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Sample records for perceived human health

  1. Skin Blood Perfusion and Oxygenation Colour Affect Perceived Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Ian D.; Coetzee, Vinet; Law Smith, Miriam; Perrett, David I.

    2009-01-01

    Skin blood perfusion and oxygenation depends upon cardiovascular, hormonal and circulatory health in humans and provides socio-sexual signals of underlying physiology, dominance and reproductive status in some primates. We allowed participants to manipulate colour calibrated facial photographs along empirically-measured oxygenated and deoxygenated blood colour axes both separately and simultaneously, to optimise healthy appearance. Participants increased skin blood colour, particularly oxygenated, above basal levels to optimise healthy appearance. We show, therefore, that skin blood perfusion and oxygenation influence perceived health in a way that may be important to mate choice. PMID:19337378

  2. Perceived barriers to Internet-based health communication on human genetics.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Jay M; Lariscy, Ruth Ann Weaver; Parrott, Roxanne L; Silk, Kami J; Felter, Elizabeth M

    2002-01-01

    The Internet has emerged as potential vehicle for distributing health communication to millions of individuals because it is interactive, user controlled, and offers breadth and depth of information. However, its widespread use by the public may be limited due to three overarching concerns: privacy and confidentiality, information accuracy and perceptions of credibility, including limited credibility of some government-sponsored web sites. To explore the potential of using the Internet, especially for delivering information on human genetics communication, 15 focus groups and one interview were conducted with African American and European American adult males and females in a southeastern town. We found that the participants recognized great potential in the Internet for health communication on human genetics, but they also voiced concerns about the credibility and accuracy of online information, lack of trust in many web sites, and fear of safeguarding privacy. Their concerns are summarized here, along with potential remedies health communicators could implement and should research further. The Internet cannot achieve its full potential for human genetics communication until the public's concerns are addressed and resolved. PMID:12356290

  3. Perceived Age Discrimination and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Anastasia S. Vogt

    2007-01-01

    Although perceived discrimination (especially due to race-ethnicity) decreases mental health, the influence of perceived discrimination due to other reasons on mental health needs to be explored. This study examines the relationship between perceived age discrimination and mental health and determines whether psychosocial resources explain or…

  4. Social inequalities and perceived health.

    PubMed

    Hunt, S M; McEwen, J; McKenna, S P

    1985-01-01

    The association between morbidity and mortality indicators and low socio-economic status has been observed for many centuries. In 1980 the publication of the Black Report in Britain drew attention to the failure of the National Health Service to close the gap between rich and poor in relation to health status. The gradients of morbidity and mortality which are linked to social class have been observed throughout Europe, in the U.S.A. and Australia. However, information on how people feel, as opposed to how they become ill, and the cause of their death, is scarce. Measures of perceived need can provide important additions to routinely collected data because they give access to the experiential status of respondents and thus provide vital data on which to base planning, provision and evaluation of health services. A standard reliable and valid measure of perceived health, the Nottingham Health Profile, was used to conduct a postal survey of differential status in subjective health between social classes in England. The results showed statistically significant differences between social classes in the age group 20-44 years only. For both men and women these were in their experience of sleep problems, emotional problems and lack of energy. In all cases the lower the social class the greater the amount and severity of perceived distress. After the age of 45 these differences, although still present, were not so marked, perhaps because of the excess mortality rates in lower socio-economic groups and the lowering of expectations with age. It is suggested that younger people from unskilled and semi-skilled occupations and, of course, the unemployed, are more vulnerable than their better off compatriots because of a kind of psychic susceptibility which is a consequence of social circumstances and the inability to cushion the effects of ill health. A type of Marxian "immiseration' may occur whereby in contemporary society health status is undermined by spiritual and social

  5. Auditory interfaces: The human perceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colburn, H. Steven

    1991-01-01

    A brief introduction to the basic auditory abilities of the human perceiver with particular attention toward issues that may be important for the design of auditory interfaces is presented. The importance of appropriate auditory inputs to observers with normal hearing is probably related to the role of hearing as an omnidirectional, early warning system and to its role as the primary vehicle for communication of strong personal feelings.

  6. Human Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... effects of climate change Video not supported Human Health Climate change threatens human health and well-being ... Copy link to clipboard Key Message: Wide-ranging Health Impacts Climate change threatens human health and well- ...

  7. Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits

    PubMed Central

    Tandel, Kirtida R.

    2011-01-01

    Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener) is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, animal studies have convincingly proven that artificial sweeteners cause weight gain, brain tumors, bladder cancer and many other health hazards. Some kind of health related side effects including carcinogenicity are also noted in humans. A large number of studies have been carried out on these substances with conclusions ranging from “safe under all conditions” to “unsafe at any dose”. Scientists are divided in their views on the issue of artificial sweetener safety. In scientific as well as in lay publications, supporting studies are often widely referenced while the opposing results are de-emphasized or dismissed. So this review aims to explore the health controversy over perceived benefits of sugar substitutes. PMID:22025850

  8. Technology versus humanism: how patients perceive the use of electronic health records in physicians' offices--a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Mwachofi, Ari K; Khaliq, Amir A; Carrillo, Estevan R; Winfree, William

    2016-01-01

    Electronic Health Records (EHRs) have the potential to improve the quality of care. In view of the accelerated adoption of EHRs, there is a need to understand conditions necessary for their effective use. Patients are the focus of healthcare and their perceptions and expectations need to be included in developing and implementing EHRs. The purpose of this study was to gather exploratory qualitative information from patients about their experiences and perceptions regarding the effects of EHRs on healthcare quality in physicians' offices. We conducted five focus groups with patients representing a random mix of diverse socio-demographic backgrounds in Oklahoma. Related to EHRs, patients reported improvements on the technical side of care but no change on the human side. They expressed concerns about the potential for breach of confidentiality and security of medical records. They were also concerned about the possibility of governmental agencies or insurance companies having unauthorized access to patient records. Patients differentiated between the human and technical sides of care and reported no change or improvement in the doctor-patient interaction. Patients have an important perspective on the use of EHRs and their perceptions and experiences should be considered in the development, adoption and implementation of EHRs. Otherwise, the use of EHRs may not be fully effective. There is also a need to educate patients about the potential benefits and risks of EHRs and the steps being taken to mitigate such risks. PMID:26305852

  9. Perceived and calculated health risks: do the impacts differ

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, B.A.; Williams, R.G.

    1986-01-23

    In many cases of radioactive and hazardous waste management, some members of the general public perceive that human health risks associated with the wastes are higher than the calculated risks. Calculated risks are projections that have been derived from models, and it is these risks that are usually used as the basis for waste management. However, for various reasons, the calculated risks are often considered by the public as too low or inappropriate. The reasons that calculated risks are not perceived as accurate and the factors that affect these perceptions are explored in this paper. Also discussed are the impacts related to the perceived and calculated health risks: what they are, and if and how they differ. The kinds of potential impacts examined are health effects, land value changes, and social, transportation, and economic effects. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of incorporating these different risk perspectives in decisions on waste management.

  10. Perceived Discrimination, Perceived Stress, and Mental and Physical Health among Mexican-Origin Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Dimas, Juanita M.; Bachen, Elizabeth A.; Pasch, Lauri A.; de Groat, Cynthia L.

    2008-01-01

    This study provided a test of the minority status stress model by examining whether perceived discrimination would directly affect health outcomes even when perceived stress was taken into account among 215 Mexican-origin adults. Perceived discrimination predicted depression and poorer general health, and marginally predicted health symptoms, when…

  11. Self perceived health and mental health among women flight attendants

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, T J; Romito, P; Lauria, L; Vigiliano, V; Caldora, M; Mazzanti, C; Verdecchia, A

    2006-01-01

    Aims The authors investigated associations of work related risk factors with self perceived health as less than “good” and psychological distress among Italian women flight attendants. Methods The authors conducted a cross sectional survey on health and mental health among 1955 former and current flight attendants, using a postal questionnaire. Results More current than former flight attendants reported self perceived health as fair to poor and psychological distress measured as a GHQ‐12 score of six or more. Among current flight attendants, reporting health as fair to poor was associated with low job satisfaction (OR 1.89) and recent experiences of sexual harassment by passengers (OR 2.83). Psychological distress was associated with low job satisfaction (OR 2.38) and frequent tension with partner over childcare (OR 1.79). Conclusions Perceived health as fair to poor and psychological distress were greater among current flight attendants and were related to job characteristics and family difficulties. Perceived poor health has been shown in the literature to be related to mortality, high job strain, and early retirement, and psychological distress is associated with work absence. The effect of sexual harassment by passengers on perceived health of flight attendants may be relevant to other working women dealing with the public. The health effects of family/work conflicts, low job satisfaction, and sexual harassment should be explored more in depth, using qualitative as well as quantitative methods among working women in various occupations. PMID:16361403

  12. Tactual interfaces: The human perceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, M. A.

    1991-01-01

    Increasingly complex human-machine interactions, such as in teleoperation or in virtual environments, have necessitated the optimal use of the human tactual channel for information transfer. This need leads to a demand for a basic understanding of how the human tactual system works, so that the tactual interface between the human and the machine can receive the command signals from the human, as well as display the information to the human, in a manner that appears natural to the human. The tactual information consists of two components: (1) contact information which specifies the nature of direct contact with the object; and (2) kinesthetic information which refers to the position and motion of the limbs. This paper is mostly concerned with contact information.

  13. Perceived Problem Solving, Stress, and Health among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Largo-Wight, Erin; Peterson, P. Michael; Chen, W. William

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationships among perceived problem solving, stress, and physical health. Methods: The Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ), Personal Problem solving Inventory (PSI), and a stress-related physical health symptoms checklist were used to measure perceived stress, problem solving, and health among undergraduate college…

  14. Perceived social position and health: Is there a reciprocal relationship?

    PubMed

    Garbarski, Dana

    2010-03-01

    Recent work exploring the relationship between socioeconomic status and health has employed a psychosocial concept called perceived social position as a predictor of health. Perceived social position is likely the "cognitive averaging" (Singh-Manoux, Marmot, & Adler, 2005) of socioeconomic characteristics over time and, like other socioeconomic factors, is subject to interplay with health over the life course. Based on the hypothesis that health can also affect perceived social position, in this paper we used structural equation modeling to examine whether perceived social position and three different health outcomes were reciprocally related in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, a longitudinal cohort study of older adults in the United States. The relationship between perceived social position and health differed across health outcomes-self-reported health, the Health Utilities Index, and depressive symptoms-as well as across operationalization of perceived social position-compared to the population of the United States, compared to one's community, and a latent variable of which the two items are indicators. We found that perceived social position affected self-reported health when operationalized as latent and US perceived social position, yet there was a reciprocal relationship between self-reported health and community perceived social position. There was a reciprocal relationship between perceived social position and the Health Utilities Index, and depressive symptoms affected perceived social position for all operationalization of perceived social position. The findings suggest that the causal relationship hypothesized in prior studies--that perceived social position affects health--does not necessarily hold in empirical models of reciprocal relationships. Future research should interrogate the relationship between perceived social position and health rather than assume the direction of causality in their relationship. PMID:20006415

  15. Perceived Discrimination and Health: A Meta-Analytic Review

    PubMed Central

    Pascoe, Elizabeth A.; Richman, Laura Smart

    2009-01-01

    Perceived discrimination has been studied with regard to its impact on several types of health effects. This meta-analysis provides a comprehensive account of the relationships between multiple forms of perceived discrimination and both mental and physical health outcomes. In addition, this meta-analysis examines potential mechanisms by which perceiving discrimination may affect health, including through psychological and physiological stress responses and health behaviors. Analysis of 134 samples suggests that when weighting each study’s contribution by sample size, perceived discrimination has a significant negative effect on both mental and physical health. Perceived discrimination also produces significantly heightened stress responses and is related to participation in unhealthy and nonparticipation in healthy behaviors. These findings suggest potential pathways linking perceived discrimination to negative health outcomes. PMID:19586161

  16. Gambling and perceived health among adult jail inmates.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Kari; Kerber, Cindy H; Kim, MyoungJin; Astroth, Kim S; Schlenker, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Gambling problems have been associated with lower perceived health in community samples, but little research has examined this relationship in an incarcerated population. The purpose of this study was to determine the perceived health and gambling problems of adult inmates (18-49 years old) in a county jail. We surveyed 184 male and female inmates aged 18-49 years. Nearly 35% of inmates scored as problem or pathological gamblers, and inmates scored significantly lower on all Short Form-36 Version 2 perceived health scales than the U.S. population norm. There were no significant differences on perceived health scores between recreational and problem/pathological gamblers. The high prevalence of gambling problems and poor perceived health necessitates research to provide screenings and test effectiveness of gambling and health interventions in this population. PMID:24553394

  17. Perceived Discrimination and Health: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascoe, Elizabeth A.; Richman, Laura Smart

    2009-01-01

    Perceived discrimination has been studied with regard to its impact on several types of health effects. This meta-analysis provides a comprehensive account of the relationships between multiple forms of perceived discrimination and both mental and physical health outcomes. In addition, this meta-analysis examines potential mechanisms by which…

  18. The effects of perceived organizational support, perceived supervisor support and perceived co-worker support on safety and health compliance.

    PubMed

    Puah, Lee Na; Ong, Lin Dar; Chong, Wei Ying

    2016-09-01

    Although knowledge is cumulating, very little is known about the effects of various sources of support on safety and health compliance. This study goes beyond previous research by investigating the relationships among perceived support from organizations, supervisors and co-workers, and employees' safety and health compliance behaviour at chemical and petroleum process plants. The results of this study show that the support from organizations, supervisors and co-workers was significantly related to employees' safety and health compliance. Also, the findings reveal that perceived supervisor support has the strongest influence in ensuring employees' safety and health compliance behaviour. PMID:27049935

  19. Perceived facial adiposity conveys information about women's health.

    PubMed

    Tinlin, Rowan M; Watkins, Christopher D; Welling, Lisa L M; DeBruine, Lisa M; Al-Dujaili, Emad A S; Jones, Benedict C

    2013-05-01

    Although several prominent theories of human facial attractiveness propose that some facial characteristics convey information about people's health, empirical evidence for this claim is somewhat mixed. While most previous research into this issue has focused on facial characteristics such as symmetry, averageness, and sexual dimorphism, a recent study reported that ratings of facial adiposity (i.e., perceptions of fatness in the face) were positively correlated with indices of poor physical condition in a sample of young adults (i.e., reported past health problems and measures of cardiovascular fitness). These findings are noteworthy, since they suggest that perceived adiposity is a potentially important facial cue of health that has been overlooked by much of the previous work in this area. Here, we show that ratings of young adult women's facial adiposity are (1) better predicted by their body weight than by their body shape (Studies 1 and 2), (2) correlated with a composite measure of their physical and psychological condition (Study 2), and (3) negatively correlated with their trait (i.e., average) salivary progesterone levels (Study 3). Together, these findings present further evidence that perceived facial adiposity, or a correlate thereof, conveys potentially important information about women's actual health. PMID:23560669

  20. Effect of Personality on the Use and Perceived Utility of Web-Based Health Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hruska, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Studies document numerous threats to human health exacerbated by multiple factors, including inadequate access to health-related information. The Internet has developed as one resource to provide health information; however, there remains a significant gap in understanding how personality differences influence the use and perceived utility of the…

  1. Perceived health status and daily activity participation of older Malaysians.

    PubMed

    Ng, Sor Tho; Tengku-Aizan, Hamid; Tey, Nai Peng

    2011-07-01

    This article investigates the influence of perceived health status on the daily activity participation of older Malaysians. Data from the Survey on Perceptions of Needs and Problems of the Elderly, which was conducted in 1999, were used. The negative binomial regression results show that older persons with good perceived health status reported more varieties of daily activity participation, especially among the uneducated and those with below-average self-esteem. The multinomial logistic regression model suggests that older persons with good perceived health status tended to engage daily in paid work only or with leisure activities, whereas those perceived to have poor health were more likely to engage in leisure activities only or leisure and family role activities. Promotion of a healthy lifestyle at a younger age encourages every person to monitor and take responsibility for their own health, which is a necessary strategy to ensure active participation at an older age, and thus improve their well-being. PMID:20685663

  2. Perceived Control, Communication, and Health: An Integrative Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenders, David A.

    Perceived control has become an important construct for health care research. Since the processes and outcomes of health and illness are constantly mediated and affected by communication, the relationship between a person's belief in his/her personal control of events and health care interactions is an important component of the theory and…

  3. Trust, Perceived Risk, Perceived Ease of Use and Perceived Usefulness as Factors Related to mHealth Technology Use.

    PubMed

    Schnall, Rebecca; Higgins, Tracy; Brown, William; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Bakken, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Mobile technology use is nearly ubiquitous which affords the opportunity for using these technologies for modifying health related behaviors. At the same time, use of mobile health (mHealth) technology raises privacy and security concerns of consumers. The goal of this analysis was to understand the perceived ease of use, usefulness, risk and trust that contribute to behavioral intention to use a mobile application for meeting the healthcare needs of persons living with HIV (PLWH). To understand these issues, we conducted focus group sessions with 50 persons living with HIV and 30 HIV healthcare providers. We used the e-commerce acceptance model to analyze our focus group data. Findings from the study demonstrated the need for mHealth to be perceived as useful, easy to use, with little perceived risk accompanied by a measure of trust in the creators of the technology. Findings from this work can inform future work on patients and providers' perceptions of risk, trust, ease of use and usefulness of mHealth technology. PMID:26262094

  4. Health Conditions and Perceived Quality of Life in Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorfman, Lorraine T.

    1995-01-01

    Investigates the effects of specific health conditions on perceived quality of life for retirees (n=451). Pulmonary disease was a predictor of dissatisfaction for both sexes. Pulmonary disease and heart attack were the strongest predictors of dissatisfaction with health for men, followed closely by stroke. Arthritis was the strongest predictor of…

  5. Perceived Discrimination, Race and Health in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David R.; Gonzalez, Hector M; Williams, Stacey; Mohammed, Selina A; Moomal, Hashim; Stein, Dan J

    2009-01-01

    To assess the levels of perceived acute and chronic racial and non-racial discrimination in South Africa, their association with health, and the extent to which they contribute to racial differences in physical and mental health, data were used from a national probability sample of adults, the South African Stress and Health Study (SASH). All Black groups in South Africa (African, Coloured and Indian) were two to four times more likely than Whites to report acute and chronic experiences of racial discrimination. Africans and Coloureds report higher levels of ill health than Whites, but acute and chronic racial discrimination were unrelated to ill health and unimportant in accounting for racial differences in self rated health. In contrast, all Black groups had higher levels of psychological distress than Whites, and perceived chronic discrimination, was positively associated with distress. Moreover, these experiences accounted for some of the residual racial differences in distress after adjustment for socioeconomic status. Our main findings indicate that, in a historically racialized society, perceived chronic racial and especially non-racial discrimination acts independently of demographic factors, other stressors, psychological factors (social desirability, self-esteem and personal mastery), and multiple SES indicators to adversely affect mental health. PMID:18486292

  6. Perceived discrimination, race and health in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Williams, David R; Gonzalez, Hector M; Williams, Stacey; Mohammed, Selina A; Moomal, Hashim; Stein, Dan J

    2008-08-01

    To assess the levels of perceived acute and chronic racial and non-racial discrimination in South Africa, their association with health, and the extent to which they contribute to racial differences in physical and mental health, data were used from a national probability sample of adults, the South African Stress and Health Study (SASH). All Black groups in South Africa (African, Coloured and Indian) were two to four times more likely than Whites to report acute and chronic experiences of racial discrimination. Africans and Coloureds report higher levels of ill health than Whites, but acute and chronic racial discrimination were unrelated to ill health and unimportant in accounting for racial differences in self-rated health. In contrast, all Black groups had higher levels of psychological distress than Whites, and perceived chronic discrimination was positively associated with distress. Moreover, these experiences accounted for some of the residual racial differences in distress after adjustment for socioeconomic status. Our main findings indicate that, in a historically racialized society, perceived chronic racial and especially non-racial discrimination acts independently of demographic factors, other stressors, psychological factors (social desirability, self-esteem and personal mastery), and multiple SES indicators to adversely affect mental health. PMID:18486292

  7. Perceived Barriers to Mental Health Services among Youths in Detention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abram, Karen M.; Paskar, Leah D.; Washburn, Jason J.; Teplin, Linda A.

    2008-01-01

    The psychiatric disorder in juvenile systems is on the increase and this study examines the detained youth's perceived barriers and attitudes towards the mental health service use. Results concluded that experiences with past services contributed to negative perceptions, which need to be solved by providing educational outreach programs that helps…

  8. The Mediating Roles of Perceived Stress and Health Behaviors in the Relation between Objective, Subjective, and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Perceived Health

    PubMed Central

    Senn, Theresa E.; Walsh, Jennifer L.; Carey, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Objective, subjective, and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with perceived health, morbidity, and mortality. Purpose We investigated whether perceived stress and health behaviors mediated the relation between the three types of SES and perceived health. Methods Participants (N = 508) attending a public clinic completed a computerized survey assessing objective SES (income, education, employment); health behaviors; perceived stress; and perceived health. They also indicated their social standing relative to others (subjective SES) and provided their current address to determine neighborhood SES. Results In a structural equation model including all three SES types, lower objective and subjective SES were related to poorer perceived health. When mediators were included in the model, there were significant indirect effects of: (a) SES on health through stress; and (b) SES on health through stress and health compromising behaviors. Conclusions Interventions to reduce the impact of stressors could improve the health of socioeconomically disadvantaged individuals. PMID:24648016

  9. Perceived Risk of Mental Health Problems in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Paúl, Constança; Teixeira, Laetitia; Azevedo, Maria João; Alves, Sara; Duarte, Mafalda; O’Caoimh, Rónán; Molloy, William

    2015-01-01

    In the face of limited resources and an aging population with increasingly care needs, healthcare systems must identify community-dwelling older adults with mental health problems at higher risk of adverse outcomes such as institutionalization, hospitalization and death, in order to deliver timely and efficient care. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of mental health concerns and the associated perceived risk of adverse outcomes in a large sample of older patients in primary care (PC). We trained general practitioners and nurses to use the Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community to rank perceived risk of mental health concerns (including neurocognitive and mood disorders) from 1 (mild) to 3 (severe). The mean age of the 4499 people assessed was 76.3 years (SD = 7.3) and 2645 (58.8%) were female. According to the PC team 1616 (35.9%) were perceived to have mental health concerns of whom 847 (52.4%) were mild, 559 (34.6%) were moderate and 210 (13%) were severe. Patients with mental health concerns had higher odds of perceived risk of adverse outcomes (OR = 2.22, 95% CI 1.83–2.69 for institutionalization; OR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.41–1.94 for hospitalization; OR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.42–2.01 for death). These results suggest a high prevalence of mental health concerns among older adults and supports the need for early identification of patients at high-risk of adverse healthcare outcomes. PMID:26635600

  10. Oxygenated-Blood Colour Change Thresholds for Perceived Facial Redness, Health, and Attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Re, Daniel E.; Whitehead, Ross D.; Xiao, Dengke; Perrett, David I.

    2011-01-01

    Blood oxygenation level is associated with cardiovascular fitness, and raising oxygenated blood colouration in human faces increases perceived health. The current study used a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) psychophysics design to quantify the oxygenated blood colour (redness) change threshold required to affect perception of facial colour, health and attractiveness. Detection thresholds for colour judgments were lower than those for health and attractiveness, which did not differ. The results suggest redness preferences do not reflect a sensory bias, rather preferences may be based on accurate indications of health status. Furthermore, results suggest perceived health and attractiveness may be perceptually equivalent when they are assessed based on facial redness. Appearance-based motivation for lifestyle change can be effective; thus future studies could assess the degree to which cardiovascular fitness increases face redness and could quantify changes in aerobic exercise needed to increase facial attractiveness. PMID:21448270

  11. [Ecosystem health and human health].

    PubMed

    Cecchi, Giuliano; Mancini, Laura

    2005-01-01

    The study of ecosystem health is a relatively recent discipline that has already provided new insights into numerous aspects of environmental management. One of the most interesting fields of study is the one investigating the relationships between ecosystem and human heath. In this paper some basic terms of reference are given in order to help the understanding of this new approach. One definition of ecosystem health is given, possible causes of degradation are indicated and links with human health are addressed. The ecosystem approach to human health stresses the importance of cultural and social values in shaping the concept of health, both at human and at ecosystem level. Two case-studies showing man-ecosystem interactions are described: mining activities, that provide a suitable field of application of the ecosystem approach, and the case of malaria and DDT, that shows the risks of certain policies neglecting basic human expectations such as health. As a conclusion, some suggestions for possible research activities are given and a few recommendations for sound public health policies are indicated. PMID:16552117

  12. Characterizing Perceived Police Violence: Implications for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Hannah; Moore, Lisa; Gruskin, Sofia; Krieger, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    Despite growing recognition of violence’s health consequences and the World Health Organization’s recent classification of police officers’ excessive use of force as a form of violence, public health investigators have produced scant research characterizing police-perpetrated abuse. Using qualitative data from a study of a police drug crackdown in 2000 in 1 New York City police precinct, we explored 40 injection drug using and 25 non–drug using precinct residents’ perceptions of and experiences with police-perpetrated abuse. Participants, particularly injection drug users and non–drug using men, reported police physical, psychological, and sexual violence and neglect; they often associated this abuse with crackdown-related tactics and perceived officer prejudice. We recommend that public health research address the prevalence, nature, and public health implications of police violence. PMID:15226128

  13. Perceived health in the Portuguese population aged ≥ 35

    PubMed Central

    de Figueiredo, João Paulo; Cardoso, Salvador Massano

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the exploratory relationship between determinants of health, life satisfaction, locus of control, attitudes and behaviors and health related quality of life in an adult population. METHODS Observational study (analytical and cross-sectional) with a quantitative methodological basis. The sample was composed oy 1,214 inhabitants aged ≥ 35 in 31 civil parishes in the County of Coimbra, Portugal, 2011-2012. An anonymous and voluntary health survey was conducted, which collected the following information: demographic, clinical record, health and lifestyle behaviors; health related quality of life (Medical Outcomes Study, Short Form-36); health locus of control; survey of health attitudes and behavior, and quality of life index. Pearson’s Linear Correlation, t-Student, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney; One-way ANOVA; Brown-Forsythe’s F; Kruskal-Wallis; Multiple Comparisons: Tukey (HSD), Games-Howell and Conover were used in the statistical analysis. RESULTS Health related quality of life was shown to be lower in females, in older age groups, in obese/overweight individuals, widows, unassisted, those living alone, living in rural/suburban areas, those who did not work and with a medium-low socioeconomic level. Respondents with poor/very poor self-perceived health (p < 0.0001), with chronic disease (p < 0.0001), who consumed < 3 meals per day (p ≤ 0.01), who were sedentary, who slept ≤ 6 h/day and had smoked for several years revealed the worst health results. Health related quality of life was positively related with a bigger internal locus, with better health attitudes and behaviors (physical exercise, health and nutritional care, length of dependence) and with different areas of life satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS Better health related quality of life was associated with certain social, psychological, family and health characteristics, a satisfactory lifestyle, better socioeconomic conditions and a good internal locus of control over health attitudes and

  14. The impact of user's perceived ability on online health information acceptance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Eun; Han, Sang Sook; Yoo, Keun Hee; Yun, Eun Kyoung

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explain how perceived ability affects users' acceptance of online health information in Korea. Data were collected by a Web-based survey, and, in total, 449 samples were used for final analysis. The hypothetical model of this study was based on the Technology Acceptance Model. A structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the relationship between the included variables. The final model with appropriate relations exhibited an adequate fit to the data. This study provides evidence that perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and perceived credibility significantly affect how individuals use health information from the Internet. The subjective health knowledge and Internet efficacy exerted strong indirect effects on users' attitude and intention to use the online health information via the mediators of perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and perceived credibility. This study supports the hypothesis that the perceived ability of users is related to their acceptance of online health information. Users' perceived ability, including subjective health knowledge and Internet efficacy, was confirmed as a prerequisite for their health information use on the Internet. The results demonstrated that perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and perceived credibility are substantive mediators. Future research should consider a wider array of characteristics of health information and users and incorporate these characteristics for the provision of more useful, user-centered health information. PMID:23072632

  15. Factors influencing perceived sustainability of Dutch community health programs.

    PubMed

    Vermeer, A J M; Van Assema, P; Hesdahl, B; Harting, J; De Vries, N K

    2015-09-01

    We assessed the perceived sustainability of community health programs organized by local intersectoral coalitions, as well as the factors that collaborating partners think might influence sustainability. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among 31 collaborating partners of 5 community health programs in deprived neighborhoods in the southern part of the Netherlands. The interview guide was based on a conceptual framework that includes factors related to the context, the leading organization, leadership, the coalition, collaborating partners, interventions and outcomes. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and content analyzed using NVivo 8.0. Participants in each of the programs varied in their perceptions of the sustainability of the program, but those people collaborating in pre-existing neighborhood structures expressed relatively high faith in their continuation. The participating citizens in particular believed that these structures would continue to address the health of the community in the future. We found factors from all categories of the conceptual framework that were perceived to influence sustainability. The program leaders appeared to be crucial to the programs, as they were frequently mentioned in close interaction with other factors. Program leaders should use a motivating and supportive leadership style and should act as 'program champions'. PMID:24021354

  16. [Parents' unemployment, selected life conditions, adolescents' wellbeing and perceived health].

    PubMed

    Supranowicz, Piotr

    2005-01-01

    Unemployment in Poland is one of the most negative outcomes of the economical transformations taking place in the last decade of the XX and first years of the XXI century. Therefore, the study on an influence of parents' unemployment upon adolescents' life conditions and health was undertaken in Health Promotion and Postgraduate Training Department of the National Institute of Hygiene. The data were collected from randomly selected sample of 783 students aged 14-15 years attending to ten private and public secondary schools (gymnasiums) in Warsaw. A part of the questionnaire elaborated in Health Promotion and Postgraduate Department covered information about negative life events, which had occurred in the previous year, also about a loss of the job by father or mother. The self-assessment of health, and physical and psychical wellbeing measured the perceived health. The study showed that significantly higher percentage of the students, whose father or mother had lost a job in the previous year, noticed also occurrence of father and mother health disorders, lack of support from father and mother, frequent quarrels between parents, too much of home duties, worsening a housing conditions, lack of possibilities to travel away on vacation and lack of own money. The differences were higher, if both the parents were unemployed. Moreover, the children of unemployed parents significantly lower assessed their health, and physical and psychical wellbeing. It is necessary to help immediately the students, whose parents are unemployed, with financial and psychological support in frame of the programmes of unemployment overcoming. PMID:16433320

  17. Perceived health from biological motion predicts voting behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Robin S S; Arend, Isabel; Ward, Robert

    2010-04-01

    Body motion signals socially relevant traits like the sex, age, and even the genetic quality of actors and may therefore facilitate various social judgements. By examining ratings and voting decisions based solely on body motion of political candidates, we considered how the candidates' motion affected people's judgements and voting behaviour. In two experiments, participants viewed stick figure motion displays made from videos of politicians in public debate. Participants rated the motion displays for a variety of social traits and then indicated their vote preference. In both experiments, perceived physical health was the single best predictor of vote choice, and no two-factor model produced significant improvement. Notably, although attractiveness and leadership correlated with voting behaviour, neither provided additional explanatory power to a single-factor model of health alone. Our results demonstrate for the first time that motion can produce systematic vote preferences. PMID:20094942

  18. Grape consumption's effects on fitness, muscle injury, mood, and perceived health.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Patrick J; Caravalho, Amanda L; Freese, Eric C; Cureton, Kirk J

    2013-02-01

    Compounds found in the skins of grapes, including catechins, quercetin, and resveratrol, have been added to the diet of rodents and improved run time to exhaustion, fitness, and skeletal-muscle mitochondrial function. It is unknown if such effects occur in humans. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate whether 6 wk of daily grape consumption influenced maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), work capacity, mood, perceived health status, inflammation, pain, and arm-function responses to a mild eccentric-exercise-induced arm-muscle injury. Forty recreationally active young adults were randomly assigned to consume a grape or placebo drink for 45 consecutive days. Before and after 42 d of supplementation, assessments were made of treadmill-running VO(2max), work capacity (treadmill performance time), mood (Profile of Mood States), and perceived health status (SF-36 Health Survey). The day after posttreatment treadmill tests were completed, 18 high-intensity eccentric actions of the nondominant elbow flexors were performed. Arm-muscle inflammation, pain, and function (isometric strength and range of motion) were measured before and on 2 consecutive days after the eccentric exercise. Mixed-model ANOVA showed no significant effect of grape consumption on any of the outcomes. Six weeks of supplemental grape consumption by recreationally active young adults has no effect on VO(2max), work capacity, mood, perceived health status, inflammation, pain, or physical-function responses to a mild injury induced by eccentric exercise. PMID:22952194

  19. Occupational health and safety risks and potential health consequences perceived by U.S. workers, 1985.

    PubMed Central

    Shilling, S; Brackbill, R M

    1987-01-01

    Data from the Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Questionnaire, part of the 1985 National Health Interview Survey, were used to report workers' perceptions of occupational risk in their present jobs. This information will be used to monitor progress between 1985 and 1990 toward achieving broad goals in health promotion and disease prevention. The proportions of currently employed persons who perceived exposure to health-endangering substances, work conditions, or risks of injuries were reported for age, race, sex, and occupation groups. Occupational groups were further characterized by the proportion of men and women who reported specific exposures (such as exposure to chemicals or to loud noise) and specific health consequences of exposure (such as risk of developing cancer or hearing impairment). Greater proportions of men than women reported perceived risk from exposure to health-endangering substances, work conditions, and injuries in their present job. Also, a greater proportion of workers perceived risk of injury in their present job than other occupational risk categories. The greatest proportions of perceived exposure to occupational risk were reported by farm operators and managers, police and firefighters, and by workers in forestry and fishing occupations. Among workers reporting perceived exposures, chemicals, noise, and risk of injuries from vehicles were cited by the greatest proportion of workers, as were such health consequences as lung and respiratory problems and hearing impairment. Data from this study may be used to target employment groups for health promotion or education and to develop indepth studies of specific occupational groups to reduce or prevent risk at the worksite. PMID:3101121

  20. Energy and human health.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kirk R; Frumkin, Howard; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Butler, Colin D; Chafe, Zoë A; Fairlie, Ian; Kinney, Patrick; Kjellstrom, Tord; Mauzerall, Denise L; McKone, Thomas E; McMichael, Anthony J; Schneider, Mycle

    2013-01-01

    Energy use is central to human society and provides many health benefits. But each source of energy entails some health risks. This article reviews the health impacts of each major source of energy, focusing on those with major implications for the burden of disease globally. The biggest health impacts accrue to the harvesting and burning of solid fuels, coal and biomass, mainly in the form of occupational health risks and household and general ambient air pollution. Lack of access to clean fuels and electricity in the world's poor households is a particularly serious risk for health. Although energy efficiency brings many benefits, it also entails some health risks, as do renewable energy systems, if not managed carefully. We do not review health impacts of climate change itself, which are due mostly to climate-altering pollutants from energy systems, but do discuss the potential for achieving near-term health cobenefits by reducing certain climate-related emissions. PMID:23330697

  1. Developing a Questionnaire to Measure Perceived Attributes of eHealth Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Nancy L.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To design a valid and reliable questionnaire to assess perceived attributes of technology-based health education innovations. Methods: College students in 12 personal health courses reviewed a prototype eHealth intervention using a 30-item instrument based upon diffusion theory's perceived attributes of an innovation. Results:…

  2. Pesticides and Human Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Control a pest Integrated Pest Management What are pesticides? Herbicides Disinfectants Fungicides Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides ... Rodenticides Other types of pesticides Disponible en español Pesticides and Human Health Pesticides have a specific purpose ...

  3. The Perceived Need for Home Health Care of the Elderly as Stated by Both the Elderly and Health Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cindy C.; Wallace, Bill C.

    The differences between what health professionals and the elderly perceive concerning the need for home health care were studied. Elderly persons were interviewed to ascertain their perceived needs while health professionals responded to a questionnaire. Preliminary analysis of the resulting data revealed that the most frequently perceived…

  4. Perceived extrinsic mortality risk and reported effort in looking after health: testing a behavioral ecological prediction.

    PubMed

    Pepper, Gillian V; Nettle, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Socioeconomic gradients in health behavior are pervasive and well documented. Yet, there is little consensus on their causes. Behavioral ecological theory predicts that, if people of lower socioeconomic position (SEP) perceive greater personal extrinsic mortality risk than those of higher SEP, they should disinvest in their future health. We surveyed North American adults for reported effort in looking after health, perceived extrinsic and intrinsic mortality risks, and measures of SEP. We examined the relationships between these variables and found that lower subjective SEP predicted lower reported health effort. Lower subjective SEP was also associated with higher perceived extrinsic mortality risk, which in turn predicted lower reported health effort. The effect of subjective SEP on reported health effort was completely mediated by perceived extrinsic mortality risk. Our findings indicate that perceived extrinsic mortality risk may be a key factor underlying SEP gradients in motivation to invest in future health. PMID:24990431

  5. Research conducted on Caribbean women's perceived human immunodeficiency virus risks: A narrative review and methodological critique

    PubMed Central

    Charlery, Su-Anne Robyn

    2014-01-01

    Background: Caribbean women have the highest human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection rates among women in the Americas; however, their self-assessment of HIV risk is alarmingly low. This reflects a low perceived risk for HIV. English-speaking Caribbean countries are typically understudied in this area. It is important for health researchers and practitioners to understand the underlying perceptions of women who are now driving this epidemic. This review discusses and critiques the published literature that examines Caribbean women's perceived HIV risks. Methods: Medline, PsycINFO, Global Health, Women's Studies International, and Academic Search Complete databases were searched using various combinations of the following keywords: Caribbean, women, HIV, STD, AIDS, risk, perceived risk, risk perception, and sex. Searches were restricted to English. A total of 69 peer-reviewed studies were obtained from the initial 239 records. The reviewer screened the peer-reviewed articles and excluded 50 studies that did not directly assess perceived HIV risks in Caribbean women. An additional 12 studies were excluded based on the following exclusion criteria: an undetermined proportion or more than 50% of the sample consisted of pregnant women, sex workers, drug users, Latinas, and/or people living with HIV/AIDS. Results: Seven studies on perceived HIV risk in Caribbean women were reviewed. Jamaican women were the most represented ethnic demographic (43%). All studies assessed perceived risk as a subset of HIV psychosocial factors, sexual-risk behaviors, HIV knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. Four studies used cross-sectional research design and two studies used qualitative methodology. Only one study described items used to measure perceived risk. General findings indicate overall perceptions of invulnerability among Caribbean women, despite high sexual-risk behaviors. Conclusions: Published studies that specifically assess Caribbean women's HIV risk perceptions are

  6. Mental Health Service Delivery Systems and Perceived Qualifications of Mental Health Service Providers in School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Decia Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Latest research on the mental health status of children indicates that schools are key providers of mental health services (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003). The push for school mental health services has only increased as stakeholders have begun to recognize the significance of sound mental health as an essential part of…

  7. Perceived environmental and health risks of nuclear energy in Taiwan after Fukushima nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jung-Chun; Lee, Chiao-Tzu Patricia; Kao, Shu-Fen; Chen, Ruey-Yu; Ieong, Marco C F; Chang, Hung-Lun; Hsieh, Wan-Hua; Tzeng, Chun-Chiao; Lu, Cheng-Fung; Lin, Suei-Loong; Chang, Peter Wushou

    2014-12-01

    After the nuclear disaster in Fukushima in Japan in 2011, a nation-wide survey using a standardized self-administered questionnaire was conducted in Taiwan, with a sample size of 2,742 individuals including the residents who live within and beyond 30 km from a nuclear power plant (NPP), to evaluate the participants' perceived nuclear risk in comparison with their perceived risks from selected environmental hazards and human behaviors. The three leading concerns of nuclear energy were "nuclear accidents (82.2%)," "radioactive nuclear waste disposal (76.9%)" and "potential health effects (73.3%)." Respondents (77.6%) perceived a higher relative risk of cancer incidence for those who live within 30 km from an NPP than those who live outside 30 km from an NPP. All the participants had a higher risk perception of death related to "nuclear power operation and nuclear waste" than cigarette smoking, motorcycling, food poisoning, plasticizer poisoning and traveling by air. Moreover, the residents in Gongliao where the planned fourth NPP is located had a significantly higher perceived risk ratio (PRR) of cancer incidence (adjusted odd ratio (aOR)=1.84, p value=0.017) and perceived risk of death (aOR=4.03, p value<0.001) related to nuclear energy. The other factors such as female gender (aOR/p value, 1.25/0.026 and 1.34/0.001 respectively), lower education levels (aOR/p value: 1.31/0.032; 2.03/<0.001) and the participants' concerns about nuclear accidents (aOR/p value: 1.33/0.022; 1.51/<0.001) and potential health effects (aOR/ p value: 2.95/ <0.001; 2.56/<0.001) were found to be commonly associated with the PRRs of "cancer incidence" and "perceived risk of death" related to nuclear energy, respectively. In addition, the respondents' concerns about nuclear waste disposal and possible eco-environmental damage made significant contributions (aOR/ p value: 1.39/ 0.001; 1.40/<0.001) to predict their perceived risk of death related to nuclear power. These factors are considered as

  8. Perceived social isolation, evolutionary fitness and health outcomes: a lifespan approach

    PubMed Central

    Hawkley, Louise C.; Capitanio, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Sociality permeates each of the fundamental motives of human existence and plays a critical role in evolutionary fitness across the lifespan. Evidence for this thesis draws from research linking deficits in social relationship—as indexed by perceived social isolation (i.e. loneliness)—with adverse health and fitness consequences at each developmental stage of life. Outcomes include depression, poor sleep quality, impaired executive function, accelerated cognitive decline, unfavourable cardiovascular function, impaired immunity, altered hypothalamic pituitary–adrenocortical activity, a pro-inflammatory gene expression profile and earlier mortality. Gaps in this research are summarized with suggestions for future research. In addition, we argue that a better understanding of naturally occurring variation in loneliness, and its physiological and psychological underpinnings, in non-human species may be a valuable direction to better understand the persistence of a ‘lonely’ phenotype in social species, and its consequences for health and fitness. PMID:25870400

  9. Body Mass Index, Perceived Health, and Happiness: Their Determinants and Structural Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelisse-Vermaat, Judith R.; Antonides, Gerrit; Van Ophem, Johan A. C.; Van Den Brink, Henriette Maassen

    2006-01-01

    The structural relationships between body mass index, perceived health and happiness have been studied in a survey of 700 native Dutch citizens. We found an indirect effect of body mass index on happiness, via perceived health. Age had an inverted U-shaped relationship with body mass index, and both education and smoking had a negative effect on…

  10. Mental Health Literacy, Attitudes to Help Seeking, and Perceived Need as Predictors of Mental Health Service Use: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Bonabi, Herdis; Müller, Mario; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Eisele, Jochen; Rodgers, Stephanie; Seifritz, Erich; Rössler, Wulf; Rüsch, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Many people with mental health problems do not use mental health care, resulting in poorer clinical and social outcomes. Reasons for low service use rates are still incompletely understood. In this longitudinal, population-based study, we investigated the influence of mental health literacy, attitudes toward mental health services, and perceived need for treatment at baseline on actual service use during a 6-month follow-up period, controlling for sociodemographic variables, symptom level, and a history of lifetime mental health service use. Positive attitudes to mental health care, higher mental health literacy, and more perceived need at baseline significantly predicted use of psychotherapy during the follow-up period. Greater perceived need for treatment and better literacy at baseline were predictive of taking psychiatric medication during the following 6 months. Our findings suggest that mental health literacy, attitudes to treatment, and perceived need may be targets for interventions to increase mental health service use. PMID:27015396

  11. Neural responses to perceiving suffering in humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Robert G; Nelson, Anthony J; Baker, Michelle; Beeney, Joseph E; Vescio, Theresa K; Lenz-Watson, Aurora; Adams, Reginald B

    2013-01-01

    The human ability to perceive and understand others' suffering is critical to reinforcing and maintaining our social bonds. What is not clear, however, is the extent to which this generalizes to nonhuman entities. Anecdotal evidence indicates that people may engage in empathy-like processes when observing suffering nonhuman entities, but psychological research suggests that we more readily empathize with those to whom we are closer and more similar. In this research, we examined neural responses in participants while they were presented with pictures of human versus dog suffering. We found that viewing human and animal suffering led to large overlapping regions of activation previously implicated in empathic responding to suffering, including the anterior cingulate gyrus and anterior insula. Direct comparisons of viewing human and animal suffering also revealed differences such that human suffering yielded significantly greater medial prefrontal activation, consistent with high-level theory of mind, whereas animal suffering yielded significantly greater parietal and inferior frontal activation, consistent with more semantic evaluation and perceptual simulation. PMID:23405957

  12. PERCEIVED RACIAL DISCRIMINATION AMONG HOME HEALTH AIDES: EVIDENCE FROM A NATIONAL SURVEY.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doohee; Muslin, Ivan; McInerney, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    Home health aides are one of our essential human resources in the U.S. long-term care industry but understanding whether home health aides experience racial discrimination in the workplace and, if so, which personal/organizational factors are associated at the national level has been unnoticed. Using a nationally representative sample (n=3377), we attempt to investigate the association between racial discrimination and personal and organizational factors. The study found the 13.5% prevalence rate of racial discrimination. The study findings from multiple regression analysis reveal that black home care aides are more likely than white aides to experience racial discrimination in the workplace, suggesting that racial disparity may be an additional barrier to our home health care industry. National chain affiliation and low income were also found to be associated with perceived racial discrimination. PMID:27079055

  13. Oceans and Human Health Center

    MedlinePlus

    ocean and human health science can help prevent disease outbreaks and improve public health through a deeper understanding of the causes ... our Center and the field of oceans and human health science. More Research Learn about the research ...

  14. Periodontal Health, Perceived Oral Health and Dental Care Utilization of Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Taichman, L. Susan; Griggs, Jennifer J.; Inglehart, Marita R.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This population-based analysis examined the prevalence of periodontal diseases along with the self-perceived oral health and patterns of dental care utilization of breast cancer survivors in the U.S. METHODS Data from the 1999–2004 NHANES were utilized, examining information from 3,354 women between 50–85 years of age. Primary outcomes were gingivitis and periodontitis, self-perceived oral health and dental care utilization. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate relationships of breast cancer diagnosis and primary outcomes, while controlling for confounding factors. RESULTS Breast cancer survivors were more likely to be older than 55 years, white, non-smokers, have higher levels of education and income and a higher prevalence of osteoporosis. Breast cancer survivors were significantly less likely to have dental insurance (p=0.04). Utilization of dental services and reason for last dental visit did not significantly differ between groups. A history of a breast cancer diagnosis did not increase the odds of gingivitis (OR=1.32; 95% CI: 0.53–3.63), periodontitis (OR=1.82; 95% CI = 0.89–4.01) or poor self-perceived oral health (OR=0.89; 95% CI: 0.61–1.33) after adjusting for age, race, education, dental care utilization, and smoking status. CONCLUSIONS In this sample, a history of breast cancer does not significantly impact periodontal health, self-perceived oral health and dental care utilization. However, efforts should be made to assure that breast cancer survivors have dental insurance. PMID:25648337

  15. Climate change: a review of its health impact and perceived awareness by the young citizens.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Muhammad Sabbir; Mohamad, Osman Bin; Zarim, Zainal bin Abu

    2014-07-01

    In recent time climate change and its impact on human health and awareness constitute a set of complex and serious consequences to be tackled by an individual country. Climate change is not merely an environmental issue, but also it is a threat that goes beyond national borders. The purpose of this study is to identify the awareness and the impact of climate change, perceived by the young citizens in Malaysia by focusing on gender differences. Based on a survey of 200 respondents from different public and private University's students in Malaysia, this research used descriptive statistics and T-test to look into the research objective. The results revealed media can play an important role in the awareness of climate change. Meanwhile the male respondents have shown considerable attention on the physical impact of climate change like heat related stress. On the other hand female respondents have shown considerable attention to the psychological impact by the climate change. From a pragmatic perspective, the findings from this research will assists the policy makers to understand more about the perceived awareness on the climate change issues of the young citizens which ultimately assist them to inaugurate new initiatives to confront the challenges of climate changes. This research is among the pioneer study on the issue of the perceived awareness in regards to climate change in Malaysia by focusing on gender differences. PMID:24999143

  16. Facial contrast is a cue for perceiving health from the face.

    PubMed

    Russell, Richard; Porcheron, Aurélie; Sweda, Jennifer R; Jones, Alex L; Mauger, Emmanuelle; Morizot, Frederique

    2016-09-01

    How healthy someone appears has important social consequences. Yet the visual cues that determine perceived health remain poorly understood. Here we report evidence that facial contrast-the luminance and color contrast between internal facial features and the surrounding skin-is a cue for the perception of health from the face. Facial contrast was measured from a large sample of Caucasian female faces, and was found to predict ratings of perceived health. Most aspects of facial contrast were positively related to perceived health, meaning that faces with higher facial contrast appeared healthier. In 2 subsequent experiments, we manipulated facial contrast and found that participants perceived faces with increased facial contrast as appearing healthier than faces with decreased facial contrast. These results support the idea that facial contrast is a cue for perceived health. This finding adds to the growing knowledge about perceived health from the face, and helps to ground our understanding of perceived health in terms of lower-level perceptual features such as contrast. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27100405

  17. Masculinity and perceived normative health behaviors as predictors of men's health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Mahalik, James R; Burns, Shaun M; Syzdek, Matthew

    2007-06-01

    This study examined the unique contributions of masculinity and men's perceptions of the normativeness of men's and women's health behaviors in predicting men's self-reported health behaviors. One hundred and forty men aged 18-78 were recruited from 27 unmoderated and moderated Internet listservs of potential interest to men. They completed measures on-line assessing masculinity, their perceptions of normative health behaviors for men and women, and 8 health behaviors (i.e., alcohol abuse, seatbelt use, tobacco use, physical fighting, use of social support, exercise, dietary habits, and receipt of annual medical check-ups). Findings suggest that masculinity and the perceived normativeness of other men's health behaviors significantly predicted participants' own health behaviors beyond that accounted for by socio-demographic variables (e.g., education, income). Perceptions of the normativeness of women's health behaviors were unrelated to participants' health behaviors. The findings support previous research which has found that traditional masculine gender socialization and social norms models encourage men to put their health at risk, and suggest directions for health promotion efforts when working with men. PMID:17383784

  18. Perceived health status associated with transport choice for short distance trips

    PubMed Central

    Scheepers, C.E.; Wendel-Vos, G.C.W.; van Wesemael, P.J.V.; den Hertog, F.R.J.; Stipdonk, H.L.; Int Panis, L.L.R.; van Kempen, E.E.M.M.; Schuit, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examines the association between active transport and perceived general health, perceived psychological wellbeing and a healthy body weight in the Netherlands. Methods Data were collected by an online questionnaire (N = 3663) in the Netherlands. Data collection was conducted over a period of one calendar year starting July 2012. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association between choice of transport mode (bicycling vs car use and walking vs car use) and perceived general health, perceived psychological wellbeing and having a healthy weight respectively. The presented OR's may be interpreted as the likelihood of an average person in our dataset to have a better perceived health or body weight when choosing active transport (either bicycling or walking) over using the car for trips up to 7.5 km. Results Cycling was found to be significantly associated with a better perceived general health (OR = 1.35, 95%CI:1.07–1.70) and having a healthy body weight (OR = 1.52, 95%CI:1.28–1.79), but not with a better perceived psychological wellbeing (OR = 1.12, 95%CI:0.93–1.34). Walking was found to be significantly associated with having a healthy body weight (OR = 1.35, 95%CI:1.09–1.69), but not with a better perceived general (OR = 1.12, 95%CI:0.84–1.51) or psychological wellbeing (OR = 0.85, 95%CI:0.67–1.08). Conclusion Our results suggest that active transport use has been associated with a better perceived general health and a healthy body weight. However, more research is needed to be able to elucidate which factors cause this better health. No associations were observed between transport choice and perceived psychological wellbeing. PMID:26844158

  19. Associations of Truancy, Perceived School Performance, and Mental Health with Alcohol Consumption among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtes, Muriel; Bannink, Rienke; Joosten-van Zwanenburg, Evelien; van As, Els; Raat, Hein; Broeren, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examined associations of truancy, perceived school performance, and mental health with adolescents' week, weekend, and binge drinking. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1167 secondary school students of Dutch ethnicity (mean age, 15.9 years, SD?=?0.69). Alcohol consumption, truancy, perceived school…

  20. Perceived Parental Relationships and Health-Risk Behaviors in College-Attending Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Ravert, Russell D.; Kim, Su Yeong; Weisskirch, Robert S.; Williams, Michelle K.; Bersamin, Melina; Finley, Gordon E.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the association of perceived parenting with health-risk behaviors in an ethnically diverse sample of 1,728 college-attending emerging adults. Participants completed retrospective measures of perceived maternal and paternal nurturance, connection, psychological control, and disrespect and reported their frequency of…

  1. Lifestyle course as an investment in perceived improved health among newly arrived women from countries outside Europe.

    PubMed

    Ekblad, Solvig; Persson-Valenzuela, Ulla-Britt

    2014-01-01

    Family reunification was the most common reason (34%) for resettlement in Sweden in 2013. About one-fifth of the population is foreign-born. This study used mixed methods to evaluate a culturally tailored clinical health-promotion intervention. The intervention was conducted by licensed clinicians and a local coordinator. Sessions were five-weeks long, two hours a week. The quantitative data cover results from 54 participants, mainly Arabic and Somali-speaking, who participated in 10 groups. The participants' perceived health improved significantly over the three measures. They also shared that their health significantly improved according to moderate effect size. The qualitative data, analyzed using revised content analysis, reflected one general theme: "the intervention is an investment in perceived improved health", and four categories: "perceived increased health literacy", "strength, empowerment and security", "finding a new lifestyle", and "the key to entry into Swedish society is language". An intervention focusing on the prevention of ill-health, on health as a human right, and on empowerment, and aimed at female newcomers, has practical implications. PMID:25321877

  2. Changes in perceived health and depressive symptoms: a longitudinal analysis with older Korean Americans.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yuri; Chiriboga, David A; Kim, Giyeon; Cho, Soyeon

    2009-02-01

    The present study examined changes in the perceived health of older Korean Americans (n = 141) over a 2-year period: 2003 (T1) and 2005 (T2). A hierarchical regression model of changes in perceived health was estimated with the following array of predictors: (1) background variables (age, gender, marital status, education, and length of stay in the United States), (2) initial perceived health (T1), (3) physical and mental health conditions at T1 (chronic conditions, functional disability, and depressive symptoms), and (4) changes in physical and mental health conditions (T2 - T1). When the effects of background variables and baseline perceived health were controlled, baseline chronic conditions and changes in both chronic conditions and depressive symptoms were found to predict changes in perceived health. Older individuals who initially had more chronic conditions and those who had experienced an increasing number of chronic conditions and depressive symptoms over 2 years viewed their health more negatively at follow-up. Findings highlight the importance of interventions for disease management and mental health promotion to enhance subjective health among older Korean immigrants. PMID:18066715

  3. Perceiving Group Behavior: Sensitive Ensemble Coding Mechanisms for Biological Motion of Human Crowds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Haroz, Steve; Whitney, David

    2013-01-01

    Many species, including humans, display group behavior. Thus, perceiving crowds may be important for social interaction and survival. Here, we provide the first evidence that humans use ensemble-coding mechanisms to perceive the behavior of a crowd of people with surprisingly high sensitivity. Observers estimated the headings of briefly presented…

  4. Perceived unfairness in working conditions: The case of public health services in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The focus on the determinants of the quality of health services in low-income countries is increasing. Health workers' motivation has emerged as a topic of substantial interest in this context. The main objective of this article is to explore health workers' experience of working conditions, linked to motivation to work. Working conditions have been pointed out as a key factor in ensuring a motivated and well performing staff. The empirical focus is on rural public health services in Tanzania. The study aims to situate the results in a broader historical context in order to enhance our understanding of the health worker discourse on working conditions. Methods The study has a qualitative study design to elicit detailed information on health workers' experience of their working conditions. The data comprise focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) with administrators, clinicians and nursing staff in the public health services in a rural district in Tanzania. The study has an ethnographic backdrop based on earlier long-term fieldwork in the same part of Tanzania. Results The article provides insights into health workers' understanding and assessment of their working conditions. An experience of unsatisfactory working conditions as well as a perceived lack of fundamental fairness dominated the FGDs and IDIs. Informants reported unfairness with reference to factors such as salary, promotion, recognition of work experience, allocation of allowances and access to training as well as to human resource management. The study also revealed that many health workers lack information or knowledge about factors that influence their working conditions. Conclusions The article calls for attention to the importance of locating the discourse of unfairness related to working conditions in a broader historical/political context. Tanzanian history has been characterised by an ambiguous and shifting landscape of state regulation, economic reforms

  5. Lifestyle Course as an Investment in Perceived Improved Health among Newly Arrived Women from Countries outside Europe

    PubMed Central

    Ekblad, Solvig; Persson-Valenzuela, Ulla-Britt

    2014-01-01

    Family reunification was the most common reason (34%) for resettlement in Sweden in 2013. About one-fifth of the population is foreign-born. This study used mixed methods to evaluate a culturally tailored clinical health-promotion intervention. The intervention was conducted by licensed clinicians and a local coordinator. Sessions were five-weeks long, two hours a week. The quantitative data cover results from 54 participants, mainly Arabic and Somali-speaking, who participated in 10 groups. The participants’ perceived health improved significantly over the three measures. They also shared that their health significantly improved according to moderate effect size. The qualitative data, analyzed using revised content analysis, reflected one general theme: “the intervention is an investment in perceived improved health”, and four categories: “perceived increased health literacy”, “strength, empowerment and security”, “finding a new lifestyle”, and “the key to entry into Swedish society is language”. An intervention focusing on the prevention of ill-health, on health as a human right, and on empowerment, and aimed at female newcomers, has practical implications. PMID:25321877

  6. Constructing a Swiss health space model of self-perceived health.

    PubMed

    Lengen, Charis; Blasius, Jörg

    2007-07-01

    This study aims to analyse the relationship between self-reported health characteristics and to explore latent cultural structures in the Swiss health survey. Based on categorical principal component analysis, a conceptual model of 'health space' was constructed which can be interpreted as a collective perception of health. The first dimension of the constructed health space model reflects the 'level of general health', and the second dimension the 'composition of physical and mental health symptoms'. These dimensions may reflect deeply rooted cultural structures--the good vs. bad dichotomy as a generic categorization scheme of human thought and the body/mind dualism. These latent structures provide a framework of the health space model and allow a better interpretation of the relationships of health perception characteristics and its related socio-demographic aspects. PMID:17475384

  7. Perceived Discrimination and Self-Rated Health in South Korea: A Nationally Representative Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Sup; Williams, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Background There is mounting evidence that discriminatory experiences can harm health. However, previous research has mainly focused on the health effects of racial discrimination in U.S. or European countries although there is pervasive discrimination by gender, age, education and other factors in Asian countries. Methods We analyzed the data from the 7th wave of Korean Labor and Income Panel Study to investigate the association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health in South Korea. Perceived discriminatory experiences were measured in eight situations through a modified Experience of Discrimination questionnaire. In each of eight situations, the lifetime prevalence of perceived discriminatory experience was compared between men and women and the main causes of those experiences were identified separately by gender. After adjusting for potential confounders, we examined the association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health in each of eight social situations and also checked the association using the number of situations of perceived discriminatory experiences. Results For both men and women, education level and age were the main sources of work-related perceived discriminatory experiences. Gender was one of the main causes among women across eight situations and more than 90% of women reported their gender as a main cause of discriminatory experience in getting higher education and at home. Discriminatory experiences in four situations were positively associated with poor self-rated health. The odds ratio for poor self-rated health for those exposed to one, two, three or four or more social situations of perceived discrimination were respectively 1.06 (95% CI : 0.87–1.29), 1.15 (95% CI : 0.96–1.55), 1.59 (95% CI : 1.19–2.14), and 1.78 (95% CI :1.26–2.51). Conclusion There is consistent association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health across eight social

  8. Association between adolescents' self-perceived oral health and self-reported experiences of abuse.

    PubMed

    Kvist, Therese; Annerbäck, Eva-Maria; Sahlqvist, Lotta; Flodmark, Olof; Dahllöf, Göran

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the association between self-perceived oral health and self-reported exposure to different types of child abuse. It was hypothesized that self-perceived oral health is compromised in exposed adolescents. All Grade-9 compulsory school and second-year high-school pupils in Södermanland County, Sweden (n = 7,262) were invited to take part in a population-based survey; 5,940 adolescents responded. Survey items on health and social wellbeing included self-perceived oral health and exposure to abuse. The results showed that poor self-perceived oral health was associated with self-reported experience of physical abuse, intimate partner violence, forced sex, and bullying (adjusted OR = 2.3-14.7). The likelihood of reporting poor oral health increased from an adjusted OR of 2.1 for a single incident of abuse to an adjusted OR of 23.3 for multiple abuses. In conclusion, poor self-perceived oral health and previous exposure to child physical abuse, intimate partner violence, bullying, and forced sex is associated. It is important that dental professionals recognize adolescents with poor subjective oral health and take into consideration child abuse as a possible cause in order to prevent these adolescents from further victimization. These results further strengthen that dental professionals are an important resource in child protection. PMID:24206076

  9. Correlates of perceived helpfulness of mental health professionals following disclosure of sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Starzynski, Laura L; Ullman, Sarah E

    2014-01-01

    A diverse sample of more than 365 adult sexual assault survivors, recruited from college and community sources, was surveyed about sexual assault experiences, post-assault factors, and perceived helpfulness of and satisfaction with mental health professionals. Regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with perceived helpfulness of and satisfaction with mental health professionals. Older age, higher posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), greater control over recovery, and more emotional support reactions were associated with positive perceptions of mental health professionals. Stranger offenders, greater resistance during assault, high victim post-assault upset, and blaming social reactions from others were associated with negative perceptions of mental health professionals. PMID:24567537

  10. Education in mental health promotion and its impact on the participants' attitudes and perceived mental health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although the promotion of mental health (MHP) through education and training is widely accepted, there is scarce evidence for its effectiveness in the literature from outcome studies worldwide. The present study aimed to assess the effect of a three-semester MHP educational program on the recipients' opinions towards mental illness and on their own self-assessed health. Methods Respondents were 78 attendees who completed the assessment battery at the first (baseline) and the last session (end) of the training course. They were primary care physicians or other professionals, or key community agents, working in the greater Athens area. The course consisted of 44 sessions (4 h each), over a 3-semester period, focusing on the principles and methods of mental health promotion, the main aspects of major psychiatric disorders, and on relevant to health skills. Assessment instruments included the Opinion about Mental Illness (OMI) scale and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Results The mean scores of three OMI factors, that is, social discrimination, social restriction and social integration, and the two GHQ-28 subscales, that is, anxiety/insomnia and social dysfunction, were significantly improved by the end of the training course. Conclusions The results of this study provide evidence, with limitations, for the short-term effectiveness of the implemented educational MHP program on an adult group of recipients-key agents in their community. Because interventions for strengthening positive opinions about mental illness and enhancing self-assessed health constitute priority aims of mental health promotion, it would be beneficial to further investigate the sustainability of the observed positive changes. In addition it would be useful to examine (a) the possible interplay between the two outcome measures, that is, the effect of opinions of recipients about mental health on their perceived health, and (b) the applicability of this intervention in

  11. Perceived Discrimination and Self-Rated Health in Europe: Evidence from the European Social Survey (2010)

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Galvez, Javier; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Studies have shown that perceived discrimination has an impact on our physical and mental health. A relevant part of literature has highlighted the influence of discrimination based on race or ethnicity on mental and physical health outcomes. However, the influence of other types of discrimination on health has been understudied. This study is aimed to explore how different types of discrimination are related to our subjective state of health, and so to compare the intensity of these relationships in the European context. Methods We have performed a multilevel ordered analysis on the fifth wave of the European Social Survey (ESS 2010). This dataset has 52,458 units at individual level that are grouped in 26 European countries. In this study, the dependent variable is self-rated health (SRH) that is analyzed in relationship to ten explanatory variables of perceived discrimination: color or race, nationality, religion, language, ethnic group, age, gender, sexuality, disability and others. Results The model identifies statistically significant differences in the effect that diverse types of perceived discrimination can generate on the self-rated health of Europeans. Specifically, this study identifies three well-defined types of perceived discrimination that can be related to poor health outcomes: (1) age discrimination; (2) disability discrimination; and (3) sexuality discrimination. In this sense, the effect on self-rated health of perceived discrimination related to aging and disabilities seems to be more relevant than other types of discrimination in the European context with a longer tradition in literature (e.g. ethnic and/or race-based). Conclusion The present study shows that the relationship between perceived discrimination and health inequities in Europe are not random, but systematically distributed depending on factors such as age, sexuality and disabilities. Therefore the future orientation of EU social policies should aim to reduce the

  12. Perceived Discrimination and Health among Immigrants in Europe According to National Integration Policies

    PubMed Central

    Borrell, Carme; Palència, Laia; Bartoll, Xavier; Ikram, Umar; Malmusi, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Background: Discrimination harms immigrants’ health. The objective of this study was to analyze the association between perceived discrimination and health outcomes among first and second generation immigrants from low-income countries living in Europe, while accounting for sex and the national policy on immigration. Methods: Cross-sectional study including immigrants from low-income countries aged ≥15 years in 18 European countries (European Social Survey, 2012) (sample of 1271 men and 1335 women). The dependent variables were self-reported health, symptoms of depression, and limitation of activity. The independent variables were perceived group discrimination, immigrant background and national immigrant integration policy. We tested for association between perceived group discrimination and health outcomes by fitting robust Poisson regression models. Results: We only observed significant associations between perceived group discrimination and health outcomes in first generation immigrants. For example, depression was associated with discrimination among both men and women (Prevalence Ratio-, 1.55 (95% CI: 1.16–2.07) and 1.47 (95% CI: 1.15–1.89) in the multivariate model, respectively), and mainly in countries with assimilationist immigrant integration policies. Conclusion: Perceived group discrimination is associated with poor health outcomes in first generation immigrants from low-income countries who live in European countries, but not among their descendants. These associations are more important in assimilationist countries. PMID:26334284

  13. Subjective Well-Being Among People with Spinal Cord Injuries: The Role of Self-Efficacy, Perceived Social Support, and Perceived Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, Nan Zhang

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the joint contributions of demographic variables, perceived health, self-efficacy beliefs, and perceived social support to subjective well-being (SWB) in people with spinal cord injuries (SCI). One hundred twenty-seven individuals with SCI participated in the study. The results indicated that general…

  14. Happiness and health: environmental and genetic contributions to the relationship between subjective well-being, perceived health, and somatic illness.

    PubMed

    Røysamb, Espen; Tambs, Kristian; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Neale, Michael C; Harris, Jennifer R

    2003-12-01

    The aim was to identify genetic and environmental influences on the covariances between subjective well-being (SWB), perceived health, and somatic illness. Analyses were based on 6576 Norwegian twins aged 18-31. Heritabilities ranged from .24 to.66. SWB correlated .50 with perceived health, -.25 with musculoskeletal pain, and -.07 with allergy. Common genetic factors accounted for 45%-60% of associations. SWB and perceived health was to a high extent influenced by the same genes (r(g)=.72 and.82 for males and females, respectively). For SWB and musculoskeletal pain, r-sub(g) =-.29 and -.42 for males and females, respectively. Effects were partly sex specific. Environmental factors shared by twins did not affect the covariances. Results support a differentiated view of SWB-health relations, and imply that both genes and environment play important roles in the associations between well-being and health. PMID:14674819

  15. Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and health risk behaviors among Mexican American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M; Dimas, Juanita M; Pasch, Lauri A; de Groat, Cynthia L

    2010-07-01

    Utilizing the concept of race-based traumatic stress, this study tested whether posttraumatic stress symptoms explain the process by which perceived discrimination is related to health risk behaviors among Mexican American adolescents. One hundred ten participants were recruited from a large health maintenance organization in Northern California. Mediational analyses indicated that adolescents who perceived more discrimination reported worse posttraumatic stress symptoms, controlling for covariates. In turn, adolescents who experienced heightened posttraumatic stress symptoms reported more alcohol use, more other drug use, involvement in more fights, and more sexual partners. Perceived discrimination was also directly related to involvement in more fights. Results provide support for the notion of race-based traumatic stress, specifically, that perceived discrimination may be traumatizing for Mexican American adolescents. Counseling psychologists and counselors in schools and community settings should assess Mexican American adolescents for the effects of discrimination and provide appropriate interventions to reduce its negative emotional impact. PMID:21133578

  16. Perceived impact of Ghana's conditional cash transfer on child health.

    PubMed

    Owusu-Addo, Ebenezer

    2016-03-01

    A plethora of studies from sub-Saharan Africa indicate that orphaned and vulnerable children are exposed to adverse health, education and other social outcomes. Across diverse settings, conditional cash transfer (CCT) programmes have been successful in improving health outcomes amongst vulnerable children. This study explored the pathways of CCTs' impact on the health of orphans and vulnerable children in rural Ghana. Due to the multi-dimensional nature of CCTs, the programme impact theory was used to conceptualize CCTs' pathways of impact on child health. A qualitative descriptive exploratory approach was used for this study. This study drew on the perspectives of 18 caregivers, 4 community leaders and 3 programme implementers from two rural districts in Ghana. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with the participants. Thematic content analysis was conducted on the interview transcripts to pull together core themes running through the entire data set. Five organizing themes emerged from the interview transcripts: improved child nutrition, health service utilization, poverty reduction and social transformation, improved education and improved emotional health and well-being demonstrating the pathways through which CCTs work to improve child health. The results indicated that CCTs offer a valuable social protection instrument for improving the health of orphans and vulnerable children by addressing the social determinants of child health such as nutrition, access to health care, child poverty and education. PMID:25073762

  17. Determinants of Self-Perceived Changes in Health Status among Pre- and Early-Retirement Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Namkee G.

    2003-01-01

    Using data from the 1992 and 1994 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), this study described reasons reported by pre- and early-retirement populations for perceived changes in global health status over a 2-year period. It then analyzed the association between self-perceptions of change and the actual changes in objective health…

  18. The Stigma of Obesity: Does Perceived Weight Discrimination Affect Identity and Physical Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Markus H.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is widely recognized as a health risk, but it also represents a disadvantaged social position. Viewing body weight within the framework of stigma and its effects on life chances, we examine how perceived weight-based discrimination influences identity and physical health. Using national survey data with a 10-year longitudinal follow-up, we…

  19. Overweight and Perceived Health in Mexican American Children: A Pilot Study in a Central Texas Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Diane O.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed actual and perceived health status of overweight Mexican American clients at a central Texas school-based health center in a predominately Hispanic school district. It also explored the participants' interest in making lifestyle changes to promote a healthy weight. A medical records review indicated that of the Hispanic…

  20. Perceived Causes of Mental Health Problems and Help-Seeking Behavior among University Students in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemu, Yirgalem

    2014-01-01

    The study examined perceived causes of mental health problems and professional help-seeking behavior among university students in Ethiopia. Data were collected from 370 students from four randomly selected colleges. The results revealed that the majority of the participants were able to recognize major mental health problems such as schizophrenia…

  1. The Role of Perceived Stress and Health Beliefs on College Students' Intentions to Practice Mindfulness Meditation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizer, Carol Ann; Fagan, Mary Helen; Kilmon, Carol; Rath, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Understanding why individuals decide to participate in mindfulness-based practices can aid in the development of effective health promotion outreach efforts. Purpose: This study investigated the role of health beliefs and perceived stress on the intention to practice mindfulness meditation among undergraduate college students. Methods:…

  2. An Association between College Students' Health Promotion Practices and Perceived Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ying; Lindsey, Billie J.

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to gain a better understanding of health promotion practices among college students and the relationship of stress and the practice of various health behaviors. Method: In Fall 2008, 319 students from a mid-size university participated in a cross-sectional survey utilizing the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Health…

  3. Perceived competence and comfort in respiratory protection: results of a nationwide survey of occupational health nurses.

    PubMed

    Burgel, Barbara J; Novak, Debra; Burns, Candace M; Byrd, Annette; Carpenter, Holly; Gruden, MaryAnn; Lachat, Ann; Taormina, Deborah

    2013-03-01

    In response to the Institute of Medicine (2011) report Occupational Health Nurses and Respiratory Protection: Improving Education and Training, a nationwide survey was conducted in May 2012 to assess occupational health nurses' educational preparation, roles, responsibilities, and training needs in respiratory protection. More than 2,000 occupational health nurses responded; 83% perceived themselves as competent, proficient, or expert in respiratory protection, reporting moderate comfort with 12 respiratory program elements. If occupational health nurses had primary responsibility for the respiratory protection program, they were more likely to perceive higher competence and more comfort in respiratory protection, after controlling for occupational health nursing experience, highest education, occupational health nursing certification, industry sector, Association of Occupational Health Professionals in Healthcare membership, taking a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health spirometry course in the prior 5 years, and perceiving a positive safety culture at work. These survey results document high perceived competence and comfort in respiratory protection. These findings support the development of targeted educational programs and interprofessional competencies for respiratory protection. PMID:23429638

  4. Perceived Racial/Ethnic Discrimination, Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, and Health Risk Behaviors among Mexican American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Dimas, Juanita M.; Pasch, Lauri A.; de Groat, Cynthia L.

    2010-01-01

    Utilizing the concept of race-based traumatic stress, this study tested whether posttraumatic stress symptoms explain the process by which perceived discrimination is related to health risk behaviors among Mexican American adolescents. One hundred ten participants were recruited from a large health maintenance organization in Northern California.…

  5. Relationship between Health Promoting Lifestyle and Perceived Stress in Pregnant Women with Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Malakouti, Jamile; Sehhati, Fahimeh; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Nahangi, Rogaiyyeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Lifestyle during pregnancy has long-term effects on health of mother and child. Having previous illness or unexpected maternal or fetal conditions such as preeclampsia can complicate pregnancy and interfere with health-promoting behaviors and cause stress might interfere with health-promoting behaviors. This study was carried out to examine the relationship between health-promoting lifestyles and perceived stress in women with preeclampsia. Methods: This study is a descriptive correlation design that was conducted on 182 pregnant women with preeclampsia attending in the high risk clinics of Al-Zahra and Talegani hospitals in Tabriz 2014. Data gathering tools were three: demographics, health-promoting lifestyle (HPLP-II), and perceived stress questionnaires. SPSS Ver. 13 was used for data analysis. Results: The mean (SD) of health promoting lifestyle among pregnant women with preeclampsia was 2.4 (0.4). Among the dimensions of health promoting life style, the highest mean score was for sub domain of nutrition, i.e. 2.8 (0.5), and the lowest score was achieved by the sub-domains of physical activity, i.e. 1.5 (0.5).The mean (SD) score of perceived stress was 27.3 (7.1). There was reverse relationship between perceived stress and health -promoting behaviors. Conclusion: Based upon the results, health promoting behaviors were decreased by increment of perceived stress. Therefore, midwives can help women with preeclampsia by promoting health behaviors to reduce their stress and increase health-promoting behaviors. PMID:26161369

  6. Discrimination, Perceived Social Inequity, and Mental Health Among Rural-to-Urban Migrants in China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Danhua; Wang, Bo; Hong, Yan; Qin, Xiong; Stanton, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Status-based discrimination and inequity have been associated with the process of migration, especially with economics-driven internal migration. However, their association with mental health among economy-driven internal migrants in developing countries is rarely assessed. This study examines discriminatory experiences and perceived social inequity in relation to mental health status among rural-to-urban migrants in China. Cross-sectional data were collected from 1,006 rural-to-urban migrants in 2004–2005 in Beijing, China. Participants reported their perceptions and experiences of being discriminated in daily life in urban destination and perceived social inequity. Mental health was measured using the symptom checklist-90 (SCL-90). Multivariate analyses using general linear model were performed to test the effect of discriminatory experience and perceived social inequity on mental health. Experience of discrimination was positively associated with male gender, being married at least once, poorer health status, shorter duration of migration, and middle range of personal income. Likewise, perceived social inequity was associated with poorer health status, higher education attainment, and lower personal income. Multivariate analyses indicate that both experience of discrimination and perceived social inequity were strongly associated with mental health problems of rural-to-urban migrants. Experience of discrimination in daily life and perceived social inequity have a significant influence on mental health among rural-to-urban migrants. The findings underscore the needs to reduce public or societal discrimination against rural-to-urban migrants, to eliminate structural barriers (i.e., dual household registrations) for migrants to fully benefit from the urban economic development, and to create a positive atmosphere to improve migrant's psychological well-being. PMID:20033772

  7. Perceived Determinants of Mental Health for Bisexual People: A Qualitative Examination

    PubMed Central

    Dobinson, Cheryl; Eady, Allison

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the determinants of mental health, as perceived by bisexual people, in order to begin understanding the disparities in the rates of mental health problems reported by bisexual people versus those reported by heterosexual people, and, in many studies, gay men and lesbians. Methods. Our community-based participatory action research project comprised focus groups and semistructured interviews with 55 bisexual people across the province of Ontario, Canada. Results. Perceived determinants of emotional well-being identified by participants could be classified as macrolevel (social structure), mesolevel (interpersonal), or microlevel (individual). In the context of this framework, monosexism and biphobia were perceived to exert a broad-reaching impact on participants' mental health. Conclusions. Like other marginalized populations, bisexual people perceive experiences of discrimination as important determinants of mental health problems. Additional research is required to examine the relationships between these perceived determinants of emotional well-being and specific mental health outcomes and to guide interventions, advocacy, and support for bisexual people. PMID:20075326

  8. The components of self-perceived health in the Kailali district of Nepal: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Freidoony, Leila; Chhabi, Ranabhat; Kim, Chang Soo; Park, Myung Bae; Kim, Chun-Bae

    2015-03-01

    Self-perceived health is a health measure with well-established links with mortality, healthcare services utilization, and future health. Various components of self-perceived health have been identified in different populations. In this study, we aimed to investigate the components of self-perceived health in a Nepali population. This was a cross-sectional survey conducted in the Kailali district of Nepal in 2014. The sample was initially consisted of 309 households, representative of the population of one municipality and one village; however, 304 participants were included in the analyses. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, health condition, satisfaction with healthcare services, psychological factors, and health behaviors was extracted. Logistic regression analyses were carried out to identify putative components of self-perceived health. Among the 304 respondents, 244 (80.3%) and 60 (19.7%) perceived their health as good and poor, respectively. Middle age and lower satisfaction with healthcare services were associated with worse self-perceived health, accounting for 10.3% of variance. No regular exercise, drinking, smoking, and being unhappy were also related with worse self-perceived health, after adjustment for age and satisfaction level. In the final model, however, drinking status did not significantly contribute. Our findings support previous findings that individuals with positive health behaviors and psychological wellbeing are more likely to perceive their health better. This study may direct public health policies toward more targeted interventions. PMID:25789457

  9. The Components of Self-Perceived Health in the Kailali District of Nepal: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Freidoony, Leila; Chhabi, Ranabhat; Kim, Chang Soo; Park, Myung Bae; Kim, Chun-Bae

    2015-01-01

    Self-perceived health is a health measure with well-established links with mortality, healthcare services utilization, and future health. Various components of self-perceived health have been identified in different populations. In this study, we aimed to investigate the components of self-perceived health in a Nepali population. This was a cross-sectional survey conducted in the Kailali district of Nepal in 2014. The sample was initially consisted of 309 households, representative of the population of one municipality and one village; however, 304 participants were included in the analyses. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, health condition, satisfaction with healthcare services, psychological factors, and health behaviors was extracted. Logistic regression analyses were carried out to identify putative components of self-perceived health. Among the 304 respondents, 244 (80.3%) and 60 (19.7%) perceived their health as good and poor, respectively. Middle age and lower satisfaction with healthcare services were associated with worse self-perceived health, accounting for 10.3% of variance. No regular exercise, drinking, smoking, and being unhappy were also related with worse self-perceived health, after adjustment for age and satisfaction level. In the final model, however, drinking status did not significantly contribute. Our findings support previous findings that individuals with positive health behaviors and psychological wellbeing are more likely to perceive their health better. This study may direct public health policies toward more targeted interventions. PMID:25789457

  10. Financial strain, social capital, and perceived health during economic recession: a longitudinal survey in rural Canada.

    PubMed

    Frank, Christine; Davis, Christopher G; Elgar, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    Although the health consequences of financial strain are well documented, less is understood about the health-protective role of social capital. Social capital refers to a sense of community embeddedness, which is in part reflected by group membership, civic participation, and perceptions of trust, cohesion, and engagement. We investigated whether perceptions of social capital moderate the relation between financial strain and health, both mental and physical. This longitudinal study surveyed adults in two communities in rural Ontario where significant job losses recently occurred. Data were collected on financial strain, social capital, perceived stress, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and physical health on three occasions over 18 months (N's = 355, 317, and 300). As expected, financial strain positively related to perceived stress, poor physical health and symptoms of anxiety and depression, whereas social capital related to less stress, better physical health, and fewer symptoms of anxiety and depression. Effects of financial strain on perceived stress and depressive symptoms were moderated by social capital such that financial strain related more closely to perceived stress and depressive symptoms when social capital was lower. The findings underscore the health-protective role of community associations among adults during difficult economic times. PMID:24251877

  11. Socioeconomic inequalities, health damaging behavior, and self-perceived health in Serbia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Janković, Janko; Janević, Teresa; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Aim To analyze the association of socioeconomic factors with self-perceived health in Serbia and examine whether this association can be partly explained by health behavior variables. Methods We used data from the 2007 Living Standards Measurement Study for Serbia. A representative sample of 13 831 persons aged ≥20 years was interviewed. The associations between demographic factors (age, sex, marital status, and type of settlement), socioeconomic factors (education, employment status, and household consumption tertiles), and health behavior variables (smoking, alcohol consumption) and self-perceived health were examined using logistic regression analyses. Results A stepwise gradient was found between education and self-perceived health for the total sample, men, and women. Compared to people with high education, people with low education had a 4.5 times higher chance of assessing their health as poor. Unemployed (odds ratio [OR], 1.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29-2.10), inactive (OR, 2.82; 95% CI, 2.49-3.19), and the most deprived respondents (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.02-1.34) were more likely to report poor self-perceived health than employed persons and the most affluent group. After adjustment for demographic and health behavior variables, the magnitudes of all associations decreased but remained clearly and significantly graded. Conclusions This study revealed inequalities in self-perceived health by socioeconomic position, in particular educational and employment status. The reduction of such inequalities through wisely tailored interventions that benefit people’s health should be a target of a national health policy in Serbia. PMID:22661139

  12. The effect of perceived discrimination on the health of immigrant workers in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Discrimination is an important determinant of health inequalities, and immigrants may be more vulnerable to certain types of discrimination than the native-born. This study analyses the relationship between immigrants' perceived discrimination and various self-reported health indicators. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted (2008) amongst a non-random sample of 2434 immigrants from Ecuador, Morocco, Romania and Colombia in four Spanish cities: Barcelona, Huelva, Madrid and Valencia. A factorial analysis of variables revealed three dimensions of perceived discrimination (due to immigrant status, due to physical appearance, and workplace-related). The association of these dimensions with self-rated health, mental health (GHQ-12), change in self-rated health between origin and host country, and other self-reported health outcomes was analysed. Logistic regression was used adjusting for potential confounders (aOR-95%CI). Subjects with worsening self-reported health status potentially attributable to perceived discrimination was estimated (population attributable proportion, PAP %). Results 73.3% of men and 69.3% of women immigrants reported discrimination due to immigrant status. Moroccans showed the highest prevalence of perceived discrimination. Immigrants reporting discrimination were at significantly higher risk of reporting health problems than those not reporting discrimination. Workplace-related discrimination was associated with poor mental health (aOR 2.97 95%CI 2.45-3.60), and the worsening of self-rated health (aOR 2.20 95%CI 1.73- 2.80). 40% (95% CI 24-53) PAP of those reporting worse self-rated health could be attributable to discrimination due to immigrant status. Conclusions Discrimination may constitute a risk factor for health in immigrant workers in Spain and could explain some health inequalities among immigrant populations in Spanish society. PMID:21849020

  13. Social cognitive factors and perceived social influences that improve adolescent eHealth literacy.

    PubMed

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Hove, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    While adolescents are increasingly using the Internet for health information, little research has been done to assess and improve their "eHealth literacy"-the abilities to find, evaluate, and apply online health information. This study examines the extent to which adolescents' levels of eHealth literacy can be improved by known determinants such as social cognitive factors and perceived social influences, either independently or jointly. Among 182 middle-schoolers, an eHealth literacy intervention was carried out. It involved qualitative and quantitative baseline research, three online training sessions, and a postintervention survey. According to hierarchical regression model results, social cognitive factors of outcome expectations and involvement, but not health motivation, significantly improved eHealth literacy, and all the perceived social influence variables significantly improved eHealth literacy. However, no joint effect of social cognitive factors and perceived social influences was found. In light of these findings, educators need to make eHealth literacy programs personally relevant to adolescents and reinforce local social norms about the importance of seeking health information online. PMID:22452551

  14. Perceived school safety is strongly associated with adolescent mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Nijs, Miesje M; Bun, Clothilde J E; Tempelaar, Wanda M; de Wit, Niek J; Burger, Huibert; Plevier, Carolien M; Boks, Marco P M

    2014-02-01

    School environment is an important determinant of psychosocial function and may also be related to mental health. We therefore investigated whether perceived school safety, a simple measure of this environment, is related to mental health problems. In a population-based sample of 11,130 secondary school students, we analysed the relationship of perceived school safety with mental health problems using multiple logistic regression analyses to adjust for potential confounders. Mental health problems were defined using the clinical cut-off of the self-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. School safety showed an exposure-response relationship with mental health problems after adjustment for confounders. Odds ratios increased from 2.48 ("sometimes unsafe") to 8.05 ("very often unsafe"). The association was strongest in girls and young and middle-aged adolescents. Irrespective of the causal background of this association, school safety deserves attention either as a risk factor or as an indicator of mental health problems. PMID:23354812

  15. Beyond debt. A moderator analysis of the relationship between perceived financial strain and mental health.

    PubMed

    Selenko, Eva; Batinic, Bernad

    2011-12-01

    Heavy debt not only has economic consequences, but has also been related to severe psychological and physical distress. The present study investigates the relationship between perceived financial strain and mental health, and individual-level variables that moderate this relationship. Specifically it was expected that employment, access to the latent benefits of work, and self-efficacy would buffer the relationship between perceived financial strain and mental health. In a 2009 study conducted in Austria, among 106 people on the verge of bankruptcy, perceived financial strain appeared as the strongest predictor of distress. This effect was moderated by two out of five latent benefits of work and self-efficacy, but employment status failed to have a significant effect. The findings show the importance of subjective economic stress for the prediction of mental health among people in serious financial strain and indicate significant moderators of this relationship. PMID:22019305

  16. Perceived safety and benefit of community water fluoridation: 2009 HealthStyles survey

    PubMed Central

    Mork, Nathan; Griffin, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe perceived benefits and safety of community water fluoridation (CWF) and investigate factors associated with those perceptions of CWF among respondents to a proprietary survey in the United States. Methods We obtained data from the 2009 HealthStyles survey, a convenience sample of 4,556 respondents. Pearson's chi-squared and logistic regression were used to determine the associations between certain socio-demographic factors and perceptions regarding the safety and health benefits of CWF. Results The majority of respondents (55.3 percent) strongly agreed/agreed that CWF was safe, while 31.5 percent were neutral, and 13.2 percent disagreed/strongly disagreed. Twenty-seven percent of respondents reported CWF had no health benefit, 57.3 percent reported some benefit, and 15.5 percent reported great benefit. Perceived CWF safety and benefit in the bivariate analyses were associated with gender, age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, income, sealant knowledge, CWF knowledge, past year dental utilization, and perceived vaccine safety. Respondents with knowledge of CWF (47.9 percent) were more likely to agree that it was safe (69.8 percent) than those who reported no knowledge (41.3 percent). Among respondents who said childhood vaccines were not safe (4.0 percent), almost half disagreed that CWF was safe. Logistic regression results indicated that perceived CWF safety and benefits increased with CWF knowledge, perceived vaccine safety, and income. Conclusions Although only a minority of the US population perceived CWF as unsafe or providing no benefit to health, perceptions regarding CWF varied by knowledge of CWF and socio-demographic factors. Oral health promotion activities should consider these differing perceptions of CWF among groups to tailor oral health messaging appropriately. PMID:26147330

  17. Fundamental frequency perturbation indicates perceived health and age in male and female speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, David R.

    2001-05-01

    There is strong support for the idea that healthy vocal chords are able to produce fundamental frequencies (F0) with minimal perturbation. Measures of F0 perturbation have been shown to discriminate pathological versus healthy populations. In addition to measuring vocal chord health, F0 perturbation is a correlate of real and perceived age. Here, the role of jitter (periodic variation in F0) and shimmer (periodic variation in amplitude of F0) in perceived health and age in a young adult (males aged 18-33, females aged 18-26), nondysphonic population was investigated. Voices were assessed for health and age by peer aged, opposite-sex raters. Jitter and shimmer were measured with Praat software (www.praat.org) using various algorithms (jitter: DDP, local, local absolute, PPQ5, and RAP; shimmer: DDA, local, local absolute, APQ3, APQ5, APQ11) to reduce measurement error, and to ascertain the robustness of the findings. Male and female voices were analyzed separately. In both sexes, ratings of health and age were significantly correlated. Measures of jitter and shimmer correlated negatively with perceived health, and positively with perceived age. Further analysis revealed that these effects were independent in male voices. Implications of this finding are that attributions of vocal health and age may reflect actual underlying condition.

  18. Perceived Health Status and Utilization of Specialty Care: Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Patients with Chronic Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Saundra; Bellinger, Jessica D.; Bae, Sejong; Rivers, Patrick A.; Singh, Karan P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to determine racial and ethnic variations in specialty care utilization based on (a) perceived health status and (b) chronic disease status. Methods: Variations in specialty care utilization, by perceived health and chronic disease status, were examined using the Commonwealth Fund Health Care Quality…

  19. Co-occurrence of protective health behaviours and perceived psychosocial job characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Mc Carthy, Vera J.C.; Perry, Ivan J.; Harrington, Janas M.; Greiner, Birgit A.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the association between positive job characteristics of older workers and the co-occurrence of protective health behaviours. This study aims to investigate the association between perceived psychosocial job characteristics and the adoption of protective health behaviours. A population-based cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of 1025 males and females (age-range 50–69-years) attending a primary healthcare clinic. Perceived job characteristics (job demands: quantitative and cognitive demands; resources: possibility for development and influence at work) were determined using the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire. Each scale is presented in tertiles. Protective health behaviours were; consumption of five or more portions of fruit and vegetables a day, moderate alcohol, non/ex-smoker, and high and moderate physical activity. Each participant was scored 0–4 protective health behaviours. The majority of the sample had three protective health behaviours. Higher levels of influence at work and cognitive demands were associated with higher self-reported physical activity, but not with any number of protective health behaviours. Conversely, higher quantitative and higher cognitive demands were associated with reporting any number of protective health behaviours or above average number of protective health behaviours respectively. The findings on protective health behaviours were inconsistent in relation to the different measures of perceived psychosocial job characteristics and were largely confined to physical activity and diet. PMID:26844155

  20. Health literacy, self-perceived health and self-reported chronic morbidity among older people in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Toci, Ervin; Burazeri, Genc; Jerliu, Naim; Sørensen, Kristine; Ramadani, Naser; Hysa, Bajram; Brand, Helmut

    2015-09-01

    The aim was to describe health literacy among the older population of Kosovo, an Albanian speaking post-war country in the Western Balkans, in the context of self-perceived health status and self-reported chronic morbidity. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kosovo in 2011 including 1753 individuals aged ≥ 65 years (886 men, 867 women; mean age 73.4 ± 6.3 years; response rate: 77%). Participants were asked to assess, on a scale from 1 to 5, their level of difficulty with regard to access, understanding, appraisal and application of health information. Sub-scale scores and an overall health literacy score were calculated for each participant. Information on self-perceived health status, presence and number of chronic diseases and socioeconomic characteristics was also collected. Mean values of the overall health literacy score and all sub-scale scores (access, understanding, appraisal and application) were lower among older people who reported a poorer health status or at least one chronic condition compared with individuals who perceived their health status as good or had no chronic conditions (p < 0.001 for all). Our findings provide valuable evidence on the independent and inverse association between health literacy levels and self-perceived health and chronic morbidity in this post-war European population. The putative link with chronic morbidity and lower adherence to health services is hard to establish through this cross-sectional study. Prospective population-based studies should be conducted in Kosovo and other transitional settings to replicate these findings and properly address the causal relationship between health literacy and health status. PMID:24604915

  1. Health and Humanity: Humanities 401 Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowden, Fraser; Taylor, Maxine

    A syllabus for the "Health and Humanities" interdisciplinary course at Northwestern State University, Louisiana, is presented. An introduction suggests that with the proliferation of technological advances in the field of health care, there is a need for reconsideration of many moral, ethical, legal, and humanistic questions. Information is…

  2. The Role of Perceived Threat in Reducing Health Knowledge Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yows, Suzanne R.

    A study tested the knowledge gap hypothesis, a promising framework for research in the field of mass communication devised by P. Tichenor, G. Donohue, and C. Olien in 1970. The study investigated the relative contribution of two types of factors--structural and motivational--in predicting the degree to which persons will attend to health messages,…

  3. Factors Related to Self-perceived Health in Rural Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Pickett, William; King, Nathan; Trask, Catherine; Michaelson, Valerie; Marlenga, Barbara L; Hagel, Louise; Dosman, James A

    2015-01-01

    This study examined self-perceived health status among men and women who live on farms, as well as variations in factors related to negative health status observed by gender. Data were collected in the province of Saskatchewan, Canada, in 2013 through the use of a cross-sectional survey. A multistage sample was developed consisting of farms nested within rural municipalities and then agricultural soil zones. The response rate was 48.8% at the farm level, with a final sample of 2,353 (1,416 men, 937 women) from 1,119 farms. Variables under study included self-reports of health status, as well as demographic, behavioral, and farm operational factors that could influence perceived health status. The analysis was initially descriptive followed by multilevel logistic regression analyses. Self-reports of diagnosed comorbidities were strongly associated with negative health status among both men and women. Daytime sleepiness was more modestly associated with negative health status in both genders. Among men, additional risk factors tended to be functional, and included older age, part-time work status, and binge drinking. Among women, additional risk factors included cigarette smoking, overweight or obesity, and lower levels of education. The study demonstrated that there were both similarities and differences between men and women on farms in the factors related to negative self-perceived health status. These findings should inform the content and targeting of health promotion programs aimed at rural populations. PMID:25906276

  4. Nighttime Insomnia Symptoms and Perceived Health in the America Insomnia Survey (AIS)

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, James K.; Coulouvrat, Catherine; Hajak, Goeran; Lakoma, Matthew D.; Petukhova, Maria; Roth, Thomas; Sampson, Nancy A.; Shahly, Victoria; Shillington, Alicia; Stephenson, Judith J.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To explore the distribution of the 4 cardinal nighttime symptoms of insomnia—difficulty initiating sleep (DIS), difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS), early morning awakening (EMA), and nonrestorative sleep (NRS)—in a national sample of health plan members and the associations of these nighttime symptoms with sociodemographics, comorbidity, and perceived health. Design/Setting/Participants: Cross-sectional telephone survey of 6,791 adult respondents. Intervention: None. Measurements/Results: Current insomnia was assessed using the Brief Insomnia Questionnaire (BIQ)—a fully structured validated scale generating diagnoses of insomnia using DSM-IV-TR, ICD-10, and RDC/ICSD-2 inclusion criteria. DMS (61.0%) and EMA (52.2%) were more prevalent than DIS (37.7%) and NRS (25.2%) among respondents with insomnia. Sociodemographic correlates varied significantly across the 4 symptoms. All 4 nighttime symptoms were significantly related to a wide range of comorbid physical and mental conditions. All 4 also significantly predicted decrements in perceived health both in the total sample and among respondents with insomnia after adjusting for comorbid physical and mental conditions. Joint associations of the 4 symptoms predicting perceived health were additive and related to daytime distress/impairment. Individual-level associations were strongest for NRS. At the societal level, though, where both prevalence and strength of individual-level associations were taken into consideration, DMS had the strongest associations. Conclusions: The extent to which nighttime insomnia symptoms are stable over time requires future long-term longitudinal study. Within the context of this limitation, the results suggest that core nighttime symptoms are associated with different patterns of risk and perceived health and that symptom-based subtyping might have value. Citation: Walsh JK; Coulouvrat C; Hajak G; Lakoma MD; Petukhova M; Roth T; Sampson NA; Shahly V; Shillington A

  5. Using Perceived Health to Test the Construct-Related Validity of Global Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckie, Theresa M.; Hayduk, Leslie A.

    2004-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is considered as a global, yet unidimensional, subjective assessment of one's satisfaction with life. We examine the construct validity of the available indicators of global QOL by constructing a causal model in which QOL is viewed as causally responding to several dimensions of perceived health. Global QOL is measured with…

  6. Employment Status and Perceived Health Status in Younger and Older People with Multiple Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krokavcova, Martina; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gavelova, Miriam; Middel, Berrie; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Groothoff, Johan W.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how employment is associated with perceived physical and mental health status in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical variables stratified by age. The sample consisted of 184 MS patients divided into a younger (less than 45 years) and an older (greater than or equal to 45 years) age…

  7. Measuring Perceived Barriers to Healthful Eating in Obese, Treatment-Seeking Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Ericka M.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Levy, Rona L.; Langer, Shelby L.; Flood, Andrew P.; Jaeb, Melanie A.; Laqua, Patricia S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To characterize perceived barriers to healthful eating in a sample of obese, treatment-seeking adults and to examine whether changes in barriers are associated with energy intake and body weight. Design: Observational study based on findings from a randomized, controlled behavioral weight-loss trial. Participants: Participants were 113…

  8. Self-Regulated Learning and Perceived Health among University Students Participating in Physical Activity Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Ron E.; Altunsöz, Irmak Hürmeriç; Su, Xiaoxia; Xiang, Ping; Demirhan, Giyasettin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore motivational indicators of self-regulated learning (SRL) and the relationship between self-regulation (SR) and perceived health among university students enrolled in physical activity (PA) classes. One hundred thirty-one Turkish students participating in physical education activity classes at two…

  9. Self-Regulated Learning and Perceived Health among Students Participating in University Physical Activity Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Ron E.; Xiang, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Three hundred and sixty-one students participating in university physical activity classes completed questionnaires assessing perceived health and self-regulated learning. In addition, 20 students (11 men; 9 women) were interviewed about their reasons for enrolling, participation and goals in the class. Results indicated the students endorsed…

  10. Self-Efficacy, Pulmonary Function, Perceived Health and Global Quality of Life of Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Astrid K.; Rustoen ,Tone; Hanestad, Berit R.; Gjengedal, Eva; Moum, Torbjorn

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the extent that pulmonary function is related to perceived health status and global quality of life in adults suffering from cystic fibrosis, and the extent that self-efficacy modifies these relationships. Our sample comprised 86 adults (48% female; mean age, 29 years; age range, 18-54 years) with cystic fibrosis, recruited…

  11. Perceived Health Outcomes of Recreation Scale (PHORS): Reliability, Validity and Invariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez, Edwin; Hill, Eddie; Zhu, Xihe; Freidt, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Perceived Health Outcomes of Recreation Scale (PHORS). Data for PHORS were collected from three different trail sites (Appalachian Trail, Pacific Crest Trail, and First Landing State Park) during three separate time periods, allowing for cross-validation and invariance testing. Exploratory…

  12. Perceived Academic Control: Mediating the Effects of Optimism and Social Support on College Students' Psychological Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruthig, Joelle C.; Haynes, Tara L.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Perry, Raymond P.

    2009-01-01

    The first year of college presents numerous challenges experienced as overwhelming by some freshmen who may become overly stressed and depressed. This longitudinal study examined perceived academic control (PAC) as a mediator of optimism and social support's buffering effects on freshman students' psychological health. Multiple regressions…

  13. Perceived Working Conditions and Personal Resources Predicting Mental Health Counselor Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Isabel A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of counselor perceived working conditions, length of time in field, counselor gender, mindfulness attitudes, compassion satisfaction, emotion-focused coping, problem focused coping, and maladaptive coping on levels of burnout and compassion fatigue in a sample of 213 mental health counselors. Cross-sectional…

  14. A Comparison of American and Chinese Students' Perceived Stress, Coping Styles, and Health Promotion Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ying; Lindsey, Billie J.; Yin, Xiaoqin; Chen, William

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey utilized the Perceived Stress Scale, Brief COPE, and Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile II to ascertain similarities and differences between American (n=319) and Chinese (n=335) college students and between higher and lower stressed students in both samples. The results suggested the existence of a country difference in…

  15. An Assessment of Perceived Emotional Intelligence and Health Behaviors among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, Michele L.; Jacobs, Sue C.; Page, Kyle S.; Porras, Claudia V.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence (i.e., recognizing, expressing, monitoring, managing, and reflecting on emotions) (Presbury, Echterling, & McKee, 2007) and self-reported health behaviors among college students. A convenience sample of 418 undergraduates completed online surveys…

  16. Mental Health of Somali Adolescent Refugees: The Role of Trauma, Stress, and Perceived Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, B. Heidi; MacDonald, Helen Z.; Lincoln, Alisa K.; Cabral, Howard J.

    2008-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine relations between trauma exposure, post-resettlement stressors, perceived discrimination, and mental health symptoms in Somali adolescent refugees resettled in the U.S. Participants were English-speaking Somali adolescent refugees between the ages of 11 and 20 (N = 135) who had resettled in the U.S.…

  17. Current Levels of Perceived Stress among Mental Health Social Workers Who Work with Suicidal Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ting, Laura; Jacobson, Jodi M.; Sanders, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Mental health social workers are at increased risk of being confronted with fatal and nonfatal client suicidal behavior (CSB). Research has documented personal and professional reactions to CSB; however, empirical evidence describing the potential long-term effects is scarce. This study examined current reactions of perceived stress and continual…

  18. Handgrip Strength, Positive Affect, and Perceived Health Are Prospectively Associated with Fewer Functional Limitations among Centenarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Warren D.; Margrett, Jennifer A.; Heinz, Melinda; Martin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the association between perceived health, fatigue, positive and negative affect, handgrip strength, objectively measured physical activity, body mass index, and self-reported functional limitations, assessed 6 months later, among 11 centenarians (age = 102 plus or minus 1). Activities of daily living, assessed 6 months prior to…

  19. Perceived Barriers to Mental Health Services: A Mixed-Method Study with Ukrainian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlaka, V.; Churakova, I.; Aavik, O. A.; Goldstein, D.

    2014-01-01

    We examined perceived barriers to professional help among Ukrainian college students, psychologists and psychiatrists. Students from eight universities and psychologists participated in qualitative stage. A survey of barriers to mental health treatment was developed based on qualitative data and used with psychiatrists to validate understanding of…

  20. Humans perceive object motion in world coordinates during obstacle avoidance.

    PubMed

    Fajen, Brett R; Parade, Melissa S; Matthis, Jonathan S

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental question about locomotion in the presence of moving objects is whether movements are guided based upon perceived object motion in an observer-centered or world-centered reference frame. The former captures object motion relative to the moving observer and depends on both observer and object motion. The latter captures object motion relative to the stationary environment and is independent of observer motion. Subjects walked through a virtual environment (VE) viewed through a head-mounted display and indicated whether they would pass in front of or behind a moving obstacle that was on course to cross their future path. Subjects' movement through the VE was manipulated such that object motion in observer coordinates was affected while object motion in world coordinates was the same. We found that when moving observers choose routes around moving obstacles, they rely on object motion perceived in world coordinates. This entails a process, which has been called flow parsing (Rushton & Warren, 2005; Warren & Rushton, 2009a), that recovers the component of optic flow due to object motion independent of self-motion. We found that when self-motion is real and actively generated, the process by which object motion is recovered relies on both visual and nonvisual information to factor out the influence of self-motion. The remaining component contains information about object motion in world coordinates that is needed to guide locomotion. PMID:23887048

  1. Infants Perceive Human Point-Light Displays as Solid Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Derek G.; Goodwin, Julia E.; George, Rachel; Axelsson, Emma L.; Braddick, Fleur M. B.

    2007-01-01

    While five-month-old infants show orientation-specific sensitivity to changes in the motion and occlusion patterns of human point-light displays, it is not known whether infants are capable of binding a human representation to these displays. Furthermore, it has been suggested that infants do not encode the same physical properties for humans and…

  2. Perceived heat stress and health effects on construction workers

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Priya; Rajiva, Ajit; Andhare, Dileep; Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Tiwari, Abhiyant; Sheffield, Perry

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Increasing heat waves-particularly in urban areas where construction is most prevalent, highlight a need for heat exposure assessment of construction workers. This study aims to characterize the effects of heat on construction workers from a site in Gandhinagar. Materials and Methods: This study involved a mixed methods approach consisting of a cross sectional survey with anthropometric measurements (n = 219) and four focus groups with construction workers, as well as environmental measurements of heat stress exposure at a construction site. Survey data was collected in two seasons i.e., summer and winter months, and heat illness and symptoms were compared between the two time periods. Thematic coding of focus group data was used to identify vulnerability factors and coping mechanisms of the workers. Heat stress, recorded using a wet bulb globe temperature monitor, was compared to international safety standards. Results: The survey findings suggest that heat-related symptoms increased in summer; 59% of all reports in summer were positive for symptoms (from Mild to Severe) as compared to 41% in winter. Focus groups revealed four dominant themes: (1) Non-occupational stressors compound work stressors; (2) workers were particularly attuned to the impact of heat on their health; (3) workers were aware of heat-related preventive measures; and (4) few resources were currently available to protect workers from heat stress. Working conditions often exceed international heat stress safety thresholds. Female workers and new employees might be at increased risk of illness or injury. Conclusion: This study suggests significant health impacts on construction workers from heat stress exposure in the workplace, showed that heat stress levels were higher than those prescribed by international standards and highlights the need for revision of work practices, increased protective measures, and possible development of indigenous work safety standards for heat exposure

  3. Development and validation of an instrument to assess perceived social influence on health behaviors

    PubMed Central

    HOLT, CHERYL L.; CLARK, EDDIE M.; ROTH, DAVID L.; CROWTHER, MARTHA; KOHLER, CONNIE; FOUAD, MONA; FOUSHEE, RUSTY; LEE, PATRICIA A.; SOUTHWARD, PENNY L.

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of social influence on health behavior is often approached through a situational context. The current study adapted an existing, theory-based instrument from another content domain to assess Perceived Social Influence on Health Behavior (PSI-HB) among African Americans, using an individual difference approach. The adapted instrument was found to have high internal reliability (α = .81–.84) and acceptable testretest reliability (r = .68–.85). A measurement model revealed a three-factor structure and supported the theoretical underpinnings. Scores were predictive of health behaviors, particularly among women. Future research using the new instrument may have applied value assessing social influence in the context of health interventions. PMID:20522506

  4. Mental Health and Well-Being in Different Levels of Perceived Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Noorbala, AA; Heris, M Agah; Alipour, A; Mousavi, E; Farazi, G

    2012-01-01

    Background To compare mental health and well-being in different levels of the perceived discrimination among Iranian people living in Tehran. Method: Using multi-stage sampling, 1255 subjects with the average age of 45 years and 9 months (including 672 women and 583 men) were selected and they completed all items of the general health questionnaire (GHQ), the social well-being inventory (SWI), personal well-being inventory (PWI), and a question to assess the perceived discrimination. Results: Data analysis by Kruskal-Wallis test revealed that there were significant differences between physical symptoms (χ2=5.93, P<0.05) and depression (χ 2=15.70, P<0.05), the subscales of mental health in different levels of the perceived discrimination. Furthermore, comparing personal well-being scores and its subscales in different levels of the perceived discrimination showed significant differences in personal hygiene (χ2=7.20, P<0.05), and security in future (χ2=7.60, P<0.05). Emotional well-being (χ2=12.25, P<0.05), self-rule (χ2=7.45, P<0.05), personal growth (χ2=19.87, P<0.05), and psychological well-being (χ2= 9.09, P<0.05) were significantly different in different levels of the perceived discrimination, too. Moreover, comparing social well-being in different levels of the perceived discrimination indicated significant differences between social acceptance (χ 2=14.91, P<0.05), and social participation (χ 2= 10.91, P<0.05). Conclusion: Therefore, people are more active in society, increases the possibility of encountering with discrimination and consequently the perception of that. PMID:23113164

  5. Nutrition, health and human rights.

    PubMed

    Brundtland, G H

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the speech delivered by Gro Harlem Brundtland, Director-General of WHO, on issues related to nutrition from a health and a human rights perspective. According to Brundtland, nutrition is a universal factor that both affects and defines the health of all people. It affects not only growth and physical development of a child, but also his cognitive and social development. However, inequity, poverty, underdevelopment, as well as inadequate access to food, health and care still exist which have resulted to the deaths of millions of children and left many more suffering from diseases. Poverty has also been identified as the main obstacle to the attainment of health. The existence of structural poverty and ill health eventually leads to poor development, which includes poor nutrition, poor health, and poor human rights. The impact of poverty on health is further worsened by discrimination on the basis of race, color, sex, language, or religion. To address this issue, the WHO will renew their focus on the political and legal links between health and human rights. A human rights perspective provides the international community with an opportunity to support the development of public health policies and practices that promote healthy nutrition as a center of all social and economic development. PMID:12290435

  6. Perceived Discrimination and Health Outcomes: A Gender Comparison Among Asian-Americans Nationwide

    PubMed Central

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Ozonoff, Al; Gaumond, Jillian; Sue, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    Objectives We examined whether similarities and differences exist in the association between perceived discrimination and poor mental and physical health among Asian-American adult women and men. We also tested whether Asian-American women would have a lower perceived discrimination threshold for developing negative health outcomes than Asian-American men. Methods Data were derived from the National Latino and Asian-American Study (2002–2003). A nationally representative sample of Asian-American adults (1,075 women and 972 men) was examined. Results There were more gender similarities than differences in the strong association between discrimination and health. More prominent gender differences were found for the specific level of discrimination and its potential health effects. Specifically, for both Asian women and men, a high level of perceived discrimination showed stronger associations with mental health than with physical health outcomes. And yet, compared with men, the threshold of discrimination was lower for women in affecting mental and physical health status. Conclusion The findings underscore that a high level of discrimination was associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes for both women and men. However, women had more negative mental and physical health outcomes when exposed to a lower threshold of discrimination than men. These findings suggest that failing to examine women and men separately in discrimination research may no longer be appropriate among the Asian-American population. Future research should focus attention on the biological, social, and political mechanisms that mitigate the adverse health effects of discrimination in order to develop a more comprehensive approach to eliminate disparities in health. PMID:20800771

  7. Human Health at the Beach

    MedlinePlus

    ... near the site where polluted discharges enter the water. Pollution can also come from high concentrations of farm ... is available online. Other Beach Safety Topics Beyond water pollution, there are other potential threats to human health ...

  8. Do stigma and other perceived barriers to mental health care differ across Armed Forces?

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Matthew; Adler, Amy; Zamorski, Mark; Castro, Carl; Hanily, Natalie; Steele, Nicole; Kearney, Steve; Greenberg, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Summary Objectives Military organizations are keen to address barriers to mental health care yet stigma and barriers to care remain little understood, especially potential cultural differences between Armed Forces. The aim of this study was to compare data collected by the US, UK, Australian, New Zealand and Canadian militaries using Hoge et al.'s perceived stigma and barriers to care measure (Combat duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, mental health problems and barriers to care. New Engl J Med 2004;351:13–22). Design Each member country identified data sources that had enquired about Hoge et al.'s perceived stigma and perceived barriers to care items in the re-deployment or immediate post-deployment period. Five relevant statements were included in the study. Setting US, UK Australian, New Zealand and Canadian Armed Forces. Results Concerns about stigma and barriers to care tended to be more prominent among personnel who met criteria for a mental health problem. The pattern of reported stigma and barriers to care was similar across the Armed Forces of all five nations. Conclusions Barriers to care continue to be a major issue for service personnel within Western military forces. Although there are policy, procedural and cultural differences between Armed Forces, the nations studied appear to share some similarities in terms of perceived stigma and barriers to psychological care. Further research to understand patterns of reporting and subgroup differences is required. PMID:20382906

  9. Perceived Stress, Alexithymia, and Psychological Health as Predictors of Sedative Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Gilan, Nader Rajabi; Reshadat, Sohyla; Komasi, Saeid; Ghasemi, Seyed Ramin

    2015-01-01

    Background The harmful effects of sedative medications and substances in conjunction with limited research regarding predictive psychological constructs of drug abuse necessitate further investigation of associated factors. Therefore, the present study aimed to elucidate the roles of perceived stress, alexithymia, and psychological health as predictors of sedative abuse in medical students. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 548 students at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Iran, were selected using stratified random sampling. The data were obtained using the Perceived Stress Scale, an alexithymia scale (Farsi version of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20), and a General Health Questionnaire to assess psychological health. Data were analyzed using discriminant analyses. Results The results demonstrated that the user and non-user of sedative substances groups had significantly different predictive variables (except for social function disorder) (P>0.05). Physical complaints, alexithymia, and perceived stress, which had standard coefficients of 0.80, 0.60, and -0.27, respectively, predicted sedative drug use. Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that perceived stress, alexithymia, physical complaints, anxiety, and depression are associated with sedative drug abuse. PMID:26435810

  10. Health implications of human trafficking.

    PubMed

    Richards, Tiffany A

    2014-01-01

    Freedom is arguably the most cherished right in the United States. But each year, approximately 14,500 to 17,500 women, men and children are trafficked into the United States for the purposes of forced labor or sexual exploitation. Human trafficking has significant effects on both physical and mental health. This article describes the features of human trafficking, its physical and mental health effects and the vital role nurses can play in providing care to this vulnerable population. PMID:24750655

  11. Public health and human values

    PubMed Central

    Häyry, M

    2006-01-01

    The ends and means of public health activities are suggested to be at odds with the values held by human individuals and communities. Although promoting longer lives in better health for all seems like an endeavour that is obviously acceptable, it can be challenged by equally self‐evident appeals to autonomy, happiness, integrity and liberty, among other values. The result is that people's actual concerns are not always adequately dealt with by public health measures and assurances. PMID:16943332

  12. Mild eczema affects self-perceived health among pre-adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Ballardini, Natalia; Östblom, Eva; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik; Kull, Inger

    2014-05-01

    The aim was to assess the impact of eczema on health-related quality of life in the population-based birth cohort BAMSE with 2,756 pre-adolescent children. All answered the following questions on self-perceived health; "How are you feeling?", "How healthy do you consider yourself to be?" and "How happy are you with your life right now?". Children with ongoing eczema answered the "Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI)" questionnaire. In total, 350 (12.7%) of the children had eczema. Girls with eczema reported impaired self-perceived health as evaluated in the 3 questions; adjusted OR 1.72 (95% CI 1.16-2.55), 1.89 (95% CI 1.29-2.76) and 1.69 (95% CI 1.18-2.42). Eczema among boys was not associated with impairment of self-perceived health. The mean CDLQI score was 3.98 (95% CI 3.37-4.58). Since eczema affects up to 20% of pre-adolescent girls, the findings have implications both for health care providers and for society as a whole. PMID:24158408

  13. Perceived health problems in swimmers according to the chemical treatment of water in swimming pools.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Luna, Álvaro; Burillo, Pablo; Felipe, José Luis; del Corral, Julio; García-Unanue, Jorge; Gallardo, Leonor

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine which chemical treatment used for disinfecting water in indoor swimming pools had the least impact on users' perceptions of health problems, and which generated the greatest satisfaction with the quality of the water. A survey on satisfaction and perceived health problems was given to 1001 users at 20 indoor swimming pools which used different water treatment methods [chlorine, bromine, ozone, ultraviolet lamps (UV) and salt electrolysis]. The findings suggest that there is a greater probability of perceived health problems, such as eye and skin irritation, respiratory problems and skin dryness, in swimming pools treated with chlorine than in swimming pools using other chemical treatment methods. Pools treated with bromine have similar, although slightly better, results. Other factors, such as age, gender, time of day of use (morning and afternoon) and type of user (competitive and recreational), can also affect the probability of suffering health problems. For all of the above, using combined treatment methods as ozone and UV, or salt electrolysis produces a lower probability of perceived health problems and greater satisfaction. PMID:25604467

  14. Predictors of self-perceived cultural competence among children's mental health providers.

    PubMed

    Keyser, Victoria; Gamst, Glenn; Meyers, Lawrence S; Der-Karabetian, Aghop; Morrow, Gloria

    2014-07-01

    Based on empirical research and predictions from the Multicultural Assessment-Intervention Process model, the racial attitudes, ethnic identity, and acculturation of a national sample of 371 child mental health service providers were assessed as possible predictors of practitioner self-perceived cultural competence. It was hypothesized that ethnic identity and racial attitudes would each directly affect self-perceived cultural competence and that acculturation and racial attitudes would mediate the effect of ethnic identity. The results indicated that ethnic identity exerted a direct effect on self-perceived cultural competence and that this effect was partially mediated by respondents' racial attitudes; however, acculturation had no significant role as a mediator. The results are discussed within the context of the Multicultural Assessment-Intervention Process model and implications for providing culturally competent services to children. PMID:25045945

  15. Courtship feeding in humans? The effects of feeding versus providing food on perceived attraction and intimacy.

    PubMed

    Alley, Thomas R; Brubaker, Lauren W; Fox, Olivia M

    2013-12-01

    Food sharing may be used for mate attraction, sexual access, or mate retention in humans, as in many other species. Adult humans tend to perceive more intimacy in a couple if feeding is observed, but the increased perceived intimacy may be due to resource provisioning rather than feeding per se. To address this issue, 210 university students (66 male) watched five short videos, each showing a different mixed-sex pair of adults dining together and including feeding or simple provisioning or no food sharing. A survey concerning attraction and intimacy in the dyad was completed after each video. Both provisioning and feeding produced higher ratings of "Involvement," with feeding producing the highest ratings. Similarly, the perceived attraction of each actor to the other was lowest when no food sharing was shown and highest when feeding was displayed. These findings are consistent with a view of feeding as a courtship display in humans. PMID:24105261

  16. Benefits and problems of electronic information exchange as perceived by health care professionals: an interview study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Various countries are currently implementing a national electronic patient record (n-EPR). Despite the assumed positive effects of n-EPRs, their overall adoption remains low and meets resistance from health care providers. This study aims to increase our understanding of health care providers' attitude towards the n-EPR, by investigating their perceptions of the benefits and problems of electronic information exchange in health care and the n-EPR in particular. Methods The study was conducted in three Dutch health care settings: acute care, diabetes care, and ambulatory mental health care. Two health care organisations were included per setting. Between January and June 2010, interviews were conducted with 17 stakeholders working in these organisations. Relevant themes were deduced by means of thematic qualitative analysis. Results Health care providers perceived electronic information exchange to promote the efficiency and quality of care. The problems they perceived in electronic information exchange mainly concerned the confidentiality and safety of information exchange and the reliability and quality of patient data. Many problems perceived by health care providers did not specifically apply to the n-EPR, but to electronic information exchange in general. Conclusions The implementation of the Dutch n-EPR has mainly followed a top-down approach, thereby neglecting the fact that the perceptions and preferences of its users (health care providers) need to be addressed in order to achieve successful implementation. The results of this study provide valuable suggestions about how to promote health care providers' willingness to adopt electronic information exchange, which can be useful for other countries currently implementing an n-EPR. Apart from providing information about the benefits and usefulness of electronic information exchange, efforts should be focused on minimising the problems as perceived by health care providers. The safety and

  17. Perceived threat and depression among patients with cancer: the moderating role of health locus of control.

    PubMed

    Goldzweig, Gil; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Alon, Shirly; Shalit, Efrat

    2016-07-01

    Illness perception was found to be a better predictor of psychological outcome among cancer patients than the objective characteristics of illness. The current study explored the association between the perceived threat of illness (a major aspect of illness perception) and depression among cancer patients. We examined the hypothesis that this association will be higher for persons with low External (others) or internal (self) Health Locus of Control (HLC) than for those with high HLC. The study took an exploratory approach regarding the role that different sources of control (external and internal) may assume. Fifty-seven cancer patients completed self-report measures of Perceived Life Threat (PLT), HLC and Depression. The possible moderating role of HLC on the relationship between PLT and Depression was examined. A significant relationship between perceived threat and depression was found only among participants reporting low levels of internal locus of control. The results support the hypothesis that perception of cancer as life threatening is important factor in determining the level of depression among cancer patients. The results also support the differentiation between internal and external HLC and suggest that internal HLC may be more relevant than external HLC in managing perceived threat. Internal locus of control can be interpreted as having a sense of agency and mastery which is important in managing the cognitive perception of the threat of illness. Further research is needed in order to determine the role of external HLC in managing perceived or actual threats. PMID:26821193

  18. Symptoms and Health Complaints and Their Association with Perceived Stressors among Students at Nine Libyan Universities

    PubMed Central

    El Ansari, Walid; Khalil, Khalid; Stock, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    University students are exposed to many stressors. We assessed the associations between two stressors (educational related and general overall), socio-demographic characteristics (five variables), health behaviours/lifestyle factors (six variables), as well as religiosity and quality of life as independent variables, with self-reported symptoms/health complaints as dependent variables (eight health complaints). A sample of 2100 undergraduate students from nine institutions (six universities, three colleges) located in seven cities in Libya completed a general health questionnaire. The most prevalent symptoms were headaches, depressive mood, difficulties to concentrate and sleep disorder/insomnia that have been reported by 50%–60% of the students. The majority of students (62%) reported having had three or more symptoms sometimes or very often in the last 12 months. There was a positive association between perceived stressors and health symptoms, which remained significant after adjustment for gender and many other relevant factors for headache (OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.15–2.02), depressive mood (OR 2.20; 95% CI 1.64–2.94) and sleep disorder/ insomnia (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.19–2.03). Other factors independently associated with most health symptoms were female gender and poor self-perceived health. Stress management programmes and a reduction of educational related stressors might help to prevent stress-related symptoms and health complaints in this student population. PMID:25429678

  19. Symptoms and health complaints and their association with perceived stressors among students at nine Libyan universities.

    PubMed

    El Ansari, Walid; Khalil, Khalid; Stock, Christiane

    2014-12-01

    University students are exposed to many stressors. We assessed the associations between two stressors (educational related and general overall), socio-demographic characteristics (five variables), health behaviours/lifestyle factors (six variables), as well as religiosity and quality of life as independent variables, with self-reported symptoms/health complaints as dependent variables (eight health complaints). A sample of 2100 undergraduate students from nine institutions (six universities, three colleges) located in seven cities in Libya completed a general health questionnaire. The most prevalent symptoms were headaches, depressive mood, difficulties to concentrate and sleep disorder/insomnia that have been reported by 50%-60% of the students. The majority of students (62%) reported having had three or more symptoms sometimes or very often in the last 12 months. There was a positive association between perceived stressors and health symptoms, which remained significant after adjustment for gender and many other relevant factors for headache (OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.15-2.02), depressive mood (OR 2.20; 95% CI 1.64-2.94) and sleep disorder/ insomnia (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.19-2.03). Other factors independently associated with most health symptoms were female gender and poor self-perceived health. Stress management programmes and a reduction of educational related stressors might help to prevent stress-related symptoms and health complaints in this student population. PMID:25429678

  20. Population and human health.

    PubMed

    Hefnawi, F I; Ahmed, W

    1982-01-01

    The nature, proportions, causes, effects and cures of the Egyptian population crisis are analyzed. If the world population growth rate of 2% continues by the year 2000 a population of 6.5 billion can be expected. By 2115 the world population will have doubled. The greatest increase in population is made by developing countries, e.g. Egypt's population will double in 25 years, Turkey's in 26 years, and Algeria's in 21 years. National health goals become increasingly difficult to achieve under these conditions. For overpopulated countries the options of migration, resource transfer, and fertility control have both positive and negative effects. For Egypt, migration of medical manpower is a major factor responsible for low health standards. Technology transferred from developed countries to assist overpopulated developing countries to increase production of all resources is a slow procedure. Fertility control will slow population growth, reduce maternal morbidity, create smaller families which may result in better psychological family health and therefore better level of job performance. It will also permit women to participate in the work force more easily and earn independent incomes. The effects of health improvement have also been positive and negative in Egypt. The Egyptian population is still growing at a rate .3% higher than the world rate. This situation has resulted from a decline in the death rate rather than in an increase in fertility. The death rate dropped from 32.9 in 1937 to 26.8 in 1947 to 15.8 in 1967. Fertility is close to 5.5 which is no higher than the world average. The drop in death rattes is due to better sanitation, extension of medical services, immunization campaigns, expansiion of health education and greater availability of foo. Reduction of morbidity coupled with health improvement is hoped to foster increased acceptance of fertility control, increased population attention to and acceptance of fertility counseling and increased funding

  1. Influence resistance on human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul Harits, M.; Bahtiar, Yusuf; Achdan, M. Syahdani; Sunarno, .

    2010-05-01

    Health is an important part of human life. Every person in this world want healthy body, in other words free of any disease. When seeing the pattern of human life today is high activity, always eat instant foods and lack of exercise makes a very bad human health from year to year. Therefore, there is need for the health revolution that can keep human health in order to remain in the condition is always healthy. Eat healthy foods four plus five perfect diligent exercise is the real solution to maintain health. In addition also advisable to always check each month to the doctor so that our health can be controlled. Most people underestimate it, especially the routine checks once a month to the doctor, therefore I created a simple research that aims to get people to mengonytrol health at any time without having to check into the doctor. By utilizing the resistance in the human body's health so we can be controlled. By using a simple tool to measure human resistance by using the concept of the bridge. Bridge circuit used to convert impedance variations into voltage variations. One advantage of this circuit is the voltage produced can vary around 0. This means strengthening can be used to raise the voltage level so as sensitivity to variations in impedance also increases. Another application is the impedance measurement accuracy. The bridge is the simplest and most widely used is the Wheatstone bridge circuit. This circuit is used for signal conditioning applications where a sensor can change the resistance value when the process variable is changed.

  2. Life-space mobility, perceived health, and depression symptoms in a sample of Mexican older adults.

    PubMed

    González, Bertha Cecilia Salazar; Delgado, Leticia Hernández; Quevedo, Juana Edith Cruz; Gallegos Cabriales, Esther C

    2013-01-01

    Mobility in older adults is essential to preserving their physical independence and health. Changes in mobility are related to cognitive, physical, and emotional factors, among others. We explored symptoms of depression as a mediator variable between chronic diseases and comorbidities and the outcomes of perceived health and life-space mobility in a convenience sample of 135 older Mexican adults. A cross-sectional design was used. Simple and multiple linear regression models were adjusted to verify the assumptions of mediation using Baron and Kenny's model. Chronic diseases and comorbidities served as independent variables in two separate models, perceived health and life-space mobility served as dependent variables, and depressive symptoms as the mediator variable. Results showed that perceived health and life-space mobility are affected by chronic diseases and comorbidities. However, when symptoms of depression enter the equation, the β coefficients decreased suggesting partial mediation. It is important to assess and treat depression symptoms in older adults rather than assuming that, at their age, depression is normal. PMID:24830480

  3. Perceiving emotions in human-human and human-animal interactions: Hemodynamic prefrontal activity (fNIRS) and empathic concern.

    PubMed

    Vanutelli, Maria Elide; Balconi, Michela

    2015-09-25

    In the last years social neuroscience research attempted to identify the neural networks underlying the human ability to perceive others' emotions, a core process in establishing meaningful social bonds. A large amount of papers arose and identified common and specific empathy-based networks with respect to stimulus type and task. Despite the great majority of studies focused on human-human contexts, we do not establish relations with only other humans, but also with non-human animals. The aim of the present work was to explore the brain mechanisms involved in empathic concern for people who interacts with both peers and other species. Participants have been assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) while viewing pictures depicting humans interacting with both other men and women (human-human condition: HH), or with dogs and cats (human-animal: HA). Results showed that aggressive HH interactions elicited greater prefrontal activity (PFC) than HA ones while, when considering HA interactions, friendly ones were related to higher cortical activity. Finally, oxy (O2Hb) and deoxyhemoglobin (HHb) increasing related to the processing of aggressive interactions positively correlated with different empathic measures, within more specific brain regions. Results were elucidated with respect to available evidence on emotion perception, empathic neural mechanisms and their functional meaning for human-animal contexts. PMID:26272301

  4. Predictors of Criminal Justice Outcomes Among Mental Health Courts Participants: The Role of Perceived Coercion and Subjective Mental Health Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Yanos, Philip T.; Kopelovich, Sarah L.; Koerner, Joshua; Alexander, Mary Jane

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, one effort to reduce the number of people with serious mental illness (SMI) in jails and prisons is the development of Mental Health Courts (MHC). Research on MHCs to date has been disproportionately focused on the study of recidivism and re-incarceration over the potential of these problem-solving courts to facilitate mental health recovery and affect the slope or gradient of opportunity for recovery. Despite the strong conceptual links between the MHC approach and the recovery-orientation in mental health, the capacity for MHCs to facilitate recovery has not been explored. This user-informed mental health and criminal justice (MH/CJ) community based participatory (CBPR) study assesses the extent to which MHC practices align with recovery-oriented principles and may subsequently affect criminal justice outcomes. We report on the experiences and perceptions of 51 MHC participants across four metropolitan Mental Health Courts. Specifically, the current study assesses: 1) how defendants’ perceptions of court practices, particularly with regard to procedural justice and coercion, relate to perceptions of mental health recovery and psychiatric symptoms, and, 2) how perceptions of procedural justice and mental health recovery relate to subsequent criminal justice outcomes. The authors hypothesized that perceived coercion and mental health recovery would be inversely related, that perceived coercion would be associated with worse criminal justice outcomes, and perceptions of mental health recovery would be associated with better criminal justice outcomes. Results suggest that perceived coercion in the MHC experience was negatively associated with perceptions of recovery among MHC participants. Perceptions of “negative pressures,” a component of coercion, were important predictors of criminal justice involvement in the 12 month period following MHC admission, even when controlling for other factors that were related to criminal justice outcomes, and

  5. A closer look at the developmental interplay between parenting and perceived health in adolescents with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Rassart, Jessica; Luyckx, Koen; Goossens, Eva; Apers, Silke; Moons, Philip

    2014-12-01

    The present study examined associations between parenting and perceived health in adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD) using a longitudinal trajectory approach. Adolescents with CHD were selected from the database of pediatric and congenital cardiology of the University Hospitals Leuven. A total of 429 adolescents (M age = 16 at T1) participated in the present study, comprising four measurement waves spanning approximately 3 years. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify trajectory classes of parenting and perceived health. Whereas adolescents from democratic households reported the most favorable health outcomes, adolescents from authoritarian, overprotective, and psychologically controlling families (all characterized by relatively high levels of psychological control) showed an increased risk for poor perceived health over time. Hence, the present study found substantial developmental associations between parenting and perceived health in adolescents with CHD. Future research should investigate whether working on the parent-adolescent relationship can foster patients' health. PMID:24819301

  6. Ecosystem approaches to human health.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, N O

    2001-01-01

    The promotion of human health must be embedded in the wider pursuit of ecosystem health. Interventions will be impaired if ecosystem-linked determinants of health are not taken into account. In the extreme case, if ecosystems lose their capacity for renewal, society will lose life support services. Essential features of ecosystem health are the capacity to maintain integrity and to achieve reasonable and sustainable human goals. An ecosystem approach to research and management must be transdisciplinary and assure participation of stakeholders. These requisites provide a means for science to better deal with the complexity of ecosystems, and for policy-makers and managers to establish and achieve reasonable societal goals. The ecosystem approach can determine links between human health and activities or events which disturb ecosystem state and function. Examples are: landscape disturbance in agriculture, mining, forestry, urbanization, and natural disasters. An understanding of these links can provide guidance for management interventions and policy options that promote human health. An ecosystem approach to management must be adaptive because of irreducible uncertainty in ecosystem function. PMID:11426267

  7. Differences in health care utilization between parents who perceive their child as vulnerable versus overprotective parents.

    PubMed

    Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P

    1996-06-01

    While a parental perception of child vulnerability to illness/injury is often used interchangeably with parental overprotection, research suggests that they are independent constructs. We hypothesized more frequent pediatric nonwell-child visits for perceived child vulnerability, but not for parental overprotection. The parents of 300 children, ages 2-5 years, enrolled in a health maintenance organization, were sampled. For children without medical conditions, there were no differences in nonwell-child care visits between the high perceived vulnerability and high parental protection groups (Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test, WRST, P = .31). As expected, high parental protection was not significantly associated with increased nonwell-child care visits compared with the low parental protection group (WRST, P = .14). These findings suggest that markers other than health care utilization are required to identify these forms of parent-child relationship disorders. PMID:8782954

  8. Adolescent students who work: gender differences in school performances and self-perceived health.

    PubMed

    Santana, Vilma S; Cooper, Sharon P; Roberts, Robert E; Araújo-Filho, José B

    2005-01-01

    In a prospective cohort study, the hypotheses that adolescent students who work have poorer school performances, more sick days, and poor self-perceived health were examined. From a one-stage random cluster area sampling of 2512 households in Bahia, Brazil, 888 students 10-21 years of age were asked to answer questionnaires. School dropouts were more common among working students independently of gender. Both full-time (PRadjusted = 2.43; 95% CI: 1.49-3.96) and part-time (PRadjusted = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.28-3.35) working males were more likely to report frequent class skipping. Among females, paid jobs also were associated with poor self-perceived health, but not after adjustment for age and SES. Brazilian labor legislation for adolescent workers needs to be revised to take into account that jobs can compromise educational achievement. PMID:16130971

  9. Drosophila melanogaster prefers compounds perceived sweet by humans.

    PubMed

    Gordesky-Gold, Beth; Rivers, Natasha; Ahmed, Osama M; Breslin, Paul A S

    2008-03-01

    To understand the functional similarities of fly and mammalian taste receptors, we used a top-down approach that first established the fly sweetener-response profile. We employed the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, an omnivorous human commensal, and determined its sensitivity to an extended set of stimuli that humans find sweet. Flies were tested with all sweeteners in 2 assays that measured their taste reactivity (proboscis extension assay) and their ingestive preferences (free roaming ingestion choice test). A total of 21 sweeteners, comprised of 11 high-potency sweeteners, 2 amino acids, 5 sugars, 2 sugar alcohols, and a sweet salt (PbCl2), were tested in both assays. We found that wild-type Drosophila responded appetitively to most high-potency sweeteners preferred by humans, even those not considered sweet by rodents or new world monkeys. The similarities in taste preferences for sweeteners suggest that frugivorous/omnivorous apes and flies have evolved promiscuous carbohydrate taste detectors with similar affinities for myriad high-potency sweeteners. Whether these perceptual parallels are the result of convergent evolution of saccharide receptor-binding mechanisms remains to be determined. PMID:18234713

  10. Health, Human Capital, and Development*

    PubMed Central

    Bleakley, Hoyt

    2013-01-01

    How much does disease depress development in human capital and income around the world? I discuss a range of micro evidence, which finds that health is both human capital itself and an input to producing other forms of human capital. I use a standard model to integrate these results, and suggest a re-interpretation of much of the micro literature. I then discuss the aggregate implications of micro estimates, but note the complications in extrapolating to general equilibrium, especially because of health’s effect on population size. I also review the macro evidence on this topic, which consists of either cross-country comparisons or measuring responses to health shocks. Micro estimates are 1–2 orders of magnitude smaller than the cross-country relationship, but nevertheless imply high benefit-to-cost ratios from improving certain forms of health. PMID:24147187

  11. Latina and Non-Latina Mothers' Perceived Health Barriers and Benefits and Their Relationship to Children's Health Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Highland, Krista B; Lundahl, Alyssa; Kidwell, Katherine M; Hankey, Maren; Caballos, Miguel; McChargue, Dennis

    2016-06-01

    Objectives Disparities exist in rates of overweight/obesity between Latino and non-Latino populations. Attention should be given to risk factors that may be modifiable through interventions involving both the parent and child. The current study sought to identify ethnic differences in parental health beliefs and their relation to children's health behaviors. Methods Latina and non-Latina mothers (N = 203) at rural and urban clinics and health departments completed self-report questionnaires. Key information included beliefs about barriers and benefits to health practices and children's health behaviors. Results Children of Latina mothers consumed significantly more soda and fried foods and exercised less than children of non-Latina mothers. Latina mothers were significantly more likely to perceive barriers to healthy eating and significantly less likely to perceive benefits to healthy eating and physical activity than non-Latina mothers. Ethnicity mediated the relationship between maternal views of health benefits and soda consumption. Conclusions Policy changes are needed to promote health education and increase the accessibility of healthy foods and safe places to exercise for Latino families. PMID:27003152

  12. Information about Human Sexuality: Sources, Satisfaction, and Perceived Knowledge among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Scott Edward; Siebert, Darcy Clay; Chonody, Jill; Killian, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This study explored how 333 undergraduate and graduate students attending a large university in the southeastern USA learned about sex, their satisfaction with how they learned about sex, and their self-perceived knowledge before and after taking a human sexuality course. An anonymous, voluntary survey was administered to students in the first and…

  13. Reconceptualizing Perceived Client Resistance: Inroads for Counseling and Human Service Interns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissette, Patrick J.

    1998-01-01

    The theory of psychological reactance provides a useful framework for understanding perceived client resistance. This article elaborates on how this theory can be helpful to human services interns, particularly in the areas of client socialization, client motivation, and therapeutic pacing. A case example from adolescent treatment is included.…

  14. Soil biodiversity and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, Diana H.; Nielsen, Uffe N.; Six, Johan

    2015-12-01

    Soil biodiversity is increasingly recognized as providing benefits to human health because it can suppress disease-causing soil organisms and provide clean air, water and food. Poor land-management practices and environmental change are, however, affecting belowground communities globally, and the resulting declines in soil biodiversity reduce and impair these benefits. Importantly, current research indicates that soil biodiversity can be maintained and partially restored if managed sustainably. Promoting the ecological complexity and robustness of soil biodiversity through improved management practices represents an underutilized resource with the ability to improve human health.

  15. Soil biodiversity and human health.

    PubMed

    Wall, Diana H; Nielsen, Uffe N; Six, Johan

    2015-12-01

    Soil biodiversity is increasingly recognized as providing benefits to human health because it can suppress disease-causing soil organisms and provide clean air, water and food. Poor land-management practices and environmental change are, however, affecting belowground communities globally, and the resulting declines in soil biodiversity reduce and impair these benefits. Importantly, current research indicates that soil biodiversity can be maintained and partially restored if managed sustainably. Promoting the ecological complexity and robustness of soil biodiversity through improved management practices represents an underutilized resource with the ability to improve human health. PMID:26595276

  16. Type D personality is associated with health behaviors and perceived social support in individuals with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Ginting, Henndy; van de Ven, Monique; Becker, Eni S; Näring, Gérard

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the role of Type D personality in health behaviors and perceived social support in individuals with coronary heart disease. Different from other related studies, this study assessed a broader range of health behaviors in an eastern population while controlling for anxiety and depression. In all, 386 Indonesian individuals with coronary heart disease completed the measures assessing Type D, perceived social support, depression, anxiety, and health behaviors. Compared with non-Type D, Type D individuals reported more unhealthy behaviors, less healthy behaviors, and perceived less social support. For those identified as Type D, tailored interventions might be considered. PMID:24934433

  17. Perceived Neighborhood Quality and Cancer Screening Behavior: Evidence from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Kirsten M. M.; Malecki, Kristen M.; Hoormann, Kelly A.; Szabo, Aniko; Nattinger, Ann B.

    2016-01-01

    Socioeconomic disparities in colorectal and breast cancer screening persist, partially accounting for disparities in cancer outcomes. Some neighborhood characteristics – particularly area level socioeconomic factors – have been linked to cancer screening behavior, but few studies have examined the relationship between perceived neighborhood quality and screening behavior, which may provide more insight into the ways in which neighborhood environments shape cancer related behaviors. This study examines the relationship between several aspects of the perceived neighborhood environment and breast and colorectal cancer screening behavior among a population-based sample of Wisconsin residents. A sub-goal was to compare the relevance of different perceived neighborhood factors for different screening tests. This is a cross-sectional study of 2008–2012 data from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW), a population-based annual survey of Wisconsin residents. An average risk sample of Black, Hispanic and White women age 50 and older (n=1265) were selected. Survey regression analyses examined predictors of screening, as well as adherence to screening guidelines. Models controlled for individual socio-demographic information and insurance status. Perceptions of social and physical disorder, including fear of crime and visible garbage, were associated with screening rates. Findings emphasize the particular importance of these factors for colorectal cancer screening, indicating the necessity of improving screening rates in areas characterized by social disorganization, crime, and physical disorder. Additional work should be done to further investigate the pathways that explain the linkage between neighborhood conditions, perceived neighborhood risks and cancer screening behavior. PMID:26275881

  18. Perceived Social Support and Stress among Pregnant Women at Health Centers of Iran- Tabriz

    PubMed Central

    Iranzad, Ilnaz; Bani, Soheila; Hasanpour, Shirin; Mohammadalizadeh, Sakineh; Mirghafourvand, Mozhgan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Social support is considered the interaction between the person and environment, which reduces stressors, covers the effects of stress and consequently protects individuals from the harmful effects of stressful situations. This study aimed to determine social support in pregnant women and its relationship with the rate of pregnant women's perceived stress at health centers of Tabriz in 2012-13. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 450 pregnant women selected through cluster sampling. Data collection tools consisted of a demographic questionnaire, interpersonal support evaluation list (ISEL) and perceived stress questionnaire (PSS) that were completed in an interview. The range of obtainable score for social support and perceived stress was 0-90 and 0-30, respectively. Descriptive and analytical statistics including Pearson and Independent t-test were used for analyzing the data. Results: The mean score of social support and perceived stress in pregnant women was 96.6 (14.6), and 11.5 (5.5), respectively .The women with favorable social support had significantly less stress than the women with unfavorable social support. Conclusion: The study finding showed that the rate of social support in highly stressful women is significantly less than low-stress mothers. Therefore, considering adverse effects of the stress on pregnancy outcomes, some strategies should be designed and implemented in order to strengthen and improve the social support for pregnant women so that it can reduce the rate of pregnant women's stress. PMID:25709981

  19. Perceived Neighborhood Quality and Cancer Screening Behavior: Evidence from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Kirsten M M; Malecki, Kristen M; Hoormann, Kelly A; Szabo, Aniko; Nattinger, Ann B

    2016-02-01

    Socioeconomic disparities in colorectal and breast cancer screening persist, partially accounting for disparities in cancer outcomes. Some neighborhood characteristics--particularly area level socioeconomic factors--have been linked to cancer screening behavior, but few studies have examined the relationship between perceived neighborhood quality and screening behavior, which may provide more insight into the ways in which neighborhood environments shape cancer related behaviors. This study examines the relationship between several aspects of the perceived neighborhood environment and breast and colorectal cancer screening behavior among a population-based sample of Wisconsin residents. A sub-goal was to compare the relevance of different perceived neighborhood factors for different screening tests. This is a cross-sectional study of 2008-2012 data from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin, a population-based annual survey of Wisconsin residents. An average risk sample of Black, Hispanic and White women age 50 and older (n = 1265) were selected. Survey regression analyses examined predictors of screening, as well as adherence to screening guidelines. Models controlled for individual socio-demographic information and insurance status. Perceptions of social and physical disorder, including fear of crime and visible garbage, were associated with screening rates. Findings emphasize the particular importance of these factors for colorectal cancer screening, indicating the necessity of improving screening rates in areas characterized by social disorganization, crime, and physical disorder. Additional work should be done to further investigate the pathways that explain the linkage between neighborhood conditions, perceived neighborhood risks and cancer screening behavior. PMID:26275881

  20. Associations of physical symptoms with perceived need for and use of mental health services among Latino and Asian Americans

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Amy M.; Chen, Chih-Nan; Alegría, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Although many believe that low rates of perceived mental health need and service use among racial/ethnic minorities are due, in part, to somatization, data supporting this notion are lacking. This study examined two hypotheses: (1) increased physical symptoms are associated with lower perceived need for mental health services and actual service use; and (2) physical symptoms are most strongly associated with perceived mental health need and service use among first-generation individuals. Data come from the National Latino and Asian-American Study, a nationally-representative household survey in the United States conducted from 2002 to 2003. Participants reported on the presence of fourteen physical symptoms within the past year. Perceived mental health need was present for individuals who endorsed having an emotional or substance use problem or thinking they needed treatment for such a problem within the past year. After adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical covariates, the number of physical symptoms was positively associated with perceived mental health need and service, an effect that differed by generation. Among first-generation individuals, physical symptoms were associated with increased perceived need and service use. Physical symptoms were not significantly associated with perceived need or service use among third-generation Latinos, but were associated with service use among third-generation Asian-Americans. Physical symptoms do not appear to interfere with mental health problem recognition or service use. In contrast, individuals, especially of the first-generation, with more physical symptoms were more likely to perceive need for and utilize mental health services. Our findings do not support the notion that physical symptoms account for low rates of perceived mental health need and service use among Latino and Asian-Americans. PMID:22694987

  1. Examining Dynamic Links between Perceived Control and Health: Longitudinal Evidence for Differential Effects in Midlife and Old Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Infurna, Frank J.; Gerstorf, Denis; Zarit, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    Perceived control and health are often closely linked in adulthood and old age. Little is known, however, about their time-ordered interplay at various phases of adult life. By applying dynamic models to four waves of data over 15.5 years from the Americans' Changing Lives Study, we examined time-ordered relations between perceived control and…

  2. The pathways from perceived discrimination to self-rated health: An investigation of the roles of distrust, social capital, and health behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Danhong; Yang, Tse-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Although there has been extensive research on the adverse impacts of perceived discrimination on health, it remains unclear how perceived discrimination gets under the skin. This paper develops a comprehensive structural equation model (SEM) by incorporating both the direct effects of perceived discrimination on self-rated health (SRH), a powerful predictor for many health outcomes, and the indirect effects of perceived discrimination on SRH through health care system distrust, neighborhood social capital, and health behaviors and health conditions. Applying SEM to 9,880 adults (aged between 18 and 100) in the 2008 Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Survey, we not only confirmed the positive and direct association between discrimination and poor or fair SRH, but also verified two underlying mechanisms: 1) perceived discrimination is associated with lower neighborhood social capital, which further contributes to poor or fair SRH; and 2) perceived discrimination is related to risky behaviors (e.g., reduced physical activity and sleep quality, and intensified smoking) that lead to worse health conditions, and then result in poor or fair SRH. Moreover, we found that perceived discrimination is negatively associated with health care system distrust, but did not find a significant relationship between distrust and poor or fair SRH. PMID:24581063

  3. Reasons and Determinants for Perceiving Unmet Needs for Mental Health in Primary Care in Quebec

    PubMed Central

    Dezetter, Anne; Duhoux, Arnaud; Menear, Matthew; Roberge, Pasquale; Chartrand, Elise; Fournier, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the mental health care needs perceived as unmet by adults in Quebec who had experienced depressive and (or) anxious symptomatology (DAS) in the previous 2 years and who used primary care services, and to identify the reasons associated with different types of unmet needs for care (UNCs) and the determinants of reporting UNCs. Method: Longitudinal data from the Dialogue Project were used. The sample consisted of 1288 adults who presented a common mental disorder and who consulted a general practitioner. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to measure DAS, and the Perceived Need for Care Questionnaire facilitated the assessment of the different types of UNCs and their motives. Results: About 40% of the participants perceived UNCs. Psychotherapy, help to improve ability to work, as well as general information on mental health and services were the most mentioned UNCs. The main reasons associated with reporting UNCs for psychotherapy and psychosocial interventions are “couldn’t afford to pay” and “didn’t know how or where to get help,” respectively. The factors associated with mentioning UNCs (compared with met needs) are to present a high DAS or a DAS that increased during the past 12 months, to perceive oneself as poor or to not have private health insurance. Conclusions: To reduce the UNCs and, further, to reduce DAS, it is necessary to improve the availability and affordability of psychotherapy and psychosocial intervention services, and to inform users on the types of services available and how to access them. PMID:26175326

  4. Income-related inequality in perceived oral health among adult Finns before and after a major dental subsidization reform.

    PubMed

    Raittio, Eero; Aromaa, Arpo; Kiiskinen, Urpo; Helminen, Sari; Suominen, Anna Liisa

    2016-07-01

    Objectives In Finland, a dental subsidization reform, implemented in 2001-2002, abolished age restrictions on subsidized dental care. The aim of this study was to investigate income-related inequality in the perceived oral health and its determinants among adult Finns before and after the reform. Materials and methods Three identical cross-sectional nationally representative postal surveys, concerning perceived oral health and the use of dental services among people born before 1971, were conducted in 2001 (n = 2157), in 2004 (n = 1814) and in 2007 (n = 1671). Three measures of perceived oral health were used: toothache or oral discomfort during the past 12 months, current need for dental care and self-reported oral health status. Concentration index was used to analyse the income-related inequalities. Its decomposition was used to study factors related to the inequalities. Results The proportion of respondents reporting need for dental care decreased from 2001 to 2007, while no changes were seen in reports of toothache or self-reported oral health status. Income-related inequalities in reports of toothache and perceived need for care widened, while the inequality in self-reported oral health remained stable. Most of the inequalities were related to income itself, perceived general health and the time since the last visit to dental care. Conclusions It seems that the income-related inequalities in perceived oral health remained or even widened after the reform. PMID:26980421

  5. The Paradoxical Role of Perceived Control in Late Life Health Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Chipperfield, Judith G.; Perry, Raymond P.; Pekrun, Reinhard; Barchfeld, Petra; Lang, Frieder R.; Hamm, Jeremy M.

    2016-01-01

    Research has established the health benefits of psychological factors, including the way individuals appraise outcomes. Although many studies confirm that appraising outcomes as controllable is adaptive for health, a paradoxical possibility is largely ignored: Perceived control may be detrimental under some conditions. Our premise was that appraising health as controllable but at the same time ascribing little value to it might signal a dysfunctional psychological mindset that fosters a mistaken sense of invincibility. During face-to-face interviews with a representative sample of older adults (age range = 72–99), we identified individuals with such a potentially maladaptive “invincible” mindset (high perceived control and low health value) and compared them to their counterparts on several outcomes. The findings were consistent with our hypotheses. The invincibles denied future risks, they lacked the activating emotion of fear, and they visited their physicians less often over a subsequent five-year period. Moreover, in contrast to their counterparts, the invincibles did not appear strategic in their approach to seeking care: Even poor health did not prompt them to seek the counsel of a physician. The recognition that psychological appraisals are modifiable highlights the promise of remedial methods to alter maladaptive mindsets, potentially improving quality of life. PMID:26974153

  6. Assessing the Relationship Between the Perceived Shelter Environment and Mental Health Among Homeless Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Beharie, Nisha; Lennon, Mary Clare; McKay, Mary McKernan

    2015-01-01

    Little attention has been given to how the environment of homeless shelters may impact the mental health of their residents. This study addresses this gap in the literature and presents a cross-sectional analysis of 209 caregivers nested within 10 family shelters across New York City. Multivariate regression was employed using hierarchical modeling to test the association between two shelter related variables (ie, the perceived social environment of the shelter and difficulty following shelter rules) and the mental health status of the caregiver residents. Less favorable perceptions of the social environment of the shelter and difficulty following shelter rules were both found to be associated with poorer mental health after controlling for demographic covariates as well as time in the shelter and first time in the shelter. These findings highlight the potential impact of the perceived social environment of shelters and methods of governance of shelters on the mental health of caregiver residents. In addition, the findings support the notion that interventions such as trauma informed care could potentially aid in addressing the mental health challenges that residents face. PMID:26332928

  7. The Paradoxical Role of Perceived Control in Late Life Health Behavior.

    PubMed

    Chipperfield, Judith G; Perry, Raymond P; Pekrun, Reinhard; Barchfeld, Petra; Lang, Frieder R; Hamm, Jeremy M

    2016-01-01

    Research has established the health benefits of psychological factors, including the way individuals appraise outcomes. Although many studies confirm that appraising outcomes as controllable is adaptive for health, a paradoxical possibility is largely ignored: Perceived control may be detrimental under some conditions. Our premise was that appraising health as controllable but at the same time ascribing little value to it might signal a dysfunctional psychological mindset that fosters a mistaken sense of invincibility. During face-to-face interviews with a representative sample of older adults (age range = 72-99), we identified individuals with such a potentially maladaptive "invincible" mindset (high perceived control and low health value) and compared them to their counterparts on several outcomes. The findings were consistent with our hypotheses. The invincibles denied future risks, they lacked the activating emotion of fear, and they visited their physicians less often over a subsequent five-year period. Moreover, in contrast to their counterparts, the invincibles did not appear strategic in their approach to seeking care: Even poor health did not prompt them to seek the counsel of a physician. The recognition that psychological appraisals are modifiable highlights the promise of remedial methods to alter maladaptive mindsets, potentially improving quality of life. PMID:26974153

  8. Human health and transgenic crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Under the joint auspices of the Agrochemical and the Agricultural and Food Chemistry Divisions of the American Chemical Society, we organized a short symposium on “Human Health and Transgenic Crops” at the 244th ACS national meeting, held August 19-23, 2012 in Philadelphia, PA, to examine an array o...

  9. Provider stakeholders' perceived benefit from a nascent health information exchange: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Pevnick, Joshua M; Claver, Maria; Dobalian, Aram; Asch, Steven M; Stutman, Harris R; Tomines, Alan; Fu, Paul

    2012-04-01

    We sought to better understand the perceived costs and benefits of joining a nascent health information exchange (HIE) from the perspective of potential provider organization participants. We therefore conducted semi-structured interviews with organizational representatives. Interview transcriptions were thematically coded, and coded text was subsequently aggregated to summarize the breadth and depth of responses. Although no respondents expected HIE to result in net financial benefit to their organization, all respondents recognized some potential benefits, and some respondents expected HIE to result in overall organizational benefit. Disproportionate benefit was expected for the poorest, sickest patients. Many respondents had concerns about HIE increasing the risk of data security breaches, and these concerns were most pronounced at larger organizations. We found little evidence of organizational concern regarding loss of patients to other organizations or publication of unfavorable quality data. If HIE's greatest benefactors are indeed the poorest, sickest patients, our current health care financing environment will make it difficult to align HIE costs with benefits. To sustain HIE, state and federal governments may need to consider ongoing subsidies. Furthermore, these governments will need to ensure that policies regulating data exchange have sufficient nationwide coordination and liability limitations that the perceived organizational risks of joining HIEs do not outweigh perceived benefits. HIE founders can address organizational concerns by attempting to coordinate HIE policies with those of their largest founding organizations, particularly for data security policies. Early HIE development and promotional efforts should not only focus on potential benefits, but should also address organizational concerns. PMID:20703673

  10. Mental health of Somali adolescent refugees: the role of trauma, stress, and perceived discrimination.

    PubMed

    Ellis, B Heidi; MacDonald, Helen Z; Lincoln, Alisa K; Cabral, Howard J

    2008-04-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine relations between trauma exposure, post-resettlement stressors, perceived discrimination, and mental health symptoms in Somali adolescent refugees resettled in the U.S. Participants were English-speaking Somali adolescent refugees between the ages of 11 and 20 (N = 135) who had resettled in the U.S. Participants were administered an interview battery comprising self-report instruments that included the UCLA Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Index, the War Trauma Screening Scale, the Every Day Discrimination scale, the Adolescent Post-War Adversities Scale, and the Acculturative Hassles Inventory. Results indicated that cumulative trauma was related to PTSD and depression symptoms. Further, post-resettlement stressors, acculturative stressors, and perceived discrimination were also associated with greater PTSD symptoms after accounting for trauma, demographic, and immigration variables. Number of years since resettlement in the US and perceived discrimination were significantly related to depressive symptoms, after accounting for trauma, demographic, and immigration variables. Further research elucidating the relations between post-resettlement stressors, discrimination, and mental health of refugee adolescents may inform intervention development. PMID:18377116

  11. The Perceived and Real Value of Health Information Exchange in Public Health Surveillance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Brian Edward

    2011-01-01

    Public health agencies protect the health and safety of populations. A key function of public health agencies is surveillance or the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of data about health-related events. Recent public health events, such as the H1N1 outbreak, have triggered increased funding for and…

  12. Wind turbines and human health.

    PubMed

    Knopper, Loren D; Ollson, Christopher A; McCallum, Lindsay C; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Berger, Robert G; Souweine, Kathleen; McDaniel, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation [electromagnetic fields (EMF), shadow flicker, audible noise, low-frequency noise, infrasound]. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review, we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the science around this issue specifically in terms of noise (including audible, low-frequency noise, and infrasound), EMF, and shadow flicker. Now there are roughly 60 scientific peer-reviewed articles on this issue. The available scientific evidence suggests that EMF, shadow flicker, low-frequency noise, and infrasound from wind turbines are not likely to affect human health; some studies have found that audible noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some. Annoyance may be associated with some self-reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance) especially at sound pressure levels >40 dB(A). Because environmental noise above certain levels is a recognized factor in a number of health issues, siting restrictions have been implemented in many jurisdictions to limit noise exposure. These setbacks should help alleviate annoyance from noise. Subjective variables (attitudes and expectations) are also linked to annoyance and have the potential to facilitate other health complaints via the nocebo effect. Therefore, it is possible that a segment of the population may remain annoyed (or report other health impacts) even when noise limits are enforced. Based on the findings and scientific merit of the available studies, the weight of evidence suggests that when sited properly, wind turbines are not related to adverse health. Stemming from this review, we provide a number of recommended best practices for wind turbine development in the context of human health. PMID:24995266

  13. Wind Turbines and Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Knopper, Loren D.; Ollson, Christopher A.; McCallum, Lindsay C.; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L.; Berger, Robert G.; Souweine, Kathleen; McDaniel, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation [electromagnetic fields (EMF), shadow flicker, audible noise, low-frequency noise, infrasound]. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review, we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the science around this issue specifically in terms of noise (including audible, low-frequency noise, and infrasound), EMF, and shadow flicker. Now there are roughly 60 scientific peer-reviewed articles on this issue. The available scientific evidence suggests that EMF, shadow flicker, low-frequency noise, and infrasound from wind turbines are not likely to affect human health; some studies have found that audible noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some. Annoyance may be associated with some self-reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance) especially at sound pressure levels >40 dB(A). Because environmental noise above certain levels is a recognized factor in a number of health issues, siting restrictions have been implemented in many jurisdictions to limit noise exposure. These setbacks should help alleviate annoyance from noise. Subjective variables (attitudes and expectations) are also linked to annoyance and have the potential to facilitate other health complaints via the nocebo effect. Therefore, it is possible that a segment of the population may remain annoyed (or report other health impacts) even when noise limits are enforced. Based on the findings and scientific merit of the available studies, the weight of evidence suggests that when sited properly, wind turbines are not related to adverse health. Stemming from this review, we provide a number of recommended best practices for wind turbine development in the context of human health. PMID:24995266

  14. Perceived Norms Moderate the Association Between Mental Health Symptoms and Drinking Outcomes Among At-Risk Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Hunter, Sarah B.; Osilla, Karen Chan; Ewing, Brett A.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J

    2013-01-01

    Objective: There has been limited research examining the association between mental health symptoms, perceived peer alcohol norms, and alcohol use and consequences among samples of adolescents. The current study used a sample of 193 at-risk youths with a first-time alcohol and/or other drug offense in the California Teen Court system to explore the moderating role of perceived peer alcohol norms on the association between mental health symptoms and drinking outcomes. Method: Measures of drinking, consequences, mental health symptoms, and perceived peer alcohol norms were taken at baseline, with measures of drinking and consequences assessed again 6 months later. Regression analyses examined the association of perceived norms and mental health symptoms with concurrent and future drinking and consequences. Results: We found that higher perceived drinking peer norms were associated with heavy drinking behavior at baseline and with negative alcohol consequences both at baseline and 6 months later. Also, perceived drinking norms moderated the association between mental health symptoms and alcohol-related consequences such that better mental health was related to increased risk for alcohol-related consequences both concurrently and 6 months later among those with higher baseline perceptions of peer drinking norms. Conclusions: Findings demonstrate the value of norms-based interventions, especially among adolescents with few mental health problems who are at risk for heavy drinking. PMID:23948533

  15. The longitudinal relationship between job mobility, perceived organizational justice, and health

    PubMed Central

    Liljegren, Mats; Ekberg, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    Background The main purpose of the present study was to examine the 2-year longitudinal and reciprocal relationship between job mobility and health and burnout. A second aim was to elucidate the effects of perceived organizational justice and turnover intentions on the relationship between job mobility (non-, internally and externally mobile), and health (SF-36) and burnout (CBI). Methods The study used questionnaire data from 662 Swedish civil servants and the data were analysed with Structural Equation Modeling statistical methods. Results The results showed that job mobility was a better predictor of health and burnout, than health and burnout were as predictors of job mobility. The predictive effects were most obvious for psychosocial health and burnout, but negligible as far as physical health was concerned. Organizational justice was found to have a direct impact on health, but not on job mobility; whereas turnover intentions had a direct effect on job mobility. Conclusion The predictive relationship between job mobility and health has practical implications for health promotive actions in different organizations. PMID:18489747

  16. Sclera color changes with age and is a cue for perceiving age, health, and beauty.

    PubMed

    Russell, Richard; Sweda, Jennifer R; Porcheron, Aurélie; Mauger, Emmanuelle

    2014-09-01

    Redness or yellowness of the sclera (the light part of the eye) are known signs of illness, as is looking older than one's actual age. Here we report that the color of the sclera is related to age in a large sample of adult Caucasian females. Specifically, older faces have sclera that are more dark, red, and yellow than younger faces. A subset of these faces were manipulated to increase or decrease the darkness, redness, or yellowness of the sclera. Faces with decreased sclera darkness, redness, or yellowness were perceived to be younger than faces with increased sclera darkness, redness, or yellowness. Further, these manipulations also caused the faces to be perceived as more or less healthy, and more or less attractive. These findings show that sclera coloration is a cue for the perception of age, health, and attractiveness that is rooted in the physical changes that occur with age. PMID:25244481

  17. Perceived Discrimination is Associated with Health Behaviors among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study*

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Mario; Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Gebreab, Samson Y.; Brenner, Allison; Dubbert, Patricia; Wyatt, Sharon; Bruce, Marino; Hickson, DeMarc; Payne, Tom; Taylor, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Background Using Jackson Heart Study data, we examined associations of multiple measures of perceived discrimination with health behaviors among African Americans (AA). Methods The cross-sectional associations of everyday, lifetime, and burden of discrimination with odds of smoking and mean differences in physical activity, dietary fat, and sleep were examined among 4,939 35–84 year old participants after adjustment for age and socioeconomic status (SES). Results Men reported slightly higher levels of everyday and lifetime discrimination than women and similar levels of burden of discrimination as women. After adjustment for age and SES, everyday discrimination was associated with more smoking and a greater percentage of dietary fat in men and women (OR for smoking: 1.13, 95%CI 1.00,1.28 and 1.19, 95%CI 1.05,1.34; mean difference in dietary fat: 0.37, p<.05 and 0.43, p<.01, in men and women, respectively). Everyday and lifetime discrimination were associated with fewer hours of sleep in men and women (mean difference for everyday discrimination: −0.08, p<.05 and −0.18, p<.001, respectively; and mean difference for lifetime discrimination: −0.08, p<.05, and −0.24, p<.001, respectively). Burden of discrimination was associated with more smoking and fewer hours of sleep in women only. Conclusions Higher levels of perceived discrimination were associated with select health behaviors among men and women. Health behaviors offer a potential mechanism through which perceived discrimination affects health in AA. PMID:26417003

  18. Perceived Health System Causes of Obstetric Fistula from Accounts of Affected Women in Rural Tanzania: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Mselle, Lilian T; Kohi, Thecla W

    2015-03-01

    Obstetric fistula is still a major problem in low income countries. While its main cause is untreated obstructed labour, misconceptions about it still persist. This study aimed at exploring and describing perceived health system causes of obstetric fistula from women affected by it in rural Tanzania. This exploratory qualitative study included twenty-eight women affected by obstetric fistula. Semi structured interviews and focus group discussions were held and thematic analysis used to analyse perceived health system causes of obstetric fistula from women's account. Perceived health system causes of obstetric fistula fundamentally reflected the poor quality of obstetric care women received at health care facilities relating to staff unaccountability, late referral, and torture by nurses. The women's perception emphasizes the importance of improving the quality of obstetric care provided by health care providers in health care facilities. PMID:26103702

  19. Preferences for health care involvement, perceived control and surgical recovery: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Mahler, H I; Kulik, J A

    1990-01-01

    In a sample (N = 75) of coronary bypass patients, we examined the manner in which preoperative perceptions of personal control over recovery, desires for behavioral involvement in health care, and desires for information about health care predicted recovery in the hospital. Results indicated that preoperative control beliefs and desires for health care involvement predicted independently several important indices of recovery. Specifically, patients who prior to their surgery expressed a greater desire for information tended to experience less surgical pain and more negative psychological reactions. Greater preferences for behavioral involvement were associated with greater pain behavior, more ambulation, and shorter hospital stays. Finally, greater perceived personal control over recovery was associated with a shorter hospital stay. PMID:2244216

  20. Heath Waves and Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cegnar, T.

    The thermal environment plays an important role in human health and well being. Ex- tremes in temperature can cause physiological disturbance and organ damage, leading to illness or death. The increase in mortality during hot weather can be very signif- icant. Mortality in many temperate cities, such as New York, Rome, Shanghai, and Tokyo, where hot weather is severe but infrequent, shows sharp increases in total mor- tality during unusually hot weather conditions. It is likely that the adverse effects of heat waves will increase with global warming. Probably intermittent regional temper- ature variations will have more direct effects on health than long-term climatic trends to which population become adapted. It is important to increase awareness of the po- tential health effects of heat waves, and every reasonable effort should be made to avoid them. A number of interested international agencies, such as the World Meteo- rological Organization, World Health Organization and United Nations Environmen- tal Programme have decided to promote and financially support several "Showcase Projects" dealing with the impact of extreme heat events on human health with the aim to develop a coherent set of warning systems, improve mitigation measures and ultimately save lives. The goal for these Showcase Projects is the development of heat watch/warning systems for several selected cities, which permit local health officials to more efficiently implement mitigation actions. In addition, guidelines will be de- veloped for the local meteorological agencies to improve their services to the various decision-making arms of the local government, such as the media, the local depart- ment of public health, the local utility company, and many others. There are three major aspects to the project: (i)research and development, (ii) technology transfer and (iii) local operation.

  1. Health promotion practices as perceived by primary healthcare professionals at the Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Altamimi, Samar; Alshoshan, Feda; Al Shaman, Ghada; Tawfeeq, Nasser; Alasmary, May; Ahmed, Anwar E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years, several research studies have investigated health promotion practices in Saudi healthcare organizations, yet no published literature exists on health promotion practices of primary healthcare professionals working for the Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs (MNG-HA). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a convenience sample of 206 primary healthcare professionals at the MNG-HA. A self-reporting questionnaire was used to investigate the attitudes, awareness, satisfaction, and methods regarding health promotion practices of primary healthcare professionals. Results: Of the 206 primary healthcare professionals surveyed, 58.1% reported awareness of health promotion programs conducted in the hospitals and 64.6% reported that the health promotion system in the hospitals needs to be improved. Language barriers and cultural beliefs were viewed as obstacles to carrying out effective health promotion by 65% and 64.6% of primary healthcare professionals, respectively. The majority (79.9%) of the primary healthcare professionals perceived themselves as having the necessary skills to promote health and 80.6% believed that printed educational materials are the most prevalent method of health promotion/education, whereas 55.8% reported that counseling was the most preferred method of health promotion. Conclusion: The awareness level of health promotion policies, strategies, and programs conducted in the hospitals was not found to be satisfactory. Therefore, widespread training programs are recommended to improve the health promotion system in the hospitals. These programs include facilitating behavioral change, introducing health promotion policies and strategies in hospitals, mandatory workshops, and systematic reminders. PMID:27482512

  2. Poverty, equity, human rights and health.

    PubMed Central

    Braveman, Paula; Gruskin, Sofia

    2003-01-01

    Those concerned with poverty and health have sometimes viewed equity and human rights as abstract concepts with little practical application, and links between health, equity and human rights have not been examined systematically. Examination of the concepts of poverty, equity, and human rights in relation to health and to each other demonstrates that they are closely linked conceptually and operationally and that each provides valuable, unique guidance for health institutions' work. Equity and human rights perspectives can contribute concretely to health institutions' efforts to tackle poverty and health, and focusing on poverty is essential to operationalizing those commitments. Both equity and human rights principles dictate the necessity to strive for equal opportunity for health for groups of people who have suffered marginalization or discrimination. Health institutions can deal with poverty and health within a framework encompassing equity and human rights concerns in five general ways: (1) institutionalizing the systematic and routine application of equity and human rights perspectives to all health sector actions; (2) strengthening and extending the public health functions, other than health care, that create the conditions necessary for health; (3) implementing equitable health care financing, which should help reduce poverty while increasing access for the poor; (4) ensuring that health services respond effectively to the major causes of preventable ill-health among the poor and disadvantaged; and (5) monitoring, advocating and taking action to address the potential health equity and human rights implications of policies in all sectors affecting health, not only the health sector. PMID:12973647

  3. Perceived stress in multiple sclerosis: the potential role of mindfulness in health and well-being.

    PubMed

    Senders, Angela; Bourdette, Dennis; Hanes, Douglas; Yadav, Vijayshree; Shinto, Lynne

    2014-04-01

    Stressful life events are associated with worsening neurological symptoms and decreased quality of life in multiple sclerosis (MS). Mindful consciousness can alter the impact of stressful events and has potential to improve health outcomes in MS. This study evaluated the relationship between trait mindfulness and perceived stress, coping, and resilience in people with MS. Quality of life was assessed as a secondary outcome. One hundred nineteen people with confirmed MS completed the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale, Brief Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, and Medical Outcome Study Short Form-36. Greater trait mindfulness was significantly associated with decreased psychological stress, better coping skills, increased resilience, and higher quality of life. After investigators controlled for confounders, mindfulness accounted for 25% of the variation in perceived stress scores and 44% of the variation in resilience scores. Results support further investigation of mindfulness training to enhance psychological resilience and improve well-being for those living with MS. PMID:24647090

  4. Determinants of and inequalities in self-perceived health in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Anna B C; McKee, Martin; Rose, Richard

    2002-12-01

    Ukraine is the second most populous of the former Soviet Republics and since transition its economy has fared even more poorly than Russia. Although the impact of the collapse of the former Soviet Union on health in Russia has been investigated, little is known of its impact in other post-Soviet republics. We report a cross-sectional study undertaken in Ukraine in March 2000. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used and 1600 interviews completed (72% response rate) with a representative national sample of Ukrainian adults. We investigated socioeconomic and psychosocial determinants of self-perceived health, which has been shown to be a valid and reliable measure of overall health and predictive of mortality. Odds ratios for less than good physical health were calculated using logistic regression. The self-rated health of Ukrainians was poor, 25% of men and 43% of women rated their health as poor or very poor. This is worse than levels recorded in Russia and considerably worse than levels seen in western Europe. Marked gender, geographical and socioeconomic inequalities in health were recorded. Women are at increased risk of poor self-rated health compared with men (OR 3.58, 2.50-5.14) as are women living in villages compared with those in cities (OR 3.24, 1.30-8.07). Socioeconomic factors including poor material situation (OR 1.64, 1.01-2.67), and psychosocial factors including low control over life (OR 1.89, 1.15-3.11) were identified as independent health determinants. Control over life was found to account for the negative impact of low social position on health. Good family relations protected against poor health. The findings suggest that a decrease in control, arising from an increasingly uncertain political and economic environment, a reduction in material wealth and the stress of change may all have contributed to the decline in life expectancy seen with transition. PMID:12409131

  5. The Relationship between the Perceived Threat of Various Substances to Patterns of Non-Usage Behavior--Implications for Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Rourke, Thomas W.; Martin, Gary L.

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship between the perceived health threat of various substances and the non-usage of such substances. It was hypothesized that non-usage behavior is related to the perceived health threat of a substance upon the individual. Specifically, non-usage increases as the perceived threat…

  6. Dust, Climate, and Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, N. G.

    2003-12-01

    Air pollution from both natural and anthropogenic causes is considered to be one of the most serious world-wide environment-related health problems, and is expected to become worse with changes in the global climate. Dust storms from the atmospheric transport of desert soil dust that has been lifted and carried by the winds - often over significant distances - have become an increasingly important emerging air quality issue for many populations. Recent studies have shown that the dust storms can cause significant health impacts from the dust itself as well as the accompanying pollutants, pesticides, metals, salt, plant debris, and other inorganic and organic materials, including viable microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi). For example, thousands of tons of Asian desert sediments, some containing pesticides and herbicides from farming regions, are commonly transported into the Arctic during dust storm events. These chemicals have been identified in animal and human tissues among Arctic indigenous populations. Millions of tons of airborne desert dust are being tracked by satellite imagery, which clearly shows the magnitude as well as the temporal and spatial variability of dust storms across the "dust belt" regions of North Africa, the Middle East, and China. This paper summarizes the most recent findings on the effects of airborne desert dust on human health as well as potential climate influences on dust and health

  7. Dust, Climate, and Human Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    Air pollution from both natural and anthropogenic causes is considered to be one of the most serious world-wide environment-related health problems, and is expected to become worse with changes in the global climate. Dust storms from the atmospheric transport of desert soil dust that has been lifted and carried by the winds - often over significant distances - have become an increasingly important emerging air quality issue for many populations. Recent studies have shown that the dust storms can cause significant health impacts from the dust itself as well as the accompanying pollutants, pesticides, metals, salt, plant debris, and other inorganic and organic materials, including viable microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi). For example, thousands of tons of Asian desert sediments, some containing pesticides and herbicides from farming regions, are commonly transported into the Arctic during dust storm events. These chemicals have been identified in animal and human tissues among Arctic indigenous populations. Millions of tons of airborne desert dust are being tracked by satellite imagery, which clearly shows the magnitude as well as the temporal and spatial variability of dust storms across the "dust belt" regions of North Africa, the Middle East, and China. This paper summarizes the most recent findings on the effects of airborne desert dust on human health as well as potential climate influences on dust and health.

  8. Dust, Climate, and Human Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    Air pollution from both natural and anthropogenic causes is considered to be one of the most serious world-wide environment-related health problems, and is expected to become worse with changes in the global climate. Dust storms from the atmospheric transport of desert soil dust that has been lifted and carried by the winds - often over significant distances - have become an increasingly important emerging air quality issue for many populations. Recent studies have shown that the dust storms can cause significant health impacts from the dust itself as well as the accompanying pollutants, pesticides, metals, salt, plant debris, and other inorganic and organic materials, including viable microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi). For example, thousands of tons of Asian desert sediments, some containing pesticides and herbicides from farming regions, are commonly transported into the Arctic during dust storm events. These chemicals have been identified in animal and human tissues among Arctic indigenous populations. Millions of tons of airborne desert dust are being tracked by satellite imagery, which clearly shows the magnitude as well as the temporal and spatial variability of dust storms across the "dust belt" regions of North Africa, the Middle East, and China. Ths paper summarizes the most recent findings on the effects of airborne desert dust on human health as well as potential climate influences on dust and health.

  9. Perceived reciprocity in social exchange and health functioning in early old age: prospective findings from the GAZEL study

    PubMed Central

    Wahrendorf, Morten; Ribet, Celine; Zins, Marie; Goldberg, Marcel; Siegrist, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To assess prospectively the effects of perceived non-reciprocity of exchange in three different types of social engagement on health functioning in early old age. Methods In the frame of the prospective French Gazel cohort study, data on reciprocity in three types of role-related social engagement (principal regular activity in everyday life, marital role relationship, trusting relationships in civic life) were collected in 8679 men and 2742 women (mean age: 60.4 years) in 2005. Two years later, health functioning was assessed, using the SF-36 mental and physical component scores, as well as self perceived health. Multivariate regressions were calculated, controlling for important confounders including baseline self-perceived health. Results Consistent effects of perceived non-reciprocity in all three types of social exchange on mental and physical health functioning were observed. After adjustment for relevant confounders including baseline self-perceived, health effect were attenuated, but largely remained significant. Conclusions Findings underline the importance of the quality of social exchange (reciprocity vs. non-reciprocity) for health functioning in early old age. PMID:20455118

  10. Self-perceived physical functioning and health status among fully ambulatory multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Pugliatti, Maura; Riise, Trond; Nortvedt, Monica W; Carpentras, Giovanni; Sotgiu, M Alessandra; Sotgiu, Stefano; Rosati, Giulio

    2008-02-01

    We investigated the self-perceived health status among multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with no or mild disability according to the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and the impact of self-rated physical functioning. A sample of fully ambulatory (EDSS < or = 3.5) consecutive patients with MS was included after screening for major cognitive impairment. The EDSS was used to measure nervous system signs or disability, and the self-rated health status was assessed using the SF-36 Health Survey. The normative SF-36 data for the general population of Italy were used for comparison. The 197 MS patients analyzed (150 women and 47 men) had significantly lower mean SF-36 scores than the general population, except for bodily pain. The scores did not differ significantly by gender. The same analysis performed on a subsample of 105 patients (79 women and 26 men) with minimal disability in one functional system (EDSS < or = 2.0) yielded similar results. EDSS was weakly correlated with the physical functioning subscale and explained only 2% of the variance in the physical functioning subscale. The regression of the physical functioning subscale on the other seven SF-36 subscales was significantly lower among MS patients than in the general population for all subscales, except for role limitation due to physical health problems and social functioning. Neither disease course nor duration correlated significantly with SF-36 subscales. The SF-36 physical functioning subscale seemed to indicate physical functioning more sensitively than EDSS. These findings should encourage the implementation of specific strategies aimed at improving the quality of the self-perceived health status already in the early disease stage. PMID:18283408

  11. Quality of life and perceived health status in surviving adults with univentricular heart

    PubMed Central

    Saliba, Z; Butera, G; Bonnet, D; Bonhoeffer, P; Villain, E; Kachaner, J; Sidi, D; Iserin, L

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To evaluate the quality of life in patients with univentricular heart and to determine the impact of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics.
DESIGN AND SETTING—Retrospective, cross sectional study conducted in a regional paediatric cardiology centre.
PATIENTS—The health records of 89 survivors with univentricular heart (median age 21 years; range 17-49 years) were reviewed. Sixty seven answered the Duke questionnaire. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were similar in the responders and non-responders. The impact of sociodemographic and clinical variables on individual Duke's measures was assessed.
RESULTS—The Duke scores of adults with univentricular heart were similar to the normal population. Cyanosis predicted a worse score for physical (p = 0.05) and perceived health measures (p = 0.02). A higher educational level predicted a better score for physical (p = 0.004), mental (p = 0.01), and general health measures (p = 0.02). Orthopaedic problems worsened the social score (p = 0.05). Psychosocial problems worsened the pain score (p = 0.04). In comparison with the other anatomical types, mitral atresia worsened the perceived health score (p = 0.02). Patients younger than 23 years scored better for almost all health and dysfunction measures.
CONCLUSIONS—Despite repeated interventions and other disease related everyday stresses, a selected group of adults with univentricular heart had a satisfying quality of life.


Keywords: congenital heart defect; quality of life; psychosocial problems; univentricular heart PMID:11410565

  12. Perceived impact of human subjects protection training on community partners in community based participatory research

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, Nancy C.; Wieland, Mark L.; Weis, Jennifer A.; Sia, Irene G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Human subject protection training (HSPT) is a requirement of Institutional Review Boards for individuals who engage in research. The lack of HSPT among community partners may contribute to power imbalance between community and academic members of community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnerships. The Rochester Healthy Community Partnership (RHCP) is an established CBPR partnership in Minnesota who works primarily with immigrant and refugee populations. Objective To describe the implementation and evaluation of HSPT among community members of a CBPR partnership. Methods Seven community partners participated in HSPT through adaptation of an existing institutional program. Evaluation of program acceptability was measured through a 5-item survey (5-point Likert scales). A focus group with all 7 participants was conducted to evaluate impact of training on perceptions of research, characteristics of a successful program, and potential value of training to CBPR partnerships. Coding and inductive analysis were done on the transcript with NVIVO-9 software. Results The HSPT program was highly acceptable (mean score= 4.5 ± 0.2). Focus groups revealed that training implementation should be done as a cohesive group with the opportunity to discuss concepts as they pertain to partnership projects. Training fostered an encouraging and safe environment, accommodated diverse learning styles, and promoted interaction. Participants reported improved trust in research as a result of the training. Perceived impact of the training on the CBPR partnership included improved transparency and enhanced camaraderie while establishing essential knowledge required for community leaders. Conclusions HSPT is feasible among community members of a CBPR partnership, and may improve perceptions of research while strengthening capacity of partnerships to impact community health. PMID:25152106

  13. Department of Health and Human Services

    MedlinePlus

    ... content HHS .gov Search U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Search Close A-Z Index About HHS ... Start Standards The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services announced new standards to further strengthen the ...

  14. HUMAN HEALTH MULTI-YEAR PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's human health research represents the Agency's only comprehensive program to address the limitations in human health risk assessment. The measurement-derived databases, models, and protocols developed through this research program will strengthen the scientific foundation fo...

  15. Breast Cancer Screening Knowledge and Perceived Health Beliefs among Immigrant Women in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiyoung; Lee, Se Kyung; Lee, Jeonghui; Choi, Min-Young; Jung, Seung Pil; Kim, Min Kook; Kim, Sangmin; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Recently, through international marriage, immigrant women have rapidly increased throughout Korea. This study was performed to identify health beliefs and practices related to breast cancer screening in immigrant women in Korea. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out between March and July 2012, and study population included immigrant females from six other Asian countries (Cambodia, China, Japan, Mongolia, Vietnam, and the Philippines). We surveyed 197 women and categorized them into four groups according to home countries. The questionnaire consisted of 55 items, including demographic and socioeconomic factors, breast cancer-related knowledge regarding risk factors and symptoms, beliefs and attitudes towards health and breast cancer, perceived susceptibility, barriers, and benefits of screening. Results Japanese participants were significantly older and had resided in Korea for more years than other country-of-origin groups (all p<0.001), and showed higher screening rates without statistical significance (p=0.392). In multivariate analysis, country of origin showed a significant correlation with knowledge (p=0.001), positive beliefs (p=0.002), and perceived benefits (p=0.025) of breast cancer screening. The group with the lowest household income showed a significantly lower score of perceived benefits (p=0.022). Through analysis to identify factors affecting participation in screening mammography, we found that education level (p=0.009), occupation status (p=0.006), and Korean language fluency (p=0.002) were independent predictors for screening behavior. Conclusion This study identified conditions related to breast cancer screening knowledge, perception, and behavior of immigrant women in Korea. The results reflect the need for increased social aids to remove barriers to medical services and more educational programs to facilitate higher rates of screening. PMID:25320627

  16. Two-Year Community: Human Anatomy Software Use in Traditional and Online Anatomy Laboratory Classes: Student-Perceived Learning Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuyatt, Brian L.; Baker, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of human anatomy software in face-to-face and online anatomy laboratory classes. Cognitive, affective, and psychomotor perceived learning was measured for students using Pearson Education's Practice Anatomy Laboratory 2.0 software. This study determined that student-perceived learning was significantly…

  17. Perceived barriers to seeking mental health care among United States Marine Corps noncommissioned officers serving as gatekeepers for suicide prevention.

    PubMed

    VanSickle, Marcus; Werbel, Aaron; Perera, Kanchana; Pak, Kyna; DeYoung, Kathryn; Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan

    2016-08-01

    Reducing mental health stigma and perceived barriers to care is a necessary strategy for addressing the public health problem of suicide among the United States Armed Forces. The purpose of this study was threefold: (a) to empirically evaluate the principal component structure of the Perceived Barriers to Care (PBTC) measure; (b) to gain an understanding of the perceived barriers to seeking mental health services among Marine Corps noncommissioned officers (NCOs) selected to participate in a primary suicide prevention training program, Never Leave a Marine Behind (NLMB); and (c) to explore the relationship among sex, education, prior exposure to suicide within one's military unit, and perceived barriers to seeking mental health services. The data for the PBTC (N = 1,758) were drawn from a previously performed pretest/posttest program evaluation study of the Marine Corp's NLMB program, which took place over 6 months in 2009 (April-October). The three highest perceptions of barriers to care reported by NCOs for their Marines were related to being embarrassed, having members of one's unit have less confidence in the Marine, and concerns about being treated differently by military unit leadership. Three principal components for PBTC were identified, accounting for approximately 59% of the total variance. Higher education and prior exposure to suicide within one's military unit significantly correlated with greater perceived barriers to care; sex was not significantly correlated with greater perceived barriers to care. Implications of these findings, in relation to future research, are further discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26751086

  18. Comparing perceived public stigma and personal stigma of mental health treatment seeking in a young adult sample.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Eric R; Paves, Andrew P

    2014-09-30

    Perceived public stigma regarding seeking mental health treatment can be a barrier to accessing services for young adults. While factors associating with personal stigma regarding how one would view and treat others have been identified, the discrepancies between perceived and personal stigma have received less research attention. We designed the current study to expand on previous research and examine the discrepancies between perceived public stigma and personal stigma among a sample of 386 primarily White and Asian college students. Participants completed surveys of mental health symptoms, treatment experience and attitudes, perceived public, and personal stigma. Overall, participants generally reported greater perceived public stigma than personal stigma; an effect that was particularly evident for women and those with mental health symptoms. The majority of participants disagreed with items assessing personal stigma. Negative attitudes toward treatment and anxiety symptoms associated with perceived public stigma, while male gender, Asian ethnicity, and negative attitudes toward treatment associated with personal stigma. Findings have implications for interventions and marketing programs to help change perceptions about mental health stigma to encourage utilization of services for those young people who could benefit from care. PMID:24889842

  19. The labile lipid fraction of meat: from perceived disease and waste to health and opportunity.

    PubMed

    Mapiye, C; Aldai, N; Turner, T D; Aalhus, J L; Rolland, D C; Kramer, J K G; Dugan, M E R

    2012-11-01

    The fatty acid composition of beef and pork has been stigmatized due to their relationships with several diseases from cardiovascular disease to cancer. Meat lipids are, however, one of the few components of meat that can be modified in content and composition, and can present opportunities for value added production and health promotion. Until regulations and policies are in place to define requirements for fatty acid enrichment, however, the process remains relatively academic. Once practical goals are in place for fatty acid enrichment in meat, both theory and practice need to converge for successful production of fatty acid enriched meat. The present review covers aspects of policy in Canada, and requirements for research networks to respond to theoretical and practical challenges associated with production of fatty acid enriched meat. Finally, needs for education and marketing are outlined which must be in place to truly realize a transition of meat lipids from perceived disease and waste to health and opportunity. PMID:22546816

  20. Perceived quality of early paternal relationships and mental health in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Renee D; Styron, Thomas H

    2012-09-01

    We aimed to determine the association between perceived paternal relationships and mental health and social functioning among adults in the community. Data were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey (N = 8098), a nationally representative sample of adults aged 15 to 54 years in the United States. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess the relationships between quality of paternal relationship in childhood and current mental disorders, quality of current social relationships, and attachment style. Poor paternal relationship was associated with a significantly increased likelihood of mood and anxiety disorders. Poorer quality of paternal relationships was also associated with poorer current social functioning and avoidant and dependent attachment styles. Our findings suggest that quality of paternal relationships is associated with mental health and social functioning in adulthood and highlight a need for increased understanding of the role of paternal relationships in social/emotional development. PMID:22922234

  1. Food, Class, and Health: The Role of the Perceived Body in the Social Reproduction of Health

    PubMed Central

    Carroll Chapman, Shawna L.; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2012-01-01

    The association between social class and cardiovascular health is complex, involving a constant interplay of factors as individuals integrate external information from the media, health care providers, and people they know with personal experience to produce health behaviors. This ethnographic study took place from February 2008 to February 2009 to assess how cardiovascular health information circulating in Kansas City influenced a sample of 55 women in the area. Participants were primarily Caucasian (n=41) but diverse in terms of age, income, and education. Themes identified in transcripts showed women shared the same idea of an ideal body: young and thin, and associated this perception with ideas about good health, intelligence, and morality. Transcript themes corresponded to those found at health events and in the media that emphasized individual control over determinants of disease. Women’s physical appearance and health behaviors corresponded to class indicators. Four categories were identified to represent women’s shared beliefs and practices in relation to class, cardiovascular disease, and obesity. Findings were placed within an existing body of social theory to better understand how cardiovascular health information and women’s associated beliefs relate to health inequality. PMID:22746270

  2. Food, class, and health: the role of the perceived body in the social reproduction of health.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Shawna L Carroll; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2013-01-01

    The association between social class and cardiovascular health is complex, involving a constant interplay of factors as individuals integrate external information from the media, health care providers, and people they know with personal experience to produce health behaviors. This ethnographic study took place from February 2008 to February 2009 to assess how cardiovascular health information circulating in Kansas City influenced a sample of 55 women in the area. Participants were primarily Caucasian (n = 41) but diverse in terms of age, income, and education. Themes identified in transcripts showed women shared the same idea of an ideal body, young and thin, and associated this perception with ideas about good health, intelligence, and morality. Transcript themes corresponded to those found at health events and in the media that emphasized individual control over determinants of disease. Women's physical appearance and health behaviors corresponded to class indicators. Four categories were identified to represent women's shared beliefs and practices in relation to class, cardiovascular disease, and obesity. Findings were placed within an existing body of social theory to better understand how cardiovascular health information and women's associated beliefs relate to health inequality. PMID:22746270

  3. Are Caribbean reef sharks, Carcharhinus perezi, able to perceive human body orientation?

    PubMed

    Ritter, Erich K; Amin, Raid

    2014-05-01

    The present study examines the potential capability of Caribbean reef sharks to perceive human body orientation, as well as discussing the sharks' swimming patterns in a person's vicinity. A standardized video method was used to record the scenario of single SCUBA divers kneeling in the sand and the approach patterns of sharks, combined with a control group of two divers kneeling back-to-back. When approaching a single test-subject, significantly more sharks preferred to swim outside the person's field of vision. The results suggest that these sharks are able to identify human body orientation, but the mechanisms used and factors affecting nearest distance of approach remain unclear. PMID:24305995

  4. Solar radiation and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juzeniene, Asta; Brekke, Pål; Dahlback, Arne; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Reichrath, Jörg; Moan, Kristin; Holick, Michael F.; Grant, William B.; Moan, Johan

    2011-06-01

    The Sun has played a major role in the development of life on Earth. In Western culture, people are warned against Sun exposure because of its adverse effects: erythema, photoimmunosuppression, photoageing, photocarcinogenesis, cataracts and photokeratitis. However, Sun exposure is also beneficial, since moderate doses give beneficial physiological effects: vitamin D synthesis, reduction of blood pressure and mental health. Shortage of Sun exposure may be even more dangerous to human health than excessive exposure. Avoiding Sun exposure leads to vitamin D deficiency which is associated not only with rickets and osteomalacia, but also with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, influenza, many types of cancer and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Solar radiation induces nitric oxide release in tissue and immediate pigment darkening which certainly play important roles, although these are still unknown. Action spectra relevant for health are described. We will also review what is known about spectral and intensity variations of terrestrial solar radiation as well as its penetration through the atmosphere and into human skin and tissue.

  5. Assessing perceived health promotion needs and interests of low-income older women.

    PubMed

    Bertera, E M

    1999-12-01

    This study focuses on an assessment of perceived health promotion needs and interests among predominantly older low-income women (76%) in the state of Pennsylvania. A questionnaire was completed by a convenience sample of 140 individuals attending four senior centers and two nutrition sites. In addition, 14 focus groups with an average of 8 members per group were conducted for a total of 105 people from two of the four senior centers. The health topics of greatest interest to women were exercise (57.6%), making friends (50.9%), nutrition (37.5%), losing weight (33.6%), and home safety (34.6%). Compared with women, men were significantly more interested in exercise and its effect on mood (41.3% versus 24.0%) and love and sex after 60 (44.8% versus 18.2%) and significantly less interested in nutrition (17.2% versus 37.5%). The fitness activities of greatest interest to women were walking (63.1%), back exercises (37.5%), toning to music (22.1%), and self-defense (18.2%), none of which was significantly different from the men in the sample. Results suggest that many of the key health needs perceived by low-income older women could be addressed by a combination of fitness activities and health education, especially if they are also designed to facilitate social interactions. The barriers to participation in such programs most often cited were transportation, scheduling, and cost factors. Fortunately, many communities already have the resources to offer low-cost interventions in the areas of need, such as walking groups, self-defense, and home safety. Communities interested in serving low-income older women should more closely examine the barriers and the unmet needs of this group when designing intervention programs. PMID:10643841

  6. Stigma and barriers to accessing mental health services perceived by Air Force nursing personnel.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Stephen H A; Bedrick, Edward J; Parshall, Mark B

    2014-11-01

    We investigated perceptions of stigma and barriers associated with accessing mental health services among active component U.S. Air Force officer and enlisted nursing personnel (N = 211). The Britt and Hoge et al Stigma scale and Hoge et al Barriers to Care scale were administered via an anonymous, online survey. Stigma items pertained to concerns that might affect decisions to seek mental health treatment. Most of the sample agreed with the items "Members of my unit might have less confidence in me" and "My unit leadership might treat me differently." Approximately 20% to 46% agreed with the other four stigma items. Officer nursing personnel were significantly more likely than enlisted to agree that accessing mental health services would be embarrassing, harm their career, or cause leaders to blame them for the problem (p ≤ 0.03 for each comparison). Getting time off from work for treatment and scheduling appointments were perceived as barriers by 41% and 21% of respondents, respectively. We conclude that proportions of Air Force nursing personnel reporting concerns about potential stigmatizing consequences of seeking mental health care are substantial and similar to ranges previously reported by military service members screening positive for mental health problems after deployment. PMID:25373066

  7. What’s Love Got To Do With It?: Social Functioning, Perceived Health, and Daily Happiness in Married Octogenarians

    PubMed Central

    Waldinger, Robert J.; Schulz, Marc S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined day-to-day links between perceived health and happiness and between time spent with others and happiness in 47 older adult couples over an 8-day period. Marital satisfaction and time spent with others were explored as potential moderators of links between health and happiness. For both men and women, hierarchical linear modeling revealed daily links between more time spent with others and greater happiness. Daily links between time spent with one’s partner and happiness were strongly moderated by marital satisfaction. For both men and women, marital satisfaction buffered day-to-day links between poorer perceived health and a decline in happiness, but time spent with others did not. This study provides support for the role of marital satisfaction in protecting older adults’ happiness from daily fluctuations in perceived physical health, and for the influence of social connections in promoting happiness in the lives of older adults. PMID:20545426

  8. The effect of perceived and actual social support on the mental health of HIV-positive persons

    PubMed Central

    MCDOWELL, T. L.; SEROVICH, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the ways in which perceived and actual social support affect the mental health of gay men, straight or bisexual men, and women living with HIV/AIDS. Participants included 125 women and 232 men with an HIV-positive or AIDS diagnosis involved in three larger investigations of HIV, disclosure and mental health. Results suggest each sub-group experienced perceived social support as significantly predictive of better mental health while the effect of actual social support was minimal. PMID:18071966

  9. A Qualitative Study of the Perceived Health Benefits of a Therapeutic Riding Program for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickney, Margaret Ann

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic horseback riding can be recommended as a useful health promotion intervention for individuals with disabilities who face challenges to optimal health and wellness. This qualitative study examined the perceived benefits of a therapeutic riding program for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), with particular focus on aspects…

  10. Relational Regulation Theory: A New Approach to Explain the Link between Perceived Social Support and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakey, Brian; Orehek, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Perceived support is consistently linked to good mental health, which is typically explained as resulting from objectively supportive actions that buffer stress. Yet this explanation has difficulty accounting for the often-observed main effects between support and mental health. Relational regulation theory (RRT) hypothesizes that main effects…

  11. Mothers' Perceived Physical Health during Early and Middle Childhood: Relations with Child Developmental Delay and Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhower, Abbey; Blacher, Jan; Baker, Bruce L.

    2013-01-01

    The self-perceived physical health of mothers raising children with developmental delay (DD; N = 116) or typical development (TD; N = 129) was examined across child ages 3-9 years, revealing three main findings. First, mothers of children with DD experienced poorer self-rated physical health than mothers of children with TD at each age. Latent…

  12. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects

    PubMed Central

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    Objective With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Methods Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Results Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette aerosols may contain propylene glycol, glycerol, flavourings, other chemicals and, usually, nicotine. Aerosolised propylene glycol and glycerol produce mouth and throat irritation and dry cough. No data on the effects of flavouring inhalation were identified. Data on short-term health effects are limited and there are no adequate data on long-term effects. Aerosol exposure may be associated with respiratory function impairment, and serum cotinine levels are similar to those in traditional cigarette smokers. The high nicotine concentrations of some products increase exposure risks for non-users, particularly children. The dangers of secondhand and thirdhand aerosol exposure have not been thoroughly evaluated. Conclusions Scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes is limited. While e-cigarette aerosol may contain fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke, studies evaluating whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes are inconclusive. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarette use may facilitate smoking cessation, but definitive data are lacking. No e-cigarette has been approved by FDA as a cessation aid. Environmental concerns and issues regarding non-user exposure exist. The health impact of e-cigarettes, for users and the public, cannot be determined with currently available data. PMID:24732161

  13. Dimensions of Perceived Racism and Self-Reported Health: Examination of Racial/Ethnic Differences and Potential Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Hausmann, Leslie R. M.; Jhalani, Juhee; Pencille, Melissa; Atencio-Bacayon, Jennifer; Kumar, Asha; Kwok, Jasmin; Ullah, Jahanara; Roth, Alan; Chen, Daniel; Crupi, Robert; Schwartz, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background Many details of the negative relationship between perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and health are poorly understood. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine racial/ ethnic differences in the relationship between perceived discrimination and self-reported health, identify dimensions of discrimination that drive this relationship, and explore psychological mediators. Methods Asian, Black, and Latino(a) adults (N=734) completed measures of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination, self-reported health, depression, anxiety, and cynical hostility. Results The association between perceived discrimination and poor self-reported health was significant and did not differ across racial/ethnic subgroups. Race-related social exclusion and threat/harassment uniquely contributed to poor health for all groups. Depression, anxiety, and cynical hostility fully mediated the effect of social exclusion on health, but did not fully explain the effect of threat. Conclusions Our results suggest that noxious effects of race-related exclusion and threat transcend between-group differences in discriminatory experiences. The effects of race-related exclusion and threat on health, however, may operate through different mechanisms. PMID:21374099

  14. The self-perceived health needs of the rural elderly who live alone.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, M

    1992-04-01

    A randomised cross-sectional survey of Public Health Nurses (PHN) registers was carried out in two rural counties, Westmeath and Longford, Ireland. 200 elderly people living alone, consisting of 50 aged 65-74 years in each of the two counties and 50 aged > or = 75 years expressed their health needs in terms of physical, mental and social well-being. 50% lived in accommodation with inadequate bathroom facilities and only 38.9% were content with their current accommodation. 37.9% felt their finances were inadequate while 15.7% were unsure of their eligibility for different entitlements. 17.6% had personal experience of crime. 39.4% lacked a means of obtaining emergency help. The majority (61.7%) perceived themselves as enjoying excellent/good health. The unmet demand for services, other than transport, varied from 11.6% for laundry services to 0% for PHN visits. Transport services were judged inadequate by 51.5% of the study group. It is concluded that by analysing and cross-analysing in terms of variables used in this study, aspects of health care needs could be targetted for different subgroups within the elderly alone group. While not complete in themselves they would help in the targetting of scarce resources. PMID:1428758

  15. Perceived Racism in Relation to Weight Change in the Black Women’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Cozier, Yvette C.; Wise, Lauren A.; Palmer, Julie R.; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE Obesity is more common in black women than in white women. Racial discrimination is a form of chronic stress that may influence weight. METHODS We assessed the association of perceived racism with weight change between 1997 and 2005 in 43,103 women from the Black Women’s Health Study, a prospective follow-up of U.S. black women aged 21–69 years at entry in 1995. Eight questions about perceptions and experiences of racism were asked in 1997 from which two summary variables were created: everyday racism (e.g., how often do people act “as if you are not intelligent?”), and lifetime racism (e.g., unfair treatment due to race “on the job”). Mixed linear regression models were used to calculate the multivariate adjusted means for changes in body weight across categories of perceived racism. RESULTS Weight gain increased as levels of everyday and lifetime racism increased. The mean multivariable-adjusted difference in weight change between the highest and the lowest quartile of everyday racism was 0.56 kg. The mean difference comparing the highest category of lifetime racism to the lowest was 0.48 kg. CONCLUSION These prospective data suggest that experiences of racism may contribute to the excess burden of obesity in U.S. black women. PMID:19364665

  16. Perceived discrimination and health-related quality of life: testing the Reserve Capacity Model in Hispanic Americans.

    PubMed

    Howarter, Alisha D; Bennett, Kymberley K

    2013-01-01

    This study tested aspects of the Reserve Capacity Model (Gallo & Matthews, 2003; Gallo, Penedo Espinosa de los Monteros, & Arguelles, 2009) as a means of understanding disparities in health-related quality of life appraisals among Hispanic Americans. Questionnaire data were collected from 236 Hispanic participants, including measures of perceived discrimination, optimism, social support, symptoms of trait anxiety, and physical and mental health-related quality of life. Path analysis indicated direct, negative associations between perceived discrimination and both forms of health-related quality of life. Results also showed that these relationships were partially mediated by the reserve capacity variable of optimism and by symptoms of anxiety, though evidence for mediation by anxiety was stronger than for optimism. Findings suggest that perceived discrimination depletes intrapersonal reserves in Hispanic Americans, which, in turn, induces negative emotions. Implications for community-level interventions are discussed. PMID:23421006

  17. Perceived Barriers for Accessing Health Services among Individuals with Disability in Four African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Eide, Arne H.; Mannan, Hasheem; Khogali, Mustafa; van Rooy, Gert; Swartz, Leslie; Munthali, Alister; Hem, Karl-Gerhard; MacLachlan, Malcolm; Dyrstad, Karin

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness among researchers and others that marginalized and vulnerable groups face problems in accessing health care. Access problems in particular in low-income countries may jeopardize the targets set by the United Nations through the Millennium Development Goals. Thus, identifying barriers for individuals with disability in accessing health services is a research priority. The current study aimed at identifying the magnitude of specific barriers, and to estimate the impact of disability on barriers for accessing health care in general. A population based household survey was carried out in Sudan, Namibia, Malawi, and South Africa, including a total of 9307 individuals. The sampling strategy was a two-stage cluster sampling within selected geographical areas in each country. A listing procedure to identify households with disabled members using the Washington Group six screening question was followed by administering household questionnaires in households with and without disabled members, and questionnaires for individuals with and without disability. The study shows that lack of transport, availability of services, inadequate drugs or equipment, and costs, are the four major barriers for access. The study also showed substantial variation in perceived barriers, reflecting largely socio-economic differences between the participating countries. Urbanity, socio-economic status, and severity of activity limitations are important predictors for barriers, while there is no gender difference. It is suggested that education reduces barriers to health services only to the extent that it reduces poverty. Persons with disability face additional and particular barriers to health services. Addressing these barriers requires an approach to health that stresses equity over equality. PMID:25993307

  18. Human papillomavirus (HPV): college male’s knowledge, perceived risk, sources of information, vaccine barriers and communication

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Mira L.; Krieger, Janice L.; Roberto, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common sexually transmitted infection. With the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of an indication for the HPV vaccine for males, it is important to assess male college student’s HPV knowledge, perceived risk, and sources of information, as well as HPV vaccine barriers and communication. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey study of 165 male college students. The participants completed a survey about HPV and the HPV vaccine. Results Among the 165 participants, most males had poor HPV knowledge, in that 132 (80.0%) reported having had sexual intercourse, but only 20 (12.1%) perceived being at risk for acquiring HPV. Information sources about HPV were commercials/advertisements, friends, news and health education programs. Concern about the HPV vaccine’s long-term effects and cost were the most frequently reported barriers. Most students reported having a regular healthcare provider, but had difficulty getting to their provider, and finding time to discuss the HPV vaccine with their provider. Additionally, most students reported relying on their parents when making medical decisions and being willing to discuss the HPV vaccine with their healthcare provider to make an informed decision about the vaccine. Conclusions Educational programs providing information about HPV, the HPV vaccine, and communication skills training are needed for male college students, parents, and healthcare providers. Findings from this study will guide the development of HPV vaccine messages and educational programs that should be tested in future research. PMID:21966351

  19. Time to get healthy: associations of time perspective with perceived health status and health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Griva, Fay; Tseferidi, Sofia-Ioanna; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the associations of time perspective (TP) with health behaviors including smoking, exercise, and body mass index (BMI), and perceptions of health status after controlling for sociodemographic factors. Participants (N = 413) completed a web-based questionnaire that included a short version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, and reported their weight, height, smoking, and exercise frequency. Future TP was associated with more physical exercise, whereas past-negative and present-fatalistic dimensions were associated with higher BMI. Smoking was not associated with any of the TP dimensions. Additionally, all of the dimensions of TP were found to be associated with conceptually relevant perceptions of health status. Research on TP predominantly focuses on the future and the present orientation, but the findings of the present study suggest that all dimensions of TP should be used in health-related research. Also, issues regarding the role of the present-hedonistic dimension are discussed and directions for future research are proposed. PMID:24784153

  20. Care Professionals' Perceived Usefulness of eHealth for Post-Discharge Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Davoody, Nadia; Hägglund, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Despite many attempts to provide appropriate tools for supporting stroke patients in their care and rehabilitation processes, there is still room for improvement. We propose an online care and rehabilitation planning tool as a potential eHealth service for stroke patients. The aim is to study the care professionals' perceived usefulness of the planning tool. We developed and presented a functional prototype to a neurology team in Stockholm. Three focus groups were performed with the care professionals in the team and the data were analysed based on the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology. Although care professionals mentioned challenges such as time limitation for using the tool and issues related to the responsibility of the system, they were positive towards the tool and its potential usefulness in ease of understanding the rehabilitation process and support for collaboration. PMID:27577452

  1. Soy foods and supplementation: a review of commonly perceived health benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    D'Adamo, Christopher R; Sahin, Azize

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the impact of soy foods and supplements upon human health has become increasingly controversial among the general public. No one has conducted a broad evaluation of the scientific evidence supporting or refuting popular perceptions of the health effects of soy consumption. In this article, the authors have conducted a comprehensive assessment of the literature surrounding the health effects of soy consumption that are of greatest interest. This review has focused on 5 health benefits- relief of menopausal symptoms and prevention of heart disease, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and osteoporosis, and 5 health risks-increased risk of breast cancer, male hormonal and fertility problems, hypothyroidism, antinutrient content, and harmful processing by-products. Systematic reviews of human trials, prospective human trials, observational human studies, animal models, in vitro studies, and laboratory analyses of soy components were included for review. This literature review revealed that soy foods and isoflavones may provide relief from menopausal symptoms and protect against breast cancer and heart disease. Soy does not appear to offer protection against osteoporosis. The evidence on male fertility and reproductive hormones was conflicting; some studies demonstrated a deleterious impact caused by soy consumption and others showed no effect. Soy supplementation also appears to affect thyroid function in an inconsistent manner, as studies have shown both increases and decreases in the same parameters of thyroid activity. Soaking, fermentation, and heating may reduce problematic antinutrients contained in soy. The authors found that consuming moderate amounts of traditionally prepared and minimally processed soy foods may offer modest health benefits while minimizing potential for adverse health effects. However, additional studies are necessary to elucidate the variable thyroid response to soy supplementation, and more rigorous studies are required to

  2. Perceived health needs and receipt of services during pregnancy - Oklahoma and South Carolina, 2004-2007.

    PubMed

    2010-06-18

    Prenatal care visits present an opportunity for health-care providers to offer services recommended by professional societies and educate women regarding behaviors and exposures that might affect their pregnancies. To determine whether women who identified a need for a service during pregnancy received that service, CDC analyzed 2004-2007 data (the most recent available) from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) for Oklahoma and South Carolina, the only two states to include questions on the topic on their PRAMS questionnaires. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated substantial differences between perceived need and receipt of 1) assistance in reducing violence in the home, 2) counseling information for family or personal problems, 3) help to quit smoking, 4) help with an alcohol or drug problem, and 5) dental care. In South Carolina and Oklahoma, respectively, 1.7% and 2.9% of pregnant women stated a need for help to reduce violence in the home. Of those, only 12.8% and 21.0% reported receiving that help. In South Carolina and Oklahoma, respectively, 7.4% and 12.6% of pregnant women stated a need for help to quit smoking during pregnancy; of those, only 29.1% and 30.4% reported receiving that help. Adherence by health-care providers to established guidance for treating pregnant women might help reduce the differences between perceived need and receipt of services. Additional research to identify obstacles to receipt of services might enable state programs to further narrow these differences. PMID:20559201

  3. How adolescents perceive their communities: a qualitative study that explores the relationship between health and the physical environment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Well-Being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments (WAVE) study was conducted among adolescents aged 15-19 years in Baltimore, Ibadan, Johannesburg, New Delhi, and Shanghai to examine perceived factors related to their health. A preliminary analysis of the data, unexpectedly, revealed that the influence of the physical environment on adolescent health was a dominant theme across every site examined. To explore this further, this paper analyzed the specific components of the physical environment that were perceived to influence health, and how they contributed to various health outcomes across sites. Methods Researchers in each site conducted in-depth interviews among adolescents; community mapping and focus groups among adolescents; a Photovoice methodology, in which adolescents were trained in photography and took photos of the meaning of ‘health’ in their communities; and key informant interviews among adults who work with young people. A total 529 participants from across the sites were included in the analysis. Results Findings showed that while there was surprising uniformity in how adolescents characterized their physical environment, perceived health outcomes related to the physical environment varied by site and gender. In Baltimore and Johannesburg, vacant homes and the lack of recreation facilities were perceived to impact on sexual and reproductive health problems for girls, while among boys they contributed to drugs and violence. In Shanghai, New Delhi, and Ibadan, garbage and trash observed in their communities were perceived to have a higher impact on infectious and chronic diseases. Conclusions As the world continues to urbanize, our study points to a strong need to examine how the physical aspects of a living environment contribute to the health of adolescents. Specific aspects, such as housing, safety, garbage, and recreational spaces must all be examined as possible pathways for making improvements to health of adolescents

  4. Students' Perceived Heat-Health Symptoms Increased with Warmer Classroom Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Bidassey-Manilal, Shalin; Wright, Caradee Y; Engelbrecht, Jacobus C; Albers, Patricia N; Garland, Rebecca M; Matooane, Mamopeli

    2016-01-01

    Temperatures in Africa are expected to increase by the end of the century. Heat-related health impacts and perceived health symptoms are potentially a problem, especially in public schools with limited resources. Students (n = 252) aged ~14-18 years from eight high schools completed an hourly heat-health symptom log over 5 days. Data loggers measured indoor classroom temperatures. A high proportion of students felt tired (97.2%), had low concentration (96.8%) and felt sleepy (94.1%) during at least one hour on any day. There were statistically significant correlations, when controlling for school cluster effect and time of day, between indoor temperatures ≥32 °C and students who felt tired and found it hard to breathe. Consistently higher indoor classroom temperatures were observed in classrooms constructed of prefabricated asbestos sheeting with corrugated iron roof and converted shipping container compared to brick classrooms. Longitudinal studies in multiple seasons and different classroom building types are needed. PMID:27338423

  5. Students’ Perceived Heat-Health Symptoms Increased with Warmer Classroom Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Bidassey-Manilal, Shalin; Wright, Caradee Y.; Engelbrecht, Jacobus C.; Albers, Patricia N.; Garland, Rebecca M.; Matooane, Mamopeli

    2016-01-01

    Temperatures in Africa are expected to increase by the end of the century. Heat-related health impacts and perceived health symptoms are potentially a problem, especially in public schools with limited resources. Students (n = 252) aged ~14–18 years from eight high schools completed an hourly heat-health symptom log over 5 days. Data loggers measured indoor classroom temperatures. A high proportion of students felt tired (97.2%), had low concentration (96.8%) and felt sleepy (94.1%) during at least one hour on any day. There were statistically significant correlations, when controlling for school cluster effect and time of day, between indoor temperatures ≥32 °C and students who felt tired and found it hard to breathe. Consistently higher indoor classroom temperatures were observed in classrooms constructed of prefabricated asbestos sheeting with corrugated iron roof and converted shipping container compared to brick classrooms. Longitudinal studies in multiple seasons and different classroom building types are needed. PMID:27338423

  6. Health Value, Perceived Social Support, and Health Self-Efficacy as Factors in a Health-Promoting Lifestyle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Erin S.; Tucker, Carolyn M.; Herman, Keith C.

    2007-01-01

    During their college years, students may adopt health-promoting lifestyles that bring about long-term benefits. Objective and Participants: The purpose of this study was to explore the roles of health value, family/friend social support, and health self-efficacy in the health-promoting lifestyles of a diverse sample of 162 college students.…

  7. Human health impacts of ecosystem alteration.

    PubMed

    Myers, Samuel S; Gaffikin, Lynne; Golden, Christopher D; Ostfeld, Richard S; Redford, Kent H; Ricketts, Taylor H; Turner, Will R; Osofsky, Steven A

    2013-11-19

    Human activity is rapidly transforming most of Earth's natural systems. How this transformation is impacting human health, whose health is at greatest risk, and the magnitude of the associated disease burden are relatively new subjects within the field of environmental health. We discuss what is known about the human health implications of changes in the structure and function of natural systems and propose that these changes are affecting human health in a variety of important ways. We identify several gaps and limitations in the research that has been done to date and propose a more systematic and comprehensive approach to applied research in this field. Such efforts could lead to a more robust understanding of the human health impacts of accelerating environmental change and inform decision making in the land-use planning, environmental conservation, and public health policy realms. PMID:24218556

  8. Human health impacts of ecosystem alteration

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Samuel S.; Gaffikin, Lynne; Golden, Christopher D.; Ostfeld, Richard S.; H. Redford, Kent; H. Ricketts, Taylor; Turner, Will R.; Osofsky, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Human activity is rapidly transforming most of Earth’s natural systems. How this transformation is impacting human health, whose health is at greatest risk, and the magnitude of the associated disease burden are relatively new subjects within the field of environmental health. We discuss what is known about the human health implications of changes in the structure and function of natural systems and propose that these changes are affecting human health in a variety of important ways. We identify several gaps and limitations in the research that has been done to date and propose a more systematic and comprehensive approach to applied research in this field. Such efforts could lead to a more robust understanding of the human health impacts of accelerating environmental change and inform decision making in the land-use planning, environmental conservation, and public health policy realms. PMID:24218556

  9. The Human Health, Growth, and Development Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyles, Linda R.; And Others

    This health and human development curriculum for grades 1-6 contains tips for teachers and overviews of the philosophy behind teaching these topics to elementary school students. The section on health education is structured around ten content strands: (1) health knowledge, attitudes, decisions, and behavior; (2) emotional and social health; (3)…

  10. Health, human rights and mobilization of resources for health

    PubMed Central

    Lie, Reidar K

    2004-01-01

    Background There has been an increased interest in the role of a human rights framework to mobilize resources for health. Discussion This paper argues that the human rights framework does provide us with an appropriate understanding of what values should guide a nation's health policy, and a potentially powerful means of moving the health agenda forward. It also, however, argues that appeals to human rights may not necessarily be effective at mobilizing resources for specific health problems one might want to do something about. Specifically, it is not possible to argue that a particular allocation of scarce health care resources should be changed to a different allocation, benefiting other groups. Lack of access to health care services by some people only shows that something has to be done, but not what should be done. Summary The somewhat weak claim identified above together with the obligation to realize progressively a right to health can be used to mobilize resources for health. PMID:15473899

  11. Dust and human health: Chapter 15

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morman, Suzette A.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted that exposure to fine particulate matter may increase risk for human morbidity and mortality. Until recently, population health related studies examining the effects of particulate matter on human health generally examined anthropogenic (industry and combustion by-products) sources with few studies considering contributions from natural sources. This chapter provides an overview of naturally occurring inorganic mineral dust research and associated human health ailments and some of the challenges in elucidating the etiological mechanisms responsible.

  12. [The look into the look: how patients' suffering is perceived by health workers].

    PubMed

    Bazzana, Emanuela; Spada, Simonetta; Braibanti, Paride; Lembo, Antonino

    2011-01-01

    The literature about the surgical treatment of the urologic patient shows an increased attention to the outcome measures related to the quality of life and satisfaction of the treated subject. In this context, a crucial position must be attributed to the quality of the relationships among all the subjects involved in the therapeutic process, and especially among caregivers and patients. Cognitive and emotional dimensions play an important role at this regard, to which a spread sensitivity as for the "local culture" of care must correspond. The aim of this study is to identify the health workers' perception and representation of the cognitive and emotional needs of the patients and their relationship with the organizational complexity of the department. The study was implemented in the Urology Department of the Ospedali Riuniti in Bergamo. It involved eleven health workers (two medical doctors and nine nurses). Each of them underwent a semi-structured interview. The anonymous interview transcripts were analyzed using the T-Lab thematic content analysis program. The study highlighted sensitive areas such as: informative dialogue with the patient, reactivity facing the intervention according to gender, the subject's self-adapting process to the clinical environment and the organizational functioning of the department. The health workers' need of new approaches to meet the needs of the subjects under treatment and their family is underlined. Furthermore, the requirement of consistent functional organizational changes to improve the quality of relationships in the process of care is pointed out. The health workers reported both critical situations, efforts, perceived difficulties and important relational resources to face them. PMID:21452162

  13. Vulnerable Populations Perceive Their Health as at Risk from Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Akerlof, Karen L.; Delamater, Paul L.; Boules, Caroline R.; Upperman, Crystal R.; Mitchell, Clifford S.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is already taking a toll on human health, a toll that is likely to increase in coming decades. The relationship between risk perceptions and vulnerability to climate change’s health threats has received little attention, even though an understanding of the dynamics of adaptation among particularly susceptible populations is becoming increasingly important. We demonstrate that some people whose health will suffer the greatest harms from climate change—due to social vulnerability, health susceptibility, and exposure to hazards—already feel they are at risk. In a 2013 survey we measured Maryland residents’ climate beliefs, health risk perceptions, and household social vulnerability characteristics, including medical conditions (n = 2126). We paired survey responses with secondary data sources for residence in a floodplain and/or urban heat island to predict perceptions of personal and household climate health risk. General health risk perceptions, political ideology, and climate beliefs are the strongest predictors. Yet, people in households with the following characteristics also see themselves at higher risk: members with one or more medical conditions or disabilities; low income; racial/ethnic minorities; and residence in a floodplain. In light of these results, climate health communication among vulnerable populations should emphasize protective actions instead of risk messages. PMID:26690184

  14. Vulnerable Populations Perceive Their Health as at Risk from Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Akerlof, Karen L; Delamater, Paul L; Boules, Caroline R; Upperman, Crystal R; Mitchell, Clifford S

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is already taking a toll on human health, a toll that is likely to increase in coming decades. The relationship between risk perceptions and vulnerability to climate change's health threats has received little attention, even though an understanding of the dynamics of adaptation among particularly susceptible populations is becoming increasingly important. We demonstrate that some people whose health will suffer the greatest harms from climate change-due to social vulnerability, health susceptibility, and exposure to hazards-already feel they are at risk. In a 2013 survey we measured Maryland residents' climate beliefs, health risk perceptions, and household social vulnerability characteristics, including medical conditions (n = 2126). We paired survey responses with secondary data sources for residence in a floodplain and/or urban heat island to predict perceptions of personal and household climate health risk. General health risk perceptions, political ideology, and climate beliefs are the strongest predictors. Yet, people in households with the following characteristics also see themselves at higher risk: members with one or more medical conditions or disabilities; low income; racial/ethnic minorities; and residence in a floodplain. In light of these results, climate health communication among vulnerable populations should emphasize protective actions instead of risk messages. PMID:26690184

  15. Perceived effectiveness of pictorial health warnings among Mexican youth and adults: a population-level intervention to reduce tobacco related inequities

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, David; Thrasher, James; Reid, Jessica L.; Driezen, Pete; Boudreau, Christian; Santillan, Edna Arillo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Pictorial health warnings on cigarette packages are a prominent and effective means of communicating the risks of smoking; however, there is little research on effective types of message content and socio-demographic effects. This study tested message themes and content of pictorial warnings in Mexico. Methods Face-to-face surveys were conducted with 544 adult smokers and 528 youth in Mexico City. Participants were randomized to view 5–7 warnings for two of 15 different health effects. Warnings for each health effect included a text-only warning and pictorial warnings with various themes: “graphic” health effects, “lived experience”, symbolic images, and testimonials. Results Pictorial health warnings were rated as more effective than text-only warnings. Pictorial warnings featuring “graphic” depictions of disease were significantly more effective than symbolic images or experiences of human suffering. Adding testimonial information to warnings increased perceived effectiveness. Adults who were female, older, had lower education, and intended to quit smoking rated warnings as more effective, although the magnitude of these differences was modest. Few interactions were observed between socio-demographics and message theme. Conclusions Graphic depictions of disease were perceived by youth and adults as the most effective warning theme. Perceptions of warnings were generally similar across socio-demographic groups. PMID:22362058

  16. The association of marital relationship and perceived social support with mental health of women in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Marital circumstances have been indicated to be a salient risk factor for disproportionately high prevalence of depression and anxiety among Pakistani women. Although social support is a known buffer of psychological distress, there is no clear evidence as to how different aspects of marital relations interact and associate with depression and anxiety in the lives of Pakistani married women and the role of social supports in the context of their marriage. Methods Two hundred seventy seven married women were recruited from Rawalpindi district of Pakistan using a door knocking approach to psychometrically evaluate five scales for use in the Pakistani context. A confirmatory factor analysis approach was used to investigate the underlying factor structure of Couple satisfaction Index (CSI-4), Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test (LWMAT), Relationship Dynamic Scale (RDS), Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The interplay of the constructs underlying the three aspects of marital relations, and the role of social support on the mental health of married Pakistani women were examined using the Structural Equation Model. Results The factor structures of MSPSS, CSI-4, LWMAT, RDS and HADS were similar to the findings reported in the developed and developing countries. Perceived higher social support reduces the likelihood of depression and anxiety by enhancing positive relationship as reflected by a low score on the relationship dynamics scale which decreases CMD symptoms. Moreover, perceived higher social support is positively associated with marital adjustment directly and indirectly through relationship dynamics which is associated with the reduced risk of depression through the increased level of reported marital satisfaction. Nuclear family structure, low level of education and higher socio-economic status were significantly associated with increased risk of mental illness among

  17. Help Received for Perceived Needs Related to Mental Health in a Montreal (Canada) Epidemiological Catchment Area

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Bamvita, Jean-Marie; Grenier, Guy; Caron, Jean

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to identify variables associated with help received in terms of information, medication, counselling and total help received (including other needs) among 571 individuals needing health care services for mental health problems. Study participants were randomly selected from an epidemiological survey. Data on help received were collected using the Canadian version of the Perceived Need for Care Questionnaire (PNCQ), and were analyzed using a multinomial logistic regression model. Most help received was in the form of counselling, followed by medication and information. Compared with individuals who received no help, those who reported receiving help for all their needs were more likely to have psychological distress, to be non-verbally aggressive, to consult more healthcare professionals, to be men and to be somewhat older. Compared with individuals who received no help, those who received partial help were more likely to be not addicted to drugs or alcohol, to consult more healthcare professionals, and to be older. Healthcare services should prioritize strategies (e.g., early detection, outreach, public education on mental and addiction disorders) that address barriers to help seeking among youth, as well as individuals addicted to drugs and alcohol or those presenting with aggressive behavior. PMID:26501306

  18. Help Received for Perceived Needs Related to Mental Health in a Montreal (Canada) Epidemiological Catchment Area.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Bamvita, Jean-Marie; Grenier, Guy; Caron, Jean

    2015-10-01

    This study sought to identify variables associated with help received in terms of information, medication, counselling and total help received (including other needs) among 571 individuals needing health care services for mental health problems. Study participants were randomly selected from an epidemiological survey. Data on help received were collected using the Canadian version of the Perceived Need for Care Questionnaire (PNCQ), and were analyzed using a multinomial logistic regression model. Most help received was in the form of counselling, followed by medication and information. Compared with individuals who received no help, those who reported receiving help for all their needs were more likely to have psychological distress, to be non-verbally aggressive, to consult more healthcare professionals, to be men and to be somewhat older. Compared with individuals who received no help, those who received partial help were more likely to be not addicted to drugs or alcohol, to consult more healthcare professionals, and to be older. Healthcare services should prioritize strategies (e.g., early detection, outreach, public education on mental and addiction disorders) that address barriers to help seeking among youth, as well as individuals addicted to drugs and alcohol or those presenting with aggressive behavior. PMID:26501306

  19. How do hospital administrators perceive cardiac rehabilitation in a publicly-funded health care system?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient and provider-related factors affecting access to cardiac rehabilitation (CR) have been extensively studied, but health-system administration factors have not. The objectives of this study were to investigate hospital administrators’ (HA) awareness and knowledge of cardiac rehabilitation (CR), perceptions regarding resources for and benefit of CR, and attitudes toward and implementation of inpatient transition planning for outpatient CR. Methods A cross-sectional and observational design was used. A survey was administered to 679 HAs through Canadian and Ontario databases. A descriptive examination was performed, and differences in HAs’ perceptions by role, institution type and presence of within-institution CR were compared using t-tests. Results 195 (28.7%) Canadian HAs completed the survey. Respondents reported good knowledge of what CR entails (mean=3.42±1.15/5). Awareness of the closest site was lower among HAs working in community versus academic institutions (3.88±1.24 vs. 4.34±0.90/5 respectively; p=.01). HAs in non-executive roles (4.77±0.46/5) perceived greater CR importance for patients’ care than executives (4.52±0.57; p=.001). HAs perceived CR programs should be situated in both hospitals and community settings (n=134, 71.7%). Conclusions HAs value CR as part of patients’ care, and are supportive of greater CR provision. Those working in community settings and executives may not be as aware of, or less-likely to value, CR services. CR leaders from academic institutions might consider liaising with community hospitals to raise awareness of CR benefits, and advocate for it with the executives in their home institutions. PMID:23537384

  20. Perceived Discrimination in Clinical Care in a Nationally Representative Sample of HIV-Infected Adults Receiving Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Mark A; Collins, Rebecca; Cunningham, William E; Morton, Sally C; Zierler, Sally; Wong, Myra; Tu, Wenli; Kanouse, David E

    2005-01-01

    Background Perceived discrimination in clinical settings could discourage HIV-infected people from seeking health care, adhering to treatment regimens, or returning for follow-up. Objectives This study aims to determine whether HIV-infected people perceive that physicians and other health care providers have discriminated against them. Design, Participants Cross-sectional data (1996 to 1997) from the HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study (HCSUS), which conducted in-person interviews with a nationally representative probability sample of 2,466 HIV-infected adults receiving health care within the contiguous U.S. Measurements Reports of whether health care providers have been uncomfortable with the respondent, treated the respondent as an inferior, preferred to avoid the respondent, or refused the respondent service. Questions also covered the types of providers who engaged in these behaviors. Results Twenty-six percent of HIV-infected adults receiving health care reported experiencing at least 1 of 4 types of perceived discrimination by a health care provider since becoming infected with HIV, including 8% who had been refused service. White respondents (32%) were more likely than others (27%) and Latinos (21%) and nearly twice as likely as African Americans (17%) to report perceived discrimination (P<.001). Respondents whose first positive HIV test was longer ago were also more likely to report discrimination (P<.001). Respondents who reported discrimination attributed it to physicians (54%), nurses and other clinical staff (39%), dentists (32%), hospital staff (31%), and case managers or social workers (8%). Conclusions Many HIV-infected adults believe that their clinicians have discriminated against them. Clinicians should make efforts to address circumstances that lead patients to perceive discrimination, whether real or imagined. PMID:16117747

  1. Personality and Perceived Health in Spousal Caregivers of Patients with Lung Cancer: The Roles of Neuroticism and Extraversion.

    PubMed

    Hoerger, Michael; Coletta, Maria; Sörensen, Silvia; Chapman, Benjamin P; Kaukeinen, Kim; Tu, Xin; Duberstein, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Family members' responsibilities for patients with cancer have increased dramatically over the past decade and will likely continue to rise. Given that caregiving is associated with declines in self-care, there is a need for research on caregivers' perceptions of their own health. The purpose of this study was to examine whether personality is associated with four self-report perceived health items from the SF-36. Methods. The sample consisted of 114 spouses of lung cancer patients who completed cross-sectional measures as part of a larger cohort study on adjustment to the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. Predictors of interest were Neuroticism and Extraversion scores from the NEO-FFI. Covariates were age, gender, conscientiousness, depressive symptoms, and objective illness burden. Results. Multivariate analyses revealed that caregivers with higher Extraversion scores were less likely to respond affirmatively to the item "I expect my health to get worse" (OR = 0.90, p < 0.05). Neuroticism was associated with poorer perceived health (ORs from 1.11 to 1.12, p's < 0.05). Conclusions. The present cross-sectional findings suggest that personality is associated with responses to SF-36 perceived health items beyond what can be accounted for by objective illness burden and other covariates. The potential overestimation of health among extraverted caregivers may have implications for their health outcomes. PMID:27144023

  2. Personality and Perceived Health in Spousal Caregivers of Patients with Lung Cancer: The Roles of Neuroticism and Extraversion

    PubMed Central

    Hoerger, Michael; Coletta, Maria; Sörensen, Silvia; Chapman, Benjamin P.; Kaukeinen, Kim; Tu, Xin; Duberstein, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Family members' responsibilities for patients with cancer have increased dramatically over the past decade and will likely continue to rise. Given that caregiving is associated with declines in self-care, there is a need for research on caregivers' perceptions of their own health. The purpose of this study was to examine whether personality is associated with four self-report perceived health items from the SF-36. Methods. The sample consisted of 114 spouses of lung cancer patients who completed cross-sectional measures as part of a larger cohort study on adjustment to the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. Predictors of interest were Neuroticism and Extraversion scores from the NEO-FFI. Covariates were age, gender, conscientiousness, depressive symptoms, and objective illness burden. Results. Multivariate analyses revealed that caregivers with higher Extraversion scores were less likely to respond affirmatively to the item “I expect my health to get worse” (OR = 0.90, p < 0.05). Neuroticism was associated with poorer perceived health (ORs from 1.11 to 1.12, p's < 0.05). Conclusions. The present cross-sectional findings suggest that personality is associated with responses to SF-36 perceived health items beyond what can be accounted for by objective illness burden and other covariates. The potential overestimation of health among extraverted caregivers may have implications for their health outcomes. PMID:27144023

  3. One Health: a perspective from the human health sector.

    PubMed

    Kakkar, M; Hossain, S S; Abbas, S S

    2014-08-01

    Despite emerging consensus that the One Health concept involves multiple stakeholders, the human health sector has continued to view it from a predominantly human health security perspective. It has often ignored the concerns of other sectors, e.g. concerns that relate to trade, commerce, livelihoods and sustainable development, all of which are important contributors to societal well-being. In the absence of a culture of collaboration, clear One Health goals, conceptual clarity and operating frameworks, this disconnect between human health and One Health efforts has often impeded the translation of One Health from concept to reality, other than during emergency situations. If there are to be effective and sustainable One Health partnerships we must identify clear operating principles that allow flexible approaches to intersectoral collaborations. To convince technical experts and political leaders in the human health sector of the importance of intersectoral cooperation, and to make the necessary structural adjustments, we need examples of best practice models and trans-sectoral methods for measuring the risks, burden and costs across sectors. Informal collaborations between researchers and technical experts will play a decisive role in developing these methods and models and instilling societal well-being into the human health sector's view of One Health. PMID:25707171

  4. Digital Game Playing Motives among Adolescents: Relations to Parent-Child Communication, School Performance, Sleeping Habits, and Perceived Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallenius, Marjut; Rimpela, Arja; Punamaki, Raija-Leena; Lintonen, Tomi

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this research were to describe Finnish adolescents' different motives for digital game playing, and to examine relations between digital game playing and parent-child communication, school performance, sleeping habits, and perceived health. A questionnaire was used to assess a nationwide postal sample of 12-18-year-old Finns (6761…

  5. Petmanship: Understanding Elderly Filipinos' Self-Perceived Health and Self-Esteem Captured from Their Lived Experiences with Pet Companions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Cucueco, Denise S.; Cuenco, Ian Benedict V.; Cunanan, Nigel Gerome C.; Dabandan, Robel T.; Dacanay, Edgar Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding of the lived experiences of geriatric clients with pets, particularly in the Western cultures, has been the subject of many studies. However, little is known about how Asian cultures, particularly the Filipino elderly, view their experiences with their pets in regard to their self-esteem and self-perceived health. This…

  6. Impact of Literacy Influences and Perceived Reading Ability on Self-Rated Health of Public Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zullig, Keith J.; Ubbes, Valerie A.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of literacy influences and perceived reading ability on the self-rated health (SRH) of 244 middle school students. Five literacy influences and reading ability independent variables resulted in moderate to substantial test-retest reliability [Kappas 46.6 to 63.8] over a two-week period. SRH served as the…

  7. The Relation of Perceived and Received Social Support to Mental Health among First Responders: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prati, Gabriele; Pietrantoni, Luca

    2010-01-01

    There are plenty of theories that may support the protective role of social support in the aftermath of potentially traumatic events. This meta-analytic review examined the role of received and perceived social support in promoting mental health among first responders (e.g., firefighters, police officers, and paramedics or emergency medical…

  8. The Effects of Vocal Register Use and Age on the Perceived Vocal Health of Male Elementary Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Ryan A.; Scott, Julie K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of vocal register use and age on the perceived vocal health of male elementary music teachers. Participants (N = 160) consisted of male elementary music teachers from two neighboring states in the south-central region of the United States. Participants responded to various demographic questions…

  9. The Impact of Perceived Stress, Social Support, and Home-Based Physical Activity on Mental Health among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwag, Kyung Hwa; Martin, Peter; Russell, Daniel; Franke, Warren; Kohut, Marian

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how perceived stress, social support, and home-based physical activity affected older adults' fatigue, loneliness, and depression. We also explored whether social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health problems. The data of 163 older participants were analyzed in this…

  10. Relationships between Health-Related Fitness Knowledge, Perceived Competence, Self- Determination, and Physical Activity Behaviors of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haslem, Liz; Wilkinson, Carol; Prusak, Keven A.; Christensen, William F.; Pennington, Todd

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (a) to test a hypothesized model of motivation within the context of conceptual physical education (CPE), and (b) to explore the strength and directionality of perceived competence for physical activity as a possible mediator for health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) and physical activity behaviors. High school…

  11. An Analysis of the Association between Perceived Discrimination and Self-Reported Health among University Students in Southwest Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Renee L.

    2013-01-01

    The experience of discrimination is a complex phenomenon. At present, there are few studies that have captured the experience of discrimination on a predominately white university campus. This study was designed to investigate the association between perceived discrimination and self-reported health outcomes among university students in Southwest…

  12. Public information officers' perceived control in building local public health agendas and the impact of community size.

    PubMed

    Avery, Elizabeth Johnson; Lariscy, Ruthann Weaver

    2011-12-01

    Using data collected from 280 local public health information officers (PIOs) serving community sizes from rural to urban across the United States, this study examines issues of local autonomy or lack thereof in establishing local health agendas. It specifically addresses how size of community as well as state and federal agencies' agendas affect public health promotion at the local level. Findings reveal low levels of perceived local departmental control in building public health agendas among rural PIOs. Alternatively, urban PIOs report low levels of both perceived state and federal departmental control yet higher levels of local departmental control compared to counterparts in other sized locales. Implications and importance of findings are discussed. PMID:21660791

  13. Antioxidant relevance to human health.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2013-01-01

    Human ecology requires both oxygen and water with the generation from food of an immediate energy source, ATP, by oxidative phosphorylation. A continuing balance between oxidation and antioxidation is necessary for longer less-disabled lives, taking account of oxidative stresses and the critical roles of oxidants in defence against infection, tissue repair and signalling. Antioxidant capacity is derived both exogenously (from food, beverage and sunlight) and endogenously (from enzymatic and non-enzymatic pathways). A number of oxidant food factors service antioxidant metallo-enzymes. The capacity operates extra- or intracellularly. Uric acid is the major antioxidant in primate blood. Uric acid synthesis is increased by dietary fructose from fruit, sugary foods and drinks. This indirect antioxidant effect of fruit is separate from that attributable to its flavonoids. Alcohol also increases serum uric acid. Urate excess and retention is associated with disease. The high prevalence of hyperuricaemia in NE Asia presents a major public health dilemma in regard to putative benefits and risks. Foods with high antioxidant activity include berries, nuts and legumes, tomatoes and sweet potato leaves. Each of the antioxidants in these foods is pleiotropic being inter-alia anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic or anti-neoplastic. Moreover, food matrices and patterns contribute to the safety of antioxidant consumption. There is no evidence to date that isolated antioxidants as food supplements improve health outcomes or survival; and some that indicate unacceptable risk. Their use as biomarkers of food cannot justify their isolated use. Nevertheless, a spectrum of dietary pluripotential antioxidants for tissues, metabolic and immune systems is advantageous. PMID:23635359

  14. Public health nursing, ethics and human rights.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Luba L; Oden, Tami L

    2013-05-01

    Public health nursing has a code of ethics that guides practice. This includes the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses, Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health, and the Scope and Standards of Public Health Nursing. Human rights and Rights-based care in public health nursing practice are relatively new. They reflect human rights principles as outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and applied to public health practice. As our health care system is restructured and there are new advances in technology and genetics, a focus on providing care that is ethical and respects human rights is needed. Public health nurses can be in the forefront of providing care that reflects an ethical base and a rights-based approach to practice with populations. PMID:23586767

  15. Somatic Symptoms: Prevalence, Co-Occurrence and Associations with Self-Perceived Health and Limitations Due To Physical Health – A Danish Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Eliasen, Marie; Kreiner, Svend; Ebstrup, Jeanette F.; Poulsen, Chalotte H.; Lau, Cathrine J.; Skovbjerg, Sine; Fink, Per K.; Jørgensen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    A high number of somatic symptoms have been associated with poor health status and increased health care use. Previous studies focused on number of symptoms without considering the specific symptoms. The aim of the study was to investigate 1) the prevalence of 19 somatic symptoms, 2) the associations between the symptoms, and 3) the associations between the somatic symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health accounting for the co-occurrence of symptoms. Information on 19 somatic symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health was achieved from a population-based questionnaire survey of 36,163 randomly selected adults in the Capital Region of Denmark in 2006/07. Chain graph models were used to transparently identify and describe the associations between symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health. In total, 94.9% of the respondents were bothered by one or more of the 19 somatic symptoms. The symptoms were associated in a complex structure. Still, recognisable patterns were identified within organ systems/body parts. When accounting for symptom co-occurrence; dizziness, pain in legs, respiratory distress and tiredness were all strongly directly associated with both of the outcomes (γ>0.30). Chest pain was strongly associated with self-perceived health, and other musculoskeletal symptoms and urinary retention were strongly associated with limitations due to physical health. Other symptoms were either moderate or not statistically associated with the health status outcomes. Opposite, almost all the symptoms were strongly associated with the two outcomes when not accounting for symptom co-occurrence. In conclusion, we found that somatic symptoms were frequent and associated in a complex structure. The associations between symptoms and health status measures differed between the symptoms and depended on the co-occurrence of symptoms. This indicates an importance of considering both the specific

  16. Perceived stigma reductions following participation in mental health services integrated within community-based HIV primary care.

    PubMed

    Farber, Eugene W; Shahane, Amit A; Brown, Jennifer L; Campos, Peter E

    2014-01-01

    HIV stigma remains a significant challenge for individuals living with HIV disease that can adversely affect overall well-being and patterns of HIV health service engagement. Finding ways to effectively address stigma concerns is, therefore, an important consideration in the clinical management of HIV disease. This study examined changes in perceived stigma in a sample of 48 adults living with HIV disease as an outcome of their participation in a mental health services program integrated with community-based HIV primary care. Participants completed a self-report instrument that provided a multidimensional measure of perceived HIV stigma, including distancing, blaming, and discrimination dimensions. This scale was administered at the baseline mental health service visit and then re-administered at the three-month follow-up point. Study results showed reductions in self-reported perceived HIV stigma over time for the distancing (t = 4.01, p = 0.000, d = 0.43), blaming (t = 2.79, p = 0.008, d = 0.35), and discrimination (t = 2.90, p = 0.006, d = 0.42) dimensions of stigma. These findings suggest that participation in HIV mental health services may have a favorable impact on perceived HIV stigma. Implications of these findings are discussed, including possible mechanisms that might explain the observed results as well as suggested directions for future research in this area. Randomized controlled trials would represent an important next step to investigate the extent to which HIV mental health services can reduce levels of perceived HIV stigma. PMID:24093931

  17. Effects of illness representation, perceived quality of information provided by the health-care professional, and perceived social support on depressive symptoms of the caregivers of children with leukemia.

    PubMed

    Bozo, Ozlem; Anahar, Selin; Ateş, Gizem; Etel, Evren

    2010-03-01

    The present study examined the effects of illness representation, perceived quality of information provided by the health-care professional, and perceived social support on the depressive symptoms of the caregivers of children with leukemia. The sample was composed of 71 caregivers of children with leukemia living in Turkey. The obtained data were analyzed by path analysis. The results show that caregivers of children with leukemia experience higher levels of depressive symptoms when they have negative illness representation and lower levels of depressive symptoms when they perceive higher levels of social support. Moreover, they perceive higher social support when they perceive high quality of information provided by health-care professionals. It can be suggested that intervention programs which aim to increase caregivers' social support and change their illness representation in a positive way would be helpful for the caregivers showing depressive symptoms. PMID:19898925

  18. Do Lambs Perceive Regular Human Stroking as Pleasant? Behavior and Heart Rate Variability Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Coulon, Marjorie; Nowak, Raymond; Peyrat, Julie; Chandèze, Hervé; Boissy, Alain; Boivin, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Stroking by humans is beneficial to the human-animal relationship and improves welfare in many species that express intraspecific allogrooming, but very few studies have looked at species like sheep that do not express such contact except around parturition. This study investigated the way lambs perceive regular human tactile contact using behavioral and physiological responses. Twenty-four lambs were reared and bucket-fed in groups of four. All were stroked daily by their familiar caregiver. At 8 weeks of age, the lambs were individually tested in their home pen but in a 1×1m open-barred pen after a 15h period of habituation to physical separation from peers while remaining in visual and auditory contact. Half of the lambs received stroking by their caregiver for 8min and half were exposed to their caregiver’s immobile presence. Heart rate and heart rate variability were recorded and analyzed by 2-min slots over the same interval based on three measures: mean heart rate value (HR), root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) and standard deviation of all intervals measured between consecutive sinus beats (SDNN). Behavioral responses (ear postures of the lamb and time spent in contact with the familiar caregiver, on the knees of the familiar caregiver, and moving) were recorded throughout the test. Lamb HR decreased continuously while in the presence of their caregiver. Lambs being stroked showed slower HR and higher RMSSD which reflected positive emotional states compared to lambs left unstroked. All behavioral variables were highly correlated with the main component axis of the PCA analyses: the more the animals stayed in contact with their caregiver, the less they moved and the more their ears were hanging. This first component clearly differentiates lambs being stroked or not. Behavioral and physiological observations support the hypothesis that gentle physical contact with the caregiver is perceived positively by lambs. PMID:25714604

  19. Do lambs perceive regular human stroking as pleasant? Behavior and heart rate variability analyses.

    PubMed

    Coulon, Marjorie; Nowak, Raymond; Peyrat, Julie; Chandèze, Hervé; Boissy, Alain; Boivin, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Stroking by humans is beneficial to the human-animal relationship and improves welfare in many species that express intraspecific allogrooming, but very few studies have looked at species like sheep that do not express such contact except around parturition. This study investigated the way lambs perceive regular human tactile contact using behavioral and physiological responses. Twenty-four lambs were reared and bucket-fed in groups of four. All were stroked daily by their familiar caregiver. At 8 weeks of age, the lambs were individually tested in their home pen but in a 1×1m open-barred pen after a 15 h period of habituation to physical separation from peers while remaining in visual and auditory contact. Half of the lambs received stroking by their caregiver for 8 min and half were exposed to their caregiver's immobile presence. Heart rate and heart rate variability were recorded and analyzed by 2-min slots over the same interval based on three measures: mean heart rate value (HR), root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) and standard deviation of all intervals measured between consecutive sinus beats (SDNN). Behavioral responses (ear postures of the lamb and time spent in contact with the familiar caregiver, on the knees of the familiar caregiver, and moving) were recorded throughout the test. Lamb HR decreased continuously while in the presence of their caregiver. Lambs being stroked showed slower HR and higher RMSSD which reflected positive emotional states compared to lambs left unstroked. All behavioral variables were highly correlated with the main component axis of the PCA analyses: the more the animals stayed in contact with their caregiver, the less they moved and the more their ears were hanging. This first component clearly differentiates lambs being stroked or not. Behavioral and physiological observations support the hypothesis that gentle physical contact with the caregiver is perceived positively by lambs. PMID:25714604

  20. Competition in human groups-Impact on group cohesion, perceived stress and outcome satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Boos, Margarete; Franiel, Xaver; Belz, Michael

    2015-11-01

    This study on competition in human groups was performed within the context of the competitive outcome interdependence concept: the degree to which personal outcomes among group members are affected by the consequences of task performance of others, e.g. when one group member gains a high reward for a task, this lowers the available reward for other group members. Our computer-based multi-participant game empirically assessed how competitive versus neutral conditions influenced the reward-maximising behaviour of 200 undergraduate students functioning in ten-person groups - each playing two games (1 neutral and 1 competitive), their perceived pay satisfaction as well as perceived stress levels and sense of calmness within the games' task to search for coins. Participants were represented by black dots moving on a virtual playground. Results showed that competition led to reward-maximising but fellow group member disadvantaging behaviour, and all participants experienced lower pay satisfaction, higher stress levels and less calmness. We conclude that short-term behavioural consequences of positive individual competitive behaviour were gained at the above-mentioned potential long-term negative costs for all group members. This implies group paradigms aimed at sustainability should avoid introducing competitive factors that at best result in short-lived gains and at worst cause widespread dissatisfaction, stress and a pervasive lack of calmness. PMID:26222550

  1. Training Trainers in health and human rights: Implementing curriculum change in South African health sciences institutions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The complicity of the South African health sector in apartheid and the international relevance of human rights as a professional obligation prompted moves to include human rights competencies in the curricula of health professionals in South Africa. A Train-the-Trainers course in Health and Human Rights was established in 1998 to equip faculty members from health sciences institutions nationwide with the necessary skills, attitudes and knowledge to teach human rights to their students. This study followed up participants to determine the extent of curriculum implementation, support needed as well as barriers encountered in integrating human rights into health sciences teaching and learning. Methods A survey including both quantitative and qualitative components was distributed in 2007 to past course participants from 1998-2006 via telephone, fax and electronic communication. Results Out of 162 past participants, 46 (28%) completed the survey, the majority of whom were still employed in academic settings (67%). Twenty-two respondents (48%) implemented a total of 33 formal human rights courses into the curricula at their institutions. Respondents were nine times more likely (relative risk 9.26; 95% CI 5.14-16.66) to implement human rights education after completing the training. Seventy-two extracurricular activities were offered by 21 respondents, many of whom had successfully implemented formal curricula. Enabling factors for implementation included: prior teaching experience in human rights, general institutional support and the presence of allies - most commonly coworkers as well as deans. Frequently cited barriers to implementation included: budget restrictions, time constraints and perceived apathy of colleagues or students. Overall, respondents noted personal enrichment and optimism in teaching human rights. Conclusion This Train-the-Trainer course provides the historical context, educational tools, and collective motivation to incorporate human

  2. A face for all seasons: Searching for context-specific leadership traits and discovering a general preference for perceived health

    PubMed Central

    Spisak, Brian R.; Blaker, Nancy M.; Lefevre, Carmen E.; Moore, Fhionna R.; Krebbers, Kleis F. B.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research indicates that followers tend to contingently match particular leader qualities to evolutionarily consistent situations requiring collective action (i.e., context-specific cognitive leadership prototypes) and information processing undergoes categorization which ranks certain qualities as first-order context-general and others as second-order context-specific. To further investigate this contingent categorization phenomenon we examined the “attractiveness halo”—a first-order facial cue which significantly biases leadership preferences. While controlling for facial attractiveness, we independently manipulated the underlying facial cues of health and intelligence and then primed participants with four distinct organizational dynamics requiring leadership (i.e., competition vs. cooperation between groups and exploratory change vs. stable exploitation). It was expected that the differing requirements of the four dynamics would contingently select for relatively healthier- or intelligent-looking leaders. We found perceived facial intelligence to be a second-order context-specific trait—for instance, in times requiring a leader to address between-group cooperation—whereas perceived health is significantly preferred across all contexts (i.e., a first-order trait). The results also indicate that facial health positively affects perceived masculinity while facial intelligence negatively affects perceived masculinity, which may partially explain leader choice in some of the environmental contexts. The limitations and a number of implications regarding leadership biases are discussed. PMID:25414653

  3. A face for all seasons: Searching for context-specific leadership traits and discovering a general preference for perceived health.

    PubMed

    Spisak, Brian R; Blaker, Nancy M; Lefevre, Carmen E; Moore, Fhionna R; Krebbers, Kleis F B

    2014-01-01

    Previous research indicates that followers tend to contingently match particular leader qualities to evolutionarily consistent situations requiring collective action (i.e., context-specific cognitive leadership prototypes) and information processing undergoes categorization which ranks certain qualities as first-order context-general and others as second-order context-specific. To further investigate this contingent categorization phenomenon we examined the "attractiveness halo"-a first-order facial cue which significantly biases leadership preferences. While controlling for facial attractiveness, we independently manipulated the underlying facial cues of health and intelligence and then primed participants with four distinct organizational dynamics requiring leadership (i.e., competition vs. cooperation between groups and exploratory change vs. stable exploitation). It was expected that the differing requirements of the four dynamics would contingently select for relatively healthier- or intelligent-looking leaders. We found perceived facial intelligence to be a second-order context-specific trait-for instance, in times requiring a leader to address between-group cooperation-whereas perceived health is significantly preferred across all contexts (i.e., a first-order trait). The results also indicate that facial health positively affects perceived masculinity while facial intelligence negatively affects perceived masculinity, which may partially explain leader choice in some of the environmental contexts. The limitations and a number of implications regarding leadership biases are discussed. PMID:25414653

  4. Comparison of Perceived and Technical Healthcare Quality in Primary Health Facilities: Implications for a Sustainable National Health Insurance Scheme in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Duku, Stephen Opoku; Janssens, Wendy; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Spieker, Nicole; van Ostenberg, Paul; Arhinful, Daniel Kojo; Pradhan, Menno; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Quality care in health facilities is critical for a sustainable health insurance system because of its influence on clients’ decisions to participate in health insurance and utilize health services. Exploration of the different dimensions of healthcare quality and their associations will help determine more effective quality improvement interventions and health insurance sustainability strategies, especially in resource constrained countries in Africa where universal access to good quality care remains a challenge. Purpose To examine the differences in perceptions of clients and health staff on quality healthcare and determine if these perceptions are associated with technical quality proxies in health facilities. Implications of the findings for a sustainable National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Ghana are also discussed. Methods This is a cross-sectional study in two southern regions in Ghana involving 64 primary health facilities: 1,903 households and 324 health staff. Data collection lasted from March to June, 2012. A Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test was performed to determine differences in client and health staff perceptions of quality healthcare. Spearman’s rank correlation test was used to ascertain associations between perceived and technical quality care proxies in health facilities, and ordered logistic regression employed to predict the determinants of client and staff-perceived quality healthcare. Results Negative association was found between technical quality and client-perceived quality care (coef. = -0.0991, p<0.0001). Significant staff-client perception differences were found in all healthcare quality proxies, suggesting some level of unbalanced commitment to quality improvement and potential information asymmetry between clients and service providers. Overall, the findings suggest that increased efforts towards technical quality care alone will not necessarily translate into better client-perceived quality care and willingness to

  5. Test anxiety, coping strategies, and perceived health in a group of high school students: a Turkish sample.

    PubMed

    Aysan, F; Thompson, D; Hamarat, E

    2001-12-01

    A group of high school juniors and a group of high school seniors in Izmir, Turkey completed measures of test anxiety, coping skills, and perceived health status both before and after a major exam period. Students with high test anxiety used less effective coping mechanisms and tended to have poorer perceptions of their health. Prior to the exams, juniors displayed higher test anxiety and used less effective coping mechanisms than seniors. After the exam periods, improvements were seen for both age groups on perceived health, but scores of younger students remained significantly higher than scores of seniors on one of the key measures of test anxiety. Results of the study lend support to those of previous studies done in other cultural contexts, and findings have implications for the development of interventions designed to help students cope with stress. PMID:11831350

  6. Perceived Social Support and Its Association With Obesity-Specific Health-Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Herzer, Michele; Zeller, Meg H.; Rausch, Joseph R.; Modi, Avani C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To (1) describe type and source of social support perceived by obese youth and examine associations with sociodemographic/anthropometric characteristics, and (2) examine relationships between social support and obesity-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods Seventy-four obese youth and their primary caregivers participated. Youth completed the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale and an obesity-specific HRQOL measure, Sizing Me Up. Results Close friends and parents provided the most social support and were rated most important, except for teacher informational support. Classmates and schools provided the least social support. Body mass index z-score was correlated with teacher support frequency (r=−.26, p < .05) and minority youth reported more parent support (t(72)=−2.21, p < .05). Compared with other support providers, classmate support significantly predicted most HRQOL scales (p<.001). Conclusions Close friends, parents, and teachers are significant sources of support to youth with obesity; however, classmates play a unique role in the HRQOL of obese youth. PMID:21263350

  7. Message Framing for Health: Moderation by Perceived Susceptibility and Motivational Orientation in a Diverse Sample of Americans

    PubMed Central

    Updegraff, John A.; Brick, Cameron; Emanuel, Amber S.; Mintzer, Roy E.; Sherman, David K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study examined how gain- and loss-framed informational videos about oral health influence self-reported flossing behavior over a 6-month period, as well as the roles of perceived susceptibility to oral health problems and approach/avoidance motivational orientation in moderating these effects. Method An age and ethnically diverse sample of 855 American adults were randomized to receive no health message, or either a gain-framed or loss-framed video presented on the Internet. Self-reported flossing was assessed longitudinally at 2 and 6 months. Results Among the entire sample, susceptibility interacted with frame to predict flossing. Participants who watched a video where the frame (gain/loss) matched perceived susceptibility (low/high) had significantly greater likelihood of flossing at recommended levels at the 6-month follow-up, compared with those who viewed a mismatched video or no video at all. However, young adults (18–24) showed stronger moderation by motivational orientation than by perceived susceptibility, in line with previous work largely conducted with young adult samples. Conclusion Brief informational interventions can influence long-term health behavior, particularly when the gain- or loss-frame of the information matches the recipient’s beliefs about their health outcome risks. PMID:25020153

  8. A new perspective on human reward research: how consciously and unconsciously perceived reward information influences performance.

    PubMed

    Zedelius, Claire M; Veling, Harm; Custers, Ruud; Bijleveld, Erik; Chiew, Kimberly S; Aarts, Henk

    2014-06-01

    The question of how human performance can be improved through rewards is a recurrent topic of interest in psychology and neuroscience. Traditional, cognitive approaches to this topic have focused solely on consciously communicated rewards. Recently, a largely neuroscience-inspired perspective has emerged to examine the potential role of conscious awareness of reward information in effective reward pursuit. The present article reviews research employing a newly developed monetary-reward-priming paradigm that allows for a systematic investigation of this perspective. We analyze this research to identify similarities and differences in how consciously and unconsciously perceived rewards impact three distinct aspects relevant to performance: decision making, task preparation, and task execution. We further discuss whether conscious awareness, in modulating the effects of reward information, plays a role similar to its role in modulating the effects of other affective information. Implications of these insights for understanding the role of consciousness in modulating goal-directed behavior more generally are discussed. PMID:24399682

  9. Eutrophication, marine biotoxins, human health.

    PubMed

    Viviani, R

    1992-01-01

    Eutrophication phenomena in marine coastal waters can today be explained on the basis of natural or anthropogenic causes. Undesirable effects and also sanitary problems in both types of eutrophication are often produced, but they may differ greatly in frequency and significance. Some algal biotoxins can affect both marine animals and man, whilst others affect man alone. From data currently available it appears that the sanitary state of man can be affected through the digestive, respiratory and cutaneous apparatus. Four main dinoflagellate biointoxications are now recognized: paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), diarrhoetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), and venerupin poisoning. Other biointoxications are due to a diatom bloom responsible for amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) and to blue algae blooms which have effects on the skin and the respiratory tract. All these marine toxins are considered and particular attention is paid to: producing organisms, chemistry of the components, compromised sea foods, methods of analysis, occurrence worldwide, human intoxications, toxicology and mechanism of action on a molecular level, therapeutical notes, tolerance levels and remarks on safety. Attention is also paid to the relationship between the anthropogenic eutrophication and PSP and DSP since these are the most widespread biointoxications from toxic marine dinoflagellates in the world today and for which the European Economic Community (EEC) is proposing health legislation such as tolerance limits and methods for official analysis. In view of the harmful potential of coastal anthropogenic eutrophication, the main current committment of various countries concerns control. Finally, it is important to develop a suitable monitor research system using all the specific standards of allowed toxic substances, and also research on effective antiodotes against all biotoxins. PMID:1475681

  10. Colorectal cancer screening at community health centers: A survey of clinicians' attitudes, practices, and perceived barriers

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Tiffany; Lee, Ji Young; Park, Jessica; Nelson, Christine A.; McBurnie, Mary Ann; Liss, David T.; Kaleba, Erin O.; Henley, Eric; Harigopal, Padmini; Grant, Laura; Crawford, Phil; Carroll, Joseph E.; Alperovitz-Bichell, Kari; Baker, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates remain lower among some racial/ethnic groups and individuals with low income or educational attainment who are often cared for within community health centers (CHCs). We surveyed clinicians in a network of CHCs to understand their attitudes, practice patterns, and perceived barriers to CRC screening. Methods A clinician survey was conducted in 2013 within the Community Health Applied Research Network (CHARN). Results 180 clinicians completed the survey (47.9% response rate). Participants had an average of 11.5 (SD: 9.8) years in practice, 62% were female, and 57% were physicians. The majority of respondents somewhat agreed (30.2%) or strongly agreed (57.5%) that colonoscopy was the best screening test. However, only 15.8% of respondents strongly agreed and 32.2% somewhat agreed that colonoscopy was readily available for their patients. Fecal immunochemical testing (FIT), a type of fecal occult blood test (FOBT), was viewed less favorably; 24.6% rated FIT as very effective. Conclusions Although there are no data showing that screening colonoscopy is superior to FIT, CHC clinicians believe colonoscopy is the best CRC screening test for their patients, despite the high prevalence of financial barriers to colonoscopy. These attitudes could be due to lack of knowledge about the evidence supporting long-term benefits of fecal occult blood testing (FOBT), lack of awareness about the improved test characteristics of FIT compared to older guaiac-based FOBT, or the absence of systems to ensure adherence to regular FOBT screening. Interventions to improve CRC screening at CHCs must address clinicians' negative attitudes towards FIT. PMID:26844165

  11. Social Capital, Acculturation, Mental Health, and Perceived Access to Services among Mexican American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia-Garcia, Dellanira; Simoni, Jane M.; Alegria, Margarita; Takeuchi, David T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We examined whether individual-level social capital--the intangible resources in a community available through membership in social networks or other social structures and perceived trust in the community--was associated with acculturation, depression and anxiety symptoms, and perceived access to services among women of Mexican…

  12. Social Supports, Perceived Stress, and Health: The Black Experience in Medical School--A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strayhorn, Gregory

    1980-01-01

    In a predominantly White medical school, Black students perceived more stressors and fewer social supports. Blood pressure levels of low- and high-stress groups did not differ significantly, and neither total degree of perceived stressors nor interaction of stressors and social supports significantly predicted blood pressure when controlled for…

  13. Climate change and human health: a One Health approach.

    PubMed

    Patz, Jonathan A; Hahn, Micah B

    2013-01-01

    Climate change adds complexity and uncertainty to human health issues such as emerging infectious diseases, food security, and national sustainability planning that intensify the importance of interdisciplinary and collaborative research. Collaboration between veterinary, medical, and public health professionals to understand the ecological interactions and reactions to flux in a system can facilitate clearer understanding of climate change impacts on environmental, animal, and human health. Here we present a brief introduction to climate science and projections for the next century and a review of current knowledge on the impacts of climate-driven environmental change on human health. We then turn to the links between ecological and evolutionary responses to climate change and health. The literature on climate impacts on biological systems is rich in both content and historical data, but the connections between these changes and human health is less understood. We discuss five mechanisms by which climate changes impacts on biological systems will be felt by the human population: Modifications in Vector, Reservoir, and Pathogen Lifecycles; Diseases of Domestic and Wild Animals and Plants; Disruption of Synchrony Between Interacting Species; Trophic Cascades; and Alteration or Destruction of Habitat. Each species responds to environmental changes differently, and in order to predict the movement of disease through ecosystems, we have to rely on expertise from the fields of veterinary, medical, and public health, and these health professionals must take into account the dynamic nature of ecosystems in a changing climate. PMID:23160860

  14. Leadership, Organizational Climate, and Perceived Burden of Evidence-Based Practice in Mental Health Services.

    PubMed

    Brimhall, Kim C; Fenwick, Karissa; Farahnak, Lauren R; Hurlburt, Michael S; Roesch, Scott C; Aarons, Gregory A

    2016-09-01

    The use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) is associated with favorable client outcomes, yet perceived burden of using EBPs may affect the adoption and implementation of such practices. Multilevel path analysis was used to examine the associations of transformational leadership with organizational climate, and their associations with perceived burden of using EBPs. Results indicated significant relationships between transformational leadership and empowering and demoralizing climates, and between demoralizing climate and perceived burden of EBPs. We found significant indirect associations of leadership and perceived burden through organizational climate. Findings suggest that further research is needed to examine the extent to which improving leadership and organizational climate may reduce perceived burden and use of EBPs with the ultimate goal of enhancing quality of care. PMID:26152770

  15. Perceiving polarization with the naked eye: characterization of human polarization sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Temple, Shelby E; McGregor, Juliette E; Miles, Camilla; Graham, Laura; Miller, Josie; Buck, Jordan; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E; Roberts, Nicholas W

    2015-07-22

    Like many animals, humans are sensitive to the polarization of light. We can detect the angle of polarization using an entoptic phenomenon called Haidinger's brushes, which is mediated by dichroic carotenoids in the macula lutea. While previous studies have characterized the spectral sensitivity of Haidinger's brushes, other aspects remain unexplored. We developed a novel methodology for presenting gratings in polarization-only contrast at varying degrees of polarization in order to measure the lower limits of human polarized light detection. Participants were, on average, able to perform the task down to a threshold of 56%, with some able to go as low as 23%. This makes humans the most sensitive vertebrate tested to date. Additionally, we quantified a nonlinear relationship between presented and perceived polarization angle when an observer is presented with a rotatable polarized light field. This result confirms a previous theoretical prediction of how uniaxial corneal birefringence impacts the perception of Haidinger's brushes. The rotational dynamics of Haidinger's brushes were then used to calculate corneal retardance.We suggest that psychophysical experiments, based upon the perception of polarized light, are amenable to the production of affordable technologies for self-assessment and longitudinal monitoring of visual dysfunctions such as age-related macular degeneration. PMID:26136441

  16. Perceiving polarization with the naked eye: characterization of human polarization sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Temple, Shelby E.; McGregor, Juliette E.; Miles, Camilla; Graham, Laura; Miller, Josie; Buck, Jordan; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E.; Roberts, Nicholas W.

    2015-01-01

    Like many animals, humans are sensitive to the polarization of light. We can detect the angle of polarization using an entoptic phenomenon called Haidinger's brushes, which is mediated by dichroic carotenoids in the macula lutea. While previous studies have characterized the spectral sensitivity of Haidinger's brushes, other aspects remain unexplored. We developed a novel methodology for presenting gratings in polarization-only contrast at varying degrees of polarization in order to measure the lower limits of human polarized light detection. Participants were, on average, able to perform the task down to a threshold of 56%, with some able to go as low as 23%. This makes humans the most sensitive vertebrate tested to date. Additionally, we quantified a nonlinear relationship between presented and perceived polarization angle when an observer is presented with a rotatable polarized light field. This result confirms a previous theoretical prediction of how uniaxial corneal birefringence impacts the perception of Haidinger's brushes. The rotational dynamics of Haidinger's brushes were then used to calculate corneal retardance. We suggest that psychophysical experiments, based upon the perception of polarized light, are amenable to the production of affordable technologies for self-assessment and longitudinal monitoring of visual dysfunctions such as age-related macular degeneration. PMID:26136441

  17. Online Activity and Participation in Treatment Affects the Perceived Efficacy of Social Health Networks Among Patients With Chronic Illness

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Yoav S; Grosberg, Dafna

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of online health-related social networks for support, peer-to-peer connections, and obtaining health information has increased dramatically. Participation in an online health-related social network can enhance patients’ self-efficacy and empowerment, as they are given knowledge and tools to manage their chronic health condition more effectively. Thus, we can deduce that patient activation, the extent to which individuals are able to manage their own health care, also increases. However, little is known about the effects of participation in online health-related social networks and patient activation on the perceived usefulness of a website across disease groups. Objective The intent of the study was to evaluate the effects and benefits of participation in an online health-related social network and to determine which variables predict perceived site usefulness, while examining patient activation. Methods Data were collected from “Camoni”, the first health-related social network in the Hebrew language. It offers medical advice, including blogs, forums, support groups, internal mail, chats, and an opportunity to consult with experts. This study focused on the site’s five largest and most active communities: diabetes, heart disease, kidney disease, spinal injury, and depression/anxiety. Recruitment was conducted during a three-month period in which a link to the study questionnaire was displayed on the Camoni home page. Three questionnaires were used: a 13-item measure of perceived usefulness (Cronbach alpha=.93) to estimate the extent to which an individual found the website helpful and informative, a 9-item measure of active involvement in the website (Cronbach alpha=.84), and The Patient Activation Measure (PAM-13, Cronbach alpha=.86), which assesses a patient’s level of active participation in his or her health care. Results There were 296 participants. Men 30-39 years of age scored higher in active involvement than those 40-49 years

  18. HEALTH, VITAL GOALS, AND CENTRAL HUMAN CAPABILITIES

    PubMed Central

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2013-01-01

    I argue for a conception of health as a person's ability to achieve or exercise a cluster of basic human activities. These basic activities are in turn specified through free-standing ethical reasoning about what constitutes a minimal conception of a human life with equal human dignity in the modern world. I arrive at this conception of health by closely following and modifying Lennart Nordenfelt's theory of health which presents health as the ability to achieve vital goals. Despite its strengths I transform Nordenfelt's argument in order to overcome three significant drawbacks. Nordenfelt makes vital goals relative to each community or context and significantly reflective of personal preferences. By doing so, Nordenfelt's conception of health faces problems with both socially relative concepts of health and subjectively defined wellbeing. Moreover, Nordenfelt does not ever explicitly specify a set of vital goals. The theory of health advanced here replaces Nordenfelt's (seemingly) empty set of preferences and society-relative vital goals with a human species-wide conception of basic vital goals, or ‘central human capabilities and functionings’. These central human capabilities come out of the capabilities approach (CA) now familiar in political philosophy and economics, and particularly reflect the work of Martha Nussbaum. As a result, the health of an individual should be understood as the ability to achieve a basic cluster of beings and doings—or having the overarching capability, a meta-capability, to achieve a set of central or vital inter-related capabilities and functionings. PMID:22420910

  19. [Human resources for local health systems].

    PubMed

    Linger, C

    1989-01-01

    The economic and social crises affecting Latin America have had a profound social and political effect on its structures. This paper analyzes this impact from 2 perspectives: 1) the impact on the apparatus of the state, in particular on its health infra-structures; and 2) the direction of the democratic process in the continent and the participatory processes of civil societies. The institutionalization of the Local Health Systems (SILOS) is an effort to analyze the problem from within the health sector and propose solutions. This paper discusses the issues of human resource development in health systems; training in human resource development and human resource development in local health care systems. There are 3 strategies used to change health systems: 1) The judicial-political system: The state's apparatus 2) The political-administrative system: the national health care system; and 3) the political-operative system: local health care systems. To assure implementation of SILOS there are 4 steps to be followed: 1) create political conditions that allow the transformation and development of local health systems; 2) development of high-level institutional and political initiatives to develop health care networks; 3) offer key players institutional space and social action to develop the SILOS process; 4) rapidly develop SILOS in regions to assure its integration with other development efforts. The labor force in the health sector and organized communities play critical roles in proposing and institutionalizing health programs. PMID:2766984

  20. Rabbit Neonates and Human Adults Perceive a Blending 6-Component Odor Mixture in a Comparable Manner

    PubMed Central

    Sinding, Charlotte; Thomas-Danguin, Thierry; Chambault, Adeline; Béno, Noelle; Dosne, Thibaut; Chabanet, Claire; Schaal, Benoist; Coureaud, Gérard

    2013-01-01

    Young and adult mammals are constantly exposed to chemically complex stimuli. The olfactory system allows for a dual processing of relevant information from the environment either as single odorants in mixtures (elemental perception) or as mixtures of odorants as a whole (configural perception). However, it seems that human adults have certain limits in elemental perception of odor mixtures, as suggested by their inability to identify each odorant in mixtures of more than 4 components. Here, we explored some of these limits by evaluating the perception of three 6-odorant mixtures in human adults and newborn rabbits. Using free-sorting tasks in humans, we investigated the configural or elemental perception of these mixtures, or of 5-component sub-mixtures, or of the 6-odorant mixtures with modified odorants' proportion. In rabbit pups, the perception of the same mixtures was evaluated by measuring the orocephalic sucking response to the mixtures or their components after conditioning to one of these stimuli. The results revealed that one mixture, previously shown to carry the specific odor of red cordial in humans, was indeed configurally processed in humans and in rabbits while the two other 6-component mixtures were not. Moreover, in both species, such configural perception was specific not only to the 6 odorants included in the mixture but also to their respective proportion. Interestingly, rabbit neonates also responded to each odorant after conditioning to the red cordial mixture, which demonstrates their ability to perceive elements in addition to configuration in this complex mixture. Taken together, the results provide new insights related to the processing of relatively complex odor mixtures in mammals and the inter-species conservation of certain perceptual mechanisms; the results also revealed some differences in the expression of these capacities between species putatively linked to developmental and ecological constraints. PMID:23341948

  1. What's love got to do with it? Social functioning, perceived health, and daily happiness in married octogenarians.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Robert J; Schulz, Marc S

    2010-06-01

    This study examined day-to-day links between perceived health and happiness and between time spent with others and happiness in 47 older adult couples over an 8-day period. Marital satisfaction and time spent with others were explored as potential moderators of links between health and happiness. For both men and women, hierarchical linear modeling revealed daily links between more time spent with others and greater happiness. Daily links between time spent with one's partner and happiness were strongly moderated by marital satisfaction. For both men and women, marital satisfaction buffered day-to-day links between poorer perceived health and a decline in happiness, but time spent with others did not. This study provides support for the role of marital satisfaction in protecting older adults' happiness from daily fluctuations in perceived physical health and for the influence of social connections in promoting happiness in the lives of older adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:20545426

  2. Measurement and analysis of perceivable signal-to-noise ratio for infrared imaging system with human vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Zhao, Jing; Chang, Honghua; Ma, Lin

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between correct discrimination probability of the human eye and perceivable signal-to-noise (SNR) threshold is studied for different equilateral triangle sizes with specified luminance through combining theoretical calculation with practical experiment based on triangle orientation discrimination (TOD) performance evaluation method. Specifically, the simulation images of triangle patterns are generated by an infrared imaging system (IRIS) simulation model. And the perceivable SNRs for these images are calculated by establishing the system theoretical model and the human vision system model. Meanwhile, the Four-Alternative Forced-Choice experiment is performed. Experiment results of several observers are averaged statistically and the curves of perceivable SNR threshold which change with the correct discrimination probability are obtained. Finally, the analyses of these results show that these changes are in accordance with the psychometric function and that the fitting curves become steep with the increase of triangle sizes. These data and conclusions are helpful to modify the existing TOD performance model of an IRIS.

  3. The Moderator Role of Perceived Emotional Intelligence in the Relationship between Sources of Stress and Mental Health in Teachers.

    PubMed

    Pulido-Martos, Manuel; Lopez-Zafra, Esther; Estévez-López, Fernando; Augusto-Landa, José María

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the role of Perceived Emotional Intelligence (PEI) on sources of job stress and mental health in 250 elementary school teachers from Jaén (Spain). The aim of the study was two-fold: (1) to analyze the associations between Perceived Emotional Intelligence (PEI), sources of occupational stress and mental health; and (2) to determine whether PEI moderates the relationship between sources of occupational stress and mental health. An initial sample of 250 teachers was assessed Three questionnaires, the Trait Meta-Mood Scale, the Sources of Stress Scale in Teachers and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey, were used to evaluate PEI, sources of occupational stress and mental health, respectively. Teachers with higher levels of emotional attention reported lower levels of mental health (r = -.30; p < .001), while teachers showing high emotional clarity reported better emotional role (r = .14; p < .05) and social functioning (r = .15; p < .05). Moreover, PEI components moderate the relationship between sources of occupational stress and emotional role. Specifically, each significant interaction (i.e., deficiencies x attention, adaptation x attention, and adaptation x clarity) made a small and unique contribution in the explanation of emotional role (all p < .05, all sr 2 ∼ .02). Finally, our results imply that PEI is an important moderator of teachers´ occupational stressors on mental health. PMID:26936220

  4. NASA Human Health and Performance Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    In May 2007, what was then the Space Life Sciences Directorate, issued the 2007 Space Life Sciences Strategy for Human Space Exploration. In January 2012, leadership and key directorate personnel were once again brought together to assess the current and expected future environment against its 2007 Strategy and the Agency and Johnson Space Center goals and strategies. The result was a refined vision and mission, and revised goals, objectives, and strategies. One of the first changes implemented was to rename the directorate from Space Life Sciences to Human Health and Performance to better reflect our vision and mission. The most significant change in the directorate from 2007 to the present is the integration of the Human Research Program and Crew Health and Safety activities. Subsequently, the Human Health and Performance Directorate underwent a reorganization to achieve enhanced integration of research and development with operations to better support human spaceflight and International Space Station utilization. These changes also enable a more effective and efficient approach to human system risk mitigation. Since 2007, we have also made significant advances in external collaboration and implementation of new business models within the directorate and the Agency, and through two newly established virtual centers, the NASA Human Health and Performance Center and the Center of Excellence for Collaborative Innovation. Our 2012 Strategy builds upon these successes to address the Agency's increased emphasis on societal relevance and being a leader in research and development and innovative business and communications practices. The 2012 Human Health and Performance Vision is to lead the world in human health and performance innovations for life in space and on Earth. Our mission is to enable optimization of human health and performance throughout all phases of spaceflight. All HH&P functions are ultimately aimed at achieving this mission. Our activities enable

  5. NASA Human Health and Performance Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    In May 2007, what was then the Space Life Sciences Directorate, issued the 2007 Space Life Sciences Strategy for Human Space Exploration. In January 2012, leadership and key directorate personnel were once again brought together to assess the current and expected future environment against its 2007 Strategy and the Agency and Johnson Space Center goals and strategies. The result was a refined vision and mission, and revised goals, objectives, and strategies. One of the first changes implemented was to rename the directorate from Space Life Sciences to Human Health and Performance to better reflect our vision and mission. The most significant change in the directorate from 2007 to the present is the integration of the Human Research Program and Crew Health and Safety activities. Subsequently, the Human Health and Performance Directorate underwent a reorganization to achieve enhanced integration of research and development with operations to better support human spaceflight and International Space Station utilization. These changes also enable a more effective and efficient approach to human system risk mitigation. Since 2007, we have also made significant advances in external collaboration and implementation of new business models within the directorate and the Agency, and through two newly established virtual centers, the NASA Human Health and Performance Center and the Center of Excellence for Collaborative Innovation. Our 2012 Strategy builds upon these successes to address the Agency s increased emphasis on societal relevance and being a leader in research and development and innovative business and communications practices. The 2012 Human Health and Performance Vision is to lead the world in human health and performance innovations for life in space and on Earth. Our mission is to enable optimization of human health and performance throughout all phases of spaceflight. All HHPD functions are ultimately aimed at achieving this mission. Our activities enable

  6. How do health care providers perceive technologies for monitoring older adults?

    PubMed

    Thompson, Hilaire J; Thielke, Stephen M

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring and assistive technologies for the older adults, by sensing and recording activities and status, provide an objective record of a patient's functioning within natural environments. Yet the data derived from these technologies do not directly address the clinical aims of health care providers. We conducted focus groups with health care providers who work with older adults to elicit their perspectives on monitoring technologies. Identified themes centered around the benefits and risks of technologies, patient needs, the clinical utility of information, and specific monitoring domains that might improve the health care of older adults. Providers highlighted the primary importance of involving families and caregivers, and of sustaining human interactions. They explored the difficulties with how to use information for clinical ends, and challenged the notion that more objective information would automatically improve their heath care. Designers, developers, and researchers might improve the utility and uptake of health-related technologies for older adults and their families by eliciting the viewpoints of clinical providers. PMID:19964352

  7. Differential effects of self-efficacy and perceived control on intention to perform skin cancer-related health behaviours.

    PubMed

    Pertl, M; Hevey, D; Thomas, K; Craig, A; Chuinneagáin, S Ní; Maher, L

    2010-10-01

    Previous research using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) for predicting skin cancer-related health behaviours has not adequately incorporated empirical advances in the conceptualization of the perceived behavioural control (PBC) component of the theory. This study examined the role of self-efficacy and controllability for predicting sunscreen and sunbed use intentions. Five hundred and ninety young adults completed a questionnaire on beliefs and intentions regarding sunscreen and sunbed use. Analysis using confirmatory factor analysis and multiple regression supported a conceptual distinction between two PBC subcomponents: controllability and self-efficacy. While self-efficacy--but not controllability--emerged as a significant predictor of intentions to use sunscreen, the opposite pattern was observed for the prediction of intentions to use sunbeds, whereby lower controllability beliefs were associated with higher intentions. Campaigns aimed at influencing health behaviours should consider the differential effects of the components of perceived control. PMID:20439349

  8. An Overview of Soils and Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Eric C.

    2013-04-01

    Few people recognize the connection between soils and human health, even though soils are actually very important to health. Soils influence health through the nutrients taken up by plants and the animals that eat those plants, nutrients that are needed for adequate nutrition for growth and development. Soils can also act to harm human health in three major ways: i) toxic levels of substances or disease-causing organisms may enter the human food chain from the soil ii) humans can encounter pathogenic organisms through direct contact with the soil or inhaling dust from the soil, and iii) degraded soils produce nutrient-deficient foods leading to malnutrition. Soils have also been a major source of medicines. Therefore, soils form an integral link in the holistic view of human health. In this presentation, soils and their influence on human health are discussed from a broad perspective, including both direct influences of soils on health and indirect influences through things such as climate change, occupational exposure to soil amendments, and the role of soils in providing food security.

  9. Hypothesis on human eye perceiving optical spectrum rather than an image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yufeng; Szu, Harold

    2015-05-01

    It is a common knowledge that we see the world because our eyes can perceive an optical image. A digital camera seems a good example of simulating the eye imaging system. However, the signal sensing and imaging on human retina is very complicated. There are at least five layers (of neurons) along the signal pathway: photoreceptors (cones and rods), bipolar, horizontal, amacrine and ganglion cells. To sense an optical image, it seems that photoreceptors (as sensors) plus ganglion cells (converting to electrical signals for transmission) are good enough. Image sensing does not require ununiformed distribution of photoreceptors like fovea. There are some challenging questions, for example, why don't we feel the "blind spots" (never fibers exiting the eyes)? Similar situation happens to glaucoma patients who do not feel their vision loss until 50% or more nerves died. Now our hypothesis is that human retina initially senses optical (i.e., Fourier) spectrum rather than optical image. Due to the symmetric property of Fourier spectrum the signal loss from a blind spot or the dead nerves (for glaucoma patients) can be recovered. Eye logarithmic response to input light intensity much likes displaying Fourier magnitude. The optics and structures of human eyes satisfy the needs of optical Fourier spectrum sampling. It is unsure that where and how inverse Fourier transform is performed in human vision system to obtain an optical image. Phase retrieval technique in compressive sensing domain enables image reconstruction even without phase inputs. The spectrum-based imaging system can potentially tolerate up to 50% of bad sensors (pixels), adapt to large dynamic range (with logarithmic response), etc.

  10. Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus and Perceived Barriers to Vaccination in a Sample of US Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillard, James Price; Spear, Margaret E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and perceived barriers to being vaccinated against the virus. Participants: Three hundred ninety-six undergraduate women enrolled at Penn State University in Fall 2008. Methods: A random sample of students were invited to participate in a Web-based survey. Results: Awareness of HPV and…

  11. INTERCONNECTIONS BETWEEN HUMAN HEALTH AND ECOLOGICAL INTEGRITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interconnections between Human Health and Ecological Integrity emanates from a June 2000 Pellston Workshop in Snowbird, Utah, USA. Jointly sponsored by the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) and the Society of Toxicology (SOT), the workshop was motivated by...

  12. HUMAN HEALTH IMPACTS OF EXPOSURE TO POPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was adopted in 2001 to protect human health and the environment from chemicals that are highly toxic, persistent, bioaccumulative and undergo long range transport. These POPs include 9 pesticides, polychlorinated d...

  13. INTEGRATING ECOLOGY, HUMAN HEALTH AND SOCIOECONOMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research involves collaboration with other ORD Labs and Centers, as well as external collaborators, to foster integration of assessment approaches used to evaluate human health and ecological risks and to demonstrate integrated environmental socioeconomic approaches. Part...

  14. NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffery R.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the purpose, potential members and participants of the NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC). Included in the overview is a brief description of the administration and current activities of the NHHPC.

  15. Young women’s perceived health and lifetime sexual experience: Results from The National Survey of Family Growth

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Caroline; Trussell, James

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Sexuality is a component of health and wellbeing for all women, including adolescents. Yet relationships between young women’s health perceptions and sexual behavior are unclear. Aim We examined associations between perceived health and lifetime sexual experiences among young U.S. women. Methods We used data from 4,413 young women ages 15–24 years in the National Survey of Family Growth, 2002–2008. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate statistics estimated relationships between categories of perceived health and types of lifetime sexual experience. Main outcome measures A self-rated health Likert item and sexual history questions were administered with a computer-assisted survey instrument. Results Young women reported excellent (30%), very good (41%), good (23%) and fair-poor (6%) health. Sexual experiences included vaginal (64%), oral (64%) and anal (20%) sex. Negative experiences included involuntary sex (11%) and STI history (8%). In multivariate logistic regression models, lower perceived health (“good” rather than “excellent”) was positively associated with vaginal (OR 1.5, CI 1.1–2.1, p=0.02), oral (OR 1.5, CI 1.1–2.1, p=0.005) and anal (OR 1.4, CI 1.0–2.0, p=0.03) sex. In models stratified by age, point estimates for vaginal (OR 1.8, CI 1.2–2.6, p=0.002) and oral (OR 1.9, CI 1.4–2.6, p<0.001) sex were higher among adolescents ages 15–19 years but associations were insignificant among young adults ages 20–24 years. When controlling for negative sexual experiences, point estimates were stable in models including STI history but statistically insignificant when including involuntary sexual experience. Other characteristics associated with sexual experiences varied by type of experience and included age, race/ethnicity, employment situation, poverty level, insurance status, childhood family situation, religious service participation, cohabitation/marital experience and body mass index. Conclusions Further investigation

  16. Perceived control systems, work conditions, and efficiency among Swedish dentists: interaction between two sides of human resource management.

    PubMed

    Bejerot, E; Söderfeldt, B; Aronsson, G; Härenstam, A; Söderfeldt, M

    1999-02-01

    Two aspects of Human Resource Management (HRM), a main trend in modern personnel management, are considered in this study: A 'hard' version stressing performance monitoring and competition, and a 'soft' version stressing communication with employees. The aim of the investigation was to examine whether these two aspects of modern management are reflected in dentists' perceptions of differences in work conditions compared with other professionals. A questionnaire was answered by 312 publicly employed dentists and 3,600 other professionals in Sweden. The response rate was 66-77%. Effects from HRM on work, conditions and perceived efficiency were confirmed. The interaction effects, reflecting the duality of HRM, resulted in poorer work conditions, e.g. worse balance between effort and reward and worse opportunities for developing competence and collaboration in the workplace. This pertains especially in the case of dentists, where the positive effects of 'soft' HRM did not compensate for the negative effects of 'hard' HRM. Dentists in Sweden's Public Dental Health Service appear as a vulnerable group among Swedish professionals. PMID:10207536

  17. Ultraviolet Radiation: Human Exposure and Health Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenkate, Thomas D.

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of human exposure to ultraviolet radiation and associated health effects as well as risk estimates for acute and chronic conditions resulting from such exposure. Demonstrates substantial reductions in health risk that can be achieved through preventive actions. Also includes a risk assessment model for skin cancer. Contains 36…

  18. RETHINKING HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT. (R825758)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most EIA programs around the world require the consideration of human health impacts. Yet relatively few EIA documents adequately address those impacts. This article examines how, why, and to what extent health impacts are analyzed in environmental impact assessments in the U.S. ...

  19. NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. R.; Richard, E. E.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC) will provide a collaborative and virtual forum to integrate all disciplines of the human system to address spaceflight, aviation, and terrestrial human health and performance topics and issues. The NHHPC will serve a vital role as integrator, convening members to share information and capture a diverse knowledge base, while allowing the parties to collaborate to address the most important human health and performance topics of interest to members. The Center and its member organizations will address high-priority risk reduction strategies, including research and technology development, improved medical and environmental health diagnostics and therapeutics, and state-of-the art design approaches for human factors and habitability. Once full established in 2011, the NHHPC will focus on a number of collaborative projects focused on human health and performance, including workshops, education and outreach, information sharing and knowledge management, and research and technology development projects, to advance the study of the human system for spaceflight and other national and international priorities.

  20. Biodiversity, food provision and human health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews interactions between biological diversity and human health. Many of these interactions revolve around food production. Humans use biological diversity to obtain food in two primary ways: by harvesting natural populations, as with fishing, hunting, or grazing of native ecosyste...

  1. Asian American and Pacific Islander Military Veterans in the United States: Health Service Use and Perceived Barriers to Mental Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Whealin, Julia M.; Pietrzak, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We (1) compared use of various health services nationally between Asian American and Pacific Islander (AA/PI) veterans and veterans of other racial/ethnic groups and (2) specifically compared perceived barriers and stigma related to mental health services. Methods. Using bivariate and multivariable statistics, we analyzed a population-weighted sample of 8315 veterans from the 2010 National Survey of Veterans and a random sample of 567 recent veterans from Hawaii. Results. A total of 1.5% of veterans were AA/PI compared with 0.4% a decade ago. Compared with other veterans, AA/PI veterans reported higher socioeconomic status and better mental health, although these findings may be specific to AA veterans. Adjusting for sociodemographic and health differences, we found no differences in health service use or perceived barriers or stigma related to mental health services. Conclusions. AA/PIs are a small but fast-growing racial/ethnic group within the veteran population that deserves attention. Although veteran status may be protective against some barriers to mental health care found in the general AA/PI population, efforts to reduce barriers to health care among veterans should be continued. PMID:25100419

  2. A different look at the epidemiological paradox: self-rated health, perceived social cohesion, and neighborhood immigrant context.

    PubMed

    Bjornstrom, Eileen E S; Kuhl, Danielle C

    2014-11-01

    We use data from Waves 1 and 2 of the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey to examine the effects of neighborhood immigrant concentration, race-ethnicity, nativity, and perceived cohesion on self-rated physical health. We limit our sample to adults whose addresses do not change between waves in order to explore neighborhood effects. Foreign-born Latinos were significantly less likely to report fair or poor health than African Americans and U.S.-born whites, but did not differ from U.S.-born Latinos. The main effect of immigrant concentration was not significant, but it interacted with nativity status to predict health: U.S.-born Latinos benefited more from neighborhood immigrant concentration than foreign-born Latinos. Perceived cohesion predicted health but immigrant concentration did not moderate the effect. Finally, U.S.-born Latinos differed from others in the way cohesion is associated with their health. Results are discussed within the framework of the epidemiological paradox. PMID:25240210

  3. Doctor-patient interaction in Finnish primary health care as perceived by first year medical students

    PubMed Central

    Miettola, Juhani; Mäntyselkä, Pekka; Vaskilampi, Tuula

    2005-01-01

    Background In Finland, public health care is the responsibility of primary health care centres, which render a wide range of community level preventive, curative and rehabilitative medical care. Since 1990's, medical studies have involved early familiarization of medical students with general practice from the beginning of the studies, as this pre-clinical familiarisation helps medical students understand patients as human beings, recognise the importance of the doctor-patient relationship and identify practicing general practitioners (GPs) as role models for their professional development. Focused on doctor-patient relationship, we analysed the reports of 2002 first year medical students in the University of Kuopio. The students observed GPs' work during their 2-day visit to primary health care centres. Methods We analysed systematically the texts of 127 written reports of 2002, which represents 95.5% of the 133 first year pre-clinical medical students reports. The reports of 2003 (N = 118) and 2004 (N = 130) were used as reference material. Results Majority of the students reported GPs as positive role models. Some students reported GPs' poor attitudes, which they, however, regarded as a learning opportunity. Students generally observed a great variety of responsibilities in general practice, and expressed admiration for the skills and abilities required. They appreciated the GPs' interest in patients concerns. GPs' communication styles were found to vary considerably. Students reported some factors disturbing the consultation session, such as the GP staring at the computer screen and other team members entering the room. Working with marginalized groups, the chronically and terminally ill, and dying patients was seen as an area for development in the busy Finnish primary health care centres. Conclusion During the analysis, we discovered that medical students' perceptions in this study are in line with the previous findings about the importance of role model

  4. Effects of team-based learning on perceived teamwork and academic performance in a health assessment subject.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyung-Ran; Kim, Chun-Ja; Park, Jee-Won; Park, Eunyoung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of team-based learning (a well-recognized learning and teaching strategy), applied in a health assessment subject, on nursing students' perceived teamwork (team-efficacy and team skills) and academic performance (individual and team readiness assurance tests, and examination scores). A prospective, one-group, pre- and post-test design enrolled a convenience sample of 74 second-year nursing students at a university in Suwon, Korea. Team-based learning was applied in a 2-credit health assessment subject over a 16-week semester. All students received written material one week before each class for readiness preparation. After administering individual- and team-readiness assurance tests consecutively, the subject instructor gave immediate feedback and delivered a mini-lecture to the students. Finally, students carried out skill based application exercises. The findings showed significant improvements in the mean scores of students' perceived teamwork after the introduction of team-based learning. In addition, team-efficacy was associated with team-adaptability skills and team-interpersonal skills. Regarding academic performance, team readiness assurance tests were significantly higher than individual readiness assurance tests over time. Individual readiness assurance tests were significantly related with examination scores, while team readiness assurance tests were correlated with team-efficacy and team-interpersonal skills. The application of team-based learning in a health assessment subject can enhance students' perceived teamwork and academic performance. This finding suggests that team-based learning may be an effective learning and teaching strategy for improving team-work of nursing students, who need to collaborate and effectively communicate with health care providers to improve patients' health. PMID:26552201

  5. Direct facility funding as a response to user fee reduction: implementation and perceived impact among Kenyan health centres and dispensaries.

    PubMed

    Opwora, Antony; Kabare, Margaret; Molyneux, Sassy; Goodman, Catherine

    2010-09-01

    There is increasing pressure for reduction of user fees, but this can have adverse effects by decreasing facility-level funds. To address this, direct facility funding (DFF) was piloted in Coast Province, Kenya, with health facility committees (HFCs) responsible for managing the funds. We evaluated the implementation and perceived impact 2.5 years after DFF introduction. Quantitative data collection at 30 public health centres and dispensaries included a structured interview with the in-charge, record reviews and exit interviews. In addition, in-depth interviews were conducted with the in-charge and HFC members at 12 facilities, and with district staff and other stakeholders. DFF procedures were well established: HFCs met regularly and accounting procedures were broadly followed. DFF made an important contribution to facility cash income, accounting for 47% in health centres and 62% in dispensaries. The main items of expenditure were wages for support staff (32%), travel (21%), and construction and maintenance (18%). DFF was perceived to have a highly positive impact through funding support staff such as cleaners and patient attendants, outreach activities, renovations, patient referrals and increasing HFC activity. This was perceived to have improved health worker motivation, utilization and quality of care. A number of problems were identified. HFC training was reportedly inadequate, and no DFF documentation was available at facility level, leading to confusion. Charging user fees above those specified in the national policy remained common, and understanding of DFF among the broader community was very limited. Finally, relationships between HFCs and health workers were sometimes characterized by mistrust and resentment. Relatively small increases in funding may significantly affect facility performance when the funds are managed at the periphery. Kenya plans to scale up DFF nationwide. Our findings indicate this is warranted, but should include improved training

  6. Direct facility funding as a response to user fee reduction: implementation and perceived impact among Kenyan health centres and dispensaries

    PubMed Central

    Opwora, Antony; Kabare, Margaret; Molyneux, Sassy; Goodman, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing pressure for reduction of user fees, but this can have adverse effects by decreasing facility-level funds. To address this, direct facility funding (DFF) was piloted in Coast Province, Kenya, with health facility committees (HFCs) responsible for managing the funds. We evaluated the implementation and perceived impact 2.5 years after DFF introduction. Quantitative data collection at 30 public health centres and dispensaries included a structured interview with the in-charge, record reviews and exit interviews. In addition, in-depth interviews were conducted with the in-charge and HFC members at 12 facilities, and with district staff and other stakeholders. DFF procedures were well established: HFCs met regularly and accounting procedures were broadly followed. DFF made an important contribution to facility cash income, accounting for 47% in health centres and 62% in dispensaries. The main items of expenditure were wages for support staff (32%), travel (21%), and construction and maintenance (18%). DFF was perceived to have a highly positive impact through funding support staff such as cleaners and patient attendants, outreach activities, renovations, patient referrals and increasing HFC activity. This was perceived to have improved health worker motivation, utilization and quality of care. A number of problems were identified. HFC training was reportedly inadequate, and no DFF documentation was available at facility level, leading to confusion. Charging user fees above those specified in the national policy remained common, and understanding of DFF among the broader community was very limited. Finally, relationships between HFCs and health workers were sometimes characterized by mistrust and resentment. Relatively small increases in funding may significantly affect facility performance when the funds are managed at the periphery. Kenya plans to scale up DFF nationwide. Our findings indicate this is warranted, but should include improved training

  7. Exposure to UV radiation and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimlin, Michael G.

    2005-08-01

    This paper will overview the significant issues facing researchers in relating the impact of exposure to sunlight and human health. Exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation is the major causative factor in most sun-related skin and eye disorders, however, very little is known quantitatively about human UV exposures. Interestingly, human exposure to sunlight also has a nutritional impact, namely the development of pre-Vitamin D, which is an important nutrient in bone health. New research suggest that low vitamin D status may be a causative factor in the development of selective types of cancer and autoimminue diseases, as well as a contributing factor in bone health. The 'health duality' aspect of sunlight exposure is an interesting and controversial topic that is a research focus of Kimlin's research group.

  8. MICROBES, MONITORING AND HUMAN HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are about 20,000 wastewater treatment plants in the United States. These plants discharge about 50 trillion gallons of wastewater daily into the nation's surface waters. Most wastewater contains human feces, which are a potential source of microbial pathogens. Pathogens ...

  9. Nutritional Ecology and Human Health.

    PubMed

    Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-07-17

    In contrast to the spectacular advances in the first half of the twentieth century with micronutrient-related diseases, human nutrition science has failed to stem the more recent rise of obesity and associated cardiometabolic disease (OACD). This failure has triggered debate on the problems and limitations of the field and what change is needed to address these. We briefly review the two broad historical phases of human nutrition science and then provide an overview of the main problems that have been implicated in the poor progress of the field with solving OACD. We next introduce the field of nutritional ecology and show how its ecological-evolutionary foundations can enrich human nutrition science by providing the theory to help address its limitations. We end by introducing a modeling approach from nutritional ecology, termed nutritional geometry, and demonstrate how it can help to implement ecological and evolutionary theory in human nutrition to provide new direction and to better understand and manage OACD. PMID:27296501

  10. Social Supports, Perceived Stress, and Health: The Black Experience in Medical School—A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Strayhorn, Gregory

    1980-01-01

    Black medical students perceived significantly more stressors than white medical students in a predominantly white medical school environment (P=0.001). Black medical students perceived fewer social supports than white medical students, but not significantly fewer (P=0.224). There was no significant difference between mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels for the low and high stress groups (P=0.302 and 0.844, respectively). The total degree of perceived stressors did not predict systolic and diastolic blood pressure when controlling for potential confounders (0.050.25 and 0.1

  11. A qualitative study to explore health professionals' experience of treating gout: understanding perceived barriers to effective gout management.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Chloe; Hulme, Richard; Dalbeth, Nicola; Gow, Peter; Arroll, Bruce; Lindsay, Karen

    2016-06-01

    INTRODUCTION The management of gout is challenging and mainly occurs in primary care. This study aims to explore the experience of treating gout among primary care clinicians and understand the perceived barriers to effective therapy. METHODS Fourteen health professionals from primary care practices in South Auckland were recruited. Each participated in a semi-structured interview exploring their experience of treating and managing gout patients were analysed thematically. FINDINGS Participants described the large burden of gout in their communities and the importance of the clinician-patient relationship in gout management. Four themes summarise the perceived barriers to effective urate lowering therapy (ULT); unique gout factors, eg its intermittent nature and potential for stigmatisation; systemic barriers to optimal treatment, or barriers that emerge from working within a certain organisation; uncertainty about ownership, or who should carry responsibility for overcoming barriers to optimal treatment; and cultural barriers to optimal treatment. CONCLUSION Clinicians in primary practice perceive gout management to be mainly acute rather than preventive care. Patients may be stigmatised and management difficult particularly when diet is emphasised over ULT. Practice nurses are a group potentially available and willing to assist in educating patients. These findings may be helpful in planning for and improving healthcare in gout. KEYWORDS Gout; general practice; uric acid; primary health care; allopurinol; primary prevention. PMID:27477557

  12. Effect of health insurance on delivery care utilization and perceived delays and barriers among southern Thai women

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Financial reform aims to overcome the problems of financial barriers and utilization of health services. However, it is unclear whether financial reforms or health insurance can reduce delays and/or barriers or if there are still other important obstacles for preventing pregnant women accessing delivery care. This study aimed to assess the effect of health insurance and other factors on delivery care utilization and the perception of delays and barriers to delivery care among women living in Songkhla province, Thailand. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2007 to December 2008. Women who delivered at hospital or home in the areas of participating hospitals in four districts were interviewed at 24- or 48-hours postpartum. The impact of health insurance and other factors on outcomes of interest was assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Results Of 2,847 women, 2,822 delivered at a hospital and 25 at home, of which 80% and 40% had health insurance for delivery care, respectively. Muslims, low educated women, those who thought they could not use health insurance for delivery care and those less willing to seek care at their delivery place were more likely to give birth at home. Perception of delays to seeking care, reaching a hospital and receiving care was reduced in women insured by civil servant medical benefit. Women insured by universal coverage and social security perceived a lower delay in reaching a hospital but a higher delay in receiving care. Low education, unwillingness to seek care, out-of-pocket payment, worry about cost of delivery care, transportation difficulties, low perception of receiving good care or a perception of being treated badly were also associated with delays and barriers to health care. Almost all (93%) agreed that health insurance could reduce financial barriers for accessing services. However, having health insurance influenced them to seek care, reach a hospital, and receive care quickly in

  13. Perceived Neighborhood Safety During Adolescence Predicts Subsequent Deterioration of Subjective Health Two Decades Later; Gender Differences in a Racially-Diverse Sample

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Current study aimed to investigate whether perceived neighborhood as unsafe during adolescence predicts the subsequent perceived health two decades later. Methods: In a prospective study of an ethnically diverse urban sample (83.2% Black), conducted from 1994 to 2012, 851 adolescents were enrolled at 9th grade. Three hundred and seventy-eight participants were followed from 9th grade for 18 years. The outcome was subjective health (feeling as healthy as other people of the same age) measured at baseline (mean age 15 years) and end of follow-up (mean age 33 years). The independent variable was neighborhood perceived as unsafe measured at 9th grade. Baseline age, family structure, and parental employment were control variables. We ran logistic regressions in the pooled sample and also specific to each gender. Results: Perceived neighborhood as unsafe at 9th grade predicted deterioration of subjective health over the next 18 years (unadjusted odds ratio = 1.742, 95% confidence interval = 1.042–2.911). This association remained significant in a multivariable model that controlled for baseline subjective health, family structure, and parental employment. The association between perceived neighborhood safety at 9th grade and subsequent deterioration of perceived health during the next 12 years was significant for females but not males. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that perception of unsafe neighborhoods during adolescence has negative consequences years later for the health of females. Further research is needed to replicate the findings using objective measures of health. PMID:26730347

  14. Children’s delayed development and behavior problems: Impact on mothers’ perceived physical health across early childhood⋆

    PubMed Central

    Eisenhower, Abbey Severance; Baker, Bruce L.; Blacher, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Mothers of children with developmental delays may experience poorer psychological well-being than other mothers; however, little research has examined how delayed development in children might predict mothers’ perceived physical well-being. Children with delayed development manifest heightened behavior problems, which may negatively affect maternal well-being. We examined the associations between developmental delay and behavior problems at child age 3 and mothers’ self-perceived physical health at child ages 3, 4, and 5, in families of 218 children with and without developmental delays. The study sample comprised 218 families from central Pennsylvania and Southern California, USA who were recruited through community agencies that provide diagnostic and intervention services for individuals with development difficulties. We found that mothers of children with delayed development at age 3 reported poorer concurrent and later physical health than mothers of children with typical development. Broadening the analyses to include not only child development status (delayed development versus typical development) but also child behavior problems at age 3, only child behavior problems and the interaction of development status and behavior problems, but not development status itself, predicted maternal health. Early child behavior problems contributed to later maternal health above and beyond early maternal health, suggesting a possible causal association between child behavior problems and mothers’ physical health. The relation between child behavior problems and maternal health was moderated by mothers’ parenting stress and mediated by depressive symptoms. Mothers of children with both delayed development and high behavior problems are a particular risk group that may be especially in need of early intervention. Further research should examine the behavioral and biological pathways by which these child-related stressors influence mothers’ physical health. PMID

  15. Assessment of perceived health status among primary care patients in Southern Italy: findings from a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The primary aim of this study was to measure HRQOL of primary care patients in one of the poorest areas of Italy, using SF-12, whereas the secondary aim was to identify subgroups of this population, according to socio-demographics, clinical characteristics, behavioural risk factors, and health services utilization, that manifest poorer HRQOL. These data may be helpful to policy makers to implement health care policies and social interventions for improving HRQOL. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Southern Italy on primary care patients aged 18 and over. SF-12 was used to measure perceived health status. Physical component and mental summary scores were obtained. We performed univariate and multivariate analysis to evaluate eventual significant differences of mean PCS-12 and MCS-12 according to various characteristics (demographics, presence of chronic diseases, behavioral risk factors, and utilization of health services). Results Of the 1467 participating in our survey, more than one third evaluated their health as unsatisfactory, noted significant limitations and reported problems on all SF-12-scales. Physical and mental summary scores showed an overall mean of 45.9 (SD ± 10.8) and 44.9 (SD ± 11.6), respectively. Statistical analysis showed significant differences in perceived health status by socio-demographic characteristics, such as gender, age, education level and employment status, by behavioral risk factors, chronic diseases and health services utilization. Conclusions Our findings seem to indicate that primary care patients in Southern Italy have a poor HRQOL and this perception is even poorer in subgroups of the population, according to several sociodemographic, clinical characteristics, and behavioural risk factors. These results may have significant implications for health care policymakers, since they emphasize the need of developing effective and targeted strategies to improve HRQOL in Southern Italy. PMID:23758708

  16. Edible Mushrooms: Improving Human Health and Promoting Quality Life

    PubMed Central

    Valverde, María Elena; Hernández-Pérez, Talía; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2015-01-01

    Mushrooms have been consumed since earliest history; ancient Greeks believed that mushrooms provided strength for warriors in battle, and the Romans perceived them as the “Food of the Gods.” For centuries, the Chinese culture has treasured mushrooms as a health food, an “elixir of life.” They have been part of the human culture for thousands of years and have considerable interest in the most important civilizations in history because of their sensory characteristics; they have been recognized for their attractive culinary attributes. Nowadays, mushrooms are popular valuable foods because they are low in calories, carbohydrates, fat, and sodium: also, they are cholesterol-free. Besides, mushrooms provide important nutrients, including selenium, potassium, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin D, proteins, and fiber. All together with a long history as food source, mushrooms are important for their healing capacities and properties in traditional medicine. It has reported beneficial effects for health and treatment of some diseases. Many nutraceutical properties are described in mushrooms, such as prevention or treatment of Parkinson, Alzheimer, hypertension, and high risk of stroke. They are also utilized to reduce the likelihood of cancer invasion and metastasis due to antitumoral attributes. Mushrooms act as antibacterial, immune system enhancer and cholesterol lowering agents; additionally, they are important sources of bioactive compounds. As a result of these properties, some mushroom extracts are used to promote human health and are found as dietary supplements. PMID:25685150

  17. Edible mushrooms: improving human health and promoting quality life.

    PubMed

    Valverde, María Elena; Hernández-Pérez, Talía; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2015-01-01

    Mushrooms have been consumed since earliest history; ancient Greeks believed that mushrooms provided strength for warriors in battle, and the Romans perceived them as the "Food of the Gods." For centuries, the Chinese culture has treasured mushrooms as a health food, an "elixir of life." They have been part of the human culture for thousands of years and have considerable interest in the most important civilizations in history because of their sensory characteristics; they have been recognized for their attractive culinary attributes. Nowadays, mushrooms are popular valuable foods because they are low in calories, carbohydrates, fat, and sodium: also, they are cholesterol-free. Besides, mushrooms provide important nutrients, including selenium, potassium, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin D, proteins, and fiber. All together with a long history as food source, mushrooms are important for their healing capacities and properties in traditional medicine. It has reported beneficial effects for health and treatment of some diseases. Many nutraceutical properties are described in mushrooms, such as prevention or treatment of Parkinson, Alzheimer, hypertension, and high risk of stroke. They are also utilized to reduce the likelihood of cancer invasion and metastasis due to antitumoral attributes. Mushrooms act as antibacterial, immune system enhancer and cholesterol lowering agents; additionally, they are important sources of bioactive compounds. As a result of these properties, some mushroom extracts are used to promote human health and are found as dietary supplements. PMID:25685150

  18. Grounding & human health - a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, I. A.; Jamieson, S. S.; ApSimon, H. M.; Bell, J. N. B.

    2011-06-01

    Whilst grounding is often undertaken in industry as a matter of good practice in situations where the risk of excess charge exists, little thought is usually given to the biological effects that such measures may have, or possible benefits that may arise from the more widespread application of electrostatic and other 'electromagnetic hygiene' measures in hospitals and the general built environment. Research, which is still in its infancy, indicates that grounding the human body using suitable methodologies, particularly in low electromagnetic field environments, can significantly enhance biological functioning. It is proposed that there are often a number of electrostatic and 'electromagnetic hygiene' factors that need to be addressed before the beneficial effects of grounding the human body can be fully realised in many everyday environments.

  19. Are students' symptoms and health complaints associated with perceived stress at university? Perspectives from the United Kingdom and Egypt.

    PubMed

    El Ansari, Walid; Oskrochi, Reza; Haghgoo, Ghollamreza

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional survey assessed and compared by country, the levels and correlates of 21 self-reported symptoms/health complaints. We examined the associations between self-reported symptoms and perceived stress. Data was collected from universities in the United Kingdom and Egypt (N = 3706 and 3271 undergraduates, respectively). A self-administered questionnaire assessed a range of self-reported symptoms, perceived stress, sociodemographic (gender, age, marital status, year of study, living arrangements during semester, income sufficiency), lifestyle (tobacco smoking, illicit drug/s use, alcohol consumption frequency), and health variables (subjective health status, health awareness, BMI), along with religiosity, and quality of life. Factor analysis categorized the 21 self-reported symptoms into four components. Correlation analysis and linear regression tested the associations between the self-reported symptoms and stress. Factor analysis of the health symptoms generated four symptom groups for each of the UK and Egypt (psychological; circulatory/breathing; gastrointestinal; and, pains/aches), and factor loadings were quite similar for both countries. Whilst the two samples showed similarities as to the kind of symptoms most frequently reported by students, the Egyptian sample had significantly higher frequency than the UK for every symptom. Frequent complaints (both countries) included difficulties to concentrate, fatigue, headaches, nervousness/anxiety, and back pain (UK) and mood swings (Egypt). Significantly more Egyptian students reported ≥ 4 symptoms over the past year than the UK. For each of the UK and Egypt, across each of the four symptom groups, there was a stepladder appearance whereby the frequency of symptoms increased with increasing quartiles of perceived stress. Not controlling for other variables, for both countries, there were significant positive correlations between each of the four symptom groups and stress; the highest correlation

  20. Are Students’ Symptoms and Health Complaints Associated with Perceived Stress at University? Perspectives from the United Kingdom and Egypt

    PubMed Central

    El Ansari, Walid; Oskrochi, Reza; Haghgoo, Ghollamreza

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional survey assessed and compared by country, the levels and correlates of 21 self-reported symptoms/health complaints. We examined the associations between self-reported symptoms and perceived stress. Data was collected from universities in the United Kingdom and Egypt (N = 3706 and 3271 undergraduates, respectively). A self-administered questionnaire assessed a range of self-reported symptoms, perceived stress, sociodemographic (gender, age, marital status, year of study, living arrangements during semester, income sufficiency), lifestyle (tobacco smoking, illicit drug/s use, alcohol consumption frequency), and health variables (subjective health status, health awareness, BMI), along with religiosity, and quality of life. Factor analysis categorized the 21 self-reported symptoms into four components. Correlation analysis and linear regression tested the associations between the self-reported symptoms and stress. Factor analysis of the health symptoms generated four symptom groups for each of the UK and Egypt (psychological; circulatory/breathing; gastrointestinal; and, pains/aches), and factor loadings were quite similar for both countries. Whilst the two samples showed similarities as to the kind of symptoms most frequently reported by students, the Egyptian sample had significantly higher frequency than the UK for every symptom. Frequent complaints (both countries) included difficulties to concentrate, fatigue, headaches, nervousness/anxiety, and back pain (UK) and mood swings (Egypt). Significantly more Egyptian students reported ≥4 symptoms over the past year than the UK. For each of the UK and Egypt, across each of the four symptom groups, there was a stepladder appearance whereby the frequency of symptoms increased with increasing quartiles of perceived stress. Not controlling for other variables, for both countries, there were significant positive correlations between each of the four symptom groups and stress; the highest correlation was

  1. The Relationship between Perceived Health and Physical Activity Indoors, Outdoors in Built Environments, and Outdoors in Nature

    PubMed Central

    Pasanen, Tytti P; Tyrväinen, Liisa; Korpela, Kalevi M

    2014-01-01

    Background: A body of evidence shows that both physical activity and exposure to nature are connected to improved general and mental health. Experimental studies have consistently found short term positive effects of physical activity in nature compared with built environments. This study explores whether these benefits are also evident in everyday life, perceived over repeated contact with nature. The topic is important from the perspectives of city planning, individual well-being, and public health. Methods: National survey data (n = 2,070) from Finland was analysed using structural regression analyses. Perceived general health, emotional well-being, and sleep quality were regressed on the weekly frequency of physical activity indoors, outdoors in built environments, and in nature. Socioeconomic factors and other plausible confounders were controlled for. Results: Emotional well-being showed the most consistent positive connection to physical activity in nature, whereas general health was positively associated with physical activity in both built and natural outdoor settings. Better sleep quality was weakly connected to frequent physical activity in nature, but the connection was outweighed by other factors. Conclusion: The results indicate that nature provides an added value to the known benefits of physical activity. Repeated exercise in nature is, in particular, connected to better emotional well-being. PMID:25044598

  2. Health and welfare in animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Nordenfelt, Lennart

    2011-06-01

    This paper contains a brief comparative analysis of some philosophical and scientific discourses on human and animal health and welfare, focusing mainly on the welfare of sentient animals. The paper sets forth two kinds of proposals for the analysis of animal welfare which do not appear in the contemporary philosophical discussion of human welfare, viz. the coping theory of welfare and the theory of welfare in terms of natural behaviour. These proposals are scrutinized in the light of some similar theories dealing with human health and quality of life. My conclusion is that the coping theory and the natural behaviour theory are not in themselves adequate for the characterization of welfare, either for humans or for sentient animals. I contend, finally, that, in the light of the previous discussion, there are good arguments for a particular set of analyses of both animal and human welfare, viz. the ones that are based on the notions of preference satisfaction and positive subjective experiences. PMID:21298322

  3. ARSENIC AND HUMAN HEALTH: EPIDEMIOLOGIC PROGRESS AND PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Argos, Maria; Ahsan, Habibul; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2014-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of arsenic in groundwater pose a public health threat to millions of people worldwide, including severely affected populations in South and Southeast Asia. While arsenic is an established human carcinogen and has been associated with a multitude of health outcomes in epidemiologic studies, a mode of action has yet to be determined for some aspects of arsenic toxicity. Herein, we emphasize the role of recent genetic and molecular epidemiologic investigations of arsenic toxicity. Additionally, we discuss considerations for the public health impacts of arsenic exposure through drinking water with respect to primary and secondary prevention efforts. PMID:22962196

  4. Perceived Racism and Mental Health among Black American Adults: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieterse, Alex L.; Todd, Nathan R.; Neville, Helen A.; Carter, Robert T.

    2012-01-01

    The literature indicates that perceived racism tends to be associated with adverse psychological and physiological outcomes; however, findings in this area are not yet conclusive. In this meta-analysis, we systematically reviewed 66 studies (total sample size of 18,140 across studies), published between January 1996 and April 2011, on the…

  5. Unethical Practice as Perceived by Mental Health Professionals: The Next Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Larry; Schmidt, Shirley Jean

    1998-01-01

    Replicating a study done 15 years ago, a survey was mailed to psychiatrists, psychologists, psychotherapists, and marriage and family counselors who were listed in the San Antonio Yellow Pages to get information about their perceptions of unethical practice. Results show a shift in perceived unethical practice over the 15-year time frame. (Author)

  6. Health-related quality of life in children with heart failure as perceived by children and parents.

    PubMed

    Wilmot, Ivan; Cephus, Constance E; Cassedy, Amy; Kudel, Ian; Marino, Bradley S; Jefferies, John L

    2016-06-01

    Advancements in paediatric heart failure management have resulted in improved survival and a focus on long-term outcomes including health-related quality of life. We compared health-related quality of life in children with heart failure with healthy patients, children with chronic conditions, and children with cardiovascular disease. Families (n=63) and children (n=73) aged 2-20 years with heart failure were enrolled and compared with data previously published for healthy patients (n=5480), those with chronic conditions (n=247), and those with cardiovascular disease (n=347). Patients and parents completed the PedsQL 4.0 and the Cardiac 3.0 Module health-related quality-of-life questionnaires. PedsQL scores including Total, Psychosocial Health Summary, and Physical were compared between groups. In general, patients with heart failure had lower scores than the healthy population (p=0.001), and comparable scores with those with chronic conditions. Parents perceived no difference in physical scores for children with heart failure when compared with healthy children, and perceived higher scores for children with heart failure when compared with those with chronic conditions (p⩽0.003). Furthermore, children with heart failure had decremental health-related quality-of-life scores as the American Heart Association stage of heart failure increased, such that patients with stage C heart failure had scores similar to children with severe cardiovascular disease. Children with heart failure reported significantly impaired health-related quality of life compared with healthy children and similar scores compared with children with chronic conditions. Parental perceptions appear to underestimate these impairments. Children with heart failure appear to have progressive impairment of health-related quality of life with advancing stage of heart failure. PMID:26277874

  7. EVA Health and Human Performance Benchmarking Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, A. F.; Norcross, J.; Jarvis, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple HRP Risks and Gaps require detailed characterization of human health and performance during exploration extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks; however, a rigorous and comprehensive methodology for characterizing and comparing the health and human performance implications of current and future EVA spacesuit designs does not exist. This study will identify and implement functional tasks and metrics, both objective and subjective, that are relevant to health and human performance, such as metabolic expenditure, suit fit, discomfort, suited postural stability, cognitive performance, and potentially biochemical responses for humans working inside different EVA suits doing functional tasks under the appropriate simulated reduced gravity environments. This study will provide health and human performance benchmark data for humans working in current EVA suits (EMU, Mark III, and Z2) as well as shirtsleeves using a standard set of tasks and metrics with quantified reliability. Results and methodologies developed during this test will provide benchmark data against which future EVA suits, and different suit configurations (eg, varied pressure, mass, CG) may be reliably compared in subsequent tests. Results will also inform fitness for duty standards as well as design requirements and operations concepts for future EVA suits and other exploration systems.

  8. Associations of Emotional Distress and Perceived Health in Persons With Atrial Fibrillation and Their Partners Using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model.

    PubMed

    Dalteg, Tomas; Benzein, Eva; Sandgren, Anna; Malm, Dan; Årestedt, Kristofer

    2016-08-01

    Individual behavior affects and is affected by other people. The aim of this study was to examine if emotional distress in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and their spouses was associated with their own and their partner's perceived health. Participants included 91 dyads of patients and their spouses. Emotional distress was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and perceived health was measured with the Short Form 36 Health Survey. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model was used for dyad-level analyses of associations, using structural equation modeling. Higher levels of anxiety and depression were associated with lower levels of perceived health in patients and spouses. Higher levels of depression in patients were associated with lower levels of vitality in spouses and vice versa. As AF patients and their spouses influence each other, health-care interventions should consider the dyad to address dyadic dynamics. This may benefit the health of the individual patient and of the couple. PMID:27385260

  9. Perceived importance of five different health issues for gay and bisexual men: implications for new directions in health education and prevention.

    PubMed

    Grov, Christian; Ventuneac, Ana; Rendina, H Jonathon; Jimenez, Ruben H; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2013-07-01

    This study assessed the perceived importance of five health issues for gay and bisexual men (N = 660) using time-space sampling in gay bars/clubs and bathhouses in New York City: "HIV & STDs," "Drugs & Alcohol," "Body Image," "Mental Health," and "Smoking." This study compared ratings based on demographic differences, recent substance use, recent sexual risk behavior, and whether or not participants owned a smart device (e.g., "smart" phone, iPad, iPod touch). Contrary to research indicating that gay and bisexual men may be experiencing HIV prevention fatigue, this study identified that HIV and STIs were perceived as most important. Drugs and alcohol and mental health were also rated high, suggesting that providers may be well served to include mental health and drugs and alcohol as part of their comprehensive approach to HIV prevention. A majority of participants (72%) owned a smart device. Smart device owners rated health issues similarly to those who did not, suggesting that such devices may be a useful platform to reach gay and bisexual men for health education and prevention. PMID:23093075

  10. Human resources for health in India.

    PubMed

    Rao, Mohan; Rao, Krishna D; Kumar, A K Shiva; Chatterjee, Mirai; Sundararaman, Thiagarajan

    2011-02-12

    India has a severe shortage of human resources for health. It has a shortage of qualified health workers and the workforce is concentrated in urban areas. Bringing qualified health workers to rural, remote, and underserved areas is very challenging. Many Indians, especially those living in rural areas, receive care from unqualified providers. The migration of qualified allopathic doctors and nurses is substantial and further strains the system. Nurses do not have much authority or say within the health system, and the resources to train them are still inadequate. Little attention is paid during medical education to the medical and public health needs of the population, and the rapid privatisation of medical and nursing education has implications for its quality and governance. Such issues are a result of underinvestment in and poor governance of the health sector--two issues that the government urgently needs to address. A comprehensive national policy for human resources is needed to achieve universal health care in India. The public sector will need to redesign appropriate packages of monetary and non-monetary incentives to encourage qualified health workers to work in rural and remote areas. Such a policy might also encourage task-shifting and mainstreaming doctors and practitioners who practice traditional Indian medicine (ayurveda, yoga and naturopathy, unani, and siddha) and homoeopathy to work in these areas while adopting other innovative ways of augmenting human resources for health. At the same time, additional investments will be needed to improve the relevance, quantity, and quality of nursing, medical, and public health education in the country. PMID:21227499

  11. Human resources for health: overcoming the crisis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lincoln; Evans, Timothy; Anand, Sudhir; Boufford, Jo Ivey; Brown, Hilary; Chowdhury, Mushtaque; Cueto, Marcos; Dare, Lola; Dussault, Gilles; Elzinga, Gijs; Fee, Elizabeth; Habte, Demissie; Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Jacobs, Marian; Kurowski, Christoph; Michael, Sarah; Pablos-Mendez, Ariel; Sewankambo, Nelson; Solimano, Giorgio; Stilwell, Barbara; de Waal, Alex; Wibulpolprasert, Suwit

    In this analysis of the global workforce, the Joint Learning Initiative-a consortium of more than 100 health leaders-proposes that mobilisation and strengthening of human resources for health, neglected yet critical, is central to combating health crises in some of the world's poorest countries and for building sustainable health systems in all countries. Nearly all countries are challenged by worker shortage, skill mix imbalance, maldistribution, negative work environment, and weak knowledge base. Especially in the poorest countries, the workforce is under assault by HIV/AIDS, out-migration, and inadequate investment. Effective country strategies should be backed by international reinforcement. Ultimately, the crisis in human resources is a shared problem requiring shared responsibility for cooperative action. Alliances for action are recommended to strengthen the performance of all existing actors while expanding space and energy for fresh actors. PMID:15567015

  12. Green Infrastructure, Ecosystem Services, and Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Coutts, Christopher; Hahn, Micah

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary ecological models of health prominently feature the natural environment as fundamental to the ecosystem services that support human life, health, and well-being. The natural environment encompasses and permeates all other spheres of influence on health. Reviews of the natural environment and health literature have tended, at times intentionally, to focus on a limited subset of ecosystem services as well as health benefits stemming from the presence, and access and exposure to, green infrastructure. The sweeping influence of green infrastructure on the myriad ecosystem services essential to health has therefore often been underrepresented. This survey of the literature aims to provide a more comprehensive picture—in the form of a primer—of the many simultaneously acting health co-benefits of green infrastructure. It is hoped that a more accurately exhaustive list of benefits will not only instigate further research into the health co-benefits of green infrastructure but also promote consilience in the many fields, including public health, that must be involved in the landscape conservation necessary to protect and improve health and well-being. PMID:26295249

  13. Green Infrastructure, Ecosystem Services, and Human Health.

    PubMed

    Coutts, Christopher; Hahn, Micah

    2015-08-01

    Contemporary ecological models of health prominently feature the natural environment as fundamental to the ecosystem services that support human life, health, and well-being. The natural environment encompasses and permeates all other spheres of influence on health. Reviews of the natural environment and health literature have tended, at times intentionally, to focus on a limited subset of ecosystem services as well as health benefits stemming from the presence, and access and exposure to, green infrastructure. The sweeping influence of green infrastructure on the myriad ecosystem services essential to health has therefore often been underrepresented. This survey of the literature aims to provide a more comprehensive picture-in the form of a primer-of the many simultaneously acting health co-benefits of green infrastructure. It is hoped that a more accurately exhaustive list of benefits will not only instigate further research into the health co-benefits of green infrastructure but also promote consilience in the many fields, including public health, that must be involved in the landscape conservation necessary to protect and improve health and well-being. PMID:26295249

  14. Attitudes to and perceived use of health care services among Asian and non-Asian patients in Leicester.

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, A; Jagger, C

    1992-01-01

    A random sample of 449 Asian patients and 447 non-Asian patients were interviewed at home in their preferred language using a personally administered questionnaire comparing attitudes to and perceived use of health care services in Leicester. The overall response rate was 89.6%. There were differences in the responses of the Asian and non-Asian populations. With respect to communication, language as a barrier appears to be a diminishing problem among Asian patients in Leicester. However, Asian patients reported finding it more difficult to gain access to their general practitioners than non-Asian patients. More Asian than non-Asian patients would have preferred direct access to consultants and most respondents from both populations felt they should be able to request a hospital opinion from their general practitioner. More Asian patients disliked management of illness by telephone than non-Asian patients, the latter feeling that telephone advice could save them a trip to the surgery, or their general practitioner a home visit. However, both groups regarded home visiting as essential. Asian patients disliked deputizing services more than non-Asian patients, and there was some support for 24 hour surgeries, particularly among the Asian population, with doctors working in shifts. As Asian patients appear to differ from non-Asian patients with respect to attitudes and perceived need for health care services, this type of survey may form the basis for the more rational planning of health care delivery to ethnic minority patients in the future. PMID:1389431

  15. Environmental and occupational health and human rights.

    PubMed

    Slatin, Craig

    2011-01-01

    Modern environmental- and occupational-related morbidities and mortality are determined by the power relations inherent in our existing capitalist systems of production and consumption. These systems thwart human public health rights because of the priority to maximize profit for the systems' owners rather than to establish ecologically sound and socially just development for all. The international public health community must return to its primary prevention roots and take action to eliminate the potential for population morbidities that result from hazardous substance exposures in work and community environments. The 1988 Adelaide Recommendations on Healthy Public Policy provide us with guidelines that incorporate a human rights approach and build on several decades of international public health declarations and charters. To succeed, public health must work with the labor movement. A human rights approach to environmental public health can help us make a transition to sustainable modes of production and consumption. The environmental justice movement's strategy for an economic greening that sets as a priority "pathways out of poverty" can help to advance environmental public health rights. PMID:21733799

  16. Perceived Relevance of Educative Information on Public (Skin) Health: Results of a Representative, Population-Based Telephone Survey.

    PubMed

    Haluza, Daniela; Schwab, Markus; Simic, Stana; Cervinka, Renate; Moshammer, Hanns

    2015-11-01

    Individual skin health attitudes are influenced by various factors, including public education campaigns, mass media, family, and friends. Evidence-based, educative information materials assist communication and decision-making in doctor-patient interactions. The present study aims at assessing the prevailing use of skin health information material and sources and their impact on skin health knowledge, motives to tan, and sun protection. We conducted a questionnaire survey among a representative sample of Austrian residents. Print media and television were perceived as the two most relevant sources for skin health information, whereas the source physician was ranked third. Picking the information source physician increased participants' skin health knowledge (p = 0.025) and sun-protective behavior (p < 0.001). The study results highlight the demand for targeted health messages to attain lifestyle changes towards photo-protective habits. Providing resources that encourage pro-active counseling in every-day doctor-patient communication could increase skin health knowledge and sun-protective behavior, and thus, curb the rise in skin cancer incidence rates. PMID:26569274

  17. Perceived Relevance of Educative Information on Public (Skin) Health: Results of a Representative, Population-Based Telephone Survey

    PubMed Central

    Haluza, Daniela; Schwab, Markus; Simic, Stana; Cervinka, Renate; Moshammer, Hanns

    2015-01-01

    Individual skin health attitudes are influenced by various factors, including public education campaigns, mass media, family, and friends. Evidence-based, educative information materials assist communication and decision-making in doctor-patient interactions. The present study aims at assessing the prevailing use of skin health information material and sources and their impact on skin health knowledge, motives to tan, and sun protection. We conducted a questionnaire survey among a representative sample of Austrian residents. Print media and television were perceived as the two most relevant sources for skin health information, whereas the source physician was ranked third. Picking the information source physician increased participants’ skin health knowledge (p = 0.025) and sun-protective behavior (p < 0.001). The study results highlight the demand for targeted health messages to attain lifestyle changes towards photo-protective habits. Providing resources that encourage pro-active counseling in every-day doctor-patient communication could increase skin health knowledge and sun-protective behavior, and thus, curb the rise in skin cancer incidence rates. PMID:26569274

  18. School Nurses' Perceived Prevalence and Competence to Address Student Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Sharon H.; Connors, Elizabeth H.

    2013-01-01

    Due to under-identification of student mental health problems and limited specialty mental health providers in schools, school nurses are often faced with identifying and addressing student mental health needs. This exploratory study assessed prevalence and types of student mental health problems encountered by school nurses, as well as their…

  19. [Is subjective well-being perceived by non-health care workers different from that perceived by nurses? Relation with personality and resilience].

    PubMed

    Arrogante, O; Pérez-García, A M

    2013-01-01

    Subjective well-being (SWB), usually called 'happiness', is influenced directly by psychological factors. Personality and resilience (capacity of recover from adversity) are included among these factors. Empirical evidence has demonstrated that resilience is an essential and inherent characteristic for the nursery staff. This study has aimed to analyze personality factors (including resilience) related with SWB (satisfaction with life, positive and negative affect) in a nursery staff sample (n=59) of intensive care and cardiological units, and a non-health care workers sample (n=50) mainly made up of government employees and teachers. Multiple regression analyses showed that SWB was associated with more resilience and less neuroticism in the nursery staff. Extraversion and conscientiousness (positively related), and neuroticism (negatively related) were the significant predictors of SWB in the non-health care workers group. Finally, mediational analyses revealed that resilience measured the relationships between extraversion (total mediation) and neuroticism (partial mediation) with SWB in the nursery staff group, but not in the group of non-health care workers. The results show the importance of resilience for nursery staff of intensive care units, since they are constantly exposed to human suffering and to a continually adverse occupational environment. Likewise, the discussion stresses that resilience is a means for nursing staff to cope with the occupational stress and that resilient nurses are a crucial element in our health care system. PMID:24140260

  20. Improving Perceived and Actual Text Difficulty for Health Information Consumers using Semi-Automated Methods

    PubMed Central

    Leroy, Gondy; Endicott, James E.; Mouradi, Obay; Kauchak, David; Just, Melissa L.

    2012-01-01

    We are developing algorithms for semi-automated simplification of medical text. Based on lexical and grammatical corpus analysis, we identified a new metric, term familiarity, to help estimate text difficulty. We developed an algorithm that uses term familiarity to identify difficult text and select easier alternatives from lexical resources such as WordNet, UMLS and Wiktionary. Twelve sentences were simplified to measure perceived difficulty using a 5-point Likert scale. Two documents were simplified to measure actual difficulty by posing questions with and without the text present (information understanding and retention). We conducted a user study by inviting participants (N=84) via Amazon Mechanical Turk. There was a significant effect of simplification on perceived difficulty (p<.001). We also saw slightly improved understanding with better question-answering for simplified documents but the effect was not significant (p=.097). Our results show how term familiarity is a valuable component in simplifying text in an efficient and scalable manner. PMID:23304324

  1. Human milk research for answering questions about human health.

    PubMed

    Wang, Richard Y; Bates, Michael N; Goldstein, Daniel A; Haynes, Suzanne G; Hench, Karen D; Lawrence, Ruth A; Paul, Ian M; Qian, Zhengmin

    2005-10-22

    Concerns regarding human milk in our society are diverse, ranging from the presence of environmental chemicals to the health of breastfed infants and the economic value of breastfeeding to society. The panel convened for the Technical Workshop on Human Milk Surveillance and Biomonitoring for Environmental Chemicals in the United States, held at the Hershey Medical Center, Pennsylvania State College of Medicine, on 24--26 September 2004, considered how human milk research may contribute to environmental health initiatives to benefit society. The panel concluded that infant, maternal, and community health can benefit from studies using human milk biomonitoring. Unlike other biological specimens, human milk provides information regarding exposure of the mother and breastfed infant to environmental chemicals. Some of the health topics relevant to this field of research include disorders of growth and development in infants, cancer origins in women, and characterization of the trend of exposure to environmental chemicals in the community. The research focus will determine the design of the study and the need for the collection of alternative biological specimens and the long-term storage of these specimens. In order to strengthen the ability to interpret study results, it is important to identify reference ranges for the chemicals measured and to control for populations with high environmental chemical exposure, because the amount of data on environmental chemical levels in human milk that is available for comparison is extremely limited. In addition, it will be necessary to validate models used to assess infant exposure from breastfeeding because of the variable nature of current models. Information on differences between individual and population risk estimates for toxicity needs to be effectively communicated to the participant. Human milk research designed to answer questions regarding health will require additional resources to meet these objectives. PMID:16176918

  2. Department of Health and Human Services, Office for Civil Rights

    MedlinePlus

    ... Civil Rights Search U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Search Close HHS A-Z Index About Us ... to participate in certain health care and human services programs without unlawful discrimination. HIPAA - Health Information Privacy ...

  3. Associations between Parents’ Perceived Air Quality in Homes and Health among Children in Nanjing, China

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Hua; Zheng, Xiaohong; Zhang, Min; Weschler, Louise; Sundell, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of respiratory diseases in Chinese children has focused attention on indoor environmental quality. We investigated associations between perceived air quality in domestic environments and children’s allergic diseases with a questionnaire survey study. A total of 4017 children aged 1–8 years old from 23 kindergartens in urban, suburban and industrial areas in Nanjing were randomly recruited for this study. Parents’ perceived odors, including stuffy odor, unpleasant odor, pungent odor, moldy odor, humid air and dry air were found to be associated with asthma, wheeze, dry cough and rhinitis (P < 0.05). Both perceived dry and humid air were found to be positively associated with dampness indices, and we present evidence that the sensation of dryness may not be due to the actual indoor relative humidity, but rather to indoor air irritants. Parents’ perception of odors and relative humidity may be indicators of environment pollutants, which are likely the real factors associated with children’s allergic diseases. PMID:27191186

  4. Oceans and Human Health: Linking Ocean, Organism, and Human Health for Sustainable Management of Coastal Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandifer, P. A.; Trtanj, J.; Collier, T. K.

    2012-12-01

    Scientists and policy-makers are increasingly recognizing that sustainable coastal communities depend on healthy and resilient economies, ecosystems, and people, and that the condition or "health" of the coastal ocean and humans are intimately and inextricably connected. A wealth of ecosystem services provided by ocean and coastal environments are crucial for human survival and well being. Nonetheless, the health of coastal communities, their economies, connected ecosystems and ecosystem services, and people are under increasing threats from health risks associated with environmental degradation, climate change, and unwise land use practices, all of which contribute to growing burdens of naturally-occurring and introduced pathogens, noxious algae, and chemical contaminants. The occurrence, frequency, intensity, geographic range, and number and kinds of ocean health threats are increasing, with concomitant health and economic effects and eroding public confidence in the safety and wholesomeness of coastal environments and resources. Concerns in the research and public health communities, many summarized in the seminal 1999 NRC Report, From Monsoons to Microbes and the 2004 final report of the US Commission on Ocean Policy, resulted in establishment of a new "meta-discipline" known as Oceans and Human Health (OHH). OHH brings together practitioners in oceanography, marine biology, ecology, biomedical science, medicine, economics and other social sciences, epidemiology, environmental management, and public health to focus on water- and food-borne causes of human and animal illnesses associated with ocean and coastal systems and on health benefits of seafood and other marine products. It integrates information across multiple disciplines to increase knowledge of ocean health risks and benefits and communicate such information to enhance public safety. Recognizing the need for a comprehensive approach to ocean health threats and benefits, Congress passed the Oceans and

  5. The Perceived Importance of Role-Specific Competencies for Health Care Leaders Establishes the Need to Expand Role Theory.

    PubMed

    Babinski, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional quantitative study was undertaken to determine the extent to which individuals who have differing health care leadership roles perceived the importance of selected leadership competencies in their specific roles based on their experience. A total of 313 participants responded to the health care questionnaire. Principal component analysis identified factor structure and Cronbach α at .96 supported the reliability of the factor analysis. Multivariate analysis of variance tested the 4 health care leadership roles to determine if an effect was present among the competencies. A subsequent analysis of variance test was conducted on the competencies to confirm an effect was present, and a Games-Howell post hoc test followed. These tests indicated that there was a significant difference in rating the perceived importance of specific leadership competencies by the health care leaders in each competency domain. The participants included in this study consisted of the chief executive officer (CEO), director of nursing (DON), operating room director (ORD), and director of radiology (DOR). Based on the Games-Howell post hoc test, a commonality existed between the leaders. The CEOs and DONs often indicated no significant difference in competency perception to one another in relation to the dependent variables, yet indicated a significant difference in competency perception when compared with the ORDs and DORs. Similarly, the ORD and DOR variables often indicated no significant difference in competency perception to one another in relation to the dependent variables, yet indicated a significant difference in competency perception compared with the CEO and DON variables. This study positively indicated that health care leadership's perception of competencies does differ between the various leadership roles. PMID:27111689

  6. Human health effects of ozone reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Modification of the stratosphere, such as a reduction in its equilibrium ozone content, could produce direct and indirect effects on human health. The direct hazard to humans would be caused by an increase in the cumulative amount of UV radiation reaching the earth's surface in the range of 285 to 340 nm, encompassing the UV-B or erythemal wavelength region of 280 to 320 nm. Exposing the susceptible human population to an increased total UV dosage of shorter wavelengths could increase skin cancer incidence. Although effects would be delayed by decades, for each 1% decrease in ozone the expected increase in skin cancer incidence would be on the order of 2%.

  7. Health: The Science of Human Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Charles R.; And Others

    This book examines human health behavior as a lifetime process of adaptation and response to internally and externally demanding environments. Beginning with conception, this book follows the family life cycle from "seed to sod" and beyond. From considerations of conception it moves to birth, growth and development, disease, life style,…

  8. HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENIC CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENIC CHEMICALS.

    Robert J. Kavlock, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC USA.

    Over the past several decades a hypothesis has been put forth that a numb...

  9. Acid precipitation and human health: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, S.

    1989-08-01

    This report, written for environmental managers in electric utilities, reviews potential indirect human health effects of acid precipitation. Possible exposure routes and materials examined in this review include drinking water contamination (aluminum and mercury), corrosion of metals (lead, cadmium, arsenic, selenium, copper, and zinc) and asbestos from water piping, bioaccumulation of mercury and other metals in fish and game, and uptake of mobilized metals in crops. No direct effects (e.g., skin or eye irritation) of human exposure to acid precipitation have been identified, and air pollutant impacts on health are not included in this review, because these pollutants are acid precipitation precursors, not acid precipitation per se. The literature is summarized, presenting results from researchers' studies to support their conclusions. The review discusses potential acid precipitation impacts on metal levels in drinking water and food, summarizes the health effects of ingestion of these materials, and identifies areas of needed research. Metal-metal interactions in humans that may be related to acid precipitation are identified. Current research programs and planned assessments of the indirect human health effects of acid precipitation are summarized. 136 refs., 38 figs., 17 tabs

  10. Caring for soil improves human health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soils have been our precious natural resources that are critical to our public health because of their impact on human and animal food, nutrition, water and air. Naturally, we strongly tied with our soils that are part of us and play major roles in our routine daily life. We rely on soils every day,...

  11. U.S. Rice: Enhancing human health.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A vision of the U.S. rice industry is to improve human health through the development of germplasm and technologies for products that capture the unique nutritional benefits of the rice grain. This paper gives an overview of U.S. rice production and markets. New product trends and introductions in...

  12. Cultural beliefs about health professionals and perceived empathy influence continuity of cancer screening following a negative encounter.

    PubMed

    Amador, Jael A; Flynn, Patricia M; Betancourt, Hector

    2015-10-01

    Negative health care encounters have implications for preventive medical services and continuity of health care. This study examined cultural and interpersonal psychological factors involved in health care interactions that may ameliorate the detrimental effects of negative encounters. A mixed-methods approach was implemented to examine the relations among positive cultural beliefs about health professionals, perceived professional empathy, interpersonal emotions, and continuity of cancer screening among 237 Latin American (Latino) and non-Latino White (Anglo) American women who reported a negative health care encounter. Multi-group structural equation modeling revealed that for Latino and Anglo women, positive cultural beliefs about health professionals in general were associated with higher perceptions of empathy regarding a professional involved in a negative encounter. In addition, for Latino women, perceptions of higher professional empathy and less negative emotions were associated with better continuity of cancer screening. Interventions designed to improve professionals' empathy skills and diverse patients' perceptions of professionals could improve patient-professional relations. PMID:26032574

  13. Blunted Cortisol Awakening Response and Poor Self-Perceived Health in Informal Caregivers of People with Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2016-09-01

    Caring for offspring diagnosed with eating disorders (EDs) entails being under high chronic stress, with negative consequences for health. However, most previous research has only evaluated self-report measures of health, biological markers being poorly studied. In this regard, the evaluation of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) could add significant information about the biological basis of health disturbances in this population. The main aim of the present study was to compare CAR and self-reported health between informal caregivers (ICs) of people with EDs and non-caregivers. Furthermore, we explored the effect of the nature of the diagnosis, comparing ICs of people with anorexia and bulimia nervosa. ICs had a blunted CAR, and more anxiety and insomnia, and social dysfunction, together with poorer perceived general health than non-caregivers. ICs of people with anorexia nervosa had higher levels of morning cortisol and burden, and more social dysfunction and severe depression than those of people with bulimia nervosa. Our results demonstrate marked health problems in ICs of people with EDs, especially when the care recipient has anorexia nervosa. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:27188221

  14. The Perceived Barriers of Access to Health Care Among a Group of Non-camp Syrian Refugees in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Ay, Merve; Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael

    2016-07-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the most needed health care services, accessibility of various health care services, and barriers to access as perceived by a group of Syrian refugees living in non-camp settings in Jordan and to compare accessibility among different groups. The study was conducted in the Amman, Irbid, Karak, and Maan governorates of Jordan. This is a cross-sectional, analytical, observational study using convenience and snowball sampling for data collection. A structured questionnaire was included in an ongoing needs assessment of a Jordanian nongovernment organization in April 2014, with a total of 196 surveys conducted. In addition to the prevalent acute and communicable diseases, chronic diseases and dental problems were common. Preventive and primary health care were more accessible than advanced services. Structural and financial barriers hindered access. The specific survey location and governorate were associated with a difference in reported access. Registration status, health provider, duration, and out-of-pocket payment did not affect accessibility. The capacities of health facilities at different levels should be increased. Enhanced information sharing among health providers can improve identification of needs and gaps. PMID:26962004

  15. Space Radiation and Risks to Human Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Janice L.

    2014-01-01

    The radiation environment in space poses significant challenges to human health and is a major concern for long duration manned space missions. Outside the Earth's protective magnetosphere, astronauts are exposed to higher levels of galactic cosmic rays, whose physical characteristics are distinct from terrestrial sources of radiation such as x-rays and gamma-rays. Galactic cosmic rays consist of high energy and high mass nuclei as well as high energy protons; they impart unique biological damage as they traverse through tissue with impacts on human health that are largely unknown. The major health issues of concern are the risks of radiation carcinogenesis, acute and late decrements to the central nervous system, degenerative tissue effects such as cardiovascular disease, as well as possible acute radiation syndromes due to an unshielded exposure to a large solar particle event. The NASA Human Research Program's Space Radiation Program Element is focused on characterization and mitigation of these space radiation health risks along with understanding these risks in context of the other biological stressors found in the space environment. In this overview, we will provide a description of these health risks and the Element's research strategies to understand and mitigate these risks.

  16. The thing that should not be: predictive coding and the uncanny valley in perceiving human and humanoid robot actions.

    PubMed

    Saygin, Ayse Pinar; Chaminade, Thierry; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Driver, Jon; Frith, Chris

    2012-04-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) repetition suppression, we explored the selectivity of the human action perception system (APS), which consists of temporal, parietal and frontal areas, for the appearance and/or motion of the perceived agent. Participants watched body movements of a human (biological appearance and movement), a robot (mechanical appearance and movement) or an android (biological appearance, mechanical movement). With the exception of extrastriate body area, which showed more suppression for human like appearance, the APS was not selective for appearance or motion per se. Instead, distinctive responses were found to the mismatch between appearance and motion: whereas suppression effects for the human and robot were similar to each other, they were stronger for the android, notably in bilateral anterior intraparietal sulcus, a key node in the APS. These results could reflect increased prediction error as the brain negotiates an agent that appears human, but does not move biologically, and help explain the 'uncanny valley' phenomenon. PMID:21515639

  17. Disparities in parasitic infections, perceived ill health and access to health care among poorer and less poor schoolchildren of rural Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Raso, Giovanna; Utzinger, Jürg; Silué, Kigbafori D; Ouattara, Mamadou; Yapi, Ahoua; Toty, Abale; Matthys, Barbara; Vounatsou, Penelope; Tanner, Marcel; N'Goran, Eliézer K

    2005-01-01

    Differences in the state of health between rural and urban populations living in Africa have been described, yet only few studies analysed inequities within poor rural communities. We investigated disparities in parasitic infections, perceived ill health and access to formal health services among more than 4000 schoolchildren from 57 primary schools in a rural area of western Côte d'Ivoire, as measured by their socioeconomic status. In a first step, we carried out a cross-sectional parasitological survey. Stool specimens and finger prick blood samples were collected and processed with standardized, quality-controlled methods, for diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni, soil-transmitted helminths, intestinal protozoa and Plasmodium. Then, a questionnaire survey was carried out for the appraisal of self-reported morbidity indicators, as well as housing characteristics and household assets ownership. Mean travel distance from each village to the nearest health care delivery structure was provided by the regional health authorities. Poorer schoolchildren showed a significantly higher infection prevalence of hookworm than better-off children. However, higher infection prevalences of intestinal protozoa (i.e. Blastocystis hominis, Endolimax nana and Iodamoeba butschlii) were found with increasing socioeconomic status. Significant negative associations were observed between socioeconomic status and light infection intensities with hookworm and S. mansoni, as well as with several self-reported morbidity indicators. The poorest school-attending children lived significantly further away from formal health services than their richer counterparts. Our study provides evidence for inequities among schoolchildren's parasitic infection status, perceived ill health and access to health care in a large rural part of Côte d'Ivoire. These findings call for more equity-balanced parasitic disease control interventions, which in turn might be an important strategy for poverty alleviation

  18. Climate change, human health, and epidemiological transition

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Bruce; Charles, Joel W.; Temte, Jonathan L.

    2015-01-01

    The health of populations depends on the availability of clean air, water, food, and sanitation, exposure to pathogens, toxins and environmental hazards, and numerous genetic, behavioral and social factors. For many thousands of years, human life expectancy was low, and population growth was slow. The development of technology-based civilizations facilitated what Abdel Omran called “epidemiological transition,” with increasing life expectancy and rapid population growth. To a large extent, the spectacular growth of human populations during the past two centuries was made possible by the energy extracted from fossil fuels. We have now learned, however, that greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion are warming the planet's surface, causing changes in oceanic and atmospheric systems, and disrupting weather and hydrological patterns. Climate change poses unprecedented threats to human health by impacts on food and water security, heat waves and droughts, violent storms, infectious disease, and rising sea levels. Whether or not humanity can reduce greenhouse gas emissions quickly enough to slow climate change to a rate that will allow societies to successfully adapt is not yet known. This essay reviews the current state of relevant knowledge, and points in a few directions that those interested in human health may wish to consider. PMID:25434735

  19. Climate change, human health, and epidemiological transition.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Bruce; Charles, Joel W; Temte, Jonathan L

    2015-01-01

    The health of populations depends on the availability of clean air, water, food, and sanitation, exposure to pathogens, toxins and environmental hazards, and numerous genetic, behavioral and social factors. For many thousands of years, human life expectancy was low, and population growth was slow. The development of technology-based civilizations facilitated what Abdel Omran called "epidemiological transition," with increasing life expectancy and rapid population growth. To a large extent, the spectacular growth of human populations during the past two centuries was made possible by the energy extracted from fossil fuels. We have now learned, however, that greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion are warming the planet's surface, causing changes in oceanic and atmospheric systems, and disrupting weather and hydrological patterns. Climate change poses unprecedented threats to human health by impacts on food and water security, heat waves and droughts, violent storms, infectious disease, and rising sea levels. Whether or not humanity can reduce greenhouse gas emissions quickly enough to slow climate change to a rate that will allow societies to successfully adapt is not yet known. This essay reviews the current state of relevant knowledge, and points in a few directions that those interested in human health may wish to consider. PMID:25434735

  20. “So We Adapt Step by Step”: Acculturation Experiences Affecting Diabetes Management and Perceived Health for Chinese American Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Kevin M.; Chesla, Catherine A.; Kwan, Christine M.L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how acculturation affects type 2 diabetes management and perceived health for Chinese American immigrants in the U.S. Acculturation experiences or cultural adaptation experiences affecting diabetes management and health were solicited from an informant group of immigrant patients and their spouses (N=40) during group, couple and individual interviews conducted in 2005 to 2008. A separate respondent group of immigrant patients and their spouses (N=19) meeting inclusion criteria reviewed and confirmed themes generated by the informant group. Using interpretive phenomenology, three key themes in patients’ and spouses’ acculturation experiences were identified: a) utilizing health care, b) maintaining family relations and roles, and c) establishing community ties and groundedness in the U.S. Acculturation experiences reflecting these themes were broad in scope and not fully captured by current self-report and proxy acculturation measures. In the current study, shifting family roles and evaluations of diabetes care and physical environment in the U.S. significantly affected diabetes management and health, yet are overlooked in acculturation and health investigations. Furthermore, the salience and impact of specific acculturation experiences respective to diabetes management and perceived health varied across participants due to individual, family, developmental, and environmental factors. In regards to salience, maintaining filial and interdependent family relations in the U.S. was of particular concern for older participants and coping with inadequate health insurance in the U.S. was especially distressing for self-described lower-middle to middle-class participants. In terms of impact, family separation and relocating to ethnically similar neighborhoods in the U.S. differentially affected diabetes management and health due to participants’ varied family relations and pre-migration family support levels and diverse cultural and linguistic

  1. Public information officers' and journalists' perceived barriers to providing quality health information.

    PubMed

    Avery, Elizabeth Johnson; Lariscy, Ruthann Weaver; Sohn, Youngju

    2009-06-01

    Given the increase in the volume of health and medical news over the past few years, the expanding population of journalists committed to feeding the public's voracious appetite for such information, and the important role of government public health organizations in producing and disseminating public health information, it is surprising that little research exists that explores the relationships among public health entities and health journalists. This article describes and analyzes similarities and differences in perceptions between journalists and information officers in public health agencies on a number of issues to reveal how public information officers and health journalists can work to build a local public health agenda free from the burden of unnecessary or inconsistent barriers. This study reports findings from a study with a 3-stage pretest and 90 interviews with state and local public health information officers and the health journalists who cover public health beats across the United States. Despite some agreement, results indicate wide disparities between these populations' identification of what the barriers to high-quality health care and information are, and a generalized absence of a "shared vision." PMID:19499426

  2. An Exploration of the Effect of Community Engagement in Research on Perceived Outcomes of Partnered Mental Health Services Projects*

    PubMed Central

    Khodyakov, Dmitry; Stockdale, Susan; Jones, Felica; Ohito, Elizabeth; Jones, Andrea; Lizaola, Elizabeth; Mango, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Mental health research projects address sensitive issues for vulnerable populations and are implemented in complex environments. Community-Based Participatory Research approaches are recommended for health research on vulnerable populations, but little is known about how variation in participation affects outcomes of partnered research projects. We developed a conceptual model demonstrating the impact of community engagement in research on outcomes of partnered projects. We collected data on key constructs from community and academic leaders of 21 sampled partnered research projects in two cycles of an NIMH research center. We conducted empirical analyses to test the model. Our findings suggest that community engagement in research is positively associated with perceived professional development, as well as political and community impact. PMID:22582144

  3. Perceived built environment and health-related quality of life in four types of neighborhoods in Xi'an, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Meiling; Ahern, Jennifer; Koshland, Catherine P

    2016-05-01

    Development in Chinese cities is resulting in a diversity of urban environments that may influence health. In a cross-sectional study of 1608 adults in 20 neighborhoods of Xi'an, China, we examined perceptions of neighborhoods using the NEWS-A survey and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) from the SF-12 across four types of neighborhoods: old/planned, old/unplanned, new/high density, and new/low density. Increased accessibility was significantly associated with both higher mental (range: 3.13-5.53 points) and physical (range: 2.06-3.54 points) well-being for all types of neighborhoods. In the new neighborhoods, increased perceived diversity, safety, and esthetics were significantly associated with higher physical and mental well-being. This study can help inform urban planning priorities to improve quality of life as Chinese cities develop. PMID:27055241

  4. Relational regulation theory: a new approach to explain the link between perceived social support and mental health.

    PubMed

    Lakey, Brian; Orehek, Edward

    2011-07-01

    Perceived support is consistently linked to good mental health, which is typically explained as resulting from objectively supportive actions that buffer stress. Yet this explanation has difficulty accounting for the often-observed main effects between support and mental health. Relational regulation theory (RRT) hypothesizes that main effects occur when people regulate their affect, thought, and action through ordinary yet affectively consequential conversations and shared activities, rather than through conversations about how to cope with stress. This regulation is primarily relational in that the types of people and social interactions that regulate recipients are mostly a matter of personal taste. RRT operationally defines relationships quantitatively, permitting the clean distinction between relationships and recipient personality. RRT makes a number of new predictions about social support, including new approaches to intervention. PMID:21534704

  5. Compliance of expatriates with perceived and real health and safety risks in overseas oil and gas operations

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.S.

    1996-12-31

    A survey of health and safety concerns amongst an expatriate community in Balikpapan, East Kalimantan, Indonesia, revealed discrepancies between recommended and actual practices, and perceived versus real risks. Eighty-three responses were obtained from an expatriate community of approximately 200 households. Most responders do not follow the advice given prior to transfer regarding malaria prophylaxis. Most responders drive their own vehicles, despite the fact that most had no preparation regarding local traffic laws. A significant number lack adequate seat belts. Most felt insufficiently informed prior to transfer. Forty-three percent would consider using a psychological counseling service. Ranked of greatest importance for health and safety were access to medical care, food/water quality, and traffic safety. These responses suggest ways that companies can better prepare families for transfer to this area.

  6. The Perceived Socioeconomic Status Is an Important Factor of Health Recovery for Victims of Occupational Accidents in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Jaehoon

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to examine whether there is a correlation between the health recovery of industrial accident victims and their perceived socioeconomic status. Data were obtained from the first Panel Study of Worker's Compensation Insurance, which included 2,000 participants. We performed multivariate regression analysis and determined the odds ratios for participants with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status and for those with a subjectively lower middle socioeconomic status using 95% confidence intervals. An additional multivariate regression analysis yielded the odds ratios for participants with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status and those with a subjectively upper middle socioeconomic class using 95% confidence intervals. Of all participants, 299 reported a full recovery, whereas 1,701 did not. We examined the odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) for participants' health recovery according to their subjective socioeconomic status while controlling for sex, age, education, tobacco use, alcohol use, subjective state of health prior to the accident, chronic disease, employment duration, recovery period, accident type, disability status, disability rating, and economic participation. The odds of recovery in participants with a subjectively lower middle socioeconomic status were 1.707 times greater (1.264-2.305) than that of those with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status. Similarly, the odds of recovery in participants with a subjectively upper middle socioeconomic status were 3.124 times greater (1.795-5.438) than that of those with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status. Our findings indicate that participants' perceived socioeconomic disparities extend to disparities in their health status. The reinforcement of welfare measures is greatly needed to temper these disparities. PMID:26839467

  7. The Perceived Socioeconomic Status Is an Important Factor of Health Recovery for Victims of Occupational Accidents in Korea.

    PubMed

    Seok, Hongdeok; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Lee, Wanhyung; Lee, June-Hee; Jung, Pil Kyun; Roh, Jaehoon; Won, Jong-Uk

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to examine whether there is a correlation between the health recovery of industrial accident victims and their perceived socioeconomic status. Data were obtained from the first Panel Study of Worker's Compensation Insurance, which included 2,000 participants. We performed multivariate regression analysis and determined the odds ratios for participants with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status and for those with a subjectively lower middle socioeconomic status using 95% confidence intervals. An additional multivariate regression analysis yielded the odds ratios for participants with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status and those with a subjectively upper middle socioeconomic class using 95% confidence intervals. Of all participants, 299 reported a full recovery, whereas 1,701 did not. We examined the odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) for participants' health recovery according to their subjective socioeconomic status while controlling for sex, age, education, tobacco use, alcohol use, subjective state of health prior to the accident, chronic disease, employment duration, recovery period, accident type, disability status, disability rating, and economic participation. The odds of recovery in participants with a subjectively lower middle socioeconomic status were 1.707 times greater (1.264-2.305) than that of those with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status. Similarly, the odds of recovery in participants with a subjectively upper middle socioeconomic status were 3.124 times greater (1.795-5.438) than that of those with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status. Our findings indicate that participants' perceived socioeconomic disparities extend to disparities in their health status. The reinforcement of welfare measures is greatly needed to temper these disparities. PMID:26839467

  8. Prevalence and intensity of chronic pain and self-perceived health among elderly people: a population-based study1

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Lilian Varanda; de Vasconcelos, Patrícia Pereira; Souza, Layz Alves Ferreira; Pereira, Gilberto de Araújo; Nakatani, Adélia Yaeko Kyosen; Bachion, Maria Márcia

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to identify the prevalence and intensity of chronic pain among elderly people of the community and to analyze associations with the self-perceived health status. METHOD: cross-sectional study with a populational sample (n=934), conducted through household interviews in the city of Goiânia, Brazil. The intensity of chronic pain (existing for 6 months or more) was measured using a numerical scale (0-10) and the self-perceived health through a verbal scale (very good, good, fair, poor, very poor). For the statistical analysis, the absolute frequency and percentage, CI (95%), Chi-square test, Odds ratio, and regression analysis were used. Significance of 5%. RESULTS: The prevalence of chronic pain was 52.8% [CI (95%):49.4-56.1]; most frequently located in the lower limbs (34.5%) and lumbar region (29.5%); with high or the worst possible intensity for 54.6% of the elderly people. The occurrence of chronic pain was associated with (p<0.0001) a worse self-perception of health (OR=4.2:2.5-7.0), a greater number of chronic diseases (OR=1.8:1.2-2.7), joint disease (OR=3.5:2.4-5.1) and the female gender (OR=2.3:1.7-3.0). A lower intensity of chronic pain was associated with a better self-perception of health (p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: the majority of the elderly people of the community reported chronic pain, of a severe intensity, and located in areas related to movement activities, thus influencing the morbidity and mortality of this population. PMID:25296151

  9. Perceived stigma of patients with severe mental illness in Hong Kong: relationships with patients' psychosocial conditions and attitudes of family caregivers and health professionals.

    PubMed

    Chien, Wai-Tong; Yeung, Frederick K K; Chan, Alan H L

    2014-03-01

    This descriptive survey investigated the level of perceived stigma among Chinese patients with severe mental illness (SMI) and its relationships with patients' psychosocial conditions and family caregivers' and mental health professionals' attitudes toward SMI in Hong Kong. A clustered, random sample of 311 patients and their family caregivers and 73 Chinese professionals participated. The patients reported a high level of withdrawal/secrecy and the professionals perceived a low to moderate level of stereotype/restriction to their patients. Families' expressed emotion and caregiving burden could increase patients' perceived stigma. Strategies in de-stigmatization of mental illness have been discussed, particularly from family-based approach. PMID:23254907

  10. Triple jeopardy: impact of partner violence perpetration, mental health and substance use on perceived unmet need for mental health care among men

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Raul; Roy-Byrne, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, serious mental illness, and substance use and perceived unmet need for mental health treatment in the past year among men in the general population using the behavioral model for health-care use (Aday and Anderson in Health Serv Res 9:208–220, 1974; Andersen in A behavioral model of families’ use of health services, 1968; Andersen in Med Care 46:647–653, 2008). Methods Non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white males aged 18–49 years and cohabiting with a spouse/partner were included in this analysis of the 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic regression. Results The proportion of men reporting unmet treatment need was greater among IPV perpetrators than nonperpetrators (12.1 vs. 3.4%, respectively). Hazardous drinking, illicit drug use, alcohol and drug abuse/dependence, and SMI were also more common among perpetrators. Perpetrators were twice as likely to report unmet need for treatment after taking predisposing, enabling, and need factors into account (AOR 2.00, CI 1.13–3.55). Alcohol abuse/dependence (AOR 2.96, CI 1.79–4.90), drug abuse/dependence (AOR, 1.79, CI 1.01–3.17), substance abuse treatment (AOR 3.09, CI 1.18–8.09), and SMI (AOR 8.46, CI 5.53–12.94) were independently associated with perceived unmet need for treatment. Conclusions These findings suggest that men who perpetrate IPV are at increased risk of perceived unmet need for mental health care. This study also emphasizes the need to identify substance use disorders and mental health problems among IPV perpetrators identified in health, social service, or criminal justice settings. Further research should address barriers to care specific to men who perpetrate IPV beyond economic factors. PMID:20582398

  11. Perceived Discrimination and Its Associations with Mental Health and Substance Use among Asian American and Pacific Islander Undergraduate and Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Szalacha, Laura A.; Menon, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Racial discrimination experiences can negatively affect health. This study examined perceived discrimination and its relationship with mental health and substance use among Asian American and Pacific Islander (API) undergraduate and graduate students. Participants: A total of 113 API students aged 18-35 completed the study during…

  12. Potential human health effects of acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Adverse human health effects, namely acute and chronic respiratory effects, can occur from the pre-deposition phase of the acid rain phenomenon due to inhalation of acidic particles and gases. State-of-the-art methodology to evaluate these effects is just now being applied to this question. The major post-deposition effect of the acid rain phenomenon is to acidify water, increasing solubility and subsequent human exposure to mercury, lead, cadmium, and aluminum. Acidification increases bioconversion of mercury to methylmercury, a highly toxic compound, which accumulates in fish, increasing the risk to toxicity in people who eat fish. Increase in water and soil content of lead and cadmium increases human exposure to these metals which become additive to other sources presently under regulatory control. The potential adverse health effects of increased human exposure to aluminum is not known at the present time. Deficiencies in the identification of the contribution of pre-deposition of air pollutants and post-deposition mobilization of toxic metals to the recognized potential health effects of the involved toxic substances is due to the fact that scientists have not addressed these specific questions. 113 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  13. The Relationship between Perceived Racism/Discrimination and Health among Black American Women: A Review of the Literature from 2003-2013

    PubMed Central

    Black, Lora L.; Johnson, Rhonda; VanHoose, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this paper was to systematically review the literature investigating the relationship between perceived racism/discrimination and health among black American women. Methods Searches for empirical studies published from January 2003 to December 2013 were conducted using PubMed and PsycInfo. Articles were assessed for possible inclusion using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2009 framework. In addition, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) system for rating the strength of scientific evidence was used to assess the quality of studies included in the review. Results Nineteen studies met criteria for review. There was mixed evidence for general relationships between perceived racism/discrimination and health. Consistent evidence was found for the relationship between adverse birth outcomes, illness incidence, and cancer or tumor risk and perceived racism/discrimination. Inconsistent findings were found for the relationship between perceived racism/discrimination and heart disease risk factors. There was no evidence to support the relationship between perceived racism/discrimination and high blood pressure. Conclusions There is mixed evidence to support the association between perceived racism/discrimination and overall objective health outcomes among black American women. The strongest relationship was seen between perceived racism/discrimination and adverse birth outcomes. Better understanding the relationship between health and racism/discrimination can aid in identifying race-based risk factors developing primary prevention strategies. Future studies should aim to investigate the role of perceived racism/discrimination as a specific chronic stressor within discrete pathogenesis models. PMID:25973361

  14. Synergistic effect of interaction between perceived health and social activity on depressive symptoms in the middle-aged and elderly: a population-based longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Sung-Youn; Han, Kyu-Tae; Lee, Seo Yoon; Kim, Chan Ok; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the synergistic effect of interaction between perceived health and social activity on depressive symptoms. Methods We investigated whether the interaction between perceived health and social activity has a synergistic effect on depressive symptoms in the middle-aged and elderly using data from 6590 respondents aged 45 and older in the Korean Longitudinal Study on Aging (KLoSA), 2006–2012. A generalised linear mixed-effects model was used to investigate the association in a longitudinal data form. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression 10 Scale (CES-D10). Perceived health and level of social activity were categorical variables with three values. Participation in six social activities was assessed. Results Interactions between perceived health status and social activity were statistically significant for almost all social activity/perceived health combinations. Addition of the interaction term significantly decreased CES-D10 scores, confirming the synergistic effect of the interaction between perceived health status and social activity (‘normal×moderate’, β=−0.1826; ‘poor×moderate’, β=−0.5739; ‘poor×active’, β=−0.8935). In addition, we performed stratified analyses by region: urban or rural. In urban respondents, the additional effect of the interaction term decreased CES-D10 scores and all social activity/perceived health combinations were statistically significant (‘normal×moderate’, β=−0.2578; ‘normal×active’, β=−0.3945; ‘poor×moderate’, β=−0.5739; ‘poor×active’, β=−0.8935). In rural respondents, only one social activity/perceived health combination was statistically significant, and the additional effect of the interaction term showed no consistent trend on CES-D10 scores. Conclusions The interaction between perceived health and social activity has a synergistic effect on depressive symptoms; the additional effect of the interaction

  15. 75 FR 21508 - Health and Human Services Acquisition Regulation; Corrections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 48 CFR Chapter 3 Health and Human Services Acquisition Regulation; Corrections AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Correcting amendments. SUMMARY: This action corrects minor errors, inconsistencies and omissions in the final rule, which revised the Health and Human...

  16. Perceived risk factors of health decline: a qualitative study of hospitalized patients with multimorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Kuluski, Kerry; Tracy, C Shawn; Upshur, Ross E

    2015-01-01

    Background Effectively preventing and managing chronic illness are key goals for health systems worldwide. A growing number of people are living longer with multiple chronic illnesses, accompanied by a high degree of treatment burden and heavy use of health care resources. People with multimorbidity typically have to manage their care needs for a number of years, and from this experience may offer valuable perspectives on factors that influenced their health outcome. Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore factors that may serve as tipping points into poor health from the perspective of hospitalized patients with multimorbidity. Participants and methods Patient interview data were analyzed from 43 hospitalized patients with multimorbidities who indicated that something could have been done to either avoid or slow down their health decline. The study used qualitative description as the analytic method to generate themes from a specific question collected through one-on-one interviews. Two reviewers independently analyzed and thematically coded the data and reached consensus on the final themes after a series of meetings. Results According to patient accounts, factors at the personal level (eg, personal behaviors), provider level (eg, late diagnoses), and health care system level (eg, poor care transitions) contributed to their health decline. Conclusion This paper focuses on prevention in the context of multimorbidity. While some respondents indicated personal behaviors that impacted health, many pointed to factors outside themselves (providers and the broader health system). The orientation of health care systems, historically designed to support acute and episodic care and not multimorbidity, places patients, at least in some cases, at additional risk of decline. The patient accounts suggest that the notion of prevention should evolve throughout the course of illness. A successful health system would embrace this notion and see the goal as forestalling

  17. The human microbiome: ecosystem resilience and health

    PubMed Central

    Relman, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Given the importance of the microbiome for human health, the stability of the microbiome and its response to disturbance are crucial issues. Yet we have an insufficient understanding of them. Early data suggest that there is relative stability in the microbial ecosystem of adults in the absence of gross perturbation, and that long-term stability of human communities is not maintained by inertia, but by the action of restoring forces within a dynamic system. After brief exposures to some antibiotics, there is an immediate and substantial perturbation, and at least a partial recovery of taxonomic composition. Responses to antibiotics are individualized, and influenced by prior experience with the same antibiotic. These findings suggest that the human microbiome has properties of resilience. Besides serving to reveal critical underlying functional attributes, microbial interactions, and keystone species within the indigenous microbiota, responses to disturbance may have value in predicting future instability and disease, and in managing the human microbial ecosystem. PMID:22861804

  18. Soils: their implications to human health.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, P W

    2002-05-27

    This paper reviews how the health of humans is affected by the world's soils, an association that to date has been under appreciated and under reported. Soils significantly influence a variety of functions (e.g. as a plant growth medium; its importance on the cycling of water; as a foundation for buildings) that sustains the human population. Through ingestion (either deliberate or involuntary), inhalation and dermal absorption, the mineral, chemical and biological components of soils can either be directly beneficial or detrimental to human health. Specific examples include: geohelminth infection and the supply of mineral nutrients and potentially harmful elements (PHEs) via soil ingestion; cancers caused by the inhalation of fibrous minerals or Rn gas derived from the radioactive decay of U and Th in soil minerals; and tetanus, hookworm disease and podoconiosis caused by skin contact and dermal absorption of appropriate soil constituents. Human health can also be influenced in more indirect ways as soils interact with the atmosphere, biosphere and hydrosphere. Examples include: the volatilisation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from soils and their subsequent global redistribution that has health implications to the Aboriginal people of the Arctic; the frequent detrimental chemical and biological quality of drinking and recreational waters that are influenced by processes of soil erosion, surface runoff, interflow and leaching; and the transfer of mineral nutrients and PHEs from soils into the plants and animals that constitute the human food chain. The scale and magnitude of soil/health interactions are variable, but at times a considerable number of people can be affected as demonstrated by the extent of hookworm infection or the number of people at risk because they live in an I-deficient environment. Nevertheless, it can often be difficult to establish definite links between soils and human health. This, together with the emergence of new risks

  19. Perceived challenges to public health in Central and Eastern Europe: a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a major gradient in burden of disease between Central and Eastern Europe compared to Western Europe. Many of the underlying causes and risk factors are amenable to public health interventions. The purpose of the study was to explore perceptions of public health experts from Central and Eastern European countries on public health challenges in their countries. Methods We invited 179 public health experts from Central and Eastern European countries to a 2-day workshop in Berlin, Germany. A total of 25 public health experts from 14 countries participated in May 2008. The workshop was structured into 8 sessions of 1.5 hours each, with the topic areas covering coronary heart disease, stroke, prevention, obesity, alcohol, tobacco, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS. The workshop was recorded and the proceedings transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were entered into atlas.ti for content analysis and coded according to the session headings. After analysis of the content of each session discussion, a re-coding of the discussions took place based on the themes that emerged from the analysis. Results Themes discussed recurred across disease entities and sessions. Major themes were the relationship between clinical medicine and public health, the need for public health funding, and the problems of proving the effectiveness of disease prevention. Areas for action identified included the need to engage with the public, to create a better scientific basis for public health interventions, to identify “best practices” of disease prevention, and to implement registries/surveillance instruments. The need for improved data collection was seen throughout all areas discussed, as was the need to harmonize data across countries. Conclusions To reduce the burden of disease across Europe, closer collaboration of countries across Europe seems important in order to learn from each other. A more credible scientific basis for effective public health interventions is urgently

  20. Gut Microbiota, Probiotics, and Human Health

    PubMed Central

    SUVOROV, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The review is devoted to the problems of microbiota and the ways of it correction employing beneficial life bacteria- probiotics. It covers the issues related to the functioning of human microbiota and its importance for the health, individual variability of microbial content, functioning of the probiotics in the human organism and the history of probiotic studies with particular focus on the microbiological investigations in the USSR. The article discusses the safety issues related to probiotics and the problems with probiotic therapy, trying to explain the reasons for the side effects caused by probiotics. The necessity of personified selection of the probiotic strain or individual microbial therapy autoprobiotics is also discussed. PMID:24936366

  1. Conscientiousness mediates the relation between perceived parental socialisation and self-rated health

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yusuke; Roberts, Brent W.; Hoshino, Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    The pathways between parenting behaviours, personality and physical health have all been separately studied. Prior research has paid little attention to the indirect effects of personality in the path between parenting behaviours and better health. The purpose of this study was to explore the mediational effects of conscientiousness on the relationships between parental socialisation of responsibility and self-rated health, and to examine potential age differences in this mediational pathway. In total, 736 female and 749 male members across Japan participated in this study. They were divided into three groups by age category: younger-, middle-aged and older-aged. Conscientiousness and health were concurrently rated, while parental socialisation of responsibility was retrospectively assessed. Our analyses revealed that parental socialisation of responsibility is positively associated with conscientiousness and self-rated health, that conscientiousness is positively associated with self-rated health, and that conscientiousness fully mediated the effect of parental socialisation of responsibility on self-rated health. The mediational links were consistent across younger, middle-aged and older-aged cohorts. Our findings suggest that greater parental socialisation of responsibility relates to higher conscientiousness, and consequently healthier adults. These findings imply that parental behaviours could be a plausible target for intervention to foster the development of conscientiousness and better health. PMID:22292501

  2. Perceived Barriers to Health Care Access among Rural Older Adults: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goins, R. Turner; Williams, Kimberly A.; Carter, Mary W.; Spencer, S. Melinda; Solovieva, Tatiana

    2005-01-01

    Context: Many rural elders experience limited access to health care. The majority of what we know about this issue has been based upon quantitative studies, yet qualitative studies might offer additional insight into individual perceptions of health care access. Purpose: To examine what barriers rural elders report when accessing needed health…

  3. Perceived Barriers to Health Care Access Among Rural Older Adults: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goins, R. Turner; Williams, Kimberly A.; Carter, Mary W.; Spencer, S. Melinda; Solovieva, Tatiana

    2005-01-01

    Context: Many rural elders experience limited access to health care. The majority of what we know about this issue has been based upon quantitative studies, yet qualitative studies might offer additional insight into individual perceptions of health care access. Purpose: To examine what barriers rural elders report when accessing needed health…

  4. Adult Basic Education and Health Literacy: Program Efforts and Perceived Student Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackert, Michael; Poag, Meg

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This project examined health literacy efforts among adult basic education providers in Central Texas. Methods: A survey was conducted with all adult literacy providers in Central Texas (N = 58). Results: Most programs provide health-related information. Literacy programs see needs for helping students communicate with doctors, filling…

  5. Teachers' Role Breadth and Perceived Efficacy in Supporting Student Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzer, Kelly R.; Rickwood, Debra J.

    2015-01-01

    Teachers are considered well placed to identify issues concerning students' mental health and well-being and can play a critical role in the helping process for their concerns. However, little is known about the views of teachers regarding their role in supporting student mental health and how well-equipped they feel to fulfil it. The aim of this…

  6. Study on situational influences perceived in nursing discipline on health promotion: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Meimanat; Ashk Torab, Tahereh; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Esmaeili Vardanjani, Safar Ali

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives. Nurses, as behavioral models, play a key role in health promotion, and their attitudes towards health promotion highly influence their health and performance. The aim of this study is to explore nursing students' perception of studies in nursing discipline as a situational influence on health promotion. Materials and Methods. This study was conducted using directed content analysis, by means of 20 deep semistructured interviews with nursing students. The participants were selected on purposive sampling. Data was analyzed by the qualitative content analysis method. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and reviewed, and all codes were extracted and summarized. The codes were subcategorized on the basis of centralization and were categorized after review of subcategories, and finally, a theme was determined. Findings. The theme of nursing discipline's situational influence on nursing students' health promotion was revealed. This theme consisted of "choosing the field," "unfavorable environmental factors," "negative impacts of studies in nursing discipline on health," "positive effects of studies in nursing discipline on health", "needs," "attractiveness (aesthetics)," and "coping with negative situational influences in nursing discipline." Conclusion. The perception of studies in nursing discipline as a health-promoting behavior is under influence of social environment. Considering the importance of the students' positive perception of the existing situation, it is essential to pay attention to their attitudes and perceptions so that they can provide better services to patients. PMID:24078880

  7. A Needs Assessment: A Study of Perceived Need for Student Health Services by Chinese International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis-Bosold, Carey; Thornton-Orr, Denise

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the unique health related needs of the Chinese international student (N = 91) and identify barriers to utilization of the available health care services on the university campus. The setting was a university campus in Arkansas which had an overall enrollment of 8864 students on the main campus during the…

  8. An Analysis of North Carolina's Rural Health Problems as Perceived by County Rural Development Panels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Vance E., Comp.

    A State Task Force on Rural Health was formed (January 1973) by the State Rural Development Committee to identify and analyze major rural health problems in North Carolina and to recommend alleviation strategies. The Task Force submitted open-ended questionnaires to members of the County Rural Development Panels to secure their perceptions of…

  9. Assessment of graduate public health education in Nepal and perceived needs of faculty and students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the large body of evidence suggesting that effective public health infrastructure is vital to improving the health status of populations, many universities in developing countries offer minimal opportunities for graduate training in public health. In Nepal, for example, only two institutions currently offer a graduate public health degree. Both institutions confer only a general Masters in Public Health (MPH), and together produce 30 graduates per year. The objective of this assessment was to identify challenges in graduate public health education in Nepal, and explore ways to address these challenges. Methods The assessment included in-person school visits and data collection through semi-structured in-depth interviews with primary stakeholders of Nepal’s public health academic sector. The 72 participants included faculty, students, alumni, and leaders of institutions that offered MPH programs, and the leadership of one government-funded institution that is currently developing an MPH program. Data were analyzed through content analysis to identify major themes. Results Six themes characterizing the challenges of expanding and improving graduate public health training were identified: 1) a shortage of trained public health faculty, with consequent reliance on the internet to compensate for inadequate teaching resources; 2) teaching/learning cultures and bureaucratic traditions that are not optimal for graduate education; 3) within-institution dominance of clinical medicine over public health; 4) a desire for practice–oriented, contextually relevant training opportunities; 5) a demand for degree options in public health specialties (for example, epidemiology); and 6) a strong interest in international academic collaboration. Conclusion Despite an enormous need for trained public health professionals, Nepal’s educational institutions face barriers to developing effective graduate programs. Overcoming these barriers will require: 1

  10. Older patients’ perceived burdens of their health problems: a cross-sectional analysis in 74 German general practices

    PubMed Central

    Junius-Walker, Ulrike; Wiese, Birgitt; Klaaßen-Mielke, Renate; Theile, Gudrun; Müller, Christiane Annette; Hummers-Pradier, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Background Older patients often experience the burden of multiple health problems. Physicians need to consider them to arrive at a holistic treatment plan. Yet, it has not been systematically investigated as to which personal burdens ensue from certain health conditions. Objective The objective of this study is to examine older patients’ perceived burden of their health problems. Patients and methods The study presents a cross-sectional analysis in 74 German general practices; 836 patients, 72 years and older (mean 79±4.4), rated the burden of each health problem disclosed by a comprehensive geriatric assessment. Patients rated each burden using three components: importance, emotional impact, and impact on daily activities. Cluster analyses were performed to define patterns in the rating of these components of burden. In a multilevel logistic regression analysis, independent factors that predict high and low burden were explored. Results Patients had a median of eleven health problems and rated the burden of altogether 8,900 health problems. Four clusters provided a good clustering structure. Two clusters describe a high burden, and a further two, a low burden. Patients attributed a high burden to social and psychological health problems (especially being a caregiver: odds ratio [OR] 10.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.4–24.4), to specific symptoms (eg, claudication: OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3–4.0; pain: OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.6–3.1), and physical disabilities. Patients rated a comparatively low burden for most of their medical findings, for cognitive impairment, and lifestyle issues (eg, hypertension: OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.2–0.3). Conclusion The patients experienced a relatively greater burden for physical disabilities, mood, or social issues than for diseases themselves. Physicians should interpret these burdens in the individual context and consider them in their treatment planning. PMID:26124648

  11. Associations between Self-medication, Health Literacy, and Self-perceived Health Status: A Community-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Kamran, Aziz; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Shafaeei, Yousef; Mohebi, Siamak

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although the frequency of self-medication has been well-documented in the public health literature, but no study has examined the relationship between health literacy and self-medication yet. This study was aimed to investigating the relationship between health literacy and self-medication in a community-based study. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 924 adults to survey association between health literacy and self-medication among peoples in Ardabil city in 2014 who were selected using a multi-stage random sampling method. Health literacy was measured by the test of functional health literacy in adults and general health status was measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, and self-reported self-medication (overall, sedative, antibiotic and herbal) in last 3 months was assessed. All statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS version 18 and a P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean age and weight of respondents were 37 years and 74.7 kg, respectively. The prevalence of self-medication was 61.6%, and the percentage of self-administering antibiotics, sedative, and herbal medicines were 40%, 54.4%, and 59.1% in the last 3 months, respectively. Significant relationship was found between of total health literacy and general health status with self-medication. The prevalence of self-medication among participants with poor and very poor self-rated physical and mental health was significantly higher than other participants (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Self-medication had a significant relationship with health literacy and health status. Therefore, the design and implementation of training programs are necessary to increase the perception on the risk of self-medication. PMID:26288710

  12. Health and human security in West Papua.

    PubMed

    Rees, Susan J; van de Pas, Remco; Silove, Derrick; Kareth, Moses

    Recent publications have highlighted the impact of human rights violations, poverty and extraction of natural resources on the health status of the indigenous people of West Papua. However, the Australian medical literature has so far remained silent on this issue. Long-standing allegations of violence being perpetrated against Papuan civil society are supported by accounts given by West Papuan refugees involved in an Australian-based study. Health data collected by Médecins du Monde and other sources provide an insight into the poor health and lack of health care in the province, with high rates of infant mortality and morbidity, maternal mortality, and HIV/AIDS. Extraction of natural resources is causing major disruptions to the traditional livelihoods of indigenous Papuans, as a result of environmental degradation, mass displacement and an influx of migrant workers. Australian health professionals are urged to assist in remediating this dire situation, in keeping with our tradition of contributing to the health care of societies in our region. PMID:19061459

  13. Floods and human health: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Alderman, Katarzyna; Turner, Lyle R; Tong, Shilu

    2012-10-15

    Floods are the most common type of disaster globally, responsible for almost 53,000 deaths in the last decade alone (23:1 low- versus high-income countries). This review assessed recent epidemiological evidence on the impacts of floods on human health. Published articles (2004-2011) on the quantitative relationship between floods and health were systematically reviewed. 35 relevant epidemiological studies were identified. Health outcomes were categorized into short- and long-term and were found to depend on the flood characteristics and people's vulnerability. It was found that long-term health effects are currently not well understood. Mortality rates were found to increase by up to 50% in the first year post-flood. After floods, it was found there is an increased risk of disease outbreaks such as hepatitis E, gastrointestinal disease and leptospirosis, particularly in areas with poor hygiene and displaced populations. Psychological distress in survivors (prevalence 8.6% to 53% two years post-flood) can also exacerbate their physical illness. There is a need for effective policies to reduce and prevent flood-related morbidity and mortality. Such steps are contingent upon the improved understanding of potential health impacts of floods. Global trends in urbanization, burden of disease, malnutrition and maternal and child health must be better reflected in flood preparedness and mitigation programs. PMID:22750033

  14. Oral health-related knowledge, attitudes and habits in relation to perceived oral symptoms among 12-year-old school children.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Marja-Leena; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Kivelä, Johanna; Pienihäkkinen, Kaisu; Lahti, Satu; Merne-Grafström, Marina

    2016-07-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to investigate oral health-related knowledge, attitudes and habits and their relationship to perceived oral symptoms among 12-year-olds and differences between boys and girls. Material and methods The study population consisted of children (n = 588) in 15 randomly selected elementary schools in Turku, Finland. Associations between oral health-related habits, knowledge and attitudes with perceived oral symptoms and gender differences were evaluated with χ(2)-test, Mann-Whitney U-test and logistic regression analysis. Results Oral health promoting habits but not knowledge or attitudes associated significantly with absence of oral symptoms. Girls reported a higher percentage of several health promotional habits than boys. Girls reported more frequently gingival bleeding and less frequently dental calculus than boys did. The most common oral symptom was gingival bleeding. Conclusions The present findings suggest some gender-related differences in oral health habits, attitudes, as well as perceived oral symptoms in 12-year-olds. There seems, however, not to be gender differences in relation to knowledge or the association of health habits with perceived oral symptoms. It is important to maintain health promotion at schools and additional efforts should be aimed at translating knowledge into action. PMID:26881848

  15. Correlates of Strengthening Lessons from HIV/AIDS Treatment and Care Services in Ethiopia Perceived Access and Implications for Health System

    PubMed Central

    Ncama, Busisiwe Purity

    2016-01-01

    Background Access to healthcare is an important public health concept and has been traditionally measured by using population level parameters, such as availability, distribution and proximity of the health facilities in relation to the population. However, client based factors such as their expectations, experiences and perceptions which impact their evaluations of health care access were not well studied and integrated into health policy frameworks and implementation programs. Objective This study aimed to investigate factors associated with perceived access to HIV/AIDS Treatment and care services in Wolaita Zone, Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 492 people living with HIV, with 411 using ART and 81 using pre-ART services accessed at six public sector health facilities from November 2014 to March 2015. Data were analyzed using the ologit function of STATA. The variables explored consisted of socio-demographic and health characteristics, type of health facility, type of care, distance, waiting time, healthcare responsiveness, transportation convenience, satisfaction with service, quality of care, financial fairness, out of pocket expenses and HIV disclosure. Results Of the 492 participants, 294 (59.8%) were females and 198 (40.2%) were males, with a mean age of 38.8 years. 23.0% and 12.2% believed they had ‘good’ or ‘very good’ access respectively, and 64.8% indicated lower ratings. In the multivariate analysis, distance from the health facility, type of care, HIV clinical stage, out of pocket expenses, employment status, type of care, HIV disclosure and perceived transportation score were not associated with the perceived access (PA). With a unit increment in satisfaction, perceived quality of care, health system responsiveness, transportation convenience and perceived financial fairness scores, the odds of providing higher rating of PA increased by 29.0% (p<0.001), 6.0%(p<0.01), 100.0% (p<0.001), 9.0% (p<0.05) and 6.0% (p<0

  16. Influence of self-perceived oral health and socioeconomic predictors on the utilization of dental care services by schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Piovesan, Chaiana; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Guedes, Renata Saraiva; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado

    2011-01-01

    The influence of socioeconomic factors and self-rated oral health on children's dental health assistance was assessed. This study followed a cross-sectional design, with a multistage random sample of 792 12-year-old schoolchildren from Santa Maria, a city in southern Brazil. A dental examination provided information on the prevalence of dental caries (DMFT index). Data about the use of dental service, socioeconomic status, and self-perceived oral health were collected by means of structured interviews. These associations were assessed using Poisson regression models (prevalence ratio; 95% confidence interval). The prevalence of regular use of dental service was 47.8%. Children from low socioeconomic backgrounds and those who rated their oral health as "poor" used the service less frequently. The distribution of the kind of oral healthcare assistance used (public/private) varied across socioeconomic groups. The better-off children were less likely to have used the public service. Clinical, socioeconomic, and psychosocial factors were strong predictors for the utilization of dental care services by schoolchildren. PMID:21359493

  17. Australians with osteoarthritis: satisfaction with health care providers and the perceived helpfulness of treatments and information sources

    PubMed Central

    Basedow, Martin; Hibbert, Peter; Hooper, Tamara; Runciman, William; Esterman, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the satisfaction of Australian patients who suffer from osteoarthritis (OA) with their health care providers and the perceived helpfulness of treatments and information sources. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was conducted with a sample of 560 Australian patients who suffer from OA with questions about satisfaction with health care providers and the helpfulness of different treatment options and information sources. Logistic regression models were used to assess potential predictors of satisfaction. Thematic analysis was undertaken for attitudinal factors associated with satisfaction. Results A total of 435 participants returned questionnaires (response rate 78%). Most respondents were highly satisfied with the care provided by their general practitioner (GP) (84%), communication with their GP (88%), time spent with their GP (84%), and their ability to talk freely with their GP about their medical problem (93%), but less satisfied with their ability to talk freely about associated emotional problems (77%). Satisfaction with pharmacists (80%), rheumatologists (76%), and orthopedic surgeons (72%) was high. Joint replacement surgery (91%), prescription anti-inflammatory medications (66%), aids and assistive devices (65%), intra-articular injections (63%), and prescription painkiller medications (62%) were perceived as effective treatments. Less highly rated treatments were exercise (48%), physiotherapy (43%), and complementary medicines (29%). A majority of patients were satisfied with the information to manage their OA (65%). From the multivariable logistic regression analysis, four GP satisfaction factors were found to be predictors of overall satisfaction with GP care: the amount of time that the GP spends with the patient (P=0.005), the information the GP provides about what to expect (P<0.001), the communication between patient and GP (P=0.001), and the information that the GP provides about medications

  18. Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health

    SciTech Connect

    Cockburn, Andrew; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Fernández, Maria-Luisa; Arcella, Davide; Peteghem, Carlos van; Dorne, Jean-Lou

    2013-08-01

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also

  19. Nitrite in feed: from animal health to human health.

    PubMed

    Cockburn, Andrew; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Fernández, Maria-Luisa; Arcella, Davide; Bordajandi, Luisa R; Cottrill, Bruce; van Peteghem, Carlos; Dorne, Jean-Lou

    2013-08-01

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also

  20. Study on Situational Influences Perceived in Nursing Discipline on Health Promotion: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Meimanat; Ashk Torab, Tahereh; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Esmaeili Vardanjani, Safar Ali

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives. Nurses, as behavioral models, play a key role in health promotion, and their attitudes towards health promotion highly influence their health and performance. The aim of this study is to explore nursing students' perception of studies in nursing discipline as a situational influence on health promotion. Materials and Methods. This study was conducted using directed content analysis, by means of 20 deep semistructured interviews with nursing students. The participants were selected on purposive sampling. Data was analyzed by the qualitative content analysis method. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and reviewed, and all codes were extracted and summarized. The codes were subcategorized on the basis of centralization and were categorized after review of subcategories, and finally, a theme was determined. Findings. The theme of nursing discipline's situational influence on nursing students' health promotion was revealed. This theme consisted of “choosing the field,” “unfavorable environmental factors,” “negative impacts of studies in nursing discipline on health,” “positive effects of studies in nursing discipline on health”, “needs,” “attractiveness (aesthetics),” and “coping with negative situational influences in nursing discipline.” Conclusion. The perception of studies in nursing discipline as a health-promoting behavior is under influence of social environment. Considering the importance of the students' positive perception of the existing situation, it is essential to pay attention to their attitudes and perceptions so that they can provide better services to patients. PMID:24078880

  1. Millennium Development Goals: how public health professionals perceive the achievement of MDGs

    PubMed Central

    Lomazzi, Marta; Laaser, Ulrich; Theisling, Mareike; Tapia, Leticia; Borisch, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Background There have been various consultations on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by different groups. However, even if it is clear that the health sector has led the development success of the MDGs, only a few MDG reports consider public health experts’ points of view and these are mainly government driven. Designs The World Federation of Public Health Associations (WFPHA) has executed a global survey to consult public health professionals worldwide concerning the implementation and achievements of the MDGs. The survey was conceived by WFPHA health professionals and promulgated online. Public health professionals and organisations dealing with MDGs responded to the survey. Content analysis was conducted to analyse the data. Results Survey participants attributed the highest importance worldwide to MDGs dealing with women, poverty and hunger reduction, and disease prevention and management. Moreover, they underlined the role of education, referring both to school children and professionals. In high and upper-middle income countries, environmental challenges also received considerable attention. Notably, respondents underlined that weak governance and unstable political situations, as well as the gap between professionals and politicians, were among the main causes that detracted from MDG achievements. Conclusion The public health workforce felt it would be imperative to be included from the outset in the design and implementation of further goals. This implies that those professionals have to take an active part in the political process leading to a new and accountable framework. PMID:25249060

  2. Farm Animal Welfare and Human Health.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Alan M

    2016-09-01

    The paper examines the relationship between farm animal welfare, industrial farm animal production, and human health consequences. The data suggest that when the animal welfare of land-based farm animals is compromised, there are resulting significant negative human health consequences due to environmental degradation, the use of non-therapeutic levels of antibiotics for growth promotion, and the consequences of intensification. This paper accepts that even if meat and fish consumption is reduced, meat and fish will be part of the diet of the future. Industrial production modified from the current intensified systems will still be required to feed the world in 2050 and beyond. This paper identifies the concept of sustainable intensification and suggests that if farm animal welfare is improved, many of the human health consequences of intensified industrial production can be eliminated or reduced. In water-based farm animal production, many new systems are resulting in a product that actually protects the environment and can be done at industrial levels without the use of antibiotics. PMID:27344143

  3. Mental health professionals and assisted death: perceived ethical obligations and proposed guidelines for practice.

    PubMed

    Werth, James L

    1999-01-01

    I have three purposes in this article: (a) to briefly review the legal obligations a mental health professional has when working with a client who is talking about taking some action that could lead to his or her death, (b) to clarify the positions of the 4 major national mental health organizations regarding the acceptable roles of their members with clients who are discussing the possibility of receiving assisted death, and (c) to propose a set of guidelines for practice for mental health professionals working with clients who are considering assisted death that comport with the various laws and codes of ethics. PMID:11657205

  4. Genetically modified plants and human health

    PubMed Central

    Key, Suzie; Ma, Julian K-C; Drake, Pascal MW

    2008-01-01

    Summary Genetically modified (or GM) plants have attracted a large amount of media attention in recent years and continue to do so. Despite this, the general public remains largely unaware of what a GM plant actually is or what advantages and disadvantages the technology has to offer, particularly with regard to the range of applications for which they can be used. From the first generation of GM crops, two main areas of concern have emerged, namely risk to the environment and risk to human health. As GM plants are gradually being introduced into the European Union there is likely to be increasing public concern regarding potential health issues. Although it is now commonplace for the press to adopt ‘health campaigns’, the information they publish is often unreliable and unrepresentative of the available scientific evidence. We consider it important that the medical profession should be aware of the state of the art, and, as they are often the first port of call for a concerned patient, be in a position to provide an informed opinion. This review will examine how GM plants may impact on human health both directly – through applications targeted at nutrition and enhancement of recombinant medicine production – but also indirectly, through potential effects on the environment. Finally, it will examine the most important opposition currently facing the worldwide adoption of this technology: public opinion. PMID:18515776

  5. Water pollution and human health in China.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, C; Maurer, C; Wang, Y; Xue, S; Davis, D L

    1999-01-01

    China's extraordinary economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization, coupled with inadequate investment in basic water supply and treatment infrastructure, have resulted in widespread water pollution. In China today approximately 700 million people--over half the population--consume drinking water contaminated with levels of animal and human excreta that exceed maximum permissible levels by as much as 86% in rural areas and 28% in urban areas. By the year 2000, the volume of wastewater produced could double from 1990 levels to almost 78 billion tons. These are alarming trends with potentially serious consequences for human health. This paper reviews and analyzes recent Chinese reports on public health and water resources to shed light on what recent trends imply for China's environmental risk transition. This paper has two major conclusions. First, the critical deficits in basic water supply and sewage treatment infrastructure have increased the risk of exposure to infectious and parasitic disease and to a growing volume of industrial chemicals, heavy metals, and algal toxins. Second, the lack of coordination between environmental and public health objectives, a complex and fragmented system to manage water resources, and the general treatment of water as a common property resource mean that the water quality and quantity problems observed as well as the health threats identified are likely to become more acute. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10090702

  6. Risk factors for perceived unmet medical needs in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Cho Ryok; Bang, Ji Hwan; Cho, Sung-Il; Kim, Kui Nam; Lee, Hee-Jin; Lee, Young Hwa; Ryu, Bo Yeong; Cho, Soo Kyung; Oh, Myoung-Don; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2016-09-01

    To identify the factors associated with perceived unmet medical needs in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults, we analyzed the results from a series of city-wide cross-sectional surveys of HIV-infected adults living in Seoul, Korea. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors related to unmet medical needs. Among the 775 subjects included in the study, 15.4% had perceived unmet medical needs. Significant factors included age group (35-49 years; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-3.06), lower monthly income (aOR, 3.75 for the <$900/mo group and 2.44 for the $900-$1800/mo group; 95% CI, 1.68-8.35 and 1.18-5.04, respectively), beneficiaries of the National Medical Aid Program (aOR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.01-3.17), recent CD4 cell counts <500/µL (aOR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.01-2.33). Taken together, these data reveal strong associations of middle age and low socioeconomic status with perceived unmet medical needs among HIV-infected adults. PMID:27009447

  7. [Changes in perceived health in war-displaced population, Ayacucho, Peru: 1980-2004].

    PubMed

    Medina, José Moya; López-Moreno, Sergio

    2011-03-01

    The current study aims to show the individual and familiar changes in health patterns suffered by indigenous communities which were displaced from their Andean communities to Ayacucho city, Peru, for war-related political reasons, during the period of 1980 and 2004. Information about health self-perception was collected from displaced farmers living in Ayacucho city, and analyzed by using ethnographic research tools in: origin communities; during the displaced process to town, and during the integration process once the war was over in 1993. It was found out that these poor Andean communities had traditionally lived under severe social exclusion conditions, and were characterized by low access to health services and high childhood and maternal mortality rates. Vulnerability to disease, malnutrition and death reached a higher impact during the early years after the displacement, followed by a reconstructive process in order to set up a new social network. It gets consolidated once the war is over. At that time, life conditions start becoming more favorable, identification documents were regularized, and an improvement in access to health programs and services is detected. These changes also reflected the improvement on health self-perception. Nevertheless, mental health will remain causing distress in every age group of the population. PMID:21519661

  8. Lip colour affects perceived sex typicality and attractiveness of human faces.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Ian D; McKeegan, Angela M

    2010-01-01

    The luminance contrast between facial features and facial skin is greater in women than in men, and women's use of make-up enhances this contrast. In black-and-white photographs, increased luminance contrast enhances femininity and attractiveness in women's faces, but reduces masculinity and attractiveness in men's faces. In Caucasians, much of the contrast between the lips and facial skin is in redness. Red lips have been considered attractive in women in geographically and temporally diverse cultures, possibly because they mimic vasodilation associated with sexual arousal. Here, we investigate the effects of lip luminance and colour contrast on the attractiveness and sex typicality (masculinity/femininity) of human faces. In a Caucasian sample, we allowed participants to manipulate the colour of the lips in colour-calibrated face photographs along CIELab L* (light--dark), a* (red--green), and b* (yellow--blue) axes to enhance apparent attractiveness and sex typicality. Participants increased redness contrast to enhance femininity and attractiveness of female faces, but reduced redness contrast to enhance masculinity of men's faces. Lip blueness was reduced more in female than male faces. Increased lightness contrast enhanced the attractiveness of both sexes, and had little effect on perceptions of sex typicality. The association between lip colour contrast and attractiveness in women's faces may be attributable to its association with oxygenated blood perfusion indicating oestrogen levels, sexual arousal, and cardiac and respiratory health. PMID:20942361

  9. SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC AND LIFESTYLE CORRELATES OF SELF-PERCEIVED HEALTH STATUS IN A POPULATION-BASED SAMPLE OF ALBANIAN ADULT MEN AND WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Kraja, Fatjona; Kraja, Bledar; Cakerri, Luljeta; Burazeri, Genc

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Self-perceived health is considered a suitable health indicator, based on a single item asking individuals to rate their health. It has been recommended as a reliable factor to assess the population health. Several socio-demographic and lifestyle determinants of self-perceived health status have been documented in different population. The aim of our study was to assess the socio-demographic and lifestyle correlates of self-perceived health status in a population-based sample of Albanian adult men and women. Methods: Data from 12,554 individuals aged ≥35 years collected by the Albania Living Standard Measurement Survey (LSMS) 2012, which is a national population-based cross-sectional study, were analyzed. The study participants rated their health in five categories: very good, good, average, poor and very poor, which in the analyses were dichotomized into “not poor” and “poor health”. Other variables included demographic characteristics, economic level, employment status, smoking and alcohol intake. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association of self-perceived health with demographic and lifestyle factors. Results: Upon multivariate adjustment for all covariates in a backward stepwise elimination procedure, strong and significant “predictors” of poor self-perceived health status were older age (OR=3.0, 95%CI=2.4-3.7), unemployment (OR=5.6, 95%CI=4.0-7.8), male gender (OR=1.2, 95%CI=1.0-1.5), low education (OR=2.0, OR=1.3-3.0), current smoking (OR=1.7, 95%CI=1.2-2.4) and alcohol abstinence (OR=1.4, 95%CI=1.1-1.7). Conclusions: Our findings indicate that the low socioeconomic groups in Albania have a significantly lower self-perceived health status. Furthermore, smoking was a significant “determinant” of poor self-perceived health in this study population, which is compatible with previous reports from other countries. PMID:27482156

  10. Association of overweight and obesity with interest in healthy eating, subjective health and perceived risk of chronic diseases in three European countries.

    PubMed

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Pérez-Cueto, Federico; Verbeke, Wim

    2009-12-01

    This paper analyses cultural differences in consumers' interest in healthy eating, subjective health and perceived risk of (chronic) diseases, and identifies the association between nutritional status (obesity and overweight) and the above mentioned variables as well as people's socio-demographic characteristics and health conditions that may influence food choice. Cross-sectional data were collected through a consumer survey (n=2400) in 2008 with samples representative for age and region in France, Poland and Spain. Body-mass-index (BMI) was inversely associated with education and positively associated with age. Women were less likely to be overweight than men. Subjective health was negatively associated with the likelihood of being obese. The likelihood of being obese decreased with higher perceived risk of suffering from stress and from cancer, whilst the likelihood of being overweight decreased with higher perceived risk of suffering from stress. Despite a tendency of lower interest in healthy eating among obese consumers, interest in healthy eating was not significantly associated with the likelihood of being obese or overweight after Holm-Bonferroni correction. The findings of this study suggest that health consequences and disease risks of excessive weight should be better communicated to European populations. Furthermore, factors associated with obesity such as subjective health and perceived risk of chronic diseases should be considered both at individual counselling and at public health policy levels. PMID:19712715

  11. The human face of health disparities.

    PubMed

    Green, Alexander R

    2003-01-01

    In the last 20 years, the issue of disparities in health between racial/ethnic groups has moved from the realm of common sense and anecdote to the realm of science. Hard, cold data now force us to consider what many had long taken for granted. Not only does health differ by race/ethnicity, but our health care system itself is deeply biased. From lack of diversity in the leadership and workforce, to ethnocentric systems of care, to biased clinical decision-making, the American health care system is geared to treat the majority, while the minority suffers. The photos shown here are of patients and scenes that recall some of the important landmarks in research on racial/ethnic disparities in health. The purpose is to put faces and humanity onto the numbers. While we now have great bodies of evidence upon which to lobby for change, in the end, each statistic still represents a personal tragedy or an individual triumph. PMID:12815077

  12. The perceived impact of the National Health Service on personalised nutrition service delivery among the UK public.

    PubMed

    Fallaize, Rosalind; Macready, Anna L; Butler, Laurie T; Ellis, Judi A; Berezowska, Aleksandra; Fischer, Arnout R H; Walsh, Marianne C; Gallagher, Caroline; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J; Kuznesof, Sharon; Frewer, Lynn J; Gibney, Mike J; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2015-04-28

    Personalised nutrition (PN) has the potential to reduce disease risk and optimise health and performance. Although previous research has shown good acceptance of the concept of PN in the UK, preferences regarding the delivery of a PN service (e.g. online v. face-to-face) are not fully understood. It is anticipated that the presence of a free at point of delivery healthcare system, the National Health Service (NHS), in the UK may have an impact on end-user preferences for deliverances. To determine this, supplementary analysis of qualitative data obtained from focus group discussions on PN service delivery, collected as part of the Food4Me project in the UK and Ireland, was undertaken. Irish data provided comparative analysis of a healthcare system that is not provided free of charge at the point of delivery to the entire population. Analyses were conducted using the 'framework approach' described by Rabiee (Focus-group interview and data analysis. Proc Nutr Soc 63, 655-660). There was a preference for services to be led by the government and delivered face-to-face, which was perceived to increase trust and transparency, and add value. Both countries associated paying for nutritional advice with increased commitment and motivation to follow guidelines. Contrary to Ireland, however, and despite the perceived benefit of paying, UK discussants still expected PN services to be delivered free of charge by the NHS. Consideration of this unique challenge of free healthcare that is embedded in the NHS culture will be crucial when introducing PN to the UK. PMID:25812432

  13. The Perceived Value of Passive Animal Health Surveillance: The Case of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Delabouglise, A; Antoine-Moussiaux, N; Phan, T D; Dao, D C; Nguyen, T T; Truong, B D; Nguyen, X N T; Vu, T D; Nguyen, K V; Le, H T; Salem, G; Peyre, M

    2016-03-01

    Economic evaluations are critical for the assessment of the efficiency and sustainability of animal health surveillance systems and the improvement of their efficiency. Methods identifying and quantifying costs and benefits incurred by public and private actors of passive surveillance systems (i.e. actors of veterinary authorities and private actors who may report clinical signs) are needed. This study presents the evaluation of perceived costs and benefits of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) passive surveillance in Vietnam. Surveys based on participatory epidemiology methods were conducted in three provinces in Vietnam to collect data on costs and benefits resulting from the reporting of HPAI suspicions to veterinary authorities. A quantitative tool based on stated preference methods and participatory techniques was developed and applied to assess the non-monetary costs and benefits. The study showed that poultry farmers are facing several options regarding the management of HPAI suspicions, besides reporting the following: treatment, sale or destruction of animals. The option of reporting was associated with uncertain outcome and transaction costs. Besides, actors anticipated the release of health information to cause a drop of markets prices. This cost was relevant at all levels, including farmers, veterinary authorities and private actors of the upstream sector (feed, chicks and medicine supply). One benefit associated with passive surveillance was the intervention of public services to clean farms and the environment to limit the disease spread. Private actors of the poultry sector valued information on HPAI suspicions (perceived as a non-monetary benefit) which was mainly obtained from other private actors and media. PMID:26146982

  14. Occupational stress and self-perceived oral health in Brazilian adults: a Pro-Saude study.

    PubMed

    Scalco, Giovana Pereira da Cunha; Abegg, Claides; Celeste, Roger Keller; Hökerberg, Yara Hahr Marques; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2013-07-01

    The scope of this study is to investigate the association between occupational stress and self-perception of oral health. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire filled out in a Pró-Saúde Study by 3253 administrative technical staff from Rio de Janeiro's State University. Occupational stress was measured by means of a questionnaire elaborated in 1970 by Karasek, duly shortened by Thorell in 1988. Ordinal logistic regression was used for data analysis, subsequently adjusted for three blocks of variables. Workers exposed to high occupational demands and little occupational control and to passive work had higher chances of self-perception of worse oral health, when compared with those exposed to low occupational demands, there being no association observed in those exposed to active work. However, in the multiple regression model the following estimates were reduced in magnitude and lost statistical significance, namely high occupational demands and passive work. Workers exposed to high occupational demands revealed worse self-reported oral health, which seems to be partly explained by health behavior patterns, the presence of oral health problems and seeking dental services at longer intervals than once per year. PMID:23827911

  15. Opportunity for selection in human health.

    PubMed

    Govindaraju, Diddahally R

    2014-01-01

    Natural selection defined by differential survival and reproduction of individuals in populations is influenced by genetic, developmental, and environmental factors operating at every age and stage in human life history: generation of gametes, conception, birth, maturation, reproduction, senescence, and death. Biological systems are built upon a hierarchical organization nesting subcellular organelles, cells, tissues, and organs within individuals, individuals within families, and families within populations, and the latter among other populations. Natural selection often acts simultaneously at more than one level of biological organization and on specific traits, which we define as multilevel selection. Under this model, the individual is a fundamental unit of biological organization and also of selection, imbedded in a larger evolutionary context, just as it is a unit of medical intervention imbedded in larger biological, cultural, and environmental contexts. Here, we view human health and life span as necessary consequences of natural selection, operating at all levels and phases of biological hierarchy in human life history as well as in sociological and environmental milieu. An understanding of the spectrum of opportunities for natural selection will help us develop novel approaches to improving healthy life span through specific and global interventions that simultaneously focus on multiple levels of biological organization. Indeed, many opportunities exist to apply multilevel selection models employed in evolutionary biology and biodemography to improving human health at all hierarchical levels. Multilevel selection perspective provides a rational theoretical foundation for a synthesis of medicine and evolution that could lead to discovering effective predictive, preventive, palliative, potentially curative, and individualized approaches in medicine and in global health programs. PMID:25311920

  16. Perceived health status and environmental quality in the assessment of external costs of waste disposal facilities. An empirical investigation.

    PubMed

    Giaccaria, Sergio; Frontuto, Vito

    2012-08-01

    Taxation for urban waste management has been reformed in Italy by the introduction of an environmental law in 2006. In the planning phase of waste management, externalities generated by new facilities remain widely unaccounted, with a consequent distortion for prices, often raising local conflicts. The paper presents a survey based on the choice modelling methodology, aimed to evaluate on a monetary scale the disamenity effect perceived by incinerator and landfills in an Italian urban context: the city of Turin. In a random utility framework the behaviour of respondents, whose choices are found to be driven by the endowment of information about technological options, socio-economic characteristics as income, education, family composition, and also by their health status was modelled. Furthermore, empirical evidence that the behaviour in residential location choices is affected by different aspects of the respondent life and in particular by the health status was found. Distinct estimates of willingness to accept compensation for disamenity effects of incinerator (Euro 2670) and landfill (Euro 3816) are elicited. The effect of health status of the respondents, their level of information about the waste disposal infrastructure, the presence of a subjective strong aversion (NIMBY) and the actual endowment and concentration of infrastructures are demonstrated to be significant factors determining the choice behaviour, but differentiated and specific for incinerators and landfills. PMID:22588111

  17. Does cognitive-behavioral therapy for PTSD improve perceived health and sleep impairment?

    PubMed

    Galovski, Tara E; Monson, Candice; Bruce, Steven E; Resick, Patricia A

    2009-06-01

    There is a paucity of empirical study about the effects of evidence-based psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on concurrent health concerns including sleep impairment. This study compares the differential effects of cognitive processing therapy (CPT) and prolonged exposure (PE) on health-related concerns and sleep impairment within a PTSD sample of female, adult rape survivors (N = 108). Results showed that participants in both treatments reported lower health-related concerns over treatment and follow-up, but there were relatively more improvements in the CPT condition. Examination of sleep quality indicated significant improvement in both CPT and PE across treatment and follow-up and no significant differences between treatments. These results are discussed with regard to the different mechanisms thought to underlie the treatments and future innovations in PTSD treatment. PMID:19466746

  18. Does Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy for PTSD Improve Perceived Health and Sleep Impairment?

    PubMed Central

    Galovski, Tara E.; Monson, Candice; Bruce, Steven E.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    There is a paucity of empirical study about the effects of evidence-based psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on concurrent health concerns including sleep impairment. This study compares the differential effects of cognitive processing therapy (CPT) and prolonged exposure (PE) on health-related concerns and sleep impairment within a PTSD sample of female, adult rape survivors (N = 108). Results showed that participants in both treatments reported lower health-related concerns over treatment and follow-up, but there were relatively more improvements in the CPT condition. Examination of sleep quality indicated significant improvement in both CPT and PE across treatment and follow-up and no significant differences between treatments. These results are discussed with regard to the different mechanisms thought to underlie the treatments and future innovations in PTSD treatment. PMID:19466746

  19. Research considerations: stress and perceived health status in the rural elderly.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J E; Waldo, M; Johnson, R G

    1993-10-01

    1. Stress is recognized as a significant factor in the development of acute and chronic illnesses in adults. The rural aged experience high stress levels and poor-to-fair health. 2. Commonly reported stressful events and chronic strains in the rural elderly involve loss, isolation, decreased abilities to manage self-care activities, and financial concerns. 3. The older, single subjects in this study reported more stress and poorer health than younger, married subjects. 4. Nurses must develop strategies specifically designed to mediate the stress experienced by the rural aged. PMID:8409248

  20. Education, outreach and the future of remote sensing in human health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, B. L.; Beck, L. R.; Lobitz, B. M.; Bobo, M. R.

    2000-01-01

    The human health community has been slow to adopt remote sensing technology for research, surveillance, or control activities. This chapter presents a brief history of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's experiences in the use of remotely sensed data for health applications, and explores some of the obstacles, both real and perceived, that have slowed the transfer of this technology to the health community. These obstacles include the lack of awareness, which must be overcome through outreach and proper training in remote sensing, and inadequate spatial, spectral and temporal data resolutions, which are being addressed as new sensor systems are launched and currently overlooked (and underutilized) sensors are newly discovered by the health community. A basic training outline is presented, along with general considerations for selecting training candidates. The chapter concludes with a brief discussion of some current and future sensors that show promise for health applications.

  1. 78 FR 2229 - Health and Human Services Acquisition Regulation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 48 CFR Parts 327 and 352 RIN 0991-AB87 Health and Human Services Acquisition Regulation AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services; Office of the Assistant Secretary for...

  2. Implications of aquatic animal health for human health.

    PubMed Central

    Dawe, C J

    1990-01-01

    Human health and aquatic animal health are organically related at three distinct interfaces. Aquatic animals serve as important contributors to the nutritional protein, lipid, and vitamin requirements of humans; as carriers and transmitters of many infectious and parasitic diseases to which humans are susceptible; and as indicators of toxic and carcinogenic substances that they can convey, in some part, from aquatic environments to man and other terrestrial animals. Transcending these relationships, but less visible and definable to many, is the role that aquatic animals play in the sustenance of our integrated planetary ecosystem. Up to the present, this ecosystem has been compatible with mankind's occupation of a niche within it at high but ultimately limited population levels. In the past century we have become clearly aware that human activities, particularly over-harvesting of aquatic animals together with chemical degradation of their habitats, can quite rapidly lead to perturbances that drastically shift aquatic ecosystems toward conditions of low productivity and impaired function as one of earth's vital organs. The negative values of aquatic animals as disease vectors are far outweighed by their positive values as nutritional sources and as sustainers of a relatively stable equilibrium in the global ecosystem. In the immediate future we can expect to see increased and improved monitoring of aquatic habitats to determine the extent to which aquatic animals cycle anthropogenic toxic and carcinogenic chemicals back to human consumers. In the long term, methods are particularly needed to assess the effects of these pollutants on reproductive success in aquatic communities and in human communities as well. As inputs of habitat-degrading substances change in quality and quantity, it becomes increasingly urgent to evaluate the consequences in advance, not in retrospect. A new, more realistic and comprehensive philosophy regarding aquatic environmental

  3. Climate change, air quality, and human health.

    PubMed

    Kinney, Patrick L

    2008-11-01

    Weather and climate play important roles in determining patterns of air quality over multiple scales in time and space, owing to the fact that emissions, transport, dilution, chemical transformation, and eventual deposition of air pollutants all can be influenced by meteorologic variables such as temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, and mixing height. There is growing recognition that development of optimal control strategies for key pollutants like ozone and fine particles now requires assessment of potential future climate conditions and their influence on the attainment of air quality objectives. In addition, other air contaminants of relevance to human health, including smoke from wildfires and airborne pollens and molds, may be influenced by climate change. In this study, the focus is on the ways in which health-relevant measures of air quality, including ozone, particulate matter, and aeroallergens, may be affected by climate variability and change. The small but growing literature focusing on climate impacts on air quality, how these influences may play out in future decades, and the implications for human health is reviewed. Based on the observed and anticipated impacts, adaptation strategies and research needs are discussed. PMID:18929972

  4. Metals in cosmetics: implications for human health.

    PubMed

    Borowska, Sylwia; Brzóska, Malgorzata M

    2015-06-01

    Cosmetics, preparations repeatedly applied directly to the human skin, mucous membranes, hair and nails, should be safe for health, however, recently there has been increasing concern about their safety. Unfortunately, using these products in some cases is related to the occurrence of unfavourable effects resulting from intentional or the accidental presence of chemical substances, including toxic metals. Heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic and nickel, as well as aluminium, classified as a light metal, are detected in various types of cosmetics (colour cosmetics, face and body care products, hair cosmetics, herbal cosmetics, etc.). In addition, necessary, but harmful when they occur in excessive amounts, elements such as copper, iron, chromium and cobalt are also present in cosmetic products. Metals occurring in cosmetics may undergo retention and act directly in the skin or be absorbed through the skin into the blood, accumulate in the body and exert toxic effects in various organs. Some cases of topical (mainly allergic contact dermatitis) and systemic effects owing to exposure to metals present in cosmetics have been reported. Literature data show that in commercially available cosmetics toxic metals may be present in amounts creating a danger to human health. Thus, the present review article focused on the problems related to the presence of heavy metals and aluminium in cosmetics, including their sources, concentrations and law regulations as well as danger for the health of these products users. Owing to the growing usage of cosmetics it is necessary to pay special attention to these problems. PMID:25809475

  5. Passage Meditation Reduces Perceived Stress in Health Professionals: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oman, Doug; Hedberg, John; Thoresen, Carl E.

    2006-01-01

    The authors evaluated an 8-week, 2-hr per week training for physicians, nurses, chaplains, and other health professionals using nonsectarian, spiritually based self-management tools based on passage meditation (E. Easwaran, 1978/1991). Participants were randomized to intervention (n = 27) or waiting list (n = 31). Pretest, posttest, and 8-and…

  6. Spirituality, depression, living alone, and perceived health among Korean older adults in the community.

    PubMed

    You, Kwang Soo; Lee, Hae-Ok; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J; Kim, Susie; Marui, Eiji; Lee, Jung Su; Cook, Paul

    2009-08-01

    Both theoretical and empirical studies have documented the protective effect of religiosity and spirituality on general health in older adults in community and hospital settings; however, no study has documented the relationship between spirituality and depression among older adults living alone in communities in Korea. We tested two hypotheses: Hypothesis 1: Korean older adults living alone would be more depressed and less healthy than older adults living with family, and Hypothesis 2: Individuals who are more religious and spiritual would report a lower level of depression and a higher level of general health even when other demographic and living status variables are controlled. A descriptive, comparative, and correlational design with a convenience sampling method was conducted among community-dwelling Korean older adults in Chounbook Providence, South Korea. This study included 152 men and women older than 65 years old. Hypothesis 1 was supported as Korean older adults living alone were significantly more depressed than were older adults living with family (P<.01). However, for Hypotheses 2, only spirituality activities and Spirituality Index of Well-Being scores were significantly associated with general health and/or depression (P<.01), but there were no relationships between the variables of attendance and importance of religion with general health and depression. PMID:19631109

  7. Health professionals' and dietetics practitioners' perceived effectiveness of fruit and vegetable parenting practices across six countries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit and vegetable intake may reduce the risk of some chronic diseases. However, many children consume less-than-recommended amounts of fruit and vegetables. Because health professionals and dietetics practitioners often work with parents to increase children’s fruit and vegetable intake, assessing...

  8. Adolescent Boys' Grooming Product Use and Perceived Health Risks: An Exploration of Parental Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju; Jacob, John; Baier, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate parental influence on adolescent boys' use and risk-perceptions of using appearance-related products. Design: Using appearance-enhancing products can present a health threat to adolescents, as these products are not only applied to the body, but can also be ingested. Adolescents may look to their parents for information…

  9. Medical mentorship in Afghanistan: How are military mentors perceived by Afghan health care providers?

    PubMed Central

    Beckett, Maj Andrew; Fowler, Robert; Adhikari, Neil; Hawryluck, Laura; Razek, Tarek; Tien, Col Homer

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous work has been published on the experiences of high-resource setting physicians mentoring in low-resource environments. However, not much is known about what mentees think about their First World mentors. We had the opportunity to explore this question in an Afghan Army Hospital, and we believe this is the first time this has been studied. Methods We conducted a pilot cross-sectional survey of Afghan health care providers evaluating their Canadian mentors. We created a culturally appropriate 19-question survey with 5-point Likert scores that was then translated into the local Afghan language. The survey questions were based on domains of Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada’s CanMEDS criteria. Results The survey response rate was 90% (36 of 40). The respondents included 13 physicians, 21 nurses and 2 other health care professionals. Overall, most of the Afghan health care workers felt that working with mentors from high-resource settings was a positive experience (median 4.0, interquartile range [IQR] 4–4), according to CanMEDS domains. However, respondents indicated that the mentors were reliant on medical technology for diagnosis (median 5.0, IQR 4–5) and failed to consider the limited resources available in Afghanistan. Conclusion The overall impression of Afghan health care providers was that mentors are appropriate and helpful. CanMEDS can be used as a framework to evaluate mentors in low-resource conflict environments. PMID:26100785

  10. Health care during prolonged weightlessness in humans.

    PubMed

    Bonde-Petersen, F

    1994-01-01

    The demands for accumulation of knowledge about the human adaptation to weightlessness of long duration and the implications for the health and well-being of the astronaut have become increasingly important also for the international space programmes which are under development. The health care during long duration space-flights starts already with the selection where professional, psychological and medical criteria are considered. Space flights in low earth orbit have not been extended beyond 1 year, so the predictable value for long term space flights is limited, because e.g. Mission to Mars will last from 1.5 to 3 years, depending on the position of the planets, the space vehicle etc. The long duration and the enormous distance covered will induce very special and until now unknown effects on the human psychology which might be seen as the one single major factor which might be prohibitive for such long duration flights. The Moon base will bring further knowledge useful for long duration space flights in the field of medical care in general, but also with regard to the development of countermeasures against the adverse effects of weightlessness on the human body. The Moon's gravitational field of 0.16 G makes it possible to study this as a threshold in the adaptation processes. PMID:8042532

  11. Effects of caffeine on human health.

    PubMed

    Nawrot, P; Jordan, S; Eastwood, J; Rotstein, J; Hugenholtz, A; Feeley, M

    2003-01-01

    Caffeine is probably the most frequently ingested pharmacologically active substance in the world. It is found in common beverages (coffee, tea, soft drinks), in products containing cocoa or chocolate, and in medications. Because of its wide consumption at different levels by most segments of the population, the public and the scientific community have expressed interest in the potential for caffeine to produce adverse effects on human health. The possibility that caffeine ingestion adversely affects human health was investigated based on reviews of (primarily) published human studies obtained through a comprehensive literature search. Based on the data reviewed, it is concluded that for the healthy adult population, moderate daily caffeine intake at a dose level up to 400 mg day(-1) (equivalent to 6 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) in a 65-kg person) is not associated with adverse effects such as general toxicity, cardiovascular effects, effects on bone status and calcium balance (with consumption of adequate calcium), changes in adult behaviour, increased incidence of cancer and effects on male fertility. The data also show that reproductive-aged women and children are 'at risk' subgroups who may require specific advice on moderating their caffeine intake. Based on available evidence, it is suggested that reproductive-aged women should consume

  12. Psychological and perceived health effects of the Chernobyl disaster: a 20-year review.

    PubMed

    Bromet, Evelyn J; Havenaar, Johan M

    2007-11-01

    The mental health impact of Chernobyl is regarded by many experts as the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident to date. This paper reviews findings reported during the 20-y period after the accident regarding stress-related symptoms, effects on the developing brain, and cognitive and psychological impairments among highly exposed cleanup workers. With respect to stress-related symptoms, the rates of depressive, anxiety (especially post-traumatic stress symptoms), and medically unexplained physical symptoms are two to four times higher in Chernobyl-exposed populations compared to controls, although rates of diagnosable psychiatric disorders do not appear to be elevated. The symptom elevations were found as late as 11 y after the accident. Severity of symptomatology is significantly related to risk perceptions and being diagnosed with a Chernobyl-related health problem. In general, the morbidity patterns are consistent with the psychological impairments documented after other toxic events, such as the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Three Mile Island accident, and Bhopal. With respect to the developing brain of exposed children who were in utero or very young when the accident occurred, the World Health Organization as well as American and Israeli researchers have found no significant associations of radiation exposure with cognitive impairments. Cognitive impairments in highly exposed cleanup workers have been reported by Ukrainian researchers, but these findings have not been independently confirmed. A seminal study found a significant excess death rate from suicide in cleanup workers, suggesting a sizable emotional toll. Given the magnitude and persistence of the adverse mental health effects on the general population, long-term educational and psychosocial interventions should be initiated that target primary care physicians, local researchers, and high risk populations, including participants in ongoing cohort studies. PMID

  13. Subjective health complaints in older adolescents are related to perceived stress, anxiety and gender – a cross-sectional school study in Northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Negative trends in adolescent mental and subjective health are a challenge to public health work in Sweden and worldwide. Self-reported mental and subjective health complaints such as pain, sleeping problems, anxiety, and various stress-related problems seem to have increased over time among older adolescents, especially girls. The aim of this study has therefore been to investigate perceived stress, mental and subjective health complaints among older adolescents in Northern Sweden. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional school-based survey with a sample consisting of 16–18 year olds (n = 1027), boys and girls, in the first two years of upper secondary school, from different vocational and academic programmes in three public upper secondary schools in a university town in northern Sweden. Prevalence of perceived stress, subjective health complaints, general self-rated health, anxiety, and depression were measured using a questionnaire, including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results A large proportion of both girls and boys reported health complaints and perceived stress. There was a clear gender difference: two to three times as many girls as boys reported subjective health complaints, such as headache, tiredness and sleeping difficulties and musculoskeletal pain, as well as sadness and anxiety. High pressure and demands from school were experienced by 63.6% of girls and 38.5% of boys. Perceived stress in the form of pressure and demands correlated strongly with reported health complaints (r = 0.71) and anxiety (r = 0.71). Conclusions The results indicate that mental and subjective health complaints are prevalent during adolescence, especially in girls, and furthermore, that perceived stress and demands may be important explanatory factors. Future studies should pay attention to the balance between gender-related demands, perceived control and social support, particularly in the school environment, in order

  14. Perceived dental needs of children enrolled in Iowa's Medicaid Supplemental Security Income (SSI) health plan.

    PubMed

    Slayton, R L; Damiano, P C; Willard, J C

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine parental perception of the oral health needs of children with disabilities and whether or not they had difficulty obtaining dental care. A survey of parents of children enrolled in the Medicaid Supplemental Security Income (SSI) health plan in Iowa showed that 68 percent of children had dental needs during the previous year. Of these children, parents reported that 9.4 percent had a 'big problem' getting that care, 8.1 percent had a 'small problem' getting care and 82.5 percent stated that getting dental care was 'not a problem.' There were significantly more dental needs reported in children in the older age groups (> or = 5 years) and those with more years of experience in the program (p < 0.01). Further study is necessary to determine the types of barriers faced by those in the SSI program seeking dental care. PMID:11693015

  15. Health Care Workers in the Dominican Republic: Self-perceived role in smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Ossip-Klein, Deborah J.; Diaz, Sergio; Sierra, Essie; Quiñones, Zahira; Armstrong, Latoya; Chin, Nancy P.; McIntosh, Scott

    2013-01-01

    A Dominican Republic (DR) based multi-community trial of smoking cessation viewed health care workers (HCWs) as potential interventionists. Effectively engaging them, requires a clear understanding of their attitudes and practices regarding smoking. A Rapid Assessment Procedure, conducted among HCWs in six economically disadvantaged communities, included physicians, nurses, other health professionals, paraprofessionals and lay workers. Attitudes and practices about smoking were consistent across the 82 HCWs and mostly reflected community views. HCWs lacked proactiveness related to smoking cessation and had a limited view of their role, attributing clients’ quitting successes to personal will. Prior cessation training was limited although interest was generally high. Material resources about smoking cessation were virtually absent. DR HCWs’ views represented features both distinct from and common to HCWs elsewhere. Any intervention with HCWs must first raise awareness before addressing their role in smoking cessation, discussing implementation barriers and include training and materials about risks and effective interventions. PMID:19448160

  16. Perceived health concerns among sexual minority women in Mumbai, India: an exploratory qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Bowling, Jessamyn; Dodge, Brian; Banik, Swagata; Rodriguez, Israel; Mengele, Shruta Rawat; Herbenick, Debby; Guerra-Reyes, Lucia; Sanders, Stephanie; Dange, Alpana; Anand, Vivek

    2016-07-01

    The experiences of sexual minority women (i.e., women who do not identify as 'heterosexual') in India have largely been absent in scientific literature. In partnership with India's oldest and largest sexual and gender minority-advocacy organisation, the Humsafar Trust, our study used community-based participatory research principles to explore the lived experiences and health concerns of sexual minority women in Mumbai. Study methodologies included interviews with key informants, a focus group comprised of six women, and an additional 12 in-person interviews with sexual minority women to identify important physical, mental, social and other health priorities from these women's perspectives. Thematic data are organised within the framework offered by the social ecological model, including individual, interpersonal, micro and macro levels. Findings from this study are important in providing the groundwork for future research and intervention involving sexual minority women in India, a dramatically underserved population. PMID:26873141

  17. Relationships Among Disease, Social Support, and Perceived Health: A Lifespan Approach.

    PubMed

    Heinze, Justin E; Kruger, Daniel J; Reischl, Thomas M; Cupal, Suzanne; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2015-12-01

    We examined the relationship between the cumulative presence of major disease (cancer, stroke, diabetes, heart disease, and hypertension), social support, and self-reported general and emotional well-being in a community representative sample of predominantly White and African American respondents (N = 1349). Across all ages, greater presence of disease predicted poorer reported general health, and predicted lower emotional well-being for respondents 40 and above. In contrast, social support predicted better-reported general and emotional well-being.We predicted that different types of social support (blood relatives, children, friends, community members) would be relatively more important for health in different age groups based on a lifespan or life stage model. This hypothesis was supported; across all ages, social support was related to better reported general and emotional health, but sources of support differed by age. Broadly, those in younger age groups tended to list familial members as their strongest sources of support, whereas older group members listed their friends and community members. As a whole, social support mediated the effect of disease on reported wellbeing,however, moderated mediation by type of support was not significant. The results are consistent with a lifespan approach to changing social ties throughout the life course. PMID:26462808

  18. Perceived impact of TennCare reform on patients' health in a medical teaching practice.

    PubMed

    Connelly, Stephanie A; Sprabery, Laura R; Bailey, James E

    2006-03-01

    From 1994-2005, TennCare, Tennessee's innovative Medicaid managed care program, dramatically expanded coverage to around 1.3 million Tennesseans (roughly 23 percent of the state population) by employing cost savings achieved through capitation and managed care. Rising healthcare costs and a static state budget resulted in program downsizing that started in mid-2005. This cross-sectional survey sought to document the perspectives of TennCare enrollees before disenrollment about the likely impacts of changes in TennCare coverage and benefits. In February 2005, a convenience sample of 89 patients served by an internal medicine resident staffed teaching practice in Memphis, TN, participated in a survey to assess their perspectives about the potential impact of the upcoming disenrollment and benefits limitations. Ninety percent or more expressed concerns that loss of TennCare would lead to health problems, difficulty with paying for prescriptions and difficulty finding alternative health insurance. This survey suggests that before disenrollment, most people served by TennCare believed that loss of TennCare would have serious negative consequences on their health. Further studies are needed to assess the true impact of the disenrollment and benefit cuts and the effectiveness of alternative safety net services for vulnerable Tennessee citizens. PMID:16706089

  19. [Perceived health survey of 3,800 French adolescents: methodological aspects].

    PubMed

    Binder, P; Chabaud, F; Balima, S; Saillard, C; Robin, S; Taugourdeau, R; Choquet, M

    2001-12-01

    An epidemiological survey was carried out by a local association network and was developed in partnership with regional and national institutions. The survey on well-being and health was conducted over an 18-month period in the French department of Charente. The purpose of the research was to test the hypothesis that "the change in context that is experienced by adolescents at the end of junior high school and at the beginning of high school leads to an increase in risky behaviours". To this end, the survey questioned 3,800 young people on a random basis, mixing those from different grades, those participating in vocational training and apprenticeships, and those from public and private schools. The accomplishment of this survey was made possible thanks to the motivation of a pre-existing strong local network organised and linked to education professionals, the technical contribution of the region's health observatory who conducted the statistical analysis of the data, and the assistance of Unit 472 of the French Institute of Health and Medical Research who provided scientific supervision and advice. The high participation rate and quality of the data (comparable with and even better than some existing studies) demonstrate that it is possible for local associations to carry out effective epidemiological surveys based on the needs keenly felt by the workers themselves, within the scope of a reasonable budget and in a short time span without sacrificing the precision demanded by the scientific method. PMID:11963534

  20. Perceived organizational problems in health care: a pilot test of the structured problem and success inventory.

    PubMed

    Nyström, Monica E; Terris, Darcey D; Sparring, Vibeke; Tolf, Sara; Brown, Claire R

    2012-01-01

    Our objective was to test whether the Structured Problem and Success Inventory (SPI) instrument could capture mental representations of organizational and work-related problems as described by individuals working in health care organizations and to test whether these representations varied according to organizational position. A convenience sample (n = 56) of middle managers (n = 20), lower-level managers (n = 20), and staff (n = 16) from health care organizations in Stockholm (Sweden) attending organizational development courses during 2003-2004 was recruited. Participants used the SPI to describe the 3 most pressing organizational and work-related problems. Data were systematically reviewed to identify problem categories and themes. One hundred sixty-four problems were described, clustered into 13 problem categories. Generally, middle managers focused on organizational factors and managerial responsibilities, whereas lower-level managers and staff focused on operational issues and what others did or ought to do. Furthermore, we observed similarities and variation in perceptions and their association with respondents' position within an organization. Our results support the need for further evaluation of the SPI as a promising tool for health care organizations. Collecting structured inventories of organizational and work-related problems from multiple perspectives may assist in the development of shared understandings of organizational challenges and lead to more effective and efficient processes of solution planning and implementation. PMID:22453820

  1. The perceived health risks of indoor radon gas and overhead powerlines: a comparative multilevel approach.

    PubMed

    Poortinga, Wouter; Cox, Patrick; Pidgeon, Nick F

    2008-02-01

    Radon and overhead powerlines are two radiation risk cases that have raised varying levels of concern among the general public and experts. Despite both involving radiation-a typically feared and unseen health hazard-individuals' perceptions of the two risk cases may invoke rather different factors. We examined individual and geographic-contextual factors influencing public perceptions of the health risks of indoor radon gas and overhead powerlines in a comparative research design, utilizing a postal questionnaire with 1,528 members of the general public (response rate 28%) and multilevel modeling techniques. This study found that beliefs about the two risk cases mainly differed according to the level of "exposure"-defined here in terms of spatial proximity. We argue that there are two alternative explanations for this pattern of findings: that risk perception itself varies directly with proximity, or that risk is more salient to concerned people in the exposed areas. We also found that while people living in high radon areas are more concerned about the risks of indoor radon gas, they find these risks more acceptable and have more trust in authorities. These results might reflect the positive effects of successive radon campaigns in high radon areas, which may have raised awareness and concern, and at the same time may have helped to increase trust by showing that the government takes the health risks of indoor radon gas seriously, suggesting that genuine risk communication initiatives may have positive impacts on trust in risk management institutions. PMID:18304120

  2. How health professionals perceive and experience treating people on social assistance: a qualitative study among dentists in Montreal, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Canada, the prevalence of oral diseases is very high among people on social assistance. Despite great need for dental treatment, many are reluctant to consult dental professionals, arguing that dentists do not welcome or value poor patients. The objective of this research was thus to better understand how dentists perceived and experienced treating people on social assistance. Methods This descriptive qualitative research was based on in-depth semi-structured interviews with 33 dentists practicing in Montreal, Canada. Generally organized in dentists’ offices, the interviews lasted 60 to 120 minutes; they were digitally recorded and later transcribed verbatim. The interview transcripts were coded with NVivo software, and data was displayed in analytic matrices. Three members of the research team interpreted the data displayed and wrote the results of this study. Results Dentists express high levels of frustration with people on social assistance as a consequence of negative experiences that fall into 3 categories: 1) Organizational issues (people on social assistance ostensibly make the organization of appointments and scheduling difficult); 2) Biomedical issues (dentists feel unable to provide them with adequate treatment and fail to improve their oral health); 3) Financial issues (they are not lucrative patients). To explain their stance, dentists blame people on social assistance for neglecting themselves, and the health care system for not providing adequate coverage and fees. Despite dentists’ willingness to treat all members of society, an accumulation of frustration leads to feelings of powerlessness and discouragement. Conclusions The current situation is unacceptable; we urge public health planners and governmental health agencies to ally themselves with the dental profession in order to implement concrete solutions. PMID:24192504

  3. The human genome project and international health

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.D.; Cook-Deegan, R.M. )

    1990-06-27

    The human genome project is designed to provide common resources for the study of human genetics, and to assist biomedical researchers in their assault on disease. The main benefit will be to provide several kinds of maps of the human genome, and those of other organisms, to permit rapid isolation of genes for further study about DNA structure and function. This article describes genome research programs in developed and developing countries, and the international efforts that have contributed to genome research programs. For example, the large-scale collaborations to study Duchenne's muscular dystrophy, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, cystic fibrosis involve collaborators from many nations and families spread throughout the world. In the USA, the US Department of Energy was first to start a dedicated genome research program in 1987. Since then, another major government program has begun at the National Center for Human Genome Research of the National Institutes of Health. Italy, China, Australia, France, Canada, and Japan have genome research programs also.

  4. Climate Change, Soils, and Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Eric C.

    2013-04-01

    According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, global temperatures are expected to increase 1.1 to 6.4 degrees C during the 21st century and precipitation patterns will be altered by climate change (IPCC, 2007). Soils are intricately linked to the atmospheric/climate system through the carbon, nitrogen, and hydrologic cycles. Altered climate will, therefore, have an effect on soil processes and properties. Studies into the effects of climate change on soil processes and properties are still incomplete, but have revealed that climate change will impact soil organic matter dynamics including soil organisms and the multiple soil properties that are tied to organic matter, soil water, and soil erosion. The exact direction and magnitude of those impacts will be dependent on the amount of change in atmospheric gases, temperature, and precipitation amounts and patterns. Recent studies give reason to believe at least some soils may become net sources of atmospheric carbon as temperatures rise; this is particularly true of high latitude regions with permanently frozen soils. Soil erosion by both wind and water is also likely to increase. These soil changes will lead to both direct and indirect impacts on human health. Possible indirect impacts include temperature extremes, food safety and air quality issues, increased and/or expanded disease incidences, and occupational health issues. Potential direct impacts include decreased food security and increased atmospheric dust levels. However, there are still many things we need to know more about. How climate change will affect the nitrogen cycle and, in turn, how the nitrogen cycle will affect carbon sequestration in soils is a major research need, as is a better understanding of soil water-CO2 level-temperature relationships. Knowledge of the response of plants to elevated atmospheric CO2 given limitations in nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus and how that affects soil organic matter dynamics is a critical

  5. Why Some Humanoid Faces Are Perceived More Positively Than Others: Effects of Human-Likeness and Task

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Wendy A.

    2015-01-01

    Ample research in social psychology has highlighted the importance of the human face in human–human interactions. However, there is a less clear understanding of how a humanoid robot's face is perceived by humans. One of the primary goals of this study was to investigate how initial perceptions of robots are influenced by the extent of human-likeness of the robot's face, particularly when the robot is intended to provide assistance with tasks in the home that are traditionally carried out by humans. Moreover, although robots have the potential to help both younger and older adults, there is limited knowledge of whether the two age groups' perceptions differ. In this study, younger (N = 32) and older adults (N = 32) imagined interacting with a robot in four different task contexts and rated robot faces of varying levels of human-likeness. Participants were also interviewed to assess their reasons for particular preferences. This multi-method approach identified patterns of perceptions across different appearances as well as reasons that influence the formation of such perceptions. Overall, the results indicated that people's perceptions of robot faces vary as a function of robot human-likeness. People tended to over-generalize their understanding of humans to build expectations about a human-looking robot's behavior and capabilities. Additionally, preferences for humanoid robots depended on the task although younger and older adults differed in their preferences for certain humanoid appearances. The results of this study have implications both for advancing theoretical understanding of robot perceptions and for creating and applying guidelines for the design of robots. PMID:26294936

  6. Prevalence and Correlates of Perceived Ethnic Discrimination in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study

    PubMed Central

    Arellano-Morales, Leticia; Roesch, Scott C.; Gallo, Linda C.; Emory, Kristen T.; Molina, Kristine M.; Gonzalez, Patricia; Penedo, Frank J.; Navas-Nacher, Elena L.; Teng, Yanping; Deng, Yu; Isasi, Carmen R.; Schneiderman, Neil; Brondolo, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Empirical studies examining perceived ethnic discrimination in Latinos of diverse background groups are limited. This study examined prevalence and correlates of discrimination in a diverse sample of U.S. Latinos (N=5,291) from the multi-site Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) and HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study. The sample permitted an examination of differences across seven groups (Central American, Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South American, and Other/Multiple Background). Most participants (79.5%) reported lifetime discrimination exposure and prevalence rates ranged from 64.9% to 98% across groups. Structural Equation Models (SEM) indicated that after adjusting for sociodemographic covariates most group differences in reports of discrimination were eliminated. However, Cubans reported the lowest levels of discrimination, overall among all groups. Furthermore, regional effects were more important than group effects. Participants from Chicago reported the highest levels of discrimination in comparison to other regions. Group differences among Latinos appear to be primarily a function of sociodemographic differences in education, income, and acculturation. In addition, differences in exposure to discrimination may be tied to variables associated with both immigration patterns and integration to U.S. culture. Results highlight the importance of considering historical context and the intersection of discrimination and immigration when evaluating the mental health of Latinos. PMID:26491624

  7. Effects of coping information and value affirmation on responses to a perceived health threat.

    PubMed

    Fry, Rachel B; Prentice-Dunn, Steven

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of coping information and self-affirmation on an individual's response to threatening health information. A total of 202 women college students read an essay containing threatening information about breast cancer. The essay described their population as being at risk for breast cancer and included both pictures of cancerous breasts and vivid descriptions of chemotherapy treatments. Participants were randomized into either the low-affirmation condition or the high-affirmation condition when they first arrived. In addition, half of the participants were randomly assigned to receive coping information that described breast self-examinations as an effective method of detecting breast cancer and focused on the importance of early detection. Participants who received coping information scored lower on maladaptive behaviors (avoidance, hopelessness, religiosity), suggesting that coping information plays a role in decreasing maladaptive behaviors. No significant differences were found between the low-affirmation and high-affirmation conditions. Supplemental analyses indicated that vicarious exposure to breast cancer (having a friend, relative, or mother diagnosed with breast cancer) affected how individuals interpret threatening health information. Participants with previous exposure scored higher on the adaptive coping modes (behavioral intentions, rational problem solving) and 1 maladaptive coping mode (religiosity) when compared to individuals without previous exposure. In addition, participants in the high-affirmation condition with previous exposure scored higher on avoidance and hopelessness than those without previous exposure. The results suggest that coping information and previous exposure are factors that need to be considered when presenting threatening health information. PMID:15718193

  8. African Americans' perceived sociocultural determinants of suicide: afrocentric implications for public health inequalities.

    PubMed

    Borum, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    The cultural values of African Americans have not been adequately incorporated as a theoretical base to develop new public health models. The major objectives of this study were to explore, with a purposive sample, via seven focus groups, 40 African American college students, the following: How do (a) ethnic culture and (b) a "minoritized" status influence perceptions of sociocultural determinants in explaining increases in the incidence of suicide among African Americans? Thematic results of focus group discussions including the following: (a) racism, discrimination, and stereotyping; (b) U.S. individualism; (c) integration and cultural assimilation; and, (d) the prison industrial complex. PMID:25350896

  9. The thing that should not be: predictive coding and the uncanny valley in perceiving human and humanoid robot actions

    PubMed Central

    Chaminade, Thierry; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Driver, Jon; Frith, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) repetition suppression, we explored the selectivity of the human action perception system (APS), which consists of temporal, parietal and frontal areas, for the appearance and/or motion of the perceived agent. Participants watched body movements of a human (biological appearance and movement), a robot (mechanical appearance and movement) or an android (biological appearance, mechanical movement). With the exception of extrastriate body area, which showed more suppression for human like appearance, the APS was not selective for appearance or motion per se. Instead, distinctive responses were found to the mismatch between appearance and motion: whereas suppression effects for the human and robot were similar to each other, they were stronger for the android, notably in bilateral anterior intraparietal sulcus, a key node in the APS. These results could reflect increased prediction error as the brain negotiates an agent that appears human, but does not move biologically, and help explain the ‘uncanny valley’ phenomenon. PMID:21515639

  10. Perceived Stress Mediates the Effects of Social Support on Health-Related Quality of Life Among Men Treated for Localized Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Eric S.; Penedo, Frank J.; Lewis, John E.; Rasheed, Mikal; Traeger, Lara; Lechner, Suzanne; Soloway, Mark; Kava, Bruce R.; Antoni, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    (1) Objective To examine the longitudinal effect of social support on general health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in men treated for localized prostate cancer, and to evaluate the role of perceived stress as a potential mediator of that relationship, in an ethnically and demographically diverse sample. (2) Methods Psychosocial assessments were administered to a sample of 175 men at baseline, and 2 years later. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to investigate the relationships between social support, perceived stress and HRQOL, while controlling for possible covariates that may affect HRQOL (e.g., age, time since diagnosis, medical co-morbidities etc.). (3) Results Higher levels of social support at baseline predicted higher levels of HRQOL at 2-year follow-up, after controlling for relevant covariates and baseline levels of HRQOL. This relationship was partially mediated by level of perceived stress at baseline. Furthermore, men perceiving high levels of social support reported significantly higher HRQOL compared with men perceiving low levels of social support. (4) Conclusions Results indicate positive social relationships contribute to improved HRQOL in patients who have undergone treatment for localized prostate cancer. One pathway through which social support can benefit HRQOL is through lower perceptions of stress. Enhancing or maintaining social support and reducing perceived stress may be potential targets for future psychosocial interventions aimed at improving HRQOL. PMID:21109047

  11. Impact of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Perceived Stress and Special Health Self-Efficacy in Seven to Fifteen-Year-Old Children With Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Moazzezi, Mousa; Ataie Moghanloo, Vahid; Ataie Moghanloo, Roghayeh; Pishvaei, Malihe

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) imposes restrictions on physical, emotional and social functioning of children and adolescents. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on perceived stress and special health self-efficacy in seven to fifteen-year-old children with DM. Patients and Methods: The present study was a clinical trial with a pretest-posttest control group design. The study population included all seven to fifteen-year-old patients who had referred to the Diabetes Mellitus Association of Tabriz, Iran, of whom 40 participants were selected using convenient sampling. They were randomly allocated to two matched groups (experimental and control). The experimental group participated in therapy sessions, while the control group did not receive any interventions. The research instruments were perceived stress and special health self-efficacy scales. Results: The multiple analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) results showed that the treatment was effective on variables of perceived stress and special health self-efficacy (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The ACT is effective for reducing perceived stress and increasing special health self-efficacy in children with DM. PMID:26288639

  12. Physical and Psychological Maltreatment in Childhood and Later Health Problems in Women: An Exploratory Investigation of the Roles of Perceived Stress and Coping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Alanna D.; Runtz, Marsha G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This retrospective, cross-sectional study investigated the association between childhood physical and psychological maltreatment and self-reported physical health concerns in adult women. The mediating roles of perceived stress and coping strategies were examined. Methods: Participants were 235 women (aged 18-59 years) recruited from…

  13. The Impact of Perceived Interpersonal Functioning on Treatment for Adolescent Depression: IPT-A versus Treatment as Usual in School-Based Health Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunlicks-Stoessel, Meredith; Mufson, Laura; Jekal, Angela; Turner, J. Blake

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Aspects of depressed adolescents' perceived interpersonal functioning were examined as moderators of response to treatment among adolescents treated with interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents (IPT-A; Mufson, Dorta, Moreau, & Weissman, 2004) or treatment as usual (TAU) in school-based health clinics. Method: Sixty-three…

  14. Perceived quality of life and mental health status of Irish female prisoners.

    PubMed

    Mooney, M; Hannon, F; Barry, M; Friel, S; Kelleher, C

    2002-09-01

    Mental health status and quality of life of female prisoners, the majority of whom are drug-users, was examined as part of a larger, cross-sectional, general healthcare study of the Irish prisoner population. Comparisons were made with drug using and non-drug using male prisoners and females from the general population. Instruments include the GHQ-12 and the WHOQOL-BREF. While their quality of life profile was closer to drug-using male prisoners than other comparison groups, female prisoners still had significantly poorer physical and psychological Quality of Life scores. While poorer quality of life scores may be associated with the more severe drug use patterns of female prisoners it is likely that other factors also contribute. Before resorting to drugs/crime women may have already experienced adversity. There may also be gender differences in response to the combined dimensions of environmental distress. If women are to be imprisoned appropriate comprehensive mental health promotion approaches must address their specific needs. PMID:12405501

  15. Civil aviation, air pollution and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Roy M.; Masiol, Mauro; Vardoulakis, Sotiris

    2015-04-01

    Air pollutant emissions from aircraft have been subjected to less rigorous control than road traffic emissions, and the rapid growth of global aviation is a matter of concern in relation to human exposures to pollutants, and consequent effects upon health. Yim et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 034001) estimate exposures globally arising from aircraft engine emissions of primary particulate matter, and from secondary sulphates and ozone, and use concentration-response functions to calculate the impact upon mortality, which is monetised using the value of statistical life. This study makes a valuable contribution to estimating the magnitude of public health impact at various scales, ranging from local, near airport, regional and global. The results highlight the need to implement future mitigation actions to limit impacts of aviation upon air quality and public health. The approach adopted in Yim et al only accounts for the air pollutants emitted by aircraft engine exhausts. Whilst aircraft emissions are often considered as dominant near runways, there are a number of other sources and processes related to aviation that still need to be accounted for. This includes impacts of nitrate aerosol formed from NOx emissions, but probably more important, are the other airport-related emissions from ground service equipment and road traffic. By inclusion of these, and consideration of non-fatal impacts, future research will generate comprehensive estimates of impact related to aviation and airports.

  16. Dimensions of gender relations and reproductive health inequity perceived by female undergraduate students in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam: a qualitative exploration

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Increasing evidence indicates that gender equity has a significant influence on women’s health; yet few culturally specific indicators of gender relations exist which are applicable to health. This study explores dimensions of gender relations perceived by female undergraduate students in southern Vietnamese culture, and qualitatively examines how this perceived gender inequity may influence females’ sexual or reproductive health. Methods Sixty-two female undergraduate students from two universities participated in eight focus group discussions to talk about their perspectives regarding national and local gender equity issues. Results Although overall gender gaps in the Mekong Delta were perceived to have decreased in comparison to previous times, several specific dimensions of gender relations were emergent in students’ discussions. Perceived dimensions of gender relations were comparable to theoretical structures of the Theory of Gender and Power, and to findings from several reports describing the actual inferiority of women. Allocation of housework and social paid work represented salient dimensions of labor. The most salient dimension of power related to women in positions of authority. Salient dimensions of cathexis related to son preference, women’s vulnerability to blame or criticism, and double standards or expectations. Findings also suggested that gender inequity potentially influenced women’s sexual and reproductive health as regards to health information seeking, gynecological care access, contraceptive use responsibility, and child bearing. Conclusion Further investigations of the associations between gender relations and different women’s sexual and reproductive health outcomes in this region are needed. It may be important to address gender relations as a distal determinant in health interventions in order to promote gender-based equity in sexual and reproductive health. PMID:23095733

  17. Perceived barriers to utilizing maternal and neonatal health services in contracted-out versus government-managed health facilities in the rural districts of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Riaz, Atif; Zaidi, Shehla; Khowaja, Asif Raza

    2015-01-01

    Background: A number of developing countries have contracted out public health facilities to the Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) in order to improve service utilization. However, there is a paucity of in-depth qualitative information on barriers to access services as a result of contracting from service users’ perspective. The objective of this study was to explore perceived barriers to utilizing Maternal and Neonatal Health (MNH) services, in health facilities contracted out by government to NGO for service provision versus in those which are managed by government (non-contracted). Methods: A community-based qualitative exploratory study was conducted between April to September 2012 at two contracted-out and four matched non-contracted primary healthcare facilities in Thatta and Chitral, rural districts of Pakistan. Using semi-structured guide, the data were collected through thirty-six Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) conducted with mothers and their spouses in the catchment areas of selected facilities. Thematic analysis was performed using NVivo version 10.0 in which themes and sub-themes emerged. Results: Key barriers reported in contracted sites included physical distance, user charges and familial influences. Whereas, poor functionality of health centres was the main barrier for non-contracted sites with other issues being comparatively less salient. Decision-making patterns for participants of both catchments were largely similar. Spouses and mother-in-laws particularly influenced the decision to utilize health facilities. Conclusion: Contracting out of health facility reduces supply side barriers to MNH services for the community served but distance, user charges and low awareness remain significant barriers. Contracting needs to be accompanied by measures for transportation in remote settings, oversight on user fee charges by contractor, and strong community-based behavior change strategies. PMID:25905478

  18. Social Relationships and Health: The Toxic Effects of Perceived Social Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Cacioppo, John T.; Cacioppo, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Research in social epidemiology suggests that the absence of positive social relationships is a significant risk factor for broad-based morbidity and mortality. The nature of these social relationships and the mechanisms underlying this association are of increasing interest as the population gets older and the health care costs associated with chronic disease escalate in industrialized countries. We review selected evidence on the nature of social relationships and focus on one particular facet of the connection continuum – the extent to which an individual feels isolated (i.e., feels lonely) in a social world. Evidence indicates that loneliness heightens sensitivity to social threats and motivates the renewal of social connections, but it can also impair executive functioning, sleep, and mental and physical well-being. Together, these effects contribute to higher rates of morbidity and mortality in lonely older adults. PMID:24839458

  19. The new human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine: pros and cons for pediatric and adolescent health.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Tami L

    2008-01-01

    The new human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is a research breakthrough for pediatric/adolescent health to prevent cervical cancer and related morbidity. The annual heath care cost for the treatment of cervical cancer and genital warts is estimated to be more than three billion dollars a year. The new HPV vaccine has incredible potential to improve reproductive health promotion, reduce health care costs, and close health care disparity gaps. However, issues both for and against the new HPV vaccine, including mandating vaccination, high cost of the vaccine, the short duration of protection offered, and the perceived promotion of sexual activity, cause confusion. Pediatric nurses, including those in advanced practice, benefit by understanding the pros and cons of these issues in advocating for their patients. PMID:19051848

  20. High perceived social standing is associated with better health in HIV-infected Ugandan adults on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Ezeamama, A E; Guwatudde, D; Wang, M; Bagenda, D; Brown, K; Kyeyune, R; Smith, Emily; Wamani, H; Manabe, Y C; Fawzi, W W

    2016-06-01

    Perceived social standing (PSS) was evaluated as a determinant of differences in health outcomes among Ugandan HIV-infected adults from Kampala using cross-sectional study design. PSS was defined using the MacArthur scale of subjective social status translated and adapted for the study setting. Socio-demographic and psychosocial correlates of PSS ranking at enrollment were determined using linear regression models. High versus low PSS was defined based on the median PSS score and evaluated as a determinant of body mass index, hemoglobin, quality of life (QOL) and frailty-related phenotype via linear regression. A log-binomial regression model estimated the relative-risk of good, very good or excellent versus fair or poor self-rated health (SRH) in relation to PSS. Older age, increasing social support and material wealth were correlated with high PSS ranking, whereas female sex, experience of multiple stigmas and multiple depressive symptoms were correlated with low PSS ranking. High PSS participants were on average 1.1 kg/m(2) heavier, had 4.7 % lower frailty scores and 3.6 % higher QOL scores compared to low PSS patients (all p < 0.05); they were also more likely to self-classify as high SRH (RR 1.4, 95 % confidence interval 1.1, 1.7) but had comparable hemoglobin levels (p = 0.634). Low PSS correlated with poor physical and psychosocial wellbeing in HIV-positive Ugandan adults. The assessment of PSS as part of clinical management, combined with efforts to reduce stigma and improve social support, may identify and possibly reduce PSS-associated health inequality in Ugandan adults with HIV. PMID:26733010

  1. Earlier Joint Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking and Low Perceived Self-control as Predictors of Later Poor Health for Women in their Mid-60s

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chenshu; Finch, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The current study was designed to assess the prospective relationship between the earlier joint trajectories of cigarette smoking and low perceived self-control (X¯ age = 40-48) and later health problems (X¯ age = 65.2) within a community sample of understudied females. Methods: The participants were given self-administered questionnaires. Results: The results of the growth mixture model suggested 5 joint trajectories of cigarette smoking and perceived self-control, which consisted of 1 at-risk group (chronic smoking and low perceived self-control), 1 low-risk group (infrequent or nonsmoking and high perceived self-control), and 3 intermediate groups (i.e., high on one factor and low on the other). The results from logistic regression analyses supported a model by which (a) women in the at-risk group, in comparison with the low-risk group, were more likely to report 5 or more diseases (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.81; p < .001) and poor or very poor general health (AOR = 5.98; p < .001); (b) women in the at-risk group as compared with women in the intermediate groups were also more likely to report 5 or more diseases (AOR = 2.36; p < .05) and poor or very poor general health (AOR = 2.86; p < .01); and (c) women in the intermediate group were more likely to report 5 or more diseases (AOR = 2.04; p < .05) and poor or very poor general health (AOR = 2.09; p < .05) than women in the low-risk group. Conclusions: The findings highlight the significance of targeting dispositional factors (e.g., perceived self-control) in conjunction with smoking in designing programs for promoting the health of women in midlife. PMID:22193579

  2. Leadership/citizen participation: perceived impact of advocacy activities by people with physical disabilities on access to health care, attendant care and social services.

    PubMed

    Jurkowski, Elaine; Jovanovic, Borko; Rowitz, Louis

    2002-01-01

    Increasingly, the climate of shrinking health care resources will impact access to health care for the people most vulnerable-those with disabilities. This study looked at the perceived impact of leadership and participation by people with physical disabilities and at their ability to gain increased access to health care, attendant care and social services. Respondents were randomly selected from Canada and the United States, from a pool of participants with physical disabilities serving in leadership roles within disability organizations in either country. Responses from a mail-out survey questionnaire were tabulated using logistic regression procedures to identify the perceived impact of advocacy activity on improved access to health care, attendant care and social ser- vices. Findings suggest that those who participated in advocacy activities were significantly more likely to feel that their action improved access to health care resources, attendant care resources and social services. Advocates also perceived the impact of access for their family, local organizations, and at a regional/national level. This study highlights the value of consumer/citizen participation, and the vital role this action can play in collaboration with social work professionals for system changes, health resource planning and policy development. PMID:12206464

  3. Antecedent–Consequent Relations of Perceived Control to Health and Social Support: Longitudinal Evidence for Between-Domain Associations Across Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Röcke, Christina; Lachman, Margie E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To examine antecedent–consequent relations of perceived control to health and social support across adulthood and old age. Methods. We applied (multigroup) change score models to two waves of data collected 9 years apart from 6,210 participants of the Midlife in the United States survey (MIDUS, 24–75 years at baseline). We used composite measures of perceived control (personal mastery and constraints), health (chronic conditions, acute conditions, and functional limitations), and social support (support and strain associated with spouse/partner, family, and friends). Results. Analyses revealed evidence for direct and independent multidirectional accounts. Greater initial control predicted weaker declines in health and stronger increases in support. In turn, increases in control were predicted by better initial health and more support. Changes in control were also accompanied by concurrent changes in the other two domains, and relations involving control were larger in size than those between health and support. We found only small sociodemographic differences across age, gender, and education group. Discussion. We conclude that perceiving control may serve as both a precursor and an outcome of health and social support across the adult age range and suggest routes for further inquiry. PMID:21041231

  4. Couple Reports of the Perceived Influences of a College Human Sexuality Course: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Dayna S.

    2013-01-01

    Research on the effects of college sexuality education has been largely quantitative in nature and has focused on changes in individual attitudes, behaviours and knowledge. This study sought to explore, qualitatively, the influences of enrolment in a human sexuality course on relationships. Eight couples from an undergraduate human sexuality…

  5. Learning outcomes and student-perceived value of clay modeling and cat dissection in undergraduate human anatomy and physiology.

    PubMed

    DeHoff, Mary Ellen; Clark, Krista L; Meganathan, Karthikeyan

    2011-03-01

    Alternatives and/or supplements to animal dissection are being explored by educators of human anatomy at different academic levels. Clay modeling is one such alternative that provides a kinesthetic, three-dimensional, constructive, and sensory approach to learning human anatomy. The present study compared two laboratory techniques, clay modeling of human anatomy and dissection of preserved cat specimens, in the instruction of muscles, peripheral nerves, and blood vessels. Specifically, we examined the effect of each technique on student performance on low-order and high-order questions related to each body system as well as the student-perceived value of each technique. Students who modeled anatomic structures in clay scored significantly higher on low-order questions related to peripheral nerves; scores were comparable between groups for high-order questions on peripheral nerves and for questions on muscles and blood vessels. Likert-scale surveys were used to measure student responses to statements about each laboratory technique. A significantly greater percentage of students in the clay modeling group "agreed" or "strongly agreed" with positive statements about their respective technique. These results indicate that clay modeling and cat dissection are equally effective in achieving student learning outcomes for certain systems in undergraduate human anatomy. Furthermore, clay modeling appears to be the preferred technique based on students' subjective perceptions of value to their learning experience. PMID:21386004

  6. Perceived differences between chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and human (Homo sapiens) facial expressions are related to emotional interpretation.

    PubMed

    Waller, Bridget M; Bard, Kim A; Vick, Sarah-Jane; Smith Pasqualini, Marcia C

    2007-11-01

    Human face perception is a finely tuned, specialized process. When comparing faces between species, therefore, it is essential to consider how people make these observational judgments. Comparing facial expressions may be particularly problematic, given that people tend to consider them categorically as emotional signals, which may affect how accurately specific details are processed. The bared-teeth display (BT), observed in most primates, has been proposed as a homologue of the human smile (J. A. R. A. M. van Hooff, 1972). In this study, judgments of similarity between BT displays of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and human smiles varied in relation to perceived emotional valence. When a chimpanzee BT was interpreted as fearful, observers tended to underestimate the magnitude of the relationship between certain features (the extent of lip corner raise) and human smiles. These judgments may reflect the combined effects of categorical emotional perception, configural face processing, and perceptual organization in mental imagery and may demonstrate the advantages of using standardized observational methods in comparative facial expression research. PMID:18085923

  7. ["Quality of life" of the elderly population: a survey to evaluate elderly people's self -perceived health in 11 Italian regions (Argento Study, 2002).].

    PubMed

    Bertozzi, Nicoletta; Vitali, Patrizia; Binkin, Nancy; Perra, Alberto; D'Argenio, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    Self-perception of health influences the quality of life of the elderly. In order to identify the more vulnerable elderly and guide interventions to improve health in this population group, we evaluated self-perceived health of elderly people through a set of 4 questions called the "Healthy Days Measures", which were incorporated into the Argento Study. The latter is a study performed to evaluate the health status of the elderly population in 11 Italian regions (2002). Methods. Following cluster sampling, 2,369 elderly subjects (>64 years) were interviewed at home, by trained personnel, through a standardized questionnaire. Self-rated health (on a scale from poor to excellent) was estimated, as well as the average number of days during the previous month when physical or mental health was not good and the number of activity limitation days. Multivariate analysis was performed using Sudaan software and by considering the following outcomes: self-perceived health, physical or mental problems or activity limitations for more than 1 day. Prevalence rates by gender, age, civil status, education level, home situation, place of residence, chronic diseases, dependence on a caregiver, sedentariness and social isolation, were calculated. Results. 34.7% of interviewed subjects rated their health as good to excellent. A significantly lower proportion of women, older subjects (>75 years), those with a lower education level, those residing in southern Italy, those suffering from chronic illnesses, those dependent on a caregiver, and socially isolated or sedentary subjects rated their health favorably. The mean number of physically and mentally unhealthy days (summary index) was estimated to be 11.3 per month. Multivariate analysis showed that female gender was significantly associated with all outcomes considered; age and education level did not show any significant associations with the outcomes considered; depression was significantly associated with self-rated health and with

  8. Human Health and Support Systems Capability Roadmap Progress Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grounds, Dennis; Boehm, Al

    2005-01-01

    The Human Health and Support Systems Capability Roadmap focuses on research and technology development and demonstration required to ensure the health, habitation, safety, and effectiveness of crews in and beyond low Earth orbit. It contains three distinct sub-capabilities: Human Health and Performance. Life Support and Habitats. Extra-Vehicular Activity.

  9. Humans, but not animals, perceive the thermal grill illusion as painful.

    PubMed

    Boettger, Michael K; Ditze, Günter; Bär, Karl-Juergen; Krüdewagen, Eva Maria; Schaible, Hans-Georg

    2016-10-15

    Simultaneous presentation of alternating innocuous warm and cold stimuli induces in most humans a painful sensation called thermal grill illusion (TGI). Here, pain is elicited although nociceptors are not activated. Upon back-translation of behavioural correlates from humans to animals, we found that neither cats nor rodents show adverse reactions when exposed to TGI stimulation. These results question that a TGI observed as a pain-related change in behaviour can be elicited in animals. While distinct neuronal patterns as previously reported may be measurable in animals upon TGI stimulation, their translational meaning towards the sensation elicited in humans is unclear. PMID:27424780

  10. [Perceived quality of care among health professionals at the University Hospital of Oran (EHUO)].

    PubMed

    Chougrani, Saada; Ali, Abdessamed Dali

    2011-01-01

    Created in 2003 as a profit organization, the University Hospital of Oran (Etablissement Hospitalier Universitaire d'Oran-EHUO) is currently in the process of developing a 'Quality' project aimed at assessing staff perception of quality. 20% of staff members representing the various professional categories working at EHUO (medical, nursing and administrative staff) were selected using quota sampling. Face-to-face interviews were conducted in March 2009 with 117 staff members from 25 medical and 5 non-medical units. The average length of service among medical and administrative staff was higher than the average length of service of nursing staff (8.3 vs 5.8 years; p = 0.9 Kruskal-Wallis H test). In discussing the question of quality, it was found that all categories of staff emphasized their specific professional experiences, standards and frames of reference. All staff members showed a greater preference for the various dimensions of the "are process" (mostly physicians and nurses rather than administrative staff (p=0.01)) than for the "structure" or "organization" components of the quality plan. In this sense, there appears to be a greater focus on technical rather than management aspects, as shown by the fact that two thirds of staff members were ill-informed about the hospital's quality assurance program (quality management, blood safety, complaints management...). While they appeared to be fully supportive of audit and certification procedures, 50% of health staff members were reluctant to support patient involvement in the management of the 'Quality' project. Finally, there appears to be a lack of awareness of quality concepts, standards and methodologies among hospital staff. This study suggests that there is a need for greater awareness, further training, and greater monitoring of practices based on concrete actions. PMID:22365045

  11. Perceived behavioral control, intention to get vaccinated, and usage of online information about the human papillomavirus vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Britt, Rebecca Katherine; Hatten, Kristen Nicole; Chappuis, Scott Owen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Human papillomavirus (HPV) and the HPV vaccine have been examined through multiple lenses over the past several years, though there is little work examining the role of perceived behavioral control (PBC) and its impact on potential recipients retrieving, understanding, and using online information with regard to the vaccine. Method: This study used survey data to examine the role of PBC as a moderator between attitudes and intention, and subjective norms (SN) and intention to get the HPV vaccine; and PBC as a moderator when seeking out Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter as information sources about HPV. Support was found for each prediction. Results: The interaction term of SN × PBC in particular had a strong influence on intention to get the vaccine. Discussion: Planned behavior variables explain intention to get the HPV vaccine, but data also suggest a need to root this research within intervention-based strategies. PMID:25750767

  12. The HRD Competencies as Perceived by the Human Resource Development Professionals in Banks in Cote d'Ivoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konan, Affoue Zitagisele

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify how Ivorian HRD professionals in banks perceived their current expertise levels of the HRD competencies, and how these professionals perceived the importance of these competencies needed to be successful in their occupations. In addition, this study determined competencies that are perceived to have the…

  13. [Meat and human health: excess and errors].

    PubMed

    Lecerf, Jean-Michel

    2011-11-01

    Many studies have examined the influence of meat consumption on human health. Meat eaters have a higher body mass index and more weight gain than vegetarians. The risk of type 2 diabetes has also been linked to high meat consumption. However, the statistical correlations with these metabolic disorders are weak. There is inconsistent evidence of a higher cardiovascular risk. A link between high meat consumption and cancer, particularly colorectal cancer, has been observed in nearly all epidemiological studies. Some studies have also shown a link with breast, prostate and lung cancer. The mode of cooking could be partly En 2 responsible for this effect, due for example to heterocyclic aromatic amines production euro during grilling and intensive cooking. Advice is given. PMID:22844742

  14. Impact on human health of climate changes.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that climate is rapidly changing. These changes, which are mainly driven by the dramatic increase of greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic activities, have the potential to affect human health in several ways. These include a global rise in average temperature, an increased frequency of heat waves, of weather events such as hurricanes, cyclones and drought periods, plus an altered distribution of allergens and vector-borne infectious diseases. The cardiopulmonary system and the gastrointestinal tract are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of global warming. Moreover, some infectious diseases and their animal vectors are influenced by climate changes, resulting in higher risk of typhus, cholera, malaria, dengue and West Nile virus infection. On the other hand, at mid latitudes warming may reduce the rate of diseases related to cold temperatures (such as pneumonia, bronchitis and arthritis), but these benefits are unlikely to rebalance the risks associated to warming. PMID:25582074

  15. Gender differences in the association of perceived social support and social network with self-rated health status among older adults: a population-based study in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Older adults are more likely to live alone, because they may have been predeceased by their spouse and friends. Social interaction could also be reduced in this age group due by limited mobility caused by chronic conditions. Therefore, aging is frequently accompanied by reduced social support, which might affect health status. Little is known about the role of gender in the relationship between social support and health in older adults. Hence, the present study tests the hypothesis that gender differences exist in the relationship between perceived social support, social network, and self-rated health (SRH) among older adults. Methods A cross-sectional study using two-stage probabilistic sampling recruited 3,649 individuals aged 60 years and above. Data were collected during the national influenza vaccination campaign in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2006. Individual interviews collected information on SRH, perceived social support, social network, and other covariates. Multivariate logistic regression analyses using nested models were conducted separately for males and females. Independent variables were organised into six blocks: (1) perceived social support and social network, (2) age group, (3) socioeconomic characteristics, (4) health-related behaviours, (5) use of health care services, (6) functional status measures and somatic health problems. Results Older men who did not participate in group activities were more likely to report poor SRH compared to those who did, (OR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.16–2.30). Low perceived social support predicted the probability of poor SRH in women (OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.16–2.34). Poor SRH was associated with low age, low income, not working, poor functional capacity, and depression in both men and women. More somatic health problems were associated with poor SRH in women. Conclusions The association between social interactions and SRH varies between genders. Low social network involvement is associated with poor SRH in

  16. The Circadian Clock and Human Health.

    PubMed

    Roenneberg, Till; Merrow, Martha

    2016-05-23

    Epidemiological studies provided the first evidence suggesting a connection between the circadian clock and human health. Mutant mice convincingly demonstrate the principle that dysregulation of the circadian system leads to a multitude of pathologies. Chrono-medicine is one of the most important upcoming themes in the field of circadian biology. Although treatments counteracting circadian dysregulation are already being applied (e.g., prescribing strong and regular zeitgebers), we need to comprehend entrainment throughout the body's entire circadian network before understanding the mechanisms that tie circadian dysregulation to pathology. Here, we attempt to provide a systematic approach to understanding the connection between the circadian clock and health. This taxonomy of (mis)alignments on one hand exposes how little we know about entrainment within any organism and which 'eigen-zeitgeber' signals are used for entrainment by the different cells and tissues. On the other hand, it provides focus for experimental approaches and tools that will logically map out how circadian systems contribute to disease as well as how we can treat and prevent them. PMID:27218855

  17. Land use change and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patz, Jonathan A.; Norris, Douglas E.

    Disease emergence events have been documented following several types of land use change. This chapter reviews several health-relevant land use changes recognized today, including: 1) urbanization and urban sprawl; 2) water projects and agricultural development; 3) road construction and deforestation in the tropics; and 4) regeneration of temperate forests. Because habitat or climatic change substantially affects intermediate invertebrate hosts involved in many prevalent diseases, this chapter provides a basic description of vector-borne disease biology as a foundation for analyzing the effects of land use change. Urban sprawl poses health challenges stemming from heat waves exacerbated by the "urban heat island" effect, as well as from water contamination due to expanses of impervious road and concrete surfaces. Dams, irrigation and agricultural development have long been associated with diseases such as schistosomiasis and filariasis. Better management methods are required to address the trade-offs between expanded food production and altered habitats promoting deadly diseases. Deforestation can increase the nature and number of breeding sites for vector-borne diseases, such as malaria and onchocerciasis. Human host and disease vector interaction further increases risk, as can a change in arthropod-vector species composition.

  18. Human health concerns with GM crops.

    PubMed

    Malarkey, Trish

    2003-11-01

    Biotechnology was used in the first generation of so-called 'GM' crops to provide growers with complimentary and sometimes alternative crop management solutions to pesticides. Selected host genes or genes identified from other plants or non-plant sources are modified or transferred to a crop plant. The new or altered protein expression resulting from these modifications confer on the plant a desired physiological trait, such as resistance to particular herbicides or insect pests. Second generation modifications provide traits such as enhanced nutritional or health-promoting characteristics that are of benefit to consumers. The commonly raised concerns about possible implications for human health are: inherent toxicity of the novel gene and their products, the potential to express novel antigenic proteins or alter levels of existing protein allergens, the potential for unintended effects resulting from alterations of host metabolic pathways or over expression of inherently toxic or pharmacologically active substances and the potential for nutrient composition in the new food occur differing significantly from a conventional counterpart. Foods produced using biotechnology are subjected to far greater levels of scrutiny than foods produced by traditional plant breeding techniques. The accepted analytical, nutritional and toxicological methods employed to support this scrutiny and to assess and assure that a 'GM' food is a safe and nutritious as its 'non-GM' counterpart are discussed. The challenges associated with identifying unintended effects in whole GM foods and the promise new (proteomics/genomic) technologies offer opposite traditional toxicity testing paradigms are appraised. PMID:14644323

  19. Correlates of perceived health related quality of life in obese, overweight and normal weight older adults: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is a complex multifactorial disease, which also has an impact on quality of life. The aim of this paper is to identify the correlates of perceived health related quality of life in obese, overweight and normal weight Italians older adults. Methods 205 subjects at the age ≥ 60 yrs. were recruited into the Division of Endocrinology of the Polytechnic University of Marche Region, Ancona (Italy). A protocol of questionnaires was constructed for data collection, and included domains such as physical activity, quality of life, socio-psychological aspects. The association of the latter variables with SF-36 Health Survey physical component (PCS-36) were evaluated in the whole sample. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the effect of independent variables on PCS-36 and the physical subscales of SF-36. Results PCS-36 showed a lower score in the obese and overweight subjects than the normal weight group (post-hoc test, p < 0.001 and p < 0.05 respectively). Age, gender (male), Body Mass Index, years of education, Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) total score, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale anxiety, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression, number of medications prescribed and number of diseases were included in the model. Negative and significant PCS-associated variables included depression (p = 0.009), BMI (p = 0.001), age in years (p = 0.007), whereas positive and significant PCS-associated independent variables were years of education (p = 0.022), physical activity (p = 0.026). BMI was negatively associated with all the physical subscales of SF-36 (p < 0.05). Conclusions Research funding should be invested in the study of the benefits accruing from reducing obesity in the elderly. PMID:24428944

  20. Aluminum in the Environment and Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Sorenson, John R. J.; Campbell, Irene R.; Tepper, Lloyd B.; Lingg, Robert D.

    1974-01-01

    The review of over 800 references on aluminum (Al) published since the mid-fifties covers the occurrence of Al in soil, air, water, plants and food products, as well as air and water pollution problems. In addition, the existing quality criteria, the biology and toxicology of Al, and the therapeutic and medical uses are presented. It is concluded that absorption and retention or accumulation of Al in humans occurs at lower levels of intake than had been assumed formerly. However, levels of 5 to 50 times the normal daily intake do not appear to interfere with other metabolic processes. The adverse effects of Al reported in the more recent years resulted from the inhalation or ingestion of Al in concentrations many times greater than the amounts present under normal circumstances. As in the past, there is still no need for concern by the public or producers of Al or its products concerning hazards to human health derived from well established and extensively used products. PMID:4470920

  1. Arsenic and human health effects: A review.

    PubMed

    Abdul, Khaja Shameem Mohammed; Jayasinghe, Sudheera Sammanthi; Chandana, Ediriweera P S; Jayasumana, Channa; De Silva, P Mangala C S

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic (As) is ubiquitous in nature and humans being exposed to arsenic via atmospheric air, ground water and food sources are certain. Major sources of arsenic contamination could be either through geological or via anthropogenic activities. In physiological individuals, organ system is described as group of organs that transact collectively and associate with other systems for conventional body functions. Arsenic has been associated with persuading a variety of complications in body organ systems: integumentary, nervous, respiratory, cardiovascular, hematopoietic, immune, endocrine, hepatic, renal, reproductive system and development. In this review, we outline the effects of arsenic on the human body with a main focus on assorted organ systems with respective disease conditions. Additionally, underlying mechanisms of disease development in each organ system due to arsenic have also been explored. Strikingly, arsenic has been able to induce epigenetic changes (in utero) and genetic mutations (a leading cause of cancer) in the body. Occurrence of various arsenic induced health effects involving emerging areas such as epigenetics and cancer along with their respective mechanisms are also briefly discussed. PMID:26476885

  2. Interviewing Suspects with Avatars: Avatars Are More Effective When Perceived as Human

    PubMed Central

    Ströfer, Sabine; Ufkes, Elze G.; Bruijnes, Merijn; Giebels, Ellen; Noordzij, Matthijs L.

    2016-01-01

    It has been consistently demonstrated that deceivers generally can be discriminated from truth tellers by monitoring an increase in their physiological response. But is this still the case when deceivers interact with a virtual avatar? The present research investigated whether the mere “belief” that the virtual avatar is computer or human operated forms a crucial factor for eliciting physiological cues to deception. Participants were interviewed about a transgression they had been seduced to commit, by a human-like virtual avatar. In a between-subject design, participants either deceived or told the truth about this transgression. During the interviews, we measured the physiological responses assessing participants' electrodermal activity (EDA). In line with our hypothesis, EDA differences between deceivers and truth tellers only were significant for participants who believed they interacted with a human operated (compared to a computer operated) avatar. These results have theoretical as well as practical implications which we will discuss. PMID:27148150

  3. Interviewing Suspects with Avatars: Avatars Are More Effective When Perceived as Human.

    PubMed

    Ströfer, Sabine; Ufkes, Elze G; Bruijnes, Merijn; Giebels, Ellen; Noordzij, Matthijs L

    2016-01-01

    It has been consistently demonstrated that deceivers generally can be discriminated from truth tellers by monitoring an increase in their physiological response. But is this still the case when deceivers interact with a virtual avatar? The present research investigated whether the mere "belief" that the virtual avatar is computer or human operated forms a crucial factor for eliciting physiological cues to deception. Participants were interviewed about a transgression they had been seduced to commit, by a human-like virtual avatar. In a between-subject design, participants either deceived or told the truth about this transgression. During the interviews, we measured the physiological responses assessing participants' electrodermal activity (EDA). In line with our hypothesis, EDA differences between deceivers and truth tellers only were significant for participants who believed they interacted with a human operated (compared to a computer operated) avatar. These results have theoretical as well as practical implications which we will discuss. PMID:27148150

  4. Pollution's Price--The Cost in Human Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newill, Vaun A.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the detrimental effects of air pollution, and especially sulfur dioxide, on human health. Any relaxation of existing national air pollution standards because of the energy crisis could be costly in terms of the nation's health. (JR)

  5. The Effect of Toxic Cyanobacteria on Human and Animal Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study of environmental health typically focuses on human populations. However, companion animals, livestock and wildlife also experience adverse health effects from environmental pollutants. Animals may experience direct exposure to pollutants unlike people in most ambient ex...

  6. Intermittent drinking, oxytocin and human health.

    PubMed

    Pruimboom, L; Reheis, D

    2016-07-01

    Looking at a waterhole, it is surprising that so many animals share the same space without visible signs of anxiety or aggression. Although waterholes are the preferred feeding locations of large carnivores, waterholes are shared by all type of herbivores of all sizes and shapes, including elephants. Recent research shows that the homeostatic disturbances leading to the "thirst feeling" not only activate specific substances regulating water and mineral household, but also the "trust and love" hormone oxytocin, while decreasing the production of the typical stress hormone cortisol. People using drugs, seem to be in search for oxytocin, as evidenced in studies with individuals on drugs such as ecstasy and gamma-hydroxybyturate. Hot environment, drought and increased sweating also activate specific oxytocin-producing parts of the hypothalamus, just as breastfeeding does in mother and infant. Water homeostasis is the only allostatic system activating trust neuro-anatomy and we suggest that this is due to the fact that all animals depend on water, whereas food type is species specific. Our hypothesis; regulating drinking behaviour through intermittent bulk drinking could increase oxytocin signalling, recover human trust and increase health by down-regulation of stress axis activity and inflammatory activity of the immune system. Intermittent bulk drinking should be defined as water (including tea and coffee) drinking up to a feeling of satiety and regulated by a mild feeling of thirst. This would mean that people would not drink less quantity but less frequently and that's how all animals, but also human newborns behave. It is the latter group, which is probably the only group of humans with a normal fluid homeostasis. PMID:27241263

  7. An Educational Game for Learning Human Immunology: What Do Students Learn and How Do They Perceive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Meng-Tzu; Su, TzuFen; Huang, Wei-Yu; Chen, Jhih-Hao

    2014-01-01

    The scientific concepts of human immunology are inherently complicated and extremely difficult to understand. Hence, this study reports on the development of an educational game entitled "Humunology" and examines the impact of using "Humunology" for learning how the body's defense system works. A total of 132 middle school…

  8. The relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity in children: mediating roles of perceived motor competence and health-related physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Khodaverdi, Zeinab; Bahram, Abbas; Stodden, David; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether perceived motor competence and components of health-related physical fitness mediated the relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity in 8- to 9-year-old Iranian girls. A convenience sample of 352 girls (mean age = 8.7, SD = 0.3 years) participated in the study. Actual motor competence, perceived motor competence and children's physical activity were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, the physical ability sub-scale of Marsh's Self-Description Questionnaire and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children, respectively. Body mass index, the 600 yard run/walk, curl-ups, push-ups, and back-saver sit and reach tests assessed health-related physical fitness. Preacher & Hayes (2004) bootstrap method was used to assess the potential mediating effects of fitness and perceived competence on the direct relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity. Regression analyses revealed that aerobic fitness (b = .28, 95% CI = [.21, .39]), as the only fitness measure, and perceived competence (b = .16, 95% CI = [.12, .32]) were measures that mediated the relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity with the models. Development of strategies targeting motor skill acquisition, children's self-perceptions of competence and cardiorespiratory fitness should be targeted to promote girls' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. PMID:26691581

  9. The evolution of human rights in World Health Organization policy and the future of human rights through global health governance.

    PubMed

    Meier, B M; Onzivu, W

    2014-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) was intended to serve at the forefront of efforts to realize human rights to advance global health, and yet this promise of a rights-based approach to health has long been threatened by political constraints in international relations, organizational resistance to legal discourses, and medical ambivalence toward human rights. Through legal research on international treaty obligations, historical research in the WHO organizational archives, and interview research with global health stakeholders, this research examines WHO's contributions to (and, in many cases, negligence of) the rights-based approach to health. Based upon such research, this article analyzes the evolving role of WHO in the development and implementation of human rights for global health, reviews the current state of human rights leadership in the WHO Secretariat, and looks to future institutions to reclaim the mantle of human rights as a normative framework for global health governance. PMID:24439475

  10. Vulnerability and self-perceived health status among light and heavy smokers: the relationship to short-term fear appeal tobacco control messages.

    PubMed

    Szklo, André Salem; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire

    2009-07-01

    It is important to stimulate smokers to acquire some level of risk perception associated with their current behavior in order to motivate smoking cessation. The present article attempts to understand how the content of short-term fear appeal government tobacco messages may interact with different levels of daily cigarette consumption in order to affect smokers' vulnerabilities, expressed by self-perceived health status. A Poisson model was used to estimate the prevalence ratio of fair or poor self-perceived health status (FPHS) according to daily cigarette consumption. We also calculated the proportions of smokers who stated that selected health warning pictures on cigarette packets encourage people to quit smoking, stratified by self-perceived health status and daily cigarette consumption. The proportion of smokers with FPHS was 25% higher among those who smoked > 20 cigarettes/day (p = 0.01). Among smokers with FPHS, heavy smokers showed the highest proportions of responses in favor of selected warning pictures most closely related to losses in ordinary daily living, such as shortness of breath and being bothered by cigarette addiction. Short-term loss-framed tobacco control messages seem to have raised awareness of vulnerability among heavier smokers. PMID:19578574

  11. The Association of Perceived Abuse and Discrimination After September 11, 2001, With Psychological Distress, Level of Happiness, and Health Status Among Arab Americans

    PubMed Central

    Heisler, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the prevalence of perceived abuse and discrimination among Arab American adults after September 11, 2001, and associations between abuse or discrimination and psychological distress, level of happiness, and health status. Methods. We gathered data from a face-to-face survey administered in 2003 to a representative, population-based sample of Arab American adults residing in the greater Detroit area. Results. Overall, 25% of the respondents reported post–September 11 personal or familial abuse, and 15% reported that they personally had a bad experience related to their ethnicity, with higher rates among Muslims than Christians. After adjustment for socioeconomic and demographic factors, perceived post–September 11 abuse was associated with higher levels of psychological distress, lower levels of happiness, and worse health status. Personal bad experiences related to ethnicity were associated with increased psychological distress and reduced happiness. Perceptions of not being respected within US society and greater reported effects of September 11 with respect to personal security and safety were associated with higher levels of psychological distress. Conclusions. Perceived post–September 11 abuse and discrimination were associated with increased psychological distress, reduced levels of happiness, and worse health status in our sample. Community-based, culturally sensitive partnerships should be established to assess and meet the health needs of Arab Americans. PMID:20019301

  12. Relationships Between Health Literacy and Genomics-Related Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, Perceived Importance, and Communication in a Medically Underserved Population.

    PubMed

    Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Blanchard, Melvin; Milam, Laurel; Pokharel, Manusheela; Elrick, Ashley; Goodman, Melody S

    2016-01-01

    The increasing importance of genomic information in clinical care heightens the need to examine how individuals understand, value, and communicate about this information. Based on a conceptual framework of genomics-related health literacy, we examined whether health literacy was related to knowledge, self-efficacy, and perceived importance of genetics and family health history (FHH) and communication about FHH in a medically underserved population. The analytic sample was composed of 624 patients at a primary care clinic in a large urban hospital. About half of the participants (47%) had limited health literacy; 55% had no education beyond high school, and 58% were Black. In multivariable models, limited health literacy was associated with lower genetic knowledge (β = -0.55, SE = 0.10, p < .0001), lower awareness of FHH (odds ratio [OR] = 0.50, 95% confidence interval [CI; 0.28, 0.90], p = .020), and greater perceived importance of genetic information (OR = 1.95, 95% CI [1.27, 3.00], p = .0022) but lower perceived importance of FHH information (OR = 0.47, 95% CI [0.26, 0.86], p = .013) and more frequent communication with a doctor about FHH (OR = 2.02, 95% CI [1.27, 3.23], p = .0032). The findings highlight the importance of considering domains of genomics-related health literacy (e.g., knowledge, oral literacy) in developing educational strategies for genomic information. Health literacy research is essential to avoid increasing disparities in information and health outcomes as genomic information reaches more patients. PMID:27043759

  13. University Students’ Views on the Perceived Benefits and Drawbacks of Seeking Help for Mental Health Problems on the Internet: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Farrer, Louise M; Gulliver, Amelia; Bennett, Kylie; Griffiths, Kathleen M

    2016-01-01

    Background University students experience high levels of mental health problems yet very few seek professional help. Web-based mental health interventions may be useful for the university student population. However, there are few published qualitative studies that have examined the perceived benefits and drawbacks of seeking help for mental health problems on the Internet from the perspective of university students. Objective To investigate the attitudes of university students on mental health help-seeking on the Internet. Methods A total of 19 university students aged 19-24 years participated in 1 of 4 focus groups to examine their views toward help-seeking for mental health problems on the Internet. Results Perceived concerns about Web-based help-seeking included privacy and confidentiality, difficulty communicating on the Internet, and the quality of Web-based resources. Potential benefits included anonymity/avoidance of stigma, and accessibility. Participants reported mixed views regarding the ability of people with similar mental health issues to interact on the Internet. Conclusions These factors should be considered in the development of Web-based mental health resources to increase acceptability and engagement from university students. PMID:27026140

  14. To be seen, confirmed and involved - a ten year follow-up of perceived health and cardiovascular risk factors in a Swedish community intervention programme

    PubMed Central

    Emmelin, Maria; Weinehall, Lars; Stenlund, Hans; Wall, Stig; Dahlgren, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Background Public health interventions are directed towards social systems and it is difficult to foresee all consequences. While targeted outcomes may be positively influenced, interventions may at worst be counterproductive. To include self-reported health in an evaluation is one way of addressing possible side-effects. This study is based on a 10 year follow-up of a cardiovascular community intervention programme in northern Sweden. Methods Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used to address the interaction between changes in self-rated health and risk factor load. Qualitative interviews contributed to an analysis of how the outcome was influenced by health related norms and attitudes. Results Most people maintained a low risk factor load and a positive perception of health. However, more people improved than deteriorated their situation regarding both perceived health and risk factor load. "Ideal types" of attitude sets towards the programme, generated from the interviews, helped to interpret an observed polarisation for men and the lower educated. Conclusion Our observation of a socially and gender differentiated intervention effect suggests a need to test new intervention strategies. Future community interventions may benefit from targeting more directly those who in combination with high risk factor load perceive their health as bad and to make all participants feel seen, confirmed and involved. PMID:17672911

  15. The Influence of Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Perceived Susceptibility Patterns on Sexual Risk Reduction for Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kershaw, Trace S.; Ethier, Kathleen A.; Milan, Stephanie; Lewis, Jessica B.; Niccolai, Linda M.; Meade, Christina; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

    2005-01-01

    Risky sexual behavior can lead to pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Our study of 300 adolescent females takes an integrative approach by incorporating these multiple outcomes to assess the influence of risk perceptions on sexual behavior by (1) identifying subgroups of perceived susceptibility…

  16. Cardiovascular disease in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients: A true or perceived risk?

    PubMed Central

    Shahbaz, Shima; Manicardi, Marcella; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Raggi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    After the successful introduction of highly active antiretroviral agents the survival of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in developed countries has increased substantially. This has allowed the surfacing of several chronic diseases among which cardiovascular disease (CVD) is prominent. The pathogenesis of CVD in HIV is complex and involves a combination of traditional and HIV related factors. An accurate assessment of risk of CVD in these patients is still elusive and as a consequence the most appropriate preventive and therapeutic interventions remain controversial. PMID:26516417

  17. Quantifying Plant Colour and Colour Difference as Perceived by Humans Using Digital Images

    PubMed Central

    Kendal, Dave; Hauser, Cindy E.; Garrard, Georgia E.; Jellinek, Sacha; Giljohann, Katherine M.; Moore, Joslin L.

    2013-01-01

    Human perception of plant leaf and flower colour can influence species management. Colour and colour contrast may influence the detectability of invasive or rare species during surveys. Quantitative, repeatable measures of plant colour are required for comparison across studies and generalisation across species. We present a standard method for measuring plant leaf and flower colour traits using images taken with digital cameras. We demonstrate the method by quantifying the colour of and colour difference between the flowers of eleven grassland species near Falls Creek, Australia, as part of an invasive species detection experiment. The reliability of the method was tested by measuring the leaf colour of five residential garden shrub species in Ballarat, Australia using five different types of digital camera. Flowers and leaves had overlapping but distinct colour distributions. Calculated colour differences corresponded well with qualitative comparisons. Estimates of proportional cover of yellow flowers identified using colour measurements correlated well with estimates obtained by measuring and counting individual flowers. Digital SLR and mirrorless cameras were superior to phone cameras and point-and-shoot cameras for producing reliable measurements, particularly under variable lighting conditions. The analysis of digital images taken with digital cameras is a practicable method for quantifying plant flower and leaf colour in the field or lab. Quantitative, repeatable measurements allow for comparisons between species and generalisations across species and studies. This allows plant colour to be related to human perception and preferences and, ultimately, species management. PMID:23977275

  18. Quantifying plant colour and colour difference as perceived by humans using digital images.

    PubMed

    Kendal, Dave; Hauser, Cindy E; Garrard, Georgia E; Jellinek, Sacha; Giljohann, Katherine M; Moore, Joslin L

    2013-01-01

    Human perception of plant leaf and flower colour can influence species management. Colour and colour contrast may influence the detectability of invasive or rare species during surveys. Quantitative, repeatable measures of plant colour are required for comparison across studies and generalisation across species. We present a standard method for measuring plant leaf and flower colour traits using images taken with digital cameras. We demonstrate the method by quantifying the colour of and colour difference between the flowers of eleven grassland species near Falls Creek, Australia, as part of an invasive species detection experiment. The reliability of the method was tested by measuring the leaf colour of five residential garden shrub species in Ballarat, Australia using five different types of digital camera. Flowers and leaves had overlapping but distinct colour distributions. Calculated colour differences corresponded well with qualitative comparisons. Estimates of proportional cover of yellow flowers identified using colour measurements correlated well with estimates obtained by measuring and counting individual flowers. Digital SLR and mirrorless cameras were superior to phone cameras and point-and-shoot cameras for producing reliable measurements, particularly under variable lighting conditions. The analysis of digital images taken with digital