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Sample records for peptococcus

  1. Differentiation of Peptococcus and Peptostreptococcus by gas-liquid chromatography of cellular fatty acids and metabolic products.

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, M A; Armfield, A Y

    1979-01-01

    Gas-liquid chromatographic (GLC) profiles of cellular fatty acids and metabolic products were useful in identifying strains of Peptococcus saccharolyticus, Peptococcus asaccharolyticus, Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Peptostreptococcus micros, and Streptococcus intermedius. The GLC results supported the recent taxonomic decision to transfer aerotolerant Peptostreptococcus species to the genus Streptococcus. Because inconsistencies in the results prevented our differentiating Peptococcus prevotii. Peptococcus magnus, and Peptococcus variabilis by GLC, additional strains will have to been examined. These GLC techniques are amenable to routine use; however, for interlaboratory results to be meaningful, the classification and nomenclature of the anaerobic gram-positive cocci should be standardized. PMID:528680

  2. [Comparative study of the antimicrobial effect of various cavity liners used in conservative dentistry].

    PubMed

    Pumarola Suñé, J; Espias Gómez, A; Canalda Sahli, C

    1989-01-01

    We have compared the microbiological activity of the following cavity liners: Life, Dycal II, Calcipulpe, Pure calcium hydroxide and Cavitec; against five different bacterial strains: Veillonella parvula, Bacteroides fragilis, Peptococcus s.p., Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus beta hemolytic: The results demonstrate the higher antimicrobial activity of the manufactured cavity liners with calcium hydroxide base in comparison with the pure calcium hydroxide. PMID:2638022

  3. In vitro susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria to ciprofloxacin (Bay o 9867).

    PubMed Central

    Prabhala, R H; Rao, B; Marshall, R; Bansal, M B; Thadepalli, H

    1984-01-01

    About 80% of 70 clinical isolates of Bacteroides fragilis were inhibited by 4 micrograms of ciprofloxacin (Bay o 9867) per ml. The 90% MIC of ciprofloxacin was 8 micrograms/ml for other Bacteroides species, 2 micrograms/ml for Peptococcus species, 8 micrograms/ml for Peptostreptococcus species, and 16 micrograms/ml for Clostridium and Eubacterium species. PMID:6517561

  4. Anaerobic brain abscess

    PubMed Central

    Sudhaharan, Sukanya; Chavali, Padmasri

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Brain abscess remains a potentially fatal central nervous system (CNS) disease, especially in developing countries. Anaerobic abscess is difficult to diagnose because of cumbersome procedures associated with the isolation of anaerobes. Materials and Methods: This is a hospital-based retrospective microbiological analysis of 430 brain abscess materials (purulent aspirates and/or tissue), for anaerobic organisms, that were received between 1987–2014, by the Microbiology Laboratory in our Institute. Results: Culture showed growth of bacteria 116/430 (27%) of the cases of which anaerobes were isolated in 48/116 (41.1%) of the cases. Peptostreptococcus (51.4 %), was the predominant organism isolated in four cases followed by Bacteroides and Peptococcus species. Conclusion: Early diagnosis and detection of these organisms would help in the appropriate management of these patients. PMID:27307977

  5. Dietary fucoidan modulates the gut microbiota in mice by increasing the abundance of Lactobacillus and Ruminococcaceae.

    PubMed

    Shang, Qingsen; Shan, Xindi; Cai, Chao; Hao, Jiejie; Li, Guoyun; Yu, Guangli

    2016-07-13

    Recently, fucoidan has been proposed as a potential prebiotic agent for functional food and pharmaceutical development. However, while previous studies illustrated favorable modulations of gut microbiota by fucoidan, changes in the overall microbial structure remain elusive. In the present study, modulations of gut microbiota by different fucoidans were studied using high throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. We found that at the expense of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria such as Peptococcus, the abundance of beneficial bacteria including Lactobacillus and Ruminococcaceae was significantly increased in response to fucoidan treatment. Besides, by maintaining a more balanced composition of gut microbiota, dietary fucoidan also significantly reduced the antigen load and the inflammatory response in the host as evidenced by the decreased serum lipopolysaccharide-binding protein levels. Collectively, our results indicate that fucoidan can be used as a gut microbiota modulator for health promotion and treatment of intestinal dysbiosis. PMID:27334000

  6. Comparative Susceptibility of Anaerobic Bacteria to Minocycline, Doxycycline, and Tetracycline

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Anthony W.; Patten, Valerie; Guze, Lucien B.

    1975-01-01

    The comparative susceptibility of 622 recent clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria to minocycline, doxycycline, and tetracycline was determined by an agar-dilution technique. In addition to Bacteroides fragilis, a variety of other anaerobic bacteria was resistant to achievable blood concentrations of tetracycline (55% inhibited by 6.25 μg/ml) and doxycycline (58% inhibited by 2.5 μg/ml). In contrast, minocycline was significantly more active (P < 0.05) than both doxycycline and tetracycline, and 70% of strains were inhibited by achievable blood concentrations of this antibiotic (2.5 μg/ml). The enhanced activity of minocycline was particularly striking for Peptococcus asaccharolyticus, P. magnus, P. prevotii, Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, and Bacteroides melaninogenicus. Further evaluation of the clinical efficacy of minocycline against anaerobic infections is indicated. PMID:1137358

  7. Shedding Light on the Microbial Community of the Macropod Foregut Using 454-Amplicon Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Gulino, Lisa-Maree; Ouwerkerk, Diane; Kang, Alicia Y. H.; Maguire, Anita J.; Kienzle, Marco; Klieve, Athol V.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty macropods from five locations in Queensland, Australia, grazing on a variety of native pastures were surveyed and the bacterial community of the foregut was examined using 454-amplicon pyrosequencing. Specifically, the V3/V4 region of 16S rRNA gene was examined. A total of 5040 OTUs were identified in the data set (post filtering). Thirty-two OTUs were identified as ‘shared’ OTUS (i.e. present in all samples) belonging to either Firmicutes or Bacteroidetes (Clostridiales/Bacteroidales). These phyla predominated the general microbial community in all macropods. Genera represented within the shared OTUs included: unclassified Ruminococcaceae, unclassified Lachnospiraceae, unclassified Clostridiales, Peptococcus sp. Coprococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Blautia sp., Ruminoccocus sp., Eubacterium sp., Dorea sp., Oscillospira sp. and Butyrivibrio sp. The composition of the bacterial community of the foregut samples of each the host species (Macropus rufus, Macropus giganteus and Macropus robustus) was significantly different allowing differentiation between the host species based on alpha and beta diversity measures. Specifically, eleven dominant OTUs that separated the three host species were identified and classified as: unclassified Ruminococcaceae, unclassified Bacteroidales, Prevotella spp. and a Syntrophococcus sucromutans. Putative reductive acetogens and fibrolytic bacteria were also identified in samples. Future work will investigate the presence and role of fibrolytics and acetogens in these ecosystems. Ideally, the isolation and characterization of these organisms will be used for enhanced feed efficiency in cattle, methane mitigation and potentially for other industries such as the biofuel industry. PMID:23626688

  8. A comparison of faecal microbial populations of South African Windsnyer-type indigenous pigs (SAWIPs) and Large White × Landrace (LW × LR) crosses fed diets containing ensiled maize cobs.

    PubMed

    Kanengoni, Arnold T; Chimonyo, Michael; Tasara, Taurai; Cormican, Paul; Chapwanya, Aspinas; Ndimba, Bongani K; Dzama, Kennedy

    2015-07-01

    Faecal microbial communities in South African Windsnyer-type indigenous pigs (SAWIPs) and Large White × Landrace (LW × LR) crosses were investigated using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rDNA genes. The faecal microbial communities in LW × LR crosses and SAWIPs fed control (CON) and high maize cob (HMC) diets were evaluated through parallel sequencing of 16S rDNA genes. Butrivibrio, Faecalibacterium and Desulfovibrio, although present in LW × LR pigs, were absent from the SAWIP microbial community. Bacteroides, Succiniclasticum, Peptococcus and Akkermansia were found in SAWIPs but not in LW × LR crosses. The ratios of Bacteroidia to Clostridia on the CON and HMC diets were similar (0.37 versus 0.39) in SAWIPs but different (0.24 versus 0.1) in LW × LR crosses. The faecal microbial profiles determined were different between the LW × LR and SAWIP breeds but not between pigs fed the CON and HMC diets. The composition of faecal bacterial communities in SAWIPs was determined for the first time. The differences in microbial communities detected may explain the enhanced ability of SAWIPs to digest fibrous diets compared with the LW × LR crosses. PMID:26091682

  9. Acute Pelvic Inflammatory Disease and Clinical Response to Parenteral Doxycycline

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Anthony W.; Malkasian, Kay L.; Marshall, John R.; Guze, Lucien B.

    1975-01-01

    The bacteriology of acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and clinical response to parenteral doxycycline were evaluated in 30 patients. Only 3 of 21 cul-de-sac cultures from PID patients were sterile, whereas all 8 normal control subjects yielded negative results (P< 0.005). Poor correlation was observed between cervical and cul-de-sac cultures. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, isolated from the cervix in 17 patients (57%), was recovered from the cul-de-sac only once. Streptococcus, Peptococcus, Peptostreptococcus, coliforms, and other organisms normally present in the vagina were the predominant isolates recovered from the cul-de-sac. Parenteral doxycycline resulted in rapid resolution of signs and symptoms (within 48 h) in 20 of 27 evaluable patients (74%). In five others, signs and symptoms of infection abated within 4 days. The remaining two patients failed to respond; in both cases, adnexal masses developed during doxycycline therapy. Gonococci were eradicated from the cervix in all but one patient who, nevertheless, had a rapid defervescence of symptoms. There was no clear-cut correlation between the clinical response and in vitro susceptibility of cul-de-sac isolates to doxycycline. These data confirm the usefulness of broad-spectrum antibiotics in acute PID. Culdocentesis is a reliable means of obtaining material for the bacteriological diagnosis of acute PID; however, the pathogenetic role and relative importance of gonococci and various other bacteria in acute PID need to be clarified further. PMID:1169908

  10. Quantitative bacteriology of the vaginal flora.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, J G; Onderdonk, A B; Drude, E; Goldstein, C; Anderka, M; Alpert, S; McCormack, W M

    1977-08-01

    Quantitative bacteriology was performed on vaginal secretions from healthy adult women. The analysis included a single sample from 17 college students and 35 samples from five volunteers collected at intervals of three to five days throughout the menstrual cycle. Mean concentrations in all 52 specimens were 10(8.1) aerobic bacteria/g and 10(9.1) anaerobic bacteria/g. The rank of predominant organisms, according to rates of recovery in concentrations of greater than 10(5) colony-forming units/g, was anaerobic and facultative Lacrobacillus species, Peptococcus species, Bacteroides species, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Corynebacterium species, Peotostreptococcus species, and Eubacterium species. Sequential samples collected throughout the menstrual cycle showed relatively consistent mean levels of anaerobes and a significant decrease in concentrations of aerobes in premenstrual specimens compared with those in the specimens collected in the week following onset of menses. Analysis of sequential specimens from each of the five individuals showed considerable variation in species recovered. These data indicate that the vaginal flora in healthy adult women is a dynamic ecosystem in which anaerobes are usually the numerically dominant bacteria. PMID:894079

  11. Studies on mixed populations of human intestinal bacteria grown in single-stage and multistage continuous culture systems.

    PubMed Central

    Allison, C; McFarlan, C; MacFarlane, G T

    1989-01-01

    Mixed intestinal bacteria were grown for 336 h in two identical single-stage chemostats at low growth rates in a carbohydrate-limited medium. Complex bacterial populations were maintained and anaerobes always outnumbered aerobes. The predominant organisms belonged to the genera Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Clostridium, Eubacterium, Propionbacterium, Peptococcus, and Peptostreptococcus. Bacteroides species predominated in both fermentors, particularly B. ovatus and B. thetaiotaomicron. A high degree of reproducibility of bacteriological and fermentation product data was obtained in these experiments. When gut contents were inoculated into a five-stage continuous culture system (retention time of 79 or 38 h) containing soya bran, the medium flow rate had little quantitative effect on the formation of acidic fermentation products; however, more oxidized fermentation acids were produced at the higher retention time. Diverse bacterial populations were maintained in every vessel at each flow rate. Bacteroides fragilis group organisms, especially B. ovatus, were numerically the most important. The viability of bacteria decreased through the system, especially at a retention time of 79 h, when the bacteria were growing under severely nutrient-limited conditions. PMID:2930171

  12. Animal model for anaerobic lung abscess.

    PubMed Central

    Kannangara, D W; Thadepalli, H; Bach, V T; Webb, D

    1981-01-01

    There are no satisfactory animal models for the study of anaerobic lung abscess. Aspiration of food, gastric mucin, or hydrochloric acid, or any combination of these, along with oropharyngeal bacteria, is commonly believed to cause aspiration pneumonia and lung abscess. In the animal model described, none of the adjuvants was effective in producing anaerobic lung abscesses. Anaerobic bacteria derived from dental scrapings of a healthy adult (Peptococcus morbillorum, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Eubacterium lentum, and Bacteroides fragilis), when inoculated transtracheally without any adjuvants into New Zealand male white rabbits, consistently produced lung abscesses. Neither B fragilis by itself nor a mixture of P. morbillorum, F. nucleatum, and E. lentum without the addition of B. fragilis produced lung abscesses. The bacterial isolates used in this study were stored in prereduced chopped-meat-glucose medium and subcultured several times and were found effective in reproducing anaerobic lung abscesses repeatedly. This animal model is suitable for the study of pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of B. fragilis-associated anaerobic lung abscess. Images PMID:7216463

  13. [Susceptibilities of clinical bacterial isolates to antimicrobial agents. A study mainly focused on imipenem. Reported by the Research Group for Testing Imipenem Susceptibility on Clinical Isolates].

    PubMed

    Igari, J

    1990-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate susceptibilities of clinical bacterial isolates to imipenem (IPM) and other antibacterial agents at 64 hospital laboratories throughout Japan from September to December of 1988. In this study, identification and susceptibility testing were carried out at each laboratory and the tests were performed according to the disk dilution method recommended by NCCLS in which susceptibilities are classified into "S", "MS", "I" and "R". IPM showed markedly high in vitro activities against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Enterococcus faecalis, Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, Salmonella spp., Citrobacter freundii, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Morganella morganii, Providencia rettgeri, Providencia stuartii, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis, Alcaligenes spp., Peptococcus spp./Peptostreptococcus spp., Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides spp. IPM also had strong activities against Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but less active against Flavobacterium spp., E. faecium, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas cepacia. In a study in which activities of IPM against bacteria isolated from different clinical sources were compared, differences in susceptibilities were observed among S. aureus, CNS, A. calcoaceticus and P. aeruginosa, but such differences were not apparent among S. pneumoniae, E. faecalis, H. influenzae, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, E. cloacae, C. freundii, S. marcescens or P. mirabilis. PMID:2287060

  14. [Susceptibilities of clinical bacterial isolates to antimicrobial agents. A study mainly focused on imipenem. Research Group for Testing Imipenem Susceptibility on Clinical Isolates].

    PubMed

    Igari, J

    1990-10-01

    We investigated susceptibilities of clinical bacterial isolates to imipenem (IPM) and other antimicrobial agents at 459 hospital laboratories throughout Japan from September to December of 1988. In this study, identification and susceptibility testing were performed at each hospital laboratory and the tests were carried out according to the 1-dilution or 3-dilution disc technique in which susceptibilities are classified into 4 grades: , ++, + and -. IPM had significantly high activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, Salmonella spp., Citrobacter freundii, Proteus mirabilis, Providencia rettgeri, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Moraxella catarrhalis, Alcaligenes spp., Peptococcus spp./Peptostreptococcus spp., Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides spp. and should slightly lower activities on coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), Enterococcus faecalis, Haemophilus influenzae, Serratia marcescens, Proteus vulgaris, Providencia stuartii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa than on the above mentioned bacteria. In a comparative study on activities of IPM against bacteria from different clinical sources, no remarkable differences were found due to different sources among S. pneumoniae, E. faecalis, H. influenzae, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, E. cloacae, C. freundii, P. mirabilis or A. calcoaceticus, whereas slight differences were found among Staphylococcus aureus, CNS, S. marcescens and P. aeruginosa. PMID:2086814

  15. Dispersal of non-sporeforming anaerobic bacteria from the skin.

    PubMed Central

    Benediktsdóttir, E.; Hambraeus, A.

    1982-01-01

    Dispersal of non-sporeforming anaerobic bacteria was studied. Skin samples were taken from the subjects, and dispersed from different parts of the body was examined. The number of anaerobic bacteria dispersed was not correlated to their density on the surface of skin area exposed. The highest density of anaerobic bacteria on the skin was found in the face and upper trunk, but the highest yield of anaerobic bacteria dispersed came from the lower trunk. The dominant anaerobic bacteria dispersed were Propionibacterium acnes, but Propionibacterium avidum, Propionibacterium granulosum and Gram-positive cocci were also isolated from the dispersal samples. Peptococcus magnus was the most common coccus isolated. For the less frequently isolated bacteria, the best correlation was found between the perineal flora and airborne bacteria. A comparison was also made of bacterial dispersal by naked and dressed subjects. The dispersal of both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria was higher when the subjects were dressed in conventional operating theatre cotton clothing than when they were naked. The increased dispersal of anaerobic bacteria when the subjects were dressed was mainly due to increased dispersal of Propionibacterium sp. PMID:6806353

  16. Acidaminococcus gen. n., Acidaminococcus fermentans sp. n., Anaerobic Gram-negative Diplococci Using Amino Acids as the Sole Energy Source for Growth

    PubMed Central

    Rogosa, Morrison

    1969-01-01

    Acidaminococcus gen. n. and the type species Acidaminococcus fermentans sp. n. were described. Amino acids, of which glutamic acid is the most important, could serve as the sole energy source for growth. Acetic and butyric acids and CO2 were produced; propionic acid and hydrogen were not produced. Amino acid media supporting growth and the amino acid and vitamin requirements were described. Glucose was frequently not fermented or was weakly catabolized. Derivative products from glucose autoclaved in media, but not glucose itself, stimulated or were required for growth in amino acid media. A wide range of polyols and carbohydrates were not attacked. Lactate, fumarate, malate, succinate, citrate, and pyruvate were not used as energy sources for growth. Pyruvate completely suppressed growth. Cytochrome oxidase and benzidine reactions were negative; catalase, indole, acetyl methyl carbinol, and H2S were not produced; nitrate and sulfonthalein indicators were not reduced; ammonia was produced; gelatin liquefaction was negative or slow and partial; vancomycin (7.5 μg/ml) was resisted. Acidaminococcus was different from Veillonella in morphology, serology, nutrition, utilization of substrates, and accumulation of products in media supporting growth; Acidaminococcus resembled Peptococcus in utilization of glutamic acid and accumulation of similar products, but the two genera differed in morphology, gram reaction, serology, guanine plus cytosine content of deoxyribonucleic acid, and nutrition. Images PMID:5784223

  17. The identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria from pneumonic cattle lungs.

    PubMed Central

    Chirino-Trejo, J M; Prescott, J F

    1983-01-01

    One hundred and forty-four lungs obtained postmortem from cattle with pneumonia were cultured for anaerobic bacteria. Forty-five lungs yielded 73 anaerobic isolates belonging to 20 species. The number of isolations of anaerobes from acute fibrinous or suppurative bronchopneumonias (32.5%) was slightly lower than from similar chronic bronchopneumonias (36.5%). Anaerobes were not recovered from 15 lungs showing macroscopic changes not of bacterial origin, nor from 13 healthy lungs. The predominant genera isolated were Bacteroides, Peptococcus, Fusobacterium and Clostridium. The most common species were P. indolicus (15 isolates), B. asaccharolyticus (nine), F. necrophorum (six), C. perfringens (four) and B. fragilis (four). There was a significant correlation between the presence of Corynebacterium pyogenes (p less than 0.001) or Escherichia coli (p less than 0.01) and the presence of anaerobes in the lungs. The isolated anaerobic bacteria were generally susceptible to ampicillin, penicillin G, cefoxitin, cephalothin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, tetracycline and metronidazole. The B. fragilis and C. perfringens isolates showed multiple antibiotic resistance, and five P. indolicus isolates were resistant to tetracycline. PMID:6640410

  18. Analysis of the bacterial diversity existing on animal hide and wool: development of a preliminary PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprint database for identifying isolates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Gao, Hongwei; Zhang, Yanming; Deng, Mingjun; Wu, Zhenxing; Zhu, Laihua; Duan, Qing; Xu, Biao; Liang, Chengzhu; Yue, Zhiqin; Xiao, Xizhi

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-one bacterial strains were isolated from imported cattle hide and rabbit wool using two types of media, nutrient broth, and nutrient broth with serum. The bacteria identified were Brevibacillus laterosporus, Leclercia adecarboxylata, Peptococcus niger, Bacillus circulans, Raoultella ornithinolytica, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thermobacillus, Bacillus choshinensis, Bacillus sphaericus, Acinetobacter haemolyticus, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Bacillus thuringiensis, Staphylococcus intermedius, Mycobacteria, Moraxella, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Ralstonia pickettii, Staphylococcus chromogenes, Comamonas testosteroni, and Cupriavidus pauculus. The 16s rDNA gene of each bacterium was amplified using the universal primers 27f and 1492r. The amplicons were digested with AvaI, BamHI, BgII, DraI, EcoRI, EcoRV, HindIII, HinfI, HpaI, PstI, SmaI, TaqII, XbaI, XmaI, AluI, XhoI, and PvuI individually. A specific fingerprint from the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism method based on 16s rDNA was obtained for each bacterium. The results showed that the method developed was useful not only for bacterial identification but also for the etiological investigation of pathogens in imported animal hair and wool. PMID:23451394

  19. Two Pathways of Glutamate Fermentation by Anaerobic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Buckel, Wolfgang; Barker, H. A.

    1974-01-01

    Two pathways are involved in the fermentation of glutamate to acetate, butyrate, carbon dioxide, and ammonia—the methylaspartate and the hydroxyglutarate pathways which are used by Clostridium tetanomorphum and Peptococcus aerogenes, respectively. Although these pathways give rise to the same products, they are easily distinguished by different labeling patterns of the butyrate when [4-14C]glutamate is used as substrate. Schmidt degradation of the radioactive butyrate from C. tetanomorphum yielded equally labeled propionate and carbon dioxide, whereas nearly all the radioactivity of the butyrate from P. aerogenes was recovered in the corresponding propionate. This procedure was used as a test for the pathway of glutamate fermentation by 15 strains (9 species) of anaerobic bacteria. The labeling patterns of the butyrate indicate that glutamate is fermented via the methylaspartate pathway by C. tetani, C. cochlearium, and C. saccarobutyricum, and via the hydroxyglutarate pathway by Acidaminococcus fermentans, C. microsporum, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and F. fusiformis. Enzymes specific for each pathway were assayed in crude extracts of the above organisms. 3-Methylaspartase was found only in clostridia which use the methylaspartate pathway, including Clostridium SB4 and C. sticklandii, which probably degrade glutamate to acetate and carbon dioxide by using a second amino acid as hydrogen acceptor. High levels of 2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase were found exclusively in organisms that use the hydroxyglutarate pathway. The data indicate that only two pathways are involved in the fermentation of glutamate by the bacteria analyzed. The methylaspartate pathway appears to be used only by species of Clostridium, whereas the hydroxyglutarate pathway is used by representatives of several genera. PMID:4813895

  20. Prenatal stress-induced alterations in major physiological systems correlate with gut microbiota composition in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Golubeva, Anna V; Crampton, Sean; Desbonnet, Lieve; Edge, Deirdre; O'Sullivan, Orla; Lomasney, Kevin W; Zhdanov, Alexander V; Crispie, Fiona; Moloney, Rachel D; Borre, Yuliya E; Cotter, Paul D; Hyland, Niall P; O'Halloran, Ken D; Dinan, Timothy G; O'Keeffe, Gerard W; Cryan, John F

    2015-10-01

    Early-life adverse experiences, including prenatal stress (PNS), are associated with a higher prevalence of neurodevelopmental, cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in affected offspring. Here, in a rat model of chronic PNS, we investigate the impact of late gestational stress on physiological outcomes in adulthood. Sprague-Dawley pregnant dams were subjected to repeated restraint stress from embryonic day 14 to day 20, and their male offspring were assessed at 4 months of age. PNS induced an exaggeration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress, as well as an elevation of blood pressure and impairment of cognitive function. Altered respiratory control was also observed, as demonstrated by increased variability in basal respiratory frequency and abnormal frequency responses to both hypoxic and hypercapnic challenges. PNS also affected gastrointestinal neurodevelopment and function, as measured by a decrease in the innervation density of distal colon and an increase in the colonic secretory response to catecholaminergic stimulation. Finally, PNS induced long lasting alterations in the intestinal microbiota composition. 16S rRNA gene 454 pyrosequencing revealed a strong trend towards decreased numbers of bacteria in the Lactobacillus genus, accompanied by elevated abundance of the Oscillibacter, Anaerotruncus and Peptococcus genera in PNS animals. Strikingly, relative abundance of distinct bacteria genera significantly correlated with certain respiratory parameters and the responsiveness of the HPA axis to stress. Together, these findings provide novel evidence that PNS induces long-term maladaptive alterations in the gastrointestinal and respiratory systems, accompanied by hyper-responsiveness to stress and alterations in the gut microbiota. PMID:26135201

  1. Pyrosequencing analysis of oral microbiota shifting in various caries states in childhood.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen; Ling, Zongxin; Lin, Xiaolong; Chen, Yadong; Zhang, Jie; Yu, Jinjin; Xiang, Charlie; Chen, Hui

    2014-05-01

    Dental caries is one of the most prevalent childhood diseases worldwide, but little is known about the dynamic characteristics of oral microbiota in the development of dental caries. To investigate the shifting bacterial profiles in different caries states, 60 children (3-7-year-old) were enrolled in this study, including 30 caries-free subjects and 30 caries-active subjects. Supragingival plaques were collected from caries-active subjects on intact enamel, white spot lesions and carious dentin lesions. Plaques from caries-free subjects were used as a control. All samples were analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing based on 16S rRNA gene V1-V3 hypervariable regions. A total of 572,773 pyrosequencing reads passed the quality control and 25,444 unique phylotypes were identified, which represented 18 phyla and 145 genera. Reduced bacterial diversity in the cavitated dentin was observed as compared with the other groups. Thirteen genera (including Capnocytophaga, Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, Abiotrophia, Comamonas, Tannerella, Eikenella, Paludibacter, Treponema, Actinobaculum, Stenotrophomonas, Aestuariimicrobium, and Peptococcus) were found to be associated with dental health, and the bacterial profiles differed considerably depending on caries status. Eight genera (including Cryptobacterium, Lactobacillus, Megasphaera, Olsenella, Scardovia, Shuttleworthia, Cryptobacterium, and Streptococcus) were increased significantly in cavitated dentin lesions, and Actinomyces and Corynebacterium were present at significant high levels in white spot lesions (P < 0.05), while Flavobacterium, Neisseria, Bergeyella, and Derxia were enriched in the intact surfaces of caries individuals (P < 0.05). Our results showed that oral bacteria were specific at different stages of caries progression, which contributes to informing the prevention and treatment of childhood dental caries. PMID:24504329

  2. Oral Microbiota and Risk for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a High-Risk Area of China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xingdong; Winckler, Björn; Lu, Ming; Cheng, Hongwei; Yuan, Ziyu; Yang, Yajun; Jin, Li; Ye, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    Poor oral health has been linked with an increased risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We investigated whether alteration of oral microbiota is associated with ESCC risk. Fasting saliva samples were collected from 87 incident and histopathologicallly diagnosed ESCC cases, 63 subjects with dysplasia and 85 healthy controls. All subjects were also interviewed with a questionnaire. V3–V4 region of 16S rRNA was amplified and sequenced by 454-pyrosequencing platform. Carriage of each genus was compared by means of multivariate-adjusted odds ratios derived from logistic regression model. Relative abundance was compared using Metastats method. Beta diversity was estimated using Unifrac and weighted Unifrac distances. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) was applied to ordinate dissimilarity matrices. Multinomial logistic regression was used to compare the coordinates between different groups. ESCC subjects had an overall decreased microbial diversity compared to control and dysplasia subjects (P<0.001). Decreased carriage of genera Lautropia, Bulleidia, Catonella, Corynebacterium, Moryella, Peptococcus and Cardiobacterium were found in ESCC subjects compared to non-ESCC subjects. Multinomial logistic regression analyses on PCoA coordinates also revealed that ESCC subjects had significantly different levels for several coordinates compared to non-ESCC subjects. In conclusion, we observed a correlation between altered salivary bacterial microbiota and ESCC risk. The results of our study on the saliva microbiome are of particular interest as it reflects the shift in microbial communities. Further studies are warranted to verify this finding, and if being verified, to explore the underlying mechanisms. PMID:26641451

  3. Oral Microbiota and Risk for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a High-Risk Area of China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xingdong; Winckler, Björn; Lu, Ming; Cheng, Hongwei; Yuan, Ziyu; Yang, Yajun; Jin, Li; Ye, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    Poor oral health has been linked with an increased risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We investigated whether alteration of oral microbiota is associated with ESCC risk. Fasting saliva samples were collected from 87 incident and histopathologicallly diagnosed ESCC cases, 63 subjects with dysplasia and 85 healthy controls. All subjects were also interviewed with a questionnaire. V3-V4 region of 16S rRNA was amplified and sequenced by 454-pyrosequencing platform. Carriage of each genus was compared by means of multivariate-adjusted odds ratios derived from logistic regression model. Relative abundance was compared using Metastats method. Beta diversity was estimated using Unifrac and weighted Unifrac distances. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) was applied to ordinate dissimilarity matrices. Multinomial logistic regression was used to compare the coordinates between different groups. ESCC subjects had an overall decreased microbial diversity compared to control and dysplasia subjects (P<0.001). Decreased carriage of genera Lautropia, Bulleidia, Catonella, Corynebacterium, Moryella, Peptococcus and Cardiobacterium were found in ESCC subjects compared to non-ESCC subjects. Multinomial logistic regression analyses on PCoA coordinates also revealed that ESCC subjects had significantly different levels for several coordinates compared to non-ESCC subjects. In conclusion, we observed a correlation between altered salivary bacterial microbiota and ESCC risk. The results of our study on the saliva microbiome are of particular interest as it reflects the shift in microbial communities. Further studies are warranted to verify this finding, and if being verified, to explore the underlying mechanisms. PMID:26641451

  4. The protein responsible for center A/B in spinach photosystem I: isolation with iron-sulfur cluster(s) and complete sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Oh-oka, H; Takahashi, Y; Kuriyama, K; Saeki, K; Matsubara, H

    1988-06-01

    The 9 kDa polypeptide from spinach photosystem I (PS I) complex was isolated with iron-sulfur cluster(s) by an n-butanol extraction procedure under anaerobic conditions. The polypeptide was soluble in a saline solution and contained non-heme irons and inorganic sulfides. The absorption spectrum of this iron-sulfur protein was very similar to those of bacterial-type ferredoxins. The amino acid sequence of the polypeptide was determined by using a combination of gas-phase sequencer and conventional procedures. It was composed of 80 amino acid residues giving a molecular weight of 8,894, excluding iron and sulfur atoms. The sequence showed the typical distribution of cysteine residues found in bacterial-type ferredoxins and was highly homologous (91% homology) to that deduced from the chloroplast gene, frxA, of liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha. The 9 kDa polypeptide is considered to be the iron-sulfur protein responsible for the electron transfer reaction in PS I from center X to [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin, namely a polypeptide with center(s) A and/or B in PS I complex. It is noteworthy that the 9 kDa polypeptide was rather hydrophilic and a little basic in terms of the primary structure. A three-dimensional structure was simulated on the basis of the tertiary structure of Peptococcus aerogenes [8Fe-8S] ferredoxin, and the portions in the molecule probably involved in contacting membranes or other polypeptides were indicated. The phylogenetic implications of the structure of the present polypeptide as compared with those of several bacterial-type ferredoxins are discussed. PMID:3049567

  5. New drugs--reports of new drugs recently approved by the FDA. Dirithromycin.

    PubMed

    Shinkai, I; Ohta, Y

    1996-04-01

    Dirithromycin is a semisynthetic derivative of erythromycin, a 14-membered ring macrolide antibiotic. The drug is converted during absorption and distribution, to an active metabolite 9-(S)-erythromycylamine, which is the predominant compound found in plasma and extravascular tissues. High tissue concentration of erythromycylamine is achieved after oral doses of dirithromycin, with slow release back into the circulation. The mechanism of action of dirithromycin is like that of erythromycin and other macrolides. These compounds inhibit RNA-dependent protein synthesis. It has recently been suggested that all macrolides stimulate dissociation of peptidyl-tRNA from ribosomes during the elongation phase, leading to inhibited protein synthesis. The antimicrobial spectrum of dirithromycin is similar to that of erythromycin, although the drug offers no significant advantage with regard to MIC values. In vitro against Gram-positive isolates, dirithromycin exhibits similar potency to that of clarithromycin, erythromycin, roxithromycin, and clindamycin. In vivo, dirithromycin is active against penicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, beta-hemolytic streptococci, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Dirithromycin is as effective as penicillin VK against streptococcal pharyngitis and tonsilitis, and as effective as erythromycin against acute superimposed chronic bronchitis and skin and soft-tissue infections. In comparison with other newer macrolides, dirithromycin has shown similar or lesser in vitro activity. In particular, Haemophilus influenzae, Bacteroides spp., Peptococcus-Peptostreprococcus spp., Clostridium perfringens, Legionella spp., Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Chlamydia trachomatis were all less sensitive to dirithromycin than azithromycin or clarithromycin. Once-daily oral administration of dirithromycin (500 mg) has been demonstrated to be similar in efficacy to erythromycin (250 mg, 4 times daily), each for approximately 7 days, in the treatment of acute bronchitis