a homologue of the Peptidyl Prolyl Isomerase Pin1 (designated TaPin1) in T. annulata which is secreted into the host cell and modulates oncogenic signalling pathways. Here we show that TaPin1 is a bona fide prolyl isomerase and that it interacts with the host ubiquitin ligase FBW7 leading to its degradation and subsequent stabilization of c-Jun which promotes transformation. We performed in vitro analysis and in vivo zebrafish xenograft experiments to demonstrate that TaPin1 is directly inhibited by the anti-parasite drug Buparvaquone (and other known Pin1 inhibitors) and is mutated in a drug-resistant strain. Prolyl isomerisation is thus a conserved mechanism which is important in cancer and is used by Theileria parasites to manipulate host oncogenic signaling. PMID:25624101

  4. Downregulation of Peptidylprolyl isomerase A promotes cell death and enhances doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shaobing; Luo, Mengchao; Ding, Chaofeng; Peng, Chuanhui; Lv, Zhen; Tong, Rongliang; Xiao, Heng; Xie, Haiyang; Zhou, Lin; Wu, Jian; Zheng, Shusen

    2016-10-10

    Peptidylprolyl isomerase A (PPIA) is a peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase that is known to play a critical role in the development of many human cancers. However, the precise biological function of PPIA in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains largely unclear. In this study, lentiviral overexpression vectors and small interfering RNA knockdown methods were employed to investigate the biological effects of PPIA in HCC. PPIA levels in HCC tissues and peritumoral tissues were detected by real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Our results indicate that PPIA levels were significantly higher in the HCC tissues compared to the matched peritumoral tissues. Moreover, PPIA expression was significantly associated with tumor size in these tissues. Interestingly, serum PPIA (sPPIA) levels were significantly higher in healthy controls compared to the HCC patients. Knockdown or overexpression of PPIA was shown to downregulate and upregulate cell growth, respectively. Moreover, PPIA siRNA knockdown appears to promote doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in HCC cells, altering the expression of downstream apoptotic factors. In summary, our results indicate that PPIA may play a pivotal role in HCC by regulating cell growth and could serve as a novel marker and therapeutic molecular target for HCC patients. PMID:27397650

  5. Phosphate–Induced Renal Fibrosis Requires the Prolyl Isomerase Pin1

    PubMed Central

    Shiizaki, Kazuhiro; Kuro-o, Makoto; Malter, James S.

    2016-01-01

    Tubulo-interstitial fibrosis is a common, destructive endpoint for a variety of kidney diseases. Fibrosis is well correlated with the loss of kidney function in both humans and rodents. The identification of modulators of fibrosis could provide novel therapeutic approaches to reducing disease progression or severity. Here, we show that the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1 is an important molecular contributor that facilitates renal fibrosis in a well-characterized animal model. While wild-type mice fed a high phosphate diet (HPD) for 8–12 weeks developed calcium deposition, macrophage infiltration and extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation in the kidney interstitium, Pin1 null mice showed significantly less pathology. The serum Pi in both WT and KO mice were significantly increased by the HPD, but the serum Ca was slightly decreased in KO compared to WT. In addition, both WT and KO HPD mice had less weight gain but exhibited normal organ mass (kidney, lung, spleen, liver and heart). Unexpectedly, renal function was not initially impaired in either genotype irrespective of the HPD. Our results suggest that diet containing high Pi induces rapid renal fibrosis before a significant impact on renal function and that Pin1 plays an important role in the fibrotic process. PMID:26914452

  6. Prolyl isomerase Pin1 and protein kinase HIPK2 cooperate to promote cortical neurogenesis by suppressing Groucho/TLE:Hes1-mediated inhibition of neuronal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ciarapica, R; Methot, L; Tang, Y; Lo, R; Dali, R; Buscarlet, M; Locatelli, F; del Sal, G; Rota, R; Stifani, S

    2014-02-01

    The Groucho/transducin-like Enhancer of split 1 (Gro/TLE1):Hes1 transcriptional repression complex acts in cerebral cortical neural progenitor cells to inhibit neuronal differentiation. The molecular mechanisms that regulate the anti-neurogenic function of the Gro/TLE1:Hes1 complex during cortical neurogenesis remain to be defined. Here we show that prolyl isomerase Pin1 (peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1) and homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) are expressed in cortical neural progenitor cells and form a complex that interacts with the Gro/TLE1:Hes1 complex. This association depends on the enzymatic activities of both HIPK2 and Pin1, as well as on the association of Gro/TLE1 with Hes1, but is independent of the previously described Hes1-activated phosphorylation of Gro/TLE1. Interaction with the Pin1:HIPK2 complex results in Gro/TLE1 hyperphosphorylation and weakens both the transcriptional repression activity and the anti-neurogenic function of the Gro/TLE1:Hes1 complex. These results provide evidence that HIPK2 and Pin1 work together to promote cortical neurogenesis, at least in part, by suppressing Gro/TLE1:Hes1-mediated inhibition of neuronal differentiation. PMID:24270405

  7. Cyclophilin40 isomerase activity is regulated by a temperature-dependent allosteric interaction with Hsp90

    PubMed Central

    Blackburn, Elizabeth A.; Wear, Martin A.; Landré, Vivian; Narayan, Vikram; Ning, Jia; Erman, Burak; Ball, Kathryn L.; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclophilin 40 (Cyp40) comprises an N-terminal cyclophilin domain with peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase) activity and a C-terminal tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain that binds to the C-terminal–EEVD sequence common to both heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and Hsp90. We show in the present study that binding of peptides containing the MEEVD motif reduces the PPIase activity by ∼30%. CD and fluorescence assays show that the TPR domain is less stable than the cyclophilin domain and is stabilized by peptide binding. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) shows that the affinity for the–MEEVD peptide is temperature sensitive in the physiological temperature range. Results from these biophysical studies fit with the MD simulations of the apo and holo (peptide-bound) structures which show a significant reduction in root mean square (RMS) fluctuation in both TPR and cyclophilin domains when–MEEVD is bound. The MD simulations of the apo-protein also highlight strong anti-correlated motions between residues around the PPIase-active site and a band of residues running across four of the seven helices in the TPR domain. Peptide binding leads to a distortion in the shape of the active site and a significant reduction in these strongly anti-correlated motions, providing an explanation for the allosteric effect of ligand binding and loss of PPIase activity. Together the experimental and MD results suggest that on heat shock, dissociation of Cyp40 from complexes mediated by the TPR domain leads to an increased pool of free Cyp40 capable of acting as an isomerase/chaperone in conditions of cellular stress. PMID:26330616

  8. A dual inhibitor against prolyl isomerase Pin1 and cyclophilin discovered by a novel real-time fluorescence detection method

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Tadashi; Hidaka, Masafumi; Lin, Yi-Chin; Yoshizawa, Ibuki; Okabe, Takayoshi; Egashira, Shinichiro; Kojima, Hirotatsu; Nagano, Tetsuo; Koketsu, Mamoru; Takamiya, Mari; Uchida, Takafumi

    2011-03-18

    Research highlights: {yields} A Pin1 (prolyl isomerase) inhibitor, TME-001, has been discovered by using a new established high-throughput screening method. {yields} The TME-001 showed a cell-active inhibition with lower cytotoxic effect than known Pin1 inhibitors. {yields} Kinetic analyses revealed that the TME-001 is the first compound that exhibits dual inhibition of Pin1 and another type of prolyl isomerase, cyclophilin. {yields} Thus, similarities of structure and reaction mechanism between Pin1 and cyclophilin are proposed. -- Abstract: Pin1, a peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase), is a potential target molecule for cancer, infectious disease, and Alzheimer's disease. We established a high-throughput screening method for Pin1 inhibitors, which employs a real-time fluorescence detector. This screening method identified 66 compounds that inhibit Pin1 out of 9756 compounds from structurally diverse chemical libraries. Further evaluations of surface plasmon resonance methods and a cell proliferation assay were performed. We discovered a cell-active inhibitor, TME-001 (2-(3-chloro-4-fluoro-phenyl)-isothiazol-3-one). Surprisingly, kinetic analyses revealed that TME-001 is the first compound that exhibits dual inhibition of Pin1 (IC{sub 50} = 6.1 {mu}M) and cyclophilin, another type of PPIase, (IC{sub 50} = 13.7 {mu}M). This compound does not inhibit FKBP. This finding suggests the existence of similarities of structure and reaction mechanism between Pin1 and cyclophilin, and may lead to a more complete understanding of the active sites of PPIases.

  9. A high-throughput screen for inhibitors of the prolyl isomerase, Pin1, identifies a seaweed polyphenol that reduces adipose cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Mori, Tadashi; Hidaka, Masafumi; Ikuji, Hiroko; Yoshizawa, Ibuki; Toyohara, Haruhiko; Okuda, Toru; Uchida, Chiyoko; Asano, Tomoichiro; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari; Uchida, Takafumi

    2014-01-01

    The peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase Pin1 enhances the uptake of triglycerides and the differentiation of fibroblasts into adipose cells in response to insulin stimulation. Pin1 downregulation could be a potential approach to prevent and treat obesity-related disorders. In order to identify an inhibitor of Pin1 that exhibited minimal cytotoxicity, we established a high-throughput screen for Pin1 inhibitors and used this method to identify an inhibitor from 1,056 crude fractions of two natural product libraries. The candidate, a phlorotannin called 974-B, was isolated from the seaweed, Ecklonia kurome. 974-B inhibited the differentiation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts and 3T3-L1 cells into adipose cells without inducing cytotoxicity. We discovered the Pin1 inhibitor, 974-B, from the seaweed, E. kurome, and showed that it blocks the differentiation of fibroblasts into adipose cells, suggesting that 974-B could be a lead drug candidate for obesity-related disorders. PMID:25035986

  10. Prolyl isomerase Pin1 negatively regulates the stability of SUV39H1 to promote tumorigenesis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Prem; Kim, Garam; Lim, Sung-Chul; Yun, Hyo-Jeong; Lee, Kwang Youl; Choi, Hoo-Kyun; Choi, Hong Seok

    2013-11-01

    Pin1, a conserved eukaryotic peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase, has profound effects on numerous key-signaling molecules, and its deregulation contributes to disease, particularly cancer. Although Pin1-mediated prolyl isomerization of protein servers as a regulatory switch in signaling pathways, the significance of proline isomerase activity in chromatin modifying complex remains unclear. Here, we identify Pin1 as a key negative regulator for suppressor of variegation 3-9 homologue 1 (SUV39H1) stability, a major methyltransferase responsible for histone H3 trimethylation on Lys9 (H3K9me3). Pin1 interacts with SUV39H1 in a phosphorylation-dependent manner and promotes ubiquitination-mediated degradation of SUV39H1. Consequently, Pin1 reduces SUV39H1 abundance and suppresses SUV39H1 ability to induce H3K9me3. In contrast, depletion of Pin1 in cancer cells leads to elevated SUV39H1 expression, which subsequently increases H3K9me3, inhibiting tumorigenecity of cancer cells. In a xenograft model with 4T1 metastatic mouse breast carcinoma cells, Pin1 overexpression increases tumor growth, whereas SUV39H1 overexpression abrogates it. In human breast cancer patients, immunohistochemical staining shows that Pin1 levels are negatively correlated with SUV39H1 as well as H3K9me3 levels. Thus, Pin1-mediated reduction of SUV39H1 stability contributes to convey oncogenic signals for aggressiveness of human breast cancer, suggesting that Pin1 may be a promising drug target for anticancer therapy. PMID:23934277

  11. Uncoating of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 requires prolyl isomerase Pin1.

    PubMed

    Misumi, Shogo; Inoue, Mutsumi; Dochi, Takeo; Kishimoto, Naoki; Hasegawa, Naomi; Takamune, Nobutoki; Shoji, Shozo

    2010-08-13

    The process by which the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) conical core dissociates is called uncoating, but not much is known about this process. Here, we show that the uncoating process requires the interaction of the capsid (CA) protein with the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1 that specifically recognizes the phosphorylated serine/threonine residue followed by proline. We found that the HIV-1 core is composed of some isoforms of the CA protein with different isoelectric points, and one isoform is preferentially phosphorylated in the Ser(16)-Pro(17) motif. The mutant virus S16A/P17A shows a severely attenuated HIV-1 replication and an impaired reverse transcription. The S16A/P17A change increased the amount of particulate CA cores in the cytosol of target cells and correlated with the restriction of HIV-1 infection. Glutathione S-transferase pulldown assays demonstrated a direct interaction between Pin1 and the HIV-1 core via the Ser(16)-Pro(17) motif. Suppression of Pin1 expression by RNA interference in a target cell results in an attenuated HIV-1 replication and increases the amount of particulate CA cores in the cytosol of target cells. Furthermore, heat-inactivated, inhibitor-treated, or W34A/K63A Pin1 causes an attenuated in vitro uncoating of the HIV-1 core. The Pin1-dependent uncoating is inhibited by antisera raised against a CA peptide phosphorylated at Ser(16) or treatment of the HIV-1 core with alkaline phosphatase. These findings provide insights into this obscure uncoating process in the HIV-1 life cycle and a new cellular target for HIV-1 drug development. PMID:20529865

  12. Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase.

    PubMed

    Achari, A; Marshall, S E; Muirhead, H; Palmieri, R H; Noltmann, E A

    1981-06-26

    Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (EC 5.3.1.9) is a dimeric enzyme of molecular mass 132000 which catalyses the interconversion of D-glucose-6-phosphate and D-fructose-6-phosphate. The crystal structure of the enzyme from pig muscle has been determined at a nominal resolution of 2.6 A. The structure is of the alpha/beta type. Each subunit consists of two domains and the active site is in both the domain interface and the subunit interface (P.J. Shaw & H. Muirhead (1976), FEBS Lett. 65, 50-55). Each subunit contains 13 methionine residues so that cyanogen bromide cleavage will produce 14 fragments, most of which have been identified and at least partly purified. Sequence information is given for about one-third of the molecule from 5 cyanogen bromide fragments. One of the sequences includes a modified lysine residue. Modification of this residue leads to a parallel loss of enzymatic activity. A tentative fit of two of the peptides to the electron density map has been made. It seems possible that glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, triose phosphate isomerase and pyruvate kinase all contain a histidine and a glutamate residue at the active site. PMID:6115414

  13. Genetics Home Reference: glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions GPI deficiency glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency Enable Javascript to view the ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) deficiency is an inherited disorder ...

  14. Development of Novel Sugar Isomerases by Optimization of Active Sites in Phosphosugar Isomerases for Monosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Yeom, Soo-Jin; Kim, Yeong-Su

    2013-01-01

    Phosphosugar isomerases can catalyze the isomerization of not only phosphosugar but also of monosaccharides, suggesting that the phosphosugar isomerases can be used as sugar isomerases that do not exist in nature. Determination of active-site residues of phosphosugar isomerases, including ribose-5-phosphate isomerase from Clostridium difficile (CDRPI), mannose-6-phosphate isomerase from Bacillus subtilis (BSMPI), and glucose-6-phosphate isomerase from Pyrococcus furiosus (PFGPI), was accomplished by docking of monosaccharides onto the structure models of the isomerases. The determinant residues, including Arg133 of CDRPI, Arg192 of BSMPI, and Thr85 of PFGPI, were subjected to alanine substitutions and found to act as phosphate-binding sites. R133D of CDRPI, R192 of BSMPI, and T85Q of PFGPI displayed the highest catalytic efficiencies for monosaccharides at each position. These residues exhibited 1.8-, 3.5-, and 4.9-fold higher catalytic efficiencies, respectively, for the monosaccharides than the wild-type enzyme. However, the activities of these 3 variant enzymes for phosphosugars as the original substrates disappeared. Thus, R133D of CDRPI, R192 of BSMPI, and T85Q of PFGPI are no longer phosphosugar isomerases; instead, they are changed to a d-ribose isomerase, an l-ribose isomerase, and an l-talose isomerase, respectively. In this study, we used substrate-tailored optimization to develop novel sugar isomerases which are not found in nature based on phosphosugar isomerases. PMID:23204422

  15. Genetics Home Reference: triosephosphate isomerase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... of triosephosphate isomerase deficiency. Eur J Haematol. 2011 Mar;86(3):265-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0609.2010.01484.x. Citation on PubMed Orosz F, Oláh J, Ovádi J. Triosephosphate isomerase deficiency: facts and doubts. IUBMB Life. 2006 Dec;58(12):703-15. Review. Citation ...

  16. An endoplasmic reticulum-specific cyclophilin.

    PubMed Central

    Hasel, K W; Glass, J R; Godbout, M; Sutcliffe, J G

    1991-01-01

    Cyclophilin is a ubiquitously expressed cytosolic peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase that is inhibited by the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin A. A degenerate oligonucleotide based on a conserved cyclophilin sequence was used to isolate cDNA clones representing a ubiquitously expressed mRNA from mice and humans. This mRNA encodes a novel 20-kDa protein, CPH2, that shares 64% sequence identity with cyclophilin. Bacterially expressed CPH2 binds cyclosporin A and is a cyclosporin A-inhibitable peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase. Cell fractionation of rat liver followed by Western blot (immunoblot) analysis indicated that CPH2 is not cytosolic but rather is located exclusively in the endoplasmic reticulum. These results suggest that cyclosporin A mediates its effect on cells through more than one cyclophilin and that cyclosporin A-induced misfolding of T-cell membrane proteins normally mediated by CPH2 plays a role in immunosuppression. Images PMID:1710767

  17. A Tale of Two Isomerases: Compact versus Extended Active Sites in Ketosteroid Isomerase and Phosphoglucose Isomerase

    SciTech Connect

    Somarowthu, Srinivas; Brodkin, Heather R.; D’Aquino, J. Alejandro; Ringe, Dagmar; Ondrechen, Mary Jo; Beuning, Penny J.

    2012-07-11

    Understanding the catalytic efficiency and specificity of enzymes is a fundamental question of major practical and conceptual importance in biochemistry. Although progress in biochemical and structural studies has enriched our knowledge of enzymes, the role in enzyme catalysis of residues that are not nearest neighbors of the reacting substrate molecule is largely unexplored experimentally. Here computational active site predictors, THEMATICS and POOL, were employed to identify functionally important residues that are not in direct contact with the reacting substrate molecule. These predictions then guided experiments to explore the active sites of two isomerases, Pseudomonas putida ketosteroid isomerase (KSI) and human phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI), as prototypes for very different types of predicted active sites. Both KSI and PGI are members of EC 5.3 and catalyze similar reactions, but they represent significantly different degrees of remote residue participation, as predicted by THEMATICS and POOL. For KSI, a compact active site of mostly first-shell residues is predicted, but for PGI, an extended active site in which residues in the first, second, and third layers around the reacting substrate are predicted. Predicted residues that have not been previously tested experimentally were investigated by site-directed mutagenesis and kinetic analysis. In human PGI, single-point mutations of the predicted second- and third-shell residues K362, H100, E495, D511, H396, and Q388 show significant decreases in catalytic activity relative to that of the wild type. The results of these experiments demonstrate that, as predicted, remote residues are very important in PGI catalysis but make only small contributions to catalysis in KSI.

  18. 21 CFR 862.1720 - Triose phosphate isomerase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... isomerase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase in erythrocytes (red blood cells). Triose phosphate isomerase is an enzyme important in glycolysis... this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital triose phosphate isomerase...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1720 - Triose phosphate isomerase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... isomerase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase in erythrocytes (red blood cells). Triose phosphate isomerase is an enzyme important in glycolysis... this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital triose phosphate isomerase...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1720 - Triose phosphate isomerase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... isomerase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase in erythrocytes (red blood cells). Triose phosphate isomerase is an enzyme important in glycolysis... this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital triose phosphate isomerase...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1720 - Triose phosphate isomerase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... isomerase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase in erythrocytes (red blood cells). Triose phosphate isomerase is an enzyme important in glycolysis... this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital triose phosphate isomerase...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1720 - Triose phosphate isomerase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... isomerase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase in erythrocytes (red blood cells). Triose phosphate isomerase is an enzyme important in glycolysis... this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital triose phosphate isomerase...

  3. Essential role of Pro 74 in stefin B amyloid-fibril formation: dual action of cyclophilin A on the process.

    PubMed

    Smajlović, Aida; Berbić, Selma; Schiene-Fischer, Cordelia; Tusek-Znidaric, Magda; Taler, Ajda; Jenko-Kokalj, Sasa; Turk, Dusan; Zerovnik, Eva

    2009-04-01

    We report that Pro74 in human stefin B is critical for fibril formation and that proline isomerization plays an important role. The stefin B P74S mutant did not fibrillate over the time of observation at 25 degrees C, and it exhibited a prolonged lag phase at 30 degrees C and 37 degrees C. The peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase cyclophilin A, when added to the wild-type protein, exerted two effects: it prolonged the lag phase and increased the yield and length of the fibrils. Addition of the inactive cyclophilin A R55A variant still resulted in a prolonged lag phase but did not mediate the increase of the final fibril yield. These results demonstrate that peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerism is rate-limiting in stefin B fibril formation. PMID:19265692

  4. 21 CFR 184.1372 - Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1372 Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations. (a) Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations are used in the production of high fructose corn syrup described in §...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1372 - Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations... RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1372 Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations. (a) Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations are used in the production...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1372 - Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations... RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1372 Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations. (a) Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations are used in the production...

  7. Thermoinactivation Mechanism of Glucose Isomerase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Leng Hong; Saville, Bradley A.

    In this article, the mechanisms of thermoinactivation of glucose isomerase (GI) from Streptomyces rubiginosus (in soluble and immobilized forms) were investigated, particularly the contributions of thiol oxidation of the enzyme's cysteine residue and a "Maillard-like" reaction between the enzyme and sugars in high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Soluble GI (SGI) was successfully immobilized on silica gel (13.5 μm particle size), with an activity yield between 20 and 40%. The immobilized GI (IGI) has high enzyme retention on the support during the glucose isomerization process. In batch reactors, SGI (half-life =145 h) was more stable than IGI (half-life=27 h) at 60°C in HFCS, whereas at 80°C, IGI (half-life=12 h) was more stable than SGI (half-life=5.2 h). IGI was subject to thiol oxidation at 60°C, which contributed to the enzyme's deactivation. IGI was subject to thiol oxidation at 80°C, but this did not contribute to the deactivation of the enzyme. SGI did not undergo thiol oxidation at 60°C, but at 80°C SGI underwent severe precipitation and thiol oxidation, which caused the enzyme to deactivate. Experimental results show that immobilization suppresses the destablizing effect of thiol oxidation on GI. A "Maillard-like" reaction between SGI and the sugars also caused SGI thermoinactivation at 60, 70, and 80°C, but had minimal effect on IGI. At 60 and 80°C, IGI had higher thermostability in continuous reactors than in batch reactors, possibily because of reduced contact with deleterious compounds in HFCS.

  8. Dynamical role of phosphorylation on serine/threonine-proline Pin1 substrates from constant force molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velazquez, Hector A.; Hamelberg, Donald

    2015-02-01

    Cis-trans isomerization of peptidyl-prolyl bonds of the protein backbone plays an important role in numerous biological processes. Cis-trans isomerization can be the rate-limiting step due its extremely slow dynamics, compared to the millisecond time scale of many processes, and is catalyzed by a widely studied family of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase enzymes. Also, mechanical forces along the peptide chain can speed up the rate of isomerization, resulting in "mechanical catalysis," and have been used to study peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerization and other mechanical properties of proteins. Here, we use constant force molecular dynamics simulations to study the dynamical effects of phosphorylation on serine/threonine-proline protein motifs that are involved in the function of many proteins and have been implicated in many aberrant biological processes. We show that the rate of cis-trans isomerization is slowed down by phosphorylation, in excellent agreement with experiments. We use a well-grounded theory to describe the force dependent rate of isomerization. The calculated rates at zero force are also in excellent agreement with experimentally measured rates, providing additional validation of the models and force field parameters. Our results suggest that the slowdown in the rate upon phosphorylation is mainly due to an increase in the friction along the peptidyl-prolyl bond angle during isomerization. Our results provide a microscopic description of the dynamical effects of post-translational phosphorylation on cis-trans isomerization and insights into the properties of proteins under tension.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1372 - Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations... enzyme preparations. (a) Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations are used in the production of... additional requirements for enzyme preparations in the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 107, which...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1372 - Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations... enzyme preparations. (a) Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations are used in the production of... additional requirements for enzyme preparations in the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 107, which...

  11. Characterization of triosephosphate isomerase from Mycoplasma gallisepticum.

    PubMed

    Bao, Shijun; Chen, Danqing; Yu, Shengqing; Chen, Hongjun; Tan, Lei; Hu, Meirong; Qiu, Xusheng; Song, Cuiping; Ding, Chan

    2015-09-01

    Triosephosphate isomerase (Tpi) is a glycolytic enzyme that is essential for efficient energy production in many pathogens. However, its function in Mycoplasma gallisepticum has not been fully elucidated. In this study, the mga0357 gene of M. gallisepticum, which encodes TpiA (MGTpiA), was amplified and expressed in Escherichia coli by IPTG induction. The purified recombinant MGTpiA protein exhibited catalytic activity that was similar to TPI from rabbit muscle, reducing NAD(+) to NADH. The MGTpiA was also found to be a surface-exposed protein by western blotting and immunofluorescence assays. In addition, cytadherence inhibition assays confirmed that the cytadherence of M. gallisepticum to the DF-1 cells was significantly inhibited by the anti-MGTpiA serum. The results of the study suggested that MGTpiA plays an important role in the metabolism and closely related to the M. gallisepticum pathogenicity. PMID:26319024

  12. Molecular and industrial aspects of glucose isomerase.

    PubMed Central

    Bhosale, S H; Rao, M B; Deshpande, V V

    1996-01-01

    Glucose isomerase (GI) (D-xylose ketol-isomerase; EC. 5.3.1.5) catalyzes the reversible isomerization of D-glucose and D-xylose to D-fructose and D-xylulose, respectively. The enzyme has the largest market in the food industry because of its application in the production of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS). HFCS, an equilibrium mixture of glucose and fructose, is 1.3 times sweeter than sucrose and serves as a sweetener for use by diabetics. Interconversion of xylose to xylulose by GI serves a nutritional requirement in saprophytic bacteria and has a potential application in the bioconversion of hemicellulose to ethanol. The enzyme is widely distributed in prokaryotes. Intensive research efforts are directed toward improving its suitability for industrial application. Development of microbial strains capable of utilizing xylan-containing raw materials for growth or screening for constitutive mutants of GI is expected to lead to discontinuation of the use of xylose as an inducer for the production of the enzyme. Elimination of Co2+ from the fermentation medium is desirable for avoiding health problems arising from human consumption of HFCS. Immobilization of GI provides an efficient means for its easy recovery and reuse and lowers the cost of its use. X-ray crystallographic and genetic engineering studies support a hydride shift mechanism for the action of GI. Cloning of GI in homologous as well as heterologous hosts has been carried out, with the prime aim of overproducing the enzyme and deciphering the genetic organization of individual genes (xylA, xylB, and xylR) in the xyl operon of different microorganisms. The organization of xylA and xylB seems to be highly conserved in all bacteria. The two genes are transcribed from the same strand in Escherichia coli and Bacillus and Lactobacillus species, whereas they are transcribed divergently on different strands in Streptomyces species. A comparison of the xylA sequences from several bacterial sources revealed the

  13. Overexpression of protein disulfide isomerase in Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    El-Adawi, H; Khanh, N Q; Gassen, H

    2000-10-01

    One of the major problems with the production of biotechnologically valuable proteins has been the purification of the product. For Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, there are several techniques for the purification of intracellular proteins, but these are time consuming and often result in poor yields. Purification can be considerably facilitated, if the product is secreted from the host cell. In the work presented, we have constructed an expression vector (pSGNH2) for the secretion of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI; EC 5.3.4.1) from Aspergillus niger, in which the retention signal His-Asp-Glu-Leu (H-D-E-L) was modified to Ala-Leu-Glu-Gln (A-L-E-Q) via the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The PDI gene was placed under the control of the A. oryzae alpha-amylase promoter. This expression vector was transformed into A. niger NRRL3, resulting in PDI secretion into the medium. The catalytic activity of overexpressed PDI from A. niger was indistinguishable from that of PDI isolated from bovine liver. With further strain improvement and optimization of culture conditions, it could be possible to raise the PDI production to the bioprocessing scale. PMID:10977899

  14. Anomeric specificity of D-xylose isomerase.

    PubMed

    Collyer, C A; Goldberg, J D; Viehmann, H; Blow, D M; Ramsden, N G; Fleet, G W; Montgomery, F J; Grice, P

    1992-12-01

    Crystal structures of complexes of D-xylose isomerase with deoxysugars have been determined. Deoxynojirimycin is a structural analogue of alpha-pyranose and mimics the binding of these aldose substrates. The structure of this complex supports the hypothesis that an imidazole group catalyzes ring opening of the pyranose. The steric restrictions in the active site of the enzyme prevent a beta-pyranose from binding in the same way. For the reverse reaction with ketoses, the anomeric specificity is less certain. Dideoxyimino-D-glucitol is a structural analogue of the ketose alpha-D-furanose. The binding of the inhibitor dideoxyimino-D-glucitol to the crystals of the enzyme does not mimic the binding of the reactive alpha-D-fructofuranose. Superposition of the nonphysiological substrate alpha-D-fructofuranose onto the atomic positions of dideoxyimino-D-glucitol is not possible due to the steric restrictions of the active site. However, by utilizing the approximate 2-fold symmetry of the sugar, a stereochemically sensible model is produced which is consistent with other data. In addition to reaction with alpha-D-furanose, the enzyme probably reacts with open ring keto sugars which are present at significant concentrations. Other sugars which resemble furanoses either do not inhibit significantly or are not observed in the crystals bound in a single conformation. PMID:1457418

  15. Extracellular Thiol Isomerases and Their Role in Thrombus Formation

    PubMed Central

    Schulman, Sol; Bendapudi, Pavan; Sharda, Anish; Chen, Vivien; Bellido-Martin, Lola; Jasuja, Reema; Furie, Barbara C.; Flaumenhaft, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The mammalian endoplasmic reticulum (ER) houses a large family of twenty thioredoxin-like proteins of which protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is the archetypal member. Although the PDI family is best known for its role in oxidative protein folding of secretory proteins in the ER, these thioredoxin-like proteins fulfill ever-expanding roles, both within the secretory pathway and beyond. Recent Advances: Secreted PDI family proteins have now been shown to serve a critical role in platelet thrombus formation and fibrin generation. Utilizing intravital microscopy to visualize thrombus formation in mice, we have demonstrated the presence of extracellular PDI antigen during thrombus formation following injury of the vascular wall. Inhibition of PDI abrogates thrombus formation in vivo (16, 26, 46, 55). These observations have been extended to other PDI family members, including ERp57 (39, 116, 118, 123) and ERp5 (77). The vascular thiol isomerases are those PDI family members secreted from platelets and/or endothelium (40): PDI, ERp57, ERp5, ERp72, ERp44, ERp29, and TMX3. We focus here on PDI (16, 46, 55), ERp57 (39, 116, 118, 123), and ERp5 (77), which have been implicated in thrombus formation in vivo. Critical Issues: It would appear that a system of thiol isomerase redox catalysts has been hijacked from the ER to regulate thrombus formation in the vasculature. Future Directions: How this redox system is trafficked to and regulated at the cell surface, the identity of extracellular substrates, why so many thiol isomerases are required, and which thiol isomerase functions are necessary are critical unanswered questions in understanding the role of thiol isomerases in thrombus formation. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 1–15. PMID:26467859

  16. Protein disulfide isomerase a multifunctional protein with multiple physiological roles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali Khan, Hyder; Mutus, Bulent

    2014-08-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), is a member of the thioredoxin superfamily of redox proteins. PDI has three catalytic activities including, thiol-disulfide oxireductase, disulfide isomerase and redox-dependent chaperone. Originally, PDI was identified in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum and subsequently detected at additional locations, such as cell surfaces and the cytosol. This review will provide an overview of the recent advances in relating the structural features of PDI to its multiple catalytic roles as well as its physiological and pathophysiological functions related to redox regulation and protein folding.

  17. The structure of rhamnose isomerase from Escherichia coli and its relation with xylose isomerase illustrates a change between inter and intra-subunit complementation during evolution.

    PubMed

    Korndörfer, I P; Fessner, W D; Matthews, B W

    2000-07-21

    Using a new expression construct, rhamnose isomerase from Escherichia coli was purified and crystallized. The crystal structure was solved by multiple isomorphous replacement and refined to a crystallographic residual of 17.4 % at 1.6 A resolution. Rhamnose isomerase is a tight tetramer of four (beta/alpha)(8)-barrels. A comparison with other known structures reveals that rhamnose isomerase is most similar to xylose isomerase. Alignment of the sequences of the two enzymes based on their structures reveals a hitherto undetected sequence identity of 13 %, suggesting that the two enzymes evolved from a common precursor. The structure and arrangement of the (beta/alpha)(8)-barrels of rhamnose isomerase are very similar to xylose isomerase. Each enzyme does, however, have additional alpha-helical domains, which are involved in tetramer association, and largely differ in structure. The structures of complexes of rhamnose isomerase with the inhibitor l-rhamnitol and the natural substrate l-rhamnose were determined and suggest that an extended loop, which is disordered in the native enzyme, becomes ordered on substrate binding, and may exclude bulk solvent during catalysis. Unlike xylose isomerase, this loop does not extend across a subunit interface but contributes to the active site of its own subunit. It illustrates how an interconversion between inter and intra-subunit complementation can occur during evolution. In the crystal structure (although not necessarily in vivo) rhamnose isomerase appears to bind Zn(2+) at a "structural" site. In the presence of substrate the enzyme also binds Mn(2+) at a nearby "catalytic" site. An array of hydrophobic residues, not present in xylose isomerase, is likely to be responsible for the recognition of l-rhamnose as a substrate. The available structural data suggest that a metal-mediated hydride-shift mechanism, which is generally favored for xylose isomerase, is also feasible for rhamnose isomerase. PMID:10891278

  18. Ribose 5-Phosphate Isomerase Investigations for the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewett, Kathy; Sandwick, Roger K.

    2011-01-01

    The enzyme ribose 5-phosphate isomerase (RpiA) has many features that make it attractive as a focal point of a semester-long, advanced biochemistry laboratory for undergraduate students. The protein can easily and inexpensively be isolated from spinach using traditional purification techniques. Characterization of RpiA enzyme activity can be…

  19. Evidence for distinct dehydrogenase and isomerase sites within a single 3. beta. -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/5-ene-4-ene isomerase protein

    SciTech Connect

    Luu-The, V.; Takahashi, Masakazu; de Launoit, Y.; Dumont, M.; Lachance, Y.; Labrie, F. )

    1991-09-10

    Complementary DNA encoding human 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/5-ene-4-ene isomerase (3-{beta}-HSD) has been expressed in transfected GH{sub 4}C{sub 1} with use of the cytomegalovirus promoter. The activity of the expressed protein clearly shows that both dehydrogenase and isomerase enzymatic activities are present within a single protein. However, such findings do not indicate whether the two activities reside within one or two closely related catalytic sites. With use of ({sup 3}H)-5-androstenedione, the intermediate compound in dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) transformation into 4-androstenedione by 3{beta}-HSD, the present study shows that 4MA (N,N-diethyl-4-methyl-3-oxo-4-aza-5{alpha}-androstane-17{beta}-carboxamide) and its analogues of 5-androstenedione to 4-androstenedione with an approximately 1,000-fold higher K{sub i} value. The present results thus strongly suggest that dehydrogenase and isomerase activities are present at separate sites on the 3-{beta}-HSD protein. Such data suggest that the irreversible step in the transformation of DHEA to 4-androstenedione is due to a separate site possessing isomerase activity that converts the 5-ene-3-keto to a much more stable 4-ene-3-keto configuration.

  20. A role for trigger factor and an rgg-like regulator in the transcription, secretion and processing of the cysteine proteinase of Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, W R; Gibson, C M; Caparon, M G

    1998-01-01

    The ability of numerous microorganisms to cause disease relies upon the highly regulated expression of secreted proteinases. In this study, mutagenesis with a novel derivative of Tn4001 was used to identify genes required for the expression of the secreted cysteine proteinase (SCP) of the pathogenic Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes. Designated as Rop loci (regulation of proteinase), ropB is a rgg-like transcriptional activator required for transcription of the gene which encodes the proteinase. In contrast, ropA contributes post-transcriptionally to the secretion and processing of SCP and encodes a homologue of Trigger Factor, a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase and putative chaparone which is highly conserved in most bacterial species, but of unknown function. Analysis of additional ropA mutants demonstrated that RopA acts both to assist in targeting SCP to the secretory pathway and to promote the ability of the proprotein to establish an active conformation upon secretion. This latter function was dependent upon the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase domain of RopA and mutants that lacked this domain exhibited a bipartite deficiency manifested as a kinetic defect in autologous processing of the proprotein to the mature proteinase, and as a catalytic defect in the mature proteinase. These results provide insight into the function of Trigger Factor, the regulation of proteinase activity and the mechanism of secretion in Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:9799235

  1. A role for trigger factor and an rgg-like regulator in the transcription, secretion and processing of the cysteine proteinase of Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Lyon, W R; Gibson, C M; Caparon, M G

    1998-11-01

    The ability of numerous microorganisms to cause disease relies upon the highly regulated expression of secreted proteinases. In this study, mutagenesis with a novel derivative of Tn4001 was used to identify genes required for the expression of the secreted cysteine proteinase (SCP) of the pathogenic Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes. Designated as Rop loci (regulation of proteinase), ropB is a rgg-like transcriptional activator required for transcription of the gene which encodes the proteinase. In contrast, ropA contributes post-transcriptionally to the secretion and processing of SCP and encodes a homologue of Trigger Factor, a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase and putative chaparone which is highly conserved in most bacterial species, but of unknown function. Analysis of additional ropA mutants demonstrated that RopA acts both to assist in targeting SCP to the secretory pathway and to promote the ability of the proprotein to establish an active conformation upon secretion. This latter function was dependent upon the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase domain of RopA and mutants that lacked this domain exhibited a bipartite deficiency manifested as a kinetic defect in autologous processing of the proprotein to the mature proteinase, and as a catalytic defect in the mature proteinase. These results provide insight into the function of Trigger Factor, the regulation of proteinase activity and the mechanism of secretion in Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:9799235

  2. Exploring the chemistry and evolution of the isomerases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Isomerization reactions are fundamental in biology, and isomers usually differ in their biological role and pharmacological effects. In this study, we have cataloged the isomerization reactions known to occur in biology using a combination of manual and computational approaches. This method provides a robust basis for comparison and clustering of the reactions into classes. Comparing our results with the Enzyme Commission (EC) classification, the standard approach to represent enzyme function on the basis of the overall chemistry of the catalyzed reaction, expands our understanding of the biochemistry of isomerization. The grouping of reactions involving stereoisomerism is straightforward with two distinct types (racemases/epimerases and cis-trans isomerases), but reactions entailing structural isomerism are diverse and challenging to classify using a hierarchical approach. This study provides an overview of which isomerases occur in nature, how we should describe and classify them, and their diversity. PMID:26842835

  3. Substrate product equilibrium on a reversible enzyme, triosephosphate isomerase

    PubMed Central

    Rozovsky, Sharon; McDermott, Ann E.

    2007-01-01

    The highly efficient glycolytic enzyme, triosephosphate isomerase, is expected to differentially stabilize the proposed stable reaction species: ketone, aldehyde, and enediol(ate). The identity and steady-state populations of the chemical entities bound to triosephosphate isomerase have been probed by using solid- and solution-state NMR. The 13C-enriched ketone substrate, dihydroxyacetone phosphate, was bound to the enzyme and characterized at steady state over a range of sample conditions. The ketone substrate was observed to be the major species over a temperature range from −60°C to 15°C. Thus, there is no suggestion that the enzyme preferentially stabilizes the reactive intermediate or the product. The predominance of dihydroxyacetone phosphate on the enzyme would support a mechanism in which the initial proton abstraction in the reaction from dihydroxyacetone phosphate to d-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate is significantly slower than the subsequent chemical steps. PMID:17287353

  4. Exploring the chemistry and evolution of the isomerases.

    PubMed

    Martínez Cuesta, Sergio; Rahman, Syed Asad; Thornton, Janet M

    2016-02-16

    Isomerization reactions are fundamental in biology, and isomers usually differ in their biological role and pharmacological effects. In this study, we have cataloged the isomerization reactions known to occur in biology using a combination of manual and computational approaches. This method provides a robust basis for comparison and clustering of the reactions into classes. Comparing our results with the Enzyme Commission (EC) classification, the standard approach to represent enzyme function on the basis of the overall chemistry of the catalyzed reaction, expands our understanding of the biochemistry of isomerization. The grouping of reactions involving stereoisomerism is straightforward with two distinct types (racemases/epimerases and cis-trans isomerases), but reactions entailing structural isomerism are diverse and challenging to classify using a hierarchical approach. This study provides an overview of which isomerases occur in nature, how we should describe and classify them, and their diversity. PMID:26842835

  5. Methods of measuring Protein Disulfide Isomerase activity: a critical overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Monica; Laurindo, Francisco; Fernandes, Denise

    2014-09-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase is an essential redox chaperone from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is responsible for correct disulfide bond formation in nascent proteins. PDI is also found in other cellular locations in the cell, particularly the cell surface. Overall, PDI contributes to ER and global cell redox homeostasis and signaling. The knowledge about PDI structure and function progressed substantially based on in vitro studies using recombinant PDI and chimeric proteins. In these experimental scenarios, PDI reductase and chaperone activities are readily approachable. In contrast, assays to measure PDI isomerase activity, the hallmark of PDI family, are more complex. Assessment of PDI roles in cells and tissues mainly relies on gain- or loss-of-function studies. However, there is limited information regarding correlation of experimental readouts with the distinct types of PDI activities. In this mini-review, we evaluate the main methods described for measuring the different kinds of PDI activity: thiol reductase, thiol oxidase, thiol isomerase and chaperone. We emphasize the need to use appropriate controls and the role of critical interferents (e.g., detergent, presence of reducing agents). We also discuss the translation of results from in vitro studies with purified recombinant PDI to cellular and tissue samples, with critical comments on the interpretation of results.

  6. Roles of triosephosphate isomerase and aerobic metabolism in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed Central

    Helfert, S; Estévez, A M; Bakker, B; Michels, P; Clayton, C

    2001-01-01

    Kinetoplastid protozoa compartmentalize the first seven enzymes of glycolysis and two enzymes of glycerol metabolism in a microbody, the glycosome. While in its mammalian host, Trypanosoma brucei depends entirely on glucose for ATP generation. Under aerobic conditions, most of the glucose is metabolized to pyruvate. Aerobic metabolism depends on the activities of glycosomal triosephosphate isomerase and a mitochondrial glycerophosphate oxidase, and on glycerophosphate<-->dihydroxyacetone phosphate exchange across the glycosomal membrane. Using a combination of genetics and computer modelling, we show that triosephosphate isomerase is probably essential for bloodstream trypanosome survival, but not for the insect-dwelling procyclics, which preferentially use amino acids as an energy source. When the enzyme level decreased to about 15% of that of the wild-type, the growth rate was halved. Below this level, a lethal rise in dihydroxyacetone phosphate was predicted. Expression of cytosolic triosephosphate isomerase inhibited cell growth. Attempts to knockout the trypanosome alternative oxidase genes (which are needed for glycerophosphate oxidase activity) were unsuccessful, but when we lowered the level of the corresponding mRNA by expressing a homologous double-stranded RNA, oxygen consumption was reduced fourfold and the rate of trypanosome growth was halved. PMID:11415442

  7. Fermentation of xylulose to ethanol using xylose isomerase and yeasts

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, T.W.

    1981-01-01

    In a survey of 35 organisms, predominantly yeasts, about 40% were capable of fermenting xylulose to ethanol. Two species, Candida tropicalis and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, did so at good rates and without an initial lag. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that fermented glucose rapidly fermented xylulose at a slower rate. Ten yeasts and three strains of the bacterium Zymomonas mobilis were weak or negative for xylulose, even though they fermented glucose under the conditions employed. C. tropicalis was able to form 1.0 M ethanol from 1.0 M xylose if the fermentation broth was recycled over immobilized xylose isomerase.

  8. Cyclophilins of a novel subfamily interact with SNW/SKIP coregulator in Dictyostelium discoideum and Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Skruzný, M; Ambrozková, M; Fuková, I; Martínková, K; Blahůsková, A; Hamplová, L; Půta, F; Folk, P

    2001-10-31

    We screened the Dictyostelium discoideum two-hybrid cDNA library with the SNW/SKIP transcription coregulator SnwA and identified a novel cyclophilin CypE. Independently, the Schizosaccharomyces pombe cDNA library was screened with the SnwA ortholog Snw1 and the ortholog of CypE (named Cyp2) was found. Both cyclophilins bind the respective SNW protein in their autologous systems. The interaction was localized to the N-terminal part of SnwA as well as of Snw1. CypE was confirmed in vitro to be a cyclosporin A-sensitive peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase. Remarkably, both SNW proteins bind the cyclophilins in a cyclosporin A independent manner, possibly serving as adaptors for these novel isomerases. These results are the first characterization of the members of a novel cyclophilin subfamily, which includes the human CGI-124/PPIL1 protein. PMID:11690648

  9. Protein disulfide isomerase mediates glutathione depletion-induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Okada, Kazushi; Fukui, Masayuki; Zhu, Bao-Ting

    2016-08-26

    Glutathione depletion is a distinct cause underlying many forms of pathogenesis associated with oxidative stress and cytotoxicity. Earlier studies showed that glutamate-induced glutathione depletion in immortalized murine HT22 hippocampal neuronal cells leads to accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ultimately cell death, but the precise mechanism underlying these processes is not clear. Here we show that during the induction of glutathione depletion, nitric oxide (NO) accumulation precedes ROS accumulation. While neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) in untreated HT22 cells exists mostly as a monomer, glutathione depletion results in increased formation of the dimer nNOS, accompanied by increases in the catalytic activity. We identified that nNOS dimerization is catalyzed by protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). Inhibition of PDI's isomerase activity effectively abrogates glutathione depletion-induced conversion of monomer nNOS into dimer nNOS, accumulation of NO and ROS, and cytotoxicity. Furthermore, we found that PDI is present in untreated cells in an inactive S-nitrosylated form, which becomes activated following glutathione depletion via S-denitrosylation. These results reveal a novel role for PDI in mediating glutathione depletion-induced oxidative cytotoxicity, as well as its role as a valuable therapeutic target for protection against oxidative cytotoxicity. PMID:27317486

  10. Converting a Sulfenic Acid Reductase into a Disulfide Bond Isomerase

    PubMed Central

    Chatelle, Claire; Kraemer, Stéphanie; Ren, Guoping; Chmura, Hannah; Marechal, Nils; Boyd, Dana; Roggemans, Caroline; Ke, Na; Riggs, Paul; Bardwell, James

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Posttranslational formation of disulfide bonds is essential for the folding of many secreted proteins. Formation of disulfide bonds in a protein with more than two cysteines is inherently fraught with error and can result in incorrect disulfide bond pairing and, consequently, misfolded protein. Protein disulfide bond isomerases, such as DsbC of Escherichia coli, can recognize mis-oxidized proteins and shuffle the disulfide bonds of the substrate protein into their native folded state. Results: We have developed a simple blue/white screen that can detect disulfide bond isomerization in vivo, using a mutant alkaline phosphatase (PhoA*) in E. coli. We utilized this screen to isolate mutants of the sulfenic acid reductase (DsbG) that allowed this protein to act as a disulfide bond isomerase. Characterization of the isolated mutants in vivo and in vitro allowed us to identify key amino acid residues responsible for oxidoreductase properties of thioredoxin-like proteins such as DsbC or DsbG. Innovation and Conclusions: Using these key residues, we also identified and characterized interesting environmental homologs of DsbG with novel properties, thus demonstrating the capacity of this screen to discover and elucidate mechanistic details of in vivo disulfide bond isomerization. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 945–957. PMID:26191605

  11. Characterization of a mutant glucose isomerase from Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum.

    PubMed

    Xu, Heng; Shen, Dong; Wu, Xue-Qiang; Liu, Zhi-Wei; Yang, Qi-He

    2014-10-01

    A series of site-directed mutant glucose isomerase at tryptophan 139 from Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum strain B6A were purified to gel electrophoretic homogeneity, and the biochemical properties were determined. W139F mutation is the most efficient mutant derivative with a tenfold increase in its catalytic efficiency toward glucose compared with the native GI. With a maximal activity at 80 °C of 59.58 U/mg on glucose, this mutant derivative is the most active type ever reported. The enzyme activity was maximal at 90 °C and like other glucose isomerase, this mutant enzyme required Co(2+) or Mg(2+) for enzyme activity and thermal stability (stable for 20 h at 80 °C in the absence of substrate). Its optimum pH was around 7.0, and it had 86 % of its maximum activity at pH 6.0 incubated for 12 h at 60 °C. This enzyme was determined as thermostable and weak-acid stable. These findings indicated that the mutant GI W139F from T. saccharolyticum strain B6A is appropriate for use as a potential candidate for high-fructose corn syrup producing enzyme. PMID:25139657

  12. The amino acid sequence of rabbit muscle triose phosphate isomerase.

    PubMed Central

    Corran, P H; Waley, S G

    1975-01-01

    The amino acid sequence of rabbit muscle triose phosphate isomerase was deduced by characterizing peptides that overlap the tryptic peptides. Thiol groups were modified by oxidation, carboxymethylation or aminoen. About 50 peptides that provided information about overlaps were isolated; the peptides were mostly characterized by their compositions and N-terminal residues. The peptide chains contain 248 amino acid residues, and no evidence for dissimilarity of the two subunits that comprise the native enzyme was found. The sequence of the rabbit muscle enzyme may be compared with that of the coelacanth enzyme (Kolb et al., 1974): 84% of the residues are in identical positions. Similarly, comparison of the sequence with that inferred for the chicken enzyme (Furth et al., 1974) shows that 87% of the residues are in identical positions. Limited though these comparisons are, they suggest that triose phosphate isomerase has one of the lowest rates of evolutionary change. An extended version of the present paper has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50040 (42 pages) at the British Library (Lending Division) (formerly the National Lending Library for Science and Technology), Boston Spa, Yorks. LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms given in Biochem. J. (1975) 145, 5. PMID:1171682

  13. Sequence of the Ampullariella sp. strain 3876 gene coding for xylose isomerase.

    PubMed Central

    Saari, G C; Kumar, A A; Kawasaki, G H; Insley, M Y; O'Hara, P J

    1987-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for xylose isomerase from Ampullariella sp. strain 3876, a gram-positive bacterium, has been determined. A clone of a fragment of strain 3876 DNA coding for a xylose isomerase activity was identified by its ability to complement a xylose isomerase-defective Escherichia coli strain. One such complementation positive fragment, 2,922 nucleotides in length, was sequenced in its entirety. There are two open reading frames 1,182 and 1,242 nucleotides in length, on opposite strands of this fragment, each of which could code for a protein the expected size of xylose isomerase. The 1,182-nucleotide open reading frame was identified as the coding sequence for the protein from the sequence analysis of the amino-terminal region and selected internal peptides. The gene initiates with GTG and has a high guanine and cytosine content (70%) and an exceptionally strong preference (97%) for guanine or cytosine in the third position of the codons. The gene codes for a 43,210-dalton polypeptide composed of 393 amino acids. The xylose isomerase from Ampullariella sp. strain 3876 is similar in size to other bacterial xylose isomerases and has limited amino acid sequence homology to the available sequences from E. coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Streptomyces violaceus-ruber. In all cases yet studied, the bacterial gene for xylulose kinase is downstream from the gene for xylose isomerase. We present evidence suggesting that in Ampullariella sp. strain 3876 these genes are similarly arranged. PMID:3027039

  14. Regulation of isopropylmalate isomerase synthesis in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed Central

    Reichenbecher, V E; Fischer, M; Gross, S R

    1978-01-01

    The capacity to synthetize isopropylmalate isomerase (EC 4.2.1.33) by Neurospora crassa increased during induction in the presence of cycloheximide but was inhibited by proflavine and other inhibitors of RNA synthesis. Turnover of the enzyme once formed appeared negligible, but the message (measured as enzyme-forming capacity) had a half-life of 4 to 8 min. A comparison of the kinetics of induction in the wild type and a newly isolated alpha-isopropylmalate-permeable strain suggested strongly that feedback control by leucine of alpha-isopropylmalate production can adequately serve as the primary physiological regulator of endogenous inducer concentration. Genetic data are presented which implicate the involvement of two unlinked genes, ipm-1 and ipm-2, in determining permeation of alpha-isopropylmalate. PMID:146702

  15. Human glucose phosphate isomerase: Exon mapping and gene structure

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Weiming; Lee, Pauline; Beutler, E.

    1995-10-10

    The structure of the gene for human glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) has been determined. Three GPI clones were isolated from a human genomic library by using a full-length GPI cDNA probe and were characterized. Oligonucleotides based on the known cDNA sequence were used as primers in amplification and sequence analyses. This led to the identification of the exon-intron junctions. By this approach, 18 exons and 17 introns have been identified. The exons range in size from 44 to 431 nucleotides. The intronic sequences surrounding the exons provide useful information for the identification of mutations that give rise to human GPI deficiency associated with chronic hemolytic anemia. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Mammalian peptide isomerase: platypus-type activity is present in mouse heart.

    PubMed

    Koh, Jennifer M S; Chow, Stephanie J P; Crossett, Ben; Kuchel, Philip W

    2010-06-01

    Male platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) venom has a peptidyl aminoacyl L/D-isomerase (hereafter called peptide isomerase) that converts the second amino acid residue in from the N-terminus from the L- to the D-form, and vice versa. A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) assay has been developed to monitor the interconversion using synthetic hexapeptides derived from defensin-like peptide-2 (DLP-2) and DLP-4 as substrates. It was hypothesised that animals other than the platypus would have peptide isomerase with the same substrate specificity. Accordingly, eight mouse tissues were tested and heart was shown to have the activity. This is notable for being the first evidence of a peptide isomerase being present in a higher mammal and heralds finding the activity in man. PMID:20564672

  17. INDUCTION AND REPRESSION OF l-ARABINOSE ISOMERASE IN PEDIOCOCCUS PENTOSACEUS1

    PubMed Central

    Dobrogosz, Walter J.; DeMoss, Ralph D.

    1963-01-01

    Dobrogosz, Walter J. (University of Illinois, Urbana) and Ralph D. DeMoss. Induction and repression of l-arabinose isomerase in Pediococcus pentosaceus. J. Bacteriol. 85:1350–1355. 1963.—The inducible l-arabinose isomerase of Pediococcus pentosaceus can be rapidly and conveniently measured in whole-cell preparations by use of a standard colorimetric procedure originally developed for studies with cell-free enzyme preparations. The enzyme is measured by its ability to catalyze the isomerization of l-arabinose to l-ribulose. Whole cells suspended in a suitable buffer and pretreated with toluene were shown to exhibit this isomerase activity at a level comparable with that observed in cell-free enzyme preparations. Conditions for optimal induction of l-arabinose isomerase are described. In addition, it was determined that the formation of this enzyme is subject to repression by glucose, i.e., via catabolite repression. PMID:14047229

  18. Structural features of normal and complemented forms of the Neurospora isopropylmalate isomerase.

    PubMed Central

    Reichenbecher, V E; Gross, S R

    1978-01-01

    The isopropylmalate isomerase (EC 4.2.1.33) of Neurospora crassa is a globular protein consisting of a single polypeptide chain with a molecular weight of about 90,000. The isomerase cannot easily be freed of a contaminating protease which cleaves the enzyme into two major fragments, one of approximately 56,000 and the other 37,000 daltons. This suggests that the folded polypeptide chain may contain some hinge point or loop exposed on the surface which makes it susceptible to proteolytic attack. Most of the isomerase activity extracted from the wild-type strain is in monomer form. However, a small fraction of the activity in crude extracts is found in multimeric aggregates, and the active isomerase extracted from complementing leu-2 heterokaryons consists entirely of dimers and higher multimers. These observations suggest that, though active as a monomer, a significant fraction of the normal enzyme might be organized in multimeric form within the cell. Images PMID:146703

  19. Ribose 5-Phosphate Isomerase B Knockdown Compromises Trypanosoma brucei Bloodstream Form Infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Loureiro, Inês; Faria, Joana; Clayton, Christine; Macedo-Ribeiro, Sandra; Santarém, Nuno; Roy, Nilanjan; Cordeiro-da-Siva, Anabela; Tavares, Joana

    2015-01-01

    Ribose 5-phosphate isomerase is an enzyme involved in the non-oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway, and catalyzes the inter-conversion of D-ribose 5-phosphate and D-ribulose 5-phosphate. Trypanosomatids, including the agent of African sleeping sickness namely Trypanosoma brucei, have a type B ribose-5-phosphate isomerase. This enzyme is absent from humans, which have a structurally unrelated ribose 5-phosphate isomerase type A, and therefore has been proposed as an attractive drug target waiting further characterization. In this study, Trypanosoma brucei ribose 5-phosphate isomerase B showed in vitro isomerase activity. RNAi against this enzyme reduced parasites' in vitro growth, and more importantly, bloodstream forms infectivity. Mice infected with induced RNAi clones exhibited lower parasitaemia and a prolonged survival compared to control mice. Phenotypic reversion was achieved by complementing induced RNAi clones with an ectopic copy of Trypanosoma cruzi gene. Our results present the first functional characterization of Trypanosoma brucei ribose 5-phosphate isomerase B, and show the relevance of an enzyme belonging to the non-oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway in the context of Trypanosoma brucei infection. PMID:25568941

  20. Detection of platypus-type L/D-peptide isomerase activity in aqueous extracts of papaya fruit.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Kensuke; Koh, Jennifer M S; Crossett, Ben; Torres, Allan M; Kuchel, Philip W

    2012-09-01

    Peptide isomerase catalyses the post-translational isomerisation of the L: - to the D: -form of an amino acid residue around the N/C-termini of substrate peptides. To date, some peptide isomerases have been found in a limited number of animal secretions and cells. We show here that papaya extracts have weak peptide isomerase activity. The activity was detected in each 30-100 kDa fraction of the flesh and the seed extracts of unripe and ripe papaya fruit. The definitive activity was confirmed in the ripe papaya extracts, but even then it was much less active than that of the other peptide isomerases previously reported. The activity was markedly inhibited by methanol, and partly so by amastatin and diethyl pyrocarbonate. This is the first report of peptide isomerase activity in a plant and suggests that perhaps every living organism may have some peptide isomerase activity. PMID:22648682

  1. Metabolic phenotype of phosphoglucose isomerase mutants of Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Marx, Achim; Hans, Stephan; Möckel, Bettina; Bathe, Brigitte; de Graaf, Albert A; McCormack, Ashling C; Stapleton, Cliona; Burke, Kevin; O'Donohue, Michael; Dunican, L K

    2003-09-01

    A series of experiments reported in the literature using fluxomics as an efficient functional genomics tool revealed that the L-lysine production of the Corynebacterium glutamicum strain MH20-22B correlates with the extent of intracellular NADPH supply. Some alternative metabolic engineering strategies to increase intracellular NADPH supply in the C. glutamicum strain DSM5715 were considered and finally the redirection of carbon flux through the pentose phosphate pathway with two NADPH generating enzymatic reactions was favored. Elsewhere, the construction of a phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi) null mutant of the C. glutamicum strain DSM5715 has been described by utilizing genetic engineering as well as some aspects of its metabolic phenotype. Most interestingly, it was shown that not only could the L-lysine formation be increased by 1.7-fold but the by-product concentration for the null mutant strain was also able to be drastically reduced. In this publication we discuss this metabolic phenotype in detail and present additional data on by-product formation as well as yield considerations. Results from isotope based metabolic flux analysis in combination with considerations on NADPH metabolism clearly exclude the existence of Pgi isoenzymes in C. glutamicum strain DSM5715. The genome region containing the pgi gene was analyzed. It cannot be excluded that polar effects might have been caused by the disruption of the pgi gene and might have contributed to the observed metabolic phenotype of C. glutamicum Pgi mutants. We illustrate growth characteristics of a Pgi mutant of an industrial L-lysine production strain. A reduced growth rate and a biphasic growth behavior was observed. The importance of NADPH reoxidation for well balanced growth in Pgi mutants is discussed. Another phosphoglucose isomerase mutant of C. glutamicum has been described in literature with which an increase in L-lysine yield from 42 to 52% was observed. This finding highlights the general potential

  2. Linoleic acid isomerase from Propionibacterium acnes: purification, characterization, molecular cloning, and heterologous expression.

    PubMed

    Deng, Ming-De; Grund, Alan D; Schneider, Kenneth J; Langley, Kim M; Wassink, Sarah L; Peng, Susan S; Rosson, Reinhardt A

    2007-12-01

    Propionibacterium acnes strain ATCC 6919 catalyzes the isomerization of the double bond at the C9 position in linoleic acid (c9,c12, 18:2) to form t10,c12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, 18:2). CLA has significant health benefits in animal and human. The linoleic acid C9 isomerase was purified to an apparent homogeneity by successive chromatography on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and chromatofocusing columns. Two degenerated oligonucleotide primers were synthesized according to the N-terminal peptide sequence to clone, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a short nucleotide sequence (62 bp) of the isomerase gene. The linoleic acid isomerase gene (lai) was subsequently cloned by inverse PCR. The amino acid sequence deduced from the lai coding sequence predicts a protein of 424 amino acid residues (48 kDa), excluding the N-terminal methionine, which was absent in the polypeptide purified from the native host. The isomerase shares no significant sequence homology to other enzymes except a flavin-binding domain in the N-terminal region. The recombinant isomerase purified from Escherichia coli showed a typical ultraviolet spectrum for FAD-bound proteins. The recombinant enzyme produced a single isomer of t10,c12-CLA from linoleic acid, as demonstrated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrum analysis. The recombinant isomerase protein was expressed at high levels in E. coli, but it was almost totally sequestered in inclusion bodies. The level of active isomerase was increased 376-fold by medium and process optimization in bench-scale fermentors. PMID:18057448

  3. Genetic and functional aspects of linoleate isomerase in Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Macouzet, Martin; Robert, Normand; Lee, Byong H

    2010-08-01

    While the remarkable health effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) catalyzed from alpha-linoleic acid by the enzyme linoleate isomerase (LI, EC 5.2.1.5) are well recognized, how widely this biochemical activity is present and the mechanisms of its regulation in lactic acid bacteria are unknown. Although certain strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus can enrich CLA in fermented dairy products, it is unknown if other strains share this capacity. Due to its immense economic importance, this work aimed to investigate genetic aspects of CLA production in L. acidophilus for the first time. The genomic DNA from industrial and type strains of L. acidophilus were subjected to PCR and immunoblot analyses using the putative LI gene of L. reuteri ATCC 55739 as probe. The CLA production ability was estimated by gas chromatography of the biomass extracts. The presumptive LI gene from L. acidophilus ATCC 832 was isolated and sequenced. The resulting sequence shared 71% identity with that of L. reuteri and at least 99% with reported sequences from other L. acidophilus strains. All the strains accumulated detectable levels of CLA and tested positive by PCR and immunoblotting. However, no apparent correlation was observed between the yields and the hybridization patterns. The results suggest that LI activity might be common among L. acidophilus and related species and provide a new tool for screening potential CLA producers. PMID:20461509

  4. Identification of disulfide bond isomerase substrates reveals bacterial virulence factors

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Guoping; Champion, Matthew M.; Huntley, Jason F.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Bacterial pathogens are exposed to toxic molecules inside the host and require efficient systems to form and maintain correct disulfide bonds for protein stability and function. The intracellular pathogen Francisella tularensis encodes a disulfide bond formation protein ortholog, DsbA, which previously was reported to be required for infection of macrophages and mice. However, the molecular mechanisms by which F. tularensis DsbA contributes to virulence are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that F. tularensis DsbA is a bifunctional protein that oxidizes and, more importantly, isomerizes complex disulfide connectivity in substrates. A single amino acid in the conserved cis-proline loop of the DsbA thioredoxin domain was shown to modulate both isomerase activity and F. tularensis virulence. Trapping experiments in F. tularensis identified over 50 F. tularensis DsbA substrates, including outer membrane proteins, virulence factors, and many hypothetical proteins. Six of these hypothetical proteins were randomly selected and deleted, revealing two novel proteins, FTL_1548 and FTL_1709, which are required for F. tularensis virulence. We propose that the extreme virulence of F. tularensis is partially due to the bifunctional nature of DsbA, that many of the newly-identified substrates are required for virulence, and that the development of future DsbA inhibitors could have broad anti-bacterial implications. PMID:25257164

  5. The Oligomeric Nature of Triosephosphate Isomerase. Studies of Monomerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zárate-Pérez, Francisco; Vázquez-Contreras, Edgar

    2008-02-01

    In this work, we report the implications of the monomerization of triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) from T. cruzi (TcTIM). A monomeric mutant (monoTcTIM) of this species was constructed by genetic engineering, shortening the main loop of interdigitation, which is fundamental for its dimerization. The properties of monoTcTIM were compared with those of the other TIM monomeric versions: genetically engineered mutants, or equilibrium intermediates obtained by chemical denaturation. The stability for almost all the monomeric variants so far reported appears in the same range, and also presents similar structural characteristics. Regarding the catalytic activity of monomeric mutants, when it is present is in several orders of magnitude lower than those observed in their respective wild-type enzyme. The change in the hydrophobic surface of TcTIM after and before monomerization was also studied and corresponds to an extensive area of the interface region, which becomes exposed when monomers are dissociated. This fact could be related with conformational changes in the local environment of the catalytic amino acids responsible for the isomerization of the substrate and consequently the inactivation of its catalytic properties. Comparison of the structural, folding and unfolding properties, as well as stability studies could give answers on why this enzyme is an obligate oligomer.

  6. Human triosephosphate isomerase deficiency resulting from mutation of Phe-240

    SciTech Connect

    Minling Chang; Xiaoyun Wu; Maquat, L.E. ); Artymiuk, P.J. ); Hollan, S. ); Lammi, A. )

    1993-06-01

    Triosephosphate isomerase (TPI; D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate ketolisomerase [E.C.5.3.1.1]) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder that typically results in chronic, nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia and in neuromuscular impairment. The molecular basis of this disease was analyzed for one Hungarian family and for two Australian families by localizing the defects in TPI cDNA and by determining how each defect affects TPI gene expression. The Hungarian family is noteworthy in having the first reported case of an individual, A. Jo., who harbors two defective TPI alleles but who does not manifest neuromuscular disabilities. This family was characterized by two mutations that have never been described. One is a missense mutation within codon 240 (TTC [Phe][r arrow]CTC [Leu]), which creates a thermolabile protein, as indicated by the results of enzyme activity assays using cell extracts. This substitution, which changes a phylogenetically conserved amino acid, may affect enzyme activity by dusrupting intersubunit contacts or substrate binding, as deduced from enzyme structural studies. The other mutation has yet to be localized but reduces the abundance of TPI mRNA 10--20-fold. Each of the Australian families was characterized by a previously described mutation within codon 104 (GAG [Glu][r arrow]GAC [Asp]), which also results in thermolabile protein. 49 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Purification and Partial characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi triosephosphate isomerase.

    PubMed

    Bourguignon, S C; Meirelles, M N; Pacheco, R S; De Simone, S G

    1998-01-01

    The enzyme triosephosphate isomerase (TPI, EC 5.3.1.1) was purified from extracts of epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. The purification steps included: hydrophobic interaction chromatography on phenyl-Sepharose, CM-Sepharose, and high performance liquid gel filtration chromatography. The CM-Sepharose material contained two bands (27 and 25 kDa) with similar isoelectric points (pI 9.3-9.5) which could be separated by gel filtration in high performance liquid chromatography. Polyclonal antibodies raised against the porcine TPI detected one single polypeptide on western blot with a molecular weight (27 kDa) identical to that purified from T. cruzi. These antibodies also recognized only one band of identical molecular weight in western blots of several other trypanosomatids (Blastocrithidia culicis, Crithidia desouzai, Phytomonas serpens, Herpertomonas samuelpessoai). The presence of only one enzymatic form of TPI in T. cruzi epimastigotes was confirmed by agarose gel activity assay and its localization was established by immunocytochemical analysis. The T. cruzi purified TPI (as well as other trypanosomatid' TPIs) is a dimeric protein, composed of two identical subunits with an approximate mw of 27,000 and it is resolved on two dimensional gel electrophoresis with a pI of 9.3. Sequence analysis of the N-terminal portion of the 27 kDa protein revealed a high homology to Leishmania mexicana and T. brucei proteins. PMID:9698898

  8. Catalytic mechanism of a retinoid isomerase essential for vertebrate vision

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kiser, Philip D.; Zhang, Jianye; Badiee, Mohsen; Li, Qingjiang; Shi, Wuxian; Sui, Xuewu; Golczak, Marcin; Tochtrop, Gregory P.; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2015-04-20

    Visual function in vertebrates is dependent on the membrane-bound retinoid isomerase RPE65, an essential component of the retinoid cycle pathway that regenerates 11-cis-retinal for rod and cone opsins. The mechanism by which RPE65 catalyzes stereoselective retinoid isomerization has remained elusive because of uncertainty about how retinoids bind to its active site. Here we present crystal structures of RPE65 in complex with retinoid-mimetic compounds, one of which is in clinical trials for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration. The structures reveal the active site retinoid-binding cavity located near the membrane-interacting surface of the enzyme as well as an Fe-bound palmitate ligandmore » positioned in an adjacent pocket. With the geometry of the RPE65–substrate complex clarified, we delineate a mechanism of catalysis that reconciles the extensive biochemical and structural research on this enzyme. Finally, these data provide molecular foundations for understanding a key process in vision and pharmacological inhibition of RPE65 with small molecules.« less

  9. Catalytic mechanism of a retinoid isomerase essential for vertebrate vision

    SciTech Connect

    Kiser, Philip D.; Zhang, Jianye; Badiee, Mohsen; Li, Qingjiang; Shi, Wuxian; Sui, Xuewu; Golczak, Marcin; Tochtrop, Gregory P.; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2015-04-20

    Visual function in vertebrates is dependent on the membrane-bound retinoid isomerase RPE65, an essential component of the retinoid cycle pathway that regenerates 11-cis-retinal for rod and cone opsins. The mechanism by which RPE65 catalyzes stereoselective retinoid isomerization has remained elusive because of uncertainty about how retinoids bind to its active site. Here we present crystal structures of RPE65 in complex with retinoid-mimetic compounds, one of which is in clinical trials for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration. The structures reveal the active site retinoid-binding cavity located near the membrane-interacting surface of the enzyme as well as an Fe-bound palmitate ligand positioned in an adjacent pocket. With the geometry of the RPE65–substrate complex clarified, we delineate a mechanism of catalysis that reconciles the extensive biochemical and structural research on this enzyme. Finally, these data provide molecular foundations for understanding a key process in vision and pharmacological inhibition of RPE65 with small molecules.

  10. ALS-linked protein disulfide isomerase variants cause motor dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Woehlbier, Ute; Colombo, Alicia; Saaranen, Mirva J; Pérez, Viviana; Ojeda, Jorge; Bustos, Fernando J; Andreu, Catherine I; Torres, Mauricio; Valenzuela, Vicente; Medinas, Danilo B; Rozas, Pablo; Vidal, Rene L; Lopez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Salameh, Johnny; Fernandez-Collemann, Sara; Muñoz, Natalia; Matus, Soledad; Armisen, Ricardo; Sagredo, Alfredo; Palma, Karina; Irrazabal, Thergiory; Almeida, Sandra; Gonzalez-Perez, Paloma; Campero, Mario; Gao, Fen-Biao; Henny, Pablo; van Zundert, Brigitte; Ruddock, Lloyd W; Concha, Miguel L; Henriquez, Juan P; Brown, Robert H; Hetz, Claudio

    2016-04-15

    Disturbance of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteostasis is a common feature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs) areERfoldases identified as possibleALSbiomarkers, as well as neuroprotective factors. However, no functional studies have addressed their impact on the disease process. Here, we functionally characterized fourALS-linked mutations recently identified in two majorPDIgenes,PDIA1 andPDIA3/ERp57. Phenotypic screening in zebrafish revealed that the expression of thesePDIvariants induce motor defects associated with a disruption of motoneuron connectivity. Similarly, the expression of mutantPDIs impaired dendritic outgrowth in motoneuron cell culture models. Cellular and biochemical studies identified distinct molecular defects underlying the pathogenicity of thesePDImutants. Finally, targetingERp57 in the nervous system led to severe motor dysfunction in mice associated with a loss of neuromuscular synapses. This study identifiesERproteostasis imbalance as a risk factor forALS, driving initial stages of the disease. PMID:26869642

  11. Catalytic mechanism of a retinoid isomerase essential for vertebrate vision

    PubMed Central

    Kiser, Philip D.; Zhang, Jianye; Badiee, Mohsen; Li, Qingjiang; Shi, Wuxian; Sui, Xuewu; Golczak, Marcin; Tochtrop, Gregory P.; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Visual function in vertebrates is dependent on the membrane-bound retinoid isomerase, RPE65, an essential component of the retinoid cycle pathway that regenerates 11-cis-retinal for rod and cone opsins. The mechanism by which RPE65 catalyzes stereoselective retinoid isomerization has remained elusive due to uncertainty about how retinoids bind to its active site. Here we present crystal structures of RPE65 in complex with retinoid-mimetic compounds, one of which is in clinical trials for treatment of age-related macular degeneration. The structures reveal the active site retinoid-binding cavity located near the membrane-interacting surface of the enzyme as well as an Fe-bound palmitate ligand positioned in an adjacent pocket. With the geometry of the RPE65-substrate complex clarified we delineate a mechanism of catalysis that reconciles the extensive biochemical and structural research on this enzyme. These data provide molecular foundations for understanding a key process in vision and pharmacological inhibition of RPE65 with small molecules. PMID:25894083

  12. Structural and functional characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis triosephosphate isomerase

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, Sean E.; Capodagli, Glenn C.; Deaton, Michelle K.; Pegan, Scott D.

    2012-04-18

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major infectious disease that accounts for over 1.7 million deaths every year. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, enters the human host by the inhalation of infectious aerosols. Additionally, one third of the world's population is likely to be infected with latent TB. The incidence of TB is on the rise owing in part to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains. As a result, there is a growing need to focus on novel M. tuberculosis enzyme targets. M. tuberculosis triosephosphate isomerase (MtTPI) is an essential enzyme for gluconeogenetic pathways, making it a potential target for future therapeutics. In order to determine its structure, the X-ray crystal structure of MtTPI has been determined, as well as that of MtTPI bound with a reaction-intermediate analog. As a result, two forms of the active site were revealed. In conjunction with the kinetic parameters obtained for the MtTPI-facilitated conversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) to D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (D-GAP), this provides a greater structural and biochemical understanding of this enzyme. Additionally, isothermal titration calorimetry was used to determine the binding constant for a reaction-intermediate analog bound to the active site of MtTPI.

  13. Plant phosphomannose isomerase as a selectable marker for rice transformation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Lei; Li, Hao; Qin, Ruiying; Xu, Rongfang; Li, Juan; Li, Li; Wei, Pengcheng; Yang, Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    The E. coli phosphomannose isomerase (EcPMI) gene is widely used as a selectable marker gene (SMG) in mannose (Man) selection-based plant transformation. Although some plant species exhibit significant PMI activity and active PMIs were even identified in Man-sensitive plants, whether plant PMIs can be used as SMGs remains unclear. In this study, we isolated four novel PMI genes from Chlorella variabilis and Oryza sativa. Their isoenzymatic activities were examined in vitro and compared with that of EcPMI. The active plant PMIs were separately constructed into binary vectors as SMGs and then transformed into rice via Agrobacterium. In both Indica and Japonica subspecies, our results indicated that the plant PMIs could select and produce transgenic plants in a pattern similar to that of EcPMI. The transgenic plants exhibited an accumulation of plant PMI transcripts and enhancement of the in vivo PMI activity. Furthermore, a gene of interest was successfully transformed into rice using the plant PMIs as SMGs. Thus, novel SMGs for Man selection were isolated from plants, and our analysis suggested that PMIs encoding active enzymes might be common in plants and could potentially be used as appropriate genetic elements in cisgenesis engineering. PMID:27174847

  14. Purification and characterization of corticosteroid side chain isomerase

    SciTech Connect

    Marandici, A.; Monder, C. )

    1990-02-06

    Corticosteroid side chain isomerase of rat liver catalyzes the interconversion of the ketol (20-oxo-21-ol) and (20-hydroxy-21-al) forms of the corticosteroid side chain. The enzyme has now been purified to apparent homogeneity from rat liver cytosol by sequential chromatography on anionic, hydroxylapatite, and gel filtration columns. Ketol-aldol isomerization is followed by measuring the exchange of tritium from 21-tritiated steroids with water. The native enzyme is a dimer of MW 44,000. The isoelectric point is 4.8 {plus minus} 0.1 pH units. The purified enzyme is stimulated by Co{sup 3+} or Ni{sup 2+}. The enzyme utilizes 11-deoxycorticosterone, corticosterone, and 17-deoxycortisol as substrate but not cortisol, tetrahydrocortisol, and prednisolone. Tritium-water exchange of (21S)-(21-{sup 3}H)DOC is a pseudo-first-order reaction; 21-{sup 3}H exchange from the 21R isomer proceeds with first-order kinetics only after a lag associated with its epimerization to the 21S form.

  15. Secretion of protein disulphide isomerase AGR2 confers tumorigenic properties

    PubMed Central

    Fessart, Delphine; Domblides, Charlotte; Avril, Tony; Eriksson, Leif A; Begueret, Hugues; Pineau, Raphael; Malrieux, Camille; Dugot-Senant, Nathalie; Lucchesi, Carlo; Chevet, Eric; Delom, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an instrumental role in determining the spatial orientation of epithelial polarity and the formation of lumens in glandular tissues during morphogenesis. Here, we show that the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)-resident protein anterior gradient-2 (AGR2), a soluble protein-disulfide isomerase involved in ER protein folding and quality control, is secreted and interacts with the ECM. Extracellular AGR2 (eAGR2) is a microenvironmental regulator of epithelial tissue architecture, which plays a role in the preneoplastic phenotype and contributes to epithelial tumorigenicity. Indeed, eAGR2, is secreted as a functionally active protein independently of its thioredoxin-like domain (CXXS) and of its ER-retention domain (KTEL), and is sufficient, by itself, to promote the acquisition of invasive and metastatic features. Therefore, we conclude that eAGR2 plays an extracellular role independent of its ER function and we elucidate this gain-of-function as a novel and unexpected critical ECM microenvironmental pro-oncogenic regulator of epithelial morphogenesis and tumorigenesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13887.001 PMID:27240165

  16. Crystal Structure of Triosephosphate Isomerase from Trypanosoma cruzi in Hexane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiu-Gong; Maldonado, Ernesto; Perez-Montfort, Ruy; Garza-Ramos, Georgina; Tuena de Gomez-Puyou, Marietta; Gomez-Puyou, Armando; Rodriguez-Romero, Adela

    1999-08-01

    To gain insight into the mechanisms of enzyme catalysis in organic solvents, the x-ray structure of some monomeric enzymes in organic solvents was determined. However, it remained to be explored whether the structure of oligomeric proteins is also amenable to such analysis. The field acquired new perspectives when it was proposed that the x-ray structure of enzymes in nonaqueous media could reveal binding sites for organic solvents that in principle could represent the starting point for drug design. Here, a crystal of the dimeric enzyme triosephosphate isomerase from the pathogenic parasite Trypanosoma cruzi was soaked and diffracted in hexane and its structure solved at 2- angstrom resolution. Its overall structure and the dimer interface were not altered by hexane. However, there were differences in the orientation of the side chains of several amino acids, including that of the catalytic Glu-168 in one of the monomers. No hexane molecules were detected in the active site or in the dimer interface. However, three hexane molecules were identified on the surface of the protein at sites, which in the native crystal did not have water molecules. The number of water molecules in the hexane structure was higher than in the native crystal. Two hexanes localized at <4 angstrom from residues that form the dimer interface; they were in close proximity to a site that has been considered a potential target for drug design.

  17. Plant phosphomannose isomerase as a selectable marker for rice transformation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lei; Li, Hao; Qin, Ruiying; Xu, Rongfang; Li, Juan; Li, Li; Wei, Pengcheng; Yang, Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    The E. coli phosphomannose isomerase (EcPMI) gene is widely used as a selectable marker gene (SMG) in mannose (Man) selection-based plant transformation. Although some plant species exhibit significant PMI activity and active PMIs were even identified in Man-sensitive plants, whether plant PMIs can be used as SMGs remains unclear. In this study, we isolated four novel PMI genes from Chlorella variabilis and Oryza sativa. Their isoenzymatic activities were examined in vitro and compared with that of EcPMI. The active plant PMIs were separately constructed into binary vectors as SMGs and then transformed into rice via Agrobacterium. In both Indica and Japonica subspecies, our results indicated that the plant PMIs could select and produce transgenic plants in a pattern similar to that of EcPMI. The transgenic plants exhibited an accumulation of plant PMI transcripts and enhancement of the in vivo PMI activity. Furthermore, a gene of interest was successfully transformed into rice using the plant PMIs as SMGs. Thus, novel SMGs for Man selection were isolated from plants, and our analysis suggested that PMIs encoding active enzymes might be common in plants and could potentially be used as appropriate genetic elements in cisgenesis engineering. PMID:27174847

  18. Psychrophilic, mesophilic, and thermophilic triosephosphate isomerases from three clostridial species.

    PubMed Central

    Shing, Y W; Akagi, J M; Himes, R H

    1975-01-01

    Triosephosphate isomerase was purified to homogeneity as judged by analytical gel electrophoresis from clostridium sp. strain 69, clostridium pasteurianum, and C. thermosaccharolyticum, which grow optimally at 18, 37, and 55 C, respectively. Comparative studies on these purified proteins showed that they had the same molecular weight (53,000) and subunit molecular weight (26,500). They were equally susceptible to the active site-directed inhibitor, glycidol phosphate. However, their temperature and pH optima, as well as their stabilities to heat, urea, and sodium dodecyl sulfate, differed. The proteins also had different mobilities in acrylamide gel electrophoresis. This difference in ionic character was also reflected in the elution behavior of the enzymes from hydroxyapatite and in the isoelectric points determined by isoelectric focusing in acrylamide gel. The amino acid composition of these proteins showed that the thermophilic enzyme contains a greater amount of proline than the other enzymes. The ratio of acidic amino acids to basic amino acids was 1.79, 1.38, and 1.66 for the thermophilic mesophilic and psychrophilic enzymes, respectively. This is consistent with the relative isoelectric point values of these three enzymes. Images PMID:235509

  19. The tryptic peptides of rabbit muscle triose phosphate isomerase

    PubMed Central

    Corran, P. H.; Waley, S. G.

    1974-01-01

    1. The peptides obtained by tryptic digestion of S-[14C]carboxymethylated rabbit muscle triose phosphate isomerase have been studied. 2. The first step in the fractionation of the tryptic digest was gel filtration on coupled columns of Sephadex G-25 and G-50. Further fractionation was carried out by paper electrophoresis and paper chromatography. 3. The digest contained 26 peptides and three free amino acids. The sizes of the peptides ranged from two to 29 residues. 4. The sequences of the peptides have been determined. 5. The length of the polypeptide chains is about 250 amino acid residues. 6. The variant sequences encountered were due to partial deamidation; this may be one of the reasons for multiple forms of the enzyme. 7. The chicken and rabbit enzymes are compared. 8. Detailed evidence for the sequences of the tryptic peptides has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50024 at the British Library, Lending Division (formerly the National Lending Library for Science and Technology), Boston Spa, Yorks. LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms given in Biochem. J. (1973) 131, 5. PMID:4618774

  20. Catalytic mechanism of a retinoid isomerase essential for vertebrate vision

    SciTech Connect

    Kiser, Philip D.; Zhang, Jianye; Badiee, Mohsen; Li, Qingjiang; Shi, Wuxian; Sui, Xuewu; Golczak, Marcin; Tochtrop, Gregory P.; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2015-04-20

    Visual function in vertebrates is dependent on the membrane-bound retinoid isomerase RPE65, an essential component of the retinoid cycle pathway that regenerates 11-cis-retinal for rod and cone opsins. The mechanism by which RPE65 catalyzes stereoselective retinoid isomerization has remained elusive because of uncertainty about how retinoids bind to its active site. Here we present crystal structures of RPE65 in complex with retinoid-mimetic compounds, one of which is in clinical trials for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration. The structures reveal the active site retinoid-binding cavity located near the membrane-interacting surface of the enzyme as well as an Fe-bound palmitate ligand positioned in an adjacent pocket. With the geometry of the RPE65–substrate complex clarified, we delineate a mechanism of catalysis that reconciles the extensive biochemical and structural research on this enzyme. These data provide molecular foundations for understanding a key process in vision and pharmacological inhibition of RPE65 with small molecules.

  1. Cell surface thiol isomerases may explain the platelet-selective action of S-nitrosoglutathione.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Fang; Gordge, Michael P

    2011-10-30

    S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) at low concentration inhibits platelet aggregation without causing vasodilation, suggesting platelet-selective nitric oxide delivery. The mechanism of this selectivity is unknown, but may involve cell surface thiol isomerases, in particular protein disulphide isomerase (csPDI) (EC 5.3.4.1). We have now compared csPDI expression and activity on platelets, endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, and the dependence on thiol reductase activity of these cell types for NO uptake from GSNO. csPDI expression was measured by flow cytometry and its reductase activity using the pseudosubstrate dieosin glutathione disulphide. This activity assay was adapted and validated for 96-well plate format. Flow cytometry revealed csPDI on all three cell types, but percentage positivity of expression was higher on platelets than on vascular cells. Consistent with this, thiol isomerase-related reductase activity was higher on platelets (P<0.01), and cellular activation (with either phorbol myristate acetate or ionomycin) increased csPDI activity on both platelets and smooth muscle cells, but not on endothelium. Intracellular NO delivery from GSNO was greater in platelets than in vascular cells (P<0.002), and was more sensitive to thiol isomerase inhibition using phenylarsine oxide (P<0.05). Increased surface thiol isomerase activity on platelets, compared with cells of the vascular wall, may explain the platelet-selective actions of GSNO and help define its antithrombotic potential. PMID:21642008

  2. Spliceosomal Immunophilins

    PubMed Central

    Mesa, Annia; Somarelli, Jason A.; Herrera, Rene J.

    2008-01-01

    The spliceosome is a dynamic, macromolecular complex, which removes non-protein-coding introns from pre-mRNA to form mature mRNA in a process known as splicing. This ribonucleoprotein assembly is comprised of five uridine-rich small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) as well as over 300 proteins. In humans, several of the known splicing factors are members of the immunophilin superfamily. Immunophilins are peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases that catalyze the conversion of proteins from cis to trans at Xaa-Pro bonds. Our review of the data portrays a picture of this protein family as activators of spliceosomal proteins by way of folding and transport. PMID:18544344

  3. Cyclophilin and Viruses: Cyclophilin as a Cofactor for Viral Infection and Possible Anti-Viral Target

    PubMed Central

    Watashi, Koichi; Shimotohno, Kunitada

    2007-01-01

    Cyclophilin (CyP) is a peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase, catalyzing the cis-trans isomerization of proline residues in proteins. CyP plays key roles in several different aspects of cellular physiology including the immune response, transcription, mitochondrial function, cell death, and chemotaxis. In addition to these cellular events, a number of reports demonstrated that CyP plays a critical role in the life cycle of viruses, especially human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). These two viruses are significant causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, but current therapies are often insufficient. CyP may provide a novel therapeutic target for the management and/or cure of these diseases, in particular HCV. PMID:21901058

  4. The cyclophilins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Heitman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    Summary: Cyclophilins (Enzyme Commission (EC) number 5.1.2.8) belong to a group of proteins that have peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity; such proteins are collectively known as immunophilins and also include the FK-506-binding proteins and the parvulins. Cyclophilins are found in all cells of all organisms studied, in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes; humans have a total of 16 cyclophilin proteins, Arabidopsis up to 29 and Saccharomyces 8. The first member of the cyclophilins to be identified in mammals, cyclophilin A, is the major cellular target for, and thus mediates the actions of, the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin A. Cyclophilin A forms a ternary complex with cyclosporin A and the calcium-calmodulin-activated serine/threonine-specific protein phosphatase calcineurin; formation of this complex prevents calcineurin from regulating cytokine gene transcription. Recent studies have implicated a diverse array of additional cellular functions for cyclophilins, including roles as chaperones and in cell signaling. PMID:15998457

  5. What are the pros and cons of the use of host-targeted agents against hepatitis C?

    PubMed

    Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel

    2014-05-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy is living a revolution. Host-targeted agents (HTAs) block HCV production by interacting with host cell components. Because they target conserved host proteins, not variable viral proteins, HTAs have the potential for pangenotypic antiviral activity and a high barrier to resistance. Only two HTAs have reached clinical development, including specific inhibitors of cyclophilin A peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase activity and antagonists of microRNA-122. Cyclophilin inhibitors have proven to be relatively well tolerated and can be confidently used as backbones of all-oral, interferon-free regimens. In addition, HTAs such as cyclophilin inhibitors offer opportunities for "panviral" approaches when they target mechanisms common to viruses of the same or different families. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on "Hepatitis C: next steps toward global eradication." PMID:24583032

  6. Interaction with Ppil3 leads to the cytoplasmic localization of Apoptin in tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Huo Dehua; Yi Lina; Yang Jine

    2008-07-18

    Apoptin, a small protein encoded by chicken anemia virus (CAV), induces cell death specifically in cancer cells. In normal cells, Apoptin remains in the cytoplasm; whereas in cancerous cells, it migrates into the nucleus and kills the cell. Cellular localization appears to be crucial. Through a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified human Peptidyl-prolyl isomerase-like 3 (Ppil3) as one of the Apoptin-associated proteins. Ppil3 could bind Apoptin directly, and held Apoptin in cytoplasm even in tumor cells. We then demonstrated that the nuclearcytoplasmic distribution of Apoptin is related to the expression level of intrinsic Ppil3. Moreover, extrinsic modifying of Ppil3 levels also resulted in nuclearcytoplasmic shuffling of Apoptin. The Apoptin P109A mutant, located between the putative nuclear localization and export signals, could significantly impair the function of Ppil3. Our results suggest a new direction for the localization mechanism study of Apoptin in cells.

  7. Structural, Biochemical, and in Vivo Characterization of the First Virally Encoded Cyclophilin from the Mimivirus

    PubMed Central

    Thai, Vu; Renesto, Patricia; Fowler, C. Andrew; Brown, Darin J.; Davis, Tara; Gu, Wanjun; Pollock, David D.; Kern, Dorothee; Raoult, Didier; Eisenmesser, Elan Z.

    2010-01-01

    Although multiple viruses utilize host cell cyclophilins, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and human immunodeficiency virus type-1(HIV-1), their role in infection is poorly understood. To help elucidate these roles, we have characterized the first virally encoded cyclophilin (mimicyp) derived from the largest virus discovered to date (the Mimivirus) that is also a causative agent of pneumonia in humans. Mimicyp adopts a typical cyclophilin-fold, yet it also forms trimers unlike any previously characterized homologue. Strikingly, immunofluorescence assays reveal that mimicyp localizes to the surface of the mature virion, as recently proposed for several viruses that recruit host cell cyclophilins such as SARS and HIV-1. Additionally mimicyp lacks peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity in contrast to human cyclophilins. Thus, this study suggests that cyclophilins, whether recruited from host cells (i.e. HIV-1 and SARS) or virally encoded (i.e. Mimivirus), are localized on viral surfaces for at least a subset of viruses. PMID:18342330

  8. Solution characterization of the extracellular region of CD147 and its interaction with its enzyme ligand cyclophilin-A

    SciTech Connect

    Schlegel, Jennifer; Redzic, Jasmina S.; Porter, Christopher; Yurchenko, Vyacheslav; Bukrinsky, Michael; Labeikovsky, Wladimir; Armstrong, Geoffrey S.; Zhang, Fengli; Isern, Nancy G.; Degregori, James; Hodges, Robert; Eisenmesser, Elan Z.

    2009-08-21

    The CD147 receptor plays an integral role in numerous diseases by stimulating the expression of several protein families and serving as the receptor for extracellular cyclophilins, however, neither CD147 nor its interactions with its cyclophilin ligands have been well characterized in solution. CD147 is a unique protein in that it can function both at the cell membrane and after being released from cells where it continues to retain activity. Thus, the CD147 receptor functions through at least two mechanisms that include both cyclophilin-independent and cyclophilin-dependent modes of action. In regard to CD147 cyclophilin-independent activity, CD147 homophilic interactions are thought to underlie its activity. In regard to CD147 cyclophilin-dependent activity, cyclophilin/CD147 interactions may represent a novel means of signaling since cyclophilins are also peptidyl-prolyl isomerases.

  9. Twin-arginine-dependent translocation of SufI in the absence of cytosolic helper proteins.

    PubMed

    Holzapfel, Eva; Moser, Michael; Schiltz, Emile; Ueda, Takuya; Betton, Jean-Michel; Müller, Matthias

    2009-06-16

    The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) machinery present in bacterial and thylakoidal membranes is able to transport fully folded proteins. Folding of some Tat precursor proteins requires dedicated chaperones that also sequester the signal sequence during the maturation process. Whether or not signal sequence-binding chaperones are a general prerequisite for all Tat substrate proteins is not known. Here, we have studied the propensity of Tat signal sequences of Escherichia coli to interact with general chaperones and peptidyl-prolyl-cis,trans-isomerases. Site-specific photocross-linking revealed a clear specificity for FK506-binding proteins. Nevertheless transport of the Tat substrate SufI into inverted inner membrane vesicles of E. coli was found to occur in the bona fide absence of any cytosolic chaperone. Our results suggest that in E. coli, cytosolic chaperones are not essential for the twin-arginine-dependent export of cofactor-less substrates. PMID:19432418

  10. Structural, Biochemical, and in Vivo Characterization of the First Virally Encoded Cyclophilin from the Mimivirus

    SciTech Connect

    Thai,V.; Renesto, P.; Fowler, C.; Brown, D.; Davis, T.; Gu, W.; Pollock, D.; Kern, D.; Raoult, D.; Eisenmesser, E.

    2008-01-01

    Although multiple viruses utilize host cell cyclophilins, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and human immunodeficiency virus type-1(HIV-1), their role in infection is poorly understood. To help elucidate these roles, we have characterized the first virally encoded cyclophilin (mimicyp) derived from the largest virus discovered to date (the Mimivirus) that is also a causative agent of pneumonia in humans. Mimicyp adopts a typical cyclophilin-fold, yet it also forms trimers unlike any previously characterized homologue. Strikingly, immunofluorescence assays reveal that mimicyp localizes to the surface of the mature virion, as recently proposed for several viruses that recruit host cell cyclophilins such as SARS and HIV-1. Additionally mimicyp lacks peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity in contrast to human cyclophilins. Thus, this study suggests that cyclophilins, whether recruited from host cells (ie HIV-1 and SARS) or virally encoded (ie Mimivirus), are localized on viral surfaces for at least a subset of viruses.

  11. Chemotactic Activity of Cyclophilin A in the Skin Mucus of Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) and Its Active Site for Chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Dawar, Farman Ullah; Tu, Jiagang; Xiong, Yang; Lan, Jiangfeng; Dong, Xing Xing; Liu, Xiaoling; Khattak, Muhammad Nasir Khan; Mei, Jie; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    Fish skin mucus is a dynamic barrier for invading pathogens with a variety of anti-microbial enzymes, including cyclophilin A (CypA), a multi-functional protein with peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) activity. Beside various other immunological functions, CypA induces leucocytes migration in vitro in teleost. In the current study, we have discovered several novel immune-relevant proteins in yellow catfish skin mucus by mass spectrometry (MS). The CypA present among them was further detected by Western blot. Moreover, the CypA present in the skin mucus displayed strong chemotactic activity for yellow catfish leucocytes. Interestingly, asparagine (like arginine in mammals) at position 69 was the critical site in yellow catfish CypA involved in leucocyte attraction. These novel efforts do not only highlight the enzymatic texture of skin mucus, but signify CypA to be targeted for anti-inflammatory therapeutics. PMID:27589721

  12. The innate immune roles of host factors TRIM5α and Cyclophilin A on HIV-1 replication.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Yi-Qun; Liu, Hong-Liang; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2015-10-01

    During the long-term evolutionary history, the interaction between virus and host has driven the first-line barrier, innate immunity, to invading pathogens. Innate immune factor TRIM5α and host peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase Cyclophilin A are two key players in the interaction between HIV-1 and host. Interestingly, Cyclophilin A is retrotransposed into the critical host gene, TRIM5, locus via LINE-1 element in some primate species including New World monkeys and Old World monkeys. This review aims to comprehensively discuss the sensing and immune activation procedures of TRIM5α innate signaling pathway through Cyclophilin A. It will then present the production of TRIMCyp chimeric gene and the different fusion patterns in primates. Finally, it will summarize the distinct restriction activity of TRIMCyp from different primates and explain the current understanding on the innate immune mechanisms involved in the early phase of the viral life cycle during HIV-1 replication. PMID:25894765

  13. Further delineation of FKBP14-related Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: A patient with early vascular complications and non-progressive kyphoscoliosis, and literature review.

    PubMed

    Dordoni, Chiara; Ciaccio, Claudia; Venturini, Marina; Calzavara-Pinton, Piergiacomo; Ritelli, Marco; Colombi, Marina

    2016-08-01

    FKBP14-related Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is an extremely rare recessive connective tissue disorder described for the first time in 2012 by Baumann and coworkers. The causal gene, FKBP14, encodes a member of the F506-binding family of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases. The paucity of patients described so far makes this disorder poorly defined at clinical level. Here, we report an additional pediatric patient, who is compound heterozygous for a recurrent and a novel FKBP14 mutation, and compare his phenotype with those available in literature. This evaluation confirms that kyphoscoliosis (either progressive or non-progressive), myopathy, joint hypermobility, and congenital hearing loss (sensorineural, conductive, or mixed) are the typical features of the syndrome. Since the patient showed a severe cardiovascular event in childhood and atlantoaxial instability, this report expands the phenotype of the disorder and the allelic repertoire of FKBP14. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27149304

  14. Biochemical characterization of recombinant phosphoglucose isomerase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, Divya; Ahsan, Zaid; Tiwari, Madhulika; Garg, Lalit C. . E-mail: lalitcgarg@yahoo.com

    2005-11-18

    Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) is a well-characterized ubiquitous enzyme involved in the glycolytic pathway. It catalyzes the reversible isomerization of D-glucopyranose-6-phosphate and D-fructofuranose-6-phosphate and is present in all living cells. However, there is interspecies variation at the level of the primary structure which sometimes produces heterogeneity at the structural and functional levels. In order to evaluate and characterize the mycobacterial PGI, the gene encoding the PGI from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv was cloned in pET-22b(+) vector and expressed in Escherichia coli. The target DNA was PCR amplified from the bacterial artificial chromosome using specific primers and cloned under the control of T7 promoter. Upon induction with IPTG, the recombinant PGI (rPGI) expressed partly as soluble protein and partly as inclusion bodies. The rPGI from the soluble fraction was purified to near homogeneity by ion-exchange chromatography. Mass spectrum analysis of the purified rPGI revealed its mass to be 61.45 kDa. The purified rPGI was enzymatically active and the specific activity was 600 U/mg protein. The K {sub m} of rPGI was determined to be 0.318 mM for fructose-6-phosphate and the K {sub i} was 0.8 mM for 6-phosphogluconate. The rPGI exhibited optimal activity at 37 deg C and pH 9.0, and did not require mono- or divalent cations for its activity.

  15. Identification of fibrillogenic regions in human triosephosphate isomerase

    PubMed Central

    Carcamo-Noriega, Edson N.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Amyloid secondary structure relies on the intermolecular assembly of polypeptide chains through main-chain interaction. According to this, all proteins have the potential to form amyloid structure, nevertheless, in nature only few proteins aggregate into toxic or functional amyloids. Structural characteristics differ greatly among amyloid proteins reported, so it has been difficult to link the fibrillogenic propensity with structural topology. However, there are ubiquitous topologies not represented in the amyloidome that could be considered as amyloid-resistant attributable to structural features, such is the case of TIM barrel topology. Methods. This work was aimed to study the fibrillogenic propensity of human triosephosphate isomerase (HsTPI) as a model of TIM barrels. In order to do so, aggregation of HsTPI was evaluated under native-like and destabilizing conditions. Fibrillogenic regions were identified by bioinformatics approaches, protein fragmentation and peptide aggregation. Results. We identified four fibrillogenic regions in the HsTPI corresponding to the β3, β6, β7 y α8 of the TIM barrel. From these, the β3-strand region (residues 59–66) was highly fibrillogenic. In aggregation assays, HsTPI under native-like conditions led to amorphous assemblies while under partially denaturing conditions (urea 3.2 M) formed more structured aggregates. This slightly structured aggregates exhibited residual cross-β structure, as demonstrated by the recognition of the WO1 antibody and ATR-FTIR analysis. Discussion. Despite the fibrillogenic regions present in HsTPI, the enzyme maintained under native-favoring conditions displayed low fibrillogenic propensity. This amyloid-resistance can be attributed to the three-dimensional arrangement of the protein, where β-strands, susceptible to aggregation, are protected in the core of the molecule. Destabilization of the protein structure may expose inner regions promoting β-aggregation, as well as the

  16. Purification, characterization and catalytic properties of human sterol 8-isomerase.

    PubMed Central

    Nes, W David; Zhou, Wenxu; Dennis, Allen L; Li, Haoxia; Jia, Zhonghua; Keith, Richard A; Piser, Timothy M; Furlong, Stephen T

    2002-01-01

    CHO 2, encoding human sterol 8-isomerase (hSI), was introduced into plasmids pYX213 or pET23a. The resulting native protein was overexpressed in erg 2 yeast cells and purified to apparent homogeneity. The enzyme exhibited a K (m) of 50 microM and a turnover number of 0.423 s(-1) for zymosterol, an isoelectric point of 7.70, a native molecular mass of 107000 Da and was tetrameric. The structural features of zymosterol provided optimal substrate acceptability. Biomimetic studies of acid-catalysed isomerization of zymosterol resulted in formation of cholest-8(14)-enol, whereas the enzyme-generated product was a Delta(7)-sterol, suggesting absolute stereochemical control of the reaction by hSI. Using (2)H(2)O and either zymosterol or cholesta-7,24-dienol as substrates, the reversibility of the reaction was confirmed by GC-MS of the deuterated products. The positional specific incorporation of deuterium at C-9alpha was established by a combination of (1)H- and (13)C-NMR analyses of the enzyme-generated cholesta-7,24-dienol. Kinetic analyses indicated the reaction equilibrium ( K (eq)=14; DeltaG(o')=-6.5 kJ/mol) for double-bond isomerization favoured the forward direction, Delta(8) to Delta(7). Treatment of hSI with different high-energy intermediate analogues produced the following dissociation constants ( K (i)): emopamil (2 microM)=tamoxifen (1 microM)=tridemorph (1 microM)<25-azacholesterol (21 microM)

  17. Identification of fibrillogenic regions in human triosephosphate isomerase.

    PubMed

    Carcamo-Noriega, Edson N; Saab-Rincon, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Background. Amyloid secondary structure relies on the intermolecular assembly of polypeptide chains through main-chain interaction. According to this, all proteins have the potential to form amyloid structure, nevertheless, in nature only few proteins aggregate into toxic or functional amyloids. Structural characteristics differ greatly among amyloid proteins reported, so it has been difficult to link the fibrillogenic propensity with structural topology. However, there are ubiquitous topologies not represented in the amyloidome that could be considered as amyloid-resistant attributable to structural features, such is the case of TIM barrel topology. Methods. This work was aimed to study the fibrillogenic propensity of human triosephosphate isomerase (HsTPI) as a model of TIM barrels. In order to do so, aggregation of HsTPI was evaluated under native-like and destabilizing conditions. Fibrillogenic regions were identified by bioinformatics approaches, protein fragmentation and peptide aggregation. Results. We identified four fibrillogenic regions in the HsTPI corresponding to the β3, β6, β7 y α8 of the TIM barrel. From these, the β3-strand region (residues 59-66) was highly fibrillogenic. In aggregation assays, HsTPI under native-like conditions led to amorphous assemblies while under partially denaturing conditions (urea 3.2 M) formed more structured aggregates. This slightly structured aggregates exhibited residual cross-β structure, as demonstrated by the recognition of the WO1 antibody and ATR-FTIR analysis. Discussion. Despite the fibrillogenic regions present in HsTPI, the enzyme maintained under native-favoring conditions displayed low fibrillogenic propensity. This amyloid-resistance can be attributed to the three-dimensional arrangement of the protein, where β-strands, susceptible to aggregation, are protected in the core of the molecule. Destabilization of the protein structure may expose inner regions promoting β-aggregation, as well as the

  18. Purification, characterization, and amino acid sequencing of a. delta. /sup 5/-3-oxosteroid isomerase from Pseudomonas putida biotype B

    SciTech Connect

    Linden, K.G.

    1986-01-01

    Studies were performed on the ..delta../sup 5/-3-oxosteroid isomerase from Pseudomonas putida biotype B. The studies have involved three broad areas: improvement in the purification of the enzyme, further characterization of the purified enzyme, and completion of the amino acid sequence of the enzyme. For the purification of the enzyme, techniques for removing the isomerase from whole cells were studied, the effects of ionic strength on the binding of the isomerase to steroidal affinity resins was explored, and a new affinity resin was developed. Absorption spectra and the proton NMR spectra of the isomerase were obtained. Amino acid sequencing of the oxosteroid isomerase indicates that the enzyme is a dimeric protein consisting of two identical subunits each consisting of a polypeptide chain of 131 residues and a M/sub r/ = 14,536.

  19. Characterization of the microsomal steroid-8-ene isomerase of cholesterol biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Yamaga, N; Gaylor, J L

    1978-03-01

    Rat liver microsomes contain an enzyme that catalyzes the isomerization of the nuclear double bond of steroids from the 8(9) position to the 7(8) position. The enzyme is most active with zymosterol, 5alpha-cholesta-8,24-dien-3beta-ol, which is a precursor of cholesterol. Properties of the microsomal isomerase have now been studied, and preliminary data are reported on both regulation of enzymic activity and first steps in the solubilization of the enzyme from membranes. After a brief lag period, the velocity of isomerase is relatively constant for about 5 min of incubation, and then isomerization subsides. The apparent Michaelis constant (52-70 micro M) is difficult to determine accurately, due to these complex kinetic changes. V(max) is 4.0-4.7 nmol/min per mg of microsomal protein. The apparent specific activity is more than ten times that of liver microsomal methyl sterol oxidase. The maximal specific activity of microsomal isomerase is approximately doubled when rats are fed an intestinal bile acid sequestrant, cholestyramine. Changes in specific activity of isomerase parallel changes in activities of other microsomal enzymes of cholesterol biosynthesis, such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase and 4-methyl sterol oxidase. Isomerase activity is destroyed by phospholipase A digestion, high concentration of bile salts, and solvent extraction, all of which are known either to remove phospholipid or to alter microsomal membrane integrity. On the other hand, isomerase remains active in the presence of a mild, nonionic detergent, Triton WR-1339; thus, solubilization with nonionic detergents is under study. PMID:650094

  20. Purification and characterization of thermostable glucose isomerase from Clostridium thermosulfurogenes and Thermoanaerobacter strain B6A.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C Y; Zeikus, J G

    1991-01-01

    Glucose isomerases produced by Thermoanaerobacter strain B6A and Clostridium thermosulfurogenes strain 4B were purified 10-11-fold to homogeneity and their physicochemical and catalytic properties were determined. Both purified enzymes displayed very similar properties (native Mr 200,000, tetrameric subunit composition, and apparent pH optima 7.0-7.5). The enzymes were stable at pH 5.5-12.0, and maintained more than 90% activity after incubation at high temperature (85 degrees C) for 1 h in the presence of metal ions. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of both thermostable glucose isomerases were Met-Asn-Lys-Tyr-Phe-Glu-Asn and were not similar to that of the thermolabile Bacillus subtilis enzyme. The glucose isomerase from C. thermosulfurogenes and Thermoanaerobacter displayed pI values of 4.9 and 4.8, and their kcat. and Km values for D-glucose at 65 degrees C were 1040 and 1260 min-1 and 140 and 120 mM respectively. Both enzymes displayed higher kcat. and lower Km values for D-xylose than for D-glucose. The C. thermosulfurogenes enzyme required Co2+ or Mg2+ for thermal stability and glucose isomerase activity, and Mn2+ or these metals for xylose isomerase activity. Crystals of C. thermosulfurogenes glucose isomerase were formed at room temperature by the hanging-drop method using 16-18% poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) 4000 in 0.1 M-citrate buffer. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 5. PMID:1996956

  1. Xylose Isomerase Improves Growth and Ethanol Production Rates from Biomass Sugars for Both Saccharomyces Pastorianus and Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kristen P.; Gowtham, Yogender Kumar; Henson, J. Michael; Harcum, Sarah W.

    2013-01-01

    The demand for biofuel ethanol made from clean, renewable nonfood sources is growing. Cellulosic biomass, such as switch grass (Panicum virgatum L.), is an alternative feedstock for ethanol production; however, cellulosic feedstock hydrolysates contain high levels of xylose, which needs to be converted to ethanol to meet economic feasibility. In this study, the effects of xylose isomerase on cell growth and ethanol production from biomass sugars representative of switch grass were investigated using low cell density cultures. The lager yeast species Saccharomyces pastorianus was grown with immobilized xylose isomerase in the fermentation step to determine the impact of the glucose and xylose concentrations on the ethanol production rates. Ethanol production rates were improved due to xylose isomerase; however, the positive effect was not due solely to the conversion of xylose to xylulose. Xylose isomerase also has glucose isomerase activity, so to better understand the impact of the xylose isomerase on S. pastorianus, growth and ethanol production were examined in cultures provided fructose as the sole carbon. It was observed that growth and ethanol production rates were higher for the fructose cultures with xylose isomerase even in the absence of xylose. To determine whether the positive effects of xylose isomerase extended to other yeast species, a side-by-side comparison of S. pastorianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was conducted. These comparisons demonstrated that the xylose isomerase increased ethanol productivity for both the yeast species by increasing the glucose consumption rate. These results suggest that xylose isomerase can contribute to improved ethanol productivity, even without significant xylose conversion. PMID:22866331

  2. Expression of the Escherichia coli xylose isomerase gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Sarthy, A.V.; McConaughy, B.L.; Lobo, Z.; Sundstrom, J.A.; Furlong, C.E.; Hall, B.D.

    1987-09-01

    Transformation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by yeast expression plasmids bearing the Escherichia coli xylose isomerase gene leads to production of the protein. Western blotting experiments show that immunoreactive protein chains which comigrate with the E. coli enzyme are made in the transformant strains and that the amount produced parallels the copy number of the plasmid. When comparable amounts of immunologically cross-reactive xylose isomerase protein made in E. coli or S. cerevisiae were assayed for enzymatic activity, however, the yeast protein was at least 10/sup 3/-fold less active.

  3. Amino acid sequences around the cysteine residues of rabbit muscle triose phosphate isomerase

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Janet C.; Waley, S. G.

    1971-01-01

    1. The nature of the subunits in rabbit muscle triose phosphate isomerase has been investigated. 2. Amino acid analyses show that there are five cysteine residues and two methionine residues/subunit. 3. The amino acid sequences around the cysteine residues have been determined; these account for about 75 residues. 4. Cleavage at the methionine residues with cyanogen bromide gave three fragments. 5. These results show that the subunits correspond to polypeptide chains, containing about 230 amino acid residues. The chains in triose phosphate isomerase seem to be shorter than those of other glycolytic enzymes. PMID:5165707

  4. Arabidopsis Phosphomannose Isomerase 1, but Not Phosphomannose Isomerase 2, Is Essential for Ascorbic Acid Biosynthesis*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Maruta, Takanori; Yonemitsu, Miki; Yabuta, Yukinori; Tamoi, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Shigeoka, Shigeru

    2008-01-01

    We studied molecular and functional properties of Arabidopsis phosphomannose isomerase isoenzymes (PMI1 and PMI2) that catalyze reversible isomerization between d-fructose 6-phosphate and d-mannose 6-phosphate (Man-6P). The apparent Km and Vmax values for Man-6P of purified recombinant PMI1 were 41.3 ± 4.2 μm and 1.89 μmol/min/mg protein, respectively, whereas those of purified recombinant PMI2 were 372 ± 13 μm and 22.5 μmol/min/mg protein, respectively. Both PMI1 and PMI2 were inhibited by incubation with EDTA, Zn2+, Cd2+, and l-ascorbic acid (AsA). Arabidopsis PMI1 protein was constitutively expressed in both vegetative and reproductive organs under normal growth conditions, whereas the PMI2 protein was not expressed in any organs under light. The induction of PMI1 expression and an increase in the AsA level were observed in leaves under continuous light, whereas the induction of PMI2 expression and a decrease in the AsA level were observed under long term darkness. PMI1 showed a diurnal expression pattern in parallel with the total PMI activity and the total AsA content in leaves. Moreover, a reduction of PMI1 expression through RNA interference resulted in a substantial decrease in the total AsA content of leaves of knockdown PMI1 plants, whereas the complete inhibition of PMI2 expression did not affect the total AsA levels in leaves of knock-out PMI2 plants. Consequently, this study improves our understanding of the molecular and functional properties of Arabidopsis PMI isoenzymes and provides genetic evidence of the involvement of PMI1, but not PMI2, in the biosynthesis of AsA in Arabidopsis plants. PMID:18755683

  5. Both the isomerase and chaperone activities of protein disulfide isomerase are required for the reactivation of reduced and denatured acidic phospholipase A2.

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Y; Zhou, Y; Wang, C

    1997-01-01

    The spontaneous reactivation yield of acidic phospholipase A2 (APLA2), a protein containing seven disulfide bonds, after reduction and denaturation in guanidine hydrochloride is very low. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) markedly increases the reactivation yield and prevents the aggregation of APLA2 during refolding in a redox buffer containing GSH and GSSG. S-methylated PDI (mPDI), with no isomerase but as nearly full chaperone activity as native PDI, has no effect on either the reactivation or aggregation of APLA2. However, the simultaneous presence of PDI and mPDI in molar ratios to APLA2 of 0.1 and 0.9 respectively fully reactivates the denatured enzyme, as does PDI alone at a ratio of 1. At ratios of 0.1 and 0.15 respectively, they completely suppress APLA2 aggregation, as does PDI alone at a ratio of 0.25. Moreover, delayed addition of PDI to the refolding buffer greatly diminished the reactivation yield of APLA2, but this deteriorating effect can be alleviated markedly by the presence of mPDI in the refolding buffer. Without GSSG, mPDI prevents the aggregation of APLA2 during refolding. It is proposed that the in vitro action of PDI as a foldase consists of both isomerase and chaperone activities, and the latter activity can be fully replaced by mPDI. PMID:9034346

  6. Water in the Active Site of Ketosteroid Isomerase

    PubMed Central

    Hanoian, Philip; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Classical molecular dynamics simulations were utilized to investigate the structural and dynamical properties of water in the active site of ketosteroid isomerase (KSI) to provide insight into the role of these water molecules in the enzyme-catalyzed reaction. This reaction is thought to proceed via a dienolate intermediate that is stabilized by hydrogen bonding with residues Tyr16 and Asp103. A comparative study was performed for the wild-type (WT) KSI and the Y16F, Y16S, and Y16F/Y32F/Y57F (FFF) mutants. These systems were studied with three different bound ligands: equilenin, which is an intermediate analog, and the intermediate states of two steroid substrates. Several distinct water occupation sites were identified in the active site of KSI for the WT and mutant systems. Three additional sites were identified in the Y16S mutant that were not occupied in WT KSI or the other mutants studied. The number of water molecules directly hydrogen bonded to the ligand oxygen was approximately two waters in the Y16S mutant, one water in the Y16F and FFF mutants, and intermittent hydrogen bonding of one water molecule in WT KSI. The molecular dynamics trajectories of the Y16F and FFF mutants reproduced the small conformational changes of residue 16 observed in the crystal structures of these two mutants. Quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical calculations of 1H NMR chemical shifts of the protons in the active site hydrogen-bonding network suggest that the presence of water in the active site does not prevent the formation of short hydrogen bonds with far-downfield chemical shifts. The molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the active site water molecules exchange much more frequently for WT KSI and the FFF mutant than for the Y16F and Y16S mutants. This difference is most likely due to the hydrogen-bonding interaction between Tyr57 and an active site water molecule that is persistent in the Y16F and Y16S mutants but absent in the FFF mutant and significantly less

  7. Stereochemistry of 4-carboxymuconolactone decarboxylase and muconolactone isomerase in the. beta. -ketoadipate pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Whitman, C.P.; Chari, R.V.J.; Ngai, K.L.; Kozarich, J.W.

    1986-05-01

    The protocatechuate and catechol pathways, two separate and parallel branches of the ..beta..-ketoadipate pathway in Pseudomonas putida, converge at a common intermediate - ..beta..-ketoadipate enol-lactone. The enol-lactone is generated by 4-carboxymuconolactone decarboxylase in the protocatechuate pathway while muconolactone isomerase produces it in the catechol pathway. The presence of these enzymes as well as ..beta..-carboxymuconate cycloisomerase and its substrate, ..beta..-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate, in a NMR tube, leads to the following sequence of events. Lactonization of ..beta..-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate produces 4-carboxymuconolactone which decarboxylates enzymatically with deuteration by D/sub 2/O to afford 2-(/sup 2/H)-4-ketoadipate enol-lactone - the substrate for muconolactone isomerase. Further conversion of the monodeuterated enol-lactone by muconolactone isomerase affords muconolactone which is nearly completely deuterated at the 4 position. The proton ricochets between the 2 and 4 positions with concurrent washout while in the 2 position. Based on the known absolute stereochemistry of 4-carboxymuconolactone and muconolactone, these results suggest that both the decarboxylase and isomerase proceed by syn mechanisms, but operate on opposite faces of the common enol-lactone substrate.

  8. Production and Purification of Extracellular D-Xylose Isomerase from an Alkaliphilic, Thermophilic Bacillus sp. †

    PubMed Central

    Chauthaiwale, Jyoti; Rao, Mala

    1994-01-01

    An alkaliphilic, thermophilic Bacillus sp. (NCIM 59) produced extracellular xylose isomerase at pH 10 and 50°C by using xylose or wheat bran as the carbon source. The distribution of xylose isomerase as a function of growth in comparison with distributions of extra- and intracellular marker enzymes such as xylanase and β-galactosidase revealed that xylose isomerase was truly secreted as an extracellular enzyme and was not released because of sporulation or lysis. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by gel filtration, preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and ion-exchange chromatography. The molecular weight of xylose isomerase was estimated to be 160,000 by gel filtration and 50,000 by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, indicating the presence of three subunits. The enzyme is most active at pH 8.0 and with incubation at 85°C for 20 min. Divalent metal ions Mg2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ were required for maximum activity of the enzyme. The Km values for D-xylose and D-glucose at 80°C and pH 7.5 were 6.66 and 142 mM, respectively, while Kcat values were 2.3 × 102 s-1 and 0.5 × 102 s-1, respectively. Images PMID:16349464

  9. Genetic engineering in the Precambrian: structure of the chicken triosephosphate isomerase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Straus, D; Gilbert, W

    1985-01-01

    We report the sequence of the single chicken triosephosphate isomerase gene and its flanking regions. The 3-kilobase-long gene is composed of seven similarly sized exons and six introns. By using crystallographic and sequence data, we argue that this ancient gene was originally assembled from the genetic antecedents of exons. Images PMID:3837846

  10. Comparing the xylose reductase/xylitol dehydrogenase and xylose isomerase pathways in arabinose and xylose fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    PubMed Central

    Bettiga, Maurizio; Hahn-Hägerdal, Bärbel; Gorwa-Grauslund, Marie F

    2008-01-01

    Background Ethanolic fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass is a sustainable option for the production of bioethanol. This process would greatly benefit from recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains also able to ferment, besides the hexose sugar fraction, the pentose sugars, arabinose and xylose. Different pathways can be introduced in S. cerevisiae to provide arabinose and xylose utilisation. In this study, the bacterial arabinose isomerase pathway was combined with two different xylose utilisation pathways: the xylose reductase/xylitol dehydrogenase and xylose isomerase pathways, respectively, in genetically identical strains. The strains were compared with respect to aerobic growth in arabinose and xylose batch culture and in anaerobic batch fermentation of a mixture of glucose, arabinose and xylose. Results The specific aerobic arabinose growth rate was identical, 0.03 h-1, for the xylose reductase/xylitol dehydrogenase and xylose isomerase strain. The xylose reductase/xylitol dehydrogenase strain displayed higher aerobic growth rate on xylose, 0.14 h-1, and higher specific xylose consumption rate in anaerobic batch fermentation, 0.09 g (g cells)-1 h-1 than the xylose isomerase strain, which only reached 0.03 h-1 and 0.02 g (g cells)-1h-1, respectively. Whereas the xylose reductase/xylitol dehydrogenase strain produced higher ethanol yield on total sugars, 0.23 g g-1 compared with 0.18 g g-1 for the xylose isomerase strain, the xylose isomerase strain achieved higher ethanol yield on consumed sugars, 0.41 g g-1 compared with 0.32 g g-1 for the xylose reductase/xylitol dehydrogenase strain. Anaerobic fermentation of a mixture of glucose, arabinose and xylose resulted in higher final ethanol concentration, 14.7 g l-1 for the xylose reductase/xylitol dehydrogenase strain compared with 11.8 g l-1 for the xylose isomerase strain, and in higher specific ethanol productivity, 0.024 g (g cells)-1 h-1 compared with 0.01 g (g cells)-1 h-1 for the xylose reductase

  11. Analysis of the Arabinose-5-Phosphate Isomerase of Bacteroides fragilis Provides Insight into Regulation of Single-Domain Arabinose Phosphate Isomerases

    PubMed Central

    Cech, David; Wang, Pan Fen; Holler, Tod P.

    2014-01-01

    Arabinose-5-phosphate isomerases (APIs) catalyze the interconversion of d-ribulose-5-phosphate and d-arabinose-5-phosphate, the first step in the biosynthesis of 3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonic acid (Kdo), an essential component of the lipopolysaccharide in Gram-negative bacteria. Classical APIs, such as Escherichia coli KdsD, contain a sugar isomerase domain and a tandem cystathionine beta-synthase domain. Despite substantial effort, little is known about structure-function relationships in these APIs. We recently reported an API containing only a sugar isomerase domain. This protein, c3406 from E. coli CFT073, has no known physiological function. In this study, we investigated a putative single-domain API from the anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium Bacteroides fragilis. This putative API (UniProt ID Q5LIW1) is the only protein encoded by the B. fragilis genome with significant identity to any known API, suggesting that it is responsible for lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis in B. fragilis. We tested this hypothesis by preparing recombinant Q5LIW1 protein (here referred to by the UniProt ID Q5LIW1), characterizing its API activity in vitro, and demonstrating that the gene encoding Q5LIW1 (GenBank ID YP_209877.1) was able to complement an API-deficient E. coli strain. We demonstrated that Q5LIW1 is inhibited by cytidine 5′-monophospho-3-deoxy-d-manno-2-octulosonic acid, the final product of the Kdo biosynthesis pathway, with a Ki of 1.91 μM. These results support the assertion that Q5LIW1 is the API that supports lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis in B. fragilis and is subject to feedback regulation by CMP-Kdo. The sugar isomerase domain of E. coli KdsD, lacking the two cystathionine beta-synthase domains, demonstrated API activity and was further characterized. These results suggest that Q5LIW1 may be a suitable system to study API structure-function relationships. PMID:24891442

  12. Identification of DES1 as a Vitamin A Isomerase in Müller Glial Cells of the Retina

    PubMed Central

    Kaylor, Joanna J.; Yuan, Quan; Cook, Jeremy; Sarfare, Shanta; Makshanoff, Jacob; Miu, Anh; Kim, Anita; Kim, Paul; Habib, Samer; Roybal, C. Nathaniel; Xu, Tongzhou; Nusinowitz, Steven; Travis, Gabriel H.

    2012-01-01

    Absorption of a light particle by an opsin-pigment causes photoisomerization of its retinaldehyde chromophore. Restoration of light sensitivity to the resulting apo-opsin requires chemical re-isomerization of the photobleached chromophore. This is carried out by a multistep enzyme pathway called the visual cycle. Accumulating evidence suggests the existence of an alternate visual cycle for regenerating opsins in daylight. Here, we identified dihydroceramide desaturase-1 (DES1) as a retinol isomerase and an excellent candidate for isomerase-2 in this alternate pathway. DES1 is expressed in retinal Müller cells where it co-immunoprecipitates with cellular retinaldehyde binding protein (CRALBP). Adenoviral gene therapy with DES1 partially rescued the biochemical and physiological phenotypes in rpe65 −/− mice lacking isomerohydrolase (isomerase-1). Knockdown of DES1 expression by RNA-interference concordantly reduced isomerase-2 activity in cultured Müller cells. Purified DES1 possessed very high isomerase-2 activity in the presence of appropriate cofactors, suggesting that DES1 by itself is sufficient for isomerase activity. PMID:23143414

  13. Mutations in FKBP14 cause a variant of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome with progressive kyphoscoliosis, myopathy, and hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Matthias; Giunta, Cecilia; Krabichler, Birgit; Rüschendorf, Franz; Zoppi, Nicoletta; Colombi, Marina; Bittner, Reginald E; Quijano-Roy, Susana; Muntoni, Francesco; Cirak, Sebahattin; Schreiber, Gudrun; Zou, Yaqun; Hu, Ying; Romero, Norma Beatriz; Carlier, Robert Yves; Amberger, Albert; Deutschmann, Andrea; Straub, Volker; Rohrbach, Marianne; Steinmann, Beat; Rostásy, Kevin; Karall, Daniela; Bönnemann, Carsten G; Zschocke, Johannes; Fauth, Christine

    2012-02-10

    We report on an autosomal-recessive variant of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) characterized by severe muscle hypotonia at birth, progressive scoliosis, joint hypermobility, hyperelastic skin, myopathy, sensorineural hearing impairment, and normal pyridinoline excretion in urine. Clinically, the disorder shares many features with the kyphoscoliotic type of EDS (EDS VIA) and Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy. Linkage analysis in a large Tyrolean kindred identified a homozygous frameshift mutation in FKBP14 in two affected individuals. Based on the cardinal clinical characteristics of the disorder, four additional individuals originating from different European countries were identified who carried either homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in FKBP14. FKBP14 belongs to the family of FK506-binding peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases (PPIases). ER-resident FKBPs have been suggested to act as folding catalysts by accelerating cis-trans isomerization of peptidyl-prolyl bonds and to act occasionally also as chaperones. We demonstrate that FKBP14 is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and that deficiency of FKBP14 leads to enlarged ER cisterns in dermal fibroblasts in vivo. Furthermore, indirect immunofluorescence of FKBP14-deficient fibroblasts indicated an altered assembly of the extracellular matrix in vitro. These findings suggest that a disturbance of protein folding in the ER affecting one or more components of the extracellular matrix might cause the generalized connective tissue involvement in this disorder. FKBP14 mutation analysis should be considered in all individuals with apparent kyphoscoliotic type of EDS and normal urinary pyridinoline excretion, in particular in conjunction with sensorineural hearing impairment. PMID:22265013

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of phosphoglucose isomerase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Divya; Anand, Kanchan; Mathur, Deepika; Jagadish, Nirmala; Suri, Anil; Garg, Lalit C.

    2007-01-01

    Phosphoglucose isomerase is a ubiquitous enzyme that catalyzes the isomerization of d-glucopyranose-6-phosphate to d-fructofuranose-6-phosphate. The present investigation reports the expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of the phosphoglucose isomerase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, which shares 46% sequence identity with that of its human host. The recombinant protein, which was prepared using an Escherichia coli expression system, was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to a resolution of 2.8 Å and belonged to the orthorhombic space group I212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 109.0, b = 119.8, c = 138.9 Å. PMID:17401215

  15. A Quasi-Laue Neutron Crystallographic Study of D-Xylose Isomerase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meilleur, Flora; Snell, Edward H.; vanderWoerd, Mark; Judge, Russell A.; Myles, Dean A. A.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen atom location and hydrogen bonding interaction determination are often critical to explain enzymatic mechanism. Whilst it is difficult to determine the position of hydrogen atoms using X-ray crystallography even with subatomic (less than 1.0 Angstrom) resolution data available, neutron crystallography provides an experimental tool to directly localise hydrogeddeuteriwn atoms in biological macromolecules at resolution of 1.5-2.0 Angstroms. Linearisation and isomerisation of xylose at the active site of D-xylose isomerase rely upon a complex hydrogen transfer. Neutron quasi-Laue data were collected on Streptomyces rubiginosus D-xylose isomerase crystal using the LADI instrument at ILL with the objective to provide insight into the enzymatic mechanism (Myles et al. 1998). The neutron structure unambiguously reveals the protonation state of His 53 in the active site, identifying the model for the enzymatic pathway.

  16. Utilization of plant hemicellulose for production of xylanase and glucose isomerase

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Y.W.

    1983-01-01

    The hemicellulose fraction of sugarcane bagasse and ryegrass straw was extracted with NaOH and used for production of xylanase and glucose isomerase by Streptomyces flavogriseus. As much as 33% of hemicellulose per dry weight of the plant material could be obtained by treating the plant biomass with 5-10% NaOH for 1 h at 121 degrees or for 24 h at room temperature. The amount of hemicellulose extracted greatly increased as the concentration of NaOH increased up to 10%, thereafter the rate of increase slowed. Hemicellulose was further fractionated into hemicellulose A and hemicellulose B. Growth of the organism on plant hemicellulose yielded glucose isomerase (2.2 units/mL culture) and xylanase (27 units/mL culture). The levels of the enzymes produced on hemicellulose were about the same as on xylose or xylan. The organism, however, grew poorly on sugarcane bagasse and produced little enzymes.

  17. Purification of Δ(5)-3-ketosteroid isomerase from Digitalis lanata.

    PubMed

    Meitinger, Nadine; Geiger, Daniel; Augusto, Thierry W; Maia de Pádua, Rodrigo; Kreis, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The isomerization of 5-pregnene-3,20-dione into 4-pregnene-3,20-dione was investigated to shed further light on cardenolide biosynthesis and to characterize the enzymes involved in cardenolide formation. It was shown that the Δ(5)-3-ketosteroid isomerase of Digitalis lanata, which catalyzes this isomerization, is an individual enzyme and not, as previously thought, associated with Δ(5)-3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. The enzyme was purified by fractionated ammonium sulfate precipitation, hydrophobic interaction chromatography and gel filtration. The purification protocol resulted in a 68.1-fold enriched specific enzyme activity with a yield of 2.2%. After an additional chromatofocusing step the 3KSI activity appeared as a single protein band at 17kDa in SDS-PAGE. Plant 3KSI displayed similar properties to microbial 3-ketosteroid isomerases. PMID:25468533

  18. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of Bifidobacterium adolescentis xylose isomerase

    PubMed Central

    dos Reis, Caio Vinicius; Bernardes, Amanda; Polikarpov, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Xylose isomerase (EC 5.3.1.5) is a key enzyme in xylose metabolism which is industrially important for the transformation of glucose and xylose into fructose and xylulose, respectively. The Bifidobacterium adolescentis xylA gene (NC_008618.1) encoding xylose isomerase (XI) was cloned and the enzyme was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Purified recombinant XI was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method with polyethylene glycol 3350 as the precipitating agent. A complete native data set was collected to 1.7 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 88.78, b = 123.98, c = 78.63 Å. PMID:23695585

  19. Novel roles for protein disulphide isomerase in disease states: a double edged sword?

    PubMed Central

    Parakh, Sonam; Atkin, Julie D.

    2015-01-01

    Protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) is a multifunctional redox chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Since it was first discovered 40 years ago the functions ascribed to PDI have evolved significantly and recent studies have recognized its distinct functions, with adverse as well as protective effects in disease. Furthermore, post translational modifications of PDI abrogate its normal functional roles in specific disease states. This review focusses on recent studies that have identified novel functions for PDI relevant to specific diseases. PMID:26052512

  20. Structure of the Noncatalytic Domains and Global Fold of the Protein Disulfide Isomerase ERp72

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlov, G.; Määttänen, P; Schrag, J; Hura, G; Gabrielli, L; Cygler, M; Thomas, D; Gehring, K

    2009-01-01

    Protein disulfide isomerases are a family of proteins that catalyze the oxidation and isomerization of disulfide bonds in newly synthesized proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. The family includes general enzymes such as PDI that recognize unfolded proteins, and others that are selective for specific classes of proteins. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structure of central non-catalytic domains of a specific isomerase, ERp72 (also called CaBP2 and protein disulfide-isomerase A4) from Rattus norvegicus. The structure reveals strong similarity to ERp57, a PDI-family member that interacts with the lectin-like chaperones calnexin and calreticulin but, unexpectedly, ERp72 does not interact with calnexin as shown by isothermal titration calorimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) of ERp72 was used to develop models of the full-length protein using both rigid body refinement and ab initio simulated annealing of dummy atoms. The two methods show excellent agreement and define the relative positions of the five thioredoxin-like domains of ERp72 and potential substrate or chaperone binding sites.

  1. Analysis of the Isomerase and Chaperone-Like Activities of an Amebic PDI (EhPDI)

    PubMed Central

    Meléndez-López, Samuel G.

    2015-01-01

    Protein disulfide isomerases (PDI) are eukaryotic oxidoreductases that catalyze the formation and rearrangement of disulfide bonds during folding of substrate proteins. Structurally, PDI enzymes share as a common feature the presence of at least one active thioredoxin-like domain. PDI enzymes are also involved in holding, refolding, and degradation of unfolded or misfolded proteins during stressful conditions. The EhPDI enzyme (a 38 kDa polypeptide with two active thioredoxin-like domains) has been used as a model to gain insights into protein folding and disulfide bond formation in E. histolytica. Here, we performed a functional complementation assay, using a ΔdsbC mutant of E. coli, to test whether EhPDI exhibits isomerase activity in vivo. Our preliminary results showed that EhPDI exhibits isomerase activity; however, further mutagenic analysis revealed significant differences in the functional role of each thioredoxin-like domain. Additional studies confirmed that EhPDI protects heat-labile enzymes against thermal inactivation, extending our knowledge about its chaperone-like activity. The characterization of EhPDI, as an oxidative folding catalyst with chaperone-like function, represents the initial step to dissect the molecular mechanisms involved in protein folding in E. histolytica. PMID:25695056

  2. Triosephosphate isomerase: removal of a putatively electrophilic histidine residue results in a subtle change in catalytic mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Nickbarg, E.B.; Davenport, R.C.; Petsko, G.A.; Knowles, J.R.

    1988-08-09

    An important active-site residue in the glycolytic enzyme triosephosphate isomerase is His-95, which appears to act as an electrophilic component in catalyzing the enolization of the substrates. With the techniques of site-directed mutagenesis, His-95 has been replaced by Gln in the isomerase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The mutant isomerase has been expressed in Escherichia coli strain DF502 and purified to homogeneity. The specific catalytic activity of the mutant enzyme is less than that of wild type by a factor of nearly 400. The mutant enzyme can be resolved from the wild-type isomerase on nondenaturing isoelectric focusing gels, and an isomerase activity stain shows that the observed catalytic activity indeed derives from the mutant protein. The mutant enzyme shows the same stereospecificity of proton transfer as the wild type. Tritium exchange experiments similar to those used to define the free energy profile for the wild-type yeast isomerase, together with a new method of analysis involving /sup 14/C and /sup 3/H doubly labeled substrates, have been used to investigate the energetics of the mutant enzyme catalyzed reaction. The deuterium kinetic isotope effects observed with the mutant isomerase using (1(R)-/sup 2/H)dihydroxyacetone phosphate and (2-/sup 2/H)glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate are 2.15 +/- 0.04 and 2.4 +/- 0.1, respectively. These results lead to the conclusion that substitution of Gln for His-95 so impairs the ability of the enzyme to stabilize the reaction intermediate that there is a change in the pathways of proton transfer mediated by the mutant enzyme.

  3. Xylose isomerase from polycentric fungus Orpinomyces: gene sequencing, cloning, and expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for bioconversion of xylose to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, Anjali; Tamalampudi, Sriappareddy; Ushida, Kazunari; Kanai, Daisuke; Katahira, Satoshi; Srivastava, Aradhana; Fukuda, Hideki; Bisaria, Virendra S; Kondo, Akihiko

    2009-04-01

    The cDNA sequence of the gene for xylose isomerase from the rumen fungus Orpinomyces was elucidated by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The 1,314-nucleotide gene was cloned and expressed constitutively in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The deduced polypeptide sequence encoded a protein of 437 amino acids which showed the highest similarity to the family II xylose isomerases. Further, characterization revealed that the recombinant enzyme was a homodimer with a subunit of molecular mass 49 kDa. Cell extract of the recombinant strain exhibited high specific xylose isomerase activity. The pH optimum of the enzyme was 7.5, while the low temperature optimum at 37 degrees C was the property that differed significantly from the majority of the reported thermophilic xylose isomerases. In addition to the xylose isomerase gene, the overexpression of the S. cerevisiae endogenous xylulokinase gene and the Pichia stipitis SUT1 gene for sugar transporter in the recombinant yeast facilitated the efficient production of ethanol from xylose. PMID:19050860

  4. Domain swapping in the low-similarity isomerase/hydratase superfamily: the crystal structure of rat mitochondrial Delta3, Delta2-enoyl-CoA isomerase.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Paul A; Yu, Wenfeng; Schulz, Horst; Kim, Jung-Ja P

    2005-06-01

    Two monofunctional Delta(3), Delta(2)-enoyl-CoA isomerases, one in mitochondria (mECI) and the other in both mitochondria and peroxisomes (pECI), belong to the low-similarity isomerase/hydratase superfamily. Both enzymes catalyze the movement of a double bond from C3 to C2 of an unsaturated acyl-CoA substrate for re-entry into the beta-oxidation pathway. Mutagenesis has shown that Glu165 of rat mECI is involved in catalysis; however, the putative catalytic residue in yeast pECI, Glu158, is not conserved in mECI. To elucidate whether Glu165 of mECI is correctly positioned for catalysis, the crystal structure of rat mECI has been solved. Crystal packing suggests the enzyme is trimeric, in contrast to other members of the superfamily, which appear crystallographically to be dimers of trimers. The polypeptide fold of mECI, like pECI, belongs to a subset of this superfamily in which the C-terminal domain of a given monomer interacts with its own N-terminal domain. This differs from that of crotonase and 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphtoyl-CoA synthase, whose C-terminal domains are involved in domain swapping with an adjacent monomer. The structure confirms Glu165 as the putative catalytic acid/base, positioned to abstract the pro-R proton from C2 and reprotonate at C4 of the acyl chain. The large tunnel-shaped active site cavity observed in the mECI structure explains the relative substrate promiscuity in acyl-chain length and stereochemistry. Comparison with the crystal structure of pECI suggests the catalytic residues from both enzymes are spatially conserved but not in their primary structures, providing a powerful reminder of how catalytic residues cannot be determined solely by sequence alignments. PMID:15883186

  5. Crystal structures of two monomeric triosephosphate isomerase variants identified via a directed-evolution protocol selecting for L-arabinose isomerase activity.

    PubMed

    Krause, Mirja; Kiema, Tiila Riikka; Neubauer, Peter; Wierenga, Rik K

    2016-06-01

    The crystal structures are described of two variants of A-TIM: Ma18 (2.7 Å resolution) and Ma21 (1.55 Å resolution). A-TIM is a monomeric loop-deletion variant of triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) which has lost the TIM catalytic properties. Ma18 and Ma21 were identified after extensive directed-evolution selection experiments using an Escherichia coli L-arabinose isomerase knockout strain expressing a randomly mutated A-TIM gene. These variants facilitate better growth of the Escherichia coli selection strain in medium supplemented with 40 mM L-arabinose. Ma18 and Ma21 differ from A-TIM by four and one point mutations, respectively. Ma18 and Ma21 are more stable proteins than A-TIM, as judged from CD melting experiments. Like A-TIM, both proteins are monomeric in solution. In the Ma18 crystal structure loop 6 is open and in the Ma21 crystal structure loop 6 is closed, being stabilized by a bound glycolate molecule. The crystal structures show only small differences in the active site compared with A-TIM. In the case of Ma21 it is observed that the point mutation (Q65L) contributes to small structural rearrangements near Asn11 of loop 1, which correlate with different ligand-binding properties such as a loss of citrate binding in the active site. The Ma21 structure also shows that its Leu65 side chain is involved in van der Waals interactions with neighbouring hydrophobic side-chain moieties, correlating with its increased stability. The experimental data suggest that the increased stability and solubility properties of Ma21 and Ma18 compared with A-TIM cause better growth of the selection strain when coexpressing Ma21 and Ma18 instead of A-TIM. PMID:27303904

  6. Truncation of a Protein Disulfide Isomerase, PDIL2-1, Delays Embryo Sac Maturation and Disrupts Pollen Tube Guidance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pollen tubes navigate through different female tissues and deliver the sperm to the embryo sac for fertilization. Protein disulfide isomerases play important roles in the maturation of secreted or plasma membrane proteins. Here we show that truncated versions of a protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), ...

  7. Coimmobilization of glucoamylase and glucose isomerase by molecular deposition technique for one-step conversion of dextrin to fructose.

    PubMed

    Ge, Y; Wang, Y; Zhou, H; Wang, S; Tong, Y; Li, W

    1999-01-01

    Glucose isomerase was immobilized by itself with adsorption and coimmobilized with glucoamylase by molecular deposition technique using macroporous trimethylamine polystyrene beads. Approximately 77.5% of the enzyme added was immobilized. The pH-activity curve of the immobilized glucose isomerase was broadened, resulting in 75% retention of its maximum activity at pH 6.2. The Km of the immobilized glucose isomerase was 1.28-fold that of the soluble one. When the two enzymes were immobilized together, the system was found capable of functioning at pH 6.0 to produce fructose from starch and dextrin. At this pH, the total fructose output of the coimmobilized enzyme system after 24 h was 1.9 times that of the free enzyme system. PMID:9987846

  8. Triosephosphate isomerase: energetics of the reaction catalyzed by the yeast enzyme expressed in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Nickbarg, E.B.; Knowles, J.R.

    1988-08-09

    Triosephosphate isomerase from bakers' yeast, expressed in Escherichia coli strain DF502(p12), has been purified to homogeneity. The kinetics of the reaction in each direction have been determined at pH 7.5 and 30 degrees C. Deuterium substitution at the C-2 position of substrate (R)-glyceraldehyde phosphate and at the 1-pro-R position of substrate dihydroxyacetone phosphate results in kinetic isotope effects on kcat of 1.6 and 3.4, respectively. The extent of transfer of tritium from (1(R)-TH)dihydroxyacetone phosphate to product (R)-glyceraldehyde phosphate during the catalyzed reaction is only 3% after 66% conversion to product, indicating that the enzymic base that mediates proton transfer is in rapid exchange with solvent protons. When the isomerase-catalyzed reaction is run in tritiated water in each direction, radioactivity is incorporated both into the remaining substrate and into the product. In the exchange-conversion experiment with dihydroxyacetone phosphate as substrate, the specific radioactivity of remaining dihydroxyacetone phosphate rises as a function of the extent of reaction with a slope of about 0.3, while the specific radioactivity of the products is 54% that of the solvent. In the reverse direction with (R)-glyceraldehyde phosphate as substrate, the specific radioactivity of the product formed is only 11% that of the solvent, while the radioactivity incorporated into the remaining substrate (R)-glyceraldehyde phosphate also rises as a function of the extent of reaction with a slope of 0.3. These results have been analyzed according to the protocol described earlier to yield the free energy profile of the reaction catalyzed by the yeast isomerase.

  9. Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: purification and molecular analysis of the enzyme.

    PubMed

    Reuter, R; Naumann, M; Bär, J; Miosga, T; Kopperschläger, G

    1998-01-01

    Purification and molecular analysis of ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (EC 5.3.1.6) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is described first time. The enzyme was enriched from a haploid deletion mutant containing the wild-type gene on a multicopy plasmid elaborating the following steps: ammonium sulphate precipitation, interfacial salting out on Sepharose 6B, high performance liquid chromatography on Fractogel EMD DEAE and on Resource Phenyl. The enzyme activity was found to be rather unstable possibly caused by removal of stabilizing cofactors or proteins during the purification procedure. The purified enzyme showed a hyperbolic dependence on the substrate ribose-5-phosphate with a K(m)-value of 1.6 +/- 0.3 mmol/l. For the native enzyme a molecular mass of 115 +/- 10 kDa was determined as found by saccharose density gradient centrifugation, sedimentation equilibrium analysis, size exclusion chromatography and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting revealed one band with a molecular mass of 31 +/- 2 kDa. Thus, the native enzyme is composed of four subunits of identical size. The molecular mass of the subunit and the identified N-terminal sequence of 33 amino acids fits well the 258 amino acid protein encoded by the S. cerevisiae RKI open reading frame, which was characterized previously only by increasing specific activities of ribose-5-phosphate isomerase in cells after cloning the gene. On the basis of the conserved amino acids an alignment of the amino acid sequence of ribose-5-phosphate isomerase from yeast with those of the enzyme from mouse, spinach and Escherichia coli is presented. PMID:9763699

  10. Affinity labeling and characterization of the active site histidine of glucosephosphate isomerase

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, D.R.; Gracy, R.W.; Hartman, F.C.

    1980-10-10

    N-bromoacetylethanolamine phosphate was found to act as a specific affinity label for the active center of glucosephosphate isomerase. The inactivation process followed pseudo-first order kinetics, was irreversible, and exhibited rate saturation kinetics with minimal half-lives of inactivation of 4.5 and 6.3 min for the enzyme isolated from human placenta and rabbit muscle, respectively. The pH dependence of the inactivation process closely paralleled the pH dependence of the overall catalytic process with pK/sub a/ values at pH 6.4 and 9.0. The stoichiometry of labeling of either enzyme, as determined with N-bromo(/sup 14/C/sub 2/)acetylethanolamine phosphate, was 1 eq of the affinity label/subunit of enzyme. After acid hydrolysis and amino acid analysis of the radioactive affinity-labeled human enzyme, only radioactive 3-carboxymethyl histidine was found. In the case of the rabbit enzyme, the only radioactive derivative obtained was 1-carboxymethyl histidine. Active site tryptic peptides were isolated by solvent extraction, thin layer peptide fingerprinting, and ion exchange chromatography before and after removal of the phosphate from the active site peptide. Amino acid analysis of the labeled peptides from the two species were very similar. Using high sensitivity methods for sequence analysis, the primary structure of the active site was established as Val-Leu-His-Ala-Glu-Asn-Val-Asp (Gly,Thr,Ser) Glu-Ile (Thr-Gly-His-Lys-Glx)-Tyr-Phe. Apparent sequence homology between the catalytic center of glucosephosphate isomerase and triosephosphate isomerase suggest that the two enzymes may have evolved from a common ancestral gene.

  11. Glucose(xylose) isomerase production by Streptomyces sp. CH7 grown on agricultural residues.

    PubMed

    Chanitnun, Kankiya; Pinphanichakarn, Pairoh

    2012-07-01

    Streptomyces sp. CH7 was found to efficiently produce glucose(xylose) isomerase when grown on either xylan or agricultural residues. This strain produced a glucose(xylose) isomerase activity of roughly 1.8 U/mg of protein when it was grown in medium containing 1% xylose as a carbon source. Maximal enzymatic activities of about 5 and 3 U/mg were obtained when 1% xylan and 2.5% corn husks were used, respectively. The enzyme was purified from a mycelial extract to 16-fold purity with only two consecutive column chromatography steps using Macro-prep DEAE and Sephacryl-300, respectively. The approximate molecular weight of the purified enzyme is 170 kDa, and it has four identical subunits of 43.6 kDa as estimated by SDS-PAGE. Its K m values for glucose and xylose were found to be 258.96 and 82.77 mM, respectively, and its V max values are 32.42 and 63.64 μM/min/mg, respectively. The purified enzyme is optimally active at 85°C and pH 7.0. It is stable at pH 5.5-8.5 and at temperatures up to 60°C after 30 min. These findings indicate that glucose(xylose) isomerase from Streptomyces sp. CH7 has the potential for industrial applications, especially for high-fructose syrup production and bioethanol fermentation from hemicellulosic hydrolysates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:24031932

  12. Arabinose 5-phosphate isomerase as a target for antibacterial design: studies with substrate analogues and inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Gabrielli, Luca; Merlo, Silvia; Airoldi, Cristina; Sperandeo, Paola; Gianera, Serena; Polissi, Alessandra; Nicotra, Francesco; Holler, Tod P; Woodard, Ronald W; Cipolla, Laura

    2014-04-15

    Structural requirements of D-arabinose 5-phosphate isomerase (KdsD, E.C. 5.3.1.13) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa were analysed in detail using advanced NMR techniques. We performed epitope mapping studies of the binding between the enzyme and the most potent KdsD inhibitors found to date, together with studies of a set of newly synthesised arabinose 5-phosphate (A5P) mimetics. We report here the first experimental evidence that KdsD may bind the furanose form of A5P, suggesting that catalysis of ring opening may be an important part of KdsD catalysis. PMID:24680056

  13. Trigonal crystals of glucose isomerase require thymol for their growth and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chayen, N. E.; Lloyd, L. F.; Collyer, C. A.; Blow, D. M.

    1989-09-01

    The growth of trigonal bypyramidal crystals of Arthrobacter glucose isomerase is only possible in the presence of thymol at a concentration exceeding 2.5mM; at lower thymol concentrations rectangular and rhombic crystals are formed. When thymol is removed from the supernatant of trigonal crystals, they fall apart and recrystallise as rectangles or rhombs. The disordering can be reversed if thymol is reintroduced before the trigonal crystals have dispersed, but the other crystal forms are stable in thymol. During the disintegration of trigonal crystals the supernatant concentration of protein is increased.

  14. TrbB from Conjugative Plasmid F Is a Structurally Distinct Disulfide Isomerase That Requires DsbD for Redox State Maintenance ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Hemmis, Casey W.; Berkmen, Mehmet; Eser, Markus; Schildbach, Joel F.

    2011-01-01

    TrbB, a periplasmic protein encoded by the conjugative plasmid F, has a predicted thioredoxin-like fold and possesses a C-X-X-C redox active site motif. TrbB may function in the conjugative process by serving as a disulfide bond isomerase, facilitating proper folding of a subset of F-plasmid-encoded proteins in the periplasm. Previous studies have demonstrated that a ΔtrbB F plasmid in Escherichia coli lacking DsbCE.coli, its native disulfide bond isomerase, experiences a 10-fold decrease in mating efficiency but have not provided direct evidence for disulfide bond isomerase activity. Here we demonstrate that trbB can partially restore transfer of a variant of the distantly related R27 plasmid when both chromosomal and plasmid genes encoding disulfide bond isomerases have been disrupted. In addition, we show that TrbB displays both disulfide bond isomerase and reductase activities on substrates not involved in the conjugative process. Unlike canonical members of the disulfide bond isomerase family, secondary structure predictions suggest that TrbB lacks both an N-terminal dimerization domain and an α-helical domain found in other disulfide bond isomerases. Phylogenetic analyses support the conclusion that TrbB belongs to a unique family of plasmid-based disulfide isomerases. Interestingly, although TrbB diverges structurally from other disulfide bond isomerases, we show that like those isomerases, TrbB relies on DsbD from E. coli for maintenance of its C-X-X-C redox active site motif. PMID:21742866

  15. Steroidomimetic aminomethyl spiroacetals as novel inhibitors of the enzyme Δ8,7-sterol isomerase in cholesterol biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Krojer, Melanie; Müller, Christoph; Bracher, Franz

    2014-02-01

    Grundmann's ketone is converted to a spiroacetal containing a 5-hydroxymethyl-5-nitro-1,3-dioxane moiety whose hydroxymethyl group can be esterified or directly substituted with primary and secondary amines. Among the resulting aminomethyl spiroacetals, several ones bearing diamino residues were found to be inhibitors of the enzyme Δ8,7-isomerase in cholesterol biosynthesis. The complex bicyclic building block derived from Grundmann's ketone could be replaced by a properly substituted tetraline scaffold, without noteworthy loss in activity. This opens the opportunity to perform further structural modifications for the design of new steroidomimetic inhibitors of human Δ8,7-isomerase. PMID:24493593

  16. Protein disulfide isomerases are antibody targets during immune-mediated tumor destruction

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Catia; Soiffer, Robert; Ho, Vincent; Vanneman, Matthew; Jinushi, Masahisa; Ritz, Jerome; Neuberg, Donna; Stone, Richard; DeAngelo, Dan

    2009-01-01

    The identification of cancer antigens that contribute to transformation and are linked with immune-mediated tumor destruction is an important goal for immunotherapy. Toward this end, we screened a murine renal cell carcinoma cDNA expression library with sera from mice vaccinated with irradiated tumor cells engineered to secrete granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Multiple nonmutated, overexpressed proteins that function in tumor cell migration, protein/nucleic acid homeostasis, metabolism, and stress responses were detected. Among these, the most frequently recognized clone was protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). High titer antibodies to human PDI were similarly induced in an acute myeloid leukemia patient who achieved a complete response after vac-cination with irradiated, autologous GM-CSF–secreting tumor cells in the setting of nonmyeloablative allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Moreover, ERp5, a closely related disulfide isomerase involved in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I chain-related protein A (MICA) shedding, also evoked potent humoral reactions in diverse solid and hematologic malignancy patients who responded to GM-CSF–secreting tumor cell vaccines or antibody blockade of cytotoxic T lymphocyte–associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4). Together, these findings reveal the unexpected immunogenicity of PDIs and raise the possibility that these gene products might serve as targets for therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. PMID:19008459

  17. In-house SIRAS phasing of the polyunsaturated fatty-acid isomerase from Propionibacterium acnes

    SciTech Connect

    Liavonchanka, Alena; Hornung, Ellen; Feussner, Ivo; Rudolph, Markus

    2006-02-01

    Low iodide concentrations were sufficient to allow SAD and SIRAS phasing of cubic crystals of a novel fatty acid isomerase using Cu Kα radiation. The polyenoic fatty-acid isomerase from Propionibacterium acnes (PAI) catalyzes the double-bond isomerization of linoleic acid to conjugated linoleic acid, which is a dairy- or meat-derived fatty acid in the human diet. PAI was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity as a yellow-coloured protein. The nature of the bound cofactor was analyzed by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Single crystals of PAI were obtained in two crystal forms. Cubic shaped crystals belong to space group I2{sub 1}3, with a unit-cell parameter of 160.4 Å, and plate-like crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 133.7, b = 60.8, c = 72.2 Å, β = 115.8°. Both crystal forms contain one molecule per asymmetric unit and diffract to a resolution of better than 2.0 Å. Initial phases were obtained by SIRAS from in-house data from a cubic crystal that was soaked with an unusually low KI concentration of 0.25 M.

  18. The protein disulphide-isomerase family: unravelling a string of folds.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, D M; Söling, H D

    1999-01-01

    The mammalian protein disulphide-isomerase (PDI) family encompasses several highly divergent proteins that are involved in the processing and maturation of secretory proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. These proteins are characterized by the presence of one or more domains of roughly 95-110 amino acids related to the cytoplasmic protein thioredoxin. All but the PDI-D subfamily are composed entirely of repeats of such domains, with at least one domain containing and one domain lacking a redox-active -Cys-Xaa-Xaa-Cys- tetrapeptide. In addition to their known roles as redox catalysts and isomerases, the last few years have revealed additional functions of the PDI proteins, including peptide binding, cell adhesion and perhaps chaperone activities. Attention is now turning to the non-redox-active domains of the PDIs, which may play an important role in all of the known activities of these proteins. Thus the presence of both redox-active and -inactive domains within these proteins portends a complexity of functions differentially accommodated by the various family members. PMID:10085220

  19. Protein disulfide isomerase homolog TrPDI2 contributing to cellobiohydrolase production in Trichoderma reesei.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guokun; Lv, Pin; He, Ronglin; Wang, Haijun; Wang, Lixian; Zhang, Dongyuan; Chen, Shulin

    2015-09-01

    The majority of the cysteine residues in the secreted proteins form disulfide bonds via protein disulfide isomerase (PDI)-mediated catalysis, stabilizing the enzyme activity. The role of PDI in cellulase production is speculative, as well as the possibility of PDI as a target for improving enzyme production efficiency of Trichoderma reesei, a widely used producer of enzyme for the production of lignocellulose-based biofuels and biochemicals. Here, we report that a PDI homolog, TrPDI2 in T. reesei exhibited a 36.94% and an 11.81% similarity to Aspergillus niger TIGA and T. reesei PDI1, respectively. The capability of TrPDI2 to recover the activity of reduced and denatured RNase by promoting refolding verified its protein disulfide isomerase activity. The overexpression of Trpdi2 increased the secretion and the activity of CBH1 at the early stage of cellulase induction. In addition, both the expression level and redox state of TrPDI2 responded to cellulase induction in T. reesei, providing sustainable oxidative power to ensure cellobiohydrolase maturation and production. The results suggest that TrPDI2 may contribute to cellobiohydrolase secretion by enhancing the capability of disulfide bond formation, which is essential for protein folding and maturation. PMID:26138396

  20. The prolyl-isomerase Pin1 activates the mitochondrial death program of p53.

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, G; Mioni, M; Giorgi, C; Ruggeri, N; Pinton, P; Moll, U; Mantovani, F; Del Sal, G

    2013-02-01

    In response to intense stress, the tumor protein p53 (p53) tumor suppressor rapidly mounts a direct mitochondrial death program that precedes transcription-mediated apoptosis. By eliminating severely damaged cells, this pathway contributes to tumor suppression as well as to cancer cell killing induced by both genotoxic drugs and non-genotoxic p53-reactivating molecules. Here we have explored the role had in this pathway by the prolyl-isomerase Pin1 (peptidylprolyl cis/trans isomerase, NIMA-interacting 1), a crucial transducer of p53's phosphorylation into conformational changes unleashing its pro-apoptotic activity. We show that Pin1 promotes stress-induced localization of p53 to mitochondria both in vitro and in vivo. In particular, we demonstrate that upon stress-induced phosphorylation of p53 on Ser46 by homeodomain interacting protein kinase 2, Pin1 stimulates its mitochondrial trafficking signal, that is, monoubiquitination. This pathway is induced also by the p53-activating molecule RITA, and we demonstrate the strong requirement of Pin1 for the induction of mitochondrial apoptosis by this compound. These findings have significant implications for treatment of p53-expressing tumors and for prospective use of p53-activating compounds in clinics. PMID:22935610

  1. Control of carotenoid biosynthesis through a heme-based cis-trans isomerase

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán, Jesús; Kloss, Brian; Hosler, Jonathan P.; Geng, Jiafeng; Liu, Aimin; Modi, Anuja; Dawson, John H.; Sono, Masanori; Shumskaya, Maria; Ampomah-Dwamena, Charles; Love, James D.; Wurtzel, Eleanore T.

    2015-01-01

    Plants synthesize carotenoids essential for plant development and survival. These metabolites also serve as essential nutrients for human health. The biosynthetic pathway leading to all plant carotenoids occurs in chloroplasts and other plastids and requires 15-cis-ζ-carotene isomerase (Z-ISO). It was not certain whether isomerization was achieved by Z-ISO alone or in combination with other enzymes. Here we show that Z-ISO is a bona fide enzyme and integral membrane protein. Z-ISO independently catalyzes the cis-to-trans isomerization of the 15–15′ C=C bond in 9,15,9′-cis-ζ-carotene to produce the substrate required by the following biosynthetic pathway enzyme. We discovered that isomerization depends upon a ferrous heme b cofactor that undergoes redox-regulated ligand-switching between the heme iron and alternate Z-ISO amino acid residues. Heme b-dependent isomerization of a large, hydrophobic compound in a membrane is unprecedented. As an isomerase, Z-ISO represents a new prototype for heme b proteins and potentially utilizes a novel chemical mechanism. PMID:26075523

  2. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of l-rhamnose isomerase from Pseudomonas stutzeri

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Hiromi; Wayoon, Poonperm; Takada, Goro; Izumori, Ken; Kamitori, Shigehiro

    2006-06-01

    Recombinant l-rhamnose isomerase from P. stutzeri has been crystallized. Diffraction data have been collected to 2.0 Å resolution. l-Rhamnose isomerase from Pseudomonas stutzeri (P. stutzeril-RhI) catalyzes not only the reversible isomerization of l-rhamnose to l-rhamnulose, but also isomerization between various rare aldoses and ketoses. Purified His-tagged P. stutzeril-RhI was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 74.3, b = 104.0, c = 107.0 Å, β = 106.8°. Diffraction data have been collected to 2.0 Å resolution. The molecular weight of the purified P. stutzeril-RhI with a His tag at the C-terminus was confirmed to be 47.7 kDa by MALDI–TOF mass-spectrometric analysis and the asymmetric unit is expected to contain four molecules.

  3. Control of carotenoid biosynthesis through a heme-based cis-trans isomerase.

    PubMed

    Beltrán, Jesús; Kloss, Brian; Hosler, Jonathan P; Geng, Jiafeng; Liu, Aimin; Modi, Anuja; Dawson, John H; Sono, Masanori; Shumskaya, Maria; Ampomah-Dwamena, Charles; Love, James D; Wurtzel, Eleanore T

    2015-08-01

    Plants synthesize carotenoids, which are essential for plant development and survival. These metabolites also serve as essential nutrients for human health. The biosynthetic pathway for all plant carotenoids occurs in chloroplasts and other plastids and requires 15-cis-ζ-carotene isomerase (Z-ISO). It was not known whether Z-ISO catalyzes isomerization alone or in combination with other enzymes. Here we show that Z-ISO is a bona fide enzyme and integral membrane protein. Z-ISO independently catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of the 15-15' carbon-carbon double bond in 9,15,9'-cis-ζ-carotene to produce the substrate required by the subsequent biosynthetic-pathway enzyme. We discovered that isomerization depends upon a ferrous heme b cofactor that undergoes redox-regulated ligand switching between the heme iron and alternate Z-ISO amino acid residues. Heme b-dependent isomerization of a large hydrophobic compound in a membrane was previously undescribed. As an isomerase, Z-ISO represents a new prototype for heme b proteins and potentially uses a new chemical mechanism. PMID:26075523

  4. A mutation in the rice chalcone isomerase gene causes the golden hull and internode 1 phenotype.

    PubMed

    Hong, Lilan; Qian, Qian; Tang, Ding; Wang, Kejian; Li, Ming; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2012-07-01

    The biosynthesis of flavonoids, important secondary plant metabolites, has been investigated extensively, but few mutants of genes in this pathway have been identified in rice (Oryza sativa). The rice gold hull and internode (gh) mutants exhibit a reddish-brown pigmentation in the hull and internode and their phenotype has long been used as a morphological marker trait for breeding and genetic study. Here, we characterized that the gh1 mutant was a mutant of the rice chalcone isomerase gene (OsCHI). The result showed that gh1 had a Dasheng retrotransposon inserted in the 5′ UTR of the OsCHI gene, which resulted in the complete loss of OsCHI expression. gh1 exhibited golden pigmentation in hulls and internodes once the panicles were exposed to light. The total flavonoid content in gh1 hulls was increased threefold compared to wild type. Consistent with the gh1 phenotype, OsCHI transcripts were expressed in most tissues of rice and most abundantly in internodes. It was also expressed at high levels in panicles before heading, distributed mainly in lemmas and paleae, but its expression decreased substantially after the panicles emerged from the sheath. OsCHI encodes a protein functionally and structurally conserved to chalcone isomerases in other species. Our findings demonstrated that the OsCHI gene was indispensable for flux of the flavonoid pathway in rice. PMID:22286805

  5. Disclosing the essentiality of ribose-5-phosphate isomerase B in Trypanosomatids.

    PubMed

    Faria, Joana; Loureiro, Inês; Santarém, Nuno; Cecílio, Pedro; Macedo-Ribeiro, Sandra; Tavares, Joana; Cordeiro-da-Silva, Anabela

    2016-01-01

    Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (RPI) belongs to the non-oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway, catalysing the inter-conversion of D-ribose-5-phosphate and D-ribulose-5-phosphate. Trypanosomatids encode a type B RPI, whereas humans have a structurally unrelated type A, making RPIB worthy of exploration as a potential drug target. Null mutant generation in Leishmania infantum was only possible when an episomal copy of RPIB gene was provided, and the latter was retained both in vitro and in vivo in the absence of drug pressure. This suggests the gene is essential for parasite survival. Importantly, the inability to remove the second allele of RPIB gene in sKO mutants complemented with an episomal copy of RPIB carrying a mutation that abolishes isomerase activity suggests the essentiality is due to its metabolic function. In vitro, sKO promastigotes exhibited no defect in growth, metacyclogenesis or macrophage infection, however, an impairment in intracellular amastigotes' replication was observed. Additionally, mice infected with sKO mutants rescued by RPIB complementation had a reduced parasite burden in the liver. Likewise, Trypanosoma brucei is resistant to complete RPIB gene removal and mice infected with sKO mutants showed prolonged survival upon infection. Taken together our results genetically validate RPIB as a potential drug target in trypanosomatids. PMID:27230471

  6. Role of a chalcone isomerase-like protein in flavonoid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wenbo; Yin, Qinggang; Wu, Ranran; Zheng, Guangshun; Liu, Jinyue; Dixon, Richard A.; Pang, Yongzhen

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoids are important natural products for plant defence and human health. Although almost all the flavonoid pathway genes have been well-documented by biochemical and/or genetic approaches, the role of the Arabidopsis chalcone isomerase-like (CHIL) gene remains unclear. Two chil mutants with a seed colour similar to that of wild-type Arabidopsis have been identified here, but in sharp contrast to the characteristic transparent testa seed phenotype associated with other known flavonoid pathway genes. CHIL loss-of-function mutations led to a strong reduction in the proanthocyanidin and flavonol levels in seeds, but not in the anthocyanin levels in leaves. CHIL over-expression could partially recover the mutant phenotype of the chil mutant and increased both proanthocyanidin and flavonol accumulation in wild-type Arabidopsis. However, the CHIL gene could not rescue the mutant phenotype of TT5 that encodes the intrinsic chalcone isomerase in Arabidopsis. Parallel phenotypical and metabolic analyses of the chil, tt5, chs, and f3h mutants revealed that, genetically, CHIL functions at the same step as TT5. Moreover, it is demonstrated that CHIL co-expresses, co-localizes, and interacts with TT5 in Arabidopsis for flavonoid production. Based on these genetic and metabolic studies, it is concluded that CHIL functions with TT5 to promote flavonoid production, which is a unique enhancer in the flavonoid pathway. PMID:26347569

  7. Disclosing the essentiality of ribose-5-phosphate isomerase B in Trypanosomatids

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Joana; Loureiro, Inês; Santarém, Nuno; Cecílio, Pedro; Macedo-Ribeiro, Sandra; Tavares, Joana; Cordeiro-da-Silva, Anabela

    2016-01-01

    Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (RPI) belongs to the non-oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway, catalysing the inter-conversion of D-ribose-5-phosphate and D-ribulose-5-phosphate. Trypanosomatids encode a type B RPI, whereas humans have a structurally unrelated type A, making RPIB worthy of exploration as a potential drug target. Null mutant generation in Leishmania infantum was only possible when an episomal copy of RPIB gene was provided, and the latter was retained both in vitro and in vivo in the absence of drug pressure. This suggests the gene is essential for parasite survival. Importantly, the inability to remove the second allele of RPIB gene in sKO mutants complemented with an episomal copy of RPIB carrying a mutation that abolishes isomerase activity suggests the essentiality is due to its metabolic function. In vitro, sKO promastigotes exhibited no defect in growth, metacyclogenesis or macrophage infection, however, an impairment in intracellular amastigotes’ replication was observed. Additionally, mice infected with sKO mutants rescued by RPIB complementation had a reduced parasite burden in the liver. Likewise, Trypanosoma brucei is resistant to complete RPIB gene removal and mice infected with sKO mutants showed prolonged survival upon infection. Taken together our results genetically validate RPIB as a potential drug target in trypanosomatids. PMID:27230471

  8. Human cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein has secondary thermal 9-cis-retinal isomerase activity.

    PubMed

    Bolze, Christin S; Helbling, Rachel E; Owen, Robin L; Pearson, Arwen R; Pompidor, Guillaume; Dworkowski, Florian; Fuchs, Martin R; Furrer, Julien; Golczak, Marcin; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Cascella, Michele; Stocker, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP) chaperones 11-cis-retinal to convert opsin receptor molecules into photosensitive retinoid pigments of the eye. We report a thermal secondary isomerase activity of CRALBP when bound to 9-cis-retinal. UV/vis and (1)H NMR spectroscopy were used to characterize the product as 9,13-dicis-retinal. The X-ray structure of the CRALBP mutant R234W:9-cis-retinal complex at 1.9 Å resolution revealed a niche in the binding pocket for 9-cis-aldehyde different from that reported for 11-cis-retinal. Combined computational, kinetic, and structural data lead us to propose an isomerization mechanism catalyzed by a network of buried waters. Our findings highlight a specific role of water molecules in both CRALBP-assisted specificity toward 9-cis-retinal and its thermal isomerase activity yielding 9,13-dicis-retinal. Kinetic data from two point mutants of CRALBP support an essential role of Glu202 as the initial proton donor in this isomerization reaction. PMID:24328211

  9. Ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysates using engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae harboring xylose isomerase-based pathway.

    PubMed

    Ko, Ja Kyong; Um, Youngsoon; Woo, Han Min; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Lee, Sun-Mi

    2016-06-01

    The efficient co-fermentation of glucose and xylose is necessary for the economically feasible bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Even with xylose utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the efficiency of the lignocellulosic ethanol production remains suboptimal mainly due to the low conversion yield of xylose to ethanol. In this study, we evaluated the co-fermentation performances of SXA-R2P-E, a recently engineered isomerase-based xylose utilizing strain, in mixed sugars and in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. In a high-sugar fermentation with 70g/L of glucose and 40g/L of xylose, SXA-R2P-E produced 50g/L of ethanol with an yield of 0.43gethanol/gsugars at 72h. From dilute acid-pretreated hydrolysates of rice straw and hardwood (oak), the strain produced 18-21g/L of ethanol with among the highest yield of 0.43-0.46gethanol/gsugars ever reported. This study shows a highly promising potential of a xylose isomerase-expressing strain as an industrially relevant ethanol producer from lignocellulosic hydrolysates. PMID:26990396

  10. The prolyl-isomerase Pin1 activates the mitochondrial death program of p53

    PubMed Central

    Sorrentino, G; Mioni, M; Giorgi, C; Ruggeri, N; Pinton, P; Moll, U; Mantovani, F; Del Sal, G

    2013-01-01

    In response to intense stress, the tumor protein p53 (p53) tumor suppressor rapidly mounts a direct mitochondrial death program that precedes transcription-mediated apoptosis. By eliminating severely damaged cells, this pathway contributes to tumor suppression as well as to cancer cell killing induced by both genotoxic drugs and non-genotoxic p53-reactivating molecules. Here we have explored the role had in this pathway by the prolyl-isomerase Pin1 (peptidylprolyl cis/trans isomerase, NIMA-interacting 1), a crucial transducer of p53's phosphorylation into conformational changes unleashing its pro-apoptotic activity. We show that Pin1 promotes stress-induced localization of p53 to mitochondria both in vitro and in vivo. In particular, we demonstrate that upon stress-induced phosphorylation of p53 on Ser46 by homeodomain interacting protein kinase 2, Pin1 stimulates its mitochondrial trafficking signal, that is, monoubiquitination. This pathway is induced also by the p53-activating molecule RITA, and we demonstrate the strong requirement of Pin1 for the induction of mitochondrial apoptosis by this compound. These findings have significant implications for treatment of p53-expressing tumors and for prospective use of p53-activating compounds in clinics. PMID:22935610

  11. Overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary diffraction studies of the Protaminobacter rubrum sucrose isomerase SmuA

    SciTech Connect

    Ravaud, Stéphanie; Watzlawick, Hildegard; Haser, Richard; Mattes, Ralf; Aghajari, Nushin

    2006-01-01

    The P. rubrum sucrose isomerase SmuA, a key enzyme in the industrial production of isomaltulose, was crystallized and diffraction data were collected to 1.95 Å resolution. Palatinose (isomaltulose, α-d-glucosylpyranosyl-1,6-d-fructofuranose), a nutritional and acariogenic reducing sugar, is industrially obtained from sucrose by using immobilized cells of Protaminobacter rubrum that produce the sucrose isomerase SmuA. The isomerization of sucrose catalyzed by this enzyme also results in the formation of trehalulose (α-d-glucosylpyranosyl-1,1-d-fructofuranose) in smaller amounts and glucose, fructose and eventually isomaltose as by-products, which lower the yield of the reaction and complicate the recovery of palatinose. The determination of the three-dimensional structure of SmuA will provide a basis for rational protein-engineering studies in order to optimize the industrial production of palatinose. A recombinant form of the 67.3 kDa SmuA enzyme has been crystallized in the native state by the vapour-diffusion method. Crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 61.6, b = 81.4, c = 135.6 Å, and diffract to 1.95 Å resolution on a synchrotron-radiation source.

  12. Kinase-dead ATM protein is highly oncogenic and can be preferentially targeted by Topo-isomerase I inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kenta; Wang, Jiguang; Sprinzen, Lisa; Xu, Jun; Haddock, Christopher J; Li, Chen; Lee, Brian J; Loredan, Denis G; Jiang, Wenxia; Vindigni, Alessandro; Wang, Dong; Rabadan, Raul; Zha, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Missense mutations in ATM kinase, a master regulator of DNA damage responses, are found in many cancers, but their impact on ATM function and implications for cancer therapy are largely unknown. Here we report that 72% of cancer-associated ATM mutations are missense mutations that are enriched around the kinase domain. Expression of kinase-dead ATM (AtmKD/-) is more oncogenic than loss of ATM (Atm-/-) in mouse models, leading to earlier and more frequent lymphomas with Pten deletions. Kinase-dead ATM protein (Atm-KD), but not loss of ATM (Atm-null), prevents replication-dependent removal of Topo-isomerase I-DNA adducts at the step of strand cleavage, leading to severe genomic instability and hypersensitivity to Topo-isomerase I inhibitors. Correspondingly, Topo-isomerase I inhibitors effectively and preferentially eliminate AtmKD/-, but not Atm-proficientor Atm-/- leukemia in animal models. These findings identify ATM kinase-domain missense mutations as a potent oncogenic event and a biomarker for Topo-isomerase I inhibitor based therapy. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14709.001 PMID:27304073

  13. Physiological and Pathogenic Roles of Prolyl Isomerase Pin1 in Metabolic Regulations via Multiple Signal Transduction Pathway Modulations.

    PubMed

    Nakatsu, Yusuke; Matsunaga, Yasuka; Yamamotoya, Takeshi; Ueda, Koji; Inoue, Yuki; Mori, Keiichi; Sakoda, Hideyuki; Fujishiro, Midori; Ono, Hiraku; Kushiyama, Akifumi; Asano, Tomoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Prolyl isomerases are divided into three groups, the FKBP family, Cyclophilin and the Parvulin family (Pin1 and Par14). Among these isomerases, Pin1 is a unique prolyl isomerase binding to the motif including pSer/pThr-Pro that is phosphorylated by kinases. Once bound, Pin1 modulates the enzymatic activity, protein stability or subcellular localization of target proteins by changing the cis- and trans-formations of proline. Several studies have examined the roles of Pin1 in the pathogenesis of cancers and Alzheimer's disease. On the other hand, recent studies have newly demonstrated Pin1 to be involved in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism. Interestingly, while Pin1 expression is markedly increased by high-fat diet feeding, Pin1 KO mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and diabetic vascular dysfunction. These phenomena result from the binding of Pin1 to several key factors regulating metabolic functions, which include insulin receptor substrate-1, AMPK, Crtc2 and NF-κB p65. In this review, we focus on recent advances in elucidating the physiological roles of Pin1 as well as the pathogenesis of disorders involving this isomerase, from the viewpoint of the relationships between signal transductions and metabolic functions. PMID:27618008

  14. 40 CFR 174.527 - Phosphomannose isomerase in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT...; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) enzyme in plants are exempt from the requirement of a tolerance when used as plant-incorporated protectant...

  15. 40 CFR 174.527 - Phosphomannose isomerase in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT...; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) enzyme in plants are exempt from the requirement of a tolerance when used as plant-incorporated protectant...

  16. 40 CFR 174.527 - Phosphomannose isomerase in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT...; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) enzyme in plants are exempt from the requirement of a tolerance when used as plant-incorporated protectant...

  17. 40 CFR 174.527 - Phosphomannose isomerase in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT...; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) enzyme in plants are exempt from the requirement of a tolerance when used as plant-incorporated protectant...

  18. 40 CFR 174.527 - Phosphomannose isomerase in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT...; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) enzyme in plants are exempt from the requirement of a tolerance when used as plant-incorporated protectant...

  19. Studies on the combined action of amylases and glucose isomerase on starch and its hydrolyzate. Part I. Production, extraction, purification and kinetic behavior of glucose isomerase.

    PubMed

    Attia, R M; Ghali, Y; Roushdi, M; Eldin, M A

    1980-06-01

    Glucose isomerase was produced from Streptomyces phaeochromogenes by aerobic fermentation at 28 degrees C for 24 hrs. The crude enzyme was obtained by disintegrating the harvested cells. It was found that ammonium sulphate at a saturation of 0.3-0.5 gave the maximum enzyme recovery (88.8%) from the crude extract, while acetone gave 66.2% at a concentration of 3/1 (V/V). On this basis the crude enzyme extract was purified following several steps as concentration, dialysis, precipitation with (NH4)2 SO4, then passing through column of Amberlite CG-50, and the eluate was treated with acetone to precipitate the enzyme. The kinetics behavior was studied and it was found that: optimum D-glucose concentration was 0.8 M, Km was 0.25 M, optimum pH was 7.0 and temperature was 70 degrees C. Magnesium at concentration of 0.07 M gave the maximum activity and its Km was 0.024 M. Antagonistic effects of Na+, Ca++ and Fe+++ in presence of 0.07 M of Mg++ were studied. Km and Vmax at different levels of Mg++ concentration were determined and no change in Km value was observed, while Vmax was affected. These findings indicate that the Mg++ combined with enzyme independently of the substrate. PMID:7424065

  20. De novo design and evolution of artificial disulfide isomerase enzymes analogous to the bacterial DsbC.

    PubMed

    Arredondo, Silvia; Segatori, Laura; Gilbert, Hiram F; Georgiou, George

    2008-11-14

    The Escherichia coli disulfide isomerase, DsbC is a V-shaped homodimer with each monomer comprising a dimerization region that forms part of a putative peptide-binding pocket and a thioredoxin catalytic domain. Disulfide isomerases from prokaryotes and eukaryotes exhibit little sequence homology but display very similar structural organization with two thioredoxin domains facing each other on top of the dimerization/peptide-binding region. To aid the understanding of the mechanistic significance of thioredoxin domain dimerization and of the peptide-binding cleft of DsbC, we constructed a series of protein chimeras comprising unrelated protein dimerization domains fused to thioredoxin superfamily enzymes. Chimeras consisting of the dimerization domain and the alpha-helical linker of the bacterial proline cis/trans isomerase FkpA and the periplasmic oxidase DsbA gave rise to enzymes that catalyzed the folding of multidisulfide substrate proteins in vivo with comparable efficiency to E. coli DsbC. In addition, expression of FkpA-DsbAs conferred modest resistance to CuCl2, a phenotype that depends on disulfide bond isomerization. Selection for resistance to elevated CuCl2 concentrations led to the isolation of FkpA-DsbA mutants containing a single amino acid substitution that changed the active site of the DsbA domain from CPHC into CPYC, increasing the similarity to the DsbC active site (CGYC). Unlike DsbC, which is resistant to oxidation by DsbB-DsbA and does not normally catalyze disulfide bond formation under physiological conditions, the FkpA-DsbA chimeras functioned both as oxidases and isomerases. The engineering of these efficient artificial isomerases delineates the key features of catalysis of disulfide bond isomerization and enhances our understanding of its evolution. PMID:18782764

  1. De Novo Design and Evolution of Artificial Disulfide Isomerase Enzymes Analogous to the Bacterial DsbC*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Arredondo, Silvia; Segatori, Laura; Gilbert, Hiram F.; Georgiou, George

    2008-01-01

    The Escherichia coli disulfide isomerase, DsbC is a V-shaped homodimer with each monomer comprising a dimerization region that forms part of a putative peptide-binding pocket and a thioredoxin catalytic domain. Disulfide isomerases from prokaryotes and eukaryotes exhibit little sequence homology but display very similar structural organization with two thioredoxin domains facing each other on top of the dimerization/peptide-binding region. To aid the understanding of the mechanistic significance of thioredoxin domain dimerization and of the peptide-binding cleft of DsbC, we constructed a series of protein chimeras comprising unrelated protein dimerization domains fused to thioredoxin superfamily enzymes. Chimeras consisting of the dimerization domain and the α-helical linker of the bacterial proline cis/trans isomerase FkpA and the periplasmic oxidase DsbA gave rise to enzymes that catalyzed the folding of multidisulfide substrate proteins in vivo with comparable efficiency to E. coli DsbC. In addition, expression of FkpA-DsbAs conferred modest resistance to CuCl2, a phenotype that depends on disulfide bond isomerization. Selection for resistance to elevated CuCl2 concentrations led to the isolation of FkpA-DsbA mutants containing a single amino acid substitution that changed the active site of the DsbA domain from CPHC into CPYC, increasing the similarity to the DsbC active site (CGYC). Unlike DsbC, which is resistant to oxidation by DsbB-DsbA and does not normally catalyze disulfide bond formation under physiological conditions, the FkpA-DsbA chimeras functioned both as oxidases and isomerases. The engineering of these efficient artificial isomerases delineates the key features of catalysis of disulfide bond isomerization and enhances our understanding of its evolution. PMID:18782764

  2. Bioproduction of D-Tagatose from D-Galactose Using Phosphoglucose Isomerase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Patel, Manisha J; Patel, Arti T; Akhani, Rekha; Dedania, Samir; Patel, Darshan H

    2016-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 phosphoglucose isomerase was purified as an active soluble form by a single-step purification using Ni-NTA chromatography that showed homogeneity on SDS-PAGE with molecular mass ∼62 kDa. The optimum temperature and pH for the maximum isomerization activity with D-galactose were 60 °C and 7.0, respectively. Generally, sugar phosphate isomerases show metal-independent activity but PA-PGI exhibited metal-dependent isomerization activity with aldosugars and optimally catalyzed the D-galactose isomerization in the presence of 1.0 mM MnCl2. The apparent Km and Vmax for D-galactose under standardized conditions were calculated to be 1029 mM (±31.30 with S.E.) and 5.95 U/mg (±0.9 with S.E.), respectively. Equilibrium reached after 180 min with production of 567.51 μM D-tagatose from 1000 mM of D-galactose. Though, the bioconversion ratio is low but it can be increased by immobilization and enzyme engineering. Although various L-arabinose isomerases have been characterized for bioproduction of D-tagatose, P. aeruginosa glucose phosphate isomerase is distinguished from the other L-arabinose isomerases by its optimal temperature (60 °C) for D-tagatose production being mesophilic bacteria, making it an alternate choice for bulk production. PMID:26922727

  3. X-ray structure of linalool dehydratase/isomerase from Castellaniella defragrans reveals enzymatic alkene synthesis.

    PubMed

    Weidenweber, Sina; Marmulla, Robert; Ermler, Ulrich; Harder, Jens

    2016-05-01

    Linalool dehydratase/isomerase (Ldi), an enzyme of terpene degradation in Castellaniella defragrans, isomerizes the primary monoterpene alcohol geraniol into the tertiary alcohol (S)-linalool and dehydrates (S)-linalool to the alkene β-myrcene. Here we report on the crystal structures of Ldi with and without terpene substrates, revealing a cofactor-free homopentameric enzyme. The substrates were embedded inside a hydrophobic channel between two monomers of the (α,α)6 barrel fold class and flanked by three clusters of polar residues involved in acid-base catalysis. The detailed view into the active site will guide future biotechnological applications of Ldi, in particular, for industrial butadiene and isoprene production from renewable sources. PMID:27062179

  4. Rapid expansion of the protein disulfide isomerase gene family facilitates the folding of venom peptides.

    PubMed

    Safavi-Hemami, Helena; Li, Qing; Jackson, Ronneshia L; Song, Albert S; Boomsma, Wouter; Bandyopadhyay, Pradip K; Gruber, Christian W; Purcell, Anthony W; Yandell, Mark; Olivera, Baldomero M; Ellgaard, Lars

    2016-03-22

    Formation of correct disulfide bonds in the endoplasmic reticulum is a crucial step for folding proteins destined for secretion. Protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs) play a central role in this process. We report a previously unidentified, hypervariable family of PDIs that represents the most diverse gene family of oxidoreductases described in a single genus to date. These enzymes are highly expressed specifically in the venom glands of predatory cone snails, animals that synthesize a remarkably diverse set of cysteine-rich peptide toxins (conotoxins). Enzymes in this PDI family, termed conotoxin-specific PDIs, significantly and differentially accelerate the kinetics of disulfide-bond formation of several conotoxins. Our results are consistent with a unique biological scenario associated with protein folding: The diversification of a family of foldases can be correlated with the rapid evolution of an unprecedented diversity of disulfide-rich structural domains expressed by venomous marine snails in the superfamily Conoidea. PMID:26957604

  5. Myb-binding site regulates the expression of glucosamine-6-phosphate isomerase in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Tabata, K; Matsuda, Y; Viller, E; Masamune, Y; Katayama, T; Yasukawa, H

    2001-10-01

    A homolog of the glucosamine-6-phosphate isomerase in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum has been analyzed. The gene disruption mutant was arrested at the mound stage, demonstrating that the gene is important for development. The gene was expressed in vegetatively growing cells, silenced on starvation and expressed again in prestalk cells during the multicellular stages. The upstream region of the gene (1376 bp relative to ATG) was cloned and sequenced to study the transcription control mechanisms. Analysis of deletion mutants and a site-directed mutant indicated that the Myb-binding sequence (5'-AACTG-3') localized in the upstream region is important for gene expression. The results of gel-shift assays showed the presence of an Myb-related protein binding to the sequence at the growing phase and another protein binding to the sequence at developmental stages. PMID:11576175

  6. Extreme electric fields power catalysis in the active site of ketosteroid isomerase

    PubMed Central

    Fried, Stephen D.; Bagchi, Sayan; Boxer, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes use protein architecture to impose specific electrostatic fields onto their bound substrates, but the magnitude and catalytic effect of these electric fields have proven difficult to quantify with standard experimental approaches. Using vibrational Stark effect spectroscopy, we found that the active site of the enzyme ketosteroid isomerase (KSI) exerts an extremely large electric field onto the C=O chemical bond that undergoes a charge rearrangement in KSI’s rate-determining step. Moreover, we found that the magnitude of the electric field exerted by the active site strongly correlates with the enzyme’s catalytic rate enhancement, enabling us to quantify the fraction of the catalytic effect that is electrostatic in origin. The measurements described here may help explain the role of electrostatics in many other enzymes and biomolecular systems. PMID:25525245

  7. Ribose 5-phosphate isomerase inhibits LC3 processing and basal autophagy.

    PubMed

    Heintze, Jacob; Costa, Joana R; Weber, Melanie; Ketteler, Robin

    2016-09-01

    Autophagy and cellular metabolism are tightly linked processes, but how individual metabolic enzymes regulate the process of autophagy is not well understood. This study implicates ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (RPIA), a key regulator of the pentose phosphate pathway, in the control of autophagy. We used a dual gene deletion strategy, combining shRNA-mediated knockdown studies with CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing. Knockdown of RPIA by shRNA or genomic deletion by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, results in an increase of ATG4B-mediated LC3 processing and in the appearance of LC3-positive autophagosomes in cells. Increased LC3 processing upon knockdown of RPIA can be reversed by treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine. The results are consistent with a model in which RPIA suppresses autophagy and LC3 processing by modulation of redox signaling. PMID:27328773

  8. Production of ethanol from D-xylose by using D-xylose isomerase and yeasts

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, C.S.; Chem, L.F.; Flickinger, M.C.; Chiang, L.C.; Tsao, G.T.

    1981-02-01

    D-xylulose, an intermediate of D-xylose catabolism, was observed to be fermentable to ethanol and carbon dioxide in a yield of greater than 80% by yeasts (including industrial bakers' yeast) under fermentative conditions. This conversion appears to be carried out by many yeasts known for D-glucose fermentation. In some yeasts, xylitol, in addition to ethanol, was produced from D-xylulose. Fermenting yeasts are also able to produce ethanol from D-xylose when D-xylose isomerizing enzyme is present. The results indicate that ethanol could be produced from D-xylose in a yield of greater than 80% by a two-step process. First. D-xylose is converted to D-xylulose by xylose isomerase. D-xylulose is then fermented to ethanol by yeasts.

  9. Structural Elucidation of a Small Molecule Inhibitor of Protein Disulfide Isomerase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Compound libraries provide a starting point for multiple biological investigations, but the structural integrity of compounds is rarely assessed experimentally until a late stage in the research process. Here, we describe the discovery of a neuroprotective small molecule that was originally incorrectly annotated with a chemical structure. We elucidated the correct structure of the active compound using analytical chemistry, revealing it to be the natural product securinine. We show that securinine is protective in a cell model of Huntington disease and identify the binding site of securinine to its target, protein disulfide isomerase using NMR chemical shift perturbation studies. We show that securinine displays favorable pharmaceutical properties, making it a promising compound for in vivo studies in neurodegenerative disease models. In addition to finding this unexpected activity of securinine, this study provides a systematic roadmap to those who encounter compounds with incorrect structural annotation in the course of screening campaigns. PMID:26500720

  10. Agrobacterium and biolistic transformation of onion using non-antibiotic selection marker phosphomannose isomerase.

    PubMed

    Aswath, Chenna Reddy; Mo, Sung Youn; Kim, Doo Hwan; Park, S Won

    2006-03-01

    A new selection system for onion transformation that does not require the use of antibiotics or herbicides was developed. The selection system used the Escherichia coli gene that encodes phosphomannose isomerase (pmi). Transgenic plants carrying the manA gene that codes for pmi can detoxify mannose-6-phosphate by conversion to fructose-6-phosphate, an intermediate of glycolysis, via the pmi activity. Six-week-old embryogenic callus initiated from seedling radicle was used for transformation. Transgenic plants were produced efficiently with transformation rates of 27 and 23% using Agrobacterium and biolistic system, respectively. Untransformed shoots were eliminated by a stepwise increase from 10 g l(-1) sucrose with 10 g l(-1) mannose in the first selection to only 10 g l(-1) mannose in the second selection. Integrative transformation was confirmed by PCR, RT-PCR and Southern hybridization. PMID:16211408

  11. Mannose supplements induce embryonic lethality and blindness in phosphomannose isomerase hypomorphic mice

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vandana; Nayak, Jonamani; DeRossi, Charles; Charbono, Adriana; Ichikawa, Mie; Ng, Bobby G.; Grajales-Esquivel, Erika; Srivastava, Anand; Wang, Ling; He, Ping; Scott, David A.; Russell, Joseph; Contreras, Emily; Guess, Cherise M.; Krajewski, Stan; Del Rio-Tsonis, Katia; Freeze, Hudson H.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG), type Ib (MPI-CDG or CDG-Ib) have mutations in phosphomannose isomerase (MPI) that impair glycosylation and lead to stunted growth, liver dysfunction, coagulopathy, hypoglycemia, and intestinal abnormalities. Mannose supplements correct hypoglycosylation and most symptoms by providing mannose-6-P (Man-6-P) via hexokinase. We generated viable Mpi hypomorphic mice with residual enzymatic activity comparable to that of patients, but surprisingly, these mice appeared completely normal except for modest (∼15%) embryonic lethality. To overcome this lethality, pregnant dams were provided 1–2% mannose in their drinking water. However, mannose further reduced litter size and survival to weaning by 40 and 66%, respectively. Moreover, ∼50% of survivors developed eye defects beginning around midgestation. Mannose started at birth also led to eye defects but had no effect when started after eye development was complete. Man-6-P and related metabolites accumulated in the affected adult eye and in developing embryos and placentas. Our results demonstrate that disturbing mannose metabolic flux in mice, especially during embryonic development, induces a highly specific, unanticipated pathological state. It is unknown whether mannose is harmful to human fetuses during gestation; however, mothers who are at risk for having MPI-CDG children and who consume mannose during pregnancy hoping to benefit an affected fetus in utero should be cautious.—Sharma, V., Nayak, J., DeRossi, C., Charbono, A., Ichikawa, M., Ng, B. G., Grajales-Esquivel, E., Srivastava, A., Wang, L., He, P., Scott, D. A., Russell, J., Contreras, E., Guess, C. M., Krajewski, S., Del Rio-Tsonis, K., Freeze, H. H. Mannose supplements induce embryonic lethality and blindness in phosphomannose isomerase hypomorphic mice. PMID:24421398

  12. Role of conserved Met112 residue in the catalytic activity and stability of ketosteroid isomerase.

    PubMed

    Cha, Hyung Jin; Jang, Do Soo; Jeong, Jae-Hee; Hong, Bee Hak; Yun, Young Sung; Shin, Eun Ju; Choi, Kwan Yong

    2016-10-01

    Ketosteroid isomerase (3-oxosteroid Δ(5)-Δ(4)-isomerase, KSI) from Pseudomonas putida catalyzes allylic rearrangement of the 5,6-double bond of Δ(5)-3-ketosteroid to 4,5-position by stereospecific intramolecular transfer of a proton. The active site of KSI is formed by several hydrophobic residues and three catalytic residues (Tyr14, Asp38, and Asp99). In this study, we investigated the role of a hydrophobic Met112 residue near the active site in the catalysis, steroid binding, and stability of KSI. Replacing Met112 with alanine (yields M112A) or leucine (M112L) decreased the kcat by 20- and 4-fold, respectively. Compared with the wild type (WT), M112A and M112L KSIs showed increased KD values for equilenin, an intermediate analogue; these changes suggest that loss of packing at position 112 might lead to unfavorable steroid binding, thereby resulting in decreased catalytic activity. Furthermore, M112A and M112L mutations reduced melting temperature (Tm) by 6.4°C and 2.5°C, respectively. These changes suggest that favorable packing in the core is important for the maintenance of stability in KSI. The M112K mutation decreased kcat by 2000-fold, compared with the WT. In M112K KSI structure, a new salt bridge was formed between Asp38 and Lys112. This bridge could change the electrostatic potential of Asp38, and thereby contribute to the decreased catalytic activity. The M112K mutation also decreased the stability by reducing Tm by 4.1°C. Our data suggest that the Met112 residue may contribute to the catalytic activity and stability of KSI by providing favorable hydrophobic environments and compact packing in the catalytic core. PMID:27375051

  13. Analysis of bacterial xylose isomerase gene diversity using gene-targeted metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Nurdiani, Dini; Ito, Michihiro; Maruyama, Toru; Terahara, Takeshi; Mori, Tetsushi; Ugawa, Shin; Takeyama, Haruko

    2015-08-01

    Bacterial xylose isomerases (XI) are promising resources for efficient biofuel production from xylose in lignocellulosic biomass. Here, we investigated xylose isomerase gene (xylA) diversity in three soil metagenomes differing in plant vegetation and geographical location, using an amplicon pyrosequencing approach and two newly-designed primer sets. A total of 158,555 reads from three metagenomic DNA replicates for each soil sample were classified into 1127 phylotypes, detected in triplicate and defined by 90% amino acid identity. The phylotype coverage was estimated to be within the range of 84.0-92.7%. The xylA gene phylotypes obtained were phylogenetically distributed across the two known xylA groups. They shared 49-100% identities with their closest-related XI sequences in GenBank. Phylotypes demonstrating <90% identity with known XIs in the database accounted for 89% of the total xylA phylotypes. The differences among xylA members and compositions within each soil sample were significantly smaller than they were between different soils based on a UniFrac distance analysis, suggesting soil-specific xylA genotypes and taxonomic compositions. The differences among xylA members and their compositions in the soil were strongly correlated with 16S rRNA variation between soil samples, also assessed by amplicon pyrosequencing. This is the first report of xylA diversity in environmental samples assessed by amplicon pyrosequencing. Our data provide information regarding xylA diversity in nature, and can be a basis for the screening of novel xylA genotypes for practical applications. PMID:25656071

  14. Structure and catalytic mechanism of the evolutionarily unique bacterial chalcone isomerase.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Maren; Tuukkanen, Anne; Dickerhoff, Jonathan; Palm, Gottfried J; Kratzat, Hanna; Svergun, Dmitri I; Weisz, Klaus; Bornscheuer, Uwe T; Hinrichs, Winfried

    2015-04-01

    Flavonoids represent a large class of secondary metabolites produced by plants. These polyphenolic compounds are well known for their antioxidative abilities, are antimicrobial phytoalexins responsible for flower pigmentation to attract pollinators and, in addition to other properties, are also specific bacterial regulators governing the expression of Rhizobium genes involved in root nodulation (Firmin et al., 1986). The bacterial chalcone isomerase (CHI) from Eubacterium ramulus catalyses the first step in a flavanone-degradation pathway by ring opening of (2S)-naringenin to form naringenin chalcone. The structural biology and enzymology of plant CHIs have been well documented, whereas the existence of bacterial CHIs has only recently been elucidated. This first determination of the structure of a bacterial CHI provides detailed structural insights into the key step of the flavonoid-degradation pathway. The active site could be confirmed by co-crystallization with the substrate (2S)-naringenin. The stereochemistry of the proposed mechanism of the isomerase reaction was verified by specific (1)H/(2)H isotope exchange observed by (1)H NMR experiments and was further supported by mutagenesis studies. The active site is shielded by a flexible lid, the varying structure of which could be modelled in different states of the catalytic cycle using small-angle X-ray scattering data together with the crystallographic structures. Comparison of bacterial CHI with the plant enzyme from Medicago sativa reveals that they have unrelated folds, suggesting that the enzyme activity evolved convergently from different ancestor proteins. Despite the lack of any functional relationship, the tertiary structure of the bacterial CHI shows similarities to the ferredoxin-like fold of a chlorite dismutase and the stress-related protein SP1. PMID:25849401

  15. Adverse Outcomes Associated with Cigarette Smoke Radicals Related to Damage to Protein-disulfide Isomerase.

    PubMed

    Kenche, Harshavardhan; Ye, Zhi-Wei; Vedagiri, Kokilavani; Richards, Dylan M; Gao, Xing-Huang; Tew, Kenneth D; Townsend, Danyelle M; Blumental-Perry, Anna

    2016-02-26

    Identification of factors contributing to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is crucial for developing new treatments. An increase in the levels of protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI), a multifaceted endoplasmic reticulum resident chaperone, has been demonstrated in human smokers, presumably as a protective adaptation to cigarette smoke (CS) exposure. We found a similar increase in the levels of PDI in the murine model of COPD. We also found abnormally high levels (4-6 times) of oxidized and sulfenilated forms of PDI in the lungs of murine smokers compared with non-smokers. PDI oxidation progressively increases with age. We begin to delineate the possible role of an increased ratio of oxidized PDI in the age-related onset of COPD by investigating the impact of exposure to CS radicals, such as acrolein (AC), hydroxyquinones (HQ), peroxynitrites (PN), and hydrogen peroxide, on their ability to induce unfolded protein response (UPR) and their effects on the structure and function of PDIs. Exposure to AC, HQ, PN, and CS resulted in cysteine and tyrosine nitrosylation leading to an altered three-dimensional structure of the PDI due to a decrease in helical content and formation of a more random coil structure, resulting in protein unfolding, inhibition of PDI reductase and isomerase activity in vitro and in vivo, and subsequent induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress response. Addition of glutathione prevented the induction of UPR, and AC and HQ induced structural changes in PDI. Exposure to PN and glutathione resulted in conjugation of PDI possibly at active site tyrosine residues. The findings presented here propose a new role of PDI in the pathogenesis of COPD and its age-dependent onset. PMID:26728460

  16. Concerted Proton Transfer Mechanism of Clostridium thermocellum Ribose-5-phosphate Isomerase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Yang, Weitao

    2013-01-01

    Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (Rpi) catalyzes the interconversion of D-ribose-5-phosphate and D-ribulose-5-phosphate and plays an essential role in the pentose phosphate pathway and the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis. RpiB, one of the two isoforms of Rpi, is also a potential drug target for some pathogenic bacteria. Clostridium thermocellum ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (CtRpi), belonging to RpiB family, has recently been employed to the industrial production of rare sugars because of it fast reactions kinetics and narrow substrate specificity. It is known this enzyme adopts proton transfer mechanism. It was suggested that the deprotonated Cys65 attracts the proton at C2 of substrate to initiate the isomerization reaction and this step is the rate-limiting step. However the elaborate catalytic mechanism is still unclear. We have performed quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations of this rate-limiting step of the reaction catalyzed by CtRpi with the substrate D-ribose. Our results demonstrate that the deprotonated Cys65 is not a stable reactant. Instead, our calculations revealed a concerted proton-transfer mechanism: Asp8, a highly conserved residue in the RpiB family performs as the base to abstract the proton at Cys65 and Cys65 in turn abstracts the proton of the D-ribose simultaneously. Moreover, we found Thr67 cannot catalyze the proton transfer from O2 to O1 of the D-ribose alone. Water molecule(s) may assist this proton transfer with Thr67. Our findings lead to a clear understanding of the catalysis mechanism of RpiB family and should guide the experiments to increase the catalysis efficiency. This study also highlights the importance of initial protonation states of cysteines. PMID:23875675

  17. Protein disulfide isomerase A3-specific Th1 effector cells infiltrate colon cancer tissue of patients with circulating anti-protein disulfide isomerase A3 autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Caorsi, Cristiana; Niccolai, Elena; Capello, Michela; Vallone, Rosario; Chattaragada, Michelle S; Alushi, Brunilda; Castiglione, Anna; Ciccone, Gianni; Mautino, Alessandro; Cassoni, Paola; De Monte, Lucia; Álvarez-Fernández, Sheila M; Amedei, Amedeo; Alessio, Massimo; Novelli, Francesco

    2016-05-01

    To investigate novel colorectal cancer (CRC)-associated antigens that could be targets of humoral or cellular responses, we analyzed the reactivity of serum from a long-surviving CRC patient (for more than 100 months of follow-up) in clinical remission, by serologic proteome analysis. Two-dimensional Western blotting (2D-WB) and mass spectrometry analysis revealed a strong reactivity of this serum against protein disulfide isomerase A3 (PDIA3). Anti-PDIA3 antibodies are not a diagnostic marker of CRC, 2D-WB and Luminex analysis revealed that they were equally present in about 10% of sera from healthy subjects and CRC patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis of survival in CRC patient cohort, after 48 months of follow-up, showed a trend of higher survival in patients with increased levels of autoantibodies to PDIA3. Therefore, the interplay between the presence of these antibodies and T-cell response was investigated. Peripheral blood T cells from CRC patients with high immunoglobulin G (IgG) reactivity to PDIA3 also secreted interferon gamma (IFN-γ) when stimulated in vitro with recombinant PDIA3, whereas those from CRC with low IgG reactivity to PDIA3 did not. PDIA3-pulsed dendritic cells efficiently induced proliferation and IFN-γ production of autologous CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Finally, ex vivo analysis of tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes from CRC patients with autoantibodies to PDIA3 revealed that PDIA3-specific Th1 effector cells accumulated in tumor tissue. These data indicate that the presence of autoantibodies to PDIA3 favors the development of an efficient and specific T-cell response against PDIA3 in CRC patients. These results may be relevant for the design of novel immunotherapeutic strategies in CRC patients. PMID:26772958

  18. Structural Analysis of the Pin1-CPEB1 interaction and its potential role in CPEB1 degradation

    PubMed Central

    Schelhorn, Constanze; Martín-Malpartida, Pau; Suñol, David; Macias, Maria J.

    2015-01-01

    The Cytoplasmic Polyadenylation Element Binding proteins are RNA binding proteins involved in the translational regulation of mRNA. During cell cycle progression, CPEB1 is labeled for degradation by phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination by the SCFβ−TrCP ligase. The peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1 plays a key role in CPEB1 degradation. Conditioned by the cell cycle stage, CPEB1 and Pin1 interactions occur in a phosphorylation-independent or -dependent manner. CPEB1 contains six potential phosphorylatable Pin1 binding sites. Using a set of biophysical techniques, we discovered that the pS210 site is unique, since it displays binding activity not only to the WW domain but also to the prolyl-isomerase domain of Pin1. The NMR structure of the Pin1 WW-CPEB1 pS210 (PDB ID: 2n1o) reveals that the pSerPro motif is bound in trans configuration through contacts with amino acids located in the first turn of the WW domain and the conserved tryptophan in the β3-strand. NMR relaxation analyses of Pin1 suggest that inter-domain flexibility is conferred by the modulation of the interaction with peptides containing the pS210 site, which is essential for degradation. PMID:26456073

  19. Pin1 down-regulates transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling by inducing degradation of Smad proteins.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ayako; Koinuma, Daizo; Miyazawa, Keiji; Uchida, Takafumi; Saitoh, Masao; Kawabata, Masahiro; Hanai, Jun-ichi; Akiyama, Hirotada; Abe, Masahiro; Miyazono, Kohei; Matsumoto, Toshio; Imamura, Takeshi

    2009-03-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is crucial in numerous cellular processes, such as proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis. TGF-beta signaling is transduced by intracellular Smad proteins that are regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Smad ubiquitin regulatory factor 2 (Smurf2) prevents TGF-beta and bone morphogenetic protein signaling by interacting with Smads and inducing their ubiquitin-mediated degradation. Here we identified Pin1, a peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerase, as a novel protein binding Smads. Pin1 interacted with Smad2 and Smad3 but not Smad4; this interaction was enhanced by the phosphorylation of (S/T)P motifs in the Smad linker region. (S/T)P motif phosphorylation also enhanced the interaction of Smad2/3 with Smurf2. Pin1 reduced Smad2/3 protein levels in a manner dependent on its peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity. Knockdown of Pin1 increased the protein levels of endogenous Smad2/3. In addition, Pin1 both enhanced the interaction of Smurf2 with Smads and enhanced Smad ubiquitination. Pin1 inhibited TGF-beta-induced transcription and gene expression, suggesting that Pin1 negatively regulates TGF-beta signaling by down-regulating Smad2/3 protein levels via induction of Smurf2-mediated ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation. PMID:19122240

  20. Pin1 regulates TGF-β1 production by activated human and murine eosinophils and contributes to allergic lung fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zhong-Jian; Esnault, Stephane; Rosenthal, Louis A.; Szakaly, Renee J.; Sorkness, Ronald L.; Westmark, Pamela R.; Sandor, Matyas; Malter, James S.

    2008-01-01

    Eosinophilic inflammation is a cornerstone of chronic asthma that often culminates in subepithelial fibrosis with variable airway obstruction. Pulmonary eosinophils (Eos) are a predominant source of TGF-β1, which drives fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition. We investigated the regulation of TGF-β1 and show here that the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase) Pin1 promoted the stability of TGF-β1 mRNA in human Eos. In addition, Pin1 regulated cytokine production by both in vitro and in vivo activated human Eos. We found that Pin1 interacted with both PKC-α and protein phosphatase 2A, which together control Pin1 isomerase activity. Pharmacologic blockade of Pin1 in a rat asthma model selectively reduced eosinophilic pulmonary inflammation, TGF-β1 and collagen expression, and airway remodeling. Furthermore, chronically challenged Pin1–/– mice showed reduced peribronchiolar collagen deposition compared with wild-type controls. These data suggest that pharmacologic suppression of Pin1 may be a novel therapeutic option to prevent airway fibrosis in individuals with chronic asthma. PMID:18188456

  1. FKBP51 employs both scaffold and isomerase functions to promote NF-κB activation in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Simona; Xiao, Yichuan; Nakaya, Mako; D'Angelillo, Anna; Chang, Mikyoung; Jin, Jin; Hausch, Felix; Masullo, Mariorosario; Feng, Xixi; Romano, Maria Fiammetta; Sun, Shao-Cong

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is the most aggressive skin cancer; its prognosis, particularly in advanced stages, is disappointing largely due to the resistance to conventional anticancer treatments and high metastatic potential. NF-κB constitutive activation is a major factor for the apoptosis resistance of melanoma. Several studies suggest a role for the immunophilin FKBP51 in NF-κB activation, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that FKBP51 physically interacts with IKK subunits, and facilitates IKK complex assembly. FKBP51-knockdown inhibits the binding of IKKγ to the IKK catalytic subunits, IKK-α and -β, and attenuates the IKK catalytic activity. Using FK506, an inhibitor of the FKBP51 isomerase activity, we found that the IKK-regulatory role of FKBP51 involves both its scaffold function and its isomerase activity. Moreover, FKBP51 also interacts with TRAF2, an upstream mediator of IKK activation. Interestingly, both FKBP51 TPR and PPIase domains are required for its interaction with TRAF2 and IKKγ, whereas only the TPR domain is involved in interactions with IKKα and β. Collectively, these results suggest that FKBP51 promotes NF-κB activation by serving as an IKK scaffold as well as an isomerase. Our findings have profound implications for designing novel melanoma therapies based on modulation of FKBP51. PMID:26101251

  2. Optimization of Fermentation Medium for the Production of Glucose Isomerase Using Streptomyces sp. SB-P1

    PubMed Central

    Bhasin, Sheetal; Modi, H. A.

    2012-01-01

    The combination of medium ingredients has a profound influence on the metabolic pathways running in the microorganism which regulates the production of numerous metabolites. Glucose isomerase (GI), an enzyme with huge potential in the market, can isomerise glucose into fructose. GI is used widely for the production of High-Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS). HFCS is used as a sweetener in food and pharmaceutical industries. Streptomyces are well-known producers of numerous enzymes including glucose isomerase. An array of 75 isolates was screened for the production of glucose isomerase. The isolate Streptomyces sp. SB-P1 was found to produce maximum amount of extracellular GI. Sucrose and raffinose among pure carbon sources and corn cob and wheat husk among crude agro residues were found to yield high enzyme titers. Potassium nitrate among pure nitrogen sources and soy residues among crude sources gave maximum production. Quantitative effect of carbon, nitrogen, and inducer on GI was also determined. Plackett-Burman design was used to study the effect of different medium ingredients. Sucrose and xylose as carbon sources and peptone and soy residues as nitrogen sources proved to be beneficial for GI production. PMID:22900192

  3. The Mechanism of the Reaction Catalyzed by Uronate Isomerase Illustrates How an Isomerase May Have Evolved from a Hydrolase within the Amidohydrolase Superfamily

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, T.; Fedorov, A; Williams, L; Fedorov, E; Li, Y; Xu, C; Almo, S; Raushel, F

    2009-01-01

    Uronate isomerase (URI) catalyzes the reversible isomerization of d-glucuronate to d-fructuronate and of d-galacturonate to d-tagaturonate. URI is a member of the amidohydrolase superfamily (AHS), a highly divergent group of enzymes that catalyze primarily hydrolytic reactions. The chemical mechanism and active site structure of URI were investigated in an attempt to improve our understanding of how an active site template that apparently evolved to catalyze hydrolytic reactions has been reforged to catalyze an isomerization reaction. The pH-rate profiles for kcat and kcat/Km for URI from Escherichia coli are bell-shaped and indicate that one group must be unprotonated and another residue must be protonated for catalytic activity. Primary isotope effects on the kinetic constants with [2-2H]-d-glucuronate and the effects of changes in solvent viscosity are consistent with product release being the rate-limiting step. The X-ray structure of Bh0493, a URI from Bacillus halodurans, was determined in the presence of the substrate d-glucuronate. The bound complex showed that the mononuclear metal center in the active site is ligated to the C-6 carboxylate and the C-5 hydroxyl group of the substrate. This hydroxyl group is also hydrogen bonded to Asp-355 in the same orientation as the hydroxide or water is bound in those members of the AHS that catalyze hydrolytic reactions. In addition, the C-2 and C-3 hydroxyl groups of the substrate are hydrogen bonded to Arg-357 and the carbonyl group at C-1 is hydrogen bonded to Tyr-50. A chemical mechanism is proposed that utilizes a proton transfer from C-2 of d-glucuronate to C-1 that is initiated by the combined actions of Asp-355 from the end of ?-strand 8 and the C-5 hydroxyl of the substrate that is bound to the metal ion. The formation of the proposed cis-enediol intermediate is further facilitated by the shuttling of the proton between the C-2 and C-1 oxygens by the conserved Tyr-50 and/or Arg-355.

  4. Properties of d-Arabinose Isomerase Purified from Two Strains of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Boulter, James R.; Gielow, William O.

    1973-01-01

    d-Arabinose isomerase (EC 5.3.1.3) has been isolated from l-fucose-induced cultures of Escherichia coli K-12 and d-arabinose-induced cultures of E. coli B/r. Both enzymes were homogeneous in an ultracentrifuge and migrated as single bands upon disc electrophoresis in acrylamide gels. The s20,w was 14.5 × 10−13 sec for the E. coli K-12 enzyme and 14.3 × 10−13 sec for the E. coli B/r enzyme. The molecular weight, determined by high-speed sedimentation equilibrium, was 3.55 ± 0.06 × 105 for the E. coli K-12 enzyme and 3.42 ± 0.04 × 105 for the enzyme isolated from E. coli B/r. Both enzyme preparations were active wth l-fucose or d-arabinose as substrates and showed no activity on any of the other aldopentoses or aldohexoses tested. With the E. coli K-12 enzyme, the Km was 2.8 × 10−1m for d-arabinose and 4.5 × 10−2m for l-fucose; with the E. coli B/r enzyme, the Km was 1.7 × 10−1m for d-arabinose and 4.2 × 10−2m for l-fucose. Both enzymes were inhibited by several of the polyalcohols tested, ribitol, l-arabitol, and dulcitol being the strongest. Both enzymes exhibited a broad plateau of optimal catalytic activity in the alkaline range. Both enzymes were stimulated by the presence of Mn2+ or Co2+ ions, but were strongly inhibited by the presence of Cd2+ ions. Both enzymes were precipitated by antisera prepared against either enzyme preparation. The amino acid composition for both proteins has been determined; a striking similarity has been detected. Both enzymes could be dissociated, by protonation at pH 2 or by dialysis against buffer containing 8 m urea, into subunits that were homogeneous in an ultracentrifuge and migrated as single bands on disc electrophoresis in acrylamide gels containing urea. The molecular weight of the subunit, determined by high-speed sedimentation equilibrium, was 9.09 ± 0.2 × 104 for the enzyme from E. coli K-12 and 8.46 ± 0.1 × 104 for the enzyme from E. coli B/r. On the basis of biophysical studies, both

  5. Erythritol feeds the pentose phosphate pathway via three new isomerases leading to D-erythrose-4-phosphate in Brucella

    PubMed Central

    Barbier, Thibault; Collard, François; Zúñiga-Ripa, Amaia; Moriyón, Ignacio; Godard, Thibault; Becker, Judith; Wittmann, Christoph; Van Schaftingen, Emile; Letesson, Jean-Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Erythritol is an important nutrient for several α-2 Proteobacteria, including N2-fixing plant endosymbionts and Brucella, a worldwide pathogen that finds this four-carbon polyol in genital tissues. Erythritol metabolism involves phosphorylation to l-erythritol-4-phosphate by the kinase EryA and oxidation of the latter to l-3-tetrulose 4-phosphate by the dehydrogenase EryB. It is accepted that further steps involve oxidation by the putative dehydrogenase EryC and subsequent decarboxylation to yield triose-phosphates. Accordingly, growth on erythritol as the sole C source should require aldolase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase to produce essential hexose-6-monophosphate. However, we observed that a mutant devoid of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases grew normally on erythritol and that EryC, which was assumed to be a dehydrogenase, actually belongs to the xylose isomerase superfamily. Moreover, we found that TpiA2 and RpiB, distant homologs of triose phosphate isomerase and ribose 5-phosphate isomerase B, were necessary, as previously shown for Rhizobium. By using purified recombinant enzymes, we demonstrated that l-3-tetrulose-4-phosphate was converted to d-erythrose 4-phosphate through three previously unknown isomerization reactions catalyzed by EryC (tetrulose-4-phosphate racemase), TpiA2 (d-3-tetrulose-4-phosphate isomerase; renamed EryH), and RpiB (d-erythrose-4-phosphate isomerase; renamed EryI), a pathway fully consistent with the isotopomer distribution of the erythrose-4-phosphate-derived amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine obtained from bacteria grown on 13C-labeled erythritol. d-Erythrose-4-phosphate is then converted by enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate, thus bypassing fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. This is the first description to our knowledge of a route feeding carbohydrate metabolism exclusively via d-erythrose 4-phosphate, a pathway that may provide clues to the preferential metabolism of

  6. Erythritol feeds the pentose phosphate pathway via three new isomerases leading to D-erythrose-4-phosphate in Brucella.

    PubMed

    Barbier, Thibault; Collard, François; Zúñiga-Ripa, Amaia; Moriyón, Ignacio; Godard, Thibault; Becker, Judith; Wittmann, Christoph; Van Schaftingen, Emile; Letesson, Jean-Jacques

    2014-12-16

    Erythritol is an important nutrient for several α-2 Proteobacteria, including N2-fixing plant endosymbionts and Brucella, a worldwide pathogen that finds this four-carbon polyol in genital tissues. Erythritol metabolism involves phosphorylation to L-erythritol-4-phosphate by the kinase EryA and oxidation of the latter to L-3-tetrulose 4-phosphate by the dehydrogenase EryB. It is accepted that further steps involve oxidation by the putative dehydrogenase EryC and subsequent decarboxylation to yield triose-phosphates. Accordingly, growth on erythritol as the sole C source should require aldolase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase to produce essential hexose-6-monophosphate. However, we observed that a mutant devoid of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases grew normally on erythritol and that EryC, which was assumed to be a dehydrogenase, actually belongs to the xylose isomerase superfamily. Moreover, we found that TpiA2 and RpiB, distant homologs of triose phosphate isomerase and ribose 5-phosphate isomerase B, were necessary, as previously shown for Rhizobium. By using purified recombinant enzymes, we demonstrated that L-3-tetrulose-4-phosphate was converted to D-erythrose 4-phosphate through three previously unknown isomerization reactions catalyzed by EryC (tetrulose-4-phosphate racemase), TpiA2 (D-3-tetrulose-4-phosphate isomerase; renamed EryH), and RpiB (D-erythrose-4-phosphate isomerase; renamed EryI), a pathway fully consistent with the isotopomer distribution of the erythrose-4-phosphate-derived amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine obtained from bacteria grown on (13)C-labeled erythritol. D-erythrose-4-phosphate is then converted by enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate, thus bypassing fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. This is the first description to our knowledge of a route feeding carbohydrate metabolism exclusively via D-erythrose 4-phosphate, a pathway that may provide clues to the preferential metabolism of

  7. Development of a recombinant d-mannose isomerase and its characterizations for d-mannose synthesis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xing; Zhang, Peng; Miao, Ming; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Bo

    2016-08-01

    d-Mannose isomerase (MIase) catalyzes the conversion of d-fructose to d-mannose. In this study, the MIase encoding gene (yihS) from Escherichia coli BL21 contains an ORF of 1242bp, was cloned and expressed in Bacillus subtilis WB800. This heterologous expression resulted in a hexamer with a molecular weight of 274.5kDa and Tm of 61.4°C. Efficient MIase secretory expression by the robust recombinant B. subtilis was achieved with activity of 51.2U/ml (d-mannose forming). Its optimal temperature and pH were 45.0°C and 7.0, respectively. Using d-fructose as the substrate, Km, kcat and catalytic efficiency value of kinetic reaction were 203.7±6.7mM, 27.7±0.7s(-1) and 136.0±2.9M(-1)s(-1), respectively. The production of d-mannose reached about 150g/l with approximately 25% turnover yield under the optimum conditions. These results demonstrated that B. subtilis was a promising candidate of MIase expression system for d-mannose production. PMID:27138861

  8. Functional Role of the Disulfide Isomerase ERp57 in Axonal Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Valentina; Oñate, Maritza; Woehlbier, Ute; Rozas, Pablo; Andreu, Catherine; Medinas, Danilo; Valdés, Pamela; Osorio, Fabiola; Mercado, Gabriela; Vidal, René L; Kerr, Bredford; Court, Felipe A; Hetz, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    ERp57 (also known as grp58 and PDIA3) is a protein disulfide isomerase that catalyzes disulfide bonds formation of glycoproteins as part of the calnexin and calreticulin cycle. ERp57 is markedly upregulated in most common neurodegenerative diseases downstream of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. Despite accumulating correlative evidence supporting a neuroprotective role of ERp57, the contribution of this foldase to the physiology of the nervous system remains unknown. Here we developed a transgenic mouse model that overexpresses ERp57 in the nervous system under the control of the prion promoter. We analyzed the susceptibility of ERp57 transgenic mice to undergo neurodegeneration. Unexpectedly, ERp57 overexpression did not affect dopaminergic neuron loss and striatal denervation after injection of a Parkinson's disease-inducing neurotoxin. In sharp contrast, ERp57 transgenic animals presented enhanced locomotor recovery after mechanical injury to the sciatic nerve. These protective effects were associated with enhanced myelin removal, macrophage infiltration and axonal regeneration. Our results suggest that ERp57 specifically contributes to peripheral nerve regeneration, whereas its activity is dispensable for the survival of a specific neuronal population of the central nervous system. These results demonstrate for the first time a functional role of a component of the ER proteostasis network in peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:26361352

  9. Phosphomannose Isomerase Inhibitors Improve N-Glycosylation in Selected Phosphomannomutase-deficient Fibroblasts*

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vandana; Ichikawa, Mie; He, Ping; Bravo, Yalda; Dahl, Russell; Ng, Bobby G.; Cosford, Nicholas D. P.; Freeze, Hudson H.

    2011-01-01

    Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are rare genetic disorders due to impaired glycosylation. The patients with subtypes CDG-Ia and CDG-Ib have mutations in the genes encoding phosphomannomutase 2 (PMM2) and phosphomannose isomerase (MPI or PMI), respectively. PMM2 (mannose 6-phosphate → mannose 1-phosphate) and MPI (mannose 6-phosphate ⇔ fructose 6-phosphate) deficiencies reduce the metabolic flux of mannose 6-phosphate (Man-6-P) into glycosylation, resulting in unoccupied N-glycosylation sites. Both PMM2 and MPI compete for the same substrate, Man-6-P. Daily mannose doses reverse most of the symptoms of MPI-deficient CDG-Ib patients. However, CDG-Ia patients do not benefit from mannose supplementation because >95% Man-6-P is catabolized by MPI. We hypothesized that inhibiting MPI enzymatic activity would provide more Man-6-P for glycosylation and possibly benefit CDG-Ia patients with residual PMM2 activity. Here we show that MLS0315771, a potent MPI inhibitor from the benzoisothiazolone series, diverts Man-6-P toward glycosylation in various cell lines including fibroblasts from CDG-Ia patients and improves N-glycosylation. Finally, we show that MLS0315771 increases mannose metabolic flux toward glycosylation in zebrafish embryos. PMID:21949237

  10. Arabidopsis cotyledon-specific chloroplast biogenesis factor CYO1 is a protein disulfide isomerase.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Mariko; Ogura, Kan; Froehlich, John E; Osteryoung, Katherine W; Shirano, Yumiko; Shibata, Daisuke; Masuda, Shinji; Mori, Kazuki; Takamiya, Ken-Ichiro

    2007-10-01

    Chloroplast development in cotyledons differs in a number of ways from that in true leaves, but the cotyledon-specific program of chloroplast biogenesis has not been clarified. The cyo1 mutant in Arabidopsis thaliana has albino cotyledons but normal green true leaves. Chloroplasts develop abnormally in cyo1 mutant plants grown in the light, but etioplasts are normal in mutants grown in the dark. We isolated CYO1 by T-DNA tagging and verified that the mutant allele was responsible for the albino cotyledon phenotype by complementation. CYO1 has a C(4)-type zinc finger domain similar to that of Escherichia coli DnaJ. CYO1 is expressed mainly in young plants under light conditions, and the CYO1 protein localizes to the thylakoid membrane in chloroplasts. Transcription of nuclear photosynthetic genes is generally unaffected by the cyo1 mutation, but the level of photosynthetic proteins is decreased in cyo1 mutants. Recombinant CYO1 accelerates disulfide bond reduction in the model substrate insulin and renatures RNase A, indicating that CYO1 has protein disulfide isomerase activity. These results suggest that CYO1 has a chaperone-like activity required for thylakoid biogenesis in cotyledons. PMID:17921316

  11. Mass spectrometric analysis of dimer-disrupting mutations in Plasmodium triosephosphate isomerase.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Debarati; Prakash, Sunita; Gupta, Kallol; Balaram, Padmanabhan

    2016-05-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI MS) under nanospray conditions has been used to examine the effects of mutation at two key dimer interface residues, Gln (Q) 64 and Thr (T) 75, in Plasmodium falciparum triosephosphate isomerase. Both residues participate in an intricate network of intra- and intersubunit hydrogen bonds. The gas phase distributions of dimeric and monomeric protein species have been examined for the wild type enzyme (TWT) and three mutants, Q64N, Q64E, and T75S, under a wide range of collision energies (40-160 eV). The results established the order of dimer stability as TWT > T75S > Q64E ∼ Q64N. The mutational effects on dimer stability are in good agreement with the previously reported estimates, based on the concentration dependence of enzyme activity. Additional experiments in solution, using inhibition of activity by a synthetic dimer interface peptide, further support the broad agreement between gas phase and solution studies. PMID:26919806

  12. Hyphal tip extension in Aspergillus nidulans requires the manA gene, which encodes phosphomannose isomerase.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, D J; Payton, M A

    1994-01-01

    A strain of Aspergillus nidulans carrying a temperature-sensitive mutation in the manA gene produces cell walls depleted of D-mannose and forms hyphal tip balloons at the restrictive temperature (B.P. Valentine and B.W. Bainbridge, J. Gen. Microbiol. 109:155-168, 1978). We have isolated and characterized the manA gene and physically located it between 3.5 and 5.5 kb centromere distal of the riboB locus on chromosome VIII. The manA gene contains four introns and encodes a 50.6-kDa protein which has significant sequence identity to type I phosphomannose isomerase proteins from other eukaryotes. We have constructed by integrative transformation a null mutation in the manA gene which can only be maintained in a heterokaryotic strain with wild-type manA+ nuclei. Thus, a manA null mutation is lethal in A. nidulans. The phenotype of the mutation was analyzed in germinating conidia. Such conidia are able to commence germination but swell abnormally, sometimes producing a misshapen germ tube, before growth ceases. The reason for the lethality is probably the lack of synthesis of mannose-containing cell wall polymers that must be required for normal cell wall development in growing hyphae. Images PMID:8065336

  13. Quantitative dissection of hydrogen bond-mediated proton transfer in the ketosteroid isomerase active site

    PubMed Central

    Sigala, Paul A.; Fafarman, Aaron T.; Schwans, Jason P.; Fried, Stephen D.; Fenn, Timothy D.; Caaveiro, Jose M. M.; Pybus, Brandon; Ringe, Dagmar; Petsko, Gregory A.; Boxer, Steven G.; Herschlag, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen bond networks are key elements of protein structure and function but have been challenging to study within the complex protein environment. We have carried out in-depth interrogations of the proton transfer equilibrium within a hydrogen bond network formed to bound phenols in the active site of ketosteroid isomerase. We systematically varied the proton affinity of the phenol using differing electron-withdrawing substituents and incorporated site-specific NMR and IR probes to quantitatively map the proton and charge rearrangements within the network that accompany incremental increases in phenol proton affinity. The observed ionization changes were accurately described by a simple equilibrium proton transfer model that strongly suggests the intrinsic proton affinity of one of the Tyr residues in the network, Tyr16, does not remain constant but rather systematically increases due to weakening of the phenol–Tyr16 anion hydrogen bond with increasing phenol proton affinity. Using vibrational Stark spectroscopy, we quantified the electrostatic field changes within the surrounding active site that accompany these rearrangements within the network. We were able to model these changes accurately using continuum electrostatic calculations, suggesting a high degree of conformational restriction within the protein matrix. Our study affords direct insight into the physical and energetic properties of a hydrogen bond network within a protein interior and provides an example of a highly controlled system with minimal conformational rearrangements in which the observed physical changes can be accurately modeled by theoretical calculations. PMID:23798390

  14. The Catalytic Activity of Protein-Disulfide Isomerase Requires a Conformationally Flexible Molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, G.; Kober, F; Lewandrowski, U; Sickmann, A; Lennarz, W; Schindelin, H

    2008-01-01

    Protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI) catalyzes the formation of the correct pattern of disulfide bonds in secretory proteins. A low resolution crystal structure of yeast PDI described here reveals large scale conformational changes compared with the initially reported structure, indicating that PDI is a highly flexible molecule with its catalytic domains, a and a?, representing two mobile arms connected to a more rigid core composed of the b and b? domains. Limited proteolysis revealed that the linker between the a domain and the core is more susceptible to degradation than that connecting the a? domain to the core. By restricting the two arms with inter-domain disulfide bonds, the molecular flexibility of PDI, especially that of its a domain, was demonstrated to be essential for the enzymatic activity in vitro and in vivo. The crystal structure also featured a PDI dimer, and a propensity to dimerize in solution and in the ER was confirmed by cross-linking experiments and the split green fluorescent protein system. Although sedimentation studies suggested that the self-association of PDI is weak, we hypothesize that PDI exists as an interconvertible mixture of monomers and dimers in the endoplasmic reticulum due to its high abundance in this compartment.

  15. Protein disulphide isomerase as a target for nanoparticle-mediated sensitisation of cancer cells to radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taggart, L. E.; McMahon, S. J.; Butterworth, K. T.; Currell, F. J.; Schettino, G.; Prise, K. M.

    2016-05-01

    Radiation resistance and toxicity in normal tissues are limiting factors in the efficacy of radiotherapy. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been shown to be effective at enhancing radiation-induced cell death, and were initially proposed to physically enhance the radiation dose deposited. However, biological responses of GNP radiosensitization based on physical assumptions alone are not predictive of radiosensitisation and therefore there is a fundamental research need to determine biological mechanisms of response to GNPs alone and in combination with ionising radiation. This study aimed to identify novel mechanisms of cancer cell radiosensitisation through the use of GNPs, focusing on their ability to induce cellular oxidative stress and disrupt mitochondrial function. Using N-acetyl-cysteine, we found mitochondrial oxidation to be a key event prior to radiation for the radiosensitisation of cancer cells and suggests the overall cellular effects of GNP radiosensitisation are a result of their interaction with protein disulphide isomerase (PDI). This investigation identifies PDI and mitochondrial oxidation as novel targets for radiosensitisation.

  16. Isolation and characterization of a chalcone isomerase gene promoter from potato cultivars.

    PubMed

    Chen, M; Zhu, W J; You, X; Liu, Y D; Kaleri, G M; Yang, Q

    2015-01-01

    Chalcone isomerase (CHI) is a key enzyme involved in anthocyanin metabolism. Previous research on CHI has mainly focused on cDNA cloning and gene expression. In the current study, the 1425-bp potato CHI promoter (PCP) was isolated from four potato cultivars (Heijingang, Zhongshu 7, Désirée, and Favorita) using PCR and DNA sequencing. The PCP contained many cis-regulatory elements (CREs) related to anthocyanin metabolism, tissue specificity, light response, stress, and hormone induction. Of the PCP CREs identified, 19 were common to those found in the higher plants examined, based on plant CRE databases. Multiple sequence alignment showed six single nucleotide variation sites in PCP among the potato cultivars examined, resulting in changes in the number of CREs connected with tissue specificity, anthocyanin metabolism, and light response. The 665-bp PCP fragments from Favorita and 1425-bp PCP fragments from Heijingang were used to construct plant expression vectors, which may be a useful tool for biological engineering. A transient expression assay demonstrated that the two PCP fragments from Heijingang could direct the expression of a green fluorescent protein gene in onion epidermis and a β-glucuronidase gene in all potato tuber tissues with different colors, suggesting that the single nucleotide variation in the PCP did not affect its activity, and that silencing of the CHI gene in Favorita may be attributed to other regulatory factors. PMID:26782538

  17. Sequence variations in the introns of the triosephosphate isomerase genes of Oesophagostomum dentatum and O. quadrispinulatum.

    PubMed

    Joachim, A; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G

    2001-09-01

    Degenerated primers were used to amplify DNA fragments of the triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene from complementary DNA (cDNA) and from genomic DNA of two species of porcine gastrointestinal nematodes, Oesophagostomum dentatum and O.quadrispinulatum. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragments amplified from cDNA were 520 bp in size for both species, while genomic fragments were 1,035 bp for O. dentatum (GC-content: 45%) and 1,331 bp for O. quadrispinulatum (44%). Sequence analyses revealed blocks of high homology in the exons interrupted by more variable parts in the intron regions. Five exons were predicted from the genomic sequences in the conserved regions which corresponded to the respective cDNA sequences with 6% interspecific differences. The predicted protein sequences (161 amino acids) were 98% similar between the species and showed 71% similarity to the putative protein of Caenorhabditis elegans. As a housekeeping gene, TPI could be amplified from cDNA of both infectious third-stage larvae and adults. Interspecific variations in the non-coding regions allow the PCR-based differentiation of the two Oesophagostomum spp. PMID:11570563

  18. Inhibitors of protein disulfide isomerase suppress apoptosis induced by misfolded proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hoffstrom, Benjamin G.; Kaplan, Anna; Letso, Reka; Schmid, Ralf; Turmel, Gregory J.; Lo, Donald C.; Stockwell, Brent R.

    2010-01-01

    A hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases is accumulation of misfolded proteins within neurons, leading to cellular dysfunction and cell death. Although several mechanisms have been proposed to link protein misfolding to cellular toxicity, the connection remains enigmatic. Here, we report a cell death pathway involving protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), a protein chaperone that catalyzes isomerization, reduction, and oxidation of disulfides. Through a small-molecule-screening approach, we discovered five structurally distinct compounds that prevent apoptosis induced by mutant huntingtin protein. Using modified Huisgen cycloaddition chemistry, we then identified PDI as the molecular target of these small molecules. Expression of polyglutamine-expanded huntingtin exon 1 in PC12 cells caused PDI to accumulate at mitochondrial-associated-ER-membranes and trigger apoptotic cell death, via mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. Inhibiting PDI in rat brain cells suppressed the toxicity of mutant huntingtin exon1 and Aβ peptides processed from the amyloid precursor protein. This pro-apoptotic function of PDI provides a new mechanism linking protein misfolding and apoptotic cell death. PMID:21079601

  19. Mapping Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase and Protein Disulfide Isomerase Regions of Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Mohit; Liu, Tong; Li, Hong; Beuve, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is a heterodimeric nitric oxide (NO) receptor that produces cyclic GMP. This signaling mechanism is a key component in the cardiovascular system. NO binds to heme in the β subunit and stimulates the catalytic conversion of GTP to cGMP several hundred fold. Several endogenous factors have been identified that modulate sGC function in vitro and in vivo. In previous work, we determined that protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) interacts with sGC in a redox-dependent manner in vitro and that PDI inhibited NO-stimulated activity in cells. To our knowledge, this was the first report of a physical interaction between sGC and a thiol-redox protein. To characterize this interaction between sGC and PDI, we first identified peptide linkages between sGC and PDI, using a lysine cross-linking reagent and recently developed mass spectrometry analysis. Together with Flag-immunoprecipitation using sGC domain deletions, wild-type (WT) and mutated PDI, regions of sGC involved in this interaction were identified. The observed data were further explored with computational modeling to gain insight into the interaction mechanism between sGC and oxidized PDI. Our results indicate that PDI interacts preferentially with the catalytic domain of sGC, thus providing a mechanism for PDI inhibition of sGC. A model in which PDI interacts with either the α or the β catalytic domain is proposed. PMID:26618351

  20. Enhancement of protein secretion in Pichia pastoris by overexpression of protein disulfide isomerase.

    PubMed

    Inan, Mehmet; Aryasomayajula, Dinesh; Sinha, Jayanta; Meagher, Michael M

    2006-03-01

    A potential vaccine candidate, Necator americanus secretory protein (Na-ASP1), against hookworm infections, has been expressed in Pichia pastoris. Na-ASP1, a 45 kDa protein containing 20 cysteines, was directed outside the cell by fusing the protein to the preprosequence of the alpha-mating factor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Most of the protein produced by single copy clones was secreted outside the cell. However, increasing gene copy number of Na-ASP1 protein in P. pastoris saturated secretory capacity and therefore, decreased the amount of secreted protein in clones harboring multiple copies of Na-ASP1 gene. Overexpression of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident, homologous chaperone protein, protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) was able to increase the secretion of (Na-ASP1) protein in high copy clones. The effect of PDI levels on secretion of Na-ASP1 protein was examined in clones with varying copy number of PDI gene. Increase in secreted Na-ASP1 secretion is correlated well with the PDI copy number. Increasing levels of PDI also increased overall Na-ASP1 protein production in all the clones. Nevertheless, there was still accumulation of intracellular Na-ASP1 protein in P. pastoris clones over-expressing Na-ASP1 and PDI proteins. PMID:16255058

  1. The Unfolded Protein Response and the Role of Protein Disulfide Isomerase in Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Perri, Emma R.; Thomas, Colleen J.; Parakh, Sonam; Spencer, Damian M.; Atkin, Julie D.

    2016-01-01

    The maintenance and regulation of proteostasis is a critical function for post-mitotic neurons and its dysregulation is increasingly implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. Despite having different clinical manifestations, these disorders share similar pathology; an accumulation of misfolded proteins in neurons and subsequent disruption to cellular proteostasis. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an important component of proteostasis, and when the accumulation of misfolded proteins occurs within the ER, this disturbs ER homeostasis, giving rise to ER stress. This triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR), distinct signaling pathways that whilst initially protective, are pro-apoptotic if ER stress is prolonged. ER stress is increasingly implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, and emerging evidence highlights the complexity of the UPR in these disorders, with both protective and detrimental components being described. Protein Disulfide Isomerase (PDI) is an ER chaperone induced during ER stress that is responsible for the formation of disulfide bonds in proteins. Whilst initially considered to be protective, recent studies have revealed unconventional roles for PDI in neurodegenerative diseases, distinct from its normal function in the UPR and the ER, although these mechanisms remain poorly defined. However, specific aspects of PDI function may offer the potential to be exploited therapeutically in the future. This review will focus on the evidence linking ER stress and the UPR to neurodegenerative diseases, with particular emphasis on the emerging functions ascribed to PDI in these conditions. PMID:26779479

  2. Extracellular protein disulfide isomerase regulates coagulation on endothelial cells through modulation of phosphatidylserine exposure

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, Narcis I.; Lupu, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is the cellular receptor for plasma protease factor VIIa (FVIIa), and the TF-FVIIa complex initiates coagulation in both hemostasis and thrombosis. Cell surface-exposed TF is mainly cryptic and requires activation to fully exhibit the procoagulant potential. Recently, the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) has been hypothesized to regulate TF decryption through the redox switch of an exposed disulfide in TF extracellular domain. In this study, we analyzed PDI contribution to coagulation using an in vitro endothelial cell model. In this model, extracellular PDI is detected by imaging and flow cytometry. Inhibition of cell surface PDI induces a marked increase in TF procoagulant function, whereas exogenous addition of PDI inhibits TF decryption. The coagulant effects of PDI inhibition were sensitive to annexin V treatment, suggesting exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS), which was confirmed by prothrombinase assays and direct labeling. In contrast, exogenous PDI addition enhanced PS internalization. Analysis of fluorescent PS revealed that PDI affects both the apparent flippase and floppase activities on endothelial cells. In conclusion, we identified a new mechanism for PDI contribution to coagulation on endothelial cells, namely, the regulation of PS exposure, where PDI acts as a negative regulator of coagulation. PMID:20448108

  3. Protein disulfide isomerase-immunopositive inclusions in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Honjo, Yasuyuki; Kaneko, Satoshi; Ito, Hidefumi; Horibe, Tomohisa; Nagashima, Masato; Nakamura, Masataka; Fujita, Kengo; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Kusaka, Hirofumi; Kawakami, Koji

    2011-11-01

    The major pathological hallmarks of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) and swollen neurites. Superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1-immunopositive NCIs are observed in patients with familial ALS (FALS), and TAR DNA-binding protein 43kDa (TDP-43)-immunopositive NCIs are found in patients with sporadic ALS (SALS). Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is a member of the thioredoxin superfamily and is believed to accelerate the folding of disulfide-bonded proteins by catalyzing the disulfide interchange reaction, which is the rate-limiting step during protein folding in the luminal space of the endoplasmic reticulum. Post mortem spinal cord specimens from five patients with SALS and one with FALS (I113T), and five normal controls were utilized in this immunohistochemical study. We found PDI-immunopositive swollen neurites and NCIs in the patients with ALS. Furthermore, PDI was colocalized with TDP-43 and SOD1 in NCIs. The accumulation of misfolding proteins may disturb axon transport and make swollen neurites. As the motor neuron is the longest cell in the nervous system, the motor system may selectively be disturbed. In conclusion, we assume that PDI is S-nitrosylated in the affected neurons, which inhibits its enzymatic activity and thus allows protein misfolding to occur in ALS. PMID:21745122

  4. Understanding protein lids: structural analysis of active hinge mutants in triosephosphate isomerase.

    PubMed

    Kursula, I; Salin, M; Sun, J; Norledge, B V; Haapalainen, A M; Sampson, N S; Wierenga, R K

    2004-04-01

    The conformational switch from open to closed of the flexible loop 6 of triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) is essential for the catalytic properties of TIM. Using a directed evolution approach, active variants of chicken TIM with a mutated C-terminal hinge tripeptide of loop 6 have been generated (Sun,J. and Sampson,N.S., Biochemistry, 1999, 38, 11474-11481). In chicken TIM, the wild-type C-terminal hinge tripeptide is KTA. Detailed enzymological characterization of six variants showed that some of these (LWA, NPN, YSL, KTK) have decreased catalytic efficiency, whereas others (KVA, NSS) are essentially identical with wild-type. The structural characterization of these six variants is reported. No significant structural differences compared with the wild-type are found for KVA, NSS and LWA, but substantial structural adaptations are seen for NPN, YSL and KTK. These structural differences can be understood from the buried position of the alanine side chain in the C-hinge position 3 in the open conformation of wild-type loop 6. Replacement of this alanine with a bulky side chain causes the closed conformation to be favored, which correlates with the decreased catalytic efficiency of these variants. The structural context of loop 6 and loop 7 and their sequence conservation in 133 wild-type sequences is also discussed. PMID:15166315

  5. Reactivation of triosephosphate isomerase from three trypanosomatids and human: effect of suramin.

    PubMed Central

    Gao, X G; Garza-Ramos, G; Saavedra-Lira, E; Cabrera, N; De Gómez-Puyou, M T; Perez-Montfort, R; Gómez-Puyou, A

    1998-01-01

    The reactivation of the homodimeric triosephosphate isomerases (TIMs) from Trypanosoma brucei, T. cruzi, Leishmania mexicana and humans was determined after their denaturation with guanidine hydrochloride. In the range of 2-32 microg of T. brucei TIM per ml and 0.2-5 microg of the other enzymes per ml, the rate and extent of TIM reactivation depended on protein concentration, indicating that at these protein concentrations, the rate-limiting step of reactivation is monomer association and not monomer folding. The rate of monomer association was more than one order of magnitude lower in the T. brucei enzyme than in the other three enzymes. Suramin is a drug of choice in the treatment of sleeping sickness, but its mechanism of action is not known. At micromolar concentrations, Suramin inhibited the reactivation of the four enzymes, but the extent of inhibition by Suramin decreased with increasing protein concentration as consequence of a diminution of the life time of the folded monomer. Since the life time of the monomer of T. brucei TIM is longer than that of the other enzymes, Suramin is a more effective inhibitor of the reactivation of TIM from T. brucei, particularly at monomer concentrations above 1 microg of protein per ml (monomer concentration approx. 37 nM). Compounds that are structurally related to Suramin also inhibit TIM reactivation; their effect was about five times more pronounced in the enzyme from T. brucei than in human TIM. PMID:9576855

  6. Lung cancer chemotherapy agents increase procoagulant activity via protein disulfide isomerase-dependent tissue factor decryption.

    PubMed

    Lysov, Zakhar; Swystun, Laura L; Kuruvilla, Sara; Arnold, Andrew; Liaw, Patricia C

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy have an elevated risk for thrombosis. However, the mechanisms by which chemotherapy agents increase the risk for thrombosis remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism(s) by which lung cancer chemotherapy agents cisplatin, carboplatin, gemcitabine, and paclitaxel elicit increased tissue factor activity on endothelial cells, A549 cells, and monocytes. Tissue factor activity, tissue factor antigen, and phosphatidylserine exposure were measured on chemotherapy-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), A549 cells, and monocytes. Cell surface protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and cell surface free thiol levels were measured on HUVEC and A549 non-small cell lung carcinoma cells. Treatment of HUVECs, A549 cells, and monocytes with lung cancer chemotherapy significantly increased cell surface tissue factor activity. However, elevated tissue factor antigen levels were observed only on cisplatin-treated and gemcitabine-treated monocytes. Cell surface levels of phosphatidylserine were increased on HUVEC and monocytes treated with cisplatin/gemcitabine combination therapy. Chemotherapy also resulted in increased cell surface levels of PDI and reduced cell surface free thiol levels. Glutathione treatment and PDI inhibition, but not phosphatidylserine inhibition, attenuated tissue factor activity. Furthermore, increased tissue factor activity was reversed by reducing cysteines with dithiothreitol. These studies are the first to demonstrate that lung cancer chemotherapy agents increase procoagulant activity on endothelial cells and A549 cells by tissue factor decryption through a disulfide bond formation in a PDI-dependent mechanism. PMID:24911456

  7. Gene sequencing, modelling and immunolocalization of the protein disulfide isomerase from Plasmodium chabaudi.

    PubMed

    Novo, Carlos; Martins, Tiago M; Prata, Sofia; Lopes, Angela; Armada, Ana

    2009-11-01

    Malaria remains one of the major human parasitic diseases, particularly in subtropical regions. Most of the fatal cases are caused by Plasmodium falciparum. The rodent parasite Plasmodium chabaudi has been the model of choice in research due to its similarities to human malaria, including developmental cycle, preferential invasion of mature erythrocytes, synchrony of asexual development, antigenic variation, gene sinteny as well as similar resistance mechanisms. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is an essential catalyst of the endoplasmic reticulum in different biological systems with folding and chaperone activities. Most of the proteins exported by parasites have to pass through the endoplasmic reticulum before reaching their final destination and their correct folding is critical for parasite survival. PDI constitutes a potential target for the development of alternative therapy strategies based on the inhibition of folding and chaperoning of exported proteins. We here describe the sequencing of the gene coding for the PDI from P. chabaudi and analyse the relationship to its counterpart enzymes, particularly with the PDI from other Plasmodium species. The model constructed, based on the recent model deduced from the crystallographic structure 2B5E, was compared with the previous theoretical model for the whole PDI molecule constructed by threading. A recombinant PDI from P. chabaudi was also produced and used as an antigen for monoclonal antibody production for application in PDI immunolocalization. PMID:19615402

  8. GnRH immunization alters the expression and distribution of protein disulfide isomerases in the epididymis.

    PubMed

    Schorr-Lenz, A M; Alves, J; Henckes, N A C; Seibel, P M; Benham, A M; Bustamante-Filho, I C

    2016-09-01

    Hypogonadism is defined as the inadequate gonadal production of testosterone. Low serum testosterone leads to infertility by impairing spermatogenesis and reducing sperm count, however, the impact of hypogonadism in epididymal sperm maturation is poorly understood. From the testis, spermatozoa are transported into the epididymis where they find a specific microenvironment composed of a complex mixture of proteins that facilitate sperm storage and maturation. Inside the epididymal ductule, spermatozoa undergo several changes, resulting in their becoming capable of fertilizing eggs. Protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs) are known to participate in the folding and assembly of secreted proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. However, little is known about the control and function of PDIs in the testis and epididymis, particularly during male development. The aim of this work was to compare the expression and distribution of PDI and PDIA3 (ERp57) in the testis and epididymis of healthy and GnRH-immunized boars. We detected higher amounts of PDIA3 and PDI in sperm preparations and fluid from the proximal regions of the epididymis of healthy boars. However, we observed an increase in PDIA3 expression in the testis and cauda epididymis in the immunocastrated group. GnRH-immunized boars showed a marked increase in PDI content in cauda spermatozoa and fluid, indicating a possible endocrine dysregulation of PDI. The results of our study suggest that PDIs are associated with epididymal sperm maturation and may be attractive candidates for monitoring male fertility. PMID:27323298

  9. Protein disulfide isomerase ameliorates β-cell dysfunction in pancreatic islets overexpressing human islet amyloid polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Montane, Joel; de Pablo, Sara; Obach, Mercè; Cadavez, Lisa; Castaño, Carlos; Alcarraz-Vizán, Gema; Visa, Montserrat; Rodríguez-Comas, Júlia; Parrizas, Marcelina; Servitja, Joan Marc; Novials, Anna

    2016-01-15

    Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) is the major component of amyloid deposits in islets of type 2 diabetic patients. hIAPP misfolding and aggregation is one of the factors that may lead to β-cell dysfunction and death. Endogenous chaperones are described to be important for the folding and functioning of proteins. Here, we examine the effect of the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) on β-cell dysfunction. Among other chaperones, PDI was found to interact with hIAPP in human islet lysates. Furthermore, intrinsically recovered PDI levels were able to restore the effect of high glucose- and palmitate-induced β-cell dysfunction by increasing 3.9-fold the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion levels and restoring insulin content up to basal control values. Additionally, PDI transduction decreased induced apoptosis by glucolipotoxic conditions. This approach could reveal a new therapeutic target and aid in the development of strategies to improve β-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:26607804

  10. Structural and biochemical characterization of a recombinant triosephosphate isomerase from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    SciTech Connect

    Moraes, Jorge; Arreola, Rodrigo; Cabrera, Nallely; Saramago, Luiz; Freitas, Daniela; Masuda, Aoi; da Silva Vaz Jr., Itabajara; Tuena de Gomez-Puyou, Marietta; Perez-Montfort, Ruy; Gomez-Puyou, Armando; Logullo, Carlos

    2012-02-06

    Triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) is an enzyme with a role in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis by catalyzing the interconversion between glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. This enzyme has been used as a target in endoparasite drug development. In this work we cloned, expressed, purified and studied kinetic and structural characteristics of TIM from tick embryos, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (BmTIM). The Km and Vmax of the recombinant BmTIM with glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate as substrate, were 0.47 mM and 6031 {micro}mol min{sup -1} mg protein{sup -1}, respectively. The resolution of the diffracted crystal was estimated to be 2.4 {angstrom} and the overall data showed that BmTIM is similar to other reported dimeric TIMs. However, we found that, in comparison to other TIMs, BmTIM has the highest content of cysteine residues (nine cysteine residues per monomer). Only two cysteines could make disulfide bonds in monomers of BmTIM. Furthermore, BmTIM was highly sensitive to the action of the thiol reagents dithionitrobenzoic acid and methyl methane thiosulfonate, suggesting that there are five cysteines exposed in each dimer and that these residues could be employed in the development of species-specific inhibitors.

  11. Disruption of PHO13 improves ethanol production via the xylose isomerase pathway.

    PubMed

    Bamba, Takahiro; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-03-01

    Xylose is the second most abundant sugar in lignocellulosic materials and can be converted to ethanol by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains expressing heterologous genes involved in xylose assimilation pathways. Recent research demonstrated that disruption of the alkaline phosphatase gene, PHO13, enhances ethanol production from xylose by a strain expressing the xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) genes; however, the yield of ethanol is poor. In this study, PHO13 was disrupted in a recombinant strain harboring multiple copies of the xylose isomerase (XI) gene derived from Orpinomyces sp., coupled with overexpression of the endogenous xylulokinase (XK) gene and disruption of GRE3, which encodes aldose reductase. The resulting YΔGP/XK/XI strain consumed 2.08 g/L/h of xylose and produced 0.88 g/L/h of volumetric ethanol, for an 86.8 % theoretical ethanol yield, and only YΔGP/XK/XI demonstrated increase in cell concentration. Transcriptome analysis indicated that expression of genes involved in the pentose phosphate pathway (GND1, SOL3, TAL1, RKI1, and TKL1) and TCA cycle and respiratory chain (NDE1, ACO1, ACO2, SDH2, IDH1, IDH2, ATP7, ATP19, SDH4, SDH3, CMC2, and ATP15) was upregulated in the YΔGP/XK/XI strain. And the expression levels of 125 cell cycle genes were changed by deletion of PHO13. PMID:26769491

  12. High-resolution crystal structure and redox properties of chloroplastic triosephosphate isomerase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Zaffagnini, Mirko; Michelet, Laure; Sciabolini, Chiara; Di Giacinto, Nastasia; Morisse, Samuel; Marchand, Christophe H; Trost, Paolo; Fermani, Simona; Lemaire, Stéphane D

    2014-01-01

    Triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) catalyzes the interconversion of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Photosynthetic organisms generally contain two isoforms of TPI located in both cytoplasm and chloroplasts. While the cytoplasmic TPI is involved in the glycolysis, the chloroplastic isoform participates in the Calvin-Benson cycle, a key photosynthetic process responsible for carbon fixation. Compared with its cytoplasmic counterpart, the functional features of chloroplastic TPI have been poorly investigated and its three-dimensional structure has not been solved. Recently, several studies proposed TPI as a potential target of different redox modifications including dithiol/disulfide interchanges, glutathionylation, and nitrosylation. However, neither the effects on protein activity nor the molecular mechanisms underlying these redox modifications have been investigated. Here, we have produced recombinantly and purified TPI from the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Cr). The biochemical properties of the enzyme were delineated and its crystallographic structure was determined at a resolution of 1.1 Å. CrTPI is a homodimer with subunits containing the typical (β/α)8-barrel fold. Although no evidence for TRX regulation was obtained, CrTPI was found to undergo glutathionylation by oxidized glutathione and trans-nitrosylation by nitrosoglutathione, confirming its sensitivity to multiple redox modifications. PMID:24157611

  13. Oxyanion hole-stabilized stereospecific isomerization in ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (Rpi).

    PubMed

    Hamada, Keisuke; Ago, Hideo; Sugahara, Mitsuaki; Nodake, Yuichi; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Miyano, Masashi

    2003-12-01

    Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (Rpi) acts as a key enzyme in the oxidative and reductive pentose-phosphate pathways for the conversion of ribose-5-phosphate (R5P) to ribulose-5-phosphate and vice versa. We have determined the crystal structures of Rpi from Thermus thermophilus HB8 in complex with the open chain form of the substrate R5P and the open chain form of the C2 epimeric inhibitor arabinose-5-phosphate as well as the apo form at high resolution. The crystal structures of both complexes revealed that these ring-opened epimers are bound in the active site in a mirror symmetry binding mode. The O1 atoms are stabilized by an oxyanion hole composed of the backbone amide nitrogens in the conserved motif. In the structure of the Rpi.R5P complex, the conversion moiety O1-C1-C2-O2 in cis-configuration interacts with the carboxyl oxygens of Glu-108 in a water-excluded environment. Furthermore, the C2 hydroxyl group is presumed to be highly polarized by short hydrogen bonding with the side chain of Lys-99. R5P bound as the ring-opened reaction intermediate clarified the high stereoselectivity of the catalysis and is consistent with an aldose-ketose conversion by Rpi that proceeds via a cis-enediolate intermediate. PMID:13679361

  14. Functional expression of xylose isomerase in flocculating industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun-Cheng; Li, Guo-Ying; Gou, Min; Xia, Zi-Yuan; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji

    2016-06-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with xylose isomerase (XI) pathway were constructed using a flocculating industrial strain (YC-8) as the host. Both strains expressing wild-type xylA (coding XI) from the fungus Orpinomyces sp. and the bacterium Prevotella ruminicola, respectively, showed better growth ability and fermentation capacity when using xylose as the sole sugar than most of the reported strains expressing XI. Codon optimization of both XIs did not improve the xylose fermentation ability of the strains. Adaption significantly increased XI activity resulting in improved growth and fermentation. The strains expressing codon-optimized XI showed a higher increase in xylose consumption and ethanol production compared to strains expressing wild XI. Among all strains, the adapted strain YCPA2E expressing XI from P. ruminicola showed the best performance in the fermentation of xylose to ethanol. After 48 h of fermentation, YCPA2E assimilated 16.95 g/L xylose and produced 6.98 g/L ethanol. These results indicate that YC-8 is a suitable host strain for XI expression, especially for the codon-optimized XI originating from P. ruminicola. PMID:26645659

  15. The role of phosphomannose isomerase in Leishmania mexicana glycoconjugate synthesis and virulence.

    PubMed

    Garami, A; Ilg, T

    2001-03-01

    Phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) catalyzes the reversible interconversion of fructose 6-phosphate and mannose 6-phosphate, which is the first step in the biosynthesis of activated mannose donors required for the biosynthesis of various glycoconjugates. Leishmania species synthesize copious amounts of mannose-containing glycolipids and glycoproteins, which are involved in virulence of these parasitic protozoa. To investigate the role of PMI for parasite glycoconjugate synthesis, we have cloned the PMI gene (lmexpmi) from Leishmania mexicana, generated gene deletion mutants (Delta lmexpmi), and analyzed their phenotype. Delta lmexpmi mutants lack completely the high PMI activity found in wild type parasites, but are, in contrast to fungi, able to grow in media deficient for free mannose. The mutants are unable to synthesize phosphoglycan repeats [-6-Gal beta 1-4Man alpha 1-PO(4)-] and mannose-containing glycoinositolphospholipids, and the surface expression of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored dominant surface glycoprotein leishmanolysin is strongly decreased, unless the parasite growth medium is supplemented with mannose. The Delta lmexpmi mutant is attenuated in infections of macrophages in vitro and of mice, suggesting that PMI may be a target for anti-Leishmania drug development. L. mexicana Delta lmexpmi provides the first conditional mannose-controlled system for parasite glycoconjugate assembly with potential applications for the investigation of their biosynthesis, intracellular sorting, and function. PMID:11084042

  16. Cellular and biochemical characterization of two closely related triosephosphate isomerases from Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa E; Estrella-Hernández, Priscila; Salgado-Lugo, Holjes; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrián; Gómez Puyou, Armando; Campos, Silvia S; Montero-Moran, Gabriela; Ortega-López, Jaime; Saab-Rincón, Gloria; Arroyo, Rossana; Benítez-Cardoza, Claudia G; Brieba, Luis G

    2012-11-01

    The glycolytic enzyme triosephosphate isomerase catalyses the isomerization between glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Here we report that Trichomonas vaginalis contains 2 fully functional tpi genes. Both genes are located in separated chromosomal context with different promoter regulatory elements and encode ORFs of 254 amino acids; the only differences between them are the character of 4 amino acids located in α-helices 1, 2 and 8. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR assays showed that tpi2 transcript is approximately 3·3-fold more abundant than tpi1. Using an anti-TvTIM2 polyclonal antibody it was demonstrated that TIM proteins have a cytoplasmic localization and both enzymes are able to complement an Escherichia coli strain carrying a deletion of its endogenous tpi gene. Both TIM proteins assemble as dimers and their secondary structure assessment is essentially identical to TIM from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The kinetic catalytic constants of the recombinant enzymes using glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate as substrate are similar to the catalytic constants of TIMs from other organisms including parasitic protozoa. As T. vaginalis depends on glycolysis for ATP production, we speculate 2 possible reasons to maintain a duplicated tpi copy on its genome: an increase in gene dosage or an early event of neofunctionalization of TIM as a moonlighting protein. PMID:22931930

  17. Nitrosative Stress-Induced S-Glutathionylation of Protein Disulfide Isomerase

    PubMed Central

    Uys, Joachim D.; Xiong, Ying; Townsend, Danyelle M.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative and nitrosative stress result in the accumulation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) which trigger redox-mediated signaling cascades through posttranslational modifications on cysteine residues, including S-nitrosylation (P-SNO) and S-glutathionylation (P-SSG). Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is the most abundant chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum and facilitates protein folding via oxidoreductase activity. Prolonged or acute nitrosative stress blunts the activity of PDI through the formation of PDI–SNO and PDI–SSG. The functional implication is that reduced activity for the period of time leads to an accumulation of misfolded or unfolded proteins and activation of the unfolded protein response. Redox regulation of PDI and downstream signaling events provides an integration point for the functional determination of cell survival pathways. Herein, we describe the methodologies to globally identify S-glutathionylated targets of ROS/RNS; validate and identify the specific cysteine targets and characterize the structural and functional consequences. PMID:21266258

  18. Nitrosative stress-induced S-glutathionylation of protein disulfide isomerase.

    PubMed

    Uys, Joachim D; Xiong, Ying; Townsend, Danyelle M

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative and nitrosative stress result in the accumulation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) which trigger redox-mediated signaling cascades through posttranslational modifications on cysteine residues, including S-nitrosylation (P-SNO) and S-glutathionylation (P-SSG). Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is the most abundant chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum and facilitates protein folding via oxidoreductase activity. Prolonged or acute nitrosative stress blunts the activity of PDI through the formation of PDI-SNO and PDI-SSG. The functional implication is that reduced activity for the period of time leads to an accumulation of misfolded or unfolded proteins and activation of the unfolded protein response. Redox regulation of PDI and downstream signaling events provides an integration point for the functional determination of cell survival pathways. Herein, we describe the methodologies to globally identify S-glutathionylated targets of ROS/RNS; validate and identify the specific cysteine targets and characterize the structural and functional consequences. PMID:21266258

  19. Functional Role of the Disulfide Isomerase ERp57 in Axonal Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Woehlbier, Ute; Rozas, Pablo; Andreu, Catherine; Medinas, Danilo; Valdés, Pamela; Osorio, Fabiola; Mercado, Gabriela; Vidal, René L.; Kerr, Bredford; Court, Felipe A.; Hetz, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    ERp57 (also known as grp58 and PDIA3) is a protein disulfide isomerase that catalyzes disulfide bonds formation of glycoproteins as part of the calnexin and calreticulin cycle. ERp57 is markedly upregulated in most common neurodegenerative diseases downstream of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. Despite accumulating correlative evidence supporting a neuroprotective role of ERp57, the contribution of this foldase to the physiology of the nervous system remains unknown. Here we developed a transgenic mouse model that overexpresses ERp57 in the nervous system under the control of the prion promoter. We analyzed the susceptibility of ERp57 transgenic mice to undergo neurodegeneration. Unexpectedly, ERp57 overexpression did not affect dopaminergic neuron loss and striatal denervation after injection of a Parkinson’s disease-inducing neurotoxin. In sharp contrast, ERp57 transgenic animals presented enhanced locomotor recovery after mechanical injury to the sciatic nerve. These protective effects were associated with enhanced myelin removal, macrophage infiltration and axonal regeneration. Our results suggest that ERp57 specifically contributes to peripheral nerve regeneration, whereas its activity is dispensable for the survival of a specific neuronal population of the central nervous system. These results demonstrate for the first time a functional role of a component of the ER proteostasis network in peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:26361352

  20. Regulation of 3β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4 Isomerase: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Martin Krøyer; Ekstrand, Bo; Zamaratskaia, Galia

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on the expression and regulation of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4 isomerase (3β-HSD), with emphasis on the porcine version. 3β-HSD is often associated with steroidogenesis, but its function in the metabolism of both steroids and xenobiotics is more obscure. Based on currently available literature covering humans, rodents and pigs, this review provides an overview of the present knowledge concerning the regulatory mechanisms for 3β-HSD at all omic levels. The HSD isoenzymes are essential in steroid hormone metabolism, both in the synthesis and degradation of steroids. They display tissue-specific expression and factors influencing their activity, which therefore indicates their tissue-specific responses. 3β-HSD is involved in the synthesis of a number of natural steroid hormones, including progesterone and testosterone, and the hepatic degradation of the pheromone androstenone. In general, a number of signaling and regulatory pathways have been demonstrated to influence 3β-HSD transcription and activity, e.g., JAK-STAT, LH/hCG, ERα, AR, SF-1 and PPARα. The expression and enzymic activity of 3β-HSD are also influenced by external factors, such as dietary composition. Much of the research conducted on porcine 3β-HSD is motivated by its importance for the occurrence of the boar taint phenomenon that results from high concentrations of steroids such as androstenone. This topic is also examined in this review. PMID:24002028

  1. Peptidylprolyl cis/trans isomerase activity and molecular evolution of vertebrate Cyclophilin A.

    PubMed

    Liqian, Ren; Wei, Liu; Wenbo, Li; Wenjun, Liu; Lei, Sun

    2016-08-01

    Peptidylprolyl isomerases (PPIase) cyclophilin A (CypA, encoded by PPIA) is a typical member of the Cyclophilin family and is involved in protein folding/translocation, signal transduction, inflammation, immune system regulation, apoptosis and virus replication. In the present study, we investigated the PPIase activity and genetic variation of vertebrate CypA. According to the GenBank reference sequences, vertebrate PPIA genes were cloned, among which the bat (Myotis davidi) and duck (Anas platyrhynchos) PPIA genes were reported for the first time. Then PPIA genes were sub-cloned into the expression vector pGEX-6p-1 and expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant CypA proteins were purified by using sepharose 4B affinity chromatography and the GST tag was cleaved, followed by gel filtration. The PPIase activity assay indicated that there was no significant difference in the catalytic activity of prolyl peptide bond isomerization among 12 different vertebrate CypA proteins. In addition, the genetic variation and molecular evolution analysis showed that these vertebrate CypA proteins had the same CsA binding site and the PPIase active sites. Furthermore, the predicted structure and gene localization were remarkable conserved. Our data suggested that the important residues of CypA were highly conserved, which is crucial for its PPIase activity and cellular functions. PMID:27531612

  2. Polymorphic Protein Crystal Growth: Influence of Hydration and Ions in Glucose Isomerase.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, C M; Asthagiri, D; Lenhoff, A M

    2014-01-01

    Crystal polymorphs of glucose isomerase were examined to characterize the properties and to quantify the energetics of protein crystal growth. Transitions of polymorph stability were measured in poly(ethylene glycol)/NaCl solutions, and one transition point was singled out for more detailed quantitative analysis. Single crystal x-ray diffraction was used to confirm space groups and identify complementary crystal structures. Crystal polymorph stability was found to depend on the NaCl concentration, with stability transitions requiring > 1 M NaCl combined with a low concentration of PEG. Both salting-in and salting-out behavior was observed and was found to differ for the two polymorphs. For NaCl concentrations above the observed polymorph transition, the increase in solubility of the less stable polymorph together with an increase in the osmotic second virial coefficient suggests that changes in protein hydration upon addition of salt may explain the experimental trends. A combination of atomistic and continuum models was employed to dissect this behavior. Molecular dynamics simulations of the solvent environment were interpreted using quasi-chemical theory to understand changes in protein hydration as a function of NaCl concentration. The results suggest that protein surface hydration and Na(+) binding may introduce steric barriers to contact formation, resulting in polymorph selection. PMID:24955067

  3. Prolyl isomerase Pin1 regulates axon guidance by stabilizing CRMP2A selectively in distal axons

    PubMed Central

    Balastik, Martin; Zhou, Xiao Zhen; Alberich-Jorda, Meritxell; Weissova, Romana; Žiak, Jakub; Pazyra-Murphy, Maria F.; Cosker, Katharina E; Machonova, Olga; Kozmikova, Iryna; Chen, Chun-Hau; Pastorino, Lucia; Asara, John M.; Cole, Adam; Sutherland, Calum; Segal, Rosalind A.; Lu, Kun Ping

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Axon guidance relies on precise translation of the gradients of the extracellular signals into local changes of cytoskeletal dynamics, but the molecular mechanisms regulating dose-dependent responses of growth cones are still poorly understood. Here we show that during embryonic development in growing axons low level of Semaphorin3A stimulation is buffered by the prolyl isomerase Pin1. We demonstrate, that Pin1 stabilizes CDK5-phosphorylated CRMP2A, the major isoform of CRMP2 in distal axons. Consequently, Pin1 knockdown or knockout reduces CRMP2A level specifically in distal axons and inhibits axon growth, which can be fully rescued by Pin1 or CRMP2A expression. Moreover, Pin1 knockdown or knockout increases sensitivity to Sema3A-induced growth cone collapse in vitro and in vivo leading to developmental abnormalities in axon guidance. These results identify an important isoform-specific function and regulation of CRMP2A in controlling axon growth, and uncover Pin1-catalyzed prolyl isomerization as a regulatory mechanism in axon guidance. PMID:26489457

  4. The Ess1 prolyl isomerase is required for growth and morphogenetic switching in Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Devasahayam, Gina; Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Hanes, Steven D

    2002-01-01

    Prolyl-isomerases (PPIases) are found in all organisms and are important for the folding and activity of many proteins. Of the 13 PPIases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae only Ess1, a parvulin-class PPIase, is essential for growth. Ess1 is required to complete mitosis, and Ess1 and its mammalian homolog, Pin1, interact directly with RNA polymerase II. Here, we isolate the ESS1 gene from the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans and show that it is functionally homologous to the S. cerevisiae ESS1. We generate conditional-lethal (ts) alleles of C. albicans ESS1 and use these mutations to demonstrate that ESS1 is essential for growth in C. albicans. We also show that reducing the dosage or activity of ESS1 blocks morphogenetic switching from the yeast to the hyphal and pseudohyphal forms under certain conditions. Analysis of double mutants of ESS1 and TUP1 or CPH1, two genes known to be involved in morphogenetic switching, suggests that ESS1 functions in the same pathway as CPH1 and upstream of or in parallel to TUP1. Given that switching is important for virulence of C. albicans, inhibitors of Ess1 might be useful as antifungal agents. PMID:11805043

  5. Cytochrome b5 augments 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4 isomerase activity.

    PubMed

    Goosen, Pierre; Storbeck, Karl-Heinz; Swart, Amanda C; Conradie, Riaan; Swart, Pieter

    2011-11-01

    During adrenal steroidogenesis the competition between 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ(5)-Δ(4) isomerase (3βHSD) and cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase (CYP17A1) for Δ(5) steroid intermediates greatly influences steroidogenic output. Cytochrome-b(5) (Cyt-b(5)), a small electron transfer hemoprotein, known to augment the lyase activity of CYP17A1, has been shown to alter the steroidogenic outcome of this competition. In this study, the influence of Cyt-b(5) on 3βHSD activity was investigated. In COS-1 cells, Cyt-b(5) was shown to significantly increase the activity of both caprine and ovine 3βHSD towards pregnenolone, 17-OH pregnenolone and dehydroepiandrosterone in a substrate and species specific manner. Furthermore, kinetic studies revealed Cyt-b(5) to have no influence on the K(m) values while significantly increasing the V(max) values of ovine 3βHSD for all its respective substrates. In addition, the activity of ovine 3βHSD in microsomal preparations was significantly influenced by the addition of either purified Cyt-b(5) or anti-Cyt-b(5) IgG. The results presented in this study indicate that Cyt-b(5) augments 3βHSD activity and represents the first documentation of such augmentation in any species. PMID:21930205

  6. Heterologous expression and biochemical characterization of glucose isomerase from Thermobifida fusca.

    PubMed

    Deng, Hui; Chen, Sheng; Wu, Dan; Chen, Jian; Wu, Jing

    2014-06-01

    Glucose isomerase (GIase) catalyzes the isomerization of D-glucose to D-fructose. The GIase from Thermobifida fusca WSH03-11 was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), and the purified enzyme took the form of a tetramer in solution and displayed a pI value of 5.05. The temperature optimum of GIase was 80 °C and its half life was about 2 h at 80 °C or 15 h at 70 °C. The pH optimum of GIase was 10 and the enzyme retained 95 % activity over the pH range of 5-10 after incubating at 4 °C for 24 h. Kinetic studies showed that the K m and K cat values of the enzyme are 197 mM and 1,688 min(-1), respectively. The maximum conversion yield of glucose (45 %, w/v) to fructose of the enzyme was 53 % at pH 7.5 and 70 °C. The present study provides the basis for the industrial application of recombinant T. fusca GIase in the production of high fructose syrup. PMID:24317483

  7. Cryptococcal phosphoglucose isomerase is required for virulence factor production, cell wall integrity and stress resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Wei, Dongsheng; Li, Zhongming; Sun, Zhixiong; Pan, Jiao; Zhu, Xudong

    2015-11-01

    Regulation of virulence factor production in the pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans remains to be fully illustrated. We present here a finding that a gene, encoding the glycolysis enzyme phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi1), is critical for the biosynthesis of melanin and capsule, cell wall integrity and resistance to stress conditions. A leaky mutant of the yeast, LZM19, resulted from an insertion of T-DNA in the PGI1 promoter region, expressed PGI1 at a level only 1.9% of the wild type. LZM19 could synthesize the pigment melanin in the presence of 2% glucose, suggesting a status of LAC1 derepression. Phenotypically, capsule biosynthesis in LZM19 was remarkably reduced. Integrity of the cell wall and plasma membrane of LZM19 were impaired based on its sensitivity to Congo red and SDS. Also, LZM19 exhibited hypersensitivity to osmotic stress generated by 2 M NaCl or 1 M KCl, indicating possible impairment in the HOG signaling pathway. Furthermore, LZM19 failed to utilize mannose and fructose, suggesting a possible involvement of Pgi1 in the breakdown of these two sugars. Our results revealed a crucial role of PGI1 in coordination of the production of virulence factors, cell wall integrity and stress response in C. neoformans. PMID:26271120

  8. Protein disulphide isomerase as a target for nanoparticle-mediated sensitisation of cancer cells to radiation.

    PubMed

    Taggart, L E; McMahon, S J; Butterworth, K T; Currell, F J; Schettino, G; Prise, K M

    2016-05-27

    Radiation resistance and toxicity in normal tissues are limiting factors in the efficacy of radiotherapy. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been shown to be effective at enhancing radiation-induced cell death, and were initially proposed to physically enhance the radiation dose deposited. However, biological responses of GNP radiosensitization based on physical assumptions alone are not predictive of radiosensitisation and therefore there is a fundamental research need to determine biological mechanisms of response to GNPs alone and in combination with ionising radiation. This study aimed to identify novel mechanisms of cancer cell radiosensitisation through the use of GNPs, focusing on their ability to induce cellular oxidative stress and disrupt mitochondrial function. Using N-acetyl-cysteine, we found mitochondrial oxidation to be a key event prior to radiation for the radiosensitisation of cancer cells and suggests the overall cellular effects of GNP radiosensitisation are a result of their interaction with protein disulphide isomerase (PDI). This investigation identifies PDI and mitochondrial oxidation as novel targets for radiosensitisation. PMID:27080849

  9. Characterization of stress and methylglyoxal inducible triose phosphate isomerase (OscTPI) from rice

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shweta; Mustafiz, Ananda; Singla-Pareek, Sneh L.; Shankar Srivastava, Prem; Sopory, Sudhir Kumar

    2012-01-01

    As compared with plant system, triose phosphate isomerase (TPI), a crucial enzyme of glycolysis, has been well studied in animals. In order to characterize TPI in plants, a full-length cDNA encoding OscTPI was cloned from rice and expressed in E. coli. The recombinant OscTPI was purified to homogeneity and it showed Km value of 0.1281 ± 0.025 µM, and the Vmax value of 138.7 ± 16 µmol min−1mg−1 which is comparable to the kinetic values studied in other plants. The OscTPI was found to be exclusively present in the cytoplasm when checked with the various methods. Functional assay showed that OscTPI could complement a TPI mutation in yeast. Real time PCR analysis revealed that OscTPI transcript level was regulated in response to various abiotic stresses. Interestingly, it was highly induced under different concentration of methylglyoxal (MG) stress in a concentration dependent manner. There was also a corresponding increase in the protein and the enzyme activity of OscTPI both in shoot and root tissues under MG stress. Our result shows that increases in MG leads to the increase in TPI which results in decrease of DHAP and consequently decrease in the level of toxic MG. PMID:22902706

  10. Phosphomannose isomerase gene for selection in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) transformation.

    PubMed

    Bríza, Jindrich; Růzicková, Nina; Niedermeierová, Hana; Dusbábková, Jana; Vlasák, Josef

    2010-01-01

    A positive selection system using phosphomannose isomerase was employed for Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. 'Achát'). It was shown that the mannose-based selection system works very well with the lettuce genotype used, reaching up to 25% transformation efficiency on the medium with 20 g/L mannose and 20 g/L sucrose. The best transformation efficacy with the commonly-used kanamycin at 100 mg/L as a selection agent was 21%. Southern blot analyses of thirteen chosen mannose-resistant regenerants revealed that some of them have clonal origin, about one-half harbour a single T-DNA copy and one plant contains an incomplete T-DNA segment with only the left part of T-DNA with the pmi gene present in the genomic DNA. The following Northern analysis showed transcriptional activity of the introduced pmi gene in all plants analysed with very high differences in the level of pmi specific mRNA. The results demonstrate that both mannose and kanamycin provide comparable transformation efficiencies in our lettuce genotype. An alternative selection method with mannose as a selection agent is now available for lettuce transgenosis. PMID:20234883

  11. Characterization of Triosephosphate Isomerase Mutants with Reduced Enzyme Activity in Mus Musculus

    PubMed Central

    Merkle, S.; Pretsch, W.

    1989-01-01

    Four heterozygous triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) mutants with approximately 50% reduced activity in blood compared to wild type were detected in offspring of 1-ethyl-1-nitrosourea treated male mice. Breeding experiments displayed an autosomal, dominant mode of inheritance for the mutations. All mutations were found to be homozygous lethal at an early postimplantation stage of embryonic development, probably due to a total lack of TPI activity and consequently to the inability to utilize glucose as a source of metabolic energy. Although activity alteration was also found in liver, lung, kidney, spleen, heart, brain and muscle the TPI deficiency in heterozygotes has no influence on the following physiological traits: hematological parameters, plasma glucose, glucose consumption of blood cells, body weight and organo-somatic indices of liver, spleen, heart, kidney and lung. Biochemical investigations of TPI in the four mutant lines indicated no difference of physicochemical properties compared to the wild type. Results from immunoinactivation assays indicate that the decrease of enzyme activity corresponds to a decrease in the level of an immunologically active moiety. It is suggested that the mutations have affected the Tpi-1 structural locus and resulted in alleles which produce no detectable enzyme activity and no immunologically cross-reacting material. The study furthermore suggests one functional TPI gene per haploid genome in the erythrocyte and seven other tested organs of the mouse. PMID:2693209

  12. Crystal structure of native RPE65, the retinoid isomerase of the visual cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Kiser, Philip D.; Golczak, Marcin; Lodowski, David T.; Chance, Mark R.; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2009-12-01

    Vertebrate vision is maintained by the retinoid (visual) cycle, a complex enzymatic pathway that operates in the retina to regenerate the visual chromophore, 11-cis-retinal. A key enzyme in this pathway is the microsomal membrane protein RPE65. This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of all-trans-retinyl esters to 11-cis-retinol in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Mutations in RPE65 are known to be responsible for a subset of cases of the most common form of childhood blindness, Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). Although retinoid isomerase activity has been attributed to RPE65, its catalytic mechanism remains a matter of debate. Also, the manner in which RPE65 binds to membranes and extracts retinoid substrates is unclear. To gain insight into these questions, we determined the crystal structure of native bovine RPE65 at 2.14-{angstrom} resolution. The structural, biophysical, and biochemical data presented here provide the framework needed for an in-depth understanding of the mechanism of catalytic isomerization and membrane association, in addition to the role mutations that cause LCA have in disrupting protein function.

  13. Identification and analysis of residues contained on β → α loops of the dual-substrate (βα)8 phosphoribosyl isomerase A specific for its phosphoribosyl anthranilate isomerase activity

    PubMed Central

    Noda-García, Lianet; Camacho-Zarco, Aldo R; Verdel-Aranda, Karina; Wright, Helena; Soberón, Xavier; Fülöp, Vilmos; Barona-Gómez, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    A good model to experimentally explore evolutionary hypothesis related to enzyme function is the ancient-like dual-substrate (βα)8 phosphoribosyl isomerase A (PriA), which takes part in both histidine and tryptophan biosynthesis in Streptomyces coelicolor and related organisms. In this study, we determined the Michaelis–Menten enzyme kinetics for both isomerase activities in wild-type PriA from S. coelicolor and in selected single-residue monofunctional mutants, identified after Escherichia coli in vivo complementation experiments. Structural and functional analyses of a hitherto unnoticed residue contained on the functionally important β → α loop 5, namely, Arg139, which was postulated on structural grounds to be important for the dual-substrate specificity of PriA, is presented for the first time. Indeed, enzyme kinetics analyses done on the mutant variants PriA_Ser81Thr and PriA_Arg139Asn showed that these residues, which are contained on β → α loops and in close proximity to the N-terminal phosphate-binding site, are essential solely for the phosphoribosyl anthranilate isomerase activity of PriA. Moreover, analysis of the X-ray crystallographic structure of PriA_Arg139Asn elucidated at 1.95 Å herein strongly implicates the occurrence of conformational changes in this β → α loop as a major structural feature related to the evolution of the dual-substrate specificity of PriA. It is suggested that PriA has evolved by tuning a fine energetic balance that allows the sufficient degree of structural flexibility needed for accommodating two topologically dissimilar substrates—within a bifunctional and thus highly constrained active site—without compromising its structural stability. PMID:20066665

  14. Mutations in PPIB (cyclophilin B) delay type I procollagen chain association and result in perinatal lethal to moderate osteogenesis imperfecta phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Pyott, Shawna M.; Schwarze, Ulrike; Christiansen, Helena E.; Pepin, Melanie G.; Leistritz, Dru F.; Dineen, Richard; Harris, Catharine; Burton, Barbara K.; Angle, Brad; Kim, Katherine; Sussman, Michael D.; Weis, MaryAnn; Eyre, David R.; Russell, David W.; McCarthy, Kevin J.; Steiner, Robert D.; Byers, Peter H.

    2011-01-01

    Recessive mutations in the cartilage-associated protein (CRTAP), leucine proline-enriched proteoglycan 1 (LEPRE1) and peptidyl prolyl cis–trans isomerase B (PPIB) genes result in phenotypes that range from lethal in the perinatal period to severe deforming osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). These genes encode CRTAP (encoded by CRTAP), prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1 (P3H1; encoded by LEPRE1) and cyclophilin B (CYPB; encoded by PPIB), which reside in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and can form a complex involved in prolyl 3-hydroxylation in type I procollagen. CYPB, a prolyl cis–trans isomerase, has been thought to drive the prolyl-containing peptide bonds to the trans configuration needed for triple helix formation. Here, we describe mutations in PPIB identified in cells from three individuals with OI. Cultured dermal fibroblasts from the most severely affected infant make some overmodified type I procollagen molecules. Proα1(I) chains are slow to assemble into trimers, and abnormal procollagen molecules concentrate in the RER, and bind to protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and prolyl 4-hydroxylase 1 (P4H1). These findings suggest that although CYPB plays a role in helix formation another effect is on folding of the C-terminal propeptide and trimer formation. The extent of procollagen accumulation and PDI/P4H1 binding differs among cells with mutations in PPIB, CRTAP and LEPRE1 with the greatest amount in PPIB-deficient cells and the least in LEPRE1-deficient cells. These findings suggest that prolyl cis–trans isomerase may be required to effectively fold the proline-rich regions of the C-terminal propeptide to allow proα chain association and suggest an order of action for CRTAP, P3H1 and CYPB in procollagen biosynthesis and pathogenesis of OI. PMID:21282188

  15. Molecular Characterization and Expression Profiling of the Protein Disulfide Isomerase Gene Family in Brachypodium distachyon L

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jiantang; Yin, Guangjun; Li, Xiaohui; Hu, Yingkao; Li, Jiarui; Yan, Yueming

    2014-01-01

    Protein disulfide isomerases (PDI) are involved in catalyzing protein disulfide bonding and isomerization in the endoplasmic reticulum and functions as a chaperone to inhibit the aggregation of misfolded proteins. Brachypodium distachyon is a widely used model plant for temperate grass species such as wheat and barley. In this work, we report the first molecular characterization, phylogenies, and expression profiles of PDI and PDI-like (PDIL) genes in B. distachyon in different tissues under various abiotic stresses. Eleven PDI and PDIL genes in the B. distachyon genome by in silico identification were evenly distributed across all five chromosomes. The plant PDI family has three conserved motifs that are involved in catalyzing protein disulfide bonding and isomerization, but a different exon/intron structural organization showed a high degree of structural differentiation. Two pairs of genes (BdPDIL4-1 and BdPDIL4-2; BdPDIL7-1 and BdPDIL7-2) contained segmental duplications, indicating each pair originated from one progenitor. Promoter analysis showed that Brachypodium PDI family members contained important cis-acting regulatory elements involved in seed storage protein synthesis and diverse stress response. All Brachypodium PDI genes investigated were ubiquitously expressed in different organs, but differentiation in expression levels among different genes and organs was clear. BdPDIL1-1 and BdPDIL5-1 were expressed abundantly in developing grains, suggesting that they have important roles in synthesis and accumulation of seed storage proteins. Diverse treatments (drought, salt, ABA, and H2O2) induced up- and down-regulated expression of Brachypodium PDI genes in seedling leaves. Interestingly, BdPDIL1-1 displayed significantly up-regulated expression following all abiotic stress treatments, indicating that it could be involved in multiple stress responses. Our results provide new insights into the structural and functional characteristics of the plant PDI gene

  16. Differential Regulation of Cellular Senescence and Differentiation by Prolyl Isomerase Pin1 in Cardiac Progenitor Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Toko, Haruhiro; Hariharan, Nirmala; Konstandin, Mathias H.; Ormachea, Lucia; McGregor, Michael; Gude, Natalie A.; Sundararaman, Balaji; Joyo, Eri; Joyo, Anya Y.; Collins, Brett; Din, Shabana; Mohsin, Sadia; Uchida, Takafumi; Sussman, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Autologous c-kit+ cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) are currently used in the clinic to treat heart disease. CPC-based regeneration may be further augmented by better understanding molecular mechanisms of endogenous cardiac repair and enhancement of pro-survival signaling pathways that antagonize senescence while also increasing differentiation. The prolyl isomerase Pin1 regulates multiple signaling cascades by modulating protein folding and thereby activity and stability of phosphoproteins. In this study, we examine the heretofore unexplored role of Pin1 in CPCs. Pin1 is expressed in CPCs in vitro and in vivo and is associated with increased proliferation. Pin1 is required for cell cycle progression and loss of Pin1 causes cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase in CPCs, concomitantly associated with decreased expression of Cyclins D and B and increased expression of cell cycle inhibitors p53 and retinoblastoma (Rb). Pin1 deletion increases cellular senescence but not differentiation or cell death of CPCs. Pin1 is required for endogenous CPC response as Pin1 knock-out mice have a reduced number of proliferating CPCs after ischemic challenge. Pin1 overexpression also impairs proliferation and causes G2/M phase cell cycle arrest with concurrent down-regulation of Cyclin B, p53, and Rb. Additionally, Pin1 overexpression inhibits replicative senescence, increases differentiation, and inhibits cell death of CPCs, indicating that cell cycle arrest caused by Pin1 overexpression is a consequence of differentiation and not senescence or cell death. In conclusion, Pin1 has pleiotropic roles in CPCs and may be a molecular target to promote survival, enhance repair, improve differentiation, and antagonize senescence. PMID:24375406

  17. Structure and Stability of the Dimeric Triosephosphate Isomerase from the Thermophilic Archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Ho; Kim, Hyoun Sook; Park, Mi Seul; Moon, Sojin; Song, Mi Kyung; Park, Han Su; Hahn, Hyunggu; Kim, Soon-Jong; Bae, Euiyoung; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Han, Byung Woo

    2015-01-01

    Thermoplasma acidophilum is a thermophilic archaeon that uses both non-phosphorylative Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway and Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway for glucose degradation. While triosephosphate isomerase (TPI), a well-known glycolytic enzyme, is not involved in the ED pathway in T. acidophilum, it has been considered to play an important role in the EMP pathway. Here, we report crystal structures of apo- and glycerol-3-phosphate-bound TPI from T. acidophilum (TaTPI). TaTPI adopts the canonical TIM-barrel fold with eight α-helices and parallel eight β-strands. Although TaTPI shares ~30% sequence identity to other TPIs from thermophilic species that adopt tetrameric conformation for enzymatic activity in their harsh physiological environments, TaTPI exists as a dimer in solution. We confirmed the dimeric conformation of TaTPI by analytical ultracentrifugation and size-exclusion chromatography. Helix 5 as well as helix 4 of thermostable tetrameric TPIs have been known to play crucial roles in oligomerization, forming a hydrophobic interface. However, TaTPI contains unique charged-amino acid residues in the helix 5 and adopts dimer conformation. TaTPI exhibits the apparent Td value of 74.6°C and maintains its overall structure with some changes in the secondary structure contents at extremely acidic conditions (pH 1–2). Based on our structural and biophysical analyses of TaTPI, more compact structure of the protomer with reduced length of loops and certain patches on the surface could account for the robust nature of Thermoplasma acidophilum TPI. PMID:26709515

  18. The Isomerase Active Site of Cyclophilin A Is Critical for Hepatitis C Virus Replication*

    PubMed Central

    Chatterji, Udayan; Bobardt, Michael; Selvarajah, Suganya; Yang, Feng; Tang, Hengli; Sakamoto, Noayo; Vuagniaux, Gregoire; Parkinson, Tanya; Gallay, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Cyclosporine A and nonimmunosuppressive cyclophilin (Cyp) inhibitors such as Debio 025, NIM811, and SCY-635 block hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in vitro. This effect was recently confirmed in HCV-infected patients where Debio 025 treatment dramatically decreased HCV viral load, suggesting that Cyps inhibitors represent a novel class of anti-HCV agents. However, it remains unclear how these compounds control HCV replication. Recent studies suggest that Cyps are important for HCV replication. However, a profound disagreement currently exists as to the respective roles of Cyp members in HCV replication. In this study, we analyzed the respective contribution of Cyp members to HCV replication by specifically knocking down their expression by both transient and stable small RNA interference. Only the CypA knockdown drastically decreased HCV replication. The re-expression of an exogenous CypA escape protein, which contains escape mutations at the small RNA interference recognition site, restored HCV replication, demonstrating the specificity for the CypA requirement. We then mutated residues that reside in the hydrophobic pocket of CypA where proline-containing peptide substrates and cyclosporine A bind and that are vital for the enzymatic or the hydrophobic pocket binding activity of CypA. Remarkably, these CypA mutants fail to restore HCV replication, suggesting for the first time that HCV exploits either the isomerase or the chaperone activity of CypA to replicate in hepatocytes and that CypA is the principal mediator of the Cyp inhibitor anti-HCV activity. Moreover, we demonstrated that the HCV NS5B polymerase associates with CypA via its enzymatic pocket. The study of the roles of Cyps in HCV replication should lead to the identification of new targets for the development of alternate anti-HCV therapies. PMID:19380579

  19. The C-terminal CGHC motif of protein disulfide isomerase supports thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Junsong; Wu, Yi; Wang, Lu; Rauova, Lubica; Hayes, Vincent M.; Poncz, Mortimer; Essex, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) has two distinct CGHC redox-active sites; however, the contribution of these sites during different physiologic reactions, including thrombosis, is unknown. Here, we evaluated the role of PDI and redox-active sites of PDI in thrombosis by generating mice with blood cells and vessel wall cells lacking PDI (Mx1-Cre Pdifl/fl mice) and transgenic mice harboring PDI that lacks a functional C-terminal CGHC motif [PDI(ss-oo) mice]. Both mouse models showed decreased fibrin deposition and platelet accumulation in laser-induced cremaster arteriole injury, and PDI(ss-oo) mice had attenuated platelet accumulation in FeCl3-induced mesenteric arterial injury. These defects were rescued by infusion of recombinant PDI containing only a functional C-terminal CGHC motif [PDI(oo-ss)]. PDI infusion restored fibrin formation, but not platelet accumulation, in eptifibatide-treated wild-type mice, suggesting a direct role of PDI in coagulation. In vitro aggregation of platelets from PDI(ss-oo) mice and PDI-null platelets was reduced; however, this defect was rescued by recombinant PDI(oo-ss). In human platelets, recombinant PDI(ss-oo) inhibited aggregation, while recombinant PDI(oo-ss) potentiated aggregation. Platelet secretion assays demonstrated that the C-terminal CGHC motif of PDI is important for P-selectin expression and ATP secretion through a non-αIIbβ3 substrate. In summary, our results indicate that the C-terminal CGHC motif of PDI is important for platelet function and coagulation. PMID:26529254

  20. The yeast Ess1 prolyl isomerase controls Swi6 and Whi5 nuclear localization.

    PubMed

    Atencio, David; Barnes, Cassandra; Duncan, Thomas M; Willis, Ian M; Hanes, Steven D

    2014-03-01

    The Ess1 prolyl isomerase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its human ortholog, Pin1, play critical roles in transcription by regulating RNA polymerase II. In human cells, Pin1 also regulates a variety of signaling proteins, and Pin1 misexpression is linked to several human diseases. To gain insight into Ess1/Pin1 function, we carried out a synthetic genetic array screen to identify novel targets of Ess1 in yeast. We identified potential targets of Ess1 in transcription, stress, and cell-cycle pathways. We focused on the cell-cycle regulators Swi6 and Whi5, both of which show highly regulated nucleocytoplasmic shuttling during the cell cycle. Surprisingly, Ess1 did not control their transcription but instead was necessary for their nuclear localization. Ess1 associated with Swi6 and Whi5 in vivo and bound directly to peptides corresponding to their nuclear localization sequences in vitro. Binding by Ess1 was significant only if the Swi6 and Whi5 peptides were phosphorylated at Ser-Pro motifs, the target sites of cyclin-dependent kinases. On the basis of these results, we propose a model in which Ess1 induces a conformational switch (cis-trans isomerization) at phospho-Ser-Pro sites within the nuclear targeting sequences of Swi6 and Whi5. This switch would promote nuclear entry and/or retention during late M and G1 phases and might work by stimulating dephosphorylation at these sites by the Cdc14 phosphatase. This is the first study to identify targets of Ess1 in yeast other than RNA polymerase II. PMID:24470217

  1. Protein disulfide isomerases in the endoplasmic reticulum promote anchorage-independent growth of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wise, Randi; Duhachek-Muggy, Sara; Qi, Yue; Zolkiewski, Michal; Zolkiewska, Anna

    2016-06-01

    Metastatic breast cancer cells are exposed to stress of detachment from the extracellular matrix (ECM). Cultured breast cancer cells that survive this stress and are capable of anchorage-independent proliferation form mammospheres. The purpose of this study was to explore a link between mammosphere growth, ECM gene expression, and the protein quality control system in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We compared the mRNA and protein levels of ER folding factors in SUM159PT and MCF10DCIS.com breast cancer cells grown as mammospheres versus adherent conditions. Publicly available gene expression data for mammospheres formed by primary breast cancer cells and for circulating tumor cells (CTCs) were analyzed to assess the status of ECM/ER folding factor genes in clinically relevant samples. Knock-down of selected protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family members was performed to examine their roles in SUM159PT mammosphere growth. We found that cells grown as mammospheres had elevated expression of ECM genes and ER folding quality control genes. CTC gene expression data for an index patient indicated that upregulation of ECM and ER folding factor genes occurred at the time of acquired therapy resistance and disease progression. Knock-down of PDI, ERp44, or ERp57, three members of the PDI family with elevated protein levels in mammospheres, in SUM159PT cells partially inhibited the mammosphere growth. Thus, breast cancer cell survival and growth under detachment conditions require enhanced assistance of the ER protein folding machinery. Targeting ER folding factors, in particular members of the PDI family, may improve the therapeutic outcomes in metastatic breast cancer. PMID:27161215

  2. Heterologous expression and characterization of Bacillus coagulans L-arabinose isomerase.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xingding; Wu, Jin Chuan

    2012-05-01

    Bacillus coagulans has been of great commercial interest over the past decade owing to its strong ability of producing optical pure L: -lactic acid from both hexose and pentose sugars including L: -arabinose with high yield, titer and productivity under thermophilic conditions. The L: -arabinose isomerase (L-AI) from Bacillus coagulans was heterologously over-expressed in Escherichia coli. The open reading frame of the L-AI has 1,422 nucleotides encoding a protein with 474 amino acid residues. The recombinant L-AI was purified to homogeneity by one-step His-tag affinity chromatography. The molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to be 56 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The enzyme was most active at 70°C and pH 7.0. The metal ion Mn(2+) was shown to be the best activator for enzymatic activity and thermostability. The enzyme showed higher activity at acidic pH than at alkaline pH. The kinetic studies showed that the K (m), V (max) and k (cat)/K (m) for the conversion of L: -arabinose were 106 mM, 84 U/mg and 34.5 mM(-1)min(-1), respectively. The equilibrium ratio of L: -arabinose to L: -ribulose was 78:22 under optimal conditions. L: -ribulose (97 g/L) was obtained from 500 g/l of L: -arabinose catalyzed by the enzyme (8.3 U/mL) under the optimal conditions within 1.5 h, giving at a substrate conversion of 19.4% and a production rate of 65 g L(-1) h(-1). PMID:22806043

  3. Substrate-Induced Dimerization of Engineered Monomeric Variants of Triosephosphate Isomerase from Trichomonas vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    Lara-Gonzalez, Samuel; Estrella, Priscilla; Portillo, Carmen; Cruces, María E.; Jimenez-Sandoval, Pedro; Fattori, Juliana; Migliorini-Figueira, Ana C.; Lopez-Hidalgo, Marisol; Diaz-Quezada, Corina; Lopez-Castillo, Margarita; Trasviña-Arenas, Carlos H.; Sanchez-Sandoval, Eugenia; Gómez-Puyou, Armando; Ortega-Lopez, Jaime; Arroyo, Rossana; Benítez-Cardoza, Claudia G.; Brieba, Luis G.

    2015-01-01

    The dimeric nature of triosephosphate isomerases (TIMs) is maintained by an extensive surface area interface of more than 1600 Å2. TIMs from Trichomonas vaginalis (TvTIM) are held in their dimeric state by two mechanisms: a ball and socket interaction of residue 45 of one subunit that fits into the hydrophobic pocket of the complementary subunit and by swapping of loop 3 between subunits. TvTIMs differ from other TIMs in their unfolding energetics. In TvTIMs the energy necessary to unfold a monomer is greater than the energy necessary to dissociate the dimer. Herein we found that the character of residue I45 controls the dimer-monomer equilibrium in TvTIMs. Unfolding experiments employing monomeric and dimeric mutants led us to conclude that dimeric TvTIMs unfold following a four state model denaturation process whereas monomeric TvTIMs follow a three state model. In contrast to other monomeric TIMs, monomeric variants of TvTIM1 are stable and unexpectedly one of them (I45A) is only 29-fold less active than wild-type TvTIM1. The high enzymatic activity of monomeric TvTIMs contrast with the marginal catalytic activity of diverse monomeric TIMs variants. The stability of the monomeric variants of TvTIM1 and the use of cross-linking and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments permit us to understand the differences between the catalytic activities of TvTIMs and other marginally active monomeric TIMs. As TvTIMs do not unfold upon dimer dissociation, herein we found that the high enzymatic activity of monomeric TvTIM variants is explained by the formation of catalytic dimeric competent species assisted by substrate binding. PMID:26618356

  4. Phycoerythrin-specific bilin lyase-isomerase controls blue-green chromatic acclimation in marine Synechococcus.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Animesh; Biswas, Avijit; Blot, Nicolas; Partensky, Frédéric; Karty, Jonathan A; Hammad, Loubna A; Garczarek, Laurence; Gutu, Andrian; Schluchter, Wendy M; Kehoe, David M

    2012-12-01

    The marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus is the second most abundant phytoplanktonic organism in the world's oceans. The ubiquity of this genus is in large part due to its use of a diverse set of photosynthetic light-harvesting pigments called phycobiliproteins, which allow it to efficiently exploit a wide range of light colors. Here we uncover a pivotal molecular mechanism underpinning a widespread response among marine Synechococcus cells known as "type IV chromatic acclimation" (CA4). During this process, the pigmentation of the two main phycobiliproteins of this organism, phycoerythrins I and II, is reversibly modified to match changes in the ambient light color so as to maximize photon capture for photosynthesis. CA4 involves the replacement of three molecules of the green light-absorbing chromophore phycoerythrobilin with an equivalent number of the blue light-absorbing chromophore phycourobilin when cells are shifted from green to blue light, and the reverse after a shift from blue to green light. We have identified and characterized MpeZ, an enzyme critical for CA4 in marine Synechococcus. MpeZ attaches phycoerythrobilin to cysteine-83 of the α-subunit of phycoerythrin II and isomerizes it to phycourobilin. mpeZ RNA is six times more abundant in blue light, suggesting that its proper regulation is critical for CA4. Furthermore, mpeZ mutants fail to normally acclimate in blue light. These findings provide insights into the molecular mechanisms controlling an ecologically important photosynthetic process and identify a unique class of phycoerythrin lyase/isomerases, which will further expand the already widespread use of phycoerythrin in biotechnology and cell biology applications. PMID:23161909

  5. Structural effects of protein aging: Terminal marking by deamidation in human triosephosphate isomerase

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Torres-Larios, Alfredo; Enríquez-Flores, Sergio; Méndez, Sara -Teresa; Castillo-Villanueva, Adriana; Gómez-Manzo, Saúl; Velázquez, Gabriel López-; Marcial-Quino, Jaime; Torres-Arroyo, Angélica; García-Torres, Itzhel; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio; et al

    2015-04-17

    Deamidation, the loss of the ammonium group of asparagine and glutamine to form aspartic and glutamic acid, is one of the most commonly occurring post-translational modifications in proteins. Since deamidation rates are encoded in the protein structure, it has been proposed that they can serve as molecular clocks for the timing of biological processes such as protein turnover, development and aging. Despite the importance of this process, there is a lack of detailed structural information explaining the effects of deamidation on the structure of proteins. Here, we studied the effects of deamidation on human triosephosphate isomerase (HsTIM), an enzyme formore » which deamidation of N15 and N71 has been long recognized as the signal for terminal marking of the protein. Deamidation was mimicked by site directed mutagenesis; thus, three mutants of HsTIM (N15D, N71D and N15D/N71D) were characterized. The results show that the N71D mutant resembles, structurally and functionally, the wild type enzyme. In contrast, the N15D mutant displays all the detrimental effects related to deamidation. The N15D/N71D mutant shows only minor additional effects when compared with the N15D mutation, supporting that deamidation of N71 induces negligible effects. The crystal structures show that, in contrast to the N71D mutant, where minimal alterations are observed, the N15D mutation forms new interactions that perturb the structure of loop 1 and loop 3, both critical components of the catalytic site and the interface of HsTIM. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of TIM sequences, we propose the conservation of this mechanism for mammalian TIMs.« less

  6. Evaluation of the Catalytic Contribution from a Positioned General Base in Ketosteroid Isomerase.

    PubMed

    Lamba, Vandana; Yabukarski, Filip; Pinney, Margaux; Herschlag, Daniel

    2016-08-10

    Proton transfer reactions are ubiquitous in enzymes and utilize active site residues as general acids and bases. Crystal structures and site-directed mutagenesis are routinely used to identify these residues, but assessment of their catalytic contribution remains a major challenge. In principle, effective molarity measurements, in which exogenous acids/bases rescue the reaction in mutants lacking these residues, can estimate these catalytic contributions. However, these exogenous moieties can be restricted in reactivity by steric hindrance or enhanced by binding interactions with nearby residues, thereby resulting in over- or underestimation of the catalytic contribution, respectively. With these challenges in mind, we investigated the catalytic contribution of an aspartate general base in ketosteroid isomerase (KSI) by exogenous rescue. In addition to removing the general base, we systematically mutated nearby residues and probed each mutant with a series of carboxylate bases of similar pKa but varying size. Our results underscore the need for extensive and multifaceted variation to assess and minimize steric and positioning effects and determine effective molarities that estimate catalytic contributions. We obtained consensus effective molarities of ∼5 × 10(4) M for KSI from Comamonas testosteroni (tKSI) and ∼10(3) M for KSI from Pseudomonas putida (pKSI). An X-ray crystal structure of a tKSI general base mutant showed no additional structural rearrangements, and double mutant cycles revealed similar contributions from an oxyanion hole mutation in the wild-type and base-rescued reactions, providing no indication of mutational effects extending beyond the general base site. Thus, the high effective molarities suggest a large catalytic contribution associated with the general base. A significant portion of this effect presumably arises from positioning of the base, but its large magnitude suggests the involvement of additional catalytic mechanisms as well

  7. Peri/Epicellular Protein Disulfide Isomerase Sustains Vascular Lumen Caliber Through an Anticonstrictive Remodeling Effect.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Leonardo Y; Araújo, Haniel A; Hironaka, Gustavo K; Araujo, Thaís L S; Takimura, Celso K; Rodriguez, Andres I; Casagrande, Annelise S; Gutierrez, Paulo S; Lemos-Neto, Pedro Alves; Laurindo, Francisco R M

    2016-03-01

    Whole-vessel remodeling critically determines lumen caliber in vascular (patho)physiology, and it is reportedly redox-dependent. We hypothesized that the cell-surface pool of the endoplasmic reticulum redox chaperone protein disulfide isomerase-A1 (peri/epicellular=pecPDI), which is known to support thrombosis, also regulates disease-associated vascular architecture. In human coronary atheromas, PDI expression inversely correlated with constrictive remodeling and plaque stability. In a rabbit iliac artery overdistension model, there was unusually high PDI upregulation (≈25-fold versus basal, 14 days postinjury), involving both intracellular and pecPDI. PecPDI neutralization with distinct anti-PDI antibodies did not enhance endoplasmic reticulum stress or apoptosis. In vivo pecPDI neutralization with PDI antibody-containing perivascular gel from days 12 to 14 post injury promoted 25% decrease in the maximally dilated arteriographic vascular caliber. There was corresponding whole-vessel circumference loss using optical coherence tomography without change in neointima, which indicates constrictive remodeling. This was accompanied by decreased hydrogen peroxide generation. Constrictive remodeling was corroborated by marked changes in collagen organization, that is, switching from circumferential to radial fiber orientation and to a more rigid fiber type. The cytoskeleton architecture was also disrupted; there was a loss of stress fiber coherent organization and a switch from thin to medium thickness actin fibers, all leading to impaired viscoelastic ductility. Total and PDI-associated expressions of β1-integrin, and levels of reduced cell-surface β1-integrin, were diminished after PDI antibody treatment, implicating β1-integrin as a likely pecPDI target during vessel repair. Indeed, focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation, a downstream β1-integrin effector, was decreased by PDI antibody. Thus, the upregulated pecPDI pool tunes matrix/cytoskeleton reshaping to

  8. Purification, crystallization, and properties of D-ribose isomerase from Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    PubMed

    Izumori, K; Rees, A W; Elbein, A D

    1975-10-25

    D-Ribose isomerase, which catalyzes the conversion of D-ribose to D-ribulose, was purified from extracts of Mycobacterium smegmatis grown on D-ribose. The purified enzyme crystalized as hexagonal plates from a 44% solution of ammonium sulfate. The enzyme was homogenous by disc gel electrophoresis and ultracentrifugal analysis. The molecular weight of the enzyme was between 145,000 and 174,000 by sedimentation equilibrium analysis. Its sedimentation constant of 8.7 S indicates it is globular. On the basis of sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis in the presence of Mn2+, the enzyme is probably composed of 4 identical subunits of molecular weight about 42,000 to 44,000. The enzyme was specific for sugars having the same configuration as D-ribose at carbon atoms 1 to 3. Thus, the enzyme could also utilize L-lyxose, D-allose, and L-rhamnose as substrates. The Km for D-ribose was 4 mM and for L-lyxose it was 5.3 mM. The enzyme required a divalent cation for activity with optimum activity being shown with Mn2+. the Km for the various cations was as follows: Mn2+, 1 times 10(-7) M, Co2+, 4 times 10(-7) M, and Mg2+, 1.8 times 10(-5) M. The pH optimum for the enzyme was 7.5 to 8.5. Polyols did not inhibit the enzyme to any great extent. The product of the reaction was identified as D-ribulose by thin layer chromatography and by preparation of the O-nitrophenylhydrazone derivative. PMID:240851

  9. A paradigm for enzyme-catalyzed proton transfer at carbon: triosephosphate isomerase.

    PubMed

    Richard, John P

    2012-04-01

    Triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) catalyzes the stereospecific 1,2-proton shift at dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) to give (R)-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate through a pair of isomeric enzyme-bound cis-enediolate phosphate intermediates. The chemical transformations that occur at the active site of TIM were well understood by the early 1990s. The mechanism for enzyme-catalyzed isomerization is similar to that for the nonenzymatic reaction in water, but the origin of the catalytic rate acceleration is not understood. We review the results of experimental work that show that a substantial fraction of the large 12 kcal/mol intrinsic binding energy of the nonreacting phosphodianion fragment of TIM is utilized to activate the active site side chains for catalysis of proton transfer. Evidence is presented that this activation is due to a phosphodianion-driven conformational change, the most dramatic feature of which is closure of loop 6 over the dianion. The kinetic data are interpreted within the framework of a model in which activation is due to the stabilization by the phosphodianion of a rare, desolvated, loop-closed form of TIM. The dianion binding energy is proposed to drive the otherwise thermodynamically unfavorable desolvation of the solvent-exposed active site. This reduces the effective local dielectric constant of the active site, to enhance stabilizing electrostatic interactions between polar groups and the anionic transition state, and increases the basicity of the carboxylate side chain of Glu-165 that functions to deprotonate the bound carbon acid substrate. A rebuttal is presented to the recent proposal [Samanta, M., Murthy, M. R. N., Balaram, H., and Balaram, P. (2011) ChemBioChem 12, 1886-1895] that the cationic side chain of K12 functions as an active site electrophile to protonate the carbonyl oxygen of DHAP. PMID:22409228

  10. Substrate-Induced Dimerization of Engineered Monomeric Variants of Triosephosphate Isomerase from Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Lara-Gonzalez, Samuel; Estrella, Priscilla; Portillo, Carmen; Cruces, María E; Jimenez-Sandoval, Pedro; Fattori, Juliana; Migliorini-Figueira, Ana C; Lopez-Hidalgo, Marisol; Diaz-Quezada, Corina; Lopez-Castillo, Margarita; Trasviña-Arenas, Carlos H; Sanchez-Sandoval, Eugenia; Gómez-Puyou, Armando; Ortega-Lopez, Jaime; Arroyo, Rossana; Benítez-Cardoza, Claudia G; Brieba, Luis G

    2015-01-01

    The dimeric nature of triosephosphate isomerases (TIMs) is maintained by an extensive surface area interface of more than 1600 Å2. TIMs from Trichomonas vaginalis (TvTIM) are held in their dimeric state by two mechanisms: a ball and socket interaction of residue 45 of one subunit that fits into the hydrophobic pocket of the complementary subunit and by swapping of loop 3 between subunits. TvTIMs differ from other TIMs in their unfolding energetics. In TvTIMs the energy necessary to unfold a monomer is greater than the energy necessary to dissociate the dimer. Herein we found that the character of residue I45 controls the dimer-monomer equilibrium in TvTIMs. Unfolding experiments employing monomeric and dimeric mutants led us to conclude that dimeric TvTIMs unfold following a four state model denaturation process whereas monomeric TvTIMs follow a three state model. In contrast to other monomeric TIMs, monomeric variants of TvTIM1 are stable and unexpectedly one of them (I45A) is only 29-fold less active than wild-type TvTIM1. The high enzymatic activity of monomeric TvTIMs contrast with the marginal catalytic activity of diverse monomeric TIMs variants. The stability of the monomeric variants of TvTIM1 and the use of cross-linking and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments permit us to understand the differences between the catalytic activities of TvTIMs and other marginally active monomeric TIMs. As TvTIMs do not unfold upon dimer dissociation, herein we found that the high enzymatic activity of monomeric TvTIM variants is explained by the formation of catalytic dimeric competent species assisted by substrate binding. PMID:26618356

  11. Structural effects of protein aging: Terminal marking by deamidation in human triosephosphate isomerase

    SciTech Connect

    Torres-Larios, Alfredo; Enríquez-Flores, Sergio; Méndez, Sara -Teresa; Castillo-Villanueva, Adriana; Gómez-Manzo, Saúl; Velázquez, Gabriel López-; Marcial-Quino, Jaime; Torres-Arroyo, Angélica; García-Torres, Itzhel; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio; Oria-Hernández, Jesús; de la Mora-de la Mora, Ignacio

    2015-04-17

    Deamidation, the loss of the ammonium group of asparagine and glutamine to form aspartic and glutamic acid, is one of the most commonly occurring post-translational modifications in proteins. Since deamidation rates are encoded in the protein structure, it has been proposed that they can serve as molecular clocks for the timing of biological processes such as protein turnover, development and aging. Despite the importance of this process, there is a lack of detailed structural information explaining the effects of deamidation on the structure of proteins. Here, we studied the effects of deamidation on human triosephosphate isomerase (HsTIM), an enzyme for which deamidation of N15 and N71 has been long recognized as the signal for terminal marking of the protein. Deamidation was mimicked by site directed mutagenesis; thus, three mutants of HsTIM (N15D, N71D and N15D/N71D) were characterized. The results show that the N71D mutant resembles, structurally and functionally, the wild type enzyme. In contrast, the N15D mutant displays all the detrimental effects related to deamidation. The N15D/N71D mutant shows only minor additional effects when compared with the N15D mutation, supporting that deamidation of N71 induces negligible effects. The crystal structures show that, in contrast to the N71D mutant, where minimal alterations are observed, the N15D mutation forms new interactions that perturb the structure of loop 1 and loop 3, both critical components of the catalytic site and the interface of HsTIM. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of TIM sequences, we propose the conservation of this mechanism for mammalian TIMs.

  12. Patagonfibrase modifies protein expression of tissue factor and protein disulfide isomerase in rat skin.

    PubMed

    Peichoto, María Elisa; Santoro, Marcelo Larami

    2016-09-01

    Patagonfibrase is a hemorrhagic metalloproteinase isolated from the venom of the South American rear-fanged snake Philodryas patagoniensis, and is an important contributor to local lesions inflicted by this species. The tissue factor (TF)-factor VIIa complex, besides triggering the coagulation cascade, has been demonstrated to be involved in inflammatory events. Our aim was to determine whether patagonfibrase affects the expression of TF and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), an enzyme that controls TF biological activity, at the site of patagonfibrase injection, and thus if they may play a role in hemostatic and inflammatory events induced by snake venoms. Patagonfibrase (60 μg/kg) was administered s.c. to rats, and after 3 h blood was collected to evaluate hemostasis parameters, and skin fragments close to the site of injection were taken to assess TF and PDI expression. Patagonfibrase did not alter blood cell counts, plasma fibrinogen levels, or levels of TF activity in plasma. However, by semiquantitative Western blotting, patagonfibrase increased TF expression by 2-fold, and decreased PDI expression by 3-fold in skin samples. In agreement, by immunohistochemical analyses, prominent TF expression was observed in the subcutaneous tissue. Thus, patagonfibrase affects the local expression of TF and PDI without inducing any systemic hemostatic disturbance, although that they may be involved in the local inflammatory events induced by hemorrhagic metalloproteinases. Once antivenom therapy is not totally effective to treat the local injury induced by snake venoms, modulation of the activity and expression of TF and/or PDI might become a strategy for treating snake envenomation. PMID:27390042

  13. Construction of Functional Monomeric Type 2 Isopentenyl Diphosphate:Dimethylallyl Diphosphate Isomerase.

    PubMed

    Neti, Syam Sundar; Eckert, Debra M; Poulter, C Dale

    2016-08-01

    Type 2 isopentenyl diphosphate:dimethylallyl diphosphate isomerase (IDI-2) catalyzes the interconversion of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway. The enzyme from Streptomyces pneumoniae (spIDI-2) is a homotetramer in solution with behavior, including a substantial increase in the rate of FMN reduction by NADPH in the presence of IPP, suggesting that substrate binding at one subunit alters the kinetic and binding properties of another. We now report the construction of catalytically active monomeric spIDI-2. The monomeric enzyme contains a single-point mutation (N37A) and a six-residue C-terminal deletion that preserves the secondary structure of the subunits in the wild-type (wt) homotetramer. UV-vis spectra of the enzyme-bound flavin mononucleotide (FMN) cofactor in FMNox, FMNred, and FMNred·IPP/DMAPP states are the same for monomeric and wt homotetrameric spIDI-2. The mutations in monomeric IDI-2 lower the melting temperature of the protein by 20 °C and reduce the binding affinities of FMN and IDI by 40-fold but have a minimal effect on kcat. Stopped-flow kinetic studies of monomeric spIDI-2 showed that the rate of reduction of FMN by NADH (k = 1.64 × 10(-3) s(-1)) is substantially faster when IPP is added to the monomeric enzyme (k = 0.57 s(-1)), similar to behavior seen for wt-spIDI-2. Our results indicate that cooperative interactions among subunits in the wt homotetramer are not responsible for the increased rate of reduction of spIDI-2·FMN by NADH, and two possible scenarios for the enhancement are suggested. PMID:27379573

  14. A chalcone isomerase-like protein enhances flavonoid production and flower pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Morita, Yasumasa; Takagi, Kyoko; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Ishiguro, Kanako; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Nitasaka, Eiji; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Saito, Norio; Kagami, Takashi; Hoshino, Atsushi; Iida, Shigeru

    2014-04-01

    Flavonoids are major pigments in plants, and their biosynthetic pathway is one of the best-studied metabolic pathways. Here we have identified three mutations within a gene that result in pale-colored flowers in the Japanese morning glory (Ipomoea nil). As the mutations lead to a reduction of the colorless flavonoid compound flavonol as well as of anthocyanins in the flower petal, the identified gene was designated enhancer of flavonoid production (EFP). EFP encodes a chalcone isomerase (CHI)-related protein classified as a type IV CHI protein. CHI is the second committed enzyme of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, but type IV CHI proteins are thought to lack CHI enzymatic activity, and their functions remain unknown. The spatio-temporal expression of EFP and structural genes encoding enzymes that produce flavonoids is very similar. Expression of both EFP and the structural genes is coordinately promoted by genes encoding R2R3-MYB and WD40 family proteins. The EFP gene is widely distributed in land plants, and RNAi knockdown mutants of the EFP homologs in petunia (Petunia hybrida) and torenia (Torenia hybrida) had pale-colored flowers and low amounts of anthocyanins. The flavonol and flavone contents in the knockdown petunia and torenia flowers, respectively, were also significantly decreased, suggesting that the EFP protein contributes in early step(s) of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway to ensure production of flavonoid compounds. From these results, we conclude that EFP is an enhancer of flavonoid production and flower pigmentation, and its function is conserved among diverse land plant species. PMID:24517863

  15. Novel Protein Disulfide Isomerase Inhibitor with Anticancer Activity in Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Vatolin, Sergei; Phillips, James G; Jha, Babal K; Govindgari, Shravya; Hu, Jennifer; Grabowski, Dale; Parker, Yvonne; Lindner, Daniel J; Zhong, Fei; Distelhorst, Clark W; Smith, Mitchell R; Cotta, Claudiu; Xu, Yan; Chilakala, Sujatha; Kuang, Rebecca R; Tall, Samantha; Reu, Frederic J

    2016-06-01

    Multiple myeloma cells secrete more disulfide bond-rich proteins than any other mammalian cell. Thus, inhibition of protein disulfide isomerases (PDI) required for protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) should increase ER stress beyond repair in this incurable cancer. Here, we report the mechanistically unbiased discovery of a novel PDI-inhibiting compound with antimyeloma activity. We screened a 30,355 small-molecule library using a multilayered multiple myeloma cell-based cytotoxicity assay that modeled disease niche, normal liver, kidney, and bone marrow. CCF642, a bone marrow-sparing compound, exhibited a submicromolar IC50 in 10 of 10 multiple myeloma cell lines. An active biotinylated analog of CCF642 defined binding to the PDI isoenzymes A1, A3, and A4 in MM cells. In vitro, CCF642 inhibited PDI reductase activity about 100-fold more potently than the structurally distinct established inhibitors PACMA 31 and LOC14. Computational modeling suggested a novel covalent binding mode in active-site CGHCK motifs. Remarkably, without any further chemistry optimization, CCF642 displayed potent efficacy in an aggressive syngeneic mouse model of multiple myeloma and prolonged the lifespan of C57BL/KaLwRij mice engrafted with 5TGM1-luc myeloma, an effect comparable to the first-line multiple myeloma therapeutic bortezomib. Consistent with PDI inhibition, CCF642 caused acute ER stress in multiple myeloma cells accompanied by apoptosis-inducing calcium release. Overall, our results provide an illustration of the utility of simple in vivo simulations as part of a drug discovery effort, along with a sound preclinical rationale to develop a new small-molecule therapeutic to treat multiple myeloma. Cancer Res; 76(11); 3340-50. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197150

  16. Trichinella spiralis: genome database searches for the presence and immunolocalization of protein disulphide isomerase family members.

    PubMed

    Freitas, C P; Clemente, I; Mendes, T; Novo, C

    2016-01-01

    The formation of nurse cells in host muscle cells during Trichinella spiralis infection is a key step in the infective mechanism. Collagen trimerization is set up via disulphide bond formation, catalysed by protein disulphide isomerase (PDI). In T. spiralis, some PDI family members have been identified but no localization is described and no antibodies specific for T. spiralis PDIs are available. In this work, computational approaches were used to search for non-described PDIs in the T. spiralis genome database and to check the cross-reactivity of commercial anti-human antibodies with T. spiralis orthologues. In addition to a previously described PDI (PDIA2), endoplasmic reticulum protein (ERp57/PDIA3), ERp72/PDIA4, and the molecular chaperones calreticulin (CRT), calnexin (CNX) and immunoglobulin-binding protein/glucose-regulated protein (BIP/GRP78), we identified orthologues of the human thioredoxin-related-transmembrane proteins (TMX1, TMX2 and TMX3) in the genome protein database, as well as ERp44 (PDIA10) and endoplasmic reticulum disulphide reductase (ERdj5/PDIA19). Immunocytochemical staining of paraffin sections of muscle infected by T. spiralis enabled us to localize some orthologues of the human PDIs (PDIA3 and TMX1) and the chaperone GRP78. A theoretical three-dimensional model for T. spiralis PDIA3 was constructed. The localization and characteristics of the predicted linear B-cell epitopes and amino acid sequence of the immunogens used for commercial production of anti-human PDIA3 antibodies validated the use of these antibodies for the immunolocalization of T. spiralis PDIA3 orthologues. These results suggest that further study of the role of the PDIs and chaperones during nurse cell formation is desirable. PMID:25475092

  17. Chloral hydrate, through biotransformation to dichloroacetate, inhibits maleylacetoacetate isomerase and tyrosine catabolism in humans

    PubMed Central

    Shroads, Albert L.; Coats, Bonnie S.; Langaee, Taimour; Shuster, Jonathan J.; Stacpoole, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chloral hydrate (CH), a sedative and metabolite of the environmental contaminant trichloroethylene, is metabolized to trichloroacetic acid, trichloroethanol, and possibly dichloroacetate (DCA). DCA is further metabolized by glutathione transferase zeta 1 (GSTZ1), which is identical to maleylacetoacetate isomerase (MAAI), the penultimate enzyme in tyrosine catabolism. DCA inhibits its own metabolism through depletion/inactivation of GSTZ1/ MAAI with repeated exposure, resulting in lower plasma clearance of the drug and the accumulation of the urinary biomarker maleylacetone (MA), a metabolite of tyrosine. It is unknown if GSTZ1/MAAI may participate in the metabolism of CH or any of its metabolites and, therefore, affect tyrosine catabolism. Stable isotopes were utilized to determine the biotransformation of CH, the kinetics of its major metabolites, and the influence, if any, of GSTZ1/MAAI. Methods Eight healthy volunteers (ages 21 – 40 years) received a dose of 1 g of CH (clinical dose) or 1.5 μg/kg (environmental) for five consecutive days. Plasma and urinary samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results Plasma DCA (1.2 – 2.4 μg/mL), metabolized from CH, was measured on the fifth day of the 1 g/day CH dosage but was undetectable in plasma at environmentally relevant doses. Pharmacokinetic measurements from CH metabolites did not differ between slow and fast GSTZ1 haplotypes. Urinary MA levels increased from undetectable to 0.2 – 0.7 μg/g creatinine with repeated CH clinical dose exposure. Kinetic modeling of a clinical dose of 25 mg/kg DCA administered after 5 days of 1 g/day CH closely resembled DCA kinetics obtained in previously naïve individuals. Conclusions These data indicate that the amount of DCA produced from clinically relevant doses of CH, although insufficient to alter DCA kinetics, is sufficient to inhibit MAAI and tyrosine catabolism, as evidenced by the accumulation of urinary MA. PMID:25283137

  18. Protein disulfide isomerase as a novel target for cyclopentenone prostaglandins: implications for hypoxic ischemic injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hao; Chen, Jie; Li, Wenjin; Rose, Marie E.; Shinde, Sunita N.; Balasubramani, Manimalha; Uechi, Guy T.; Mutus, Bülent; Graham, Steven H.; Hickey, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an important contributor to ischemic brain injury. Identification of the downstream mediators of COX-2 toxicity may allow the development of targeted therapies. Of particular interest is the cyclopentenone family of prostaglandin metabolites. Cyclopentenone prostaglandins (CyPGs) are highly reactive molecules that form covalent bonds with cellular thiols. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is an important molecule for the restoration of denatured proteins following ischemia. Because PDI has several thiols, including thiols within the active thioredoxin-like domain, we hypothesized that PDI is a target of CyPGs and that CyPG binding of PDI is detrimental. CyPG–PDI binding was detected in vitro via immunoprecipitation and MS. CyPG–PDI binding decreased PDI enzymatic activity in recombinant PDI treated with CyPG, and PDI immunoprecipitated from neuronal culture treated with CyPG or anoxia. Toxic effects of binding were demonstrated in experiments showing that: (a) pharmacologic inhibition of PDI increased cell death in anoxic neurons, (b) PDI overexpression protected neurons exposed to anoxia and SH-SY5Y cells exposed to CyPG, and (c) PDI overexpression in SH-SY5Y cells attenuated ubiquitination of proteins and decreased activation of pro-apoptotic caspases. In conclusion, CyPG production and subsequent binding of PDI is a novel and potentially important mechanism of ischemic brain injury. We show that CyPGs bind to PDI, cyclopentenones inhibit PDI activity, and CyPG–PDI binding is associated with increased neuronal susceptibility to anoxia. Additional studies are necessary to determine the relative role of CyPG-dependent inhibition of PDI activity in ischemia and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25754985

  19. Carotenoid isomerase is key determinant of petal color of Calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Sanae; Ohmiya, Akemi

    2012-01-01

    Orange petals of calendula (Calendula officinalis) accumulate red carotenoids with the cis-configuration at the C-5 or C-5' position (5-cis-carotenoids). We speculated that the orange-flowered calendula is a carotenoid isomerase (crtiso) loss-of-function mutant that impairs the cis-to-trans conversion of 5-cis-carotenoids. We compared the sequences and enzyme activities of CRTISO from orange- and yellow-flowered calendulas. Four types of CRTISO were expressed in calendula petals. The deduced amino acid sequence of one of these genes (CoCRTISO1) was different between orange- and yellow-flowered calendulas, whereas the sequences of the other three CRTISOs were identical between these plants. Analysis of the enzymatic activities of the CoCRTISO homologs showed that CoCRTISO1-Y, which was expressed in yellow petals, converted carotenoids from the cis-to-trans-configuration, whereas both CoCRTISO1-ORa and 1-ORb, which were expressed in orange petals, showed no activity with any of the cis-carotenoids we tested. Moreover, the CoCRTISO1 genotypes of the F2 progeny obtained by crossing orange and yellow lines linked closely to petal color. These data indicate that CoCRTISO1 is a key regulator of the accumulation of 5-cis-carotenoids in calendula petals. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the deletion of Cys-His-His at positions 462-464 in CoCRTISO1-ORa and a Gly-to-Glu amino acid substitution at position 450 in CoCRTISO1-ORb abolished enzyme activity completely, indicating that these amino acid residues are important for the enzymatic activity of CRTISO. PMID:22069331

  20. Characterization of the Estradiol-Binding Site Structure of Human Protein Disulfide Isomerase (PDI)

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xin-Miao; Wang, Pan; Zhu, Bao Ting

    2011-01-01

    Background Earlier studies showed that 17β-estradiol (E2), an endogenous female sex hormone, can bind to human protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), a protein folding catalyst for disulfide bond formation and rearrangement. This binding interaction can modulate the intracellular levels of E2 and its biological actions. However, the structure of PDI's E2-binding site is still unclear at present, which is the focus of this study. Methodology/Principal Findings The E2-binding site structure of human PDI was studied by using various biochemical approaches coupled with radiometric receptor-binding assays, site-directed mutagenesis, and molecular computational modeling. Analysis of various PDI protein fragments showed that the [3H]E2-binding activity is not associated with the single b or b' domain but is associated with the b-b' domain combination. Computational docking analyses predicted that the E2-binding site is located in a hydrophobic pocket composed mainly of the b' domain and partially of the b domain. A hydrogen bond, formed between the 3-hydroxyl group of E2 and His256 of PDI is critical for the binding interaction. This binding model was jointly confirmed by a series of detailed experiments, including site-directed mutagenesis of the His256 residue coupled with selective modifications of the ligand structures to alter the binding interaction. Conclusions/Significance The results of this study elucidated the structural basis for the PDI–E2 binding interaction and the reservoir role of PDI in modulating the intracellular E2 levels. The identified PDI E2-binding site is quite different from its known peptide binding sites. Given that PDI is a potential therapeutic target for cancer chemotherapy and HIV prevention and that E2 can inhibit PDI activity in vitro, the E2-binding site structure of human PDI determined here offers structural insights which may aid in the rational design of novel PDI inhibitors. PMID:22073283

  1. Structural characterization of a ribose-5-phosphate isomerase B from the pathogenic fungus Coccidioides immitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase is an enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of ribose-5-phosphate and ribulose-5-phosphate. This family of enzymes naturally occurs in two distinct classes, RpiA and RpiB, which play an important role in the pentose phosphate pathway and nucleotide and co-factor biogenesis. Results Although RpiB occurs predominantly in bacteria, here we report crystal structures of a putative RpiB from the pathogenic fungus Coccidioides immitis. A 1.9 Å resolution apo structure was solved by combined molecular replacement and single wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) phasing using a crystal soaked briefly in a solution containing a high concentration of iodide ions. RpiB from C. immitis contains modest sequence and high structural homology to other known RpiB structures. A 1.8 Å resolution phosphate-bound structure demonstrates phosphate recognition and charge stabilization by a single positively charged residue whereas other members of this family use up to five positively charged residues to contact the phosphate of ribose-5-phosphate. A 1.7 Å resolution structure was obtained in which the catalytic base of C. immitis RpiB, Cys76, appears to form a weakly covalent bond with the central carbon of malonic acid with a bond distance of 2.2 Å. This interaction may mimic that formed by the suicide inhibitor iodoacetic acid with RpiB. Conclusion The C. immitis RpiB contains the same fold and similar features as other members of this class of enzymes such as a highly reactive active site cysteine residue, but utilizes a divergent phosphate recognition strategy and may recognize a different substrate altogether. PMID:21995815

  2. Absence of phosphoglucose isomerase-1 in retinal photoreceptor, pigment epithelium and Muller cells.

    PubMed

    Archer, Simon N; Ahuja, Poonam; Caffé, Romeo; Mikol, Catherine; Foster, Russell G; van Veen, Theo; von Schantz, Malcolm

    2004-06-01

    Macroarray analysis was used to compare equal amounts of cDNA from wild-type and rd/rd (retinal degeneration) mice, collected at P90 when photoreceptor degeneration is virtually complete. A stronger signal for the glycolytic enzyme phosphoglucose isomerase (Gpi1) was observed in the rd/rd sample. Extracellularly, Gpi1 may act as a cytokine, independently described as neuroleukin and autocrine motility factor. Retinal Gpi1 expression was investigated by Northern and Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Double-labelling was performed with antibodies against Gpi1 and calbindin-D, glutamine synthetase, RPE65, calretinin and ultraviolet opsin in order to provide positive cell type identification. Northern and Western blots showed double expression levels per microgram of RNA and protein, respectively, in the rd/rd retina compared with wild-type. However, the total amount of Gpi1 protein per retina was indistinguishable. Gpi1 immunoreactivity was found in ganglion, amacrine, horizontal and bipolar cells, but not in rods, cones, pigment epithelium and Muller cells. This distribution explains why the absolute amounts of Gpi1 protein were not appreciably different between wild-type and the rd/rd phenotype, where rods and cones are absent, whilst the relative contribution of Gpi1 to the total protein and RNA pools differed. Some extracellular immunoreactivity was observed in the photoreceptor matrix around cones in freshly fixed tissue only, which could possibly reflect a role as a cytokine. We propose that glycolysis in Gpi1-negative cells proceeds entirely through the pentose phosphate pathway, creating NADPH at the cost of organic carbon. We hypothesize that the unique metabolic needs of photoreceptors justify this trade-off. PMID:15182299

  3. Contribution of a low-barrier hydrogen bond to catalysis is not significant in ketosteroid isomerase.

    PubMed

    Jang, Do Soo; Choi, Gildon; Cha, Hyung Jin; Shin, Sejeong; Hong, Bee Hak; Lee, Hyeong Ju; Lee, Hee Cheon; Choi, Kwan Yong

    2015-05-01

    Low-barrier hydrogen bonds (LBHBs) have been proposed to have important influences on the enormous reaction rate increases achieved by many enzymes. Δ(5)-3-ketosteroid isomerase (KSI) catalyzes the allylic isomerization of Δ(5)-3-ketosteroid to its conjugated Δ(4)-isomers at a rate that approaches the diffusion limit. Tyr14, a catalytic residue of KSI, has been hypothesized to form an LBHB with the oxyanion of a dienolate steroid intermediate generated during the catalysis. The unusual chemical shift of a proton at 16.8 ppm in the nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum has been attributed to an LBHB between Tyr14 Oη and C3-O of equilenin, an intermediate analogue, in the active site of D38N KSI. This shift in the spectrum was not observed in Y30F/Y55F/D38N and Y30F/Y55F/Y115F/D38N mutant KSIs when each mutant was complexed with equilenin, suggesting that Tyr14 could not form LBHB with the intermediate analogue in these mutant KSIs. The crystal structure of Y30F/Y55F/Y115F/D38N-equilenin complex revealed that the distance between Tyr14 Oη and C3-O of the bound steroid was within a direct hydrogen bond. The conversion of LBHB to an ordinary hydrogen bond in the mutant KSI reduced the binding affinity for the steroid inhibitors by a factor of 8.1-11. In addition, the absence of LBHB reduced the catalytic activity by only a factor of 1.7-2. These results suggest that the amount of stabilization energy of the reaction intermediate provided by LBHB is small compared with that provided by an ordinary hydrogen bond in KSI. PMID:25947291

  4. Structural Effects of Protein Aging: Terminal Marking by Deamidation in Human Triosephosphate Isomerase

    PubMed Central

    de la Mora-de la Mora, Ignacio; Torres-Larios, Alfredo; Enríquez-Flores, Sergio; Méndez, Sara-Teresa; Castillo-Villanueva, Adriana; Gómez-Manzo, Saúl; López-Velázquez, Gabriel; Marcial-Quino, Jaime; Torres-Arroyo, Angélica; García-Torres, Itzhel; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio; Oria-Hernández, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Deamidation, the loss of the ammonium group of asparagine and glutamine to form aspartic and glutamic acid, is one of the most commonly occurring post-translational modifications in proteins. Since deamidation rates are encoded in the protein structure, it has been proposed that they can serve as molecular clocks for the timing of biological processes such as protein turnover, development and aging. Despite the importance of this process, there is a lack of detailed structural information explaining the effects of deamidation on the structure of proteins. Here, we studied the effects of deamidation on human triosephosphate isomerase (HsTIM), an enzyme for which deamidation of N15 and N71 has been long recognized as the signal for terminal marking of the protein. Deamidation was mimicked by site directed mutagenesis; thus, three mutants of HsTIM (N15D, N71D and N15D/N71D) were characterized. The results show that the N71D mutant resembles, structurally and functionally, the wild type enzyme. In contrast, the N15D mutant displays all the detrimental effects related to deamidation. The N15D/N71D mutant shows only minor additional effects when compared with the N15D mutation, supporting that deamidation of N71 induces negligible effects. The crystal structures show that, in contrast to the N71D mutant, where minimal alterations are observed, the N15D mutation forms new interactions that perturb the structure of loop 1 and loop 3, both critical components of the catalytic site and the interface of HsTIM. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of TIM sequences, we propose the conservation of this mechanism for mammalian TIMs. PMID:25884638

  5. Blastomyces Virulence Adhesin-1 Protein Binding to Glycosaminoglycans Is Enhanced by Protein Disulfide Isomerase

    PubMed Central

    Beaussart, Audrey; Brandhorst, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Blastomyces adhesin-1 (BAD-1) protein mediates the virulence of the yeast Blastomyces dermatitidis, in part by binding host lung tissue, the extracellular matrix, and cellular receptors via glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), such as heparan sulfate. The tandem repeats that make up over 90% of BAD-1 appear in their native state to be tightly folded into an inactive conformation, but recent work has shown that they become activated and adhesive upon reduction of a disulfide linkage. Here, atomic force microscopy (AFM) of a single BAD-1 molecule interacting with immobilized heparin revealed that binding is enhanced upon treatment with protein disulfide isomerase and dithiothreitol (PDI/DTT). PDI/DTT treatment of BAD-1 induced a plateau effect in atomic force signatures that was consistent with sequential rupture of tandem binding domains. Inhibition of PDI in murine macrophages blunted BAD-1 binding to heparin in vitro. Based on AFM, we found that a short Cardin-Weintraub sequence paired with a WxxWxxW sequence in the first, degenerate repeat at the N terminus of BAD-1 was sufficient to initiate heparin binding. Removal of half of the 41 BAD-1 tandem repeats led to weaker adhesion, illustrating their role in enhanced binding. Mass spectroscopy of the tandem repeat revealed that the PDI-induced interaction with heparin is characterized by ruptured disulfide bonds and that cysteine thiols remain reduced. Further binding studies showed direct involvement of thiols in heparin ligation. Thus, we propose that the N-terminal domain of BAD-1 governs the initial association with host GAGs and that proximity to GAG-associated host PDI catalyzes activation of additional binding motifs conserved within the tandem repeats, leading to enhanced avidity and availability of reduced thiols. PMID:26396244

  6. Biochemical properties of duplicated isozymes of phosphoglucose isomerase in the plant Clarkia xantiana.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, L D; Greve, L C

    1981-02-01

    The structural gene locus specifying subunits of cytoplasmic isoenzymes of phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) is present in duplicate in many diploid species of Clarkia (Onagraceae), a genus of annual plants native to California. We studied the kinetic properties and molecular weights of a large number of genetically defined and highly purified PGIs in C. xantiana, a number of species with the duplication, as a means of examining the biochemical consequences of the evolution of a new gene locus. This species is primarily outcrossing, but also includes several previously described predominantly self-pollinating populations. Both cytoplasmic PGI loci in the outcrossing populations are polymorphic and their enzyme products are readily separated by electrophoresis. The PGIs from the outcrossing populations were rated by electrophoresis. The PGIs from the outcrossing populations were generally closely similar in molecular weight, pH optimum, heat sensitivity, energy activation, and apparent Km (fructose-6-phosphate). The PGI loci in the selfing populations are monomorphic and specify enzymes having identical electrophoretic mobilities to those coded by the most frequent alleles of the outcrosser. The PGI isozymes in the selfers differed fivefold in Km, suggesting that they have a very different catalytic effectiveness. The high Km of the PGI-3A' isozyme (1.1mM) was anomalous among the PGIs examined and would likely be disadvantageous in a species which lacked other more normally functioning PGIs. But in the cytoplasm of the selfing plants, it is present with other PGIs that have low Km values. The PGI-3A' enzyme is a good candidate for a gene product coded by a "forbidden" mutation that could not have been established in the absence of the duplication. The rationale for this suggestion is described and it is also pointed out that the divergence of duplicated genes is influenced by many factors such as the breeding system and other population factors as well as the effect of

  7. Survival of glucose phosphate isomerase null somatic cells and germ cells in adult mouse chimaeras.

    PubMed

    Keighren, Margaret A; Flockhart, Jean H; West, John D

    2016-01-01

    The mouse Gpi1 gene encodes the glycolytic enzyme glucose phosphate isomerase. Homozygous Gpi1(-/-) null mouse embryos die but a previous study showed that some homozygous Gpi1(-/-) null cells survived when combined with wild-type cells in fetal chimaeras. One adult female Gpi1(-/-)↔Gpi1(c/c) chimaera with functional Gpi1(-/-) null oocytes was also identified in a preliminary study. The aims were to characterise the survival of Gpi1(-/-) null cells in adult Gpi1(-/-)↔Gpi1(c/c) chimaeras and determine if Gpi1(-/-) null germ cells are functional. Analysis of adult Gpi1(-/-)↔Gpi1(c/c) chimaeras with pigment and a reiterated transgenic lineage marker showed that low numbers of homozygous Gpi1(-/-) null cells could survive in many tissues of adult chimaeras, including oocytes. Breeding experiments confirmed that Gpi1(-/-) null oocytes in one female Gpi1(-/-)↔Gpi1(c/c) chimaera were functional and provided preliminary evidence that one male putative Gpi1(-/-)↔Gpi1(c/c) chimaera produced functional spermatozoa from homozygous Gpi1(-/-) null germ cells. Although the male chimaera was almost certainly Gpi1(-/-)↔Gpi1(c/c), this part of the study is considered preliminary because only blood was typed for GPI. Gpi1(-/-) null germ cells should survive in a chimaeric testis if they are supported by wild-type Sertoli cells. It is also feasible that spermatozoa could bypass a block at GPI, but not blocks at some later steps in glycolysis, by using fructose, rather than glucose, as the substrate for glycolysis. Although chimaera analysis proved inefficient for studying the fate of Gpi1(-/-) null germ cells, it successfully identified functional Gpi1(-/-) null oocytes and revealed that some Gpi1(-/-) null cells could survive in many adult tissues. PMID:27103217

  8. Testing Electrostatic Complementarity in Enzyme Catalysis: Hydrogen Bonding in the Ketosteroid Isomerase Oxyanion Hole

    PubMed Central

    Kraut, Daniel A; Sigala, Paul A; Pybus, Brandon; Liu, Corey W; Ringe, Dagmar; Petsko, Gregory A

    2006-01-01

    A longstanding proposal in enzymology is that enzymes are electrostatically and geometrically complementary to the transition states of the reactions they catalyze and that this complementarity contributes to catalysis. Experimental evaluation of this contribution, however, has been difficult. We have systematically dissected the potential contribution to catalysis from electrostatic complementarity in ketosteroid isomerase. Phenolates, analogs of the transition state and reaction intermediate, bind and accept two hydrogen bonds in an active site oxyanion hole. The binding of substituted phenolates of constant molecular shape but increasing p K a models the charge accumulation in the oxyanion hole during the enzymatic reaction. As charge localization increases, the NMR chemical shifts of protons involved in oxyanion hole hydrogen bonds increase by 0.50–0.76 ppm/p K a unit, suggesting a bond shortening of ˜0.02 Å/p K a unit. Nevertheless, there is little change in binding affinity across a series of substituted phenolates (ΔΔG = −0.2 kcal/mol/p K a unit). The small effect of increased charge localization on affinity occurs despite the shortening of the hydrogen bonds and a large favorable change in binding enthalpy (ΔΔH = −2.0 kcal/mol/p K a unit). This shallow dependence of binding affinity suggests that electrostatic complementarity in the oxyanion hole makes at most a modest contribution to catalysis of ˜300-fold. We propose that geometrical complementarity between the oxyanion hole hydrogen-bond donors and the transition state oxyanion provides a significant catalytic contribution, and suggest that KSI, like other enzymes, achieves its catalytic prowess through a combination of modest contributions from several mechanisms rather than from a single dominant contribution. PMID:16602823

  9. Growth on D-lyxose of a mutant strain of Escherichia coli K12 using a novel isomerase and enzymes related to D-xylase metabolism.

    PubMed

    Stevens, F J; Wu, T T

    1976-12-01

    Escherichia coli K12 cannot grow on D-lyxose, but a mutant was isolated which can utilize D-lyxose as sole source of carbon and energy for growth. D-Lyxose is transported into the bacteria by the D-xylose permease. The mutant constitutively synthesizes a new isomerase which is not inducible in the parent strain under any of the conditions tested. This enzyme, whose native substrate appears to be D-mannose, fortuitously converts D-lyxose into D-xylulose. Its structural gene is located at around 85 min on the E. coli genetic map, away from other known isomerase genes. D-Xylulose is subsequently catabolized by the enzymes of the normal D-xylose metabolic pathway. D-Mannose isomerase was partially purified and some of its properties were examined. PMID:796410

  10. Isotopic exchange plus substrate and inhibition kinetics of D-xylose isomerase do not support a proton-transfer mechanism.

    PubMed

    Allen, K N; Lavie, A; Farber, G K; Glasfeld, A; Petsko, G A; Ringe, D

    1994-02-15

    The D-xylose isomerase of Streptomyces olivochromogenes is a Mg2+- or Mn(2+)-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the aldose-ketose isomerization of xylose to xylulose or of glucose to fructose. Proton exchange into water during enzyme-catalyzed isomerization of C-2 tritiated glucose at 15, 25 and 55 degrees C shows < 0.6% exchange (the loss of one proton in every billion turnovers). High concentrations of guanidine hydrochloride and extremes of pH had no effect on the amount of exchange detected. Such a low percentage of exchange is inconsistent with a proton-transfer mechanism as the main kinetic pathway for isomerization. 19F NMR experiments showed no release of fluoride after incubation of the enzyme for 4 weeks with 800 mM 3-deoxy-3-fluoroglucose or 3-deoxy-3-fluoroallose (both are competitive inhibitors with Ki values of 600 mM). This result is also inconsistent with a proton-transfer mechanism. A hydride-shift mechanism following ring opening has been proposed for the isomerization. Enzyme-catalyzed ring opening was directly measured by demonstrating H2S release upon reaction of xylose isomerase with 1-thioglucose. D-Xylose isomerase-catalyzed interconversion of glucose to fructose exhibited linear Arrhenius behavior with an activation energy of 14 kcal/mol from 0 to 50 degrees C. No change in rate-determining step occurs over this temperature range. 13C NMR experiments with glucose show that enzyme-bound magnesium or manganese does not interact specifically with any one site on the sugar. These results are consistent with nonproductive binding modes for the substrate glucose in addition to productive binding. PMID:8312268

  11. Recombinant lactobacilli expressing linoleic acid isomerase can modulate the fatty acid composition of host adipose tissue in mice.

    PubMed

    Rosberg-Cody, Eva; Stanton, Catherine; O'Mahony, Liam; Wall, Rebecca; Shanahan, Fergus; Quigley, Eamonn M; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Ross, R Paul

    2011-02-01

    We have previously demonstrated that oral administration of a metabolically active Bifidobacterium breve strain, with ability to form cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), resulted in modulation of the fatty acid composition of the host, including significantly elevated concentrations of c9, t11 CLA and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids in liver and adipose tissue. In this study, we investigated whether a recombinant lactobacillus expressing linoleic acid isomerase (responsible for production of t10, c12 CLA) from Propionibacterium acnes (PAI) could influence the fatty acid composition of different tissues in a mouse model. Linoleic-acid-supplemented diets (2 %, w/w) were fed in combination with either a recombinant t10, c12 CLA-producing Lactobacillus paracasei NFBC 338 (Lb338), or an isogenic (vector-containing) control strain, to BALB/c mice for 8 weeks. A third group of mice received linoleic acid alone (2 %, w/w). Tissue fatty acid composition was assessed by GLC at the end of the trial. Ingestion of the strain expressing linoleic acid isomerase was associated with a 4-fold increase (P<0.001) in t10, c12 CLA in adipose tissues of the mice when compared with mice that received the isogenic non-CLA-producing strain. The livers of the mice that received the recombinant CLA-producing Lb338 also contained a 2.5-fold (albeit not significantly) higher concentration of t10, c12 CLA, compared to the control group. These data demonstrate that a single gene (encoding linoleic acid isomerase) expressed in an intestinal microbe can influence the fatty acid composition of host fat. PMID:21178166

  12. Differential viability of phosphoglucose isomerase allozyme genotypes of marine snails in nonionic detergent and crude oil-surfactant mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Lavie, B.; Nevo, E.; Zoller, U.

    1984-10-01

    The effects of a nonionic detergent and of crude oil-detergent mixtures in aqueous solutions on the allozyme frequencies of phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi) genotypes were tested in the Mediterranean marine gastropods Monodonta turbinata and M. turbiformis. Our results indicate differential survivorship of electrophoretical Pgi allozyme genotypes for both detergent alone and for crude oil-detergent mixtures. These results reflect the adaptive nature of some Pgi genotypes in these marine gastropods and seem inconsistent with the neutral theory of allozyme polymorphisms. Furthermore, these findings suggest that allozyme variants demonstrate a differential tolerance to these organic pollutants and can, therefore, be used as detectors of organic pollutants in the sea.

  13. Characterization of a Novel d-Lyxose Isomerase from Cohnella laevoribosii RI-39 sp. nov.▿

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Eun-Ah; Lee, Dong-Woo; Cha, Yun-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Jae; Jung, Heung-Chae; Pan, Jae-Gu; Pyun, Yu-Ryang

    2007-01-01

    A newly isolated bacterium, Cohnella laevoribosii RI-39, could grow in a defined medium with l-ribose as the sole carbon source. A 21-kDa protein isomerizing l-ribose to l-ribulose, as well as d-lyxose to d-xylulose, was purified to homogeneity from this bacterium. Based on the N-terminal and internal amino acid sequences of the purified enzyme obtained by N-terminal sequencing and quantitative time of flight mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry analyses, a 549-bp gene (lyxA) encoding d-lyxose (l-ribose) isomerase was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified endogenous enzyme and the recombinant enzyme formed homodimers that were activated by Mn2+. C. laevoribosii d-lyxose (l-ribose) isomerase (CLLI) exhibits maximal activity at pH 6.5 and 70°C in the presence of Mn2+ for d-lyxose and l-ribose, and its isoelectric point (pI) is 4.2 (calculated pI, 4.9). The enzyme is specific for d-lyxose, l-ribose, and d-mannose, with apparent Km values of 22.4 ± 1.5 mM, 121.7 ± 10.8 mM, and 34.0 ± 1.1 mM, respectively. The catalytic efficiencies (kcat/Km) of CLLI were 84.9 ± 5.8 mM−1 s−1 for d-lyxose (Vmax, 5,434.8 U mg−1), 0.2 mM−1 s−1 for l-ribose (Vmax, 75.5 ± 6.0 U mg−1), and 1.4 ± 0.1 mM−1 s−1 for d-mannose (Vmax, 131.8 ± 7.4 U mg−1). The ability of lyxA to permit E. coli cells to grow on d-lyxose and l-ribose and homology searches of other sugar-related enzymes, as well as previously described sugar isomerases, suggest that CLLI is a novel type of rare sugar isomerase. PMID:17189362

  14. Isoprenoid biosynthesis as a target for antibacterial and antiparasitic drugs: phosphonohydroxamic acids as inhibitors of deoxyxylulose phosphate reducto-isomerase

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Isoprenoid biosynthesis via the methylerythritol phosphate pathway is a target against pathogenic bacteria and the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. 4-(Hydroxyamino)-4-oxobutylphosphonic acid and 4-[hydroxy(methyl)amino]-4-oxobutyl phosphonic acid, two novel inhibitors of DXR (1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reducto-isomerase), the second enzyme of the pathway, have been synthesized and compared with fosmidomycin, the best known inhibitor of this enzyme. The latter phosphonohydroxamic acid showed a high inhibitory activity towards DXR, much like fosmidomycin, as well as significant antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli in tests on Petri dishes. PMID:15473867

  15. Purification and cloning of a thermostable xylose (glucose) isomerase with an acidic pH optimum from Thermoanaerobacterium strain JW/SL-YS 489.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, S Y; Wiegel, J; Gherardini, F C

    1996-01-01

    An unusual xylose isomerase produced by Thermoanaerobacterium strain JW/SL-YS 489 was purified 28-fold to gel electrophoretic homogeneity, and the biochemical properties were determined. Its pH optimum distinguishes this enzyme from all other previously described xylose isomerases. The purified enzyme had maximal activity at pH 6.4 (60 degrees C) or pH 6.8 (80 degrees C) in a 30-min assay, an isoelectric point at 4.7, and an estimated native molecular mass of 200 kDa, with four identical subunits of 50 kDa. Like other xylose isomerases, this enzyme required Mn2+, Co2+, or Mg2+ for thermal stability (stable for 1 h at 82 degrees C in the absence of substrate) and isomerase activity, and it preferred xylose as a substrate. The gene encoding the xylose isomerase was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the complete nucleotide sequence was determined. Analysis of the sequence revealed an open reading frame of 1,317 bp that encoded a protein of 439 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 50 kDa. The biochemical properties of the cloned enzyme were the same as those of the native enzyme. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with sequences of other xylose isomerases in the database showed that the enzyme had 98% homology with a xylose isomerase from a closely related bacterium, Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum B6A-RI. In fact, only seven amino acid differences were detected between the two sequences, and the biochemical properties of the two enzymes, except for the pH optimum, are quite similar. Both enzymes had a temperature optimum at 80 degrees C, very similar isoelectric points (pH 4.7 for strain JW/SL-YS 489 and pH 4.8 for T. saccharolyticum B6A-RI), and slightly different thermostabilities (stable for 1 h at 80 and 85 degrees C, respectively). The obvious difference was the pH optimum (6.4 to 6.8 and 7.0 to 7.5, respectively). The fact that the pH optimum of the enzyme from strain JW/SL-YS 489 was the property that differed

  16. NMR studies on mechanism of isomerisation of fructose 6-phosphate to glucose 6-phosphate catalysed by phosphoglucose isomerase from Thermococcus kodakarensis.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Shahzada Nadeem; Mok, Kenneth Hun; Rashid, Naeem; Xie, Yongjing; Ruether, Manuel; O'Brien, John; Akhtar, Muhammad

    2016-06-01

    The fate of hydrogen atoms at C-2 of glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) and C-1 of fructose 6-phosphate (F6P) was studied in the reaction catalysed by phosphoglucose isomerase from Thermococcus kodakarensis (TkPGI) through 1D and 2D NMR methods. When the reaction was performed in (2)H2O the hydrogen atoms in the aforementioned positions were exchanged with deuterons indicating that the isomerization occurred by a cis-enediol intermediate involving C-1 pro-R hydrogen of F6P. These features are similar to those described for phosphoglucose isomerases from rabbit muscle and Pyrococcus furiosus. PMID:27014866

  17. l-Arabinose Isomerase and d-Xylose Isomerase from Lactobacillus reuteri: Characterization, Coexpression in the Food Grade Host Lactobacillus plantarum, and Application in the Conversion of d-Galactose and d-Glucose

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The l-arabinose isomerase (l-AI) and the d-xylose isomerase (d-XI) encoding genes from Lactobacillus reuteri (DSMZ 17509) were cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The proteins were purified to homogeneity by one-step affinity chromatography and characterized biochemically. l-AI displayed maximum activity at 65 °C and pH 6.0, whereas d-XI showed maximum activity at 65 °C and pH 5.0. Both enzymes require divalent metal ions. The genes were also ligated into the inducible lactobacillal expression vectors pSIP409 and pSIP609, the latter containing a food grade auxotrophy marker instead of an antibiotic resistance marker, and the l-AI- and d-XI-encoding sequences/genes were coexpressed in the food grade host Lactobacillus plantarum. The recombinant enzymes were tested for applications in carbohydrate conversion reactions of industrial relevance. The purified l-AI converted d-galactose to d-tagatose with a maximum conversion rate of 35%, and the d-XI isomerized d-glucose to d-fructose with a maximum conversion rate of 48% at 60 °C. PMID:24443973

  18. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the mannose 6-phosphate isomerase from Salmonella typhimurium

    SciTech Connect

    Gowda, Giri; Sagurthi, Someswar Rao; Savithri, H. S.; Murthy, M. R. N.

    2008-02-01

    The cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of mannose 6-phosphate isomerase from S. typhimurium are reported. Mannose 6-phosphate isomerase (MPI; EC 5.3.1.8) catalyzes the reversible isomerization of d-mannose 6-phosphate (M6P) and d-fructose 6-phosphate (F6P). In the eukaryotes and prokaryotes investigated to date, the enzyme has been reported to play a crucial role in d-mannose metabolism and supply of the activated mannose donor guanosine diphosphate d-mannose (GDP-d-mannose). In the present study, MPI was cloned from Salmonella typhimurium, overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified using Ni–NTA affinity column chromatography. Purified MPI crystallized in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 36.03, b = 92.2, c = 111.01 Å. A data set extending to 1.66 Å resolution was collected with 98.8% completeness using an image-plate detector system mounted on a rotating-anode X-ray generator. The asymmetric unit of the crystal cell was compatible with the presence of a monomer of MPI. A preliminary structure solution of the enzyme has been obtained by molecular replacement using Candida albicans MPI as the phasing model and the program Phaser. Further refinement and model building are in progress.

  19. Structure-Based Annotation of a Novel Sugar Isomerase from the Pathogenic E. coli O157:H7

    SciTech Connect

    van Staalduinen, L.; Park, C; Yeom, S; Adams-Cioaba, M; Oh, D; Jia, C

    2010-01-01

    Prokaryotes can use a variety of sugars as carbon sources in order to provide a selective survival advantage. The gene z5688 found in the pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 encodes a 'hypothetical' protein of unknown function. Sequence analysis identified the gene product as a putative member of the cupin superfamily of proteins, but no other functional information was known. We have determined the crystal structure of the Z5688 protein at 1.6 {angstrom} resolution and identified the protein as a novel E. coli sugar isomerase (EcSI) through overall fold analysis and secondary-structure matching. Extensive substrate screening revealed that EcSI is capable of acting on D-lyxose and D-mannose. The complex structure of EcSI with fructose allowed the identification of key active-site residues, and mutagenesis confirmed their importance. The structure of EcSI also suggested a novel mechanism for substrate binding and product release in a cupin sugar isomerase. Supplementation of a nonpathogenic E. coli strain with EcSI enabled cell growth on the rare pentose d-lyxose.

  20. Substrate-Induced Change in the Quaternary Structure of Type 2 Isopentenyl Diphosphate Isomerase from Sulfolobus shibatae

    PubMed Central

    Nakatani, Hitomi; Goda, Shuichiro; Unno, Hideaki; Nagai, Takuya; Yoshimura, Tohru

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase catalyzes the interconversion between two active units for isoprenoid biosynthesis, i.e., isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate, in almost all archaea and in some bacteria, including human pathogens. The enzyme is a good target for discovery of antibiotics because it is essential for the organisms that use only the mevalonate pathway to produce the active isoprene units and because humans possess a nonhomologous isozyme, type 1 isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase. However, type 2 enzymes were reportedly inhibited by mechanism-based drugs for the type 1 enzyme due to their surprisingly similar reaction mechanisms. Thus, a different approach is now required to develop new inhibitors specific to the type 2 enzyme. X-ray crystallography and gel filtration chromatography revealed that the enzyme from a thermoacidophilic archaeon, Sulfolobus shibatae, is in the octameric state at a high concentration. Interestingly, a part of the regions that are involved in the substrate binding in the previously reported tetrameric structures is integral to the formation of the tetramer-tetramer interface in the substrate-free octameric structure. Site-directed mutagenesis at such regions resulted in stabilization of the tetramer. Small-angle X-ray scattering, tryptophan fluorescence, and dynamic light scattering analyses showed that substrate binding causes the dissociation of an octamer into tetramers. This property, i.e., incompatibility between octamer formation and substrate binding, might provide clues to develop new specific inhibitors of the archaeal enzyme. PMID:22505674

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the isomerase domain of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase from Candida albicans

    SciTech Connect

    Olchowy, Jaroslaw; Milewski, Slawomir

    2005-11-01

    The isomerase domain of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase from C. albicans has been crystallized and X-ray diffraction data have been collected. Preliminary analysis of the data reveals the oligomeric structure of the eukaryotic synthase to be a ‘dimer’ of prokaryotic-like dimers. Glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase (EC 2.6.1.16) catalyses the first and practically irreversible step in the hexosamine metabolism pathway, the end product of which, uridine 5′-diphospho-N-acetyl d-glucosamine, is an essential substrate for assembly of the cell wall. The isomerase domain, consisting of residues 346–712 (42 kDa), of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase from Candida albicans has been crystallized. X-ray analysis revealed that the crystals belonged to space group I4, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 149, c = 103 Å. Diffraction data were collected to 3.8 Å. Preliminary results from molecular replacement using the homologous bacterial monomer reveal that the asymmetric unit contains two monomers that resemble a bacterial dimer. The crystal lattice consists of pairs of such symmetry-related dimers forming elongated tetramers.

  2. Dynamic, Ligand-dependent Conformational Change Triggers Reaction of Ribose-1,5-bisphosphate Isomerase from Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1*

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Akira; Fujihashi, Masahiro; Aono, Riku; Sato, Takaaki; Nishiba, Yosuke; Yoshida, Shosuke; Yano, Ayumu; Atomi, Haruyuki; Imanaka, Tadayuki; Miki, Kunio

    2012-01-01

    Ribose-1,5-bisphosphate isomerase (R15Pi) is a novel enzyme recently identified as a member of an AMP metabolic pathway in archaea. The enzyme converts d-ribose 1,5-bisphosphate into ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate, providing the substrate for archaeal ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenases. We here report the crystal structures of R15Pi from Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1 (Tk-R15Pi) with and without its substrate or product. Tk-R15Pi is a hexameric enzyme formed by the trimerization of dimer units. Biochemical analyses show that Tk-R15Pi only accepts the α-anomer of d-ribose 1,5-bisphosphate and that Cys133 and Asp202 residues are essential for ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate production. Comparison of the determined structures reveals that the unliganded and product-binding structures are in an open form, whereas the substrate-binding structure adopts a closed form, indicating domain movement upon substrate binding. The conformational change to the closed form optimizes active site configuration and also isolates the active site from the solvent, which may allow deprotonation of Cys133 and protonation of Asp202 to occur. The structural features of the substrate-binding form and biochemical evidence lead us to propose that the isomerase reaction proceeds via a cis-phosphoenolate intermediate. PMID:22511789

  3. Targeting bacterial membranes: NMR spectroscopy characterization of substrate recognition and binding requirements of D-arabinose-5-phosphate isomerase.

    PubMed

    Airoldi, Cristina; Sommaruga, Silvia; Merlo, Silvia; Sperandeo, Paola; Cipolla, Laura; Polissi, Alessandra; Nicotra, Francesco

    2010-02-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an essential component of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria and consists of three elements: lipid A, the core oligosaccharide, and the O-antigen. The inner-core region is highly conserved and contains at least one residue of 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate (Kdo). Arabinose-5-phosphate isomerase (API) is an aldo-keto isomerase catalyzing the reversible isomerization of D-ribulose-5-phosphate (Ru5P) to D-arabinose-5-phosphate (A5P), the first step of Kdo biosynthesis. By exploiting saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy, the structural requirements necessary for API substrate recognition and binding were identified, with the aim of designing new API inhibitors. In addition, simple experimental conditions for the STD experiments to perform a fast, robust, and efficient screening of small libraries of potential API inhibitors, allowing the identification of new potential leads, were set up. Due to the essential role of API enzymes in LPS biosynthesis and gram-negative bacteria survival, by exploiting these data, a new generation of potent antibacterial drugs could be developed. PMID:20039350

  4. Crystal Structure of Escherichia coli L-Arabinose Isomerase (ECAI), The Putative Target of Biological Tagatose Production

    SciTech Connect

    Manjasetty,B.; Chance, M.

    2006-01-01

    Escherichia coli L-arabinose isomerase (ECAI; EC 5.3.1.4) catalyzes the isomerization of L-arabinose to L-ribulose in vivo. This enzyme is also of commercial interest as it catalyzes the conversion of D-galactose to D-tagatose in vitro. The crystal structure of ECAI was solved and refined at 2.6 Angstroms resolution. The subunit structure of ECAI is organized into three domains: an N-terminal, a central and a C-terminal domain. It forms a crystallographic trimeric architecture in the asymmetric unit. Packing within the crystal suggests the idea that ECAI can form a hexameric assembly. Previous electron microscopic and biochemical studies supports that ECAI is hexameric in solution. A comparison with other known structures reveals that ECAI adopts a protein fold most similar to E. coli fucose isomerase (ECFI) despite very low sequence identity 9.7%. The structural similarity between ECAI and ECFI with regard to number of domains, overall fold, biological assembly, and active site architecture strongly suggests that the enzymes have functional similarities. Further, the crystal structure of ECAI forms a basis for identifying molecular determinants responsible for isomerization of arabinose to ribulose in vivo and galactose to tagatose in vitro.

  5. Prevalence of partial deficiency of red cell triosephosphate isomerase in Germany--a study of 3000 people.

    PubMed

    Eber, S W; Dünnwald, M; Heinemann, G; Hofstätter, T; Weinmann, H M; Belohradsky, B H

    1984-01-01

    During a heterozygote screening of nearly 3000 persons, triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) deficiencies in erythrocytes were discovered in 11 unrelated persons, showing a residual activity between 39 and 76% of normal activity. Extensive genealogic studies were performed to confirm that these persons with TPI deficiency were heterozygous carriers. The total heterozygote frequency of triosephosphate isomerase deficiencies was 3.7/1000. The persons with heterozygous deficiency could be divided into two categories. Subjects of category I had a mean residual activity of 49% of the expected normal activity and were represented by a frequency of 1.3/1000. Subjects of category II had a mean residual activity of 67% of the expected normal activity and were represented by a frequency of 2.4/1000. None of the heterozygous persons showed an electrophoretic variant. The immunologic specific activity was normal with one exception. Therefore, we assume that in many cases of our heterozygous TPI-deficiencies a TPI protein with a normal specific activity is synthesized to a diminished degree. PMID:6381286

  6. Cyclophilin A (CypA) Plays Dual Roles in Regulation of Bone Anabolism and Resorption

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Mian; James, Aaron W.; Kwak, Jin Hee; Shen, Jia; Yokoyama, Kazunari K.; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia B.; Chiu, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    CypA (Cyclophilin A) is a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase previously shown to be required for chondrogenic differentiation and endochondral ossification. However, the effects of CypA on osteoclast activity and bone maintenance are entirely unknown. Here, we show that Ppia−/− mice demonstrate low bone mineral density, reduced osteoblast numbers, and increased osteoclast numbers. When isolated from the calvaria, Ppia−/− osteoblasts demonstrate decreased osteogenic differentiation, whereas Ppia−/− osteoclasts derived from the long bones showed increased osteoclastic activity. Overexpression and gene silencing of CypA verified osteogenic and anti-osteoclastic effects. In osteoblasts, CypA is necessary for BMP-2 (Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2)-induced Smad phosphorylation. In osteoclasts, loss of CypA activates BtK (Bruton’s tyrosine kinase) and subsequently integrates with TRAF6 (TNF receptor-associated factor 6) and/or c-fos signaling to induce NFATc1 (nuclear factors of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1). Collectively, CypA dually exerts pro-osteogenic and anti-osteoclastic effects. Thus, modulation of CypA may be useful in future efforts targeting osteoporosis. PMID:26932182

  7. Cyclophilin A (CypA) Plays Dual Roles in Regulation of Bone Anabolism and Resorption.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mian; James, Aaron W; Kwak, Jin Hee; Shen, Jia; Yokoyama, Kazunari K; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia B; Chiu, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    CypA (Cyclophilin A) is a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase previously shown to be required for chondrogenic differentiation and endochondral ossification. However, the effects of CypA on osteoclast activity and bone maintenance are entirely unknown. Here, we show that Ppia(-/-) mice demonstrate low bone mineral density, reduced osteoblast numbers, and increased osteoclast numbers. When isolated from the calvaria, Ppia(-/-) osteoblasts demonstrate decreased osteogenic differentiation, whereas Ppia(-/-) osteoclasts derived from the long bones showed increased osteoclastic activity. Overexpression and gene silencing of CypA verified osteogenic and anti-osteoclastic effects. In osteoblasts, CypA is necessary for BMP-2 (Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2)-induced Smad phosphorylation. In osteoclasts, loss of CypA activates BtK (Bruton's tyrosine kinase) and subsequently integrates with TRAF6 (TNF receptor-associated factor 6) and/or c-fos signaling to induce NFATc1 (nuclear factors of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1). Collectively, CypA dually exerts pro-osteogenic and anti-osteoclastic effects. Thus, modulation of CypA may be useful in future efforts targeting osteoporosis. PMID:26932182

  8. C-terminal 13-residue truncation induces compact trigger factor conformation and severely impairs its dimerization ability.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yi; Yu, Ling; Kihara, Hiroshi; Zhou, Jun-Mei

    2014-05-01

    Trigger factor (TF) is the first chaperone to interact with nascent chains and facilitate their folding within bacteria. TF possesses a three-state equilibrium in vivo: monomeric TF bound to ribosome, free monomeric, and dimeric TF in cytoplasm. TF consists of an N-terminal ribosome binding domain, a middle peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) domain and a C-terminal domain involved in substrate binding and dimerization. Investigation of the effect of C-terminal 13 region on TF structure and function will help to further the understanding of its mechanism as a chaperone in vitro and in vivo. Here we present TF419, a TF mutant from which the C-terminal 13 residues were deleted to investigate the role of these residues in the structure stability and function of intact molecules. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), fluorescence measurements and limited proteolysis results suggested that TF transitioned to a compact conformation when the Cterminal 13 residues were truncated. Further biochemical results reveal that TF dimerization was decreased as a result of the truncation. These results suggested that the C-terminal 13 residues play an important role in structural stability and chaperone function of TF. PMID:24555433

  9. Isolation, characterization and targeted disruption of mouse ppia: cyclophilin A is not essential for mammalian cell viability.

    PubMed

    Colgan, J; Asmal, M; Luban, J

    2000-09-01

    Cyclophilins (CyPs) are a family of proteins found in organisms ranging from prokaryotes to humans. These molecules exhibit peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity in vitro, suggesting that they influence the conformation of proteins in cells. CyPs also bind with varying affinities to the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin A (CsA), a compound used clinically to prevent allograft rejection. The founding member of the family, cyclophilin A (CyPA), is an abundant, ubiquitously expressed protein of unknown function that binds with nanomolar affinity to CsA. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of mouse Ppia (mPpia), the gene encoding CyPA. Ppia was isolated using a PCR screen that distinguishes the expressed gene from multiple pseudogenes present in the mouse genome. mPpia consists of 5 exons and 4 introns spanning roughly 4.5 kb and maps to chromosome 11 near the centromere. Sequence analysis of a 369-bp fragment from the proximal promoter region of mPpia revealed the presence of a TATA box and sites recognized by several transcriptional regulators, including Sp1, AP-2, GATA factors, c-Myb, and NF-IL-6. This region is sufficient to drive high-level reporter gene expression in transfected cells. Both copies of Ppia were disrupted in murine embryonic stem (ES) cells via gene targeting. Ppia(-/-) ES cells grow normally and differentiate into hematopoeitic precursor cells in vitro, indicating that CyPA is not essential for mammalian cell viability. PMID:10964515

  10. Proteomic analysis of egg white heparin-binding proteins: towards the identification of natural antibacterial molecules

    PubMed Central

    Guyot, Nicolas; Labas, Valérie; Harichaux, Grégoire; Chessé, Magali; Poirier, Jean-Claude; Nys, Yves; Réhault-Godbert, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    The chicken egg resists most environmental microbes suggesting that it potentially contains efficient antimicrobial molecules. Considering that some heparin-binding proteins in mammals are antibacterial, we investigated the presence and the antimicrobial activity of heparin-binding proteins from chicken egg white. Mass spectrometry analysis of the proteins recovered after heparin-affinity chromatography, revealed 20 proteins, including known antimicrobial proteins (avidin, lysozyme, TENP, ovalbumin-related protein X and avian bêta-defensin 11). The antibacterial activity of three new egg candidates (vitelline membrane outer layer protein 1, beta-microseminoprotein-like (LOC101750704) and pleiotrophin) was demonstrated against Listeria monocytogenes and/or Salmonella enterica Enteritidis. We showed that all these molecules share the property to inhibit bacterial growth through their heparin-binding domains. However, vitelline membrane outer layer 1 has additional specific structural features that can contribute to its antimicrobial potential. Moreover, we identified potential supplementary effectors of innate immunity including mucin 5B, E-selectin ligand 1, whey acidic protein 3, peptidyl prolyl isomerase B and retinoic acid receptor responder protein 2. These data support the concept of using heparin affinity combined to mass spectrometry to obtain an overview of the various effectors of innate immunity composing biological milieus, and to identify novel antimicrobial candidates of interest in the race for alternatives to antibiotics. PMID:27294500

  11. Cyclophilin A Restricts Influenza A Virus Replication through Degradation of the M1 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chongfeng; Sun, Lei; Chen, Jilong; Zhang, Lianfeng; Liu, Wenjun

    2012-01-01

    Cyclophilin A (CypA) is a typical member of the cyclophilin family of peptidyl-prolyl isomerases and is involved in the replication of several viruses. Previous studies indicate that CypA interacts with influenza virus M1 protein and impairs the early stage of the viral replication. To further understand the molecular mechanism by which CypA impairs influenza virus replication, a 293T cell line depleted for endogenous CypA was established. The results indicated that CypA inhibited the initiation of virus replication. In addition, the infectivity of influenza virus increased in the absence of CypA. Further studies indicated that CypA had no effect on the stages of virus genome replication or transcription and also did not impair the nuclear export of the viral mRNA. However, CypA decreased the viral protein level. Additional studies indicated that CypA enhanced the degradation of M1 through the ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent pathway. Our results suggest that CypA restricts influenza virus replication through accelerating degradation of the M1 protein. PMID:22347431

  12. Cyclophilin A regulates HIV-1 infectivity, as demonstrated by gene targeting in human T cells

    PubMed Central

    Braaten, Douglas; Luban, Jeremy

    2001-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag polyprotein binds most members of the cyclophilin family of peptidyl-prolyl isomerases. Of 15 known human cyclophilins, cyclophilin A (CypA) has been the focus of investigation because it was detected in HIV-1 virions. To determine whether CypA promotes HIV-1 replication, we deleted the gene encoding CypA (PPIA) in human CD4+ T cells by homologous recombination. HIV-1 replication in PPIA–/– cells was decreased and not inhibited further by cyclosporin or gag mutations that disrupt Gag’s interaction with cyclophilins, indicating that no other cyclophilin family members promote HIV-1 replication. The defective replication phenotype was specific for wild-type HIV-1 since HIV-2/SIV isolates, as well as HIV-1 bearing a gag mutation that confers cyclosporin resistance, replicated the same in PPIA+/+ and PPIA–/– cells. Stable re-expression of CypA in PPIA–/– cells restored HIV-1 replication to an extent that correlated with steady-state levels of CypA. Finally, virions from PPIA–/– cells possessed no obvious biochemical abnormalities but were less infectious than virions from wild-type cells. These data formally demonstrate that CypA regulates the infectivity of HIV-1 virions. PMID:11250896

  13. Target Cell Cyclophilins Facilitate Human Papillomavirus Type 16 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sapp, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Following attachment to primary receptor heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG), human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) particles undergo conformational changes affecting the major and minor capsid proteins, L1 and L2, respectively. This results in exposure of the L2 N-terminus, transfer to uptake receptors, and infectious internalization. Here, we report that target cell cyclophilins, peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases, are required for efficient HPV16 infection. Cell surface cyclophilin B (CyPB) facilitates conformational changes in capsid proteins, resulting in exposure of the L2 N-terminus. Inhibition of CyPB blocked HPV16 infection by inducing noninfectious internalization. Mutation of a putative CyP binding site present in HPV16 L2 yielded exposed L2 N-terminus in the absence of active CyP and bypassed the need for cell surface CyPB. However, this mutant was still sensitive to CyP inhibition and required CyP for completion of infection, probably after internalization. Taken together, these data suggest that CyP is required during two distinct steps of HPV16 infection. Identification of cell surface CyPB will facilitate the study of the complex events preceding internalization and adds a putative drug target for prevention of HPV–induced diseases. PMID:19629175

  14. Suppression of Coronavirus Replication by Cyclophilin Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Sato, Yuka; Sasaki, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Coronaviruses infect a variety of mammalian and avian species and cause serious diseases in humans, cats, mice, and birds in the form of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), mouse hepatitis, and avian infectious bronchitis, respectively. No effective vaccine or treatment has been developed for SARS-coronavirus or FIP virus, both of which cause lethal diseases. It has been reported that a cyclophilin inhibitor, cyclosporin A (CsA), could inhibit the replication of coronaviruses. CsA is a well-known immunosuppressive drug that binds to cellular cyclophilins to inhibit calcineurin, a calcium-calmodulin-activated serine/threonine-specific phosphatase. The inhibition of calcineurin blocks the translocation of nuclear factor of activated T cells from the cytosol into the nucleus, thus preventing the transcription of genes encoding cytokines such as interleukin-2. Cyclophilins are peptidyl-prolyl isomerases with physiological functions that have been described for many years to include chaperone and foldase activities. Also, many viruses require cyclophilins for replication; these include human immunodeficiency virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and hepatitis C virus. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to the suppression of viral replication differ for different viruses. This review describes the suppressive effects of CsA on coronavirus replication. PMID:23698397

  15. N-linked sugar-regulated protein folding and quality control in the ER

    PubMed Central

    Tannous, Abla; Pisoni, Giorgia Brambilla; Hebert, Daniel N.; Molinari, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Asparagine-linked glycans (N-glycans) are displayed on the majority of proteins synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Removal of the outermost glucose residue recruits the lectin chaperone malectin possibly involved in a first triage of defective polypeptides. Removal of a second glucose promotes engagement of folding and quality control machineries built around the ER lectin chaperones calnexin (CNX) and calreticulin (CRT) and including oxidoreductases and peptidyl-prolyl isomerases. Deprivation of the last glucose residue dictates the release of N- glycosylated polypeptides from the lectin chaperones. Correctly folded proteins are authorized to leave the ER. Non-native polypeptides are recognized by the ER quality control key player UDP-glucose glycoprotein glucosyltransferase 1 (UGT1), re-glucosylated and re-addressed to the CNX/CRT chaperone binding cycle to provide additional opportunity for the protein to fold in the ER. Failure to attain the native structure determines the selection of the misfolded polypeptides for proteasome-mediated degradation. PMID:25534658

  16. Suppression of coronavirus replication by cyclophilin inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Sato, Yuka; Sasaki, Takashi

    2013-05-01

    Coronaviruses infect a variety of mammalian and avian species and cause serious diseases in humans, cats, mice, and birds in the form of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), mouse hepatitis, and avian infectious bronchitis, respectively. No effective vaccine or treatment has been developed for SARS-coronavirus or FIP virus, both of which cause lethal diseases. It has been reported that a cyclophilin inhibitor, cyclosporin A (CsA), could inhibit the replication of coronaviruses. CsA is a well-known immunosuppressive drug that binds to cellular cyclophilins to inhibit calcineurin, a calcium-calmodulin-activated serine/threonine-specific phosphatase. The inhibition of calcineurin blocks the translocation of nuclear factor of activated T cells from the cytosol into the nucleus, thus preventing the transcription of genes encoding cytokines such as interleukin-2. Cyclophilins are peptidyl-prolyl isomerases with physiological functions that have been described for many years to include chaperone and foldase activities. Also, many viruses require cyclophilins for replication; these include human immunodeficiency virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and hepatitis C virus. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to the suppression of viral replication differ for different viruses. This review describes the suppressive effects of CsA on coronavirus replication. PMID:23698397

  17. A proteomic approach towards understanding the cross talk between Bacteroides fragilis and Bifidobacterium longum in coculture.

    PubMed

    Rios-Covián, David; Sánchez, Borja; Martínez, Noelia; Cuesta, Isabel; Hernández-Barranco, Ana M; de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Gueimonde, Miguel

    2016-07-01

    A better understanding of the interactions among intestinal microbes is needed to decipher the complex cross talk that takes place within the human gut. Bacteroides and Bifidobacterium genera are among the most relevant intestinal bacteria, and it has been previously reported that coculturing of these 2 microorganisms affects their survival. Therefore, coculturing of Bifidobacterium longum NB667 and Bacteroides fragilis DSMZ2151 was performed with the aim of unravelling the mechanisms involved in their interaction. To this end, we applied proteomic (2D-DIGE) analyses, and by chromatographic techniques we quantified the bacterial metabolites produced during coincubation. Coculture stimulated the growth of B. longum, retarding that of B. fragilis, with concomitant changes in the production of some proteins and metabolites of both bacteria. The combined culture promoted upregulation of the bifidobacterial pyruvate kinase and downregulation of the Bacteroides phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase - 2 enzymes involved in the catabolism of carbohydrates. Moreover, B. fragilis FKBP-type peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase, a protein with chaperone-like activity, was found to be overproduced in coculture, suggesting the induction of a stress response in this microorganism. This study provides mechanistic data to deepen our understanding of the interaction between Bacteroides and Bifidobacterium intestinal populations. PMID:27156738

  18. Knockout of cyclophilin D in Ppif⁻/⁻ mice increases stability of brain mitochondria against Ca²⁺ stress.

    PubMed

    Gainutdinov, T; Molkentin, J D; Siemen, D; Ziemer, M; Debska-Vielhaber, G; Vielhaber, S; Gizatullina, Z; Orynbayeva, Z; Gellerich, F N

    2015-08-01

    The mitochondrial peptidyl prolyl isomerase cyclophilin D (CypD) activates permeability transition (PT). To study the role of CypD in this process we compared the functions of brain mitochondria isolated from wild type (BMWT) and CypD knockout (Ppif(-/-)) mice (BMKO) with and without CypD inhibitor Cyclosporin A (CsA) under normal and Ca(2+) stress conditions. Our data demonstrate that BMKO are characterized by higher rates of glutamate/malate-dependent oxidative phosphorylation, higher membrane potential and higher resistance to detrimental Ca(2+) effects than BMWT. Under the elevated Ca(2+) and correspondingly decreased membrane potential the dose response in BMKO shifts to higher Ca(2+) concentrations as compared to BMWT. However, significantly high Ca(2+) levels result in complete loss of membrane potential in BMKO, too. CsA diminishes the loss of membrane potential in BMWT but has no protecting effect in BMKO. The results are in line with the assumption that PT is regulated by CypD under the control of matrix Ca(2+). Due to missing of CypD the BMKO can favor PT only at high Ca(2+) concentrations. It is concluded that CypD sensitizes the brain mitochondria to PT, and its inhibition by CsA or CypD absence improves the complex I-related mitochondrial function and increases mitochondria stability against Ca(2+) stress. PMID:26032335

  19. Cyclophilin A catalyzes proline isomerization by an electrostatic handle mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Camilloni, Carlo; Sahakyan, Aleksander B.; Holliday, Michael; Isern, Nancy G.; Zhang, Fengli; Eisenmesser, Elan Z.; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2014-07-15

    Proline isomerization is a ubiquitous process that plays a key role in the folding of proteins and in the regulation of their functions1-3. Different families of enzymes, known as peptidyl-prolyl isomerases (PPIases), catalyse this reaction, which involves the interconversion between the cis and trans isomers of the Nterminal amide bond of the amino acid proline2,3. A complete description of the mechanisms by which these enzymes function, however, has remained elusive. Here, we show that cyclophilin A, one of the most common PPIases4, provides a catalytic environment that acts on the substrate through an electrostatic lever mechanism. In this mechanism, the electrostatic field in the catalytic site turns the electric dipole associated with the carboxylic group of the amino acid preceding the proline in the substrate, thus causing the rotation of the peptide bond between the two residues. This mechanism resulted from the analysis of an ensemble of conformations populated by cyclophilin A during the enzymatic reaction using a combination of NMR measurements, molecular dynamics simulations and density functional theory calculations. We anticipate that this approach will be helpful in elucidating whether the electrostatic lever mechanism that we describe is common to other PPIases, and more generally to characterise other enzymatic processes.

  20. Mitochondrial Thioredoxin System as a Modulator of Cyclophilin D Redox State.

    PubMed

    Folda, Alessandra; Citta, Anna; Scalcon, Valeria; Calì, Tito; Zonta, Francesco; Scutari, Guido; Bindoli, Alberto; Rigobello, Maria Pia

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial thioredoxin system (NADPH, thioredoxin reductase, thioredoxin) is a major redox regulator. Here we have investigated the redox correlation between this system and the mitochondrial enzyme cyclophilin D. The peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity of cyclophilin D was stimulated by the thioredoxin system, while it was decreased by cyclosporin A and the thioredoxin reductase inhibitor auranofin. The redox state of cyclophilin D, thioredoxin 1 and 2 and peroxiredoxin 3 was measured in isolated rat heart mitochondria and in tumor cell lines (CEM-R and HeLa) by redox Western blot analysis upon inhibition of thioredoxin reductase with auranofin, arsenic trioxide, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene or after treatment with hydrogen peroxide. A concomitant oxidation of thioredoxin, peroxiredoxin and cyclophilin D was observed, suggesting a redox communication between the thioredoxin system and cyclophilin. This correlation was further confirmed by i) co-immunoprecipitation assay of cyclophilin D with thioredoxin 2 and peroxiredoxin 3, ii) molecular modeling and iii) depleting thioredoxin reductase by siRNA. We conclude that the mitochondrial thioredoxin system controls the redox state of cyclophilin D which, in turn, may act as a regulator of several processes including ROS production and pro-apoptotic factors release. PMID:26975474

  1. Mitochondrial Thioredoxin System as a Modulator of Cyclophilin D Redox State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folda, Alessandra; Citta, Anna; Scalcon, Valeria; Calì, Tito; Zonta, Francesco; Scutari, Guido; Bindoli, Alberto; Rigobello, Maria Pia

    2016-03-01

    The mitochondrial thioredoxin system (NADPH, thioredoxin reductase, thioredoxin) is a major redox regulator. Here we have investigated the redox correlation between this system and the mitochondrial enzyme cyclophilin D. The peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity of cyclophilin D was stimulated by the thioredoxin system, while it was decreased by cyclosporin A and the thioredoxin reductase inhibitor auranofin. The redox state of cyclophilin D, thioredoxin 1 and 2 and peroxiredoxin 3 was measured in isolated rat heart mitochondria and in tumor cell lines (CEM-R and HeLa) by redox Western blot analysis upon inhibition of thioredoxin reductase with auranofin, arsenic trioxide, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene or after treatment with hydrogen peroxide. A concomitant oxidation of thioredoxin, peroxiredoxin and cyclophilin D was observed, suggesting a redox communication between the thioredoxin system and cyclophilin. This correlation was further confirmed by i) co-immunoprecipitation assay of cyclophilin D with thioredoxin 2 and peroxiredoxin 3, ii) molecular modeling and iii) depleting thioredoxin reductase by siRNA. We conclude that the mitochondrial thioredoxin system controls the redox state of cyclophilin D which, in turn, may act as a regulator of several processes including ROS production and pro-apoptotic factors release.

  2. Involvement of FKBP6 in hepatitis C virus replication

    PubMed Central

    Kasai, Hirotake; Kawakami, Kunihiro; Yokoe, Hiromasa; Yoshimura, Kentaro; Matsuda, Masanori; Yasumoto, Jun; Maekawa, Shinya; Yamashita, Atsuya; Tanaka, Tomohisa; Ikeda, Masanori; Kato, Nobuyuki; Okamoto, Toru; Matsuura, Yoshiharu; Sakamoto, Naoya; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Takeda, Sen; Fujii, Hideki; Tsubuki, Masayoshi; Kusunoki, Masami; Moriishi, Kohji

    2015-01-01

    The chaperone system is known to be exploited by viruses for their replication. In the present study, we identified the cochaperone FKBP6 as a host factor required for hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. FKBP6 is a peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase with three domains of the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR), but lacks FK-506 binding ability. FKBP6 interacted with HCV nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) and also formed a complex with FKBP6 itself or FKBP8, which is known to be critical for HCV replication. The Val121 of NS5A and TPR domains of FKBP6 were responsible for the interaction between NS5A and FKBP6. FKBP6 was colocalized with NS5A, FKBP8, and double-stranded RNA in HCV-infected cells. HCV replication was completely suppressed in FKBP6-knockout hepatoma cell lines, while the expression of FKBP6 restored HCV replication in FKBP6-knockout cells. A treatment with the FKBP8 inhibitor N-(N′, N′-dimethylcarboxamidomethyl)cycloheximide impaired the formation of a homo- or hetero-complex consisting of FKBP6 and/or FKBP8, and suppressed HCV replication. HCV infection promoted the expression of FKBP6, but not that of FKBP8, in cultured cells and human liver tissue. These results indicate that FKBP6 is an HCV-induced host factor that supports viral replication in cooperation with NS5A. PMID:26567527

  3. γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A (GABAA) Receptor Activation Modulates Tau Phosphorylation*

    PubMed Central

    Nykänen, Niko-Petteri; Kysenius, Kai; Sakha, Prasanna; Tammela, Päivi; Huttunen, Henri J.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal phosphorylation and aggregation of the microtubule-associated protein Tau are hallmarks of various neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease. Molecular mechanisms that regulate Tau phosphorylation are complex and currently incompletely understood. We have developed a novel live cell reporter system based on protein-fragment complementation assay to study dynamic changes in Tau phosphorylation status. In this assay, fusion proteins of Tau and Pin1 (peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans-isomerase 1) carrying complementary fragments of a luciferase protein serve as a sensor of altered protein-protein interaction between Tau and Pin1, a critical regulator of Tau dephosphorylation at several disease-associated proline-directed phosphorylation sites. Using this system, we identified several structurally distinct GABAA receptor modulators as novel regulators of Tau phosphorylation in a chemical library screen. GABAA receptor activation promoted specific phosphorylation of Tau at the AT8 epitope (Ser-199/Ser-202/Thr-205) in cultures of mature cortical neurons. Increased Tau phosphorylation by GABAA receptor activity was associated with reduced Tau binding to protein phosphatase 2A and was dependent on Cdk5 but not GSK3β kinase activity. PMID:22235112

  4. Identification of in vivo protein phosphorylation sites in human pathogen Schistosoma japonicum by a phosphoproteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Luo, Rong; Zhou, Chunjing; Lin, Jiaojiao; Yang, Dehao; Shi, Yaojun; Cheng, Guofeng

    2012-01-01

    Schistosome is the causative agent of human schistosomiasis and related animal disease. Reversible protein phosphorylation plays a key role in signaling processing that are vital for a cell and organism. However, it remains to be undercharacterized in schistosomes. In the present study, we characterized in vivo protein phosphorylation events in different developmental stages (schistosomula and adult worms) of Schistosoma japonicum by using microvolume immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) pipette tips coupled to nanoLC-ESI-MS/MS. In total, 127 distinct phosphorylation sites were identified in 92 proteins in S. japonicum. A comparison of the phosphopeptides identified between the schistosomula and the adult worms revealed 30 phosphoproteins co-detected in both of the two worms. These proteins included several signal molecules and enzymes such as 14-3-3 protein, cysteine string protein, heat shock protein 90, epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8, proliferation-associated protein 2G4, peptidyl-prolyl isomerase G, phosphofructokinase and thymidylate kinase. Additionally, the phosphorylation sites were examined for phosphorylation specific motif and evolutionarily conservation. The study represents the first attempt to determine in vivo protein phosphorylation in S. japonicum by using a phosphoproteomic approach. The results by providing an inventory of phosphorylated proteins may facilitate to further understand the mechanisms involved in schistosome development and growth, and then may result in the development of novel vaccine candidates and drug targets for schistosomiasis control. PMID:22036931

  5. Overexpression of Fkbp11, a feature of lupus B cells, leads to B cell tolerance breakdown and initiates plasma cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Ruer-Laventie, Julie; Simoni, Léa; Schickel, Jean-Nicolas; Soley, Anne; Duval, Monique; Knapp, Anne-Marie; Marcellin, Luc; Lamon, Delphine; Korganow, Anne-Sophie; Martin, Thierry; Pasquali, Jean-Louis; Soulas-Sprauel, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a severe systemic autoimmune disease, characterized by multi-organ damages, triggered by an autoantibody-mediated inflammation, and with a complex genetic influence. It is today accepted that adult SLE arises from the building up of many subtle gene variations, each one adding a new brick on the SLE susceptibility and contributing to a phenotypic trait to the disease. One of the ways to find these gene variations consists in comprehensive analysis of gene expression variation in a precise cell type, which can constitute a good complementary strategy to genome wide association studies. Using this strategy, and considering the central role of B cells in SLE, we analyzed the B cell transcriptome of quiescent SLE patients, and identified an overexpression of FKBP11, coding for a cytoplasmic putative peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase and chaperone enzyme. To understand the consequences of FKBP11 overexpression on B cell function and on autoimmunity's development, we created lentiviral transgenic mice reproducing this gene expression variation. We showed that high expression of Fkbp11 reproduces by itself two phenotypic traits of SLE in mice: breakdown of B cell tolerance against DNA and initiation of plasma cell differentiation by acting upstream of Pax5 master regulator gene. PMID:26417441

  6. Overexpression of Fkbp11, a feature of lupus B cells, leads to B cell tolerance breakdown and initiates plasma cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ruer-Laventie, Julie; Simoni, Léa; Schickel, Jean-Nicolas; Soley, Anne; Duval, Monique; Knapp, Anne-Marie; Marcellin, Luc; Lamon, Delphine; Korganow, Anne-Sophie; Martin, Thierry; Pasquali, Jean-Louis; Soulas-Sprauel, Pauline

    2015-09-01

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a severe systemic autoimmune disease, characterized by multi-organ damages, triggered by an autoantibody-mediated inflammation, and with a complex genetic influence. It is today accepted that adult SLE arises from the building up of many subtle gene variations, each one adding a new brick on the SLE susceptibility and contributing to a phenotypic trait to the disease. One of the ways to find these gene variations consists in comprehensive analysis of gene expression variation in a precise cell type, which can constitute a good complementary strategy to genome wide association studies. Using this strategy, and considering the central role of B cells in SLE, we analyzed the B cell transcriptome of quiescent SLE patients, and identified an overexpression of FKBP11, coding for a cytoplasmic putative peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase and chaperone enzyme. To understand the consequences of FKBP11 overexpression on B cell function and on autoimmunity's development, we created lentiviral transgenic mice reproducing this gene expression variation. We showed that high expression of Fkbp11 reproduces by itself two phenotypic traits of SLE in mice: breakdown of B cell tolerance against DNA and initiation of plasma cell differentiation by acting upstream of Pax5 master regulator gene. PMID:26417441

  7. Low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatase: Multifaceted functions of an evolutionarily conserved enzyme.

    PubMed

    Caselli, Anna; Paoli, Paolo; Santi, Alice; Mugnaioni, Camilla; Toti, Alessandra; Camici, Guido; Cirri, Paolo

    2016-10-01

    Originally identified as a low molecular weight acid phosphatase, LMW-PTP is actually a protein tyrosine phosphatase that acts on many phosphotyrosine-containing cellular proteins that are primarily involved in signal transduction. Differences in sequence, structure, and substrate recognition as well as in subcellular localization in different organisms enable LMW-PTP to exert many different functions. In fact, during evolution, the LMW-PTP structure adapted to perform different catalytic actions depending on the organism type. In bacteria, this enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of group 1 and 4 capsules, but it is also a virulence factor in pathogenic strains. In yeast, LMW-PTPs dephosphorylate immunophilin Fpr3, a peptidyl-prolyl-cis-trans isomerase member of the protein chaperone family. In humans, LMW-PTP is encoded by the ACP1 gene, which is composed of three different alleles, each encoding two active enzymes produced by alternative RNA splicing. In animals, LMW-PTP dephosphorylates a number of growth factor receptors and modulates their signalling processes. The involvement of LMW-PTP in cancer progression and in insulin receptor regulation as well as its actions as a virulence factor in a number of pathogenic bacterial strains may promote the search for potent, selective and bioavailable LMW-PTP inhibitors. PMID:27421795

  8. The precise chemical-physical nature of the pharmacore in FK506 binding protein inhibition: ElteX, a New class of nanomolar FKBP12 ligands.

    PubMed

    Martina, Maria Raffaella; Tenori, Eleonora; Bizzarri, Marco; Menichetti, Stefano; Caminati, Gabriella; Procacci, Piero

    2013-02-14

    Due to its central role in immunosuppression and cell proliferation and due to its specific peptidyl-prolyl-isomerase (PPI) function, the FKBP protein family is at the crossroad of several important metabolic pathways. Members of this family, and notably FK506 binding protein (FKBP12), are thought to be involved in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, as well as in proliferation disorders and cancer. Using an interdisciplinary approach based on computational, synthetic, and experimental techniques, we show that the best potential binders for FKBP proteins optimally expose the two contiguous carbonyl oxygen in the proline-mimetic chain for FKBP docking and are characterized by the abundance of rigid quasi-cyclic structures stabilized in aqueous solution by intraligand hydrophobic interactions mimicking the macrolide structure of the natural FKBP binders FK506 and Rapamycin. These peculiar structural and chemical-physical features define at the same time an ElteX compound and the minimal pharmacore in the FKBP family, shedding new light on the isomerization mechanism of the PPI domain. On the basis of the above hypothesis, we have successfully designed and synthesized several nanomolar ElteX FKBP12 ligands. Among these, ElteN378 is a new low atomic weight ligand with affinity comparable to that of the macrolide Rapamycin. PMID:23301792

  9. Stability of Pin1 as revealed by thermal and spectroscopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing-Zhang; Lin, Tao; Zhu, Guo-Fei; Du, Lin-Fang

    2010-06-01

    Pin1 is a two-domain enzyme which has peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase activity. Pin1 recognizes phospho-Ser/Thr-Pro motifs in cell-signaling proteins, and is both a cancer and an Alzheimer's disease target. The thermal stability of Pin1 was studied intensively by SDS-PAGE, enzymatic activity assay, intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The activity of Pin1 gradually decreased above 40 °C, and the Tm was 57.6 ± 1.0 °C. Fluorescence experiments indicated that heat treatment induced changes in the substructures in Pin1, resulting in that the polarity in the microenvironments of the tryptophan residues increased. It is assumed that the thermal denaturation of Pin1 involved a three-state transition. The intermediate state of Pin1 at about 60 °C was confirmed by fluorescence emission spectra, the synchronous fluorescence spectra and CD measurements. Decreases in α-helix and β-sheet appeared above 40 °C, which was balanced by an enhancement in unordered coil. The Tm values calculated from α-helix transition and β-sheet transition were 54.6 ± 0.6 °C and 70.7 ± 3.3 °C, respectively. Our results illustrated that Pin1 had a relatively high thermal stability and the WW domain had a higher stability than the PPIase domain.

  10. High-resolution insights into binding of unfolded polypeptides by the PPIase chaperone SlpA.

    PubMed

    Quistgaard, Esben M; Nordlund, Pär; Löw, Christian

    2012-10-01

    SlpA is a 2-domain protein consisting of an FK506-binding protein (FKBP) domain that harbors the peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans-isomerase (PPIase) active site and a small insert-in-flap (IF) domain that endows the protein with chaperone activity. We have determined the structure of SlpA from Escherichia coli at 1.35-Å resolution. The overall structure is similar to other known structures of the FKBP-IF subfamily. However, by serendipity, the linker region of the purification tag binds in the chaperone binding groove of the IF domain, making this the first structure of an FKBP-IF protein in complex with a mimic of an unfolded chaperone substrate. The linker binds by β-sheet augmentation, thus completing the incomplete β barrel of the IF domain and shielding a considerable hydrophobic surface area from the solvent. Interestingly, a proline residue in trans configuration appears to be specifically recognized in a small pocket within the binding groove. Hence, the IF domain can preselect and prealign substrates with proline residues, which may explain how it enhances the catalytic efficiency and modulates the specificity of the FKBP domain in addition to its chaperone function. Based on pulldown results, we suggest that SlpA is likely to be involved in ribosome assembly. PMID:22735173

  11. Investigating Dynamic Interdomain Allostery in Pin1

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Signaling proteins often sequester complementary functional sites in separate domains. How do the different domains communicate with one another? An attractive system to address this question is the mitotic regulator, human Pin1 (Lu et al. 1996). Pin-1 consists of two tethered domains: a WW domain for substrate binding, and a catalytic domain for peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase) activity. Pin1 accelerates the cis-trans isomerization of phospho-Ser/Thr-Pro (pS/T-P) motifs within proteins regulating the cell cycle and neuronal development. The early x-ray (Ranganathan et al. 1997; Verdecia et al. 2000) and solution NMR studies (Bayer et al. 2003; Jacobs et al. 2003) of Pin1 indicated inter- and intradomain motion. We became interested in exploring how such motions might affect interdomain communication, using NMR. Our accumulated results indicate substrate binding to Pin1 WW domain changes the intra/inter domain mobility, thereby altering substrate activity in the distal PPIase domain catalytic site. Thus, Pin1 shows evidence of dynamic allostery, in the sense of Cooper and Dryden (Cooper and Dryden 1984). We highlight our results supporting this conclusion, and summarize them via a simple speculative model of conformational selection. PMID:26495045

  12. cdk5 modulates beta- and delta-catenin/Pin1 interactions in neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Juan P; Huichalaf, Claudia H; Orellana, Daniel; Maccioni, Ricardo B

    2007-02-15

    The cdk5/p35 complex has been implicated in a variety of functions related to brain development, including axonal outgrown and neuronal migration. In this study, by co-immunoprecipitation and pull-down experiments, we have shown that the cdk5/p35 complex associates with and phosphorylates the neuronal delta-catenin. Immunocytochemical studies of delta-catenin and the cdk5-activator p35 in primary cortical neurons indicated that these proteins co-localize in the cell body of neuronal cells. In addition, cdk5 co-localized with beta-catenin in the cell-cell contacts and plasma membrane of undifferentiated and differentiated N2A cells. In this context, we identified Ser(191) and Ser(246) on beta-catenin structure as specific phosphorylation sites for cdk5/p35 complex. Moreover, Pin1, a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase) directly bound to both, beta- and delta-catenin, once they have been phosphorylated by the cdk5/p35 complex. Studies indicate that the cdk5/p35 protein kinase system is directly involved in the regulatory mechanisms of neuronal beta- and delta-catenin. PMID:17009320

  13. Proteomic analysis of egg white heparin-binding proteins: towards the identification of natural antibacterial molecules.

    PubMed

    Guyot, Nicolas; Labas, Valérie; Harichaux, Grégoire; Chessé, Magali; Poirier, Jean-Claude; Nys, Yves; Réhault-Godbert, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    The chicken egg resists most environmental microbes suggesting that it potentially contains efficient antimicrobial molecules. Considering that some heparin-binding proteins in mammals are antibacterial, we investigated the presence and the antimicrobial activity of heparin-binding proteins from chicken egg white. Mass spectrometry analysis of the proteins recovered after heparin-affinity chromatography, revealed 20 proteins, including known antimicrobial proteins (avidin, lysozyme, TENP, ovalbumin-related protein X and avian bêta-defensin 11). The antibacterial activity of three new egg candidates (vitelline membrane outer layer protein 1, beta-microseminoprotein-like (LOC101750704) and pleiotrophin) was demonstrated against Listeria monocytogenes and/or Salmonella enterica Enteritidis. We showed that all these molecules share the property to inhibit bacterial growth through their heparin-binding domains. However, vitelline membrane outer layer 1 has additional specific structural features that can contribute to its antimicrobial potential. Moreover, we identified potential supplementary effectors of innate immunity including mucin 5B, E-selectin ligand 1, whey acidic protein 3, peptidyl prolyl isomerase B and retinoic acid receptor responder protein 2. These data support the concept of using heparin affinity combined to mass spectrometry to obtain an overview of the various effectors of innate immunity composing biological milieus, and to identify novel antimicrobial candidates of interest in the race for alternatives to antibiotics. PMID:27294500

  14. Dipentamethylene thiuram monosulfide is a novel inhibitor of Pin1

    SciTech Connect

    Tatara, Yota; Lin, Yi-Chin; Bamba, Yoshimasa; Mori, Tadashi; Uchida, Takafumi

    2009-07-03

    Pin1 is involved in eukaryotic cell proliferation by changing the structure and function of phosphorylated proteins. PiB, the Pin1 specific inhibitor, blocks cancer cell proliferation. However, low solubility of PiB in DMSO has limited studies of its effectiveness. We screened for additional Pin1 inhibitors and identified the DMSO-soluble compound dipentamethylene thiuram monosulfide (DTM) that inhibits Pin1 activity with an EC50 value of 4.1 {mu}M. Molecular modeling and enzyme kinetic analysis indicated that DTM competitively inhibits Pin1 activity, with a K{sub i} value of 0.05 {mu}M. The K{sub D} value of DTM with Pin1 was determined to be 0.06 {mu}M by SPR technology. Moreover, DTM specifically inhibited peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase activity in HeLa cells. FACS analysis showed that DTM induced G0 arrest of the HCT116 cells. Our results suggest that DTM has the potential to guide the development of novel antifungal and/or anticancer drugs.

  15. shutdown is a component of the Drosophila piRNA biogenesis machinery

    PubMed Central

    Preall, Jonathan B.; Czech, Benjamin; Guzzardo, Paloma M.; Muerdter, Felix; Hannon, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    In animals, the piRNA pathway preserves the integrity of gametic genomes, guarding them against the activity of mobile genetic elements. This innate immune mechanism relies on distinct genomic loci, termed piRNA clusters, to provide a molecular definition of transposons, enabling their discrimination from genes. piRNA clusters give rise to long, single-stranded precursors, which are processed into primary piRNAs through an unknown mechanism. These can engage in an adaptive amplification loop, the ping-pong cycle, to optimize the content of small RNA populations via the generation of secondary piRNAs. Many proteins have been ascribed functions in either primary biogenesis or the ping-pong cycle, though for the most part the molecular functions of proteins implicated in these pathways remain obscure. Here, we link shutdown (shu), a gene previously shown to be required for fertility in Drosophila, to the piRNA pathway. Analysis of knockdown phenotypes in both the germline and somatic compartments of the ovary demonstrate important roles for shutdown in both primary biogenesis and the ping-pong cycle. shutdown is a member of the FKBP family of immunophilins. Shu contains domains implicated in peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity and in the binding of HSP90-family chaperones, though the relevance of these domains to piRNA biogenesis is unknown. PMID:22753781

  16. Inhibition of Aβ(1-40) fibril formation by cyclophilins.

    PubMed

    Villmow, Marten; Baumann, Monika; Malesevic, Miroslav; Sachs, Rolf; Hause, Gerd; Fändrich, Marcus; Balbach, Jochen; Schiene-Fischer, Cordelia

    2016-05-15

    Cyclophilins interact directly with the Alzheimer's disease peptide Aβ (amyloid β-peptide) and are therefore involved in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease. Aβ binding to CypD (cyclophilin D) induces dysfunction of human mitochondria. We found that both CypD and CypA suppress in vitro fibril formation of Aβ(1-40) at substoichiometric concentrations when present early in the aggregation process. The prototypic inhibitor CsA (cyclosporin A) of both cyclophilins as well as the new water-soluble MM258 derivative prevented this suppression. A SPOT peptide array approach and NMR titration experiments confirmed binding of Aβ(1-40) to the catalytic site of CypD mainly via residues Lys(16)-Glu(22) The peptide Aβ(16-20) representing this section showed submicromolar IC50 values for the peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity of CypD and CypA and low-micromolar KD values in ITC experiments. Chemical cross-linking and NMR-detected hydrogen-deuterium exchange experiments revealed a shift in the populations of small Aβ(1-40) oligomers towards the monomeric species, which we investigated in the present study as being the main process of prevention of Aβ fibril formation by cyclophilins. PMID:26994210

  17. The Periplasmic Bacterial Molecular Chaperone SurA Adapts Its Structure to Bind Peptides in Different Conformations to Assert a Sequence Preference for Aromatic Residues

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X.; Wang, S.; Hu, Y.-X.; McKay, D.B.

    2009-06-04

    The periplasmic molecular chaperone protein SurA facilitates correct folding and maturation of outer membrane proteins in Gram-negative bacteria. It preferentially binds peptides that have a high fraction of aromatic amino acids. Phage display selections, isothermal titration calorimetry and crystallographic structure determination have been used to elucidate the basis of the binding specificity. The peptide recognition is imparted by the first peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase) domain of SurA. Crystal structures of complexes between peptides of sequence WEYIPNV and NFTLKFWDIFRK with the first PPIase domain of the Escherichia coli SurA protein at 1.3 A resolution, and of a complex between the dodecapeptide and a SurA fragment lacking the second PPIase domain at 3.4 A resolution, have been solved. SurA binds as a monomer to the heptapeptide in an extended conformation. It binds as a dimer to the dodecapeptide in an alpha-helical conformation, predicated on a substantial structural rearrangement of the SurA protein. In both cases, side-chains of aromatic residues of the peptides contribute a large fraction of the binding interactions. SurA therefore asserts a recognition preference for aromatic amino acids in a variety of sequence configurations by adopting alternative tertiary and quaternary structures to bind peptides in different conformations.

  18. Assisted folding of D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase by trigger factor.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, G. C.; Li, Z. Y.; Zhou, J. M.; Fischer, G.

    2000-01-01

    The Escherichia coli trigger factor is a peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase that catalyzes proline-limited protein folding extremely well. Here, refolding of D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) in the presence of trigger factor was investigated. The regain of activity of GAPDH was markedly increased by trigger factor after either long- or short-term denaturation, and detectable aggregation of GAPDH intermediates was prevented. In both cases, time courses of refolding of GAPDH were decelerated by trigger factor. The reactivation yield of GAPDH showed a slow down-turn when molar ratios of trigger factor to GAPDH were above 5, due to tight binding between trigger factor and GAPDH intermediates. Such inactive bound GAPDH could be partially rescued from trigger factor by addition of reduced alphaLA as competitor, by further diluting the refolding mixture, or by disrupting hydrophobic interactions in the complexes. A model for trigger factor assisted refolding of GAPDH is proposed. We also suggest that assisted refolding of GAPDH is due mainly to the chaperone function of trigger factor. PMID:10892818

  19. Pin1-dependent signalling negatively affects GABAergic transmission by modulating neuroligin2/gephyrin interaction

    PubMed Central

    Antonelli, Roberta; Pizzarelli, Rocco; Pedroni, Andrea; Fritschy, Jean-Marc; Del Sal, Giannino; Cherubini, Enrico; Zacchi, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The cell adhesion molecule Neuroligin2 (NL2) is localized selectively at GABAergic synapses, where it interacts with the scaffolding protein gephyrin in the post-synaptic density. However, the role of this interaction for formation and plasticity of GABAergic synapses is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that endogenous NL2 undergoes proline-directed phosphorylation at its unique S714-P consensus site, leading to the recruitment of the peptidyl-prolyl cis–trans isomerase Pin1. This signalling cascade negatively regulates NL2’s ability to interact with gephyrin at GABAergic post-synaptic sites. As a consequence, enhanced accumulation of NL2, gephyrin and GABAA receptors was detected at GABAergic synapses in the hippocampus of Pin1-knockout mice (Pin1−/−) associated with an increase in amplitude of spontaneous GABAA-mediated post-synaptic currents. Our results suggest that Pin1-dependent signalling represents a mechanism to modulate GABAergic transmission by regulating NL2/gephyrin interaction. PMID:25297980

  20. Genetic selection for modulators of a retinoic-acid-responsive reporter in human cells.

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Burt; Karpilow, Jon; Dunn, Christine; Peterson, Isaac; Maxfield, Andrew; Zharkikh, Ludmilla; Abedi, Majid; Hurlburt, Anthony; Hardman, Joshua; Hsu, Forrest; Li, Wenhua; Rebentisch, Matthew; Sandrock, Robert; Sandrock, Tanya; Kamb, Alexander; Teng, David H-F

    2003-01-01

    We used a genetic screening methodology, a human cell line bearing a retinoic-acid-responsive enhanced GFP reporter, and a flow sorter to recover dominant modulators of reporter expression. Four inducers and three suppressors that were fused to the C terminus of a protein scaffold for stability were isolated and their mechanisms of action studied. Mutagenesis experiments indicated that six of these dominant agents exerted their effects at the protein level. The single cDNA coding fragment that was isolated comprised the central 64-amino-acid section of human cyclophilin B, which contained its peptidyl-prolyl isomerase domain; this cyclophilin fragment repressed expression of the retinoic-acid-responsive reporter. The remaining clones encoded peptides shorter than 30 amino acids unrelated to known gene open reading frames. Genetic epistasis studies between the strongest inducer, R3, and a dominant-negative mutant of RARalpha suggest that the two factors function in the same pathway. Transcript microarray analyses suggest that R3 induced a subset of the retinoid-responsive genes in melanoma cells. Finally, yeast two-hybrid assays and co-immunoprecipitation studies of human cell extracts identified PAT1 as a protein that interacts with R3. PMID:12663543

  1. Cyclohexyl Ketone Inhibitors of Pin1 Dock in a Trans-Diaxial Cyclohexane Conformation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guoyan G.; Slebodnick, Carla; Etzkorn, Felicia A.

    2012-01-01

    Cyclohexyl ketone substrate analogue inhibitors (Ac–pSer-Ψ[C = OCH]-Pip–tryptamine) of Pin1, the cell cycle regulatory peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase), were designed and synthesized as potential electrophilic acceptors for the Pin1 active site Cys113 nucleophile to test a proposed nucleophilic addition-isomerization mechanism. Because they were weak inhibitors, models of all three stereoisomers were docked into the active site of Pin1. Each isomer consistently minimized to a trans-diaxial cyclohexane conformation. From this, we hypothesize that Pin1 stretches substrates into a trans-pyrrolidine conformation to lower the barrier to isomerization. Our reduced amide inhibitor of Pin1 adopted a similar trans-pyrrolidine conformation in the crystal structure. The molecular model of 1, which mimics the l-Ser-l-Pro stereochemistry, in the Pin1 active site showed a distance of 4.4 Å, and an angle of 31° between Cys113-S and the ketone carbon. The computational models suggest that the mechanism of Pin1 PPIase is not likely to proceed through nucleophilic addition. PMID:23028504

  2. Design of cyclic peptides featuring proline predominantly in the cis conformation under physiological conditions.

    PubMed

    Malešević, Miroslav; Schumann, Michael; Jahreis, Günther; Fischer, Gunter; Lücke, Christian

    2012-09-24

    Turns are secondary-structure elements that are omnipresent in natively folded polypeptide chains. A large variety of four-residue β-turns exist, which differ mainly in the backbone dihedral angle values of the two central residues i+1 and i+2. The βVI-type turns are of particular biological interest because the i+2 residue is always a proline in the cis conformation and might thus serve as target of peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerases (PPIases). We have designed cyclic hexapeptides containing two proline residues that predominantly adopt the cis conformation in aqueous solution. NMR data and MD calculations indicated that the cyclic peptide sequences c-(-DXaa-Ser-Pro-DXaa-Lys-Pro-) result in highly symmetric backbone structures when both prolines are in the cis conformation and the D-amino acids are either alanine or phenylalanine residues. Replacement of the serine residue either by phosphoserine or by tyrosine compromises this symmetry, but further increases the cis conformation content of both prolines. As a result, we obtained a cyclic hexapeptide that exists almost exclusively as the cis-Pro/cis-Pro conformer but shows no cis/trans interconversion even in the presence of the PPIase Pin1, apparently due to an energetically quite favorable but highly restricted conformational space. PMID:22969011

  3. Oligopeptide cyclophilin inhibitors: a reassessment.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Michael; Jahreis, Günther; Kahlert, Viktoria; Lücke, Christian; Fischer, Gunter

    2011-11-01

    Potent cyclophilin A (CypA) inhibitors such as non-immunosuppressive cyclosporin A (CsA) derivatives have been already used in clinical trials in patients with viral infections. CypA is a peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) that catalyzes slow prolyl bond cis/trans interconversions of the backbone of substrate peptides and proteins. In this study we investigate whether the notoriously low affinity inhibitory interaction of linear proline-containing peptides with the active site of CypA can be increased through a combination of a high cis/trans ratio and a negatively charged C-terminus as has been recently reported for Trp-Gly-Pro. Surprisingly, isothermal titration calorimetry did not reveal formation of an inhibitory CypA/Trp-Gly-Pro complex previously described within a complex stability range similar to CsA, a nanomolar CypA inhibitor. Moreover, despite of cis content of 41% at pH 7.5 Trp-Gly-Pro cannot inhibit CypA-catalyzed standard substrate isomerization up to high micromolar concentrations. However, in the context of the CsA framework a net charge of -7 clustered at the amino acid side chain of position 1 resulted in slightly improved CypA inhibition. PMID:21963115

  4. SCY-635, a Novel Nonimmunosuppressive Analog of Cyclosporine That Exhibits Potent Inhibition of Hepatitis C Virus RNA Replication In Vitro ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Sam; Scorneaux, Bernard; Huang, Zhuhui; Murray, Michael G.; Wring, Stephen; Smitley, Craig; Harris, Richard; Erdmann, Frank; Fischer, Gunter; Ribeill, Yves

    2010-01-01

    SCY-635 is a novel nonimmunosuppressive cyclosporine-based analog that exhibits potent suppression of hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in vitro. SCY-635 inhibited the peptidyl prolyl isomerase activity of cyclophilin A at nanomolar concentrations but showed no detectable inhibition of calcineurin phosphatase activity at concentrations up to 2 μM. Metabolic studies indicated that SCY-635 did not induce the major cytochrome P450 enzymes 1A2, 2B6, and 3A4. SCY-635 was a weak inhibitor and a poor substrate for P-glycoprotein. Functional assays with stimulated Jurkat cells and stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells indicated that SCY-635 is a weaker inhibitor of interleukin-2 secretion than cyclosporine. A series of two-drug combination studies was performed in vitro. SCY-635 exhibited synergistic antiviral activity with alpha interferon 2b and additive antiviral activity with ribavirin. SCY-635 was shown to be orally bioavailable in multiple animal species and produced blood and liver concentrations of parent drug that exceeded the 50% effective dose determined in the bicistronic con1b-derived replicon assay. These results suggest that SCY-635 warrants further investigation as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of individuals who are chronically infected with HCV. PMID:19933795

  5. Adamantyl derivative as a potent inhibitor of Plasmodium FK506 binding protein 35.

    PubMed

    Harikishore, Amaravadhi; Leow, Min Li; Niang, Makhtar; Rajan, Sreekanth; Pasunooti, Kalyan Kumar; Preiser, Peter Rainer; Liu, Xuewei; Yoon, Ho Sup

    2013-11-14

    FKBP35, FK506 binding protein family member, in Plasmodium species displays a canonical peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase) activity and is intricately involved in the protein folding process. Inhibition of PfFKBP35 by FK506 or its analogues were shown to interfere with the in vitro growth of Plasmodium falciparum. In this study, we have synthesized adamantyl derivatives, Supradamal (SRA/4a) and its analogues SRA1/4b and SRA2/4c, which demonstrate submicromolar inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum FK506 binding domain 35 (FKBD35) PPIase activity. SRA and its analogues not only inhibit the in vitro growth of Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain but also show stage specific activity by inhibiting the trophozoite stage of the parasite. SRA/4a also inhibits the Plasmodium vivax FKBD35 PPIase activity and our crystal structure of PvFKBD35 in complex with the SRA provides structural insights in achieving selective inhibition against Plasmodium FKBPs. PMID:24900611

  6. Acute Heat Stress and Reduced Nutrient Intake Alter Intestinal Proteomic Profile and Gene Expression in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Sarah C.; Lonergan, Steven M.; Huff-Lonergan, Elisabeth; Baumgard, Lance H.; Gabler, Nicholas K.

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress and reduced feed intake negatively affect intestinal integrity and barrier function. Our objective was to compare ileum protein profiles of pigs subjected to 12 hours of HS, thermal neutral ad libitum feed intake, or pair-fed to heat stress feed intake under thermal neutral conditions (pair-fed thermal neutral). 2D-Differential In Gel Electrophoresis and gene expression were performed. Relative abundance of 281 and 138 spots differed due to heat stress, compared to thermal neutral and pair-fed thermal neutral pigs, respectively. However, only 20 proteins were different due to feed intake (thermal neutral versus pair-fed thermal neutral). Heat stress increased mRNA expression of heat shock proteins and protein abundance of heat shock proteins 27, 70, 90-α and β were also increased. Heat stress reduced ileum abundance of several metabolic enzymes, many of which are involved in the glycolytic or TCA pathways, indicating a change in metabolic priorities. Stress response enzymes peroxiredoxin-1 and peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A were decreased in pair-fed thermal neutral and thermal neutral pigs compared to heat stress. Heat stress increased mRNA abundance markers of ileum hypoxia. Altogether, these data show that heat stress directly alters intestinal protein and mRNA profiles largely independent of reduced feed intake. These changes may be related to the reduced intestinal integrity associated with heat stress. PMID:26575181

  7. A novel cyclophilin from parasitic and free-living nematodes with a unique substrate- and drug-binding domain.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dong; Nelson, Laura S; LeCoz, Krystel; Poole, Catherine; Carlow, Clotilde K S

    2002-04-26

    A highly diversified member of the cyclophilin family of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases has been isolated from the human parasite Onchocerca volvulus (OvCYP-16). This 25-kDa cyclophilin shares 43-46% similarity to other filarial cyclophilins but does not belong to any of the groups previously defined in invertebrates or vertebrates. A homolog was also isolated from Caenorhabditis elegans (CeCYP-16). Both recombinant O. volvulus and C. elegans cyclophilins were found to possess an enzyme activity with similar substrate preference and insensitivity to cyclosporin A. They represent novel cyclophilins with important differences in the composition of the drug-binding site in particular, namely, a Glu(124) (C. elegans) or Asp(123) (O. volvulus) residue present in a critical position. Site-directed mutagenesis studies and kinetic characterization demonstrated that the single residue dictates the degree of binding to substrate and cyclosporin A. CeCYP-16::GFP-expressing lines were generated with expression in the anterior and posterior distal portions of the intestine, in all larval stages and adults. An exception was found in the dauer stage, where fluorescence was observed in both the cell bodies and processes of the ventral chord motor neurons but was absent from the intestine. These studies highlight the extensive diversification of cyclophilins in an important human parasite and a closely related model organism. PMID:11847225

  8. Single-Domain Parvulins Constitute a Specific Marker for Recently Proposed Deep-Branching Archaeal Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Lederer, Christoph; Heider, Dominik; van den Boom, Johannes; Hoffmann, Daniel; Mueller, Jonathan W.; Bayer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases (PPIases) are enzymes assisting protein folding and protein quality control in organisms of all kingdoms of life. In contrast to the other sub-classes of PPIases, the cyclophilins and the FK-506 binding proteins, little was formerly known about the parvulin type of PPIase in Archaea. Recently, the first solution structure of an archaeal parvulin, the PinA protein from Cenarchaeum symbiosum, was reported. Investigation of occurrence and frequency of PPIase sequences in numerous archaeal genomes now revealed a strong tendency for thermophilic microorganisms to reduce the number of PPIases. Single-domain parvulins were mostly found in the genomes of recently proposed deep-branching archaeal subgroups, the Thaumarchaeota and the ARMANs (archaeal Richmond Mine acidophilic nanoorganisms). Hence, we used the parvulin sequence to reclassify available archaeal metagenomic contigs, thereby, adding new members to these subgroups. A combination of genomic background analysis and phylogenetic approaches of parvulin sequences suggested that the assigned sequences belong to at least two distinct groups of Thaumarchaeota. Finally, machine learning approaches were applied to identify amino acid residues that separate archaeal and bacterial parvulin proteins from each other. When mapped onto the recent PinA solution structure, most of these positions form a cluster at one site of the protein possibly indicating a different functionality of the two groups of parvulin proteins. PMID:22065628

  9. OsCYP21-4, a novel Golgi-resident cyclophilin, increases oxidative stress tolerance in rice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang S; Park, Hyun J; Jung, Won Y; Lee, Areum; Yoon, Dae H; You, Young N; Kim, Hyun-Soon; Kim, Beom-Gi; Ahn, Jun C; Cho, Hye S

    2015-01-01

    OsCYP21-4 is a rice cyclophilin protein that binds to cyclosporine A, an immunosuppressant drug. CYP21-4s in Arabidopsis and rice were previously shown to function as mitochondrial cyclophilins, as determined by TargetP analysis. In the current study, we found that OsCYP21-4-GFP localized to the Golgi, rather than mitochondria, in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, which was confirmed based on its co-localization with cis Golgi α-ManI-mCherry protein. OsCYP21-4 transcript levels increased in response to treatments with various abiotic stresses and the phytohormone abscisic acid, revealing its stress-responsiveness. CYP21-4 homologs do not possess key peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) activity/cyclosporine A (CsA) binding residues, and recombinant OsCYP21-4 protein did not convert the synthetic substrate Suc-AAPF-pNA via cis- trans- isomerization in vitro. In addition, transgenic plants overexpressing OsCYP21-4 exhibited increased tolerance to salinity and hydrogen peroxide treatment, along with increased peroxidase activity. These results demonstrate that OsCYP21-4 is a novel Golgi-localized cyclophilin that plays a role in oxidative stress tolerance, possibly by regulating peroxidase activity. PMID:26483814

  10. Pin1 is required for sustained B cell proliferation upon oncogenic activation of Myc

    PubMed Central

    D'Artista, Luana; Bisso, Andrea; Piontini, Andrea; Doni, Mirko; Verrecchia, Alessandro; Kress, Theresia R.; Morelli, Marco J.; Del Sal, Giannino; Amati, Bruno; Campaner, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The c-myc proto-oncogene is activated by translocation in Burkitt's lymphoma and substitutions in codon 58 stabilize the Myc protein or augment its oncogenic potential. In wild-type Myc, phosphorylation of Ser 62 and Thr 58 provides a landing pad for the peptidyl prolyl-isomerase Pin1, which in turn promotes Ser 62 dephosphorylation and Myc degradation. However, the role of Pin1 in Myc-induced lymphomagenesis remains unknown. We show here that genetic ablation of Pin1 reduces lymphomagenesis in Eμ-myc transgenic mice. In both Pin1-deficient B-cells and MEFs, the proliferative response to oncogenic Myc was selectively impaired, with no alterations in Myc-induced apoptosis or mitogen-induced cell cycle entry. This proliferative defect wasn't attributable to alterations in either Ser 62 phosphorylation or Myc-regulated transcription, but instead relied on the activity of the ARF-p53 pathway. Pin1 silencing in lymphomas retarded disease progression in mice, making Pin1 an attractive therapeutic target in Myc-driven tumors. PMID:26943576

  11. OsCYP21-4, a novel Golgi-resident cyclophilin, increases oxidative stress tolerance in rice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang S.; Park, Hyun J.; Jung, Won Y.; Lee, Areum; Yoon, Dae H.; You, Young N.; Kim, Hyun-Soon; Kim, Beom-Gi; Ahn, Jun C.; Cho, Hye S.

    2015-01-01

    OsCYP21-4 is a rice cyclophilin protein that binds to cyclosporine A, an immunosuppressant drug. CYP21-4s in Arabidopsis and rice were previously shown to function as mitochondrial cyclophilins, as determined by TargetP analysis. In the current study, we found that OsCYP21-4-GFP localized to the Golgi, rather than mitochondria, in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, which was confirmed based on its co-localization with cis Golgi α-ManI-mCherry protein. OsCYP21-4 transcript levels increased in response to treatments with various abiotic stresses and the phytohormone abscisic acid, revealing its stress-responsiveness. CYP21-4 homologs do not possess key peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) activity/cyclosporine A (CsA) binding residues, and recombinant OsCYP21-4 protein did not convert the synthetic substrate Suc-AAPF-pNA via cis- trans- isomerization in vitro. In addition, transgenic plants overexpressing OsCYP21-4 exhibited increased tolerance to salinity and hydrogen peroxide treatment, along with increased peroxidase activity. These results demonstrate that OsCYP21-4 is a novel Golgi-localized cyclophilin that plays a role in oxidative stress tolerance, possibly by regulating peroxidase activity. PMID:26483814

  12. Mitochondrial Thioredoxin System as a Modulator of Cyclophilin D Redox State

    PubMed Central

    Folda, Alessandra; Citta, Anna; Scalcon, Valeria; Calì, Tito; Zonta, Francesco; Scutari, Guido; Bindoli, Alberto; Rigobello, Maria Pia

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial thioredoxin system (NADPH, thioredoxin reductase, thioredoxin) is a major redox regulator. Here we have investigated the redox correlation between this system and the mitochondrial enzyme cyclophilin D. The peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity of cyclophilin D was stimulated by the thioredoxin system, while it was decreased by cyclosporin A and the thioredoxin reductase inhibitor auranofin. The redox state of cyclophilin D, thioredoxin 1 and 2 and peroxiredoxin 3 was measured in isolated rat heart mitochondria and in tumor cell lines (CEM-R and HeLa) by redox Western blot analysis upon inhibition of thioredoxin reductase with auranofin, arsenic trioxide, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene or after treatment with hydrogen peroxide. A concomitant oxidation of thioredoxin, peroxiredoxin and cyclophilin D was observed, suggesting a redox communication between the thioredoxin system and cyclophilin. This correlation was further confirmed by i) co-immunoprecipitation assay of cyclophilin D with thioredoxin 2 and peroxiredoxin 3, ii) molecular modeling and iii) depleting thioredoxin reductase by siRNA. We conclude that the mitochondrial thioredoxin system controls the redox state of cyclophilin D which, in turn, may act as a regulator of several processes including ROS production and pro-apoptotic factors release. PMID:26975474

  13. Epigallocatechin-gallate Suppresses Tumorigenesis by Directly Targeting Pin1

    SciTech Connect

    Urusova, Darya V.; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Dong Joon; Jung, Sung Keun; Zykova, Tatyana A.; Carper, Andria; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang

    2011-09-01

    The most active anticancer component in green tea is epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). The human peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase (Pin1) plays a critical role in oncogenic signaling. Herein, we report the X-ray crystal structure of the Pin1/EGCG complex resolved at 1.9 Å resolution. Notably, the structure revealed the presence of EGCG in both the WW and PPIase domains of Pin1. The direct binding of EGCG with Pin1 was confirmed and the interaction inhibited Pin1 PPIase activity. In addition, proliferation of cells expressing Pin1 was inhibited and tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model was suppressed. The binding of EGCG with Arg17 in the WW domain prevented the binding of c-Jun, a well-known Pin1 substrate. EGCG treatment corresponded with a decreased abundance of cyclin D1 and diminution of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-l3-acetate–induced AP-1 or NF-κB promoter activity in cells expressing Pin1. Overall, these results showed that EGCG directly suppresses the tumor-promoting effect of Pin1.

  14. Proteomic Analysis of Oesophagostomum dentatum (Nematoda) during Larval Transition, and the Effects of Hydrolase Inhibitors on Development

    PubMed Central

    Ondrovics, Martina; Silbermayr, Katja; Mitreva, Makedonka; Young, Neil D.; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Gasser, Robin B.; Joachim, Anja

    2013-01-01

    In this study, in vitro drug testing was combined with proteomic and bioinformatic analyses to identify and characterize proteins involved in larval development of Oesophagostomum dentatum, an economically important parasitic nematode. Four hydrolase inhibitors ο-phenanthroline, sodium fluoride, iodoacetamide and 1,2-epoxy-3-(pnitrophenoxy)-propane (EPNP) significantly inhibited (≥90%) larval development. Comparison of the proteomic profiles of the development-inhibited larvae with those of uninhibited control larvae using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and subsequent MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis identified a down-regulation of 12 proteins inferred to be involved in various larval developmental processes, including post-embryonic development and growth. Furthermore, three proteins (i.e. intermediate filament protein B, tropomyosin and peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase) inferred to be involved in the moulting process were down-regulated in moulting- and development-inhibited O. dentatum larvae. This first proteomic map of O. dentatum larvae provides insights in the protein profile of larval development in this parasitic nematode, and significantly improves our understanding of the fundamental biology of its development. The results and the approach used might assist in developing new interventions against parasitic nematodes by blocking or disrupting their key biological pathways. PMID:23717515

  15. Elucidating role of salivary proteins in denture stomatitis using a proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Bencharit, Sompop; Altarawneh, Sandra K; Baxter, Sarah Schwartz; Carlson, Jim; Ross, Gary F; Border, Michael B; Mack, C Russell; Byrd, Warren C; Dibble, Christopher F; Barros, Silvana; Loewy, Zvi; Offenbacher, Steven

    2012-10-30

    Denture stomatitis (DS) is the most common oral pathology among denture wearers, affecting over one-third of this group. DS is usually associated with C. albicans. However, unlike other oral candidiasis, most DS patients have intact host immunity. The presence of a denture alone is usually sufficient for DS. Saliva and its protein contents can theoretically predispose some denture wearers to DS and others resistant toward DS. Here we proposed for the first time to define salivary proteomic profiles of denture wearers with and without DS. SELDI-TOF/MS analysis suggests that there is a proteomic differentiation among control, localized and generalized DS. Based on initial SELDI-TOF/MS profiling, we further used reversed phase liquid chromatography, MALDI-TOF/MS, and LC-MS/MS to characterize the salivary proteins associated with DS. Nineteen proteins based on SELDI-TOF/MS profiling were found including cystatin-SN, statherin, kininogen-1, desmocollin-2, carbonic anhydrase-6, peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A like peptides, cystatin C, and several immunoglobulin fragments. The proteomic content gives evidence of the interaction between host tissue, saliva, and candida. Further examination in larger populations of these proteins may help to gain a better understanding of DS pathological processes and improve DS treatments. PMID:23041753

  16. HPV16 E2 enhances the expression of NF-κB and STAT3 target genes and potentiates NF-κB activation by inflammatory mediators.

    PubMed

    Prabhavathy, Devan; Vijayalakshmi, Ramprasath; Kanchana, M Padhmanaban; Karunagaran, Devarajan

    2014-01-01

    HPV-transformed cells exhibit activation of NF-κB and STAT3 (mediators of inflammation), but very little is known about their regulation under inflammatory conditions before HPV integration. This study reports that cervical tissues with stromal inflammation and intact HPV16 E2 gene show increased expression of target genes of NF-κB and/or STAT3 which can regulate cell survival (cyclin D1, c-Myc, survivin and Bcl2) and inflammatory responses (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and CCR2). Increased expression of RelA, p-IκBα, STAT3, p-STAT3 (Ser727), Pin1 (peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase) and MCM2 in the squamous epithelia of cervices with stromal inflammation supports early activation of NF-κB-STAT3. Furthermore, HPV16 E2 potentiated NF-κB activation induced by inflammatory mediators, IL-1β and SDF-1α, in HEK293 cells. These results reveal a novel role for E2 in regulating the activities of NF-κB and STAT3 that may have implications in carcinogenic progression of HPV16-infected cells under conditions of stromal inflammation. PMID:25460081

  17. Skp1-Cullin-F-box (SCF)-type ubiquitin ligase FBXW7 negatively regulates spermatogonial stem cell self-renewal

    PubMed Central

    Kanatsu-Shinohara, Mito; Onoyama, Ichiro; Nakayama, Keiichi I.; Shinohara, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) undergo self-renewal divisions to support spermatogenesis throughout life. Although several positive regulators of SSC self-renewal have been discovered, little is known about the negative regulators. Here, we report that F-box and WD-40 domain protein 7 (FBXW7), a component of the Skp1-Cullin-F-box–type ubiquitin ligase, is a negative regulator of SSC self-renewal. FBXW7 is expressed in undifferentiated spermatogonia in a cell cycle-dependent manner. Although peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1 (PIN1), essential for spermatogenesis, is thought to destroy FBXW7, Pin1 depletion decreased FBXW7 expression. Spermatogonial transplantation showed that Fbxw7 overexpression compromised SSC activity whereas Fbxw7 deficiency enhanced SSC colonization and caused accumulation of undifferentiated spermatogonia, suggesting that the level of FBXW7 is critical for self-renewal and differentiation. Screening of putative FBXW7 targets revealed that Fbxw7 deficiency up-regulated myelocytomatosis oncogene (MYC) and cyclin E1 (CCNE1). Although depletion of Myc/Mycn or Ccne1/Ccne2 compromised SSC activity, overexpression of Myc, but not Ccne1, increased colonization of SSCs. These results suggest that FBXW7 regulates SSC self-renewal in a negative manner by degradation of MYC. PMID:24879440

  18. Cyclophilin B protects SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells against MPP(+)-induced neurotoxicity via JNK pathway.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yoojung; Jeong, Kwon; Kim, Kiyoon; Lee, Young-Seok; Jeong, Suyun; Kim, Sung Soo; Yoon, Kyung-Sik; Ha, Joohun; Kang, Insug; Choe, Wonchae

    2016-09-23

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder of aging. PD involves a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyidine (MPTP) and its toxic metabolite 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+) inhibit the complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, and have been widely used to construct PD models. Cyclophilin B (CypB) is an endoplasmic reticulum protein that binds to cyclosporine A as a cyclophilin family member. CypB has peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activity. We investigated the protective effects of overexpressed CypB on MPP+-induced neurocytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Overexpressed CypB decreased MPP(+)-induced oxidative stress through the modulation of antioxidant enzymes including manganese superoxide dismutase and catalase, and prevented neurocytotoxicity via mitogen-activated protein kinase, especially the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway. In addition, CypB inhibited the activation of MPP(+)-induced the pro-apoptotic molecules poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, Bax, and Bcl-2, and attenuated MPP(+)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. The data suggest that overexpressed CypB protects neuronal cells from MPP+-induced dopaminergic neuronal cell death. PMID:27569281

  19. Cyclophilin C Participates in the US2-Mediated Degradation of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Daniel C.; Stocki, Pawel; Williams, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus uses a variety of mechanisms to evade immune recognition through major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. One mechanism mediated by the immunoevasin protein US2 causes rapid disposal of newly synthesized class I molecules by the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation pathway. Although several components of this degradation pathway have been identified, there are still questions concerning how US2 targets class I molecules for degradation. In this study we identify cyclophilin C, a peptidyl prolyl isomerase of the endoplasmic reticulum, as a component of US2-mediated immune evasion. Cyclophilin C could be co-isolated with US2 and with the class I molecule HLA-A2. Furthermore, it was required at a particular expression level since depletion or overexpression of cyclophilin C impaired the degradation of class I molecules. To better characterize the involvement of cyclophilin C in class I degradation, we used LC-MS/MS to detect US2-interacting proteins that were influenced by cyclophilin C expression levels. We identified malectin, PDIA6, and TMEM33 as proteins that increased in association with US2 upon cyclophilin C knockdown. In subsequent validation all were shown to play a functional role in US2 degradation of class I molecules. This was specific to US2 rather than general ER-associated degradation since depletion of these proteins did not impede the degradation of a misfolded substrate, the null Hong Kong variant of α1-antitrypsin. PMID:26691022

  20. Pin1 Interacts with the Epstein-Barr Virus DNA Polymerase Catalytic Subunit and Regulates Viral DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Narita, Yohei; Ryo, Akihide; Kawashima, Daisuke; Sugimoto, Atsuko; Kanda, Teru; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1 (Pin1) protein is known as a regulator which recognizes phosphorylated Ser/Thr-Pro motifs and increases the rate of cis and trans amide isomer interconversion, thereby altering the conformation of its substrates. We found that Pin1 knockdown using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) technology resulted in strong suppression of productive Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA replication. We further identified the EBV DNA polymerase catalytic subunit, BALF5, as a Pin1 substrate in glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown and immunoprecipitation assays. Lambda protein phosphatase treatment abolished the binding of BALF5 to Pin1, and mutation analysis of BALF5 revealed that replacement of the Thr178 residue by Ala (BALF5 T178A) disrupted the interaction with Pin1. To further test the effects of Pin1 in the context of virus infection, we constructed a BALF5-deficient recombinant virus. Exogenous supply of wild-type BALF5 in HEK293 cells with knockout recombinant EBV allowed efficient synthesis of viral genome DNA, but BALF5 T178A could not provide support as efficiently as wild-type BALF5. In conclusion, we found that EBV DNA polymerase BALF5 subunit interacts with Pin1 through BALF5 Thr178 in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Pin1 might modulate EBV DNA polymerase conformation for efficient, productive viral DNA replication. PMID:23221557

  1. Molecular Characterization and Analysis of a Novel Protein Disulfide Isomerase-Like Protein of Eimeria tenella

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hongyu; Dong, Hui; Zhu, Shunhai; Zhao, Qiping; Jiang, Lianlian; Wang, Yange; Li, Liujia; Wu, Youlin; Huang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and PDI-like proteins are members of the thioredoxin superfamily. They contain thioredoxin-like domains and catalyze the physiological oxidation, reduction and isomerization of protein disulfide bonds, which are involved in cell function and development in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In this study, EtPDIL, a novel PDI-like gene of Eimeria tenella, was cloned using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) according to the expressed sequence tag (EST). The EtPDIL cDNA contained 1129 nucleotides encoding 216 amino acids. The deduced EtPDIL protein belonged to thioredoxin-like superfamily and had a single predicted thioredoxin domain with a non-classical thioredoxin-like motif (SXXC). BLAST analysis showed that the EtPDIL protein was 55–59% identical to PDI-like proteins of other apicomplexan parasites. The transcript and protein levels of EtPDIL at different development stages were investigated by real-time quantitative PCR and western blot. The messenger RNA and protein levels of EtPDIL were higher in sporulated oocysts than in unsporulated oocysts, sporozoites or merozoites. Protein expression was barely detectable in unsporulated oocysts. Western blots showed that rabbit antiserum against recombinant EtPDIL recognized only a native 24 kDa protein from parasites. Immunolocalization with EtPDIL antibody showed that EtPDIL had a disperse distribution in the cytoplasm of whole sporozoites and merozoites. After sporozoites were incubated in complete medium, EtPDIL protein concentrated at the anterior of the sporozoites and appeared on the surface of parasites. Specific staining was more intense and mainly located on the parasite surface after merozoites released from mature schizonts invaded DF-1 cells. After development of parasites in DF-1 cells, staining intensified in trophozoites, immature schizonts and mature schizonts. Antibody inhibition of EtPDIL function reduced the ability of E. tenella to invade DF-1 cells. These results

  2. Kinetic and Binding Studies of Streptococcus pneumoniae Type 2 Isopentenyl Diphosphate:Dimethylallyl Diphosphate Isomerase.

    PubMed

    Janczak, Matthew Walter; Poulter, C Dale

    2016-04-19

    Type 2 isopentenyl diphosphate:dimethylallyl diphosphate isomerase (IDI-2) converts isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) to dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP), the two fundamental building blocks of isoprenoid molecules. IDI-2 is found in many species of bacteria and is a potential antibacterial target since this isoform is non-homologous to the type 1 enzyme in Homo sapiens. IDI-2 requires a reduced flavin mononucleotide to form the catalytically active ternary complex, IDI-2·FMNH2·IPP. For IDI-2 from the pathogenic bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, the flavin can be treated kinetically as a dissociable cosubstrate in incubations with IPP and excess NADH. Under these conditions, the enzyme follows a modified sequential ordered mechanism where FMN adds before IPP. Interestingly, the enzyme shows sigmoidal behavior when incubated with IPP and NADH with varied concentrations of FMN in aerobic conditions. In contrast, sigmoidal behavior is not seen in incubations under anaerobic conditions where FMN is reduced to FMNH2 before the reaction is initiated by addition of IPP. Stopped-flow experiments revealed that FMN, whether bound to IDI-2 or without enzyme in solution, is slowly reduced in a pseudo-first-order reaction upon addition of excess NADH (kred(FMN) = 5.7 × 10(-3) s(-1) and kred(IDI-2·FMN) = 2.8 × 10(-3) s(-1)), while reduction of the flavin is rapid upon addition of NADH to a mixture of IDI-2·FMN, and IPP (kred(IDI-2·FMN·IPP) = 8.9 s(-1)). Similar experiments with dithionite as the reductant gave kred(FMN) = 221 s(-1) and kred(IDI-2·FMN) = 411 s(-1). Dithionite reduction of FMN in the IDI-2·FMN and IPP mixture was biphasic with kred(IDI-2·FMN·IPP (fast)) = 326 s(-1) and kred(IDI-2·FMN·IPP (slow)) = 6.9 s(-1) The pseudo-first-order rate constant for the slow component was similar to those for NADH reduction of the flavin in the IDI-2·FMN and IPP mixture and may reflect a rate-limiting conformational change in the enzyme. PMID:27003727

  3. Survival of glucose phosphate isomerase null somatic cells and germ cells in adult mouse chimaeras

    PubMed Central

    Keighren, Margaret A.; Flockhart, Jean H.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The mouse Gpi1 gene encodes the glycolytic enzyme glucose phosphate isomerase. Homozygous Gpi1−/− null mouse embryos die but a previous study showed that some homozygous Gpi1−/− null cells survived when combined with wild-type cells in fetal chimaeras. One adult female Gpi1−/−↔Gpi1c/c chimaera with functional Gpi1−/− null oocytes was also identified in a preliminary study. The aims were to characterise the survival of Gpi1−/− null cells in adult Gpi1−/−↔Gpi1c/c chimaeras and determine if Gpi1−/− null germ cells are functional. Analysis of adult Gpi1−/−↔Gpi1c/c chimaeras with pigment and a reiterated transgenic lineage marker showed that low numbers of homozygous Gpi1−/− null cells could survive in many tissues of adult chimaeras, including oocytes. Breeding experiments confirmed that Gpi1−/− null oocytes in one female Gpi1−/−↔Gpi1c/c chimaera were functional and provided preliminary evidence that one male putative Gpi1−/−↔Gpi1c/c chimaera produced functional spermatozoa from homozygous Gpi1−/− null germ cells. Although the male chimaera was almost certainly Gpi1−/−↔Gpi1c/c, this part of the study is considered preliminary because only blood was typed for GPI. Gpi1−/− null germ cells should survive in a chimaeric testis if they are supported by wild-type Sertoli cells. It is also feasible that spermatozoa could bypass a block at GPI, but not blocks at some later steps in glycolysis, by using fructose, rather than glucose, as the substrate for glycolysis. Although chimaera analysis proved inefficient for studying the fate of Gpi1−/− null germ cells, it successfully identified functional Gpi1−/− null oocytes and revealed that some Gpi1−/− null cells could survive in many adult tissues. PMID:27103217

  4. Molecular epidemiology of giardiasis among Orang Asli in Malaysia: application of the triosephosphate isomerase gene

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Giardia duodenalis is a flagellate parasite which has been considered the most common protozoa infecting human worldwide. Molecular characterization of G. duodenalis isolates have revealed the existence of eight groups (Assemblage A to H) which differ in their host distribution. Assemblages A and B are found in humans and in many other mammals. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted to identify assemblage’s related risk factors of G. duodenalis among Orang Asli in Malaysia. Stool samples were collected from 611 individuals aged between 2 and 74 years old of whom 266 were males and 345 were females. Socioeconomic data were collected through a pre-tested questionnaire. All stool samples were processed with formalin-ether sedimentation and Wheatley’s trichrome staining techniques for the primary identification of G. duodenalis. Molecular identification was carried out by the amplification of a triosephosphate isomerase gene using nested-PCR assay. Results Sixty-two samples (10.2%) were identified as assemblage A and 36 (5.9%) were assemblage B. Risk analysis based on the detected assemblages using univariate and logistic regression analyses identified subjects who have close contact with household pets i.e. dogs and cats (OR = 2.60; 95% CI = 1.42, 4.78; P = 0.002) was found to be significant predictor for assemblage A. On the other hand, there were three significant risk factors caused by assemblage B: (i) children ≤15 years old (OR = 2.33; 95% CI = 1.11, 4.87; P = 0.025), (ii) consuming raw vegetables (OR = 2.82; 95% CI = 1.27, 6.26; P = 0.011) and (iii) the presence of other family members infected with giardiasis (OR = 6.31; 95% CI = 2.99, 13.31; P < 0.001). Conclusions The present study highlighted that G. duodenalis infection among Orang Asli was caused by both assemblages with significant high prevalence of assemblage A. Therefore, taking precaution after having contact with household

  5. Enhancing the Thermostability of Serratia plymuthica Sucrose Isomerase Using B-Factor-Directed Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Yixin; Wu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The sucrose isomerase of Serratia plymuthica AS9 (AS9 PalI) was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and characterized. The half-life of AS9 PalI was 20 min at 45°C, indicating that it was unstable. In order to improve its thermostability, six amino acid residues with higher B-factors were selected as targets for site-directed mutagenesis, and six mutants (E175N, K576D, K174D, G176D, S575D and N577K) were designed using the RosettaDesign server. The E175N and K576D mutants exhibited improved thermostability in preliminary experiments, so the double mutant E175N/K576D was constructed. These three mutants (E175N, K576D, E175N/K576D) were characterized in detail. The results indicate that the three mutants exhibit a slightly increased optimal temperature (35°C), compared with that of the wild-type enzyme (30°C). The mutants also share an identical pH optimum of 6.0, which is similar to that of the wild-type enzyme. The half-lives of the E175N, K576D and E175N/K576D mutants were 2.30, 1.78 and 7.65 times greater than that of the wild-type enzyme at 45°C, respectively. Kinetic studies showed that the Km values for the E175N, K576D and E175N/K576D mutants decreased by 6.6%, 2.0% and 11.0%, respectively, and their kcat/Km values increased by 38.2%, 4.2% and 19.4%, respectively, compared with those of the wild-type enzyme. After optimizing the conditions for isomaltulose production at 45°C, we found that the E175N, K576D and E175N/K576D mutants displayed slightly improved isomaltulose yields, compared with the wild-type enzyme. Therefore, the mutants produced in this study would be more suitable for industrial biosynthesis of isomaltulose. PMID:26886729

  6. Mechanism of D-fructose isomerization by Arthrobacter D-xylose isomerase.

    PubMed Central

    Rangarajan, M; Hartley, B S

    1992-01-01

    The mechanism of D-fructose isomerization by Arthrobacter D-xylose isomerase suggested from X-ray-crystallographic studies was tested by detailed kinetic analysis of the enzyme with various metal ions at different pH values and temperatures. At D-fructose concentrations used in commercial processes Mg2+ is the best activator with an apparent dissociation constant of 63 microM; Co2+ and Mn2+ bind more strongly (apparent Kd 20 microM and 10 microM respectively) but give less activity (45% and 8% respectively). Ca2+ is a strict competitive inhibitor versus Mg2+ (Ki 3 microM) or Co2+ (Ki 105 microM). The kinetics show a compulsory order of binding; Co2+ binds first to Site 2 and then to Site 1; then D-fructose binds at Site 1. At normal concentrations Mg2+ binds at Site 1, then D-fructose and then Mg2+ at Site 2. At very high Mg2+ concentrations (greater than 10 mM) the order is Mg2+ at Site 1, Mg2+ at Site 2, then D-fructose. The turnover rate (kcat.) is controlled by ionization of a residue with apparent pKa at 30 degrees C of 6.0 +/- 0.07 (Mg2+) or 5.3 +/- 0.08 (Co2+) and delta H = 23.5 kJ/mol. This appears to be His-219, which is co-ordinated to M[2]; protonation destroys isomerization by displacing M[2]; Co2+ binds more strongly at Site 2 than Mg2+, so competes more strongly against H+. The inhibition constant (Ki) for the two competitive inhibitors 5-thio-alpha-D-glucopyranose and D-sorbitol is invariant with pH, but Km(app.) in the Mg[1]-enzyme is controlled by ionization of a group with pKa 6.8 +/- 0.07 and delta H = 27 kJ/mol, which appears to be His-53. This shows that Km(app.) is a complex constant that includes the rate of the ring-opening step catalysed by His-53, which explains the pH-dependence. In the Mg[1]Mg[2]-enzyme or Co[1]Co[2]-enzyme, the pKa is lower (6.2 +/- 0.1 or 5.6 +/- 0.08) because of the extra adjacent cation. Hence the results fit the previously proposed pathway, but show that the mechanisms differ for Mg2+ and Co2+ and that the rate

  7. Impact of Mutation on Proton Transfer Reactions in Ketosteroid Isomerase: Insights from Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Chakravorty, Dhruva K.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The two proton transfer reactions catalyzed by ketosteroid isomerase (KSI) involve a dienolate intermediate stabilized by hydrogen bonds with Tyr14 and Asp99. Molecular dynamics simulations based on an empirical valence bond model are used to examine the impact of mutating these residues on the hydrogen-bonding patterns, conformational changes, and van der Waals and electrostatic interactions during the proton transfer reactions. While the rate constants for the two proton transfer steps are similar for wild-type (WT) KSI, the simulations suggest that the rate constant for the first proton transfer step is smaller in the mutants due to the significantly higher free energy of the dienolate intermediate relative to the reactant. The calculated rate constants for the mutants D99L, Y14F, and Y14F/D99L relative to WT KSI are qualitatively consistent with the kinetic experiments indicating a significant reduction in the catalytic rates along the series of mutants. In the simulations, WT KSI retained two hydrogen-bonding interactions between the substrate and the active site, while the mutants typically retained only one hydrogen-bonding interaction. A new hydrogen-bonding interaction between the substrate and Tyr55 was observed in the double mutant, leading to the prediction that mutation of Tyr55 will have a greater impact on the proton transfer rates for the double mutant than for WT KSI. The electrostatic stabilization of the dienolate intermediate relative to the reactant was greater for WT KSI than for the mutants, providing a qualitative explanation for the significantly reduced rates of the mutants. The active site exhibited highly restricted motion during the proton transfer reactions, but small conformational changes occurred to facilitate the proton transfer reactions by strengthening the hydrogen-bonding interactions and by bringing the proton donor and acceptor closer to each other with the proper orientation for proton transfer. Thus, these calculations

  8. Disulfide Bond Oxidoreductase DsbA2 of Legionella pneumophila Exhibits Protein Disulfide Isomerase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kpadeh, Zegbeh Z.; Jameson-Lee, Max; Yeh, Anthony J.; Chertihin, Olga; Shumilin, Igor A.; Dey, Rafik; Day, Shandra R.

    2013-01-01

    The extracytoplasmic assembly of the Dot/Icm type IVb secretion system (T4SS) of Legionella pneumophila is dependent on correct disulfide bond (DSB) formation catalyzed by a novel and essential disulfide bond oxidoreductase DsbA2 and not by DsbA1, a second nonessential DSB oxidoreductase. DsbA2, which is widely distributed in the microbial world, is phylogenetically distinct from the canonical DsbA oxidase and the DsbC protein disulfide isomerase (PDI)/reductase of Escherichia coli. Here we show that the extended N-terminal amino acid sequence of DsbA2 (relative to DsbA proteins) contains a highly conserved 27-amino-acid dimerization domain enabling the protein to form a homodimer. Complementation tests with E. coli mutants established that L. pneumophila dsbA1, but not the dsbA2 strain, restored motility to a dsbA mutant. In a protein-folding PDI detector assay, the dsbA2 strain, but not the dsbA1 strain, complemented a dsbC mutant of E. coli. Deletion of the dimerization domain sequences from DsbA2 produced the monomer (DsbA2N), which no longer exhibited PDI activity but complemented the E. coli dsbA mutant. PDI activity was demonstrated in vitro for DsbA2 but not DsbA1 in a nitrocefin-based mutant TEM β-lactamase folding assay. In an insulin reduction assay, DsbA2N activity was intermediate between those of DsbA2 and DsbA1. In L. pneumophila, DsbA2 was maintained as a mixture of thiol and disulfide forms, while in E. coli, DsbA2 was present as the reduced thiol. Our studies suggest that DsbA2 is a naturally occurring bifunctional disulfide bond oxidoreductase that may be uniquely suited to the majority of intracellular bacterial pathogens expressing T4SSs as well as in many slow-growing soil and aquatic bacteria. PMID:23435972

  9. Identification of GutQ from Escherichia coli as a d-Arabinose 5-Phosphate Isomerase

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, Timothy C.; Woodard, Ronald W.

    2005-01-01

    The glucitol operon (gutAEBDMRQ) of Escherichia coli encodes a phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system that metabolizes the hexitol d-glucitol (sorbitol). The functions for all but the last gene, gutQ, have been previously assigned. The high sequence similarity between GutQ and KdsD, a d-arabinose 5-phosphate isomerase (API) from the 3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonate (KDO)-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthetic pathway, suggested a putative activity, but its role within the context of the gut operon remained unclear. Accordingly, the enzyme was cloned, overexpressed, and characterized. Recombinant GutQ was shown to indeed be a second copy of API from the E. coli K-12 genome with biochemical properties similar to those of KdsD, catalyzing the reversible aldol-ketol isomerization between d-ribulose 5-phosphate (Ru5P) and d-arabinose 5-phosphate (A5P). Genomic disruptions of each API gene were constructed in E. coli K-12. TCM11[(ΔkdsD)] was capable of sustaining essential LPS synthesis at wild-type levels, indicating that GutQ functions as an API inside the cell. The gut operon remained inducible in TCM7[(ΔgutQ)], suggesting that GutQ is not directly involved in d-glucitol catabolism. The conditional mutant TCM15[(ΔgutQΔkdsD)] was dependent on exogenous A5P both for LPS synthesis/growth and for upregulation of the gut operon. The phenotype was suppressed by complementation in trans with a plasmid encoding a functional copy of GutQ or by increasing the amount of A5P in the medium. As there is no obvious obligatory role for GutQ in the metabolism of d-glucitol and there is no readily apparent link between d-glucitol metabolism and LPS biosynthesis, it is suggested that A5P is not only a building block for KDO biosynthesis but also may be a regulatory molecule involved in expression of the gut operon. PMID:16199563

  10. Identification of a novel tandemly repeated sequence present in an intron of the glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) gene in mouse and man

    SciTech Connect

    Faik, P.; Walker, J.I.H.; Morgan, M.J. )

    1994-05-01

    Glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI, glucose 6-phosphate ketol-isomerase, EC 5.3.1.9) is a housekeeping gene expressed in all tissues and organisms that utilize glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Deficiency in humans leads to a rare form of nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. The authors have isolated a 3.2-kb mouse cDNA containing glucose phosphate isomerase coding sequence and a 2.1-kb intronic sequence and a large proportion of the human gene (approaching 55 kb) in four phage [lambda] recombinants. A 4-kb intronic fragment from the human gene showing homology to the mouse intronic sequence has been isolated and sequenced. The fragment contains approximately 1.5 kb of sequence that is composited of 30 repeat units of a novel 50-kb tandemly repeated unit. The mouse intronic sequence contains 18 similar units. The human consensus sequence differs from the mouse consensus sequence at only 7 positions out of 50 (positions 16, 26, 27, 42, 43, 47, and 48). A probe containing the repeat element detects polymorphisms, specific to glucose phosphate isomerase, in human DNA. The repeat element does not appear to be present at any other loci in human DNA. The conservation of this intronic repeat element extends to pig and Chinese hamster. 26 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Growth and fermentation of D-xylose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing a novel D-xylose isomerase originating from the bacterium Prevotella ruminicola TC2-24

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains expressing xylose isomerase (XI) produce some of the highest reported ethanol yields from xylose. Unfortunately, most bacterial XIs that have been expressed in S. cerevisiae are not functional, require additional strain modification, and have low affinity for xylose...

  12. Microbial conversion of L-arabinose to xylitol by coexpression of L-arabinose isomerase, D-tagatose 3-epimerase, and L-xylulose reductase in Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A microbial strain has been developed that can produce xylitol from L-arabinose at a high yield by transforming Escherichia coli with a new xylitol biosynthetic pathway consisting of L-arabinose isomerase, D-tagatose 3-epimerase, and L-xylulose reductase. An E. coli strain that heterologously expre...

  13. Extraction of hemicellulose from ryegrass straw for the production of glucose isomerase and use of the resulting straw residue for animal feed

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W.P.; Anderson, A.W.

    1980-03-01

    The hemicellulose fraction of ryegrass straw was extracted with NaOH and used for the production of glucose isomerase by Streptomyces flavogriseus. The level of hemicellulose extracted increased proportionately with increasing NaOH concentration up to about 4%, then the rate of increase slowed down. Hemicellulose extraction was facilitated by the combined application of heat and NaOH. Approximately 15% hemicellulose (12% as pentosan) could be obtained by treating straw with 4% NaOH for either 3 hours at 90/sup 0/C or 24 hour at room temperature. The highest level (3.04 units/ml culture) of intracellular glucose isomerase was obtained when the organism was grown at 30 degrees Centigrade for two days on 2% straw hemicellulose. The organism also produced a high yield of glucose isomerase on xylose or xylan. The NaOH treated straw residue, after removal of hemicellulose, had approximately 75% higher digestibility and 20% higher feed efficiency for weanling meadow voles than untreated straw, but almost the equivalent to that obtained by NaOH treatment without removal of the hemicellulose. Thus, the residue could be used as animal feed. A process for the production of glucose isomerase and animal feed from ryegrass straw was also proposed.

  14. Glutathione S-transferases act as isomerases in isomerization of 13-cis-retinoic acid to all-trans-retinoic acid in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, H; Juchau, M R

    1997-01-01

    A discovery that rapid enzymic isomerization of 13-cis-retinoic acid (13-cRA) to all-trans-retinoic acid (t-RA) can be catalysed by purified hepatic glutathione S-transferases (GSTs; EC 2.5.1.18) from rat is now reported. Rates of cis-trans isomerization were determined quantitatively by HPLC. GST-catalysed reactions reached equilibrium rapidly, in marked contrast with uncatalysed or GSH-catalysed isomerizations. The GST-catalysed reaction exhibited substrate saturation kinetics with a Km of approx. 8 microM. The maximal velocity of the reaction and the catalytic efficiency of GSTs were determined. The initial rate of the reaction increased linearly as a function of enzyme concentration. Catalysis by GSTs was independent of the presence of GSH, indicating that GSTs act as GSH-independent isomerases as well as transferases. Incubation with guanidine (7-8 M) or heat-inactivation of GSTs (100 degrees C for 3 min) decreased isomerase activities by approx. 50% and 75% respectively. The same heat treatment did not significantly inhibit isomerization catalysed by GSH and apoferritin, indicating that the observed decrease in isomerase activity by heat inactivation was not primarily due to oxidation of protein thiol groups in the GSTs. The specific activity of GSTs was approx. 23- and 340-fold those of GSH and apoferritin respectively when comparisons were made on the basis of free thiol concentrations, indicating that free thiol in GSTs cannot account for the majority of observed isomerase activities and suggesting that specific conformations of GSTs are important for such activities. Complete inhibition of the reaction by low concentrations of N-ethylmaleimide (10 microM) demonstrated that intact protein thiols are required for the isomerase activities of GSTs. PMID:9581548

  15. The Multidrug Resistance IncA/C Transferable Plasmid Encodes a Novel Domain-swapped Dimeric Protein-disulfide Isomerase*

    PubMed Central

    Premkumar, Lakshmanane; Kurth, Fabian; Neyer, Simon; Schembri, Mark A.; Martin, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    The multidrug resistance-encoding IncA/C conjugative plasmids disseminate antibiotic resistance genes among clinically relevant enteric bacteria. A plasmid-encoded disulfide isomerase is associated with conjugation. Sequence analysis of several IncA/C plasmids and IncA/C-related integrative and conjugative elements (ICE) from commensal and pathogenic bacteria identified a conserved DsbC/DsbG homolog (DsbP). The crystal structure of DsbP reveals an N-terminal domain, a linker region, and a C-terminal catalytic domain. A DsbP homodimer is formed through domain swapping of two DsbP N-terminal domains. The catalytic domain incorporates a thioredoxin-fold with characteristic CXXC and cis-Pro motifs. Overall, the structure and redox properties of DsbP diverge from the Escherichia coli DsbC and DsbG disulfide isomerases. Specifically, the V-shaped dimer of DsbP is inverted compared with EcDsbC and EcDsbG. In addition, the redox potential of DsbP (−161 mV) is more reducing than EcDsbC (−130 mV) and EcDsbG (−126 mV). Other catalytic properties of DsbP more closely resemble those of EcDsbG than EcDsbC. These catalytic differences are in part a consequence of the unusual active site motif of DsbP (CAVC); substitution to the EcDsbC-like (CGYC) motif converts the catalytic properties to those of EcDsbC. Structural comparison of the 12 independent subunit structures of DsbP that we determined revealed that conformational changes in the linker region contribute to mobility of the catalytic domain, providing mechanistic insight into DsbP function. In summary, our data reveal that the conserved plasmid-encoded DsbP protein is a bona fide disulfide isomerase and suggest that a dedicated oxidative folding enzyme is important for conjugative plasmid transfer. PMID:24311786

  16. Kinetics and specificity of homogeneous protein disulphide-isomerase in protein disulphide isomerization and in thiol-protein-disulphide oxidoreduction.

    PubMed

    Lambert, N; Freedman, R B

    1983-07-01

    The protein disulphide-bond isomerization activity of highly active homogeneous protein disulphide-isomerase (measured by re-activation of 'scrambled' ribonuclease) is enhanced by EDTA and by phosphate buffers. As shown for previous less-active preparations, the enzyme has a narrow pH optimum around pH 7.8 and requires the presence of either a dithiol or a thiol. The dithiol dithiothreitol is effective at concentrations 100-fold lower than the monothiols reduced glutathione and cysteamine. The enzyme follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics with respect to these substrates; Km values are 4,620 and 380 microM respectively. The enzyme shows apparent inhibition by high concentrations of thiol or dithiol compounds (greater than 10 X Km), but the effect is mainly on the extent of reaction, not the initial rate. This is interpreted as indicating the formation of significant amounts of reduced ribonuclease in these more reducing conditions. The purified enzyme will also catalyse net reduction of insulin disulphide bonds by reduced glutathione (i.e. it has thiol:protein-disulphide oxidoreductase or glutathione:insulin transhydrogenase activity), but this requires considerably higher concentrations of enzyme and reduced glutathione than does the disulphide-isomerization activity. The Km for reduced glutathione in this reaction is an order of magnitude greater than that for the disulphide-isomerization activity, and the turnover number is considerably lower than that of other enzymes that can catalyse thiol-disulphide oxidoreduction. Conventional two-substrate steady-state analysis of the thiol:protein-disulphide oxidoreductase activity indicates that it follows a ternary-complex mechanism. The protein disulphide-isomerase and thiol:protein-disulphide oxidoreductase activities co-purify quantitatively through the final stages of purification, implying that a single protein species is responsible for both activities. It is concluded that previous preparations, from various sources

  17. Structure of escherichia coli ribose-5-phosphate isomerase : a ubiquitous enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway and the Calvin cycle.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, R.; Andersson, C. E.; Savchenko, A.; Skarina, T.; Evdokimova, E.; Beasley, S.; Arrowsmith, C. H.; Edwards, A.; Joachimiak, A.; Mowbray, S. L.; Biosciences Division; Uppsala Univ.; Univ. Health Network; Univ. of Toronto; Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences

    2003-01-01

    Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase A (RpiA; EC 5.3.1.6) interconverts ribose-5-phosphate and ribulose-5-phosphate. This enzyme plays essential roles in carbohydrate anabolism and catabolism; it is ubiquitous and highly conserved. The structure of RpiA from Escherichia coli was solved by multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) phasing, and refined to 1.5 Angstroms resolution (R factor 22.4%, R{sub free} 23.7%). RpiA exhibits an {alpha}/{beta}/({alpha}/{beta})/{beta}/{alpha} fold, some portions of which are similar to proteins of the alcohol dehydrogenase family. The two subunits of the dimer in the asymmetric unit have different conformations, representing the opening/closing of a cleft. Active site residues were identified in the cleft using sequence conservation, as well as the structure of a complex with the inhibitor arabinose-5-phosphate at 1.25 A resolution. A mechanism for acid-base catalysis is proposed.

  18. Inhibition of Enzyme Activity of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Triosephosphate Isomerase and BME26 Cell Growth by Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Saramago, Luiz; Franceschi, Mariana; Logullo, Carlos; Masuda, Aoi; Vaz, Itabajara da Silva; Farias, Sandra Estrazulas; Moraes, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, we produced two monoclonal antibodies (BrBm37 and BrBm38) and tested their action against the triosephosphate isomerase of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (RmTIM). These antibodies recognize epitopes on both the native and recombinant forms of the protein. rRmTIM inhibition by BrBm37 was up to 85% whereas that of BrBrm38 was 98%, depending on the antibody-enzyme ratio. RmTIM activity was lower in ovarian, gut, and fat body tissue extracts treated with BrBm37 or BrBm38 mAbs. The proliferation of the embryonic tick cell line (BME26) was inhibited by BrBm37 and BrBm38 mAbs. In summary, the results reveal that it is possible to interfere with the RmTIM function using antibodies, even in intact cells. PMID:23202941

  19. ERp57 as a novel cellular factor controlling prion protein biosynthesis: Therapeutic potential of protein disulfide isomerases.

    PubMed

    Sepulveda, Martin; Rozas, Pablo; Hetz, Claudio; Medinas, Danilo B

    2016-01-01

    Disturbance of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteostasis is observed in Prion-related disorders (PrDs). The protein disulfide isomerase ERp57 is a stress-responsive ER chaperone up-regulated in the brain of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients. However, the actual role of ERp57 in prion protein (PrP) biogenesis and the ER stress response remained poorly defined. We have recently addressed this question using gain- and loss-of-function approaches in vitro and animal models, observing that ERp57 regulates steady-state levels of PrP. Our results revealed that ERp57 modulates the biosynthesis and maturation of PrP but, surprisingly, does not contribute to the global cellular reaction against ER stress in neurons. Here we discuss the relevance of ERp57 as a possible therapeutic target in PrDs and other protein misfolding disorders. PMID:26864548

  20. Acceleration of an Aromatic Claisen Rearrangement via a Designed Spiroligozyme Catalyst that Mimics the Ketosteroid Isomerase Catalytic Dyad

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A series of hydrogen-bonding catalysts have been designed for the aromatic Claisen rearrangement of a 1,1-dimethylallyl coumarin. These catalysts were designed as mimics of the two-point hydrogen-bonding interaction present in ketosteroid isomerase that has been proposed to stabilize a developing negative charge on the ether oxygen in the migration of the double bond.1 Two hydrogen bond donating groups, a phenol alcohol and a carboxylic acid, were grafted onto a conformationally restrained spirocyclic scaffold, and together they enhance the rate of the Claisen rearrangement by a factor of 58 over the background reaction. Theoretical calculations correctly predict the most active catalyst and suggest that both preorganization and favorable interactions with the transition state of the reaction are responsible for the observed rate enhancement. PMID:24456160

  1. HbIDI, SlIDI and EcIDI: A comparative study of isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase activity and structure.

    PubMed

    Berthelot, Karine; Estevez, Yannick; Quiliano, Miguel; Baldera-Aguayo, Pedro A; Zimic, Mirko; Pribat, Anne; Bakleh, Marc-Elias; Teyssier, Emeline; Gallusci, Philippe; Gardrat, Christian; Lecomte, Sophie; Peruch, Frédéric

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we cloned, expressed and purified the isopentenyl diphosphate isomerases (IDIs) from two plants, Hevea brasiliensis and Solanum lycopersicum, and compared them to the already well characterized Escherichia coli IDI. Phylogenetic analysis showed high homology between the three enzymes. Their catalytic activity was investigated in vitro with recombinant purified enzymes and in vivo by complementation colorimetric tests. The three enzymes displayed consistent activities both in vitro and in vivo. In term of structure, studied by ATR-FTIR and molecular modeling, it is clear that both plant enzymes are more related to their human homologue than to E. coli IDI. But it is assumed that EcIDI represent the minimalistic part of the catalytic core, as both plant enzymes present a supplementary sequence forming an extra α-helice surrounding the catalytic site that could facilitate the biocatalysis. New potential biotechnological applications may be envisaged. PMID:27163845

  2. ER stress and unfolded protein response in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-a controversial role of protein disulphide isomerase.

    PubMed

    Jaronen, Merja; Goldsteins, Gundars; Koistinaho, Jari

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of proteins in aberrant conformation occurs in many neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, dysfunctions in protein handling in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the following ER stress have been implicated in a vast number of diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). During excessive ER stress unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated to return ER to its normal physiological balance. The exact mechanisms of protein misfolding, accumulation and the following ER stress, which could lead to neurodegeneration, and the question whether UPR is a beneficial compensatory mechanism slowing down the neurodegenerative processes, are of interest. Protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) is a disulphide bond-modulating ER chaperone, which can also facilitate the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) of misfolded proteins. In this review we discuss the recent findings of ER stress, UPR and especially the role of PDI in ALS. PMID:25520620

  3. Role of the 52 KDa thioredoxin protein disulfide isomerase of Toxoplasma gondii during infection to human cells.

    PubMed

    Moncada, Diego; Arenas, Aylan; Acosta, Alejandro; Molina, Diego; Hernández, Alejandro; Cardona, Néstor; Gomez-Yepes, Mónica; Gomez-Marin, Jorge E

    2016-05-01

    Toxoplasma protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is a 52 KDa thioredoxin of interest because have a great immunogenicity for humans. We cloned and produced a recombinant protein (recTgPDI) used to test its effect during infection to different human cell lines (epithelial and retinal). We also determine if there were differences in gen expression during in vitro infection. Expression of the gen was lower after entry into the host cells. PDI's inhibitors bacitracin and nitroblue tetrazolium reduced the percent of infected cells and small amounts of recTgPDI proteins interfered with the invasion step. All these results support a role of Toxoplasma PDI during the first steps of infection (adhesion and invasion). Toxoplasma PDI is a protein linked to early steps of invasion, it would be of importance to identify the host proteins substrates during invasion steps. PMID:26896642

  4. Functional expression of Burkholderia cenocepacia xylose isomerase in yeast increases ethanol production from a glucose-xylose blend.

    PubMed

    de Figueiredo Vilela, Leonardo; de Mello, Vinicius Mattos; Reis, Viviane Castelo Branco; Bon, Elba Pinto da Silva; Gonçalves Torres, Fernando Araripe; Neves, Bianca Cruz; Eleutherio, Elis Cristina Araújo

    2013-01-01

    This study presents results regarding the successful cloning of the bacterial xylose isomerase gene (xylA) of Burkholderia cenocepacia and its functional expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The recombinant yeast showed to be competent to efficiently produce ethanol from both glucose and xylose, which are the main sugars in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. The heterologous expression of the gene xylA enabled a laboratorial yeast strain to ferment xylose anaerobically, improving ethanol production from a fermentation medium containing a glucose-xylose blend similar to that found in sugar cane bagasse hydrolysates. The insertion of xylA caused a 5-fold increase in xylose consumption, and over a 1.5-fold increase in ethanol production and yield, in comparison to that showed by the WT strain, in 24h fermentations, where it was not detected accumulation of xylitol. These findings are encouraging for further studies concerning the expression of B. cenocepacia xylA in an industrial yeast strain. PMID:23186665

  5. Triosephosphate Isomerase I170V Alters Catalytic Site, Enhances Stability and Induces Pathology in a Drosophila Model of TPI Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Roland, Bartholomew P.; Amrich, Christopher G.; Kammerer, Charles J.; Stuchul, Kimberly A.; Larsen, Samantha B.; Rode, Sascha; Aslam, Anoshé A.; Heroux, Annie; Wetzel, Ronald; VanDemark, Andrew P.; Palladino, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) is a glycolytic enzyme which homodimerizes for full catalytic activity. Mutations of the TPI gene elicit a disease known as TPI Deficiency, a glycolytic enzymopathy noted for its unique severity of neurological symptoms. Evidence suggests that TPI Deficiency pathogenesis may be due to conformational changes of the protein, likely affecting dimerization and protein stability. In this report, we genetically and physically characterize a human disease-associated TPI mutation caused by an I170V substitution. Human TPII170V elicits behavioral abnormalities in Drosophila. An examination of hTPII170V enzyme kinetics revealed this substitution reduced catalytic turnover, while assessments of thermal stability demonstrated an increase in enzyme stability. The crystal structure of the homodimeric I170V mutant reveals changes in the geometry of critical residues within the catalytic pocket. Collectively these data reveal new observations of the structural and kinetic determinants of TPI deficiency pathology, providing new insights into disease pathogenesis. PMID:25463631

  6. The Unfolding and Refolding Reactions of Triosephosphate Isomerase from Trypanosoma Cruzi Follow Similar Pathways. Guanidinium Hydrochloride Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Contreras, Edgar; Pérez Hernández, Gerardo; Sánchez-Rebollar, Brenda Guadalupe; Chánez-Cárdenas, María Elena

    2005-04-01

    The unfolding and refolding reactions of Trypanosoma cruzi triosephosphate isomerase (TcTIM) was studied under equilibrium conditions at increasing guanidinium hydrochloride concentrations. The changes in activity intrinsic fluorescence and far-ultraviolet circular dichroism as a function of denaturant were used as a quaternary, tertiary and secondary structural probes respectively. The change in extrinsic ANS fluorescence intensity was also investigated. The results show that the transition between the homodimeric native enzyme to the unfolded monomers (unfolding), and its inverse reaction (refolding) are described by similar pathways and two equilibrium intermediates were detected in both reactions. The mild denaturant concentrations intermediate is active and contains significant amount of secondary and tertiary structures. The medium denaturant concentrations intermediate is inactive and able to bind the fluorescent dye. This intermediates are maybe related with those observed in the denaturation pattern of TIMs from other species; the results are discussed in this context.

  7. The Involvement of His50 during Protein Disulfide Isomerase Binding Is Essential for Inhibiting α-Syn Fibril Formation.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Priyatosh; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2016-05-17

    An increased level of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is a protective response to various neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease. Interaction of PDI with α-synuclein (α-Syn) has been shown to inhibit its aggregation. Here, we report the residue-specific mapping of binding of PDI to α-Syn. We demonstrate that α-Syn N-terminal residues V3-S9 and L38-V40 bind more strongly to PDI than residues V49-V52 do, as do C-terminal residues E123-M127 and D135-E137. In addition, we show that residue H50 is key in preventing aggregation. These findings improve our understanding of PDI-protected aggregation of wild-type α-Syn and its H50Q familial mutant. PMID:27142583

  8. Inhibition of d-xylose isomerase by polyols: atomic details by joint X-ray/neutron crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalevsky, Andrey; Hanson, B. Leif; Mason, Sax A.; Forsyth, V. Trevor; Fisher, Zoe; Mustyakimov, Marat; Blakeley, Matthew P.; Keen, David A.; Langan, Paul

    2012-09-01

    A joint X-ray/neutron structure of d-xylose isomerase in complex with the inhibitor sorbitol was determined at room temperature at an acidic pH of 5.9. Protonation of the O5 O atom of the sugar was directly observed in the nuclear density maps. Under acidic conditions sorbitol gains a water-mediated interaction with the enzyme active site, which may explain the increased potency of the inhibitor at low pH. d-Xylose isomerase (XI) converts the aldo-sugars xylose and glucose to their keto analogs xylulose and fructose, but is strongly inhibited by the polyols xylitol and sorbitol, especially at acidic pH. In order to understand the atomic details of polyol binding to the XI active site, a 2.0 Å resolution room-temperature joint X-ray/neutron structure of XI in complex with Ni{sup 2+} cofactors and sorbitol inhibitor at pH 5.9 and a room-temperature X-ray structure of XI containing Mg{sup 2+} ions and xylitol at the physiological pH of 7.7 were obtained. The protonation of oxygen O5 of the inhibitor, which was found to be deprotonated and negatively charged in previous structures of XI complexed with linear glucose and xylulose, was directly observed. The Ni{sup 2+} ions occupying the catalytic metal site (M2) were found at two locations, while Mg{sup 2+} in M2 is very mobile and has a high B factor. Under acidic conditions sorbitol gains a water-mediated interaction that connects its O1 hydroxyl to Asp257. This contact is not found in structures at basic pH. The new interaction that is formed may improve the binding of the inhibitor, providing an explanation for the increased affinity of the polyols for XI at low pH.

  9. The importance of hinge sequence for loop function and catalytic activity in the reaction catalyzed by triosephosphate isomerase.

    PubMed

    Xiang, J; Sun, J; Sampson, N S

    2001-04-01

    We have determined the sequence requirements for the N-terminal protein hinge of the active-site lid of triosephosphate isomerase. The codons for the hinge (PVW) were replaced with a genetic library of all possible 8000 amino acid combinations. The most active of these 8000 mutants were selected using in vivo complementation of a triosephosphate isomerase-deficient strain of Escherichia coli, DF502. Approximately 0.3 % of the mutants complement DF502 with an activity that is between 10 and 70 % of wild-type activity. They all contain Pro at the first position. Furthermore, the sequences of these hinge mutants reveal that hydrophobic packing is very important for efficient formation of the enediol intermediate. However, the reduced catalytic activities observed are not due to increased rates of loop opening. To explore the relationship between the N-terminal and C-terminal hinges, three semi-active mutants from the N-terminal hinge selection experiment (PLH, PHS and PTF), and six active C-terminal hinge mutants from previous work (NSS, LWA, YSL, KTK, NPN, KVA) were combined to form 18 "double-hinge" mutants. The activities of these mutants suggest that the N-terminal and C-terminal hinge structures affect one another. It appears that specific side-chain interactions are important for forming a catalytically active enzyme, but not for preventing release of the unstable enediol intermediate from the active site of the enzyme. The independence of intermediate release on amino acid sequence is consistent with the absence of a "universal" hinge sequence in structurally related enzymes. PMID:11286559

  10. X-ray structures of Bacillus pallidus d-arabinose isomerase and its complex with l-fucitol.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kosei; Yoshida, Hiromi; Izumori, Ken; Kamitori, Shigehiro

    2010-06-01

    d-Arabinose isomerase (d-AI), also known as l-fucose isomerase (l-FI), catalyzes the aldose-ketose isomerization of d-arabinose to d-ribulose, and l-fucose to l-fuculose. Bacillus pallidus (B. pallidus) d-AI can catalyze isomerization of d-altrose to d-psicose, as well as d-arabinose and l-fucose. Three X-ray structures of B. pallidus d-AI in complexes with 2-methyl-2,4-pentadiol, glycerol and an inhibitor, l-fucitol, were determined at resolutions of 1.77, 1.60 and 2.60 A, respectively. B. pallidus d-AI forms a homo-hexamer, and one subunit has three domains of almost equal size; two Rossmann fold domains and a mimic of the (beta/alpha) barrel fold domain. A catalytic metal ion (Mn(2+)) was found in the active site coordinated by Glu342, Asp366 and His532, and an additional metal ion was found at the channel for the passage of a substrate coordinated by Asp453. The X-ray structures basically supported the ene-diol mechanism for the aldose-ketose isomerization by B. pallidus d-AI, as well as Escherichia coli (E. coli) l-FI, in which Glu342 and Asp366 facing each other at the catalytic metal ion transfer a proton from C2 to C1 and O1 to O2, acting as acid/base catalysts, respectively. However, considering the ionized state of Asp366, the catalytic reaction also possibly occurs through the negatively charged ene-diolate intermediate stabilized by the catalytic metal ion. A structural comparison with E. colil-FI showed that B. pallidus d-AI possibly interconverts between "open" and "closed" forms, and that the additional metal ion found in B. pallidus d-AI may help to stabilize the channel region. PMID:20123133

  11. Isolation, purification, and characterization of thermophilic T80 isoenzyme of xylose isomerase from the xerophyte Cereus pterogonus.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, Sambandam; Shyamala, Sivalingam; Muthuraman, Pandurangan; Srikumar, Kotteazeth

    2011-01-01

    A thermostable isoenzyme (T(80)) of xylose isomerase from the eukaryote xerophyte Cereus pterogonus was purified to homogeneity by precipitation with ammonium sulfate and column chromatography on Dowex-1 ion exchange, with Sephadex G-100 gel filtration, resulting in an approximately 25.55-fold increase in specific activity and a final yield of approximately 17.9%. Certain physiochemical and kinetic properties (K(m) and V(max)) of the T(80) xylose isomerase isoenzyme were investigated. The molecular mass of the purified T(80) isoenzyme was 68 kD determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Polyclonal antibodies against the purified T(80) isoenzyme recognized a single polypeptide band on Western blots. The activation energy required for the thermal denaturation of the isoenzyme was determined to be 61.84 KJ mol(-1). The use of differential scanning calorimetry established the melting temperature of the CPXI isoenzyme to be 80°C, but when studied with added metal ions, melting temperature increases to more than the normal. Fluorescence spectroscopy of T(80) isoenzymes yielded an emission peak with λ(em) at 320 nm and 340 nm, respectively, confirming the presence of Trp residue in these proteins. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis at liquid nitrogen temperature established the presence of Mn(2+) and Co(2+) associated with each isoenzyme. These enzyme species exhibited different thermal and pH stabilities compared to their mesophilic counterparts and offered greater efficiency in functioning as a potential alternate catalytic converter of glucose in the production of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) for the sweetener industry and for ethanol production. PMID:21442549

  12. Automated Yeast Transformation Protocol to Engineer S. cerevisiae Strains for Cellulosic Ethanol Production with Open Reading Frames that Express Proteins Binding to Xylose Isomerase Identified using Robotic Two-hybrid Screen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercialization of fuel ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass has focused on engineering the glucose-fermenting industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to utilize pentose sugars. Since S. cerevisiae naturally metabolizes xylulose, one approach involves introducing xylose isomerase (XI...

  13. The acid-tolerant L-arabinose isomerase from the mesophilic Shewanella sp. ANA-3 is highly active at low temperatures

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background L-arabinose isomerases catalyse the isomerization of L-arabinose into L-ribulose at insight biological systems. At industrial scale of this enzyme is used for the bioconversion of D-galactose into D-tagatose which has many applications in pharmaceutical and agro-food industries. The isomerization reaction is thermodynamically equilibrated, and therefore the bioconversion rates is shifted towards tagatose when the temperature is increased. Moreover, to prevent secondary reactions it will be of interest to operate at low pH. The profitability of this D-tagatose production process is mainly related to the use of lactose as cheaper raw material. In many dairy products it will be interesting to produce D-tagatose during storage. This requires an efficient L-arabinose isomerase acting at low temperature and pH values. Results The gene encoding the L-arabinose isomerase from Shewanella sp. ANA-3 was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The purified protein has a tetrameric arrangement composed by four identical 55 kDa subunits. The biochemical characterization of this enzyme showed that it was distinguishable by its maximal activity at low temperatures comprised between 15-35°C. Interestingly, this biocatalyst preserves more than 85% of its activity in a broad range of temperatures from 4.0 to 45°C. Shewanella sp. ANA-3 L-arabinose isomerase was also optimally active at pH 5.5-6.5 and maintained over 80% of its activity at large pH values from 4.0 to 8.5. Furthermore, this enzyme exhibited a weak requirement for metallic ions for its activity evaluated at 0.6 mM Mn2+. Stability studies showed that this protein is highly stable mainly at low temperature and pH values. Remarkably, T268K mutation clearly enhances the enzyme stability at low pH values. Use of this L-arabinose isomerase for D-tagatose production allows the achievement of attractive bioconversion rates of 16% at 4°C and 34% at 35°C. Conclusions Here we reported the purification and the

  14. A Double-Hotdog with a New Trick: Structure and Mechanism of the trans-Acyltransferase Polyketide Synthase Enoyl-isomerase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Many polyketide natural products exhibit invaluable medicinal properties, yet much remains to be understood regarding the machinery responsible for their biosynthesis. The recently discovered trans-acyltransferase polyketide synthases employ processing enzymes that catalyze modifications unique from those of the classical cis-acyltransferase polyketide synthases. The enoyl-isomerase domains of these megasynthases shift double bonds and are well-represented by an enzyme that helps forge the triene system within the antibiotic produced by the prototypical bacillaene synthase. This first crystal structure of an enoyl-isomerase, at 1.73 Å resolution, not only revealed relationships between this class of enzymes and dehydratases but also guided an investigation into the mechanism of double bond migration. The catalytic histidine, positioned differently from that of dehydratases, was demonstrated to independently shuttle a proton between the γ- and α-positions of the intermediate. This unprecedented mechanism highlights the catalytic diversity of divergent enzymes within trans-acyltransferase polyketide synthases. PMID:25089587

  15. Th1 stimulatory proteins of Leishmania donovani: comparative cellular and protective responses of rTriose phosphate isomerase, rProtein disulfide isomerase and rElongation factor-2 in combination with rHSP70 against visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Anil Kumar; Khare, Prashant; Joshi, Sumit; Kushawaha, Pramod Kumar; Sundar, Shyam; Dube, Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    In visceral leishmaniasis, the recovery from the disease is always associated with the generation of Th1-type of cellular responses. Based on this, we have previously identified several Th1-stimulatory proteins of Leishmania donovani -triose phosphate isomerase (TPI), protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and elongation factor-2 (EL-2) etc. including heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) which induced Th1-type of cellular responses in both cured Leishmania patients/hamsters. Since, HSPs, being the logical targets for vaccines aimed at augmenting cellular immunity and can be early targets in the immune response against intracellular pathogens; they could be exploited as vaccine/adjuvant to induce long-term immunity more effectively. Therefore, in this study, we checked whether HSP70 can further enhance the immunogenicity and protective responses of the above said Th1-stimulatory proteins. Since, in most of the studies, immunogenicity of HSP70 of L. donovani was assessed in native condition, herein we generated recombinant HSP70 and tested its potential to stimulate immune responses in lymphocytes of cured Leishmania infected hamsters as well as in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of cured patients of VL either individually or in combination with above mentioned recombinant proteins. rLdHSP70 alone elicited strong cellular responses along with remarkable up-regulation of IFN-γ and IL-12 cytokines and extremely lower level of IL-4 and IL-10. Among the various combinations, rLdHSP70 + rLdPDI emerged as superior one augmenting improved cellular responses followed by rLdHSP70 + rLdEL-2. These combinations were further evaluated for its protective potential wherein rLdHSP70 + rLdPDI again conferred utmost protection (∼80%) followed by rLdHSP70 + rLdEL-2 (∼75%) and generated a strong cellular immune response with significant increase in the levels of iNOS transcript as well as IFN-γ and IL-12 cytokines which was further supported by the high level of IgG2 antibody

  16. Simultaneously improving xylose fermentation and tolerance to lignocellulosic inhibitors through evolutionary engineering of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae harbouring xylose isomerase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Yeasts tolerant to toxic inhibitors from steam-pretreated lignocellulose with xylose co-fermentation capability represent an appealing approach for 2nd generation ethanol production. Whereas rational engineering, mutagenesis and evolutionary engineering are established techniques for either improved xylose utilisation or enhancing yeast tolerance, this report focuses on the simultaneous enhancement of these attributes through mutagenesis and evolutionary engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae harbouring xylose isomerase in anoxic chemostat culture using non-detoxified pretreatment liquor from triticale straw. Results Following ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain D5A+ (ATCC 200062 strain platform), harbouring the xylose isomerase (XI) gene for pentose co-fermentation was grown in anoxic chemostat culture for 100 generations at a dilution rate of 0.10 h-1 in a medium consisting of 60% (v/v) non-detoxified hydrolysate liquor from steam-pretreated triticale straw, supplemented with 20 g/L xylose as carbon source. In semi-aerobic batch cultures in the same medium, the isolated strain D5A+H exhibited a slightly lower maximum specific growth rate (μmax = 0.12 ± 0.01 h-1) than strain TMB3400, with no ethanol production observed by the latter strain. Strain D5A+H also exhibited a shorter lag phase (4 h vs. 30 h) and complete removal of HMF, furfural and acetic acid from the fermentation broth within 24 h, reaching an ethanol concentration of 1.54 g/L at a yield (Yp/s) of 0.06 g/g xylose and a specific productivity of 2.08 g/gh. Evolutionary engineering profoundly affected the yeast metabolism, given that parental strain D5A+ exhibited an oxidative metabolism on xylose prior to strain development. Conclusions Physiological adaptations confirm improvements in the resistance to and conversion of inhibitors from pretreatment liquor with simultaneous enhancement of xylose to ethanol fermentation. These data

  17. Decreased-activity mutants of phosphoglucose isomerase in the cytosol and chloroplast of Clarkia xantiana. Impact on mass-action ratios and fluxes to sucrose and starch, and estimation of Flux Control Coefficients and Elasticity Coefficients.

    PubMed Central

    Kruckeberg, A L; Neuhaus, H E; Feil, R; Gottlieb, L D; Stitt, M

    1989-01-01

    1. Subcellular-compartment-specific decreased-activity mutants of phosphoglucose isomerase in Clarkia xantiana were used to analyse the control of sucrose and starch synthesis during photosynthesis. Mutants were available in which the plastid phosphoglucose isomerase complement is decreased to 75% or 50% of the wild-type level, and the cytosol complement to 64%, 36% or 18% of the wild-type level. 2. The effects on the [product]/[substrate] ratio and on fluxes to sucrose or starch and the rate of photosynthesis were studied with the use of saturating or limiting light intensity to impose a high or low flux through these pathways. 3. Removal of a small fraction of either phosphoglucose isomerase leads to a significant shift of the [product]/[substrate] ratio away, from equilibrium. We conclude that there is no 'excess' of enzyme over that needed to maintain its reactants reasonably close to equilibrium. 4. Decreased phosphoglucose isomerase activity can also alter the fluxes to starch or sucrose. However, the effect on flux does not correlate with the extent of disequilibrium, and also varies depending on the subcellular compartment and on the conditions. 5. The results were used to estimate Flux Control Coefficients for the chloroplast and cytosolic phosphoglucose isomerases. The chloroplast isoenzyme exerts control on the rate of starch synthesis and on photosynthesis in saturating light intensity and CO2, but not at low light intensity. The cytosolic enzyme only exerts significant control when its complement is decreased 3-5-fold, and differs from the plastid isoenzyme in exerting more control in low light intensity. It has a positive Control Coefficient for sucrose synthesis, and a negative Control Coefficient for starch synthesis. 6. The Elasticity Coefficients in vivo of the cytosolic phosphoglucose isomerase were estimated to lie between 5 and 8 in the wild-type. They decrease in mutants with a lowered complement of cytosolic phosphoglucose isomerase. 7. The

  18. Integrated proteomic platforms for the comparative characterization of medulloblastoma and pilocytic astrocytoma pediatric brain tumors: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Martelli, Claudia; Iavarone, Federica; D'Angelo, Luca; Arba, Morena; Vincenzoni, Federica; Inserra, Ilaria; Delfino, Daniela; Rossetti, Diana Valeria; Caretto, Marta; Massimi, Luca; Tamburrini, Gianpiero; Di Rocco, Concezio; Caldarelli, Massimo; Messana, Irene; Castagnola, Massimo; Sanna, Maria Teresa; Desiderio, Claudia

    2015-06-01

    A top-down/bottom-up integrated proteomic approach based on LC-MS and 2-DE analysis was applied for comparative characterization of medulloblastoma and pilocytic astrocytoma posterior cranial fossa pediatric brain tumor tissues. Although rare, primary brain tumors are the most frequent solid tumors in the pediatric age. Among them the medulloblastoma is the prevalent malignant tumor in childhood while pilocytic astrocytoma is the most common, rarely showing a malignant progression. Due to the limited availability of this kind of sample, the study was applied to pooled tumor tissues for a preliminary investigation. The results showed different proteomic profiles of the two tumors and evidenced interesting differential expression of several proteins and peptides. Top-down proteomics of acid-soluble fractions of brain tumor homogenates ascribed a potential biomarker role of malignancy to β- and α-thymosins and their truncated proteoforms and to C-terminal truncated (des-GG) ubiquitin, resulting exclusively detected or over-expressed in the highly malignant medulloblastoma. The bottom-up proteomics of the acid-soluble fraction identified several proteins, some of them in common with 2-DE analysis of acid-insoluble pellets. Peroxiredoxin-1, peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A, triosephosphate isomerase, pyruvate kinase PKM, tubulin beta and alpha chains, heat shock protein HSP-90-beta and different histones characterized the medulloblastoma while the Ig kappa chain C region, serotransferrin, tubulin beta 2A chain and vimentin the pilocytic astrocytoma. The two proteomic strategies, with their pros and cons, well complemented each other in characterizing the proteome of brain tumor tissues and in disclosing potential disease biomarkers to be validated in a future study on individual samples of both tumor histotypes. PMID:25909245

  19. Potentiation of the reductase activity of protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) by 19-nortestosterone, bacitracin, fluoxetine, and ammonium sulphate.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Maya Haj; Alvarez, Eva; Cahoreau, Claire; Klett, Danièle; Lecompte, François; Combarnous, Yves

    2011-10-01

    Protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) in the endoplasmic reticulum catalyzes the rearrangement of disulphide bridges during folding of secreted proteins. It binds various molecules that inhibit its activity. But here, we looked for molecules that would potentiate its activity. PDI reductase activity was measured in vitro using di-eosin-oxidized glutathione as substrate. Its classical inhibitor bacitracin was found to exert a biphasic effect: stimulatory at low concentrations (∼10(-6) M) and inhibitory only at higher concentrations (∼10(-4)-10(-3) M). The weak oestrogenic molecule bisphenol A was found to exert a weak inhibitory effect on PDI reductase activity relative to the strong oestrogens, ethynylestradiol, and diethylstilbestrol. Like 19-nortestosterone, fluoxetine was found to exert a potentiating effect on PDI reductase activity and their potentiating effects could be reversed by increasing concentrations of oestrogens. In conclusion, this paper provides the first identification of potentiators of PDI activity that are potential pharmaceuticals against pathologies affecting protein folding such as Alzheimer's disease. PMID:21250820

  20. Effect of Pharmaceutical Potential Endocrine Disruptor Compounds on Protein Disulfide Isomerase Reductase Activity Using Di-Eosin-Oxidized-Glutathion

    PubMed Central

    Klett, Danièle; Cahoreau, Claire; Villeret, Mélanie; Combarnous, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Background Protein Disulfide Isomerase (PDI) in the endoplasmic reticulum of all cells catalyzes the rearrangement of disulfide bridges during folding of membrane and secreted proteins. As PDI is also known to bind various molecules including hormones such as estradiol and thyroxin, we considered the hypothesis that adverse effects of endocrine-disrupter compounds (EDC) could be mediated through their interaction with PDI leading to defects in membrane or secreted proteins. Methodology/Principal Findings Taking advantage of the recent description of the fluorescence self quenched substrate di-eosin-oxidized-glutathion (DiE-GSSG), we determined kinetically the effects of various potential pharmaceutical EDCs on the in-vitro reductase activity of bovine liver PDI by measuring the fluorescence of the reaction product (E-GSH). Our data show that estrogens (ethynylestradiol and bisphenol-A) as well as indomethacin exert an inhibition whereas medroxyprogesteroneacetate and nortestosterone exert a potentiation of bovine PDI reductase activity. Conclusions The present data indicate that the tested EDCs could not only affect endocrine target cells through nuclear receptors as previously shown, but could also affect these and all other cells by positively or negatively affecting PDI activity. The substrate DiE-GSSG has been demonstrated to be a convenient substrate to measure PDI reductase activity in the presence of various potential EDCs. It will certainely be usefull for the screening of potential effect of all kinds of chemicals on PDI reductase activity. PMID:20209080

  1. mRNA and Protein levels of rat pancreas specific protein disulphide isomerase are downregulated during Hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajani; Bhar, Kaushik; Sen, Nandini; Bhowmick, Debajit; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Panda, Koustubh; Siddhanta, Anirban

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes (Type I and Type II) which affects nearly every organ in the body is a multi-factorial non-communicable disorder. Hyperglycemia is the most characteristic feature of this disease. Loss of beta cells is common in both types of diabetes whose detailed cellular and molecular mechanisms are yet to be elucidated. As this disease is complex, identification of specific biomarkers for its early detection, management and devising new therapies is challenging. Based on the fact that functionally defective proteins provide the biochemical basis for many diseases, in this study, we tried to identify differentially expressed proteins during hyperglycemia. For that, hyperglycemia was induced in overnight fasted rats by intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). The pancreas was isolated from control and treated rats for subsequent analyses. The 2D-gel electrophoresis followed by MALDI-TOF-MS-MS analyses revealed several up- and down-regulated proteins in hyperglycemic rat pancreas including the downregulation of a pancreas specific isoform of protein disulphide isomerase a2 (Pdia2).This observation was validated by western blot. Quantitative PCR experiments showed that the level of Pdia2 mRNA is also proportionally reduced in hyperglycemic pancreas. PMID:26934777

  2. Structures of the Dimerization Domains of the 'Escherichia Coli' Disulfide-Bond Isomerase Enzymes Dsbc And Dsbg

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, S.-M.; Koon, N.; Squire, C.; Metcalf, P.; /Auckland U.

    2007-07-12

    DsbC and DsbG are periplasmic disulfide-bond isomerases, enzymes that facilitate the folding of secreted proteins with multiple disulfide bonds by catalyzing disulfide-bond rearrangement. Both enzymes also have in vitro chaperone activity. The crystal structures of these molecules are similar and both are V-shaped homodimeric modular structures. Each dimeric molecule contains two separate C-terminal thioredoxin-fold domains, joined by hinged helical ''stalks'' to a single N-terminal dimerization domain formed from the N-terminal 67 residues of each monomer. In this work, the crystal structures of the separate DsbC and DsbG dimerization domains have been determined at resolutions of 2.0 and 1.9 angstroms, respectively. The two structures are both similar to the corresponding domains in the full-length molecules, showing that the dimerization domains fold independently of the catalytic portions of the full-length molecules. Localized structural differences between DsbC and DsbG were observed near the dimer interface and may be relevant to the different functions of the two enzymes.

  3. Role of protein disulfide isomerase and other thiol-reactive proteins in HIV-1 envelope protein-mediated fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Ou Wu . E-mail: wou@niaid.nih.gov; Silver, Jonathan . E-mail: jsilver@nih.gov

    2006-07-05

    Cell-surface protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) has been proposed to promote disulfide bond rearrangements in HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) that accompany Env-mediated fusion. We evaluated the role of PDI in ways that have not been previously tested by downregulating PDI with siRNA and by overexpressing wild-type or variant forms of PDI in transiently and stably transfected cells. These manipulations, as well as treatment with anti-PDI antibodies, had only small effects on infection or cell fusion mediated by NL4-3 or AD8 strains of HIV-1. However, the cell-surface thiol-reactive reagent 5, 5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) had a much stronger inhibitory effect in our system, suggesting that cell-surface thiol-containing molecules other than PDI, acting alone or in concert, have a greater effect than PDI on HIV-1 Env-mediated fusion. We evaluated one such candidate, thioredoxin, a PDI family member reported to reduce a labile disulfide bond in CD4. We found that the ability of thioredoxin to reduce the disulfide bond in CD4 is enhanced in the presence of HIV-1 Env gp120 and that thioredoxin also reduces disulfide bonds in gp120 directly in the absence of CD4. We discuss the implications of these observations for identification of molecules involved in disulfide rearrangements in Env during fusion.

  4. Locating active-site hydrogen atoms in d-xylose isomerase: Time-of-flight neutron diffraction

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Amy K.; Li, Xinmin; Carrell, H. L.; Hanson, B. Leif; Langan, Paul; Coates, Leighton; Schoenborn, Benno P.; Glusker, Jenny P.; Bunick, Gerard J.

    2006-01-01

    Time-of-flight neutron diffraction has been used to locate hydrogen atoms that define the ionization states of amino acids in crystals of d-xylose isomerase. This enzyme, from Streptomyces rubiginosus, is one of the largest enzymes studied to date at high resolution (1.8 Å) by this method. We have determined the position and orientation of a metal ion-bound water molecule that is located in the active site of the enzyme; this water has been thought to be involved in the isomerization step in which d-xylose is converted to d-xylulose or d-glucose to d-fructose. It is shown to be water (rather than a hydroxyl group) under the conditions of measurement (pH 8.0). Our analyses also reveal that one lysine probably has an −NH2-terminal group (rather than NH3+). The ionization state of each histidine residue also was determined. High-resolution x-ray studies (at 0.94 Å) indicate disorder in some side chains when a truncated substrate is bound and suggest how some side chains might move during catalysis. This combination of time-of-flight neutron diffraction and x-ray diffraction can contribute greatly to the elucidation of enzyme mechanisms. PMID:16707576

  5. Triosephosphate isomerase I170V alters catalytic site, enhances stability and induces pathology in a Drosophila model of TPI deficiency

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Roland, Bartholomew P.; Amrich, Christopher G.; Kammerer, Charles J.; Stuchul, Kimberly A.; Larsen, Samantha B.; Rode, Sascha; Aslam, Anoshe A.; Heroux, Annie; Wetzel, Ronald; VanDemark, Andrew P.; et al

    2014-10-16

    Triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) is a glycolytic enzyme which homodimerizes for full catalytic activity. Mutations of the TPI gene elicit a disease known as TPI Deficiency, a glycolytic enzymopathy noted for its unique severity of neurological symptoms. Evidence suggests that TPI Deficiency pathogenesis may be due to conformational changes of the protein, likely affecting dimerization and protein stability. In this report, we genetically and physically characterize a human disease-associated TPI mutation caused by an I170V substitution. Human TPII170V elicits behavioral abnormalities in Drosophila. An examination of hTPII170V enzyme kinetics revealed this substitution reduced catalytic turnover, while assessments of thermal stability demonstratedmore » an increase in enzyme stability. Furthermore, the crystal structure of the homodimeric I170V mutant reveals changes in the geometry of critical residues within the catalytic pocket. In the end, collectively these data reveal new observations of the structural and kinetic determinants of TPI deficiency pathology, providing new insights into disease pathogenesis.« less

  6. Identification of Amino Acids that Account for Long-Range Interactions in Two Triosephosphate Isomerases from Pathogenic Trypanosomes

    SciTech Connect

    García-Torres, Itzhel; Cabrera, Nallely; Torres-Larios, Alfredo; Rodríguez-Bolaños, Mónica; Díaz-Mazariegos, Selma; Gómez-Puyou, Armando; Perez-Montfort, Ruy

    2012-04-02

    For a better comprehension of the structure-function relationship in proteins it is necessary to identify the amino acids that are relevant for measurable protein functions. Because of the numerous contacts that amino acids establish within proteins and the cooperative nature of their interactions, it is difficult to achieve this goal. Thus, the study of protein-ligand interactions is usually focused on local environmental structural differences. Here, using a pair of triosephosphate isomerase enzymes with extremely high homology from two different organisms, we demonstrate that the control of a seventy-fold difference in reactivity of the interface cysteine is located in several amino acids from two structurally unrelated regions that do not contact the cysteine sensitive to the sulfhydryl reagent methylmethane sulfonate, nor the residues in its immediate vicinity. The change in reactivity is due to an increase in the apparent pKa of the interface cysteine produced by the mutated residues. Our work, which involved grafting systematically portions of one protein into the other protein, revealed unsuspected and multisite long-range interactions that modulate the properties of the interface cysteines and has general implications for future studies on protein structure-function relationships.

  7. Thermophilic Thermotoga maritima ribose-5-phosphate isomerase RpiB: optimized heat treatment purification and basic characterization.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fangfang; Zhang, Xiao-Zhou; Myung, Suwan; Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2012-04-01

    The open reading frame TM1080 from Thermotoga maritima encoding ribose-5-phosphate isomerase type B (RpiB) was cloned and over-expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). After optimization of cell culture conditions, more than 30% of intracellular proteins were soluble recombinant RpiB. High-purity RpiB was obtained by heat pretreatment through its optimization in buffer choice, buffer pH, as well as temperature and duration of pretreatment. This enzyme had the maximum activity at 70°C and pH 6.5-8.0. Under its suboptimal conditions (60°C and pH 7.0), k(cat) and K(m) values were 540s(-1) and 7.6mM, respectively; it had a half lifetime of 71h, resulting in its turn-over number of more than 2×10(8)mol of product per mol of enzyme. This study suggests that it is highly feasible to discover thermostable enzymes from exploding genomic DNA database of extremophiles with the desired stability suitable for in vitro synthetic biology projects and produce high-purity thermoenzymes at very low costs. PMID:22333529

  8. Negative Regulation of the Stability and Tumor Suppressor Function of Fbw7 by the Pin1 Prolyl Isomerase

    PubMed Central

    Min, Sang-Hyun; Lau, Alan W.; Lee, Tae Ho; Inuzuka, Hiroyuki; Wei, Shuo; Huang, Pengyu; Shaik, Shavali; Lee, Daniel Yenhong; Finn, Greg; Balastik, Martin; Chen, Chun-Hau; Luo, Manli; Tron, Adriana E.; DeCaprio, James A.; Zhou, Xiao Zhen; Wei, Wenyi; Lu, Kun Ping

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Fbw7 is the substrate recognition component of the SCF (Skp1-Cullin-F-box)-type E3 ligase complex and a well-characterized tumor suppressor that targets numerous oncoproteins for destruction. Genomic deletion or mutation of FBW7 has been frequently found in various types of human cancers, however, little is known about the upstream signaling pathway(s) governing Fbw7 stability and cellular functions. Here we report that Fbw7 protein destruction and tumor suppressor function are negatively regulated by the prolyl isomerase Pin1. Pin1 interacts with Fbw7 in a phoshorylation-dependent manner and promotes Fbw7 self-ubiquitination and protein degradation by disrupting Fbw7 dimerization. Consequently, over-expressing Pin1 reduces Fbw7 abundance and suppresses Fbw7’s ability to inhibit proliferation and transformation. By contrast, depletion of Pin1 in cancer cells leads to elevated Fbw7 expression, which subsequently reduces Mcl-1 abundance, sensitizing cancer cells to Taxol. Thus, Pin1-mediated inhibition of Fbw7 contributes to oncogenesis and Pin1 may be a promising drug target for anti-cancer therapy. PMID:22608923

  9. Negative regulation of the stability and tumor suppressor function of Fbw7 by the Pin1 prolyl isomerase.

    PubMed

    Min, Sang-Hyun; Lau, Alan W; Lee, Tae Ho; Inuzuka, Hiroyuki; Wei, Shuo; Huang, Pengyu; Shaik, Shavali; Lee, Daniel Yenhong; Finn, Greg; Balastik, Martin; Chen, Chun-Hau; Luo, Manli; Tron, Adriana E; Decaprio, James A; Zhou, Xiao Zhen; Wei, Wenyi; Lu, Kun Ping

    2012-06-29

    Fbw7 is the substrate recognition component of the Skp1-Cullin-F-box (SCF)-type E3 ligase complex and a well-characterized tumor suppressor that targets numerous oncoproteins for destruction. Genomic deletion or mutation of FBW7 has been frequently found in various types of human cancers; however, little is known about the upstream signaling pathway(s) governing Fbw7 stability and cellular functions. Here we report that Fbw7 protein destruction and tumor suppressor function are negatively regulated by the prolyl isomerase Pin1. Pin1 interacts with Fbw7 in a phoshorylation-dependent manner and promotes Fbw7 self-ubiquitination and protein degradation by disrupting Fbw7 dimerization. Consequently, overexpressing Pin1 reduces Fbw7 abundance and suppresses Fbw7's ability to inhibit proliferation and transformation. By contrast, depletion of Pin1 in cancer cells leads to elevated Fbw7 expression, which subsequently reduces Mcl-1 abundance, sensitizing cancer cells to Taxol. Thus, Pin1-mediated inhibition of Fbw7 contributes to oncogenesis, and Pin1 may be a promising drug target for anticancer therapy. PMID:22608923

  10. Prolyl isomerase Pin1 regulated signaling pathway revealed by Pin1 +/+ and Pin1 -/- mouse embryonic fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guo-Liang; Qiu, Jin-Hua; Li, Bin-Bin; Wu, Jing-Jing; Lu, Yan; Liu, Xing-Yan; He, Zhiwei

    2013-10-01

    Pin1 (peptidylprolyl cis/trans isomerase, NIMA-interacting 1) plays a key role in a number of diseases including cancer and Alzheimer disease. Previous studies have identified a wide range of phosphoproteins as Pin1 substrates. Related pathways were analyzed separately. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive picture involving Pin1 regulation. A genome-wide mRNA expression microarray was carried out using the RNA isolation from Pin1 (+/+) and Pin1 (-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells. Signaling pathways regulated by Pin1 were analyzed with the utility of KEGG pathway and GO annotation. An expression pattern regulated by Pin1 was revealed. A total of 606 genes, 375 being up-regulated and 231 down-regulated, were differentially expressed when comparing Pin1 +/+ to Pin1 -/- MEF cells. Totally 48 pathways were shown to be regulated by Pin1 expression in KEGG pathway analysis. In the GO annotation system, 19 processes on biological processes, 15 processes on cellular components, and 18 processes on molecular functions were found to be in the regulation of Pin1 expression. Pathways related to immune system and cancer showed most significant association with Pin1 regulation. Pin1 is an important regulator in a wide range of signaling pathways that were related to immune system and cancer. PMID:23563987

  11. Determination of kinetics and crystal structure of a novel Type 2 Isopentenyl Diphosphate: Dimethylallyl Diphosphate Isomerase from Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    de Ruyck, Jerome; Janczak, Matthew W.; Neti, Syam Sundar; Rothman, Steven C.; Schubert, Heidi L.; Cornish, Rita M.; Matagne, Andre; Wouters, Johan; Poulter, C. Dale

    2014-01-01

    Isopentenyl diphosphate dimethylallyl diphosphate isomerase (IDI) is a key enzyme in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway and is required for all organisms that synthesize isoprenoid metabolites from mevalonate. Type 1 IDI (IDI-1) is a metalloprotein and is found in eukaryotes, while the type-2 isoform (IDI-2) is a flavoenzyme found in bacteria and completely absent from human. IDI-2 from the pathogenic bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae was recombinantly expressed in E. coli. Steady state kinetic studies of the enzyme indicated that FMNH2 (KM= 0.3 μM) bound before isopentenyl diphosphate (KM= 40 μM) in an ordered binding mechanism. An X-ray crystal structure at 1.4 Å resolution was obtained for the holo-enzyme, in the closed conformation with reduced flavin cofactor and two sulfate ions in the active site. These results helped to further approach the enzymatic mechanism of IDI-2 and, thus, open new possibilities for the rational design of antibacterial compounds against closely sequence and structure related pathogens such as E. faecalis or S. aureus. PMID:24910111

  12. Novel anti-thrombotic agent for modulation of protein disulfide isomerase family member ERp57 for prophylactic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Guozhen; Shan, Luchen; Guo, Lin; Chu, Ivan Keung; Li, Guohui; Quan, Quan; Zhao, Yun; Chong, Cheong Meng; Zhang, Zaijun; Yu, Pei; Hoi, Maggie Pui Man; Sun, Yewei; Wang, Yuqiang; Lee, Simon MingYuen

    2015-01-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family members including PDI and ERp57 emerge as novel targets for anti-thrombotic treatments, but chemical agents with selectivity remain to be explored. We previously reported a novel derivative of danshensu (DSS), known as ADTM, displayed strong cardioprotective effects against oxidative stress-induced cellular injury in vitro and acute myocardial infarct in vivo. Herein, using chemical proteomics approach, we identified ERp57 as a major target of ADTM. ADTM displayed potent inhibitory effects on the redox activity of ERp57, inhibited the adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced expressions of P-selectin and αIIbβ3 integrin, and disrupted the interaction between ERp57 and αIIbβ3. In addition, ADTM inhibited both arachidonic acid (AA)-induced and ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. Furthermore, ADTM significantly inhibited rat platelet aggregation and thrombus formation in vivo. Taken together, ADTM represents a promising candidate for anti-thrombotic therapy targeting ERp57. PMID:26037049

  13. Influence of the Photorhabdus luminescens Phosphomannose Isomerase Gene, manA, on Mannose Utilization, Exopolysaccharide Structure, and Biofilm Formation ▿

    PubMed Central

    Amos, Matthew R.; Sanchez-Contreras, Maria; Jackson, Robert W.; Muñoz-Berbel, Xavier; Ciche, Todd A.; Yang, Guowei; Cooper, Richard M.; Waterfield, Nicholas R.

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) is produced by diverse bacterial pathogens and fulfills assorted roles, including providing a structural matrix for biofilm formation and more specific functions in virulence, such as protection against immune defenses. We report here the first investigation of some of the genes important for biofilm formation in Photorhabdus luminescens and demonstrate the key role of the phosphomannose isomerase gene, manA, in the structure of functional EPS. Phenotypic analyses of a manA-deficient mutant showed the importance of EPS in motility, insect virulence, and biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces as well as the requirement of this gene for the use of mannose as the sole carbon source. Conversely, this defect had no apparent impact on symbiosis with the heterorhabditid nematode vector. A more detailed analysis of biofilm formation revealed that the manA mutant was able to attach to surfaces with the same efficiency as that of the wild-type strain but could not develop the more extended biofilm matrix structures. A compositional analysis of P. luminescens EPS reveals how the manA mutation has a major effect on the formation of a complete, branched EPS. PMID:21148694

  14. The Expression of Millettia pinnata Chalcone Isomerase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Salt-Sensitive Mutants Enhances Salt-Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Hu, Tangjin; Huang, Jianzi; Lu, Xiang; Huang, Baiqu; Zheng, Yizhi

    2013-01-01

    The present study demonstrates a new Millettia pinnata chalcone isomerase (MpCHI) whose transcription level in leaf was confirmed to be enhanced after being treated by seawater or NaCl (500 mM) via transcriptome sequencing and Real-Time Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (QRT-PCR) analyses. Its full length cDNA (666 bp) was obtained by 3′-end and 5′-end Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE). The analysis via NCBI BLAST indicates that both aminoacid sequence and nucleotide sequence of the MpCHI clone share high homology with other leguminous CHIs (73%–86%). Evolutionarily, the phylogenic analysis further revealed that the MpCHI is a close relative of leguminous CHIs. The MpCHI protein consists of 221 aminoacid (23.64 KDa), whose peptide length, amino acid residues of substrate-binding site and reactive site are very similar to other leguminous CHIs reported previously. Two pYES2-MpCHI transformed salt-sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants (Δnha1 and Δnhx1) showed improved salt-tolerance significantly compared to pYES2-vector transformed yeast mutants, suggesting the MpCHI or the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway could regulate the resistance to salt stress in M. pinnata. PMID:23615469

  15. Prolyl isomerase Pin1 promotes survival in EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma cells with an epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotype.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Yuji; Nishikiori, Hirotaka; Hirai, Sachie; Yamaguchi, Miki; Yamada, Gen; Watanabe, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Kojima, Takashi; Niki, Toshiro; Takahashi, Hiroki

    2016-04-01

    The secondary epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) T790M mutation is the most prominent mechanism that confers resistance to first- or second-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in lung cancer treatment. Although third-generation EGFR TKIs can suppress the kinase activity of T790M-positive EGFR, they still cannot eradicate EGFR-mutated cancer cells. We previously reported that a subpopulation of EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinomas depends on enhanced autophagy, instead of EGFR, for survival, and in this study we explore another mechanism that contributes to TKI resistance. We demonstrate here that an EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma cell line, H1975 (L858R+T790M), has a subset of cells that exhibits an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype and can thrive in the presence of third-generation EGFR TKIs. These cells depend on not only autophagy but also on the isomerase Pin1 for survival in vitro, unlike their parental cells. The Pin1 protein was expressed in an EGFR-mutant lung cancer tissue that has undergone partial EMT and acquired resistance to EGFR TKIs, but not its primary tumor. These findings suggest that inhibition of Pin1 activity can be a novel strategy in lung cancer treatment. PMID:26752745

  16. S-nitrosylation of the thioredoxin-like domains of protein disulfide isomerase and its role in neurodegenerative conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, Myra; Harris, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    Correct protein folding and inhibition of protein aggregation is facilitated by a cellular ‘quality control system’ that engages a network of protein interactions including molecular chaperones and the ubiquitin proteasome system. Key chaperones involved in these regulatory mechanisms are the protein disulphide isomerases (PDI) and their homologues, predominantly expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum of most tissues. Redox changes that disrupt ER homeostasis can lead to modification of these enzymes or chaperones with the loss of their proposed neuroprotective role resulting in an increase in protein misfolding. Misfolded protein aggregates have been observed in several disease states and are considered to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Amyotrophic Lateral sclerosis. This review will focus on the importance of the thioredoxin-like -CGHC- active site of PDI and how our understanding of this structural motif will play a key role in unravelling the pathogenic mechanisms that underpin these neurodegenerative conditions.

  17. An innovative method for immobilizing sucrose isomerase on ε-poly-L-lysine modified mesoporous TiO2.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lingtian; Liu, Yi; Chi, Bo; Xu, Zheng; Feng, Xiaohai; Li, Sha; Xu, Hong

    2015-11-15

    Sucrose isomerase (SIase) is the key enzyme in the enzymatic synthesis of isomaltulose. Mesoporous titanium dioxide (M-TiO2) and ε-poly-L-lysine-functionalized M-TiO2 (EPL-M-TiO2) were prepared as carriers for immobilizing SIase. SIase was effectively immobilized on EPL-M-TiO2 (SI-EPL-M-TiO2) with an enzyme activity of 39.41 U/g, and the enzymatic activity recovery rate up to 93.26%. The optimal pH and temperature of immobilized SIase were 6.0 and 30° C, respectively. SI-EPL-M-TiO2 was more stable in pH and thermal tests than SIase immobilized on M-TiO2 and free SIase. K(m) of SI-EPL-M-TiO2 was 204.92 mmol/L, and vmax was 45.7 μmol/L/s. Batch catalysis reaction of sucrose by SI-EPL-M-TiO2 was performed under the optimal conditions. The half-life period of SI-EPL-M-TiO2 under continuous reaction was 114 h, and the conversion rate of sucrose after 16 batches consistently remained at around 95%, which indicates that SI-EPL-M-TiO2 has good operational stability. Thus, SI-EPL-M-TiO2 can be used as a biocatalyst in food industries. PMID:25977014

  18. Co-expression of Triosephosphate Isomerase, Fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate Aldolase and Fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase in E.coli.

    PubMed

    Tang, Gong-Li; Yang, Chun-Song; Bao, Jian-Shao; Wang, Yan-Fang; Chen, Hai-Bao; Shi, Ding-Ji; Liu, Feng-Long

    2001-01-01

    To establish a way to control or to decrease the daily increasing concentration of atmospheric CO(2), metabolically engineering Cyanobacteria was taken for the improvement of its efficiency of photosynthetic CO(2) fixation. As a preliminary stage of this study, three genes coding for three important Calvin cycle enzymes, i.e. triosephosphate isomerase (TPI), fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate aldolase(FBP aldolase),and fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase(FBPase), respectively, have been cloned into one plasmid, pTrcFAT, which is controlled by promoter trc. Successful co-transcriptional expression of these three genes resulted inhigh yields of these enzymes under the induction of 0.25 mmol/L IPTG. Bioassay showed that the expressed enzymes from one liter of culture could directly catalyze DHAP conversion into 700 &mgr;mol of fructose-6-phosphate (F-6-P) per one minute. Furthermore, in order to introduce the three genes co-expression system into Cyanobacteria, a shuttle plasmid between E.coli and Cyanobacteria was constructed using plasmid pTrcFAT and a shuttle vector pDC-8, forming ashuttle plasmid pDCFAT-2 containing a dimer of the three genes co-expression operator. Successful co-expression in E.coli of pDCFAT-2 with higher full activity has been obtained. This shuttle was used to transform of Cyanobacteria Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942, and a few positive colonies were obtained. PMID:12053203

  19. Methylglyoxal produced by amyloid-β peptide-induced nitrotyrosination of triosephosphate isomerase triggers neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Tajes, Marta; Eraso-Pichot, Abel; Rubio-Moscardó, Fanny; Guivernau, Biuse; Ramos-Fernández, Eva; Bosch-Morató, Mònica; Guix, Francesc Xavier; Clarimón, Jordi; Miscione, Gian Pietro; Boada, Mercé; Gil-Gómez, Gabriel; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Molina, Henrik; Villà-Freixa, Jordi; Vicente, Rubén; Muñoz, Francisco J

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) aggregates induce nitro-oxidative stress, contributing to the characteristic neurodegeneration found in Alzheimer's disease (AD). One of the most strongly nitrotyrosinated proteins in AD is the triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) enzyme which regulates glycolytic flow, and its efficiency decreased when it is nitrotyrosinated. The main aims of this study were to analyze the impact of TPI nitrotyrosination on cell viability and to identify the mechanism behind this effect. In human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y), we evaluated the effects of Aβ42 oligomers on TPI nitrotyrosination. We found an increased production of methylglyoxal (MG), a toxic byproduct of the inefficient nitro-TPI function. The proapoptotic effects of Aβ42 oligomers, such as decreasing the protective Bcl2 and increasing the proapoptotic caspase-3 and Bax, were prevented with a MG chelator. Moreover, we used a double mutant TPI (Y165F and Y209F) to mimic nitrosative modifications due to Aβ action. Neuroblastoma cells transfected with the double mutant TPI consistently triggered MG production and a decrease in cell viability due to apoptotic mechanisms. Our data show for the first time that MG is playing a key role in the neuronal death induced by Aβ oligomers. This occurs because of TPI nitrotyrosination, which affects both tyrosines associated with the catalytic center. PMID:24614897

  20. Metabolomic and 13C-Metabolic Flux Analysis of a Xylose-Consuming Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain Expressing Xylose Isomerase

    PubMed Central

    Wasylenko, Thomas M.; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades significant progress has been made in the engineering of xylose-consuming Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for production of lignocellulosic biofuels. However, the ethanol productivities achieved on xylose are still significantly lower than those observed on glucose for reasons that are not well understood. We have undertaken an analysis of central carbon metabolite pool sizes and metabolic fluxes on glucose and on xylose under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in a strain capable of rapid xylose assimilation via xylose isomerase in order to investigate factors that may limit the rate of xylose fermentation. We find that during xylose utilization the flux through the non-oxidative PPP is high but the flux through the oxidative PPP is low, highlighting an advantage of the strain employed in this study. Furthermore, xylose fails to elicit the full carbon catabolite repression response that is characteristic of glucose fermentation in S. cerevisiae. We present indirect evidence that the incomplete activation of the fermentation program on xylose results in a bottleneck in lower glycolysis, leading to inefficient re-oxidation of NADH produced in glycolysis. PMID:25311863

  1. Comparison of the xylose reductase-xylitol dehydrogenase and the xylose isomerase pathways for xylose fermentation by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Karhumaa, Kaisa; Sanchez, Rosa Garcia; Hahn-Hägerdal, Bärbel; Gorwa-Grauslund, Marie-F

    2007-01-01

    Background Two heterologous pathways have been used to construct recombinant xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains: i) the xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) pathway and ii) the xylose isomerase (XI) pathway. In the present study, the Pichia stipitis XR-XDH pathway and the Piromyces XI pathway were compared in an isogenic strain background, using a laboratory host strain with genetic modifications known to improve xylose fermentation (overexpressed xylulokinase, overexpressed non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and deletion of the aldose reductase gene GRE3). The two isogenic strains and the industrial xylose-fermenting strain TMB 3400 were studied regarding their xylose fermentation capacity in defined mineral medium and in undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysate. Results In defined mineral medium, the xylose consumption rate, the specific ethanol productivity, and the final ethanol concentration were significantly higher in the XR- and XDH-carrying strain, whereas the highest ethanol yield was achieved with the strain carrying XI. While the laboratory strains only fermented a minor fraction of glucose in the undetoxified lignocellulose hydrolysate, the industrial strain TMB 3400 fermented nearly all the sugar available. Xylitol was formed by the XR-XDH-carrying strains only in mineral medium, whereas in lignocellulose hydrolysate no xylitol formation was detected. Conclusion Despite by-product formation, the XR-XDH xylose utilization pathway resulted in faster ethanol production than using the best presently reported XI pathway in the strain background investigated. The need for robust industrial yeast strains for fermentation of undetoxified spruce hydrolysates was also confirmed. PMID:17280608

  2. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Activated Transcription Factor ATF6α Requires the Disulfide Isomerase PDIA5 To Modulate Chemoresistance

    PubMed Central

    Higa, Arisa; Taouji, Said; Lhomond, Stéphanie; Jensen, Devon; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E.; Simpson, Jeremy C.; Pasquet, Jean-Max; Schekman, Randy

    2014-01-01

    ATF6α, a membrane-anchored transcription factor from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that modulates the cellular response to stress as an effector of the unfolded-protein response (UPR), is a key player in the development of tumors of different origin. ATF6α activation has been linked to oncogenic transformation and tumor maintenance; however, the mechanism(s) underlying this phenomenon remains elusive. Here, using a phenotypic small interfering RNA (siRNA) screening, we identified a novel role for ATF6α in chemoresistance and defined the protein disulfide isomerase A5 (PDIA5) as necessary for ATF6α activation upon ER stress. PDIA5 contributed to disulfide bond rearrangement in ATF6α under stress conditions, thereby leading to ATF6α export from the ER and activation of its target genes. Further analysis of the mechanism demonstrated that PDIA5 promotes ATF6α packaging into coat protein complex II (COPII) vesicles and that the PDIA5/ATF6α activation loop is essential to confer chemoresistance on cancer cells. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of the PDIA5/ATF6α axis restored sensitivity to the drug treatment. This work defines the mechanisms underlying the role of ATF6α activation in carcinogenesis and chemoresistance; furthermore, it identifies PDIA5 as a key regulator ATF6α-mediated cellular functions in cancer. PMID:24636989

  3. Enhancing isomaltulose production by recombinant Escherichia coli producing sucrose isomerase: culture medium optimization containing agricultural wastes and cell immobilization.

    PubMed

    Li, Sha; Xu, Hong; Yu, Jianguang; Wang, Yanyuan; Feng, Xiaohai; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2013-10-01

    Isomaltulose is a structural isomer of sucrose commercially used in food industries. In this work, recombinant Escherichia coli producing sucrose isomerase (SIase) was used to convert sucrose into isomaltulose. To develop an economical industrial medium, untreated cane molasses (10.63 g l⁻¹), yeast extract (25.93 g l⁻¹), and corn steep liquor (10.45 g l⁻¹) were used as main culture compositions for SIase production. The relatively high SIase activity (14.50 ± 0.11 U mg DCW⁻¹) was obtained by the recombinant cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation on SIase production by engineered E. coli using untreated cane molasses. The recombinant E. coli cells expressing the SIase gene were immobilized in calcium alginate gel in order to improve the efficiency of recycling. The immobilization was most effective with 2 % (w/v) sodium alginate and 3 % (w/v) calcium chloride. The optimal initial biomass for immobilization was 20 % (w/v, wet wt.), with a hardening time of 8 h for cell immobilization. The immobilized E. coli cells exhibited good stability for 30 batches with the productivity of 0.45 g isomaltulose g pellet⁻¹ h⁻¹. A continuous isomaltulose formation process using a column reactor remained stable for 40 days with 83 ± 2 % isomaltulose yield, which would be beneficial for economical production of isomaltulose. PMID:23300051

  4. Structural and Genetic Studies Demonstrate Neurologic Dysfunction in Triosephosphate Isomerase Deficiency Is Associated with Impaired Synaptic Vesicle Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Roland, Bartholomew P.; Zeccola, Alison M.; Larsen, Samantha B.; Amrich, Christopher G.; Talsma, Aaron D.; Stuchul, Kimberly A.; Heroux, Annie; Levitan, Edwin S.; VanDemark, Andrew P.; Palladino, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) deficiency is a poorly understood disease characterized by hemolytic anemia, cardiomyopathy, neurologic dysfunction, and early death. TPI deficiency is one of a group of diseases known as glycolytic enzymopathies, but is unique for its severe patient neuropathology and early mortality. The disease is caused by missense mutations and dysfunction in the glycolytic enzyme, TPI. Previous studies have detailed structural and catalytic changes elicited by disease-associated TPI substitutions, and samples of patient erythrocytes have yielded insight into patient hemolytic anemia; however, the neuropathophysiology of this disease remains a mystery. This study combines structural, biochemical, and genetic approaches to demonstrate that perturbations of the TPI dimer interface are sufficient to elicit TPI deficiency neuropathogenesis. The present study demonstrates that neurologic dysfunction resulting from TPI deficiency is characterized by synaptic vesicle dysfunction, and can be attenuated with catalytically inactive TPI. Collectively, our findings are the first to identify, to our knowledge, a functional synaptic defect in TPI deficiency derived from molecular changes in the TPI dimer interface. PMID:27031109

  5. Molecular Cloning, Expression Analysis, and Preliminarily Functional Characterization of the Gene Encoding Protein Disulfide Isomerase from Jatropha curcas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haibo; Zou, Zhurong; Gong, Ming

    2015-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants, arising from various environmental stresses, impair the thiol-contained proteins that are susceptible to irregular oxidative formation of disulfide bonds, which might be alleviated by a relatively specific modifier called protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). From our previous data of the transcriptome and digital gene expression of cold-hardened Jatropha curcas, a PDI gene was proposed to be cold-relevant. In this study, its full-length cDNA (JcPDI) was cloned, with the size of 1649 bp containing the entire open reading frame (ORF) of 1515 bp. This ORF encodes a polypeptide of 504 amino acids with theoretical molecular weight of 56.6 kDa and pI value of 4.85. One N-terminal signal peptide (-MASKGSIWSCMFLFSLI VAISAGEG-) and the C-terminal anchoring sequence motif (-KDEL-) specific to the endoplasmic reticulum, as well as two thioredoxin domains (-CGHC-), are also found by predictions. Through semi-quantitative RT-PCR, the expression of JcPDI was characterized to be tissue-differential strongly in leaves and roots, but weakly in stems, and of cold-induced alternations. Furthermore, JcPDI overexpression in yeast could notably enhance the cold resistance of host cells. Conclusively, these results explicitly suggested a considerable association of JcPDI to cold response and a putative application potential for its correlated genetic engineering. PMID:25825250

  6. Calculation of Vibrational Shifts of Nitrile Probes in the Active Site of Ketosteroid Isomerase upon Ligand Binding

    PubMed Central

    Layfield, Joshua P.

    2012-01-01

    The vibrational Stark effect provides insight into the roles of hydrogen bonding, electrostatics, and conformational motions in enzyme catalysis. In a recent application of this approach to the enzyme ketosteroid isomerase (KSI), thiocyanate probes were introduced in site-specific positions throughout the active site. This paper implements a quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) approach for calculating the vibrational shifts of nitrile (CN) probes in proteins. This methodology is shown to reproduce the experimentally measured vibrational shifts upon binding of the intermediate analog equilinen to KSI for two different nitrile probe positions. Analysis of the molecular dynamics simulations provides atomistic insight into the roles that key residues play in determining the electrostatic environment and hydrogen-bonding interactions experienced by the nitrile probe. For the M116C-CN probe, equilinen binding reorients an active site water molecule that is directly hydrogen bonded to the nitrile probe, resulting in a more linear CNH angle and increasing the CN frequency upon binding. For the F86C-CN probe, equilinen binding orients the Asp103 residue, decreasing the hydrogen-bonding distance between the Asp103 backbone and the nitrile probe and slightly increasing the CN frequency. This QM/MM methodology is applicable to a wide range of biological systems and has the potential to assist in the elucidation of the fundamental principles underlying enzyme catalysis. PMID:23210919

  7. The prolyl isomerase, FKBP25, interacts with RNA-engaged nucleolin and the pre-60S ribosomal subunit.

    PubMed

    Gudavicius, Geoff; Dilworth, David; Serpa, Jason J; Sessler, Nicole; Petrotchenko, Evgeniy V; Borchers, Christoph H; Nelson, Christopher J

    2014-07-01

    Peptidyl-proline isomerases of the FK506-binding protein (FKBP) family belong to a class of enzymes that catalyze the cis-trans isomerization of prolyl-peptide bonds in proteins. A handful of FKBPs are found in the nucleus, implying that the isomerization of proline in nuclear proteins is enzymatically controlled. FKBP25 is a nuclear protein that has been shown to associate with chromatin modifiers and transcription factors. In this study, we performed the first proteomic characterization of FKBP25 and found that it interacts with numerous ribosomal proteins, ribosomal processing factors, and a small selection of chromatin modifiers. In agreement with previous reports, we found that nucleolin is a major FKBP25-interacting protein and demonstrated that this interaction is dependent on rRNA. FKBP25 interacts with the immature large ribosomal subunit in nuclear extract but does not associate with mature ribosomes, implicating this FKBP's action in ribosome biogenesis. Despite engaging nascent 60S ribosomes, FKBP25 does not affect steady-state levels of rRNAs or its pre-rRNA intermediates. We conclude that FKBP25 is likely recruited to preribosomes to chaperone one of the protein components of the ribosome large subunit. PMID:24840943

  8. A role for sperm surface protein disulfide isomerase activity in gamete fusion: evidence for the participation of ERp57.

    PubMed

    Ellerman, Diego A; Myles, Diana G; Primakoff, Paul

    2006-06-01

    In mammals, sperm-egg interaction is based on molecular events either unique to gametes or also present in somatic cells. In gamete fusion, it is unknown which features are gamete specific and which are shared with other systems. Conformational changes mediated by thiol-disulfide exchange are involved in the activation of some virus membrane fusion proteins. Here we asked whether that mechanism is also operative in sperm-egg fusion. Different inhibitors of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) activity were able to inhibit sperm-egg fusion in vitro. While pretreatment of oocytes had no effect, pretreatment of sperm reduced their fusion ability. Some members of the PDI family were detected on the sperm head, and use of specific antibodies and substrates suggested that the oxidoreductase ERp57 has a role in gamete fusion. The results support the idea that thiol-disulfide exchange is a mechanism that may act in gamete fusion to produce conformational changes in fusion-active proteins. PMID:16740484

  9. Polymorphisms in protein disulfide isomerase are associated with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qin; Guo, Zhi-Bao

    2016-07-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal adult-onset neurodegenerative disease that targets the motor system; it is caused by the loss of motor neurons in the spinal cord, brain stem, and cerebral cortex. However, the etiology of ALS remains unknown, although genetic factors may play an important role in its development. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between common polymorphisms in protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS) in a Chinese Han population. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in P4HB (rs876016 and rs2070872) were genotyped in 322 patients with SALS and 265 control subjects using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Our results showed that SNPs rs876016 and rs2070872 were significantly associated with ALS. The minor allele frequencies of rs876016 (C) and rs2070872 (G) were significantly higher in patients with sporadic ALS than in control subjects (P = 0.035 and 0.003, respectively). The genotype frequencies of rs876016 and rs2070872 were significantly different between SALS patients and control subjects (genotypic P < 0.001). Individuals carrying rs876016/ rs2070872 C/G genotypes were associated with a significantly increased risk of SALS. These results suggest that common variants in PDI might contribute to the development of SALS in the Chinese Han population. PMID:26000911

  10. Characterization of a Mannose-6-Phosphate Isomerase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Its Application in Fructose-6-Phosphate Production

    PubMed Central

    Sigdel, Sujan; Singh, Ranjitha; Kim, Tae-Su; Li, Jinglin; Kim, Sang-Yong; Kim, In-Won; Jung, Woo-Suk; Pan, Cheol-Ho; Kang, Yun Chan; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2015-01-01

    The BaM6PI gene encoding a mannose-6-phosphate isomerase (M6PI, EC 5.3.1.8) was cloned from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens DSM7 and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme activity of BaM6PI was optimal at pH and temperature of 7.5 and 70°C, respectively, with a kcat/Km of 13,900 s-1 mM-1 for mannose-6-phosphate (M6P). The purified BaM6PI demonstrated the highest catalytic efficiency of all characterized M6PIs. Although M6PIs have been characterized from several other sources, BaM6PI is distinguished from other M6PIs by its wide pH range and high catalytic efficiency for M6P. The binding orientation of the substrate M6P in the active site of BaM6PI shed light on the molecular basis of its unusually high activity. BaM6PI showed 97% substrate conversion from M6P to fructose-6-phosphate demonstrating the potential for using BaM6PI in industrial applications. PMID:26171785

  11. S-nitrosylation of the thioredoxin-like domains of protein disulfide isomerase and its role in neurodegenerative conditions

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Myra E.; Harris, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Correct protein folding and inhibition of protein aggregation is facilitated by a cellular “quality control system” that engages a network of protein interactions including molecular chaperones and the ubiquitin proteasome system. Key chaperones involved in these regulatory mechanisms are the protein disulfide isomerases (PDI) and their homologs, predominantly expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum of most tissues. Redox changes that disrupt ER homeostasis can lead to modification of these enzymes or chaperones with the loss of their proposed neuroprotective role resulting in an increase in protein misfolding. Misfolded protein aggregates have been observed in several disease states and are considered to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Amyotrophic Lateral sclerosis. This review will focus on the importance of the thioredoxin-like CGHC active site of PDI and how our understanding of this structural motif will play a key role in unraveling the pathogenic mechanisms that underpin these neurodegenerative conditions. PMID:25932462

  12. Discovery of an orally active small-molecule irreversible inhibitor of protein disulfide isomerase for ovarian cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shili; Butkevich, Alexey N.; Yamada, Roppei; Zhou, Yu; Debnath, Bikash; Duncan, Roger; Zandi, Ebrahim; Petasis, Nicos A.; Neamati, Nouri

    2012-01-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone protein, catalyzes disulfide bond breakage, formation, and rearrangement. The effect of PDI inhibition on ovarian cancer progression is not yet clear, and there is a need for potent, selective, and safe small-molecule inhibitors of PDI. Here, we report a class of propynoic acid carbamoyl methyl amides (PACMAs) that are active against a panel of human ovarian cancer cell lines. Using fluorescent derivatives, 2D gel electrophoresis, and MS, we established that PACMA 31, one of the most active analogs, acts as an irreversible small-molecule inhibitor of PDI, forming a covalent bond with the active site cysteines of PDI. We also showed that PDI activity is essential for the survival and proliferation of human ovarian cancer cells. In vivo, PACMA 31 showed tumor targeting ability and significantly suppressed ovarian tumor growth without causing toxicity to normal tissues. These irreversible small-molecule PDI inhibitors represent an important approach for the development of targeted anticancer agents for ovarian cancer therapy, and they can also serve as useful probes for investigating the biology of PDI-implicated pathways. PMID:22988091

  13. Proapoptotic Activities of Protein Disulfide Isomerase (PDI) and PDIA3 Protein, a Role of the Bcl-2 Protein Bak*

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guoping; Lu, Huayi; Li, Chi

    2015-01-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family proteins are classified as enzymatic chaperones for reconstructing misfolded proteins. Previous studies have shown that several PDI members possess potential proapoptotic functions. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms of PDI-mediated apoptosis are not completely known. In this study, we investigated how two members of PDI family, PDI and PDIA3, modulate apoptotic signaling. Inhibiting PDI and PDIA3 activities pharmacologically alleviates apoptosis induced by various apoptotic stimuli. Although a decrease of PDIA3 expression alleviates apoptotic responses, overexpression of PDIA3 exacerbates apoptotic signaling. Importantly, Bak, but not Bax, is essential for PDIA3-induced proapoptotic signaling. Furthermore, both purified PDI and PDIA3 proteins induce Bak-dependent, but not Bax-dependent, mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization in vitro, probably through triggering Bak oligomerization on mitochondria. Our results suggest that both of PDI and PDIA3 possess Bak-dependent proapoptotic function through inducing mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, which provides a new mechanism linking ER chaperone proteins and apoptotic signaling. PMID:25697356

  14. Nitric Oxide and Protein Disulfide Isomerase Explain the Complexities of Unfolded Protein Response Following Intra-hippocampal Aβ Injection.

    PubMed

    Khodagholi, Fariba; Digaleh, Hadi; Motamedi, Fereshteh; Foolad, Forough; Shaerzadeh, Fatemeh

    2016-08-01

    Several pathways involved in regulation of intracellular protein integrity are known as the protein quality control (PQC) system. Molecular chaperones as the main players are engaged in various aspects of PQC system. According to the importance of these proteins in cell survival, in the present study, we traced endoplasmic reticulum-specific markers and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA)-associated factors as two main arms of PQC system in intra-hippocampal amyloid beta (Aβ)-injected rats during 10 days running. Data analysis from Western blot indicated that exposure to Aβ activates immunoglobulin heavy-chain-binding protein (Bip) which is the upstream regulator of unfolded protein responses (UPR). Activation of UPR system eventually led to induction of pro-apoptotic factors like CHOP, calpain, and caspase-12. Moreover, our data revealed that protein disulfide isomerase activity dramatically decreased after Aβ injection, which could be attributed to the increased levels of nitric oxide. Besides, Aβ injection induced levels of 2 members of heat shock proteins (Hsp) 70 and 90. Elevated levels of Hsps family members are accompanied by increased levels of lysosome-associated membrane protein type-2A (Lamp-2A) that are involved in CMA. Despite the reduction in CHOP, calpain, caspase-12, and Lamp-2A protein levels, the levels of molecular chaperones Bip, Hsps70, and 90 increased 10 days after Aβ injection in comparison to the control group. Based on our results, 10 days after Aβ injection, despite the activation of protective chaperones, markers associated with neurotoxicity were still elevated. PMID:26391027

  15. Identification of (Z)-3:(E)-2-Hexenal Isomerases Essential to the Production of the Leaf Aldehyde in Plants.

    PubMed

    Kunishima, Mikiko; Yamauchi, Yasuo; Mizutani, Masaharu; Kuse, Masaki; Takikawa, Hirosato; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

    2016-07-01

    The green odor of plants is characterized by green leaf volatiles (GLVs) composed of C6 compounds. GLVs are biosynthesized from polyunsaturated fatty acids in thylakoid membranes by a series of enzymes. A representative member of GLVs (E)-2-hexenal, known as the leaf aldehyde, has been assumed to be produced by isomerization from (Z)-3-hexenal in the biosynthesis pathway; however, the enzyme has not yet been identified. In this study, we purified the (Z)-3:(E)-2-hexenal isomerase (HI) from paprika fruits and showed that various plant species have homologous HIs. Purified HI is a homotrimeric protein of 110 kDa composed of 35-kDa subunits and shows high activity at acidic and neutral pH values. Phylogenetic analysis showed that HIs belong to the cupin superfamily, and at least three catalytic amino acids (His, Lys, Tyr) are conserved in HIs of various plant species. Enzymatic isomerization of (Z)-3-hexenal in the presence of deuterium oxide resulted in the introduction of deuterium at the C4 position of (E)-2-hexenal, and a suicide substrate 3-hexyn-1-al inhibited HI irreversibly, suggesting that the catalytic mode of HI is a keto-enol tautomerism reaction mode mediated by a catalytic His residue. The gene expression of HIs in Solanaceae plants was enhanced in specific developmental stages and by wounding treatment. Transgenic tomato plants overexpressing paprika HI accumulated (E)-2-hexenal in contrast to wild-type tomato plants mainly accumulating (Z)-3-hexenal, suggesting that HI plays a key role in the production of (E)-2-hexenal in planta. PMID:27129773

  16. Biosynthesis of conjugated triene-containing fatty acids by a novel isomerase from the red marine alga Ptilota filicina.

    PubMed

    Wise, M L; Hamberg, M; Gerwick, W H

    1994-12-27

    The biosynthesis of conjugated triene-containing fatty acids by the red alga Ptilota filicina is catalyzed by a novel enzyme, polyenoic fatty acid isomerase. The enzyme has been highly purified and is described here for the first time. Matrix-assisted laser-induced desorption mass spectrometry was used to determine that the major protein in the purified enzyme is composed of similar or identical subunits of M(r) 58,119 Da. The native enzyme emerges with an apparent M(r) of 174,000 Da from a gel permeation chromatography column. While this enzyme catalyzes the formation of conjugated trienes from a variety of polyunsaturated fatty acid precursors [arachidonate ((5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)- eicosatetraenoate) is converted to (5Z,7E,9E,14Z)-eicosatetraenoate; gamma-linolenate ((6Z,9Z,12Z)-octadecatrienoate) is converted to 6Z,8E,-10E-octadecatrienoate], this occurs most rapidly with eicosapentaenoate [(5Z,7E,9E,14Z,17Z)- eicosapentaenoate], which is likely the native substrate. Through a series of experiments utilizing gamma-linolenates stereospecifically labeled with deuterium, we have determined that the enzyme intramolecularly transfers the bis-allylic pro-S hydrogen from the C11 position to the C13 position. Furthermore, the bis-allylic pro-R hydrogen at C8 in gamma-linolenate is lost to the solvent. Using arachidonate as substrate, we demonstrated that the C11 olefinic position becomes protonated by a solvent-derived proton. There appears to be no requirement for molecular oxygen, and the transformation is catalyzed by this single enzyme. PMID:7803384

  17. The Eps1p Protein Disulfide Isomerase Conserves Classic Thioredoxin Superfamily Amino Acid Motifs but Not Their Functional Geometries

    PubMed Central

    Biran, Shai; Gat, Yair; Fass, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    The widespread thioredoxin superfamily enzymes typically share the following features: a characteristic α-β fold, the presence of a Cys-X-X-Cys (or Cys-X-X-Ser) redox-active motif, and a proline in the cis configuration abutting the redox-active site in the tertiary structure. The Cys-X-X-Cys motif is at the solvent-exposed amino terminus of an α-helix, allowing the first cysteine to engage in nucleophilic attack on substrates, or substrates to attack the Cys-X-X-Cys disulfide, depending on whether the enzyme functions to reduce, isomerize, or oxidize its targets. We report here the X-ray crystal structure of an enzyme that breaks many of our assumptions regarding the sequence-structure relationship of thioredoxin superfamily proteins. The yeast Protein Disulfide Isomerase family member Eps1p has Cys-X-X-Cys motifs and proline residues at the appropriate primary structural positions in its first two predicted thioredoxin-fold domains. However, crystal structures show that the Cys-X-X-Cys of the second domain is buried and that the adjacent proline is in the trans, rather than the cis isomer. In these configurations, neither the “active-site” disulfide nor the backbone carbonyl preceding the proline is available to interact with substrate. The Eps1p structures thus expand the documented diversity of the PDI oxidoreductase family and demonstrate that conserved sequence motifs in common folds do not guarantee structural or functional conservation. PMID:25437863

  18. Comparisons of mammalian Giardia duodenalis assemblages based on the β-giardin, glutamate dehydrogenase and triose phosphate isomerase genes.

    PubMed

    Scorza, Andrea V; Ballweber, Lora R; Tangtrongsup, Sahatchai; Panuska, Carla; Lappin, Michael R

    2012-10-26

    The objective of this study was to determine and compare the assemblages of Giardia duodenalis isolated from mammalian fecal samples using the β-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) genes. A total of 202 samples, either submitted to the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Parasitology) at Colorado State University or part of ongoing research studies, were typed. A subset of 50 dog samples were also assessed by the tpi-D-specific primers. Of these, 183 were from dogs, 13 were from cats, two were from llamas, and one each was from a calf, an alpaca, a sheep, and a horse. The majority of the dogs (171 of 183 isolates) in this study were infected with only dog-adapted Assemblage C or D. The tpi-D-specific primers confirmed that 28 of the samples that typed as Assemblage D by the bg and gdh genes were also Assemblage D by the tpi-D-specific primers. Only 12 isolates were Assemblage A alone or Assemblage A and Assemblage C or D. Of the 13 cat isolates, seven were Assemblage F, two were Assemblage D, three were Assemblage A and 1 contained both Assemblages C and D. The calf isolate was Assemblage E (gdh, tpi) and the alpaca (bg, gdh), llamas (gdh), sheep (bg, gdh, tpi) and horse (tpi) isolates were all Assemblage A. When the assemblage could be determined for more than one gene, 91 of 117 dog isolates gave consistent results and 8 of 9 cat isolates gave consistent results. PMID:22652427

  19. Construction and evaluation of replication-defective recombinant optimized triosephosphate isomerase adenoviral vaccination in Schistosoma japonicum challenged mice.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yang; Wang, Xiaoting; Zhao, Song; Tang, Jianxia; Zhang, Lu; Dai, Jianrong; Zeng, Mingtao; Lu, Shan; Zhu, Yinchang; Su, Chuan

    2014-02-01

    Schistosomiasis is an endemic, zoonotic parasitic disease that remains a public health concern in China. Development of transmission blocking veterinary vaccines against Schistosoma japonicum infection is urgently needed. Replication-defective adenoviral vector is an efficient vaccine delivery system that has been widely used. Its use is associated with high levels of gene insertion and expression. It is easy to construct and prepare, and is safe. It is not known whether this delivery system can improve the protective effect of schistosome vaccination. Triosephosphate isomerase from S. japonicum (SjTPI) is a promising vaccine candidate. Thus far it has induced only partial protection in animal models and needs to be further enhanced to be effective. We constructed a replication-defective adenoviral vector-based vaccine with optimized SjTPI (rAdV-SjTPI.opt). The specific immune responses and protective efficiency in mice were evaluated. Results showed that intramuscular rAdV-SjTPI.opt induced Th1 biased immune responses in the host, while subcutaneous rAdV-SjTPI.opt induced Th2 predominant immune responses. Oral rAdV-SjTPI.opt induced low levels of immune responses and no significant protection. Intramuscular rAdV-SjTPI.opt provided a consistent and repeatable higher protective effect in mice (more than 50%). These findings may be due to the associated higher levels of specific Th1, antibody responses and partially lower level of IL-17A. This report provides a foundation for developing transmission-blocking veterinary vaccines in larger animals. PMID:24397904

  20. Polyamine effects on protein disulfide isomerase expression and implications for hypersalinity stress in the marine alga Ulva lactuca Linnaeus(1).

    PubMed

    Li, Lu-Chuan; Hsu, Yuan-Ting; Chang, Hsueh-Ling; Wu, Tzure-Meng; Sung, Ming-Shiuan; Cho, Chung-Lung; Lee, Tse-Min

    2013-12-01

    Full-length protein disulfide isomerase (UfPDI) cDNA was cloned from the intertidal macroalga Ulva lactuca Linnaeus. Modulation of UfPDI expression by stresses and polyamines (PA) was studied. UfPDI transcription and enzyme activity were increased by hypersalinity (90) or high light illumination (1,200 μmol photons · m(-2)  · s(-1) ), decreased by the addition of 100 μM CuSO4 . An exposure to a salinity of 90 decreased PA contents. Treating with PA biosynthetic inhibitors, D-arginine (D-Arg) or α-methyl ornithine (α-MO), led to a further decrease and also inhibited UfPDI expression and recovery of the growth rate. These results suggest that PAs are required to activate UfPDI expression with hypersalinity, even PA contents are decreased at a salinity of 90. The induction of UfPDI expression by hypersalinity of 90 and tolerance to hypersalinity could be enhanced if internal PA contents rise. Sung et al. (2011b) showed that PA contents could be increased by pretreating with putrescine (Put, 1 mM), spermidine (Spd, 1 mM), or spermine (Spm, 1 mM) at a salinity of 30. Therefore, PA pretreatment effect on UfPDI expression was examined. Pretreatment with Spd and Spm, but not with Put, enhanced UfPDI expression after transferred to a salinity of 90 and restored the growth rate. In conclusion, induction of UfPDI expression by Spd or Spm before exposure to hypersaline conditions and continuous up-regulation after hypersalinity exposure are required for the acquisition of hypersalinity tolerance in the intertidal green macroalga U. lactuca. PMID:27007636

  1. Protein disulfide isomerase expression increases in resistance arteries during hypertension development. Effects on Nox1 NADPH oxidase signaling

    PubMed Central

    Androwiki, Aline C. D.; Camargo, Lívia de Lucca; Sartoretto, Simone; Couto, Gisele K.; Ribeiro, Izabela M. R.; Veríssimo-Filho, Sidney; Rossoni, Luciana V.; Lopes, Lucia R.

    2015-01-01

    NADPH oxidases derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in vascular function and remodeling in hypertension through redox signaling processes. Previous studies demonstrated that protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) regulates Nox1 expression and ROS generation in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. However, the role of PDI in conductance and resistance arteries during hypertension development remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate PDI expression and NADPH oxidase dependent ROS generation during hypertension development. Mesenteric resistance arteries (MRA) and thoracic aorta were isolated from 6, 8, and 12 week-old spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and Wistar rats. ROS production (dihydroethidium fluorescence), PDI (WB, imunofluorescence), Nox1 and NOX4 (RT-PCR) expression were evaluated. Results show a progressive increase in ROS generation in MRA and aorta from 8 to 12 week-old SHR. This effect was associated with a concomitant increase in PDI and Nox1 expression only in MRA. Therefore, suggesting a positive correlation between PDI and Nox1 expression during the development of hypertension in MRA. In order to investigate if this effect was due to an increase in arterial blood pressure, pre hypertensive SHR were treated with losartan (20 mg/kg/day for 30 days), an AT1 receptor antagonist. Losartan decreased blood pressure and ROS generation in both vascular beds. However, only in SHR MRA losartan treatment lowered PDI and Nox1 expression to control levels. In MRA PDI inhibition (bacitracin, 0.5 mM) decreased Ang II redox signaling (p-ERK 1/2). Altogether, our results suggest that PDI plays a role in triggering oxidative stress and vascular dysfunction in resistance but not in conductance arteries, increasing Nox1 expression and activity. Therefore, PDI could be a new player in oxidative stress and functional alterations in resistance arteries during the establishment of hypertension. PMID:25870854

  2. Modelling single nucleotide effects in phosphoglucose isomerase on dispersal in the Glanville fritillary butterfly: coupling of ecological and evolutionary dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Chaozhi; Ovaskainen, Otso; Hanski, Ilkka

    2009-01-01

    Dispersal comprises a complex life-history syndrome that influences the demographic dynamics of especially those species that live in fragmented landscapes, the structure of which may in turn be expected to impose selection on dispersal. We have constructed an individual-based evolutionary sexual model of dispersal for species occurring as metapopulations in habitat patch networks. The model assumes correlated random walk dispersal with edge-mediated behaviour (habitat selection) and spatially correlated stochastic local dynamics. The model is parametrized with extensive data for the Glanville fritillary butterfly. Based on empirical results for a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi) gene, we assume that dispersal rate in the landscape matrix, fecundity and survival are affected by a locus with two alleles, A and C, individuals with the C allele being more mobile. The model was successfully tested with two independent empirical datasets on spatial variation in Pgi allele frequency. First, at the level of local populations, the frequency of the C allele is the highest in newly established isolated populations and the lowest in old isolated populations. Second, at the level of sub-networks with dissimilar numbers and connectivities of patches, the frequency of C increases with decreasing network size and hence with decreasing average metapopulation size. The frequency of C is the highest in landscapes where local extinction risk is high and where there are abundant opportunities to establish new populations. Our results indicate that the strength of the coupling of the ecological and evolutionary dynamics depends on the spatial scale and is asymmetric, demographic dynamics having a greater immediate impact on genetic dynamics than vice versa. PMID:19414467

  3. Chemical- and thermal-induced unfolding of Leishmania donovani ribose-5-phosphate isomerase B: a single-tryptophan protein.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Preet Kamal; Supin, Jakka S; Rashmi, S; Singh, Sushma

    2014-08-01

    Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase B (RpiB), a crucial enzyme of pentose phosphate pathway, was proposed to be a potential drug target for visceral leishmaniasis. In this study, we have analyzed the biophysical properties of Leishmania donovani RpiB (LdRpiB) enzyme to gain insight into its unfolding pathway under various chemical and thermal denaturation conditions by using fluorescence and CD spectroscopy. LdRpiB inactivation precedes the structural transition at lower concentrations of both urea and guanidine hydrochloride (GdHCl). 8-Anilinonapthalene 1-sulfonic (ANS) binding experiments revealed the presence of molten globule intermediate at 1.5 M GdHCl and a nonnative intermediate state at 6-M urea concentration. Acrylamide quenching experiments further validated the above findings, as solvent accessibility of tryptophan residues increased with increase in GdHCl and urea concentration. The recombinant LdRpiB was completely unfolded at 6 M GdHCl, whereas the enzyme molecule was resistant to complete unfolding even at 8-M urea concentration. The GdHCl- and urea-mediated unfolding involves a three-state transition process. Thermal-induced denaturation revealed complete loss of enzyme activity at 65 °C with only 20 % secondary structure loss. The formation of the well-ordered β-sheet structures of amyloid fibrils was observed after 55 °C which increased linearly till 85 °C as detected by thioflavin T dye. This study depicts the stability of the enzyme in the presence of chemical and thermal denaturants and stability-activity relationship of the enzyme. The presence of the intermediate states may have major implications in the way the enzyme binds to its natural ligand under various conditions. Also, the present study provides insights into the properties of intermediate entities of this important enzyme. PMID:24907042

  4. Human gene therapy for RPE65 isomerase deficiency activates the retinoid cycle of vision but with slow rod kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Cideciyan, Artur V.; Aleman, Tomas S.; Boye, Sanford L.; Schwartz, Sharon B.; Kaushal, Shalesh; Roman, Alejandro J.; Pang, Ji-jing; Sumaroka, Alexander; Windsor, Elizabeth A. M.; Wilson, James M.; Flotte, Terence R.; Fishman, Gerald A.; Heon, Elise; Stone, Edwin M.; Byrne, Barry J.; Jacobson, Samuel G.; Hauswirth, William W.

    2008-01-01

    The RPE65 gene encodes the isomerase of the retinoid cycle, the enzymatic pathway that underlies mammalian vision. Mutations in RPE65 disrupt the retinoid cycle and cause a congenital human blindness known as Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). We used adeno-associated virus-2-based RPE65 gene replacement therapy to treat three young adults with RPE65-LCA and measured their vision before and up to 90 days after the intervention. All three patients showed a statistically significant increase in visual sensitivity at 30 days after treatment localized to retinal areas that had received the vector. There were no changes in the effect between 30 and 90 days. Both cone- and rod-photoreceptor-based vision could be demonstrated in treated areas. For cones, there were increases of up to 1.7 log units (i.e., 50 fold); and for rods, there were gains of up to 4.8 log units (i.e., 63,000 fold). To assess what fraction of full vision potential was restored by gene therapy, we related the degree of light sensitivity to the level of remaining photoreceptors within the treatment area. We found that the intervention could overcome nearly all of the loss of light sensitivity resulting from the biochemical blockade. However, this reconstituted retinoid cycle was not completely normal. Resensitization kinetics of the newly treated rods were remarkably slow and required 8 h or more for the attainment of full sensitivity, compared with <1 h in normal eyes. Cone-sensitivity recovery time was rapid. These results demonstrate dramatic, albeit imperfect, recovery of rod- and cone-photoreceptor-based vision after RPE65 gene therapy. PMID:18809924

  5. Phycourobilin in trichromatic phycocyanin from oceanic cyanobacteria is formed post-translationally by a phycoerythrobilin lyase-isomerase.

    PubMed

    Blot, Nicolas; Wu, Xian-Jun; Thomas, Jean-Claude; Zhang, Juan; Garczarek, Laurence; Böhm, Stephan; Tu, Jun-Ming; Zhou, Ming; Plöscher, Matthias; Eichacker, Lutz; Partensky, Frédéric; Scheer, Hugo; Zhao, Kai-Hong

    2009-04-01

    Most cyanobacteria harvest light with large antenna complexes called phycobilisomes. The diversity of their constituting phycobiliproteins contributes to optimize the photosynthetic capacity of these microorganisms. Phycobiliprotein biosynthesis, which involves several post-translational modifications including covalent attachment of the linear tetrapyrrole chromophores (phycobilins) to apoproteins, begins to be well understood. However, the biosynthetic pathway to the blue-green-absorbing phycourobilin (lambda(max) approximately 495 nm) remained unknown, although it is the major phycobilin of cyanobacteria living in oceanic areas where blue light penetrates deeply into the water column. We describe a unique trichromatic phycocyanin, R-PC V, extracted from phycobilisomes of Synechococcus sp. strain WH8102. It is evolutionarily remarkable as the only chromoprotein known so far that absorbs the whole wavelength range between 450 and 650 nm. R-PC V carries a phycourobilin chromophore on its alpha-subunit, and this can be considered an extreme case of adaptation to blue-green light. We also discovered the enzyme, RpcG, responsible for its biosynthesis. This monomeric enzyme catalyzes binding of the green-absorbing phycoerythrobilin at cysteine 84 with concomitant isomerization to phycourobilin. This reaction is analogous to formation of the orange-absorbing phycoviolobilin from the red-absorbing phycocyanobilin that is catalyzed by the lyase-isomerase PecE/F in some freshwater cyanobacteria. The fusion protein, RpcG, and the heterodimeric PecE/F are mutually interchangeable in a heterologous expression system in Escherichia coli. The novel R-PC V likely optimizes rod-core energy transfer in phycobilisomes and thereby adaptation of a major phytoplankton group to the blue-green light prevailing in oceanic waters. PMID:19182270

  6. Structural and thermodynamic folding characterization of triosephosphate isomerases from Trichomonas vaginalis reveals the role of destabilizing mutations following gene duplication.

    PubMed

    Lara-González, Samuel; Estrella-Hernández, Priscila; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrián; Del Carmen Portillo-Téllez, María; Caro-Gómez, Luis A; Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa E; Salgado-Lugo, Holjes; Miranda Ozuna, Jesús F T; Ortega-López, Jaime; Arroyo, Rossana; Brieba, Luis G; Benítez-Cardoza, Claudia G

    2014-01-01

    We report the structures and thermodynamic analysis of the unfolding of two triosephosphate isomerases (TvTIM1 and TvTIM2) from Trichomonas vaginalis. Both isoforms differ by the character of four amino acids: E/Q 18, I/V 24, I/V 45, and P/A 239. Despite the high sequence and structural similarities between both isoforms, they display substantial differences in their stabilities. TvTIM1 (E18, I24, I45, and P239) is more stable and less dissociable than TvTIM2 (Q18, V24, V45, and A239). We postulate that the identities of residues 24 and 45 are responsible for the differences in monomer stability and dimer dissociability, respectively. The structural difference between both amino acids is one methyl group. In TvTIMs, residue 24 is involved in packing α-helix 1 against α-helix 2 of each monomer and residue 45 is located at the center of the dimer interface forming a "ball and socket" interplay with a hydrophobic cavity. The mutation of valine at position 45 for an alanine in TvTIM2 produces a protein that migrates as a monomer by gel filtration. A comparison with known TIM structures indicates that this kind of interplay is a conserved feature that stabilizes dimeric TIM structures. In addition, TvTIMs are located in the cytoplasm and in the membrane. As TvTIM2 is an easily dissociable dimer, the dual localization of TvTIMs may be related to the acquisition of a moonlighting activity of monomeric TvTIM2. To our knowledge, this is the simplest example of how a single amino acid substitution can provide alternative function to a TIM barrel protein. PMID:23733417

  7. Anti-dengue virus nonstructural protein 1 antibodies recognize protein disulfide isomerase on platelets and inhibit platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hsien-Jen; Lei, Huan-Yao; Lin, Chiou-Feng; Luo, Yueh-Hsia; Wan, Shu-Wen; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng; Yeh, Trai-Ming; Lin, Yee-Shin

    2009-12-01

    Hemorrhagic syndrome is a hallmark of severe dengue diseases. We previously suggested a mechanism of molecular mimicry in which antibodies against dengue virus (DV) nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) cross-react with platelets. In the present study, we demonstrate that protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) on the platelet surface is recognized by anti-DV NS1 antibodies. Anti-DV NS1 obtained from hyperimmunized mouse sera inhibited PDI activity and platelet aggregation, and both inhibitory effects were prevented when anti-DV NS1 antibodies were preabsorbed with PDI. Anti-PDI antibodies bound to a peptide consisting of amino acid residues 311-330 (P311-330) of NS1. This peptide was a predicted epitope analyzed by homologous sequence alignments between DV NS1 and PDI. The platelet binding activities of anti-PDI and anti-DV NS1 antibodies were both reduced by P311-330 preabsorption. Similar to the findings using anti-DV NS1, antibodies against P311-330 bound to PDI and platelets, followed by inhibition of PDI activity and platelet aggregation. Furthermore, the cross-reactivity of dengue hemorrhagic fever patient sera with platelets was reduced when patient sera were preabsorbed with PDI or P311-330. Dengue hemorrhagic fever patient sera also inhibited platelet aggregation, while PDI or P311-330 reduced this inhibitory effect. In conclusion, anti-DV NS1 antibodies cross-react with PDI on platelet surface causing inhibition of platelet aggregation, which may provide implications in dengue disease pathogenesis. PMID:19822367

  8. Molecular analysis of a series of alleles in humans with reduced activity at the triosephosphate isomerase locus

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, M.; Zingg, B.C.; Mohrenweiser, H.W.

    1996-02-01

    Individuals with 50% of expected triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) enzyme activity have been previously identified in families during the screening of {approximately}2,000 newborn children for quantitative variation in activity of 12 erythrocyte enzymes. The frequency of the trait was 9/1,713 individuals in the Caucasian population and 7/168 individuals among the African-American population studied. Genetic transmission of the trait was confirmed in all families. The frequency of the presumptive deficiency allele(s) at the TPI locus was greater than expected, given the reported incidence of clinical TPI deficiency. We report the molecular characterization of the variant alleles from seven African-American and three Caucasian individuals in this group of unrelated individuals. Three amino acid substitutions - a Gly {yields} Ala substitution at residue 72, a Val {yields} Met at residue 154, and a previously described Glu {yields} Asp substitution at residue 104 - were identified in the Caucasian individuals. The substitutions occur at residues that are not directly involved in the active site but are highly conserved through evolutionary time, suggesting important roles for these residues in maintenance of subunit structure and conformation. The variant allele in the seven African-American individuals had nucleotide changes at positions -8 and -5 (5{prime} of) from the transcription-initiation site. In three of these individuals, an additional T {yields} G substitution was detected in a TATA box-like sequence located 24 nucleotides 5{prime} of the transcription-initiation site and on the same chromosome as the -5/-8 substitutions. Thus, molecular alterations at the TPI locus were detected in 10 unrelated individuals in whom segregation of a phenotype of reduced TPI activity previously had been identified. 41 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Molecular analysis of a series of alleles in humans with reduced activity at the triosephosphate isomerase locus.

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, M.; Zingg, B. C.; Mohrenweiser, H. W.

    1996-01-01

    Individuals with 50% of expected triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) enzyme activity have been previously identified in families during the screening of approximately 2,000 newborn children for quantitative variation in activity of 12 erythrocyte enzymes. The frequency of the trait was 9/1,713 individuals in the Caucasian population and 7/168 individuals among the African-American population studied. Genetic transmission of the trait was confirmed in all families. The frequency of the presumptive deficiency allele(s) at the TPI locus was greater than expected, given the reported incidence of clinical TPI deficiency. We report the molecular characterization of the variant alleles from seven African-American and three Caucasian individuals in this group of unrelated individuals. Three amino acid substitutions--a Gly-->Ala substitution at residue 72, a Val-->Met at residue 154, and a previously described Glu-->Asp substitution at residue 104--were identified in the Caucasian individuals. The substitutions occur at residues that are not directly involved in the active site but are highly conserved through evolutionary time, suggesting important roles for these residues in maintenance of subunit structure and conformation. The variant allele in the seven African-American individuals had nucleotide changes at positions -8 and -5 (5' of) from the transcription-initiation site. In three of these individuals, an additional T-->G substitution was detected in a TATA box-like sequence located 24 nucleotides 5' of the transcription-initiation site and on the same chromosome as the -5/-8 substitutions. Thus, molecular alterations at the TPI locus were detected in 10 unrelated individuals in whom segregation of a phenotype of reduced TPI activity previously had been identified. Images Figure 3 PMID:8571957

  10. Altered oxido-reductive state in the diabetic heart: loss of cardioprotection due to protein disulfide isomerase.

    PubMed

    Toldo, Stefano; Boccellino, Mariarosaria; Rinaldi, Barbara; Seropian, Ignacio M; Mezzaroma, Eleonora; Severino, Anna; Quagliuolo, Lucio; Van Tassell, Benjamin W; Marfella, Raffaele; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Rossi, Francesco; Natarajan, Ramesh; Voelkel, Norbert; Abbate, Antonio; Crea, Filippo; Baldi, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes is associated with an increased risk of heart failure, in part explained by endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) prevents stressed cardiomyocytes apoptosis. We hypothesized that diabetes impairs PDI function by an alteration in its oxido-reductive state. Myocardial biopsies harvested from the anterolateral left ventricular wall from diabetic (n = 7) and nondiabetic (n = 8) patients were used to assess PDI expression and cardiomyocyte death. A mouse model of diabetes (streptozotocin injection, 130 mg/mL) was used to study PDI expression and its redox state after ischemia/reperfusion injury induced by 30-min occlusion of the left anterior coronary artery followed by reperfusion. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed to assess cardiac remodeling after 1 wk. Western blot analysis was used to analyze PDI expression, and methoxy-polyethyleneglycol-maleimide was used to assess its redox state. Dehydroascorbate (DHA) administration was used to restore the PDI redox state. Diabetic patients had a greater number of transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells than nondiabetic patients despite a greater myocardial PDI expression suggesting altered PDI function. Diabetic mice had a worse postinfarction remodeling associated with an altered PDI redox state. DHA treatment restored functional PDI redox state and ameliorated post-myocardial infarction remodeling. An increase in PDI levels with a paradoxical decrease of its active form occurs in the diabetic heart after ischemia and may explain the lack of protective effects of PDI in diabetes. Restoration of PDI redox state prevents adverse remodeling. The potential significance of these findings deserves to be validated in a clinical setting. PMID:21637911

  11. Secreted Cyclophilin A, a Peptidylprolyl cis-trans Isomerase, Mediates Matrix Assembly of Hensin, a Protein Implicated in Epithelial Differentiation*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hu; Vijayakumar, Soundarapandian; Schiene-Fischer, Cordelia; Li, Hui; Purkerson, Jeffrey M.; Malesevic, Miroslav; Liebscher, Jürgen; Al-Awqati, Qais; Schwartz, George J.

    2009-01-01

    Hensin is a rabbit ortholog of DMBT1, a multifunctional, multidomain protein implicated in the regulation of epithelial differentiation, innate immunity, and tumorigenesis. Hensin in the extracellular matrix (ECM) induced morphological changes characteristic of terminal differentiation in a clonal cell line (clone C) of rabbit kidney intercalated cells. Although hensin is secreted in monomeric and various oligomeric forms, only the polymerized ECM form is able to induce these phenotypic changes. Here we report that hensin secretion and matrix assembly were inhibited by the peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) inhibitors cyclosporin A (CsA) and a derivative of cyclosporin A with modifications in the d-Ser side chain (Cs9) but not by the calcineurin pathway inhibitor FK506. PPIase inhibition led to failure of hensin polymerization in the medium and ECM, plus the loss of apical cytoskeleton, apical microvilli, and the columnar epithelial shape of clone C cells. Cyclophilin A was produced and secreted into the media to a much greater extent than cyclophilins B and C. Our results also identified the direct CsA-sensitive interaction of cyclophilin A with hensin, suggesting that cyclophilin A is the PPIase that mediates the polymerization and matrix assembly of hensin. These results are significant because this is the first time a direct role of peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerase activity has been implicated in the process of epithelial differentiation. PMID:19112104

  12. Structure of a high-resolution crystal form of human triosephosphate isomerase: improvement of crystals using the gel-tube method

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, Takayoshi Maruki, Riyo; Warizaya, Masaichi; Nakajima, Hidenori; Nishimura, Shintaro

    2005-04-01

    A high-resolution structure of human triosephosphate isomerase was obtained from crystals improved by means of the gel-tube method. Crystals of human triosephosphate isomerase with two crystal morphologies were obtained using the normal vapour-diffusion technique with identical crystallization conditions. One had a disordered plate shape and the crystals were hollow (crystal form 1). As a result, this form was very fragile, diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution and had similar crystallographic parameters to those of the structure 1hti in the Protein Data Bank. The other had a fine needle shape (crystal form 2) and was formed more abundantly than crystal form 1, but was unsuitable for structure analysis. Since the normal vapour-diffusion method could not control the crystal morphology, gel-tube methods, both on earth and under microgravity, were applied for crystallization in order to control and improve the crystal quality. Whereas crystal form 1 was only slightly improved using this method, crystal form 2 was greatly improved and diffracted to 2.2 Å resolution. Crystal form 2 contained a homodimer in the asymmetric unit, which was biologically essential. Its overall structure was similar to that of 1hti except for the flexible loop, which was located at the active centre Lys13.

  13. Ser46 phosphorylation and prolyl-isomerase Pin1-mediated isomerization of p53 are key events in p53-dependent apoptosis induced by mutant huntingtin.

    PubMed

    Grison, Alice; Mantovani, Fiamma; Comel, Anna; Agostoni, Elena; Gustincich, Stefano; Persichetti, Francesca; Del Sal, Giannino

    2011-11-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the gene coding for huntingtin protein. Several mechanisms have been proposed by which mutant huntingtin (mHtt) may trigger striatal neurodegeneration, including mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Furthermore, mHtt induces DNA damage and activates a stress response. In this context, p53 plays a crucial role in mediating mHtt toxic effects. Here we have dissected the pathway of p53 activation by mHtt in human neuronal cells and in HD mice, with the aim of highlighting critical nodes that may be pharmacologically manipulated for therapeutic intervention. We demonstrate that expression of mHtt causes increased phosphorylation of p53 on Ser46, leading to its interaction with phosphorylation-dependent prolyl isomerase Pin1 and consequent dissociation from the apoptosis inhibitor iASPP, thereby inducing the expression of apoptotic target genes. Inhibition of Ser46 phosphorylation by targeting homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2), PKCδ, or ataxia telangiectasia mutated kinase, as well as inhibition of the prolyl isomerase Pin1, prevents mHtt-dependent apoptosis of neuronal cells. These results provide a rationale for the use of small-molecule inhibitors of stress-responsive protein kinases and Pin1 as a potential therapeutic strategy for HD treatment. PMID:22011578

  14. On the structure and function of the phytoene desaturase CRTI from Pantoea ananatis, a membrane-peripheral and FAD-dependent oxidase/isomerase.

    PubMed

    Schaub, Patrick; Yu, Qiuju; Gemmecker, Sandra; Poussin-Courmontagne, Pierre; Mailliot, Justine; McEwen, Alastair G; Ghisla, Sandro; Al-Babili, Salim; Cavarelli, Jean; Beyer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    CRTI-type phytoene desaturases prevailing in bacteria and fungi can form lycopene directly from phytoene while plants employ two distinct desaturases and two cis-tans isomerases for the same purpose. This property renders CRTI a valuable gene to engineer provitamin A-formation to help combat vitamin A malnutrition, such as with Golden Rice. To understand the biochemical processes involved, recombinant CRTI was produced and obtained in homogeneous form that shows high enzymatic activity with the lipophilic substrate phytoene contained in phosphatidyl-choline (PC) liposome membranes. The first crystal structure of apo-CRTI reveals that CRTI belongs to the flavoprotein superfamily comprising protoporphyrinogen IX oxidoreductase and monoamine oxidase. CRTI is a membrane-peripheral oxidoreductase which utilizes FAD as the sole redox-active cofactor. Oxygen, replaceable by quinones in its absence, is needed as the terminal electron acceptor. FAD, besides its catalytic role also displays a structural function by enabling the formation of enzymatically active CRTI membrane associates. Under anaerobic conditions the enzyme can act as a carotene cis-trans isomerase. In silico-docking experiments yielded information on substrate binding sites, potential catalytic residues and is in favor of single half-site recognition of the symmetrical C(40) hydrocarbon substrate. PMID:22745782

  15. FATP1 Inhibits 11-cis Retinol Formation via Interaction with the Visual Cycle Retinoid Isomerase RPE65 and Lecithin:Retinol Acyltransferase*

    PubMed Central

    Guignard, Thomas J. P.; Jin, Minghao; Pequignot, Marie O.; Li, Songhua; Chassigneux, Yolaine; Chekroud, Karim; Guillou, Laurent; Richard, Eric; Hamel, Christian P.; Brabet, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    The isomerization of all-trans retinol (vitamin A) to 11-cis retinol in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a key step in the visual process for the regeneration of the visual pigment chromophore, 11-cis retinal. LRAT and RPE65 are recognized as the minimal isomerase catalytic components. However, regulators of this rate-limiting step are not fully identified and could account for the phenotypic variability associated with inherited retinal degeneration (RD) caused by mutations in the RPE65 gene. To identify new RPE65 partners, we screened a porcine RPE mRNA library using a yeast two-hybrid assay with full-length human RPE65. One identified clone (here named FATP1c), containing the cytosolic C-terminal sequence from the fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1 or SLC27A1, solute carrier family 27 member 1), was demonstrated to interact dose-dependently with the native RPE65 and with LRAT. Furthermore, these interacting proteins colocalize in the RPE. Cellular reconstitution of human interacting proteins shows that FATP1 markedly inhibits 11-cis retinol production by acting on the production of all-trans retinyl esters and the isomerase activity of RPE65. The identification of this new visual cycle inhibitory component in RPE may contribute to further understanding of retinal pathogenesis. PMID:20356843

  16. Phosphoglucose isomerases of hagfish, zebrafish, gray mullet, toad, and snake, with reference to the evolution of the genes in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Kao, Hsiao-wei; Lee, Sin-Che

    2002-04-01

    Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) is a protein with multiple functions. To infer its structure changes and evolution in vertebrates, we cloned cDNAs encoding PGI genes from hagfish (Paramyxine yangi), gray mullet (Mugil cephalus), zebrafish (Danio rerio), toad (Bufo melanosticus), and snake (Boiga kraepelini). Only one PGI gene was cloned in each of hagfish, toad, and snake, but two PGI genes were found in zebrafish and gray mullet, respectively. The PGI of hagfish encodes 554 amino acids, in contrast to the PGIs of bonyfishes, toad, and snake which encode 553 amino acids and the PGIs of mammals which encode 558 amino acids. Among 558 aligned amino acid sites, there are 314 sites (56.27%) totally conserved. To see if diversifying selection acts on PGI amino acids of vertebrates, we calculated the pairwise ratio of nonsynonymous versus synonymous substitution per site (Ka/Ks) and the ratio of radical amino acid changes versus conservative amino acid changes per sites (dR/dC) between PGI sequences. The average pairwise ratio between nonsynonymous substitutions per nucleotide (Ka) and synonymous substitutions per nucleotide (Ks) among vertebrate PGI sequences equals 0.047 +/- 0.019. The average pairwise ratio between radical amino acid changes and conservative amino acid changes (dR/dC) among the vertebrate PGIs equal 0.938 +/- 0.158 for charge changes, 0.558 +/- 0.085 for polarity changes, and 0.465 +/- 0.0714 when both polarity and volume are considered. There is no amino acid within the vertebrate PGIs under diversifying selection as analyzed by the method of Yang et al. (2000b). The results suggest that the present vertebrate PGIs are at evolutionary stasis and are being subjected to intense purifying selection. The purifying selection is to maintain polarity and volume of the protein but not the charge groups of amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that vertebrate PGIs can be classified into three major groups: the mammalian, amphibian-reptilian, and

  17. Structure-Function Studies of Hydrophobic Residues That Clamp a Basic Glutamate Side Chain during Catalysis by Triosephosphate Isomerase.

    PubMed

    Richard, John P; Amyes, Tina L; Malabanan, M Merced; Zhai, Xiang; Kim, Kalvin J; Reinhardt, Christopher J; Wierenga, Rik K; Drake, Eric J; Gulick, Andrew M

    2016-05-31

    Kinetic parameters are reported for the reactions of whole substrates (kcat/Km, M(-1) s(-1)) (R)-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GAP) and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and for the substrate pieces [(kcat/Km)E·HPi/Kd, M(-2) s(-1)] glycolaldehyde (GA) and phosphite dianion (HPi) catalyzed by the I172A/L232A mutant of triosephosphate isomerase from Trypanosoma brucei brucei (TbbTIM). A comparison with the corresponding parameters for wild-type, I172A, and L232A TbbTIM-catalyzed reactions shows that the effect of I172A and L232A mutations on ΔG(⧧) for the wild-type TbbTIM-catalyzed reactions of the substrate pieces is nearly the same as the effect of the same mutations on TbbTIM previously mutated at the second side chain. This provides strong evidence that mutation of the first hydrophobic side chain does not affect the functioning of the second side chain in catalysis of the reactions of the substrate pieces. By contrast, the effects of I172A and L232A mutations on ΔG(⧧) for wild-type TbbTIM-catalyzed reactions of the whole substrate are different from the effect of the same mutations on TbbTIM previously mutated at the second side chain. This is due to the change in the rate-determining step that determines the barrier to the isomerization reaction. X-ray crystal structures are reported for I172A, L232A, and I172A/L232A TIMs and for the complexes of these mutants to the intermediate analogue phosphoglycolate (PGA). The structures of the PGA complexes with wild-type and mutant enzymes are nearly superimposable, except that the space opened by replacement of the hydrophobic side chain is occupied by a water molecule that lies ∼3.5 Å from the basic side chain of Glu167. The new water at I172A mutant TbbTIM provides a simple rationalization for the increase in the activation barrier ΔG(⧧) observed for mutant enzyme-catalyzed reactions of the whole substrate and substrate pieces. By contrast, the new water at the L232A mutant does not predict the decrease in

  18. Raft-Dependent Endocytosis of Autocrine Motility Factor/Phosphoglucose Isomerase: A Potential Drug Delivery Route for Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kojic, Liliana D.; Wiseman, Sam M.; Ghaidi, Fariba; Joshi, Bharat; Nedev, Hinyu; Saragovi, H. Uri; Nabi, Ivan R.

    2008-01-01

    Background Autocrine motility factor/phosphoglucose isomerase (AMF/PGI) is the extracellular ligand for the gp78/AMFR receptor overexpressed in a variety of human cancers. We showed previously that raft-dependent internalization of AMF/PGI is elevated in metastatic MDA-435 cells, but not metastatic, caveolin-1-expressing MDA-231 cells, relative to non-metastatic MCF7 and dysplastic MCF10A cells suggesting that it might represent a tumor cell-specific endocytic pathway. Methodology/Principal Findings Similarly, using flow cytometry, we demonstrate that raft-dependent endocytosis of AMF/PGI is increased in metastatic HT29 cancer cells expressing low levels of caveolin-1 relative to metastatic, caveolin-1-expressing, HCT116 colon cells and non-metastatic Caco-2 cells. Therefore, we exploited the raft-dependent internalization of AMF/PGI as a potential tumor-cell specific targeting mechanism. We synthesized an AMF/PGI-paclitaxel conjugate and found it to be as efficient as free paclitaxel in inducing cytotoxicity and apoptosis in tumor cells that readily internalize AMF/PGI compared to tumor cells that poorly internalize AMF/PGI. Murine K1735-M1 and B16-F1 melanoma cells internalize FITC-conjugated AMF/PGI and are acutely sensitive to AMF/PGI-paclitaxel mediated cytotoxicity in vitro. Moreover, following in vivo intratumoral injection, FITC-conjugated AMF/PGI is internalized in K1735-M1 tumors. Intratumoral injection of AMF/PGI-paclitaxel induced significantly higher tumor regression compared to free paclitaxel, even in B16-F1 cells, known to be resistant to taxol treatment. Treatment with AMF/PGI-paclitaxel significantly prolonged the median survival time of tumor bearing mice. Free AMF/PGI exhibited a pro-survival role, reducing the cytotoxic effect of both AMF/PGI-paclitaxel and free paclitaxel suggesting that AMF/PGI-paclitaxel targets a pathway associated with resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. AMF/PGI-FITC uptake by normal murine spleen and thymus cells was

  19. On the Role of Protein Disulfide Isomerase in the Retrograde Cell Transport of Secreted Phospholipases A2

    PubMed Central

    Leonardi, Adrijana; Dolinar, Klemen; Pucer Janež, Anja; Križaj, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Following the finding that ammodytoxin (Atx), a neurotoxic secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) in snake venom, binds specifically to protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) in vitro we show that these proteins also interact in living rat PC12 cells that are able to internalize this group IIA (GIIA) sPLA2. Atx and PDI co-localize in both differentiated and non-differentiated PC12 cells, as shown by fluorescence microscopy. Based on a model of the complex between Atx and yeast PDI (yPDI), a three-dimensional model of the complex between Atx and human PDI (hPDI) was constructed. The Atx binding site on hPDI is situated between domains b and b’. Atx interacts hPDI with an extensive area on its interfacial binding surface. The mammalian GIB, GIIA, GV and GX sPLA2s have the same fold as Atx. The first three sPLA2s have been detected intracellularly but not the last one. The models of their complexes with hPDI were constructed by replacement of Atx with the respective mammalian sPLA2 in the Atx—hPDI complex and molecular docking of the structures. According to the generated models, mammalian GIB, GIIA and GV sPLA2s form complexes with hPDI very similar to that with Atx. The contact area between GX sPLA2 and hPDI is however different from that of the other sPLA2s. Heterologous competition of Atx binding to hPDI with GV and GX sPLA2s confirmed the model-based expectation that GV sPLA2 was a more effective inhibitor than GX sPLA2, thus validating our model. The results suggest a role of hPDI in the (patho)physiology of some snake venom and mammalian sPLA2s by assisting the retrograde transport of these molecules from the cell surface. The sPLA2–hPDI model constitutes a valuable tool to facilitate further insights into this process and into the (patho)physiology of sPLA2s in relation to their action intracellularly. PMID:25763817

  20. Role of Pin1 in UVA-induced cell proliferation and malignant transformation in epidermal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Chang Yeob; Hien, Tran Thi; Lim, Sung Chul; Kang, Keon Wook

    2011-06-24

    Highlights: {yields} Pin1 expression is enhanced by low energy UVA irradiation in both skin tissues of hairless mice and JB6 C141 epidermal cells. {yields} UVA irradiation increases activator protein-1 activity and cyclin D1 in a Pin1-dependent manner. {yields} UVA potentiates EGF-inducible, anchorage-independent growth of epidermal cells, and this is suppressed by Pin1 inhibition or by anti-oxidant. -- Abstract: Ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation ({lambda} = 320-400 nm) is considered a major cause of human skin cancer. Pin1, a peptidyl prolyl isomerase, is overexpressed in most types of cancer tissues and plays an important role in cell proliferation and transformation. Here, we demonstrated that Pin1 expression was enhanced by low energy UVA (300-900 mJ/cm{sup 2}) irradiation in both skin tissues of hairless mice and JB6 C141 epidermal cells. Exposure of epidermal cells to UVA radiation increased cell proliferation and cyclin D1 expression, and these changes were blocked by Pin1 inhibition. UVA irradiation also increased activator protein-1 (AP-1) minimal reporter activity and nuclear levels of c-Jun, but not c-Fos, in a Pin1-dependent manner. The increases in Pin1 expression and in AP-1 reporter activity in response to UVA were abolished by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment. Finally, we found that pre-exposure of JB6 C141 cells to UVA potentiated EGF-inducible, anchorage-independent growth, and this effect was significantly suppressed by Pin1inhibition or by NAC.

  1. Parvulin 17-catalyzed Tubulin Polymerization Is Regulated by Calmodulin in a Calcium-dependent Manner*

    PubMed Central

    Burgardt, Noelia Inés; Schmidt, Andreas; Manns, Annika; Schutkowski, Alexandra; Jahreis, Günther; Lin, Yi-Jan; Schulze, Bianca; Masch, Antonia; Lücke, Christian; Weiwad, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Recently we have shown that the peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase parvulin 17 (Par17) interacts with tubulin in a GTP-dependent manner, thereby promoting the formation of microtubules. Microtubule assembly is regulated by Ca2+-loaded calmodulin (Ca2+/CaM) both in the intact cell and under in vitro conditions via direct interaction with microtubule-associated proteins. Here we provide the first evidence that Ca2+/CaM interacts also with Par17 in a physiologically relevant way, thus preventing Par17-promoted microtubule assembly. In contrast, parvulin 14 (Par14), which lacks only the first 25 N-terminal residues of the Par17 sequence, does not interact with Ca2+/CaM, indicating that this interaction is exclusive for Par17. Pulldown experiments and chemical shift perturbation analysis with 15N-labeled Par17 furthermore confirmed that calmodulin (CaM) interacts in a Ca2+-dependent manner with the Par17 N terminus. The reverse experiment with 15N-labeled Ca2+/CaM demonstrated that the N-terminal Par17 segment binds to both CaM lobes simultaneously, indicating that Ca2+/CaM undergoes a conformational change to form a binding channel between its two lobes, apparently similar to the structure of the CaM-smMLCK796–815 complex. In vitro tubulin polymerization assays furthermore showed that Ca2+/CaM completely suppresses Par17-promoted microtubule assembly. The results imply that Ca2+/CaM binding to the N-terminal segment of Par17 causes steric hindrance of the Par17 active site, thus interfering with the Par17/tubulin interaction. This Ca2+/CaM-mediated control of Par17-assisted microtubule assembly may provide a mechanism that couples Ca2+ signaling with microtubule function. PMID:25940090

  2. The Crystal Structure of PPIL1 Bound to Cyclosporine A Suggests a Binding Mode for a Linear Epitope of the SKIP Protein

    PubMed Central

    Stegmann, Christian M.; Lührmann, Reinhard; Wahl, Markus C.

    2010-01-01

    Background The removal of introns from pre-mRNA is carried out by a large macromolecular machine called the spliceosome. The peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase PPIL1 is a component of the human spliceosome and binds to the spliceosomal SKIP protein via a binding site distinct from its active site. Principal Findings Here, we have studied the PPIL1 protein and its interaction with SKIP biochemically and by X-ray crystallography. A minimal linear binding epitope derived from the SKIP protein could be determined using a peptide array. A 36-residue region of SKIP centred on an eight-residue epitope suffices to bind PPIL1 in pull-down experiments. The crystal structure of PPIL1 in complex with the inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA) was obtained at a resolution of 1.15 Å and exhibited two bound Cd2+ ions that enabled SAD phasing. PPIL1 residues that have previously been implicated in binding of SKIP are involved in the coordination of Cd2+ ions in the present crystal structure. Employing the present crystal structure, the determined minimal binding epitope and previously published NMR data [1], a molecular docking study was performed. In the docked model of the PPIL1·SKIP interaction, a proline residue of SKIP is buried in a hydrophobic pocket of PPIL1. This hydrophobic contact is encircled by several hydrogen bonds between the SKIP peptide and PPIL1. Conclusion We characterized a short, linear epitope of SKIP that is sufficient to bind the PPIL1 protein. Our data indicate that this SKIP peptide could function in recruiting PPIL1 into the core of the spliceosome. We present a molecular model for the binding mode of SKIP to PPIL1 which emphasizes the versatility of cyclophilin-type PPIases to engage in additional interactions with other proteins apart from active site contacts despite their limited surface area. PMID:20368803

  3. The posttranslocational chaperone lipoprotein PrsA is involved in both glycopeptide and oxacillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Jousselin, Ambre; Renzoni, Adriana; Andrey, Diego O; Monod, Antoinette; Lew, Daniel P; Kelley, William L

    2012-07-01

    Understanding in detail the factors which permit Staphylococcus aureus to counteract cell wall-active antibiotics is a prerequisite to elaborating effective strategies to prolong the usefulness of these drugs and define new targets for pharmacological intervention. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains are major pathogens of hospital-acquired and community-acquired infections and are most often treated with glycopeptides (vancomycin and teicoplanin) because of their resistance to most penicillins and a limited arsenal of clinically proven alternatives. In this study, we examined PrsA, a lipid-anchored protein of the parvulin PPIase family (peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase) found ubiquitously in all Gram-positive species, in which it assists posttranslocational folding at the outer surface of the cytoplasmic membrane. We show by both genetic and biochemical assays that prsA is directly regulated by the VraRS two-component sentinel system of cell wall stress. Disruption of prsA is tolerated by S. aureus, and its loss results in no detectable overt macroscopic changes in cell wall architecture or growth rate under nonstressed growth conditions. Disruption of prsA leads, however, to notable alterations in the sensitivity to glycopeptides and dramatically decreases the resistance of COL (MRSA) to oxacillin. Quantitative transcriptional analysis reveals that prsA and vraR are coordinately upregulated in a panel of stable laboratory and clinical glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus (GISA) strains compared to their susceptible parents. Collectively, our results point to a role for prsA as a facultative facilitator of protein secretion or extracellular folding and provide a framework for understanding why prsA is a key element of the VraRS-mediated cell wall stress response. PMID:22526301

  4. Classification of rice (oryza sativa l. japonica nipponbare) immunophilins (fkbps, cyps) and expression patterns under water stress

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background FK506 binding proteins (FKBPs) and cyclophilins (CYPs) are abundant and ubiquitous proteins belonging to the peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) superfamily, which regulate much of metabolism through a chaperone or an isomerization of proline residues during protein folding. They are collectively referred to as immunophilin (IMM), being present in almost all cellular organs. In particular, a number of IMMs relate to environmental stresses. Results FKBP and CYP proteins in rice (Oryza sativa cv. Japonica) were identified and classified, and given the appropriate name for each IMM, considering the ortholog-relation with Arabidopsis and Chlamydomonas or molecular weight of the proteins. 29 FKBP and 27 CYP genes can putatively be identified in rice; among them, a number of genes can be putatively classified as orthologs of Arabidopsis IMMs. However, some genes were novel, did not match with those of Arabidopsis and Chlamydomonas, and several genes were paralogs by genetic duplication. Among 56 IMMs in rice, a significant number are regulated by salt and/or desiccation stress. In addition, their expression levels responding to the water-stress have been analyzed in different tissues, and some subcellular IMMs located by means of tagging with GFP protein. Conclusion Like other green photosynthetic organisms such as Arabidopsis (23 FKBPs and 29 CYPs) and Chlamydomonas (23 FKBs and 26 CYNs), rice has the highest number of IMM genes among organisms reported so far, suggesting that the numbers relate closely to photosynthesis. Classification of the putative FKBPs and CYPs in rice provides the information about their evolutional/functional significance when comparisons are drawn with the relatively well studied genera, Arabidopsis and Chlamydomonas. In addition, many of the genes upregulated by water stress offer the possibility of manipulating the stress responses in rice. PMID:21087465

  5. AtFKBP16-1, a chloroplast lumenal immunophilin, mediates response to photosynthetic stress by regulating PsaL stability

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Min Sook; You, Young Nim; Park, Hyun Ji; Lee, Sang Sook; Aigen, Fu; Luan, Sheng; Ahn, Jun Cheul; Cho, Hye Sun

    2014-01-01

    Arabidopsis contains 16 putative chloroplast lumen-targeted immunophilins (IMMs). Proteomic analysis has enabled the subcellular localization of IMMs experimentally, but the exact biological and physiological roles of most luminal IMMs remain to be discovered. FK506-binding protein (FKBP) 16-1, one of the lumenal IMMs containing poorly conserved amino acid residues for peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase) activity, was shown to play a possible role in chloroplast biogenesis in Arabidopsis, and was also found to interact with PsaL in wheat. In this study, further evidence is provided for the notion that Arabidopsis FKBP16-1 (AtFKBP16-1) is transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally regulated by environmental stresses including high light (HL) intensity, and that overexpression of AtFKBP16-1 plants exhibited increased photosynthetic stress tolerance. A blue native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis/two-dimensional (BN-PAGE/2-D) analysis revealed that the increase of AtFKBP16-1 affected the levels of photosystem I (PSI)-light harvesting complex I (LHCI) and PSI-LHCI-light harvesting complex II (LHCII) supercomplex, and consequently enhanced tolerance under conditions of HL stress. In addition, plants overexpressing AtFKBP16-1 showed increased accumulation of PsaL protein and enhanced drought tolerance. Using a protease protection assay, AtFKBP16-1 protein was found to have a role in PsaL stability. The AtPsaL levels also responded to abiotic stresses derived from drought, and from methyl viologen stresses in wild-type plants. Taken together, these results suggest that AtFKBP16-1 plays a role in the acclimation of plants under photosynthetic stress conditions, probably by regulating PsaL stability. PMID:24124981

  6. RuBisCO depletion improved proteome coverage of cold responsive S-nitrosylated targets in Brassica juncea

    PubMed Central

    Sehrawat, Ankita; Abat, Jasmeet K.; Deswal, Renu

    2013-01-01

    Although in the last few years good number of S-nitrosylated proteins are identified but information on endogenous targets is still limiting. Therefore, an attempt is made to decipher NO signaling in cold treated Brassica juncea seedlings. Treatment of seedlings with substrate, cofactor and inhibitor of Nitric-oxide synthase and nitrate reductase (NR), indicated NR mediated NO biosynthesis in cold. Analysis of the in vivo thiols showed depletion of low molecular weight thiols and enhancement of available protein thiols, suggesting redox changes. To have a detailed view, S-nitrosylation analysis was done using biotin switch technique (BST) and avidin-affinity chromatography. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) is S-nitrosylated and therefore, is identified as target repeatedly due to its abundance. It also competes out low abundant proteins which are important NO signaling components. Therefore, RuBisCO was removed (over 80%) using immunoaffinity purification. Purified S-nitrosylated RuBisCO depleted proteins were resolved on 2-D gel as 110 spots, including 13 new, which were absent in the crude S-nitrosoproteome. These were identified by nLC-MS/MS as thioredoxin, fructose biphosphate aldolase class I, myrosinase, salt responsive proteins, peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase and malate dehydrogenase. Cold showed differential S-nitrosylation of 15 spots, enhanced superoxide dismutase activity (via S-nitrosylation) and promoted the detoxification of superoxide radicals. Increased S-nitrosylation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase sedoheptulose-biphosphatase, and fructose biphosphate aldolase, indicated regulation of Calvin cycle by S-nitrosylation. The results showed that RuBisCO depletion improved proteome coverage and provided clues for NO signaling in cold. PMID:24032038

  7. The cyclophilin CYP20-2 modulates the conformation of BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT1, which binds the promoter of FLOWERING LOCUS D to regulate flowering in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Li, Beibei; Xu, Yunyuan; Li, Heng; Li, Shanshan; Zhang, Dajian; Mao, Zhiwei; Guo, Siyi; Yang, Chunhong; Weng, Yuxiang; Chong, Kang

    2013-07-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) regulate many physiological processes during plant development, including flowering. However, little is known about the components of BR signaling that mediate flowering. Here, we report that BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT1 (BZR1), the conformation of which is altered by a cyclophilin (CYP20-2), binds cis-elements in the FLOWERING LOCUS D (FLD) promoter to regulate flowering. Both bzr1-1D and fld-4 showed delayed flowering. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that BZR1 bound to a putative BR response cis-element and suppressed the expression of FLD. Overexpression of FLD partially rescued the late flowering of pBZR1:mBZR1(Pro234-Leu)-CFP (mx3). Yeast two-hybrid and pull-down assays demonstrated that BZR1 interacts with CYP20-2. Arabidopsis thaliana CYP20-2 had greater peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity than did wheat (Triticum aestivum) CYP20-2. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed conformation changes in BZR1, dependent on interaction with CYP20-2. Due to differences in activity and substrate preference between CYP20-2 proteins from wheat and Arabidopsis, At-CYP20-2-overexpressing lines showed earlier flowering, whereas Ta CYP20-2 lines flowered later. Immunoblot and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that histone H3 trimethyl Lys4 and H3 acetylation levels were negatively correlated with the transcription of FLD (a putative histone demethylase) in various lines. Therefore, a conformational change of BZR1 mediated by CYP20-2 causes altered