Science.gov

Sample records for perception

  1. Changing Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallett, Susanne; Wren, Steve; Dawes, Mark; Blinco, Amy; Haines, Brett; Everton, Jenny; Morgan, Ellen; Barton, Craig; Breen, Debbie; Ellison, Geraldine; Burgess, Danny; Stavrou, Jim; Carre, Catherine; Watson, Fran; Cherry, David; Hawkins, Chris; Stapenhill-Hunt, Maria; Gilderdale, Charlie; Kiddle, Alison; Piggott, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    A group of teachers involved in embedding NRICH tasks (http://nrich.maths.org) into their everyday practice were keen to challenge common perceptions of mathematics, and of the teaching and learning of mathematics. In this article, the teachers share what they are doing to change these perceptions in their schools.

  2. Machine perception

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The book is aimed at the level of a graduate student or the practising professional and discusses visual perception by computers. Topics covered include: pattern classification methods; polyhedra scenes; shape analysis and recognition; perception of brightness and colour; edge and curve detection; region segmentation; texture analysis; depth measurement analysis; knowledge-based systems and applications. A subject index is included.

  3. Categorical perception.

    PubMed

    Goldstone, Robert L; Hendrickson, Andrew T

    2010-01-01

    Categorical perception (CP) is the phenomenon by which the categories possessed by an observer influences the observers' perception. Experimentally, CP is revealed when an observer's ability to make perceptual discriminations between things is better when those things belong to different categories rather than the same category, controlling for the physical difference between the things. We consider several core questions related to CP: Is it caused by innate and/or learned categories, how early in the information processing stream do categories influence perception, and what is the relation between ongoing linguistic processing and CP? CP for both speech and visual entities are surveyed, as are computational and mathematical models of CP. CP is an important phenomenon in cognitive science because it represents an essential adaptation of perception to support categorizations that an organism needs to make. Sensory signals that could be linearly related to physical qualities are warped in a nonlinear manner, transforming analog inputs into quasi-digital, quasi-symbolic encodings. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26272840

  4. Stereoscopic Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Robert E.

    1987-06-01

    There is only one real world, We "see" that world as extending into three dimensions because we look at it with two eyes. We are not presented with two "pictures" of the real world, but with two separate views. Views not pictures. The analog of the eye as a camera has done violence to the development of concepts of human vision. The eye is a dynamic sensing apparatus that supplies the brain with inputs from which the brain constructs the scene we "see", and so is responsible for our perceptual structuring of the real world. These visual perceptions are dependent upon our other sensory inputs as well. Indeed, our body senses control and direct, to some degree, where out eyes look and what we "see". This process of conceptualization is thoroughly egocentric. This paper addresses the processes by which our mind/eye/senses interact to form our perception (and concepts) of the world (real or illusionary) and the advantages (and problems) of our egocentric reduction of the data inputs.

  5. Psychobiology and Food Perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neilson, A.

    1985-01-01

    Psychobiology is a scientific discipline which encompasses the phenomena known to be important as regards nutrition and food consumption in space. Specifically, it includes those areas of biology which are clearly related to behavior, human subjective experience and problems of coping and adapting to stress. Taste and odor perception; perception (knowledge gaps); perception (needs); food preference and menu selection; and choosing of acceptable diets are discussed.

  6. Principals' Perceptions of Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooms, Autumn K.; Kretovics, Mark A.; Smialek, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    This study is an effort to examine principals' perceptions of workplace politics and its influence on their productivity and efficacy. A survey was used to explore the perceptions of current school administrators with regard to workplace politics. The instrument was disseminated to principals serving public schools in one Midwestern state in the…

  7. Studying Sensory Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerly, Spafford C.

    2001-01-01

    Explains the vestibular organ's role in balancing the body and stabilizing the visual world using the example of a hunter. Describes the relationship between sensory perception and learning. Recommends using optical illusions to illustrate the distinctions between external realities and internal perceptions. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

  8. Community Perception Survey, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Patricia; Silverman, Barbara

    This document is a report on the 2001 Community Perception Survey administered by Mt. San Antonio College (SAC) (California). The survey gathered public perception data of SAC services and programs. The survey was mailed to 773 service area community leaders; 160 (21%) responded. Survey results showed that: (1) 70% had knowledge of SAC programs…

  9. Risk ranking by perception

    SciTech Connect

    Osei, E.K.; Amoh, G.E.A.; Schandorf, C.

    1997-02-01

    The study of people`s perception and acceptability of risk is important in understanding the public reaction to technology and its environmental and health impact. The perception of risk depends on several factors, including early experiences, education, controllability of the risk, the type of consequence, and the type of person(s) who makes the judgment. This paper reviews some of the main factors influencing people`s perception and acceptability of risk. Knowledge about which factors influence the perception of risk may enhance the understanding of different points of view brought into risk controversies, improve risk communication, and facilitate policy making. Results from a risk ranking by perception survey Conducted in Ghana are also presented. 18 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Dimensions of Aesthetic Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biaggio, Mary Kay; Supplee, Katherine A.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the validity of three dimensions of aesthetic perception: hedonic value, arousal, and uncertainty. Hedonic interest and arousal factors were found to differ from factors previously reported, while the uncertainty factor paralleled that previously reported. (Author/RH)

  11. [Risk and risk perception].

    PubMed

    de Vries, N K

    2002-06-01

    After having delineated the concept of risk and having described the type of risks that are relevant to dental practice, an overview of empirical and theoretical work on risk perception is given. The perception of risks is determined both by the actual magnitude and by perceptual bias, originating from either general perceptual phenomena such as (cognitive) availability or the ego-relevance of risks: persons in general underestimate risks for themselves as compared to the risks for others (unrealistic optimism). PMID:12092334

  12. Seismic risk perception test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    The perception of risks involves the process of collecting, selecting and interpreting signals about uncertain impacts of events, activities or technologies. In the natural sciences the term risk seems to be clearly defined, it means the probability distribution of adverse effects, but the everyday use of risk has different connotations (Renn, 2008). The two terms, hazards and risks, are often used interchangeably by the public. Knowledge, experience, values, attitudes and feelings all influence the thinking and judgement of people about the seriousness and acceptability of risks. Within the social sciences however the terminology of 'risk perception' has become the conventional standard (Slovic, 1987). The mental models and other psychological mechanisms which people use to judge risks (such as cognitive heuristics and risk images) are internalized through social and cultural learning and constantly moderated (reinforced, modified, amplified or attenuated) by media reports, peer influences and other communication processes (Morgan et al., 2001). Yet, a theory of risk perception that offers an integrative, as well as empirically valid, approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing". To understand the perception of risk is necessary to consider several areas: social, psychological, cultural, and their interactions. Among the various research in an international context on the perception of natural hazards, it seemed promising the approach with the method of semantic differential (Osgood, C.E., Suci, G., & Tannenbaum, P. 1957, The measurement of meaning. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press). The test on seismic risk perception has been constructed by the method of the semantic differential. To compare opposite adjectives or terms has been used a Likert's scale to seven point. The test consists of an informative part and six sections respectively dedicated to: hazard; vulnerability (home and workplace); exposed value (with reference to

  13. Perceptions as Hypotheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, R. L.

    1980-07-01

    Perceptions may be compared with hypotheses in science. The methods of acquiring scientific knowledge provide a working paradigm for investigating processes of perception. Much as the information channels of instruments, such as radio telescopes, transmit signals which are processed according to various assumptions to give useful data, so neural signals are processed to give data for perception. To understand perception, the signal codes and the stored knowledge or assumptions used for deriving perceptual hypotheses must be discovered. Systematic perceptual errors are important clues for appreciating signal channel limitations, and for discovering hypothesis-generating procedures. Although this distinction between `physiological' and `cognitive' aspects of perception may be logically clear, it is in practice surprisingly difficult to establish which are responsible even for clearly established phenomena such as the classical distortion illusions. Experimental results are presented, aimed at distinguishing between and discovering what happens when there is mismatch with the neural signal channel, and when neural signals are processed inappropriately for the current situation. This leads us to make some distinctions between perceptual and scientific hypotheses, which raise in a new form the problem: What are `objects'?

  14. Tele-Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quek, Francis; Jain, Ramesh; Mitchell, Brian

    1988-10-01

    The NASA Center for Autonomous and Man-Controlled Robotics and Sensing Systems, CAMRSS is developing a concept called teleperception which facilitates inspace activity and addresses the human factors related issues of information overload. A basic tenet of the concept is that the lines of distinction between computer perception and human perception need not be absolute. Teleperception is the technology of man-machine interaction which permits the augmentation of machine perception techniques with the con-siderable intangibilities of human cognition and which exploits the facility of machine perception to handle vast amounts of data to distill and enhance information for selective presentation to human agents. In this paper, we shall present both the concept of teleperception and the projects undertaken at the CAMRSS laboratories which embodies the concept. In the next section, tele-perception will be more rigorously defined as a conceptual framework. The ensuing sections will detail the merits of the concept; describe the environment being developed at our laboratories which instantiates the concept; and overview the teleperception research being carried out at CAMRSS.

  15. Stereoscopic distance perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, John M.

    1989-01-01

    Limited cue, open-loop tasks in which a human observer indicates distances or relations among distances are discussed. By open-loop tasks, it is meant tasks in which the observer gets no feedback as to the accuracy of the responses. What happens when cues are added and when the loop is closed are considered. The implications of this research for the effectiveness of visual displays is discussed. Errors in visual distance tasks do not necessarily mean that the percept is in error. The error could arise in transformations that intervene between the percept and the response. It is argued that the percept is in error. It is also argued that there exist post-perceptual transformations that may contribute to the error or be modified by feedback to correct for the error.

  16. Perception and Hierarchical Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Kiebel, Stefan J.; Daunizeau, Jean; Friston, Karl J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we suggest that perception could be modeled by assuming that sensory input is generated by a hierarchy of attractors in a dynamic system. We describe a mathematical model which exploits the temporal structure of rapid sensory dynamics to track the slower trajectories of their underlying causes. This model establishes a proof of concept that slowly changing neuronal states can encode the trajectories of faster sensory signals. We link this hierarchical account to recent developments in the perception of human action; in particular artificial speech recognition. We argue that these hierarchical models of dynamical systems are a plausible starting point to develop robust recognition schemes, because they capture critical temporal dependencies induced by deep hierarchical structure. We conclude by suggesting that a fruitful computational neuroscience approach may emerge from modeling perception as non-autonomous recognition dynamics enslaved by autonomous hierarchical dynamics in the sensorium. PMID:19649171

  17. Biophysics of food perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbidge, Adam S.; Le Révérend, Benjamin J. D.

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we present food perception across a range of time and length scales as well as across the disciplines of physics, chemistry and biology. We achieve the objective of the article by presenting food from a material science angle as well as presenting the physiology of food perception that enables humans to probe materials in terms of aroma, taste and texture. We highlight that by using simple physical concepts, one can also decipher the mechanisms of transport that link food structure with perception physiology and define the regime in which physiology operates. Most importantly, we emphasise the notion that food/consumer interaction operates across the biological fluid interface grouped under the terminology of mucus, acting as a transfer fluid for taste, aroma and pressure between food and dedicated receptors.

  18. Experimenter bias and subliminal perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Paul J.; Rushton, J. Philippe

    1975-01-01

    It has been suggested that subliminal perception phenomena may be in part due to experimenter bias effects. Two studies that obtained positive evidence of subliminal perception were therefore replicated with experimenters tested under blind and not blind conditions. (Editor)

  19. Students' Perceptions of Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isman, Aytekin; Gazi, Zehra Altinay; Aksal, Fahriye Altinay

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a study that examined students' perceptions toward online practice and their developing attitudes toward the online learning process. The results indicated that both cultural background and personal qualities affect students' perceptions.

  20. Arts Education and Student's Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nderu-Boddington, Eulalee

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates students' perceptions of their experience with arts education and their perceptions of its impact on their academic achievement and academic goals. Specifically, it relates to academic achievement, goals, cognition, and students' perceptions. Educational outcomes and policy issues are also reviewed as they related to the…

  1. Perception of acoustic transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, J. H., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The research investigates the role of knowledge based or top-down processing in the perception of nonlinguistic, transient signals. The experiments address issues in transient pattern classification, target observation, attentional focusing, auditory induction, and computer based performance aids. The theoretical significance and naval relevance of the research is considered.

  2. Fooled by Our Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatehi, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Many people enjoy watching magicians perform magic acts and seemingly do the impossible. In many of these acts, magicians use sleight of hand, trickery, and special tools. There are, however, other occasions in which audience perceptions are used to make them see things differently. This exploits people's tendencies to see things based on their…

  3. Colour Perception in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Ruppert, Sinje; Tannock, Rosemary; Albrecht, Bjorn; Becker, Andreas; Uebel, Henrik; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2006-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with unexplained impairments on speeded naming of coloured stimuli. These deficits may reflect hypofunctioning retinal dopaminergic mechanisms impairing particularly blue-yellow colour discrimination. Colour perception and rapid colour naming ability were investigated in 14 children…

  4. Student Perceptions of Sexism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trenholm, Sarah; Todd de Mancillas, William R.

    1978-01-01

    Identifies and categorizes student perceptions of sexism. Respondents described critical incidents involving sexism and supplied words and phrases, nonverbal behaviors, and media representations which they interpreted as sexist. Hypothesizes about the ways sex of respondent and sex of target affected the number and type of responses. (JMF)

  5. Perceptions, 1992-93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarda, Lynn VanEseltine, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This document consists of the four issues of the journal "Perceptions" issued during the 1992/93 publishing year (volume 27). This journal deals with services for students with emotional disturbances. The Winter 1992 issue contains the agenda of a 1992 conference on "Educational Excellence with Diminishing Resources" sponsored by the Association…

  6. ELLs' Perceptions of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Rachael M.

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated reading support and book preferences of fourth grade English language learners (ELLs) who were struggling readers. This qualitative research focused on three case studies. Interviews were conducted to explore ELLs' perceptions on reading motivation, reading programs, and types of support they received. Descriptions of…

  7. Perceptions of water use

    PubMed Central

    Attari, Shahzeen Z.

    2014-01-01

    In a national online survey, 1,020 participants reported their perceptions of water use for household activities. When asked for the most effective strategy they could implement to conserve water in their lives, or what other Americans could do, most participants mentioned curtailment (e.g., taking shorter showers, turning off the water while brushing teeth) rather than efficiency improvements (e.g., replacing toilets, retrofitting washers). This contrasts with expert recommendations. Additionally, some participants are more likely to list curtailment actions for themselves, but list efficiency actions for other Americans. For a sample of 17 activities, participants underestimated water use by a factor of 2 on average, with large underestimates for high water-use activities. An additional ranking task showed poor discrimination of low vs. high embodied water content in food products. High numeracy scores, older age, and male sex were associated with more accurate perceptions of water use. Overall, perception of water use is more accurate than the perception of energy consumption and savings previously reported. Well-designed efforts to improve public understanding of household water use could pay large dividends for behavioral adaptation to temporary or long-term decreases in availability of fresh water. PMID:24591608

  8. Factors in risk perception

    PubMed

    Sjoberg

    2000-02-01

    Risk perception is a phenomenon in search of an explanation. Several approaches are discussed in this paper. Technical risk estimates are sometimes a potent factor in accounting for perceived risk, but in many important applications it is not. Heuristics and biases, mainly availability, account for only a minor portion of risk perception, and media contents have not been clearly implicated in risk perception. The psychometric model is probably the leading contender in the field, but its explanatory value is only around 20% of the variance of raw data. Adding a factor of "unnatural risk" considerably improves the psychometric model. Cultural Theory, on the other hand, has not been able to explain more than 5-10% of the variance of perceived risk, and other value scales have similarly failed. A model is proposed in which attitude, risk sensitivity, and specific fear are used as explanatory variables; this model seems to explain well over 30-40% of the variance and is thus more promising than previous approaches. The model offers a different type of psychological explanation of risk perception, and it has many implications, e.g., a different approach to the relationship between attitude and perceived risk, as compared with the usual cognitive analysis of attitude. PMID:10795334

  9. Perception of Final Lengthening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jan; Beckman, Mary

    A series of phonetic production and perception experiments were designed to describe the phonological or phonetic domains of two effects in spoken English: final lengthening, generally interpreted as a mark for the edge of some linguistically-defined unit of speech production, and stress-timed shortening, generally interpreted as evidence for…

  10. Legitimacy and Justice Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Charles W.; Landsman, Miriam J.

    2004-01-01

    Consistent with the theoretical argument of Hegtvedt and Johnson, we empirically examine the relationship between collectivity-generated legitimacy of reward procedures and individual-level justice perceptions about reward distributions. Using data from a natural setting, we find that collectivity sources of validity (authorization and…

  11. Counsellors' Perceptions of Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatar, Moshe

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the perceptions Israeli secondary-school counselors have of adolescence. Results reveal that, in general, counselors have a favorable view of adolescents and do not perceive adolescence as a "difficult stage." Counselors also believe that they are perceived positively by their adolescent students. Identifies five types of adolescents…

  12. Perception, Illusion, and Magic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Paul R.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a psychology course in which magical illusions were used for teaching the principles of sensation and perception. Students read psychological, philosophical, historical, and magical literature on illusion, performed a magical illusion, and analyzed the illusion in terms of the psychological principles involved. (Author/KC)

  13. Self Perception In School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberti, Jean M.

    The purpose of this research was to develop and validate a self-report, group-administered, non-verbal inventory to measure Self Perception In School (SPS) among primary grade children. Inventory items were based on Sarbin's Role Theory. Since role may be studied in terms of the actions expected of an occupant of that position, the role of student…

  14. Understanding Visible Perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    One concern about human adaptation to space is how returning from the microgravity of orbit to Earth can affect an astronaut's ability to fly safely. There are monitors and infrared video cameras to measure eye movements without having to affect the crew member. A computer screen provides moving images which the eye tracks while the brain determines what it is seeing. A video camera records movement of the subject's eyes. Researchers can then correlate perception and response. Test subjects perceive different images when a moving object is covered by a mask that is visible or invisible (above). Early results challenge the accepted theory that smooth pursuit -- the fluid eye movement that humans and primates have -- does not involve the higher brain. NASA results show that: Eye movement can predict human perceptual performance, smooth pursuit and saccadic (quick or ballistic) movement share some signal pathways, and common factors can make both smooth pursuit and visual perception produce errors in motor responses.

  15. Speech perception as categorization

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Lori L.; Lotto, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Speech perception (SP) most commonly refers to the perceptual mapping from the highly variable acoustic speech signal to a linguistic representation, whether it be phonemes, diphones, syllables, or words. This is an example of categorization, in that potentially discriminable speech sounds are assigned to functionally equivalent classes. In this tutorial, we present some of the main challenges to our understanding of the categorization of speech sounds and the conceptualization of SP that has resulted from these challenges. We focus here on issues and experiments that define open research questions relevant to phoneme categorization, arguing that SP is best understood as perceptual categorization, a position that places SP in direct contact with research from other areas of perception and cognition. PMID:20601702

  16. Multisensory flavor perception.

    PubMed

    Spence, Charles

    2015-03-26

    The perception of flavor is perhaps the most multisensory of our everyday experiences. The latest research by psychologists and cognitive neuroscientists increasingly reveals the complex multisensory interactions that give rise to the flavor experiences we all know and love, demonstrating how they rely on the integration of cues from all of the human senses. This Perspective explores the contributions of distinct senses to our perception of food and the growing realization that the same rules of multisensory integration that have been thoroughly explored in interactions between audition, vision, and touch may also explain the combination of the (admittedly harder to study) flavor senses. Academic advances are now spilling out into the real world, with chefs and food industry increasingly taking the latest scientific findings on board in their food design. PMID:25815982

  17. Body perception in newborns.

    PubMed

    Filippetti, Maria Laura; Johnson, Mark H; Lloyd-Fox, Sarah; Dragovic, Danica; Farroni, Teresa

    2013-12-01

    Body ownership and awareness has recently become an active topic of research in adults using paradigms such as the "rubber hand illusion" and "enfacement" [1-11]. These studies show that visual, tactile, postural, and anatomical information all contribute to the sense of body ownership in adults [12]. While some hypothesize body perception from birth [13], others have speculated on the importance of postnatal experience [14, 15]. Through studying body perception in newborns, we can directly investigate the factors involved prior to significant postnatal experience. To address this issue, we measured the looking behavior of newborns presented with visual-tactile synchronous and asynchronous cues, under conditions in which the visual information was either an upright (body-related stimulus; experiment 1) or inverted (non-body-related stimulus; experiment 2) infant face. We found that newborns preferred to look at the synchronous condition compared to the asynchronous condition, but only when the visual stimulus was body related. These results are in line with findings from adults and demonstrate that human newborns detect intersensory synchrony when related to their own bodies, consistent with the basic processes underlying body perception being present at birth. PMID:24268410

  18. Pre-emptive perception.

    PubMed

    Bodis-Wollner, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    How can an action to a target be selected without yet knowing what it is? Pre-emptive perception (PEP) is a framework which orders neuronal mechanisms in association with voluntary actions before an action is started and until it is completed. It is assumed that PEP serves the purpose of perception, but a conscious, perceptual identification of the goal is not obligatorily completed during the time period of PEP itself. The concept of PEP is that the brain pre-emptively optimizes an action plan to maximize eventual perception, even before being sure what the goal is. Experimental studies of voluntary saccadic eye movements are considered as prototypic activity within the framework of PEP. The core concept of pre-emption is that a particular saccade is selected while a large number of other possible actions are deselected. Pre-emptive computations include mechanisms associated with internal context and reward. Neurophysiological studies which show anatomically and functionally separate cortical and some subcortical neuronal groups in computing saccades are summarized. There is a potential relationship of PEP as a neurobiological framework and some philosophical concepts. Terms for processes between planning and action, such as intention, anticipation, and attention, are often incongruent in everyday language and in epistemology. It is proposed here that a scrutiny of these terms can be rigorously approached by temporal subdivision of PEP and conversely, clear definitions of these terms can lead to organized experimental designs of cognitive neurobiology. The temporal subdivision of PEP allows a critique of The Will in the definition of Schopenhauer and distinguishes it from the 'free will'. PMID:18491722

  19. Perception, Psychedelics, And Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Charles; Gold, Robert

    1973-01-01

    The most profound consequences of the increasingly widespread use of psychedelics may be sociological in nature. Altered states of consciousness create nothing less than new perceptual configurations which may well spell the end of social institutions based upon modes of perception which are incongruent with new perceptions being attained by…

  20. Wildfire Perception and Community Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Jason S.; Matarrita-Cascante, David; Stedman, Richard C.; Luloff, A. E.

    2010-01-01

    Given increasing political and financial commitments to wildfire preparedness, risk policy demands that risk identification, assessment, and mitigation activities are balanced among diverse resident groups. Essential for this is the understanding of residents' perceptions of wildfire risks. This study compares wildfire-risk perceptions of…

  1. Infants' Perception of Object Trajectories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Scott P.; Bremner, J. Gavin; Slater, Alan; Mason, Uschi; Foster, Kirsty; Cheshire, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    Three experiments investigated 2- to 6-month-olds' perception of the continuity of an object trajectory that was briefly occluded. Results across experiments provided little evidence of veridical responses to trajectory occlusion in the youngest infants, but by 6 months, perception completion was more robust. Results suggest that perceptual…

  2. Innovation Management Perceptions of Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakir, Asli Agiroglu

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed to determine the perceptions of principals about innovation management and to investigate whether there is a significant difference in this perception according to various parameters. In the study, descriptive research model is used and universe is consisted from principals who participated in "Acquiring Formation Course…

  3. Teachers' Perceptions of Merit Pay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Vanessa; Langheinrich, Cornelia; Loth, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to show the various perceptions teachers have on merit pay. This research was designed to examine the perceptions and attitudes of teachers towards the idea of performance based pay. This topic has been an ongoing battle within school systems since the 1800s. The participants in this study were teachers from the state…

  4. University Students' Perceptions of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Lori G.

    2009-01-01

    Plagiarism is an intriguing topic with many avenues for exploration. Students' perceptions of plagiarism certainly differ from their professors' and it is valuable to attempt to listen in some small measure to what those perceptions are. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of some of the ways first- and second-year university…

  5. Students' Perceptions of Academic Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jody

    2002-01-01

    Reports findings of a survey of 48 undergraduate students regarding their perceptions of academic librarians and discusses ideas for addressing existing misconceptions. Highlights include perceptions concerning librarians' education; librarians' skills, knowledge, and expertise; librarians versus clerical workers; and librarians' attitudes toward…

  6. Autism: Tactile Perception and Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pernon, E.; Pry, R.; Baghdadli, A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: For many years, and especially since Waynbaum and Wallon, psychology and psychopathology have dealt with cognitive perception, but have had little to do with the affective qualities of perception. Our aim was to study the influence of the sensory environment on people with autism. Method: Several experiments were carried out using…

  7. Walking Perception by Walking Observers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Alissa; Shiffrar, Maggie

    2005-01-01

    People frequently analyze the actions of other people for the purpose of action coordination. To understand whether such self-relative action perception differs from other-relative action perception, the authors had observers either compare their own walking speed with that of a point-light walker or compare the walking speeds of 2 point-light…

  8. Perception for rugged terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kweon, In SO; Hebert, Martial; Kanade, Takeo

    1989-01-01

    A three-dimensional perception system for building a geometrical description of rugged terrain environments from range image data is presented with reference to the exploration of the rugged terrain of Mars. An intermediate representation consisting of an elevation map that includes an explicit representation of uncertainty and labeling of the occluded regions is proposed. The locus method used to convert range image to an elevation map is introduced, along with an uncertainty model based on this algorithm. Both the elevation map and the locus method are the basis of a terrain matching algorithm which does not assume any correspondences between range images. The two-stage algorithm consists of a feature-based matching algorithm to compute an initial transform and an iconic terrain matching algorithm to merge multiple range images into a uniform representation. Terrain modeling results on real range images of rugged terrain are presented. The algorithms considered are a fundamental part of the perception system for the Ambler, a legged locomotor.

  9. The Perception of Auditory Motion

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Johahn

    2016-01-01

    The growing availability of efficient and relatively inexpensive virtual auditory display technology has provided new research platforms to explore the perception of auditory motion. At the same time, deployment of these technologies in command and control as well as in entertainment roles is generating an increasing need to better understand the complex processes underlying auditory motion perception. This is a particularly challenging processing feat because it involves the rapid deconvolution of the relative change in the locations of sound sources produced by rotational and translations of the head in space (self-motion) to enable the perception of actual source motion. The fact that we perceive our auditory world to be stable despite almost continual movement of the head demonstrates the efficiency and effectiveness of this process. This review examines the acoustical basis of auditory motion perception and a wide range of psychophysical, electrophysiological, and cortical imaging studies that have probed the limits and possible mechanisms underlying this perception. PMID:27094029

  10. The Perception of Auditory Motion.

    PubMed

    Carlile, Simon; Leung, Johahn

    2016-01-01

    The growing availability of efficient and relatively inexpensive virtual auditory display technology has provided new research platforms to explore the perception of auditory motion. At the same time, deployment of these technologies in command and control as well as in entertainment roles is generating an increasing need to better understand the complex processes underlying auditory motion perception. This is a particularly challenging processing feat because it involves the rapid deconvolution of the relative change in the locations of sound sources produced by rotational and translations of the head in space (self-motion) to enable the perception of actual source motion. The fact that we perceive our auditory world to be stable despite almost continual movement of the head demonstrates the efficiency and effectiveness of this process. This review examines the acoustical basis of auditory motion perception and a wide range of psychophysical, electrophysiological, and cortical imaging studies that have probed the limits and possible mechanisms underlying this perception. PMID:27094029

  11. Mechanisms of Percept-Percept and Image-Percept Integration in Vision: Behavioral and Electrophysiological Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalvit, Silvia; Eimer, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the detection of a visual target can be guided not only by the temporal integration of two percepts, but also by integrating a percept and an image held in working memory. Behavioral and event-related brain potential (ERP) measures were obtained in a target detection task that required temporal integration of 2…

  12. Reentrant Processing in Intuitive Perception

    PubMed Central

    Luu, Phan; Geyer, Alexandra; Fidopiastis, Cali; Campbell, Gwendolyn; Wheeler, Tracey; Cohn, Joseph; Tucker, Don M.

    2010-01-01

    The process of perception requires not only the brain's receipt of sensory data but also the meaningful organization of that data in relation to the perceptual experience held in memory. Although it typically results in a conscious percept, the process of perception is not fully conscious. Research on the neural substrates of human visual perception has suggested that regions of limbic cortex, including the medial orbital frontal cortex (mOFC), may contribute to intuitive judgments about perceptual events, such as guessing whether an object might be present in a briefly presented fragmented drawing. Examining dense array measures of cortical electrical activity during a modified Waterloo Gestalt Closure Task, results show, as expected, that activity in medial orbital frontal electrical responses (about 250 ms) was associated with intuitive judgments. Activity in the right temporal-parietal-occipital (TPO) region was found to predict mOFC (∼150 ms) activity and, in turn, was subsequently influenced by the mOFC at a later time (∼300 ms). The initial perception of gist or meaning of a visual stimulus in limbic networks may thus yield reentrant input to the visual areas to influence continued development of the percept. Before perception is completed, the initial representation of gist may support intuitive judgments about the ongoing perceptual process. PMID:20209101

  13. Polarization Perception Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, Victor S. (Inventor); Coulson, Kinsell L. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A polarization perception device comprises a base and a polarizing filter having opposite broad sides and a centerline perpendicular thereto. The filter is mounted on the base for relative rotation and with a major portion of the area of the filter substantially unobstructed on either side. A motor on the base automatically moves the filter angularly about its centerline at a speed slow enough to permit changes in light transmission by virtue of such movement to be perceived as light-dark pulses by a human observer, but fast enough so that the light phase of each such pulse occurs prior to fading of the light phase image of the preceding pulse from the observer's retina. In addition to an observer viewing a scene in real time through the filter while it is so angularly moved, or instead of such observation, the scene can be photographed, filmed or taped by a camera whose lens is positioned behind the filter.

  14. The Problem of Perception

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, H. S.

    2009-03-01

    There is a common perception among young students that the surest path to resolving scientific controversies is to design a clever experiment, one that will definitively resolve conflicting hypotheses. However, I have found that most scientific controversies do not revolve around specific experimental data, but instead are disputes over data interpretation. Data interpretations depend on a scientist’s underlying assumptions and worldview. For example, a molecular biologist might think of protein expression as an outcome of mRNA levels, whereas a biochemist might think in terms of synthetic and degradation rates. Both are right, of course, but each might expect different reasons for a change in the amount of a protein. Our perspective and assumptions regarding how living systems work defines us as biologists, which is why arguments over interpretations can get so nasty. If another scientist disputes the validity of your viewpoint, it can impact your reputation as well as your ego.

  15. Haptic perception of wetness.

    PubMed

    Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M; Kosters, N Dolfine; Kappers, Astrid M L; Daanen, Hein A M

    2012-10-01

    In daily life, people interact with textiles of different degrees of wetness, but little is known about the mechanics of wetness perception. This paper describes an experiment with six conditions regarding haptic discrimination of the wetness of fabrics. Three materials were used: cotton wool, sponge-structured viscose and thin viscose. Two ways of touching were investigated: static touching, in which only thermal cues were available, and dynamic touching, in which additional mechanical cues were available. For dynamic touching, average Weber fractions for discrimination were around 0.3, whereas for static touching, they ranged from 0.34 to 0.63. The results show that people can make use of the additional mechanical cues to significantly improve their discrimination performance. There was no significant difference between Weber fractions for the three materials, showing that wetness can be judged as a separate perceptual quantity, independent of the material. PMID:22964056

  16. Polarization perception device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, Victor S. (Inventor); Coulson, Kinsel L. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A polarization perception device comprises a base and a polarizing filter having opposite broad sides and a centerline perpendicular thereto. The filter is mounted on the base for relative rotation and with a major portion of the area of the filter substantially unobstructed on either side. A motor on the base automatically moves the filter angularly about its centerline at a speed slow enough to permit changes in light transmission by virtue of such movement to be perceived as light-dark pulses by a human observer, but fast enough so that the light phase of each such pulse occurs prior to fading of the light phase image of the preceding pulse from the observer's retina. In addition to an observer viewing a scene in real time through the filter while it is so angularly moved, or instead of such observation, the scene can be photographed, filmed or taped by a camera whose lens is positioned behind the filter.

  17. Perception in statistical graphics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanderPlas, Susan Ruth

    There has been quite a bit of research on statistical graphics and visualization, generally focused on new types of graphics, new software to create graphics, interactivity, and usability studies. Our ability to interpret and use statistical graphics hinges on the interface between the graph itself and the brain that perceives and interprets it, and there is substantially less research on the interplay between graph, eye, brain, and mind than is sufficient to understand the nature of these relationships. The goal of the work presented here is to further explore the interplay between a static graph, the translation of that graph from paper to mental representation (the journey from eye to brain), and the mental processes that operate on that graph once it is transferred into memory (mind). Understanding the perception of statistical graphics should allow researchers to create more effective graphs which produce fewer distortions and viewer errors while reducing the cognitive load necessary to understand the information presented in the graph. Taken together, these experiments should lay a foundation for exploring the perception of statistical graphics. There has been considerable research into the accuracy of numerical judgments viewers make from graphs, and these studies are useful, but it is more effective to understand how errors in these judgments occur so that the root cause of the error can be addressed directly. Understanding how visual reasoning relates to the ability to make judgments from graphs allows us to tailor graphics to particular target audiences. In addition, understanding the hierarchy of salient features in statistical graphics allows us to clearly communicate the important message from data or statistical models by constructing graphics which are designed specifically for the perceptual system.

  18. The Interplay between Perception of Language and Perception of Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poizner, Howard; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigates the psychological representation of visual-gestural languages from a cross-linguistic perspective. The perception of signers of American and Chinese Sign Languages is analyzed. (27 references) (Author/VWL)

  19. Perception determinants in learning mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtar, Siti Fairus; Ali, Noor Rasidah; Rashid, Nurazlina Abdul

    2015-05-01

    This article described a statistical study of students' perception in mathematics. The objective of this study is to identify factors related to perception about learning mathematics among non mathematics' student. This study also determined the relationship between of these factors among non mathematics' student. 43 items questionnaires were distributed to one hundred students in UiTM Kedah who enrolled in the Business Mathematics course. These items were measured by using a semantic scale with the following anchors: 1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree. A factor analysis of respondents were identified into five factors that influencing the students' perception in mathematics. In my study, factors identified were attitude, interest, role of the teacher, role of peers and usefulness of mathematics that may relate to the perception about learning mathematics among non mathematics' student.

  20. Classroom Demonstrations of Auditory Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haws, LaDawn; Oppy, Brian J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents activities to help students gain understanding about auditory perception. Describes demonstrations that cover topics, such as sound localization, wave cancellation, frequency/pitch variation, and the influence of media on sound propagation. (CMK)

  1. Temporal nonlocality in bistable perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atmanspacher, Harald; Filk, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    A novel conceptual framework for theoretical psychology is presented and illustrated for the example of bistable perception. A basic formal feature of this framework is the non-commutativity of operations acting on mental states. A corresponding model for the bistable perception of ambiguous stimuli, the Necker-Zeno model, is sketched and some empirical evidence for it so far is described. It is discussed how a temporal nonlocality of mental states, predicted by the model, can be understood and tested.

  2. A model of visual perception.

    PubMed

    Borello, L; Ferraro, M; Penengo, P; Rossotti, M L

    1981-01-01

    In this paper we propose a model of visual perception in which a positive feedback mechanism can reproduce the pattern stimulus on a neurons screen. The pattern stimulus reproduction is based on informations coming from the spatial derivatives of visual pattern. This information together with the response of the feature extractors provides to the reproduction of the visual pattern as neuron screen electric activity. We simulate several input patterns and prove that the model reproduces the percept. PMID:7236747

  3. Seismic risk perception in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Risk perception is a fundamental element in the definition and the adoption of preventive counter-measures. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. This paper presents results of a survey on seismic risk perception in Italy conducted from January 2013 to present . The research design combines a psychometric and a cultural theoretic approach. More than 7,000 on-line tests have been compiled. The data collected show that in Italy seismic risk perception is strongly underestimated; 86 on 100 Italian citizens, living in the most dangerous zone (namely Zone 1), do not have a correct perception of seismic hazard. From these observations we deem that extremely urgent measures are required in Italy to reach an effective way to communicate seismic risk. Finally, the research presents a comparison between groups on seismic risk perception: a group involved in campaigns of information and education on seismic risk and a control group.

  4. Public perceptions of geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Hazel; Stewart, Iain; Anderson, Mark; Pahl, Sabine; Stokes, Alison

    2014-05-01

    Geological issues are increasingly intruding on the everyday lives of ordinary people. Whether it be onshore exploration and extraction of oil and gas, deep injection of water for geothermal power or underground storage of carbon dioxide and radioactive waste, many communities across Europe are being faced with potentially contested geological activity under their backyard. As well as being able to communicate the technical aspects of such work, geoscience professionals also need to appreciate that for most people the subsurface is an unfamiliar realm. In order to engage communities and individuals in effective dialogue about geological activities, an appreciation of what 'the public' already know and what they want to know is needed, but this is a subject that is in its infancy. In an attempt to provide insight into these key issues, this study examines the concerns the public have, relating to geology, by constructing 'Mental Models' of people's perceptions of the subsurface. General recommendations for public engagement strategies will be presented based on the results of selected case studies; specifically expert and non-expert mental models for communities in the south-west of England.

  5. Structure of visual perception.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, J; Wu, S Y

    1990-01-01

    The response properties of a class of motion detectors (Reichardt detectors) are investigated extensively here. Since the outputs of the detectors, responding to an image undergoing two-dimensional rigid translation, are dependent on both the image velocity and the image intensity distribution, they are nonuniform across the entire image, even though the object is moving rigidly as a whole. To achieve perceptual "oneness" in the rigid motion, we are led to contend that visual perception must take place in a space that is non-Euclidean in nature. We then derive the affine connection and the metric of this perceptual space. The Riemann curvature tensor is identically zero, which means that the perceptual space is intrinsically flat. A geodesic in this space is composed of points of constant image intensity gradient along a certain direction. The deviation of geodesics (which are perceptually "straight") from physically straight lines may offer an explanation to the perceptual distortion of angular relationships such as the Hering illusion. PMID:2235999

  6. Perception of Perspective Angles.

    PubMed

    Erkelens, Casper J

    2015-06-01

    We perceive perspective angles, that is, angles that have an orientation in depth, differently from what they are in physical space. Extreme examples are angles between rails of a railway line or between lane dividers of a long and straight road. In this study, subjects judged perspective angles between bars lying on the floor of the laboratory. Perspective angles were also estimated from pictures taken from the same point of view. Converging and diverging angles were judged to test three models of visual space. Four subjects evaluated the perspective angles by matching them to nonperspective angles, that is, angles between the legs of a compass oriented in the frontal plane. All subjects judged both converging and diverging angles larger than the physical angle and smaller than the angles in the proximal stimuli. A model of shallow visual space describes the results. According to the model, lines parallel to visual lines, vanishing at infinity in physical space, converge to visual lines in visual space. The perceived shape of perspective angles is incompatible with the perceived length and width of the bars. The results have significance for models of visual perception and practical implications for driving and flying in poor visibility conditions. PMID:27433312

  7. Models of vowel perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molis, Michelle R.

    2002-05-01

    The debate continues regarding the efficacy of formant-based versus whole spectrum models of vowel perception. Categorization data were obtained for a set of synthetic steady-state vowels and were used to evaluate both types of models. The models tested included various combinations of formant frequencies and amplitudes, principal components derived from critical-band spectra, and perceptually scaled LPC cepstral coefficients. The stimuli were 54 five-formant synthesized vowels that varied orthogonally in F2 (1081-2120 Hz) and F3 (1268-2783 Hz) frequency in equal 0.8 Bark steps. Fundamental frequency contour, F1 (455 Hz), F4 (3250 Hz), F5 (3700 Hz), and duration (225 ms) were held constant across all stimuli. Twelve speakers of American English (Central Texas dialect) categorized the stimuli as the vowels /I/, /U/, or /ɛ/. Results indicate that formant frequencies provided the best account of the data only when nonlinear terms were also included in the analysis. The critical-band principal components also performed reasonably well. While the principle of parsimony would suggest that formant frequencies offer the most appropriate description of vowels, the relative success of a richer, more flexible and more neurophysiologically implementable model still must be taken into consideration. [Work supported by NIDCD.] a)Formerly at Univ. of Texas at Austin.

  8. Perception of Perspective Angles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We perceive perspective angles, that is, angles that have an orientation in depth, differently from what they are in physical space. Extreme examples are angles between rails of a railway line or between lane dividers of a long and straight road. In this study, subjects judged perspective angles between bars lying on the floor of the laboratory. Perspective angles were also estimated from pictures taken from the same point of view. Converging and diverging angles were judged to test three models of visual space. Four subjects evaluated the perspective angles by matching them to nonperspective angles, that is, angles between the legs of a compass oriented in the frontal plane. All subjects judged both converging and diverging angles larger than the physical angle and smaller than the angles in the proximal stimuli. A model of shallow visual space describes the results. According to the model, lines parallel to visual lines, vanishing at infinity in physical space, converge to visual lines in visual space. The perceived shape of perspective angles is incompatible with the perceived length and width of the bars. The results have significance for models of visual perception and practical implications for driving and flying in poor visibility conditions. PMID:27433312

  9. [Time perceptions and representations].

    PubMed

    Tordjman, S

    2015-09-01

    Representations of time and time measurements depend on subjective constructs that vary according to changes in our concepts, beliefs, societal needs and technical advances. Similarly, the past, the future and the present are subjective representations that depend on each individual's psychic time and biological time. Therefore, there is no single, one-size-fits-all time for everyone, but rather a different, subjective time for each individual. We need to acknowledge the existence of different inter-individual times but also intra-individual times, to which different functions and different rhythms are attached, depending on the system of reference. However, the construction of these time perceptions and representations is influenced by objective factors (physiological, physical and cognitive) related to neuroscience which will be presented and discussed in this article. Thus, studying representation and perception of time lies at the crossroads between neuroscience, human sciences and philosophy. Furthermore, it is possible to identify several constants among the many and various representations of time and their corresponding measures, regardless of the system of time reference. These include the notion of movements repeated in a stable rhythmic pattern involving the recurrence of the same interval of time, which enables us to define units of time of equal and invariable duration. This rhythmicity is also found at a physiological level and contributes through circadian rhythms, in particular the melatonin rhythm, to the existence of a biological time. Alterations of temporality in mental disorders will be also discussed in this article illustrated by certain developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders. In particular, the hypothesis will be developed that children with autism would need to create discontinuity out of continuity through stereotyped behaviors and/or interests. This discontinuity repeated at regular intervals could have been

  10. Infants’ perception of chasing

    PubMed Central

    Frankenhuis, Willem E.; House, Bailey; Barrett, H. Clark; Johnson, Scott P.

    2012-01-01

    Two significant questions in cognitive and developmental science are first, whether objects and events are selected for attention based on their features (featural processing) or the configuration of their features (configural processing), and second, how these modes of processing develop. These questions have been addressed in part with experiments focused on infants’ perception of faces, human body shapes, and biological motion of individual agents. Here, we investigate 4- and 10-month-old infants’ (N = 192) attention to social motions, specifically to chasing—a ubiquitous, ancient, and fitness-relevant mode of interaction. We constructed computer-generated animations of chasing that had three properties: acceleration, high turning rates, and attraction (“heat-seeking”). In the first experiment we showed chasing side-by-side with a control display of inanimate, billiard-ball-like motions. Infants strongly preferred attending to chasing. In the next three studies, we systematically investigated the effect of each property in turn (acceleration, turning, and attraction) by showing a display of that property side-by-side with the control display. Infants preferentially attended to acceleration, and to attraction, but not to turning. If infants preferred chasing for its configuration, then the sum of the effect sizes of individual properties should be smaller than their combined effects. That is not what we found: instead, on three measures of visual behavior, the summed effects of individual properties equaled (or exceeded) that of chasing. Moreover, although attraction drew little attention and turning no attention at all, acceleration drew (nearly) as much attention as chasing. Our results thus provide evidence that infants preferred chasing because of its features, not its configuration. PMID:23121710

  11. Wind Speed Perception and Risk

    PubMed Central

    Agdas, Duzgun; Webster, Gregory D.; Masters, Forrest J.

    2012-01-01

    Background How accurately do people perceive extreme wind speeds and how does that perception affect the perceived risk? Prior research on human–wind interaction has focused on comfort levels in urban settings or knock-down thresholds. No systematic experimental research has attempted to assess people's ability to estimate extreme wind speeds and perceptions of their associated risks. Method We exposed 76 people to 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 mph (4.5, 8.9, 13.4, 17.9, 22.3, and 26.8 m/s) winds in randomized orders and asked them to estimate wind speed and the corresponding risk they felt. Results Multilevel modeling showed that people were accurate at lower wind speeds but overestimated wind speeds at higher levels. Wind speed perceptions mediated the direct relationship between actual wind speeds and perceptions of risk (i.e., the greater the perceived wind speed, the greater the perceived risk). The number of tropical cyclones people had experienced moderated the strength of the actual–perceived wind speed relationship; consequently, mediation was stronger for people who had experienced fewer storms. Conclusion These findings provide a clearer understanding of wind and risk perception, which can aid development of public policy solutions toward communicating the severity and risks associated with natural disasters. PMID:23226230

  12. Gender differences in crowd perception.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yang; Leib, Allison Y; Puri, Amrita M; Whitney, David; Peng, Kaiping

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the first impression of a crowd of faces-crowd perception-is influenced by social background and cognitive processing. Specifically, we explored whether males and females, two groups that are distinct biologically and socially, differ in their ability to extract ensemble characteristics from crowds of faces that were comprised of different identities. Participants were presented with crowds of similar faces and were instructed to scroll through a morphed continuum of faces until they found a face that was representative of the average identity of each crowd. Consistent with previous research, females were more precise in single face perception. Furthermore, the results showed that females were generally more accurate in estimating the average identity of a crowd. However, the correlation between single face discrimination and crowd averaging differed between males and females. Specifically, male subjects' ensemble integration slightly compensated for their poor single face perception; their performance on the crowd perception task was not as poor as would be expected from their single face discrimination ability. Overall, the results suggest that group perception is not an isolated or uniform cognitive mechanism, but rather one that interacts with biological and social processes. PMID:26388805

  13. Synchronous motion modulates animacy perception.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    Visual motion serves as a cue for high-level percepts. The present study reports novel modulation of animacy perception through synchronous motion. A target dot moving along a random trajectory was presented. The trajectory was generated based on a variant of 1/f noise; hence, the dot could be perceived as animate. Participants were asked to rate the strength of perceived animacy and perceived intention from the target dot. Several task-irrelevant dots surrounding the target were also presented. Results indicated that perceived animacy and intention were drastically weakened when surrounding dots created synchronous motion with the target dot as compared to when surrounding dots did not create synchronous motion. A series of follow-up experiments replicated these results and revealed specific characteristics of this modulation. The present findings suggest synchronous visual motion serves as a strong modulator of animacy perception. PMID:26114680

  14. Pain Perception in Buddhism Perspective.

    PubMed

    Waikakul, Waraporn; Waikakul, Saranatra

    2016-08-01

    Dhamma, which Lord Buddha has presented to people after his enlightenment, analyzes every phenomenon and objects into their ultimate elements. The explanation of sensory system is also found in a part of Dhamma named Abhidhammapitaka, the Book of the Higher Doctrine in Buddhism. To find out the relationship between explanation of pain in the present neuroscience and the explanation of pain in Abhidhamma, the study was carried out by the use of a comprehensive review. The comparisons were in terms of peripheral stimulation, signal transmission, modulation, perception, suffering, determination and decision making for the responding to pain. We found that details of the explanation on pain mechanism and perception in Abhidhamma could associate well with our present scientific knowledge. Furthermore, more refinement information about the process and its function in particular aspects of pain perception were provided in Abhidhammapitaka. PMID:26112611

  15. Serial dependence in visual perception

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Jason; Whitney, David

    2014-01-01

    Visual input often arrives in a noisy and discontinuous stream, owing to head and eye movements, occlusion, lighting changes, and many other factors. Yet the physical world is generally stable—objects and physical characteristics rarely change spontaneously. How then does the human visual system capitalize on continuity in the physical environment over time? Here we show that visual perception is serially dependent, using both prior and present input to inform perception at the present moment. Using an orientation judgment task, we found that even when visual input changes randomly over time, perceived orientation is strongly and systematically biased toward recently seen stimuli. Further, the strength of this bias is modulated by attention and tuned to the spatial and temporal proximity of successive stimuli. These results reveal a serial dependence in perception characterized by a spatiotemporally tuned, orientation-selective operator—which we call a continuity field—that may promote visual stability over time. PMID:24686785

  16. Sound can suppress visual perception.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Souta; Ide, Masakazu

    2015-01-01

    In a single modality, the percept of an input (e.g., voices of neighbors) is often suppressed by another (e.g., the sound of a car horn nearby) due to close interactions of neural responses to these inputs. Recent studies have also suggested that close interactions of neural responses could occur even across sensory modalities, especially for audio-visual interactions. However, direct behavioral evidence regarding the audio-visual perceptual suppression effect has not been reported in a study with humans. Here, we investigated whether sound could have a suppressive effect on visual perception. We found that white noise bursts presented through headphones degraded visual orientation discrimination performance. This auditory suppression effect on visual perception frequently occurred when these inputs were presented in a spatially and temporally consistent manner. These results indicate that the perceptual suppression effect could occur across auditory and visual modalities based on close and direct neural interactions among those sensory inputs. PMID:26023877

  17. Knowledge in perception and illusion.

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, R L

    1997-01-01

    Following Hermann von Helmholtz, who described visual perceptions as unconscious inferences from sensory data and knowledge derived from the past, perceptions are regarded as similar to predictive hypotheses of science, but are psychologically projected into external space and accepted as our most immediate reality. There are increasing discrepancies between perceptions and conceptions with science's advances, which makes it hard to define 'illusion'. Visual illusions can provide evidence of object knowledge and working rules for vision, but only when the phenomena are explained and classified. A tentative classification is presented, in terms of appearances and kinds of causes. The large contribution of knowledge from the past for vision raises the issue: how do we recognize the present, without confusion from the past. This danger is generally avoided as the present is signalled by real-time sensory inputs-perhaps flagged by qualia of consciousness. PMID:9304679

  18. New Percepts via Mental Imagery?

    PubMed

    Mast, Fred W; Tartaglia, Elisa M; Herzog, Michael H

    2012-01-01

    We are able to extract detailed information from mental images that we were not explicitly aware of during encoding. For example, we can discover a new figure when we rotate a previously seen image in our mind. However, such discoveries are not "really" new but just new "interpretations." In two recent publications, we have shown that mental imagery can lead to perceptual learning (Tartaglia et al., 2009, 2012). Observers imagined the central line of a bisection stimulus for thousands of trials. This training enabled observers to perceive bisection offsets that were invisible before training. Hence, it seems that perceptual learning via mental imagery leads to new percepts. We will argue, however, that these new percepts can occur only within "known" models. In this sense, perceptual learning via mental imagery exceeds new discoveries in mental images. Still, the effects of mental imagery on perceptual learning are limited. Only perception can lead to really new perceptual experience. PMID:23060830

  19. Perception and the Mind-Body Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heslep, Robert D.

    1984-01-01

    This article discusses sensory perception. The author reorganizes a previous conception of the interaction between sense organ and physical object and suggests how educational researchers study the perception of physical objects. (DF)

  20. Silicon modeling of pitch perception.

    PubMed

    Lazzaro, J; Mead, C

    1989-12-01

    We have designed and tested an integrated circuit that models human pitch perception. The chip receives as input a time-varying voltage corresponding to sound pressure at the ear and produces as output a map of perceived pitch. The chip is a physiological model; subcircuits on the chip correspond to known and proposed structures in the auditory system. Chip output approximates human performance in response to a variety of classical pitch-perception stimuli. The 125,000-transistor chip computes all outputs in real time by using analog continuous-time processing. PMID:2594787

  1. Idealism and materialism in perception.

    PubMed

    Rose, David; Brown, Dora

    2015-01-01

    Koenderink (2014, Perception, 43, 1-6) has said most Perception readers are deluded, because they believe an 'All Seeing Eye' observes an objective reality. We trace the source of Koenderink's assertion to his metaphysical idealism, and point to two major weaknesses in his position-namely, its dualism and foundationalism. We counter with arguments from modern philosophy of science for the existence of an objective material reality, contrast Koenderink's enactivism to his idealism, and point to ways in which phenomenology and cognitive science are complementary and not mutually exclusive. PMID:26492727

  2. Reward modulates perception in binocular rivalry.

    PubMed

    Marx, Svenja; Einhäuser, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Our perception does not provide us with an exact imprint of the outside world, but is continuously adapted to our internal expectations, task sets, and behavioral goals. Although effects of reward-or value in general-on perception therefore seem likely, how valuation modulates perception and how such modulation relates to attention is largely unknown. We probed effects of reward on perception by using a binocular-rivalry paradigm. Distinct gratings drifting in opposite directions were presented to each observer's eyes. To objectify their subjective perceptual experience, the optokinetic nystagmus was used as measure of current perceptual dominance. In a first experiment, one of the percepts was either rewarded or attended. We found that reward and attention similarly biased perception. In a second experiment, observers performed an attentionally demanding task either on the rewarded stimulus, the other stimulus, or both. We found that-on top of an attentional effect on perception-at each level of attentional load, reward still modulated perception by increasing the dominance of the rewarded percept. Similarly, penalizing one percept increased dominance of the other at each level of attentional load. In turn, rewarding-and similarly nonpunishing-a percept yielded performance benefits that are typically associated with selective attention. In conclusion, our data show that value modulates perception in a similar way as the volitional deployment of attention, even though the relative effect of value is largely unaffected by an attention task. PMID:25589295

  3. Noninstructional Staff Perceptions of the College Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Molly H.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored staff perception of organizational climate, including the impact of gender on staff interactions with faculty and students and staff perceptions of workplace satisfaction within the community college. The overarching research question guiding this study was, What are noninstructional staff perceptions of the community college…

  4. Perception Is Reality: Your Strengths Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Donna V.

    2011-01-01

    Perception is reality. While you perceive yourself to be an effective leader even under stress, do your colleagues share this perception of you? Your perception of effective leadership may be shared by others who work with you. People in leadership may see a relationship between "leaders in title" and "leaders in action" from their own…

  5. The Phonology and Phonetics of Tone Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramadoss, Deepti

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation studies the perception of tones in Thai, and aims to contribute to a formal characterization of speech perception more generally. Earlier work had argued that perception of tones involves retrieval of some abstract "autosegmental" representation provided by the phonology, while another line of work had argued for the…

  6. Students' Perceptions of a Compulsory Guidance Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee, Dianne; Pawlovich, Walter

    1988-01-01

    Investigated students' perceptions of the primary compulsory segment of the career guidance program offered by Swift Current Comprehensive High School. Students reported positive perceptions of the total program and of counselor assistance, particularly of the CHOICES component of the program, with mixed perceptions of the Strong-Campbell Interest…

  7. Athletics Reform and Faculty Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Janet; Ott, Molly; Hendricks, Lori

    2009-01-01

    Since their inception, intercollegiate athletics have engendered controversy and stimulated debate. Supporters assert that "college sports are significant in defining the essence of the American college and university", suggesting that benefits associated with athletics include more increased fundraising, positive public perceptions of graduates,…

  8. Vestibular modulation of spatial perception.

    PubMed

    Ferrè, Elisa R; Longo, Matthew R; Fiori, Federico; Haggard, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Vestibular inputs make a key contribution to the sense of one's own spatial location. While the effects of vestibular stimulation on visuo-spatial processing in neurological patients have been extensively described, the normal contribution of vestibular inputs to spatial perception remains unclear. To address this issue, we used a line bisection task to investigate the effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) on spatial perception, and on the transition between near and far space. Brief left-anodal and right-cathodal GVS or right-anodal and left-cathodal GVS were delivered. A sham stimulation condition was also included. Participants bisected lines of different lengths at six distances from the body using a laser pointer. Consistent with previous results, our data showed an overall shift in the bisection bias from left to right as viewing distance increased. This pattern suggests leftward bias in near space, and rightward bias in far space. GVS induced strong polarity dependent effects in spatial perception, broadly consistent with those previously reported in patients: left-anodal and right-cathodal GVS induced a leftward bisection bias, while right-anodal and left-cathodal GVS reversed this effect, and produced bisection bias toward the right side of the space. Interestingly, the effects of GVS were comparable in near and far space. We speculate that vestibular-induced biases in space perception may optimize gathering of information from different parts of the environment. PMID:24133440

  9. School Counselors' Perceptions of Cyberbullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Kathy D.

    2010-01-01

    This was a qualitative study which examined school counselors' perceptions of cyberbullying. Thirty-two school counselors were asked seven reflection questions in regards to their experiences, roles/responsibilities, concerns, challenges and recommendations in handling cyberbullying occurrences with students. From the data analysis, three…

  10. Parallel Processing in Face Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Ulla; Leuthold, Hartmut; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined face perception models with regard to the functional and temporal organization of facial identity and expression analysis. Participants performed a manual 2-choice go/no-go task to classify faces, where response hand depended on facial familiarity (famous vs. unfamiliar) and response execution depended on facial expression…

  11. Uncovering Students' Perceptions of Rubrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saam, Julie; Sorgman, Margo; Calhoon, Sharon K.

    2007-01-01

    Research regarding rubrics in K-12 classrooms and in higher education has focused on teachers' perceptions and use of them. Rubrics have been found to objectify subjective assignments, ensure accountability, and improve student understanding of teacher expectations (Andrade, 2000; Hall & Salmon, 2003; Walvoord & Anderson, 1998). This study focuses…

  12. Perceptions of Internet Information Credibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Miriam J.; Flanagin, Andrew J.

    2000-01-01

    Seeks to assess people's perceptions of the credibility of various categories of Internet information. Finds that respondents considered Internet information to be as credible as that obtained from television, radio, and magazines, but not as credible as newspaper information. Explores the social relevance of the findings and discusses them in…

  13. Perceptions of Mathematics in Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkelman, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Students entering engineering programmes are typically expected to be competent in mathematics and science. Design competencies are seldom required. This research focuses on mathematics and investigates how concepts of mathematics may affect perceptions of design. Case studies, consisting of interviews and web-based material, reveal a range of…

  14. Perception and Attention for Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haroz, Steve

    2013-01-01

    This work examines how a better understanding of visual perception and attention can impact visualization design. In a collection of studies, I explore how different levels of the visual system can measurably affect a variety of visualization metrics. The results show that expert preference, user performance, and even computational performance are…

  15. Undergraduates' Perceptions of Employer Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPre, Carrie; Williams, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Research conducted by the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) indicates that employers across industries seek similar skills in job applicants; yet employers often report finding these desired skills lacking in new hires. This study closes the gap in understanding between employer expectations and student perceptions regarding…

  16. Synesthetic Perception and Poetic Metaphor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Lawrence E.

    1982-01-01

    To explore the role of cross-modal perception in comprehending synesthetic metaphors, subjects read 15 metaphors relating visual and auditory qualities and set the loudness of a tone and the brightness of a light to the levels suggested by each metaphor. A pervasive cross-modal equivalence between loudness and brightness in the subjects' responses…

  17. Audiotactile interactions in temporal perception.

    PubMed

    Occelli, Valeria; Spence, Charles; Zampini, Massimiliano

    2011-06-01

    In the present review, we focus on how commonalities in the ontogenetic development of the auditory and tactile sensory systems may inform the interplay between these signals in the temporal domain. In particular, we describe the results of behavioral studies that have investigated temporal resolution (in temporal order, synchrony/asynchrony, and simultaneity judgment tasks), as well as temporal numerosity perception, and similarities in the perception of frequency across touch and hearing. The evidence reviewed here highlights features of audiotactile temporal perception that are distinctive from those seen for other pairings of sensory modalities. For instance, audiotactile interactions are characterized in certain tasks (e.g., temporal numerosity judgments) by a more balanced reciprocal influence than are other modality pairings. Moreover, relative spatial position plays a different role in the temporal order and temporal recalibration processes for audiotactile stimulus pairings than for other modality pairings. The effect exerted by both the spatial arrangement of stimuli and attention on temporal order judgments is described. Moreover, a number of audiotactile interactions occurring during sensory-motor synchronization are highlighted. We also look at the audiotactile perception of rhythm and how it may be affected by musical training. The differences emerging from this body of research highlight the need for more extensive investigation into audiotactile temporal interactions. We conclude with a brief overview of some of the key issues deserving of further research in this area. PMID:21400125

  18. Audiotactile interactions in roughness perception.

    PubMed

    Guest, Steve; Catmur, Caroline; Lloyd, Donna; Spence, Charles

    2002-09-01

    The sounds produced when we touch textured surfaces frequently provide information regarding the structure of those surfaces. It has recently been demonstrated that the perception of the texture of the hands can be modified simply by manipulating the frequency content of such touch-related sounds. We investigated whether similar auditory manipulations change people's perception of the roughness of abrasive surfaces (experiment 1). Participants were required to make speeded, forced-choice discrimination responses regarding the roughness of a series of abrasive samples which they touched briefly. Analysis of discrimination errors verified that tactile roughness perception was modulated by the frequency content of the auditory feedback. Specifically, attenuating high frequencies led to a bias towards an increased perception of tactile smoothness. In experiment 2, we replicated the rubbing-hands manipulation of previous experimenters while participants rated either the perceived roughness or wetness of their hands. The wetness scale data replicated the results in the literature, while the roughness scale data replicated the result from experiment 1. A final experiment showed that delaying the auditory feedback from the hand-rubbing reduced the magnitude of this parchment-skin illusion. These experiments demonstrate the dramatic effect that auditory frequency manipulations can have on the perceived tactile roughness and moistness of surfaces, and are consistent with the proposal that different auditory perceptual dimensions may have varying salience for different surfaces. PMID:12195518

  19. Student Perceptions of Teaching Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how students perceive official student evaluations of teaching (SETs) and unofficial mid-semester evaluations (MSEs). It also examines whether completing a MSE affects students' perceptions of the course and the instructor. A survey revealed that participants (N = 80) believed SETs are valid measures of teaching; however, they…

  20. Students' Perceptions of Reference Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Brian K.; Appel, Jonathan; Smith, Donald H.; Hoofnagle, Kara

    2006-01-01

    This study examines students' perceptions of reference letters. Students (n = 444) were asked to describe how they perceived reference letters. Four themes were uncovered. First, some students perceived reference letters as useful for employers. Second, some students perceived the letters as important for students seeking employment or admission…

  1. Children's Perceptions of Television Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikken, Peter; Peeters, Allerd L.

    1988-01-01

    Describes study conducted with Dutch preschool and elementary school students to determine their perception of reality when watching Sesame Street on television. Variables studied include age, communication skills, and socioeconomic backgrounds, and data are analyzed using factor analysis and multiple regression analysis. (13 references) (LRW)

  2. Perception of the Incest Taboo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodolfa, Emil; Whalen, Thomas

    1980-01-01

    Subjects found the genetic and cultural theories the primary reason to prevent incest and were aware of the hazardous effect on the family. Counselors must be aware of their own bias and perceptions as well as those of their clients. (JAC)

  3. Perceptions of Corporate Social Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavin, James F.; Maynard, William S.

    1975-01-01

    This study investigated the possible implications of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) for employee expectations and satisfactions. Specifically, interest centered on the question of how perceptions of an organization's involvement in the resolution of current societal problems might relate to members' expectations of equitable job rewards and…

  4. Children's Perceptions of Parental Expressiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slevin, Kathleen F.; Balswick, Jack

    1980-01-01

    The differences between teenage sons' and daughters' perceptions of their mothers' and fathers' verbal and nonverbal expressiveness of several emotions were investigated. Results indicated that fathers are perceived as less expressive of all emotions except physical anger, a finding with important implications for sex role learning. (Author/GC)

  5. Student Perceptions of University Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleemann, Gary L.; Richardson, Richard C., Jr.

    Student perceptions of the effectiveness of three state universities was studied: Arizona State University, University of Arizona, and Northern Arizona University. An operational definition of effectiveness was proposed based on the literature, and a list of organizational activities was validated by administrators, faculty, community…

  6. Visual Imagery without Visual Perception?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertolo, Helder

    2005-01-01

    The question regarding visual imagery and visual perception remain an open issue. Many studies have tried to understand if the two processes share the same mechanisms or if they are independent, using different neural substrates. Most research has been directed towards the need of activation of primary visual areas during imagery. Here we review…

  7. Neurocomputational models of time perception.

    PubMed

    Hass, Joachim; Durstewitz, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical modeling is a useful tool for understanding the neurodynamical and computational mechanisms of cognitive abilities like time perception, and for linking neurophysiology to psychology. In this chapter, we discuss several biophysical models of time perception and how they can be tested against experimental evidence. After a brief overview on the history of computational timing models, we list a number of central psychological and physiological findings that such a model should be able to account for, with a focus on the scaling of the variability of duration estimates with the length of the interval that needs to be estimated. The functional form of this scaling turns out to be predictive of the underlying computational mechanism for time perception. We then present four basic classes of timing models (ramping activity, sequential activation of neuron populations, state space trajectories and neural oscillators) and discuss two specific examples in more detail. Finally, we review to what extent existing theories of time perception adhere to the experimental constraints. PMID:25358705

  8. Student Perceptions of Computerized Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pino-Silva, Juan

    2008-01-01

    The challenge to test small groups by means of microcomputers demands appropriate software design and sound test design. To comply with this demand, students' beliefs or perceptions on the advantages and disadvantages of a computerized test were tapped. Overall, self-reported advantages outnumbered disadvantages to a significant degree. This was…

  9. Children's Perceptions of Gender Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christia Spears; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2004-01-01

    Children (N = 76; ages 5-10 years) participated in a study designed to examine perceptions of gender discrimination. Children were read scenarios in which a teacher determined outcomes for 2 students (1 boy and 1 girl). Contextual information (i.e., teacher's past behavior), the gender of the target of discrimination (i.e., student), and the…

  10. Water Quality Perceptions and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditton, Robert B.; Goodale, Thomas L.

    1974-01-01

    An extensive survey of the marine recreational uses of the Bay of Green Bay was conducted to determine the knowledge, perception, and attitudes of adjacent populations. Findings indicated that environmental forces and problems are not well understood and that the condition of Green Bay is perceived differently by different users. (Author/MA)

  11. Differential Perception of Counselor Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCrosse, Michael B.; Barak, Azy

    1976-01-01

    This study investigated questions raised by previous research by Barak and LaCrosse regarding perceptions of counselor behavior. Different groups of subjects viewed interviews and rated them on 36 bipolar items (Counselor Rating Form). Results indicated that the perceived dimensions were reliable as measured by the Counselor Rating Form. (Author)

  12. Gender differences in crowd perception

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yang; Leib, Allison Y.; Puri, Amrita M.; Whitney, David; Peng, Kaiping

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the first impression of a crowd of faces—crowd perception—is influenced by social background and cognitive processing. Specifically, we explored whether males and females, two groups that are distinct biologically and socially, differ in their ability to extract ensemble characteristics from crowds of faces that were comprised of different identities. Participants were presented with crowds of similar faces and were instructed to scroll through a morphed continuum of faces until they found a face that was representative of the average identity of each crowd. Consistent with previous research, females were more precise in single face perception. Furthermore, the results showed that females were generally more accurate in estimating the average identity of a crowd. However, the correlation between single face discrimination and crowd averaging differed between males and females. Specifically, male subjects' ensemble integration slightly compensated for their poor single face perception; their performance on the crowd perception task was not as poor as would be expected from their single face discrimination ability. Overall, the results suggest that group perception is not an isolated or uniform cognitive mechanism, but rather one that interacts with biological and social processes. PMID:26388805

  13. Dynamical evolution of motion perception.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Ryota; Sheth, Bhavin R; Shimojo, Shinsuke

    2007-03-01

    Motion is defined as a sequence of positional changes over time. However, in perception, spatial position and motion dynamically interact with each other. This reciprocal interaction suggests that the perception of a moving object itself may dynamically evolve following the onset of motion. Here, we show evidence that the percept of a moving object systematically changes over time. In experiments, we introduced a transient gap in the motion sequence or a brief change in some feature (e.g., color or shape) of an otherwise smoothly moving target stimulus. Observers were highly sensitive to the gap or transient change if it occurred soon after motion onset (< or =200 ms), but significantly less so if it occurred later (> or = 300 ms). Our findings suggest that the moving stimulus is initially perceived as a time series of discrete potentially isolatable frames; later failures to perceive change suggests that over time, the stimulus begins to be perceived as a single, indivisible gestalt integrated over space as well as time, which could well be the signature of an emergent stable motion percept. PMID:17316736

  14. Perceptions of the Volunteer Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Wayne L.

    1987-01-01

    Examined questionnaire responses from 51 probation and parole line officers to determine staff perceptions of one Volunteers in Corrections program. Findings suggest that officers view volunteer role as involving several functions, including research, treatment, counseling, supervision, volunteer program operations, clerical, and investigation.…

  15. Graduates' Perceptions towards UKM's Infrastructure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omar, Ramli; Khoon, Koh Aik; Hamzah, Mohd Fauzi; Ahmadan, Siti Rohayu

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the surveys which were conducted between 2006 and 2008 on graduates' perceptions towards the infrastructure at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). It covered three major aspects pertaining to learning, living and leisure on campus. Eight out of 14 components received overwhelming approval from our graduates. (Contains 1…

  16. Teacher Perceptions of Teacher Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerillo, Christine; Osterman, Karen F

    2011-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined elementary teachers' perceptions of teacher-student bullying. Grounded in previous research on peer bullying, the study posed several questions: to what extent did teachers perceive bullying of students by other teachers as a serious matter requiring intervention? Did they perceive teacher bullying as more serious…

  17. Student Perceptions of Classroom Incivility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorklund, Wendy L.; Rehling, Diana L.

    2010-01-01

    Classroom incivility is a major concern in higher education today. Yet little study has been done of student perceptions of behavior in the classroom. Based on a survey of 3,616 students at a Midwestern public university, the present study provides useful information to faculty members and administrators about the behaviors students find most…

  18. Attentional Episodes in Visual Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyble, Brad; Potter, Mary C.; Bowman, Howard; Nieuwenstein, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Is one's temporal perception of the world truly as seamless as it appears? This article presents a computationally motivated theory suggesting that visual attention samples information from temporal episodes (episodic simultaneous type/serial token model; Wyble, Bowman, & Nieuwenstein, 2009). Breaks between these episodes are punctuated by periods…

  19. Client Perceptions of Pretreatment Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindsvatter, Aaron; Osborn, Cynthia J.; Bubenzer, Donald; Duba, Jill D.

    2010-01-01

    The authors suggest that when counselors have a rich understanding of pretreatment changes, they are better able to assist clients in capitalizing on such changes. The current study examined client perceptions of pretreatment changes. Thirty-six clients completed Q-sorts pertaining to pretreatment changes they experienced. Four factors pertaining…

  20. Faculty Perceptions of Organizational Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Janet; Ott, Molly

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on a contested area of shared governance, intercollegiate athletics. The researchers consider how faculty perceptions of organizational politics shape their orientations toward collaborative decision-making in this domain. The results provide insights into ways social cognitions about campus-level decision-making affect faculty…

  1. Phantom perception: voluntary and involuntary nonretinal vision.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Joel; Westbrook, Fred

    2015-05-01

    Hallucinations, mental imagery, synesthesia, perceptual filling-in, and many illusions are conscious visual experiences without a corresponding retinal stimulus: what we call 'phantom perception'. Such percepts show that our experience of the world is not solely determined by direct sensory input. Some phantom percepts are voluntary, whereas others are involuntarily, occurring automatically. Here, by way of review, we compare and contrast these two types of phantom perception and their neural representations. We propose a dichotomous framework for phantom vision, analogous to the subtypes of attention: endogenous and exogenous. This framework unifies findings from different fields and species, providing a guide to study the constructive nature of conscious sensory perception. PMID:25863415

  2. Bodily action penetrates affective perception

    PubMed Central

    Rigutti, Sara; Gerbino, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Fantoni & Gerbino (2014) showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP), they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015) would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer’s internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification) task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer’s internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions), in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top-down effect on

  3. Flicker-light induced visual phenomena: frequency dependence and specificity of whole percepts and percept features.

    PubMed

    Allefeld, Carsten; Pütz, Peter; Kastner, Kristina; Wackermann, Jiří

    2011-12-01

    Flickering light induces visual hallucinations in human observers. Despite a long history of the phenomenon, little is known about the dependence of flicker-induced subjective impressions on the flicker frequency. We investigate this question using Ganzfeld stimulation and an experimental paradigm combining a continuous frequency scan (1-50 Hz) with a focus on re-occurring, whole percepts. On the single-subject level, we find a high degree of frequency stability of percepts. To generalize across subjects, we apply two rating systems, (1) a set of complex percept classes derived from subjects' reports and (2) an enumeration of elementary percept features, and determine distributions of occurrences over flicker frequency. We observe a stronger frequency specificity for complex percept classes than elementary percept features. Comparing the similarity relations among percept categories to those among frequency profiles, we observe that though percepts are preferentially induced by particular frequencies, the frequency does not unambiguously determine the experienced percept. PMID:21123084

  4. Pain perception development and maturation.

    PubMed

    Simons, Sinno H P; Tibboel, Dick

    2006-08-01

    Newborn infants are not small adults. The pharmacokinetics and dynamics of analgesic drugs are immature at birth. Volumes of distribution, drug clearances, side-effects and drug efficacy all differ in newborns as compared to adults. Interestingly, these parameters develop before birth and during the postnatal period, reaching adult values after a period of months or years. This means that clinicians should anticipate on pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) changes in newborns with increasing post-conceptual age. The ability to perceive pain might also be immature at birth. Lower pain thresholds due to the absence of inhibitory descending spinothalamic fibers and a not yet fully developed cortical pain memory system are points of interest for our understanding of differences in pain perception in the newborn infant. Although this is a relatively unexplored area of research in humans, we will discuss the maturation and development of neonatal pain experience and perception in this paper. PMID:16621747

  5. Dentists' perceptions of orthodontic services.

    PubMed

    McComb, J; Wright, J; O'Brien, K

    1995-06-24

    In this investigation the orthodontic referral patterns of the dentists working within two FHSA areas in the north of England were surveyed. A sub-sample of 149 of the dentists was selected and they were sent a postal questionnaire directed at their perceptions of the service provided and factors influencing their choice of orthodontist. One hundred and twenty one questionnaires (90%) were returned. It was found that 26.4 of the dentists did not refer an orthodontic patient and 51% referred to only one type of treatment provider. The most important factors governing their choice of orthodontic treatment provider were the length of treatment waiting list (62%) and the standard of treatment provided (66.9). In addition, the dentists' perceptions of the roles of the orthodontic services were not in concordance with those of the orthodontic treatment providers. They also expressed a degree of dissatistfaction with the orthodontic services. PMID:7605722

  6. Oscillatory phase shapes syllable perception.

    PubMed

    Ten Oever, Sanne; Sack, Alexander T

    2015-12-29

    The role of oscillatory phase for perceptual and cognitive processes is being increasingly acknowledged. To date, little is known about the direct role of phase in categorical perception. Here we show in two separate experiments that the identification of ambiguous syllables that can either be perceived as /da/ or /ga/ is biased by the underlying oscillatory phase as measured with EEG and sensory entrainment to rhythmic stimuli. The measured phase difference in which perception is biased toward /da/ or /ga/ exactly matched the different temporal onset delays in natural audiovisual speech between mouth movements and speech sounds, which last 80 ms longer for /ga/ than for /da/. These results indicate the functional relationship between prestimulus phase and syllable identification, and signify that the origin of this phase relationship could lie in exposure and subsequent learning of unique audiovisual temporal onset differences. PMID:26668393

  7. Perception and Signaling of Strigolactones

    PubMed Central

    Marzec, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs), a recently discovered class of phytohormones, are important regulators of plant growth and development. While the biosynthetic pathway of these molecules is well documented, until recently there was not much known about the molecular mechanisms underlying SL perception and signal transduction in plants. Certain aspects of their perception and signaling, including the hormone-mediated interaction between receptor and F-box protein, degradation of suppressor proteins and activation of transcription factors, are also found in other phytohormones. However, some of SL signaling features seem to be specific for the SL signaling pathway. These include the enzymatic activity of the SL receptor and its destabilization caused by SLs. This review summarizes the current knowledge about SL signaling pathway in plants. PMID:27602041

  8. Perception and Signaling of Strigolactones.

    PubMed

    Marzec, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs), a recently discovered class of phytohormones, are important regulators of plant growth and development. While the biosynthetic pathway of these molecules is well documented, until recently there was not much known about the molecular mechanisms underlying SL perception and signal transduction in plants. Certain aspects of their perception and signaling, including the hormone-mediated interaction between receptor and F-box protein, degradation of suppressor proteins and activation of transcription factors, are also found in other phytohormones. However, some of SL signaling features seem to be specific for the SL signaling pathway. These include the enzymatic activity of the SL receptor and its destabilization caused by SLs. This review summarizes the current knowledge about SL signaling pathway in plants. PMID:27602041

  9. Consumer perception of bread quality.

    PubMed

    Gellynck, Xavier; Kühne, Bianka; Van Bockstaele, Filip; Van de Walle, Davy; Dewettinck, Koen

    2009-08-01

    Bread contains a wide range of important nutritional components which provide a positive effect on human health. However, the consumption of bread is declining during the last decades. This is due to factors such as changing eating patterns and an increasing choice of substitutes like breakfast cereals and fast foods. The aim of this study is to investigate consumer's quality perception of bread towards sensory, health and nutrition attributes. Four consumer segments are identified based on these attributes. The different consumer segments comprise consumers being positive to all three quality aspects of bread ("enthusiastic") as wells as consumers perceiving bread strongly as "tasteless", "non-nutritious" or "unhealthy". Moreover, factors are identified which influence the consumers' quality perception of bread. The results of our study may help health professionals and policy makers to systematically inform consumers about the positive effects of bread based on its components. Furthermore, firms can use the results to build up tailor-made marketing strategies. PMID:19447521

  10. Patient Admission Preferences and Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Clayton; Melnikow, Joy; Dinh, Tu; Holmes, James F.; Gaona, Samuel D.; Bottyan, Thomas; Paterniti, Debora; Nishijima, Daniel K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Understanding patient perceptions and preferences of hospital care is important to improve patients’ hospitalization experiences and satisfaction. The objective of this study was to investigate patient preferences and perceptions of hospital care, specifically differences between intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital floor admissions. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of emergency department (ED) patients who were presented with a hypothetical scenario of a patient with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). We surveyed their preferences and perceptions of hospital care related to this scenario. A closed-ended questionnaire provided quantitative data on patient preferences and perceptions of hospital care and an open-ended questionnaire evaluated factors that may not have been captured with the closed-ended questionnaire. Results Out of 302 study patients, the ability for family and friends to visit (83%), nurse availability (80%), and physician availability (79%) were the factors most commonly rated “very important,” while the cost of hospitalization (62%) and length of hospitalization (59%) were the factors least commonly rated “very important.” When asked to choose between the ICU and the floor if they were the patient in the scenario, 33 patients (10.9%) choose the ICU, 133 chose the floor (44.0%), and 136 (45.0%) had no preference. Conclusion Based on a hypothetical scenario of mild TBI, the majority of patients preferred admission to the floor or had no preference compared to admission to the ICU. Humanistic factors such as the availability of doctors and nurses and the ability to interact with family appear to have a greater priority than systematic factors of hospitalization, such as length and cost of hospitalization or length of time in the ED waiting for an in-patient bed. PMID:26587095

  11. Patients' perceptions of psychotropic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Helman, Cecil G.

    1981-01-01

    This pilot study examined patients' perceptions of, and attitudes towards, psychotropic drug-taking. Fifty chronic users of benzodiazepines in two Middlesex group practices were interviewed, and data were collected on their knowledge, experience and expectations of these drugs. The data suggest that psychotropic drug-taking has become an important part of many patients' self-image and of their social relationships, and that these factors should be taken into account when dealing with psychological dependence on psychotropic drugs. PMID:7265056

  12. Eye movements reset visual perception

    PubMed Central

    Paradiso, Michael A.; Meshi, Dar; Pisarcik, Jordan; Levine, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Human vision uses saccadic eye movements to rapidly shift the sensitive foveal portion of our retina to objects of interest. For vision to function properly amidst these ballistic eye movements, a mechanism is needed to extract discrete percepts on each fixation from the continuous stream of neural activity that spans fixations. The speed of visual parsing is crucial because human behaviors ranging from reading to driving to sports rely on rapid visual analysis. We find that a brain signal associated with moving the eyes appears to play a role in resetting visual analysis on each fixation, a process that may aid in parsing the neural signal. We quantified the degree to which the perception of tilt is influenced by the tilt of a stimulus on a preceding fixation. Two key conditions were compared, one in which a saccade moved the eyes from one stimulus to the next and a second simulated saccade condition in which the stimuli moved in the same manner but the subjects did not move their eyes. We find that there is a brief period of time at the start of each fixation during which the tilt of the previous stimulus influences perception (in a direction opposite to the tilt aftereffect)—perception is not instantaneously reset when a fixation starts. Importantly, the results show that this perceptual bias is much greater, with nearly identical visual input, when saccades are simulated. This finding suggests that, in real-saccade conditions, some signal related to the eye movement may be involved in the reset phenomenon. While proprioceptive information from the extraocular muscles is conceivably a factor, the fast speed of the effect we observe suggests that a more likely mechanism is a corollary discharge signal associated with eye movement. PMID:23241264

  13. Eye movements reset visual perception.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, Michael A; Meshi, Dar; Pisarcik, Jordan; Levine, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Human vision uses saccadic eye movements to rapidly shift the sensitive foveal portion of our retina to objects of interest. For vision to function properly amidst these ballistic eye movements, a mechanism is needed to extract discrete percepts on each fixation from the continuous stream of neural activity that spans fixations. The speed of visual parsing is crucial because human behaviors ranging from reading to driving to sports rely on rapid visual analysis. We find that a brain signal associated with moving the eyes appears to play a role in resetting visual analysis on each fixation, a process that may aid in parsing the neural signal. We quantified the degree to which the perception of tilt is influenced by the tilt of a stimulus on a preceding fixation. Two key conditions were compared, one in which a saccade moved the eyes from one stimulus to the next and a second simulated saccade condition in which the stimuli moved in the same manner but the subjects did not move their eyes. We find that there is a brief period of time at the start of each fixation during which the tilt of the previous stimulus influences perception (in a direction opposite to the tilt aftereffect)--perception is not instantaneously reset when a fixation starts. Importantly, the results show that this perceptual bias is much greater, with nearly identical visual input, when saccades are simulated. This finding suggests that, in real-saccade conditions, some signal related to the eye movement may be involved in the reset phenomenon. While proprioceptive information from the extraocular muscles is conceivably a factor, the fast speed of the effect we observe suggests that a more likely mechanism is a corollary discharge signal associated with eye movement. PMID:23241264

  14. Implicit emotion perception in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Trémeau, Fabien; Antonius, Daniel; Todorov, Alexander; Rebani, Yasmina; Ferrari, Kelsey; Lee, Sang Han; Calderone, Daniel; Nolan, Karen A; Butler, Pamela; Malaspina, Dolores; Javitt, Daniel C

    2015-12-01

    Explicit but not implicit facial emotion perception has been shown to be impaired in schizophrenia. In this study, we used newly developed technology in social neuroscience to examine implicit emotion processing. It has been shown that when people look at faces, they automatically infer social traits, and these trait judgments rely heavily on facial features and subtle emotion expressions even with neutral faces. Eighty-one individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 62 control subjects completed a computer task with 30 well-characterized neutral faces. They rated each face on 10 trait judgments: attractive, mean, trustworthy, intelligent, dominant, fun, sociable, aggressive, emotionally stable and weird. The degree to which trait ratings were predicted by objectively-measured subtle emotion expressions served as a measure of implicit emotion processing. Explicit emotion recognition was also examined. Trait ratings were significantly predicted by subtle facial emotional expressions in controls and patients. However, impairment in the implicit emotion perception of fear, happiness, anger and surprise was found in patients. Moreover, these deficits were associated with poorer everyday problem-solving skills and were relatively independent of explicit emotion recognition. Implicit emotion processing is impaired in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Deficits in implicit and explicit emotion perception independently contribute to the patients' poor daily life skills. More research is needed to fully understand the role of implicit and explicit processes in the functional deficits of patients, in order to develop targeted and useful remediation interventions. PMID:26473695

  15. Intrasaccadic perception triggers pupillary constriction.

    PubMed

    Mathôt, Sebastiaan; Melmi, Jean-Baptiste; Castet, Eric

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly believed that vision is impaired during saccadic eye movements. However, here we report that some visual stimuli are clearly visible during saccades, and trigger a constriction of the eye's pupil. Participants viewed sinusoid gratings that changed polarity 150 times per second (every 6.67 ms). At this rate of flicker, the gratings were perceived as homogeneous surfaces while participants fixated. However, the flickering gratings contained ambiguous motion: rightward and leftward motion for vertical gratings; upward and downward motion for horizontal gratings. When participants made a saccade perpendicular to the gratings' orientation (e.g., a leftward saccade for a vertical grating), the eye's peak velocity matched the gratings' motion. As a result, the retinal image was approximately stable for a brief moment during the saccade, and this gave rise to an intrasaccadic percept: A normally invisible stimulus became visible when eye velocity was maximal. Our results confirm and extend previous studies by demonstrating intrasaccadic perception using a reflexive measure (pupillometry) that does not rely on subjective report. Our results further show that intrasaccadic perception affects all stages of visual processing, from the pupillary response to visual awareness. PMID:26339536

  16. Sensory adaptation for timing perception

    PubMed Central

    Roseboom, Warrick; Linares, Daniel; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2015-01-01

    Recent sensory experience modifies subjective timing perception. For example, when visual events repeatedly lead auditory events, such as when the sound and video tracks of a movie are out of sync, subsequent vision-leads-audio presentations are reported as more simultaneous. This phenomenon could provide insights into the fundamental problem of how timing is represented in the brain, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that the effect of recent experience on timing perception is not just subjective; recent sensory experience also modifies relative timing discrimination. This result indicates that recent sensory history alters the encoding of relative timing in sensory areas, excluding explanations of the subjective phenomenon based only on decision-level changes. The pattern of changes in timing discrimination suggests the existence of two sensory components, similar to those previously reported for visual spatial attributes: a lateral shift in the nonlinear transducer that maps relative timing into perceptual relative timing and an increase in transducer slope around the exposed timing. The existence of these components would suggest that previous explanations of how recent experience may change the sensory encoding of timing, such as changes in sensory latencies or simple implementations of neural population codes, cannot account for the effect of sensory adaptation on timing perception. PMID:25788590

  17. High resolution auditory perception system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Iftekhar; Ghatol, Ashok

    2005-04-01

    Blindness is a sensory disability which is difficult to treat but can to some extent be helped by artificial aids. The paper describes the design aspects of a high resolution auditory perception system, which is designed on the principle of air sonar with binaural perception. This system is a vision substitution aid for enabling blind persons. The blind person wears ultrasonic eyeglasses which has ultrasonic sensor array embedded on it. The system has been designed to operate in multiresolution modes. The ultrasonic sound from the transmitter array is reflected back by the objects, falling in the beam of the array and is received. The received signal is converted to a sound signal, which is presented stereophonically for auditory perception. A detailed study has been done as the background work required for the system implementation; the appropriate range analysis procedure, analysis of space-time signals, the acoustic sensors study, amplification methods and study of the removal of noise using filters. Finally the system implementation including both the hardware and the software part of it has been described. Experimental results on actual blind subjects and inferences obtained during the study have also been included.

  18. Development and Validation of the Game Perception Scale (GPS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandercruysse, Sylke; Vandewaetere, Mieke; Maertens, Marie; ter Vrugte, Judith; Wouters, Pieter; de Jong, Ton; van Oostendorp, Herre; Elen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Despite the pervasiveness of perception and considerable impact of perception on the use of ICT for educational purposes, there is a surprising paucity of perception assessment instruments. The present proposal expands on this through the development and initial validation of the Game Perception Scale (GPS). Based on perception literature,…

  19. Risk perception in gambling: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Spurrier, Michael; Blaszczynski, Alexander

    2014-06-01

    Perception of the consequences of risk affects motivation and behaviour. In gambling, distorted expectations and preferences towards outcomes are associated with significant social and clinical harms. A systematic review was conducted to examine the relationship between gambling risk perception and behaviour. Sixteen studies met inclusion criteria. Studies provided evidence that disordered gamblers hold both more optimistic overall perceptions of risk, and a mixture of more positive and more negative specific outcome expectations. Preliminary evidence suggests a range of contextual and individual differences moderate risk perception affecting decision-making. Disordered gamblers appear to sustain motivation to gamble, despite more negative expectations and experiences, via cognitive processes that result in preferential emphasis on positive over negative outcomes. Given potential differences in the perception of risk between various categories of gamblers, clinicians should take into account how gamblers in treatment view gambling as a risky behaviour. Improving the accuracy of such perceptions may reduce the propensity for risk-taking behaviours. PMID:23508850

  20. What Factors Influence Wind Perceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Tatiana

    Over the last decade, wind power has emerged as a possible source of energy and has attracted the attention of homeowners and policy makers worldwide. Many technological hurdles have been overcome in the last few years that make this technology feasible and economical. The United States has added more wind power than any other type of electric generation in 2012. Depending on the location, wind resources have shown to have the potential to offer 20% of the nation's electricity; a single, large wind turbine has the capacity to produce enough electricity to power 350 homes. Throughout the development of wind turbines, however, energy companies have seen significant public opposition towards the tall white structures. The purpose of this research was to measure peoples' perceptions on wind turbine development throughout their growth, from proposal to existing phase. Three hypotheses were developed based on the participant's political affiliation, proximity and knowledge of wind turbines. To validate these hypotheses, participants were asked an array of questions regarding their perception on economic, environmental, and social impacts of wind turbines with an online service called Amazon Mechanical Turk. The responses were from residents living in the United States and required them to provide their zip code for subsequent analysis. The analysis from the data obtained suggests that participants are favorable towards wind turbine development and would be supportive of using the technology in their community. Political affiliation and proximity to the nearest wind turbine in any phase of development (proposal, construction, existing) were also analyzed to determine if they had an effect on a person's overall perception on wind turbines and their technology. From the analysis, political affiliation was seen to be an indirect factor to understanding favorability towards wind turbines; the more liberal you are, the more supportive you will be towards renewable energy use

  1. Cardiac perception and cardiac control. A review.

    PubMed

    Carroll, D

    1977-12-01

    The evidence regarding specific cardiac perception and discrimination, and its relationship to voluntary cardiac control, is critically reviewed. Studies are considered in three sections, depending on the method used to assess cardiac perception: questionnaire assessment, discrimination procedures, and heartbeat tracking. The heartbeat tracking procedure would appear to suffer least from interpretative difficulties. Recommendations are made regarding the style of analysis used to assess heartbeat perception in such tracking tasks. PMID:348240

  2. Relating color working memory and color perception.

    PubMed

    Allred, Sarah R; Flombaum, Jonathan I

    2014-11-01

    Color is the most frequently studied feature in visual working memory (VWM). Oddly, much of this work de-emphasizes perception, instead making simplifying assumptions about the inputs served to memory. We question these assumptions in light of perception research, and we identify important points of contact between perception and working memory in the case of color. Better characterization of its perceptual inputs will be crucial for elucidating the structure and function of VWM. PMID:25038028

  3. Tactual perception of liquid material properties.

    PubMed

    Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, studies into the tactual perception of two liquid material properties, viscosity and wetness, are reviewed. These properties are very relevant in the context of interaction with liquids, both real, such as cosmetics or food products, and simulated, as in virtual reality or teleoperation. Both properties have been the subject of psychophysical characterisation in terms of magnitude estimation experiments and discrimination experiments, which are discussed. For viscosity, both oral and manual perception is discussed, as well as the perception of the viscosity of a mechanical system. For wetness, the relevant cues are identified and factors affecting perception are discussed. Finally, some conclusions are drawn pertaining to both properties. PMID:25128819

  4. Teacher Perception for M-Learning: Scale Development and Teachers' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzunboylu, H.; Ozdamli, F.

    2011-01-01

    Successful integration of mobile learning (m-learning) technologies in education primarily demands that teachers' perception of such technologies should be determined. Therefore, the perceptions of teachers are of great significance. There is no available instrument that assesses teachers' perceptions of m-learning. Our research provided the first…

  5. The Social Accuracy Model of Interpersonal Perception: Assessing Individual Differences in Perceptive and Expressive Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesanz, Jeremy C.

    2010-01-01

    The social accuracy model of interpersonal perception (SAM) is a componential model that estimates perceiver and target effects of different components of accuracy across traits simultaneously. For instance, Jane may be generally accurate in her perceptions of others and thus high in "perceptive accuracy"--the extent to which a particular…

  6. Constructive Perception of Self-Motion

    PubMed Central

    Holly, Jan E.; McCollum, Gin

    2013-01-01

    This review focusses attention on a ragged edge of our knowledge of self-motion perception, where understanding ends but there are experimental results to indicate that present approaches to analysis are inadequate. Although self-motion perception displays processes of "top-down" construction, it is typically analyzed as if it is nothing more than a deformation of the stimulus, using a "bottom-up" and input/output approach beginning with the transduction of the stimulus. Analysis often focusses on the extent to which passive transduction of the movement stimulus is accurate. Some perceptual processes that deform or transform the stimulus arise from the way known properties of sensory receptors contribute to perceptual accuracy or inaccuracy. However, further constructive processes in self-motion perception that involve discrete transformations are not well understood. We introduce constructive perception with a linguistic example which displays familiar discrete properties, then look closely at self-motion perception. Examples of self-motion perception begin with cases in which constructive processes transform particular properties of the stimulus. These transformations allow the nervous system to compose whole percepts of movement; that is, self-motion perception acts at a whole-movement level of analysis, rather than passively transducing individual cues. These whole-movement percepts may be paradoxical. In addition, a single stimulus may give rise to multiple perceptions. After reviewing self-motion perception studies, we discuss research methods for delineating principles of the constructed perception of self-motion. The habit of viewing self-motion illusions only as continuous deformations of the stimulus may be blinding the field to other perceptual phenomena, including those best characterized using the mathematics of discrete transformations or mathematical relationships relating sensory modalities in novel, sometimes discrete ways. Analysis of experiments

  7. Action-based effects on music perception

    PubMed Central

    Maes, Pieter-Jan; Leman, Marc; Palmer, Caroline; Wanderley, Marcelo M.

    2013-01-01

    The classical, disembodied approach to music cognition conceptualizes action and perception as separate, peripheral processes. In contrast, embodied accounts of music cognition emphasize the central role of the close coupling of action and perception. It is a commonly established fact that perception spurs action tendencies. We present a theoretical framework that captures the ways in which the human motor system and its actions can reciprocally influence the perception of music. The cornerstone of this framework is the common coding theory, postulating a representational overlap in the brain between the planning, the execution, and the perception of movement. The integration of action and perception in so-called internal models is explained as a result of associative learning processes. Characteristic of internal models is that they allow intended or perceived sensory states to be transferred into corresponding motor commands (inverse modeling), and vice versa, to predict the sensory outcomes of planned actions (forward modeling). Embodied accounts typically refer to inverse modeling to explain action effects on music perception (Leman, 2007). We extend this account by pinpointing forward modeling as an alternative mechanism by which action can modulate perception. We provide an extensive overview of recent empirical evidence in support of this idea. Additionally, we demonstrate that motor dysfunctions can cause perceptual disabilities, supporting the main idea of the paper that the human motor system plays a functional role in auditory perception. The finding that music perception is shaped by the human motor system and its actions suggests that the musical mind is highly embodied. However, we advocate for a more radical approach to embodied (music) cognition in the sense that it needs to be considered as a dynamical process, in which aspects of action, perception, introspection, and social interaction are of crucial importance. PMID:24454299

  8. Whole-body vibration perception thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, K. C.; Griffin, M. J.

    1988-03-01

    This paper presents the results of a series of laboratory experiments concerned with perception thresholds for whole-body vibration. The nature of absolute perception thresholds is discussed and a method of determining vibration thresholds, based upon signal detection theory, is proposed. Thresholds of subjects exposed to x-, y- and z-axis sinusoidal vibration were determined for sitting and standing subjects (from 2 to 100 Hz). Perception thresholds have also been determined for supine subjects exposed to vertical ( x-axis) sinusoidal vibration (10-63 Hz). In additional experiments the effects of complex (e.g., random) vibration and the effects of duration on the perception thresholds were investigated. The relation between perception thresholds and vibration levels, said by subjects to be unacceptable if they occurred in their own homes, was investigated as well as the effects of subjects' personality and the visual and acoustic conditions in the laboratory. For the vertical vibration of seated subjects no significant differences were found between the responses of male and female subjects. Significant differences were found between perception thresholds for sitting and standing postures. The median threshold was approximately 0·01 m/s 2 r.m.s. between 2 and 100 Hz. Perception thresholds for x-axis and y-axis vibration were not significantly different in either sitting or standing subjects but significant differences in thresholds were found between sitting and standing positions for both x-axis and y-axis vibration. Subjects tended to be more sensitive to vibration when lying than when sitting or standing. The results suggested that the perception of random vibrations can be predicted from a knowledge of the perception of its component vibrations. The number of cycles of vibration did not affect perception thresholds for vibration durations of more than about 0·25 s. Some assessments suggested that vibration at more than twice the perception threshold may not

  9. Action-based effects on music perception.

    PubMed

    Maes, Pieter-Jan; Leman, Marc; Palmer, Caroline; Wanderley, Marcelo M

    2014-01-01

    The classical, disembodied approach to music cognition conceptualizes action and perception as separate, peripheral processes. In contrast, embodied accounts of music cognition emphasize the central role of the close coupling of action and perception. It is a commonly established fact that perception spurs action tendencies. We present a theoretical framework that captures the ways in which the human motor system and its actions can reciprocally influence the perception of music. The cornerstone of this framework is the common coding theory, postulating a representational overlap in the brain between the planning, the execution, and the perception of movement. The integration of action and perception in so-called internal models is explained as a result of associative learning processes. Characteristic of internal models is that they allow intended or perceived sensory states to be transferred into corresponding motor commands (inverse modeling), and vice versa, to predict the sensory outcomes of planned actions (forward modeling). Embodied accounts typically refer to inverse modeling to explain action effects on music perception (Leman, 2007). We extend this account by pinpointing forward modeling as an alternative mechanism by which action can modulate perception. We provide an extensive overview of recent empirical evidence in support of this idea. Additionally, we demonstrate that motor dysfunctions can cause perceptual disabilities, supporting the main idea of the paper that the human motor system plays a functional role in auditory perception. The finding that music perception is shaped by the human motor system and its actions suggests that the musical mind is highly embodied. However, we advocate for a more radical approach to embodied (music) cognition in the sense that it needs to be considered as a dynamical process, in which aspects of action, perception, introspection, and social interaction are of crucial importance. PMID:24454299

  10. The perception of prominence patterns.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Klaus J

    2008-01-01

    The term 'stress' is used to refer to the perceptual salience at certain places in strings of syllables, but it has several different referents: (a) relative syllable salience in an utterance; this is syllable-, not word-oriented; (b) stress in a word; this is part of the lexical phonology; (c) stressing of words in utterances for various aspects of propositional and expressive meaning, often called 'accent(uation)'. Referents b and c are word- and meaning-oriented. In this article, the terms are more stringently defined. 'Stress' is only used to refer to a lexical stress position (referent b), i.e. a syllable in a word that becomes the docking place for various types of 'accent' to weight words in utterances (referent c). 'Stress' has no physical attributes by itself. 'Prominence' refers to the patterns of salience in syllable strings (referent a). The article reports results of an experiment in prominence perception of the logatome baba, in which the physical parameters F0, syllabic duration, and overall acoustic energy were systematically varied across the bisyllable. Sixteen German subjects had to indicate, by pressing buttons of a computerized reaction time device, whether the first or the second syllable was more prominent. F(0) was a more powerful cue than the other two. Equal syllable duration on a monotone resulted in more first-syllable judgements, which could be counteracted by a slightly falling F(0) contour on the second syllable to reach equal response frequencies for the two syllables. This ties in with Lehiste's earlier findings that F(0) movement increases the perception of duration. Extrapolating from the results, a research programme for prominence perception is developed that will eventually shed new light on the investigation into the nature and manifestation of speech rhythm. PMID:19221454

  11. Colloidal aspects of texture perception.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, Ton; van Aken, George A; de Jongh, Harmen H J; Hamer, Rob J

    2009-08-30

    Recently, considerable attention has been given to the understanding of texture attributes that cannot directly be related to physical properties of food, such as creamy, crumbly and watery. The perception of these attributes is strongly related to the way the food is processed during food intake, mastication, swallowing of it and during the cleaning of the mouth after swallowing. Moreover, their perception is modulated by the interaction with other basic attributes, such as taste and aroma attributes (e.g. sourness and vanilla). To be able to link the composition and structure of food products to more complicated texture attributes, their initial physical/colloid chemical properties and the oral processing of these products must be well understood. Understanding of the processes in the mouth at colloidal length scales turned out to be essential to grasp the interplay between perception, oral physiology and food properties. In view of the huge differences in physical chemical properties between food products, it is practical to make a distinction between solid, semi-solid, and liquid food products. The latter ones are often liquid dispersions of emulsion droplets or particles in general. For liquid food products for instance flow behaviour and colloidal stability of dispersed particles play a main role in determining their textural properties. For most solid products stiffness and fracture behaviour in relation to water content are essential while for semi-solids a much larger range of mechanical properties will play a role. Examples of colloidal aspects of texture perception will be discussed for these three categories of products based on selected sensory attributes and/or relevant colloidal processes. For solid products some main factors determining crispness will be discussed. For crispiness of dry cellular solid products these are water content and the architecture of the product at mesoscopic length scales (20-1000 microm). In addition the distribution of

  12. Minority mothers' perceptions of children's body size

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study is to investigate African-American and Hispanic mothers' perceptions of their children's body size using a scale with child figure silhouettes and compare those perceptions with their children's actual body mass index. A set of child figure silhouettes was developed depic...

  13. When and How Are Spatial Perceptions Scaled?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Jessica K.; Proffitt, Dennis R.; Epstein, William

    2010-01-01

    This research was designed to test the predictions of 2 approaches to perception. By most traditional accounts, people are thought to derive general-purpose spatial perceptions that are scaled in arbitrary, unspecified units. In contrast, action-specific approaches propose that the angular information inherent in optic flow and ocular-motor…

  14. Community College Presidents' Perceptions of Intercollegiate Athletics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Mitchell R.; Pennington, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The study examines community college presidents' perceptions about two--year college intercollegiate athletics. Presidents in six states were surveyed about their perceptions of whether community college athletics: (a) enhances pride in the institution among various constituencies, (b) increases enrollment and augments student recruitment, (c) has…

  15. Catholic Educator Perceptions about Brain Compatible Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenen, Amie

    2009-01-01

    This document reports the findings of a doctoral project regarding the perceptions held by administrators and teachers of comprehensive Catholic schools in one Midwestern diocese. With the recent explosion of research in the area of the brain and brain compatible instruction it is valuable to know and understand the perceptions held by current…

  16. Israeli Students' Perceptions of Geography Instruction Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar-Gal, B.; Sofer, S.

    2010-01-01

    This research compares the official Israeli Ministry of Education's curriculum goals of studying geography with the perceptions of Israeli Jewish and Arab junior high school students who study the subject. In addition, the perceptions of Jewish and Arab students about the importance of studying geography are compared. In the first stage of…

  17. Some Ways of Acquiring Space Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubojacky, Bedrich; Duzi, Pavel; Tercova, Michaela

    Space perception is necessary for work in branches of technology from the machine industry to civil, electrical, and material engineering. The spatial perception of students coming to technical universities is not highly developed. There are several reasons for this unfortunate situation: firstly, the lack of emphasis put on geometry and other…

  18. Preservice Teachers' Perception about Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuangchalerm, Prasart

    2009-01-01

    Teacher student is an important role improving their own perception what science should be anticipated in classroom. Also, science learning in the current studies try to have relied understanding in the nature of science. This research aimed to study teacher students' perception in the nature of science. One hundred and one of junior teacher…

  19. 47 CFR 73.4250 - Subliminal perception.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subliminal perception. 73.4250 Section 73.4250 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4250 Subliminal perception. (a) See Public Notice,...

  20. 47 CFR 73.4250 - Subliminal perception.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Subliminal perception. 73.4250 Section 73.4250 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4250 Subliminal perception. (a) See Public Notice,...

  1. 47 CFR 73.4250 - Subliminal perception.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Subliminal perception. 73.4250 Section 73.4250 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4250 Subliminal perception. (a) See Public Notice,...

  2. 47 CFR 73.4250 - Subliminal perception.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Subliminal perception. 73.4250 Section 73.4250 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4250 Subliminal perception. (a) See Public Notice,...

  3. 47 CFR 73.4250 - Subliminal perception.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Subliminal perception. 73.4250 Section 73.4250 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4250 Subliminal perception. (a) See Public Notice,...

  4. Context Specificity in Music Perception of Musicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Clifford K.; Geringer, John M.; Wagner, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Regardless of the extremely subtle acoustic changes that are perceptible within almost all perception research studies, it is the total overall effect that generally occupies each individual listener. A long line of research indicates that many subtle "music changes" are often not perceived accurately and are actually mistakenly identified.…

  5. Schopenhauer on Sense Perception and Aesthetic Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandenabeele, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Schopenhauer's account of sense perception contains an acute critique of Kant's theory of cognition. His analysis of the role of the understanding in perception may be closer to Kant's than he conceded, but his physiological analysis of the role of the senses nonetheless proffers a more plausible account than Kant's transcendental conception of…

  6. Perception in the Invisible World of Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novemsky, Lisa; Gautreau, Ronald

    Physics learning involves a change in the habitual perception of the everyday world. In order to describe the real world scientifically, an individual must develop perception and cognition capable of reconstructing the world from raw sensory data and incorporating acquired knowledge of the scientific community. The introductory physics student…

  7. CETA Goal Making: Perception and Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Haskel D., II.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes alternative staff and participant perceptions regarding the goals of the CETA program in Tennessee. The perceptions regarded the relative importance of the economic, personal development, and social outcomes of participating in a CETA program. It was concluded that avoidance of staff stereotyping of clientele would benefit the program.…

  8. Preschool Teacher Perceptions of Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Misty

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory qualitative study was to identify teacher perceptions within the classroom of preschool violence and what, if any were the perceived associations between teacher perceptions and the problem of school violence up to and including incarceration in later years. The study included open interview questions for data…

  9. Beyond Reflection: Perception, Virtue, and Teacher Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostetler, Karl D.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I aim to vindicate the belief that many teachers have that their intuitions, insights, or perceptions are legitimate--and indispensable--guides for their teaching. Perceptions can constitute knowledge. This runs counter to some number of views that emphasize "reflective practice" and teachers as "reflective…

  10. Hispanic Parents' Perceptions of Children's Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Young Suk; Vrongistinos, Konstantinos

    2010-01-01

    This study examined 32 Hispanic parents' perceptions of education, especially, (a) parent's motivation for their children's career choice, (b) their perceptions of education, and (c) informal means of education at home. The data were collected using openended questions and were analyzed using content analysis. Findings in this study provide…

  11. Death Perception in People with Suicidal Tendencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Veronique; Dussaucy, Edith

    The perception of death gradually develops in a child's mind, reaching maturity at about 8 or 9 years of age. A mature death concept usually means a definition which includes the perception of death as a natural process, its finality, its irreversibility, and its universality. A study was undertaken to improve knowledge about the death concept.…

  12. Perceptions of Isolation among High School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Molly P.; Mallory, Barbara J.

    2008-01-01

    This study addressed the perceptions of isolation among high school principals in Georgia. The data collection process, in which interviews were conducted, provided insight into the lived experiences of 10 principals. One of the findings was that high school principals were relieved, in a sense, to discuss their perceptions of the "loneliness"…

  13. Navajo Caregivers' Perceptions of Early Intervention Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applequist, Karen L.; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated 52 Navajo family caregiver perceptions about early intervention services and supplemental information was gathered from 15 early interventionists identified by caregivers. Overall, caregivers were satisfied with services. Caregivers' perceptions of program family-centeredness had a strong positive relationship with…

  14. University Students' Perceptions of Their Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Osman Nafiz; Kilic, Ziya; Akdeniz, Ali Riza

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the dimensions of the university students' perceptions of their science classes and whether or not the students' perceptions differ significantly as regards to the gender and grade level in six main categories namely; (1) pedagogical strategies, (2) faculty interest in teaching, (3) students interest…

  15. Person Perception in Childhood and Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livesley, W. J.; Bromley, D. B.

    The development of person perception or understanding of self and others is the theme of this psychology textbook. An extensive review of research on impression formation is followed by a thorough description of a study of person perception in children. Variables such as age, sex, and intelligence are studied in terms of their relationship to the…

  16. Contextualizing Person Perception: Distributed Social Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Eliot R.; Collins, Elizabeth C.

    2009-01-01

    Research on person perception typically emphasizes cognitive processes of information selection and interpretation within the individual perceiver and the nature of the resulting mental representations. The authors focus instead on the ways person perception processes create, and are influenced by, the patterns of impressions that are socially…

  17. Exploring Native American Students' Perceptions of Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laubach, Timothy A.; Crofford, Geary Don; Marek, Edmund A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore Native American (NA) students' perceptions of scientists by using the Draw-A-Scientist Test and to determine if differences in these perceptions exist between grade level, gender, and level of cultural tradition. Data were collected for students in Grades 9-12 within a NA grant off-reservation…

  18. Campus Chaplains: Cult Training and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elleven, Russell K.; Greenhaw, Kimberly J.; Allen, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the perception of 43 college chaplains across the United States with regard to cult training and perceptions of college and university cult activity. Campus chaplains are in a unique and challenging position on college campuses to assist students and confront cult issues. The results of the survey indicate that most campus…

  19. Personality and Perceptions of the Gifted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karamessinis, Nicholas P.

    1980-01-01

    The article reviews the recent literature on the personality attributes and self-perceptions of the gifted, and the attitudes and perceptions held about them. Among the conclusions are that the gifted appear to have higher self-esteem than others, and that gifted students are more popular with their peers than others. (Author/DLS)

  20. Patients' Perceptions of Touch during Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penny, Karen M. Stolte; Friedman, Paul G.

    An exploratory study using interviews of 150 postpartum patients was conducted to determine their perceptions of the touching they received during labor. Answers to the interview questions were analyzed in terms of overall perceptions, positive experiences, and negative experiences, and selected demographic variables were examined for differences…

  1. Localization of Sublexical Speech Perception Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkeltaub, Peter E.; Coslett, H. Branch

    2010-01-01

    Models of speech perception are in general agreement with respect to the major cortical regions involved, but lack precision with regard to localization and lateralization of processing units. To refine these models we conducted two Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) meta-analyses of the neuroimaging literature on sublexical speech perception.…

  2. The Dynamic Nature of Speech Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQueen, James M.; Norris, Dennis; Cutler, Anne

    2006-01-01

    The speech perception system must be flexible in responding to the variability in speech sounds caused by differences among speakers and by language change over the lifespan of the listener. Indeed, listeners use lexical knowledge to retune perception of novel speech (Norris, McQueen, & Cutler, 2003). In that study, Dutch listeners made lexical…

  3. Parental Perceptions and Practices Regarding Kindergarten Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto, Lourdes Diaz

    An investigation was made to ascertian perceptions and practices of parents whose children had been retained in kindergarten as well as parents' perceptions of their child's reaction to being retained. Also collected were data on the demographic characteristics of the families and their children. Specifically, data were obtained by means of a…

  4. Differential Cognitive Cues in Pictorial Depth Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omari, Issa M.; Cook, Harold

    The experiment described in this report investigates the effects of various cognitive cues in questions asked regarding the relationship of elements in pictorial depth perception. The subjects of this study are 40 third grade Black and Puerto Rican children. They are confronted with four pictures from the Hudson Depth Perception Tests and asked to…

  5. Human motion perception: Higher-order organization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Proffitt, Dennis R.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of higher-order motion perception and organization. It is argued that motion is sufficient to fully specify a number of environmental properties, including: depth order, three-dimensional form, object displacement, and dynamics. A grammar of motion perception is proposed; applications of this work for display design are discussed.

  6. Nursing Faculty Perceptions on Teaching Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Doris A.

    2010-01-01

    The perceptions of nursing faculty teaching critical thinking (CT) affective attributes and cognitive skills are described in this quantitative, descriptive study. The study sample consisted of nurse educators from the National League of Nursing database. The purpose of the study was to gain nursing faculty perception of which teaching strategies…

  7. Perceptions about Homeless Elders and Community Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael N.; Green, Diane; Jacobs, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Human service students were surveyed ("N" = 207) to determine their perceptions about homeless elders and communal responsibility for their well-being. Using a backward regression analysis, a final model ("F" = 15.617, "df" = 7, "p" < 0.001) for Perceptions about Homeless Persons and Community…

  8. Effect of heading perception on microsaccade dynamics.

    PubMed

    Piras, Alessandro; Raffi, Milena; Persiani, Michela; Perazzolo, Monica; Squatrito, Salvatore

    2016-10-01

    The present study shows the relationship between microsaccades and heading perception. Recent research demonstrates that microsaccades during fixation are necessary to overcome loss of vision due to continuous stimulation of the retinal receptors, even at the potential cost of a decrease in visual acuity. The goal of oculomotor fixational mechanisms might be not retinal stabilization, but controlled image motion adjusted to be optimal for visual processing. Thus, patterns of microsaccades may be exploited to help to understand the oculomotor system, aspects of visual perception, and the dynamics of visual attention. We presented an expansion optic flow in which the dot speed simulated a heading directed to the left or to the right of the subject, who had to signal the perceived heading by making a saccade toward the perceived direction. We recorded microsaccades during the optic flow stimulation to investigate their characteristics before and after the response. The time spent on heading perception was similar between right and left direction, and response latency was shorter during correct than incorrect responses. Furthermore, we observed that correct heading perception is associated with longer, larger and faster microsaccade characteristics. The time-course of microsaccade rate shows a modulation across the perception process similar to that seen for other local perception tasks, while the main direction is oriented toward the opposite side with respect to the perceived heading. Microsaccades enhance visual perception and, therefore, represent a fundamental motor process, with a specific effect for the build-up of global visual perception of space. PMID:27327105

  9. Third-Person Perception and School Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapin, John; Coleman, Grace

    This study is the first of its kind to study third-person perception within the context of school violence. Linkages to the health psychology literature (optimistic bias) provide the basis for further understanding of adolescents' perceptions of school violence and the influence of media violence in their lives. Results from a survey of 1,500…

  10. Advisors' Perceptions of the Advisement Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolar, Steven M.

    In response to negative findings from a study of faculty and administrative staff perceptions of the advisement process at Cumberland Community College (CCC), in Vineland, New Jersey, a follow-up study was conducted of the perceptions of advisement personnel. Specifically, the second study sought to gather information to assist in the…

  11. Stakeholders' Perceptions of School Counselling in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Poi Kee

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study that set out to understand stakeholders' perception of the school counselling service in Singapore. Using semi-structured interviews, this study explored the perceptions of three main stakeholder groups, namely teachers and counsellors working within the schools and those working in the communities.…

  12. Cancellation model of pitch perception.

    PubMed

    de Cheveigné, A

    1998-03-01

    A model of pitch perception is presented involving an array of delay lines and inhibitory gating neurons. In response to a periodic sound, a minimum appears in the pattern of outputs of the inhibitory neurons at a lag equal to the period of the sound. The position of this minimum is the cue to pitch. The model is similar to the autocorrelation model of pitch, multiplication being replaced by an operation similar to subtraction, and maxima by minima. The two models account for a wide class of pitch phenomena in very much the same way. The principal goal of this paper is to demonstrate this fact. Several features of the cancellation model may be to its advantage: it is closely related to the operation of harmonic cancellation that can account for segregation of concurrent harmonic stimuli, it can be generalized to explain the perception of multiple pitches, and it shows a greater degree of sensitivity to phase than autocorrelation, which may allow it to explain certain phenomena that autocorrelation cannot account for. PMID:9514016

  13. Interweaving reason, action, and perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fennema, Claude L., Jr.

    1992-11-01

    In an attempt to understand and emulate intelligent behavior Artificial Intelligence researchers have, for the most part, taken a reductionist approach and divided their investigation into separate studies of reason, perception, and action. As a consequence, intelligent robots have been constructed using a coarse grained architecture; reasoning, perception, and action have been implemented as separate modules that interact infrequently. This paper describes an investigation into the effect of reducing this architecture granularity on the computational efficiency of the overall system. It demonstrates that introducing a fine grained integration or `interweaving' of these functions can result in significant complexity reduction. This paper introduces the `reason a little, move a little, look a little,' or RML paradigm, describes an RML navigation system, and discusses analytical and experimental results that quantify complexity reduction for planning and vision. The system details illustrate novel approaches to representation, planning, and vision. The environment is represented as a network that provides mechanisms for coping with positional uncertainty and focusing reasoning activities. Plans are constructed in three dimensions using a geometry-induced hierarchical decomposition. The approach to vision takes its lead from the way a blind man uses his cane: to verity that reason is consistent with reality.

  14. Computational gestalts and perception thresholds.

    PubMed

    Desolneux, Agnès; Moisan, Lionel; Morel, Jean-Michel

    2003-01-01

    In 1923, Max Wertheimer proposed a research programme and method in visual perception. He conjectured the existence of a small set of geometric grouping laws governing the perceptual synthesis of phenomenal objects, or "gestalt" from the atomic retina input. In this paper, we review this set of geometric grouping laws, using the works of Metzger, Kanizsa and their schools. In continuation, we explain why the Gestalt theory research programme can be translated into a Computer Vision programme. This translation is not straightforward, since Gestalt theory never addressed two fundamental matters: image sampling and image information measurements. Using these advances, we shall show that gestalt grouping laws can be translated into quantitative laws allowing the automatic computation of gestalts in digital images. From the psychophysical viewpoint, a main issue is raised: the computer vision gestalt detection methods deliver predictable perception thresholds. Thus, we are set in a position where we can build artificial images and check whether some kind of agreement can be found between the computationally predicted thresholds and the psychophysical ones. We describe and discuss two preliminary sets of experiments, where we compared the gestalt detection performance of several subjects with the predictable detection curve. In our opinion, the results of this experimental comparison support the idea of a much more systematic interaction between computational predictions in Computer Vision and psychophysical experiments. PMID:14766147

  15. Stochastic Resonance In Visual Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonotto, Enrico

    1996-03-01

    Stochastic resonance (SR) is a well established physical phenomenon wherein some measure of the coherence of a weak signal can be optimized by random fluctuations, or "noise" (K. Wiesenfeld and F. Moss, Nature), 373, 33 (1995). In all experiments to date the coherence has been measured using numerical analysis of the data, for example, signal-to-noise ratios obtained from power spectra. But, can this analysis be replaced by a perceptive task? Previously we had demonstrated this possibility with a numerical model of perceptual bistability applied to the interpretation of ambiguous figures(M. Riani and E. Simonotto, Phys. Rev. Lett.), 72, 3120 (1994). Here I describe an experiment wherein SR is detected in visual perception. A recognizible grayscale photograph was digitized and presented. The picture was then placed beneath a threshold. Every pixel for which the grayscale exceeded the threshold was painted white, and all others black. For large enough threshold, the picture is unrecognizable, but the addition of a random number to every pixel renders it interpretable(C. Seife and M. Roberts, The Economist), 336, 59, July 29 (1995). However the addition of dynamical noise to the pixels much enhances an observer's ability to interpret the picture. Here I report the results of psychophysics experiments wherein the effects of both the intensity of the noise and its correlation time were studied.

  16. Categorical Perception of Sound Frequency by Crickets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyttenbach, Robert A.; May, Michael L.; Hoy, Ronald R.

    1996-09-01

    Partitioning continuously varying stimuli into categories is a fundamental problem of perception. One solution to this problem, categorical perception, is known primarily from human speech, but also occurs in other modalities and in some mammals and birds. Categorical perception was tested in crickets by using two paradigms of human psychophysics, labeling and habituation-dishabituation. The results show that crickets divide sound frequency categorically between attractive (<16 kilohertz) and repulsive (>16 kilohertz) sounds. There is sharp discrimination between these categories but no discrimination between different frequencies of ultrasound. This demonstration of categorical perception in an invertebrate suggests that categorical perception may be a basic and widespread feature of sensory systems, from humans to invertebrates.

  17. Clients' perceptions of their psychotherapists' multicultural orientation.

    PubMed

    Owen, Jesse J; Tao, Karen; Leach, Mark M; Rodolfa, Emil

    2011-09-01

    The current retrospective study examined whether clients' (N = 176) perceptions of their psychotherapists' multicultural orientation (MCO) were associated with their psychological functioning, working alliance, and real relationship scores. Moreover, we tested whether clients' perceptions of the working alliance and the real relationship mediated the relationship between clients' perceptions of their psychotherapists' MCO and psychological functioning. The results showed that clients' perceptions of their psychotherapists' MCO were positively related to working alliance, real relationship, and psychological functioning. Only clients' ratings of the working alliance mediated the relationship between clients' perceptions of their psychotherapists' MCO and psychological functioning. Thus, because clients perceive their psychotherapists as being more oriented toward cultural issues, they may view the therapist as being more credible and may gain a sense of comfort in the therapeutic process. In turn, clients' strong alliance facilitates improvement in psychological well-being. PMID:21639652

  18. GABA shapes the dynamics of bistable perception.

    PubMed

    van Loon, Anouk M; Knapen, Tomas; Scholte, H Steven; St John-Saaltink, Elexa; Donner, Tobias H; Lamme, Victor A F

    2013-05-01

    Sometimes, perception fluctuates spontaneously between two distinct interpretations of a constant sensory input. These bistable perceptual phenomena provide a unique window into the neural mechanisms that create the contents of conscious perception. Models of bistable perception posit that mutual inhibition between stimulus-selective neural populations in visual cortex plays a key role in these spontaneous perceptual fluctuations. However, a direct link between neural inhibition and bistable perception has not yet been established experimentally. Here, we link perceptual dynamics in three distinct bistable visual illusions (binocular rivalry, motion-induced blindness, and structure from motion) to measurements of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations in human visual cortex (as measured with magnetic resonance spectroscopy) and to pharmacological stimulation of the GABAA receptor by means of lorazepam. As predicted by a model of neural interactions underlying bistability, both higher GABA concentrations in visual cortex and lorazepam administration induced slower perceptual dynamics, as reflected in a reduced number of perceptual switches and a lengthening of percept durations. Thus, we show that GABA, the main inhibitory neurotransmitter, shapes the dynamics of bistable perception. These results pave the way for future studies into the competitive neural interactions across the visual cortical hierarchy that elicit conscious perception. PMID:23602476

  19. Pitch perception prior to cortical maturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Bonnie K.

    Pitch perception plays an important role in many complex auditory tasks including speech perception, music perception, and sound source segregation. Because of the protracted and extensive development of the human auditory cortex, pitch perception might be expected to mature, at least over the first few months of life. This dissertation investigates complex pitch perception in 3-month-olds, 7-month-olds and adults -- time points when the organization of the auditory pathway is distinctly different. Using an observer-based psychophysical procedure, a series of four studies were conducted to determine whether infants (1) discriminate the pitch of harmonic complex tones, (2) discriminate the pitch of unresolved harmonics, (3) discriminate the pitch of missing fundamental melodies, and (4) have comparable sensitivity to pitch and spectral changes as adult listeners. The stimuli used in these studies were harmonic complex tones, with energy missing at the fundamental frequency. Infants at both three and seven months of age discriminated the pitch of missing fundamental complexes composed of resolved and unresolved harmonics as well as missing fundamental melodies, demonstrating perception of complex pitch by three months of age. More surprisingly, infants in both age groups had lower pitch and spectral discrimination thresholds than adult listeners. Furthermore, no differences in performance on any of the tasks presented were observed between infants at three and seven months of age. These results suggest that subcortical processing is not only sufficient to support pitch perception prior to cortical maturation, but provides adult-like sensitivity to pitch by three months.

  20. Somatosensory function in speech perception

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Takayuki; Tiede, Mark; Ostry, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Somatosensory signals from the facial skin and muscles of the vocal tract provide a rich source of sensory input in speech production. We show here that the somatosensory system is also involved in the perception of speech. We use a robotic device to create patterns of facial skin deformation that would normally accompany speech production. We find that when we stretch the facial skin while people listen to words, it alters the sounds they hear. The systematic perceptual variation we observe in conjunction with speech-like patterns of skin stretch indicates that somatosensory inputs affect the neural processing of speech sounds and shows the involvement of the somatosensory system in the perceptual processing in speech. PMID:19164569

  1. Dialysis technicians' perception of certification.

    PubMed

    Williams, Helen F; Garbin, Margery

    2015-03-01

    The Nephrology Nursing Certification Commission initiated this research project to study the viewpoint of dialysis technicians regarding the value of certification. A national convenience sample was obtained using both paper-and-pencil and online forms of the survey instrument. Demographic characteristics were obtained concerning age, race, ethnicity, education, and future employment planning. Technicians' primary work settings, the roles they fill, and the types of certification they hold are described. Incentives offered by employers are considered to explore how they contribute to job satisfaction. Understanding the perceptions of technicians regarding the benefits of certification and the limitations of workplace incentives should enable employers to improve their recruitment and retention programs. Information obtained may offer a baseline for future observations of the characteristics of these significant and essential contributors to the nephrology workforce. PMID:26480642

  2. A specialization for speech perception.

    PubMed

    Liberman, A M; Mattingly, I G

    1989-01-27

    The processes that underlie perception of consonants and vowels are specifically phonetic, distinct from those that localize sources and assign auditory qualities to the sound from each source. This specialization, or module, increases the rate of information flow, establishes the parity between sender and receiver that every communication system must have, and provides for the natural development of phonetic structures in the species and in the individual. The phonetic module has certain properties in common with modules that are "closed" (for example, sound localization or echo ranging in bats) and, like other members of this class, is so placed in the architecture of the auditory system as to preempt information that is relevant to its special function. Accordingly, this information is not available to such "open" modules as those for pitch, loudness, and timbre. PMID:2643163

  3. Children's perceptions of gender discrimination.

    PubMed

    Spears Brown, Christia; Bigler, Rebecca S

    2004-09-01

    Children (N = 76; ages 5-10 years) participated in a study designed to examine perceptions of gender discrimination. Children were read scenarios in which a teacher determined outcomes for 2 students (1 boy and 1 girl). Contextual information (i.e., teacher's past behavior), the gender of the target of discrimination (i.e., student), and the gender of the perpetrator (i.e., teacher) were manipulated. Results indicated that older children were more likely than younger children to make attributions to discrimination when contextual information suggested that it was likely. Girls (but not boys) were more likely to view girls than boys as victims of discrimination, and children with egalitarian gender attitudes were more likely to perceive discrimination than were their peers. PMID:15355161

  4. Children's perception of dialect variation.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Laura; Clopper, Cynthia G; Pate, John K

    2014-09-01

    A speaker's regional dialect is a rich source of information about that person. Two studies examined five- to six-year-old children's perception of regional dialect: Can they perceive differences among dialects? Have they made meaningful social connections to specific dialects? Experiment 1 asked children to categorize speakers into groups based on their accent; Experiment 2 asked them to match speakers to (un)familiar cultural items. Each child was tested with two of the following: the child's Home dialect, a Regional variant of that dialect, and a Second-Language variant. Results showed that children could successfully categorize only with a Home vs. Second-Language dialect contrast, but could reliably link cultural items with either a Home vs. Second-Language or a Regional vs. Second-Language dialect contrast. These results demonstrate five- to six-year-old children's developing perceptual skill with dialect, and suggest that they have a gradient representation of dialect variation. PMID:23985300

  5. The genetics of phenylthiocarbamide perception

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Sun-Wei; Reed, Danielle R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The ability to taste the bitter compound phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and related chemicals is bimodal, and all human populations tested to date contain some people who can and some people who cannot taste PTC. Why this trait has been maintained in the population is uncertain but this polymorphism may influence food selection, nutritional status or thyroid metabolism. The gene product that gives rise to this phenotype is unknown, and its characterization would provide insight into the mechanism of bitter taste perception. Although this trait is often considered a simple Mendelian trait, i.e. one gene-two alleles, a recent linkage study found a major locus on chromosome 5p15 and evidence for an additional locus on chromosome 7. The development of methods to identify these genes will provide a good stepping-stone between single-gene disorders and polygenic traits. PMID:11293722

  6. Dreams, Perception, and Creative Realization.

    PubMed

    Glaskin, Katie

    2015-10-01

    This article draws on the ethnography of Aboriginal Australia to argue that perceptual openness, extending from waking life into dreaming experience, provides an important cognitive framework for the apprehension of dreamt experience in these contexts. I argue that this perceptual openness is analogous to the "openness to experience" described as a personality trait that had been linked with dream recall frequency (among other things). An implication of identifying perceptual openness at a cultural rather than at an individual level is two-fold. It provides an example of the ways in which cultural differences affect perception, indicative of cognitive diversity; and, given the relationship between dreams and creativity suggested anecdotally and through research, a cultural orientation toward perceptual openness is also likely to have implications for the realization of creativity that occurs through dreams. Such creativity though cannot be separated from the relational context in which such dreamt material is elaborated and understood. PMID:26399220

  7. Tactile perception during action observation.

    PubMed

    Vastano, Roberta; Inuggi, Alberto; Vargas, Claudia D; Baud-Bovy, Gabriel; Jacono, Marco; Pozzo, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    It has been suggested that tactile perception becomes less acute during movement to optimize motor control and to prevent an overload of afferent information generated during action. This empirical phenomenon, known as "tactile gating effect," has been associated with mechanisms of sensory feedback prediction. However, less attention has been given to the tactile attenuation effect during the observation of an action. The aim of this study was to investigate whether and how the observation of a goal-directed action influences tactile perception as during overt action. In a first experiment, we recorded vocal reaction times (RTs) of participants to tactile stimulations during the observation of a reach-to-grasp action. The stimulations were delivered on different body parts that could be either congruent or incongruent with the observed effector (the right hand and the right leg, respectively). The tactile stimulation was contrasted with a no body-related stimulation (an auditory beep). We found increased RTs for tactile congruent stimuli compared to both tactile incongruent and auditory stimuli. This effect was reported only during the observation of the reaching phase, whereas RTs were not modulated during the grasping phase. A tactile two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) discrimination task was then conducted in order to quantify the changes in tactile sensitivity during the observation of the same goal-directed actions. In agreement with the first experiment, the tactile perceived intensity was reduced only during the reaching phase. These results suggest that tactile processing during action observation relies on a process similar to that occurring during action execution. PMID:27161552

  8. Teachers' Perceptions of Factors Associated with Technology Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Shannon Noele

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess perceptions of teachers in a rural school district in western Virginia and how their perceptions relate to technology integration. The following research questions were sought: (1)What are teachers' perceptions of technology integration? (2) What are teachers' perceptions of the role and value of technology…

  9. Rater Wealth Predicts Perceptions of Outgroup Competence

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wayne; McCrae, Robert R.; Rogers, Darrin L.; Weimer, Amy A.; Greenberg, David M.; Terracciano, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    National income has a pervasive influence on the perception of ingroup stereotypes, with high status and wealthy targets perceived as more competent. In two studies we investigated the degree to which economic wealth of raters related to perceptions of outgroup competence. Raters’ economic wealth predicted trait ratings when 1) raters in 48 other cultures rated Americans’ competence and 2) Mexican Americans rated Anglo Americans’ competence. Rater wealth also predicted ratings of interpersonal warmth on the culture level. In conclusion, raters’ economic wealth, either nationally or individually, is significantly associated with perception of outgroup members, supporting the notion that ingroup conditions or stereotypes function as frames of reference in evaluating outgroup traits. PMID:22379232

  10. Perception and control of rotorcraft flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Dean H.

    1991-01-01

    Three topics which can be applied to rotorcraft flight are examined: (1) the nature of visual information; (2) what visual information is informative about; and (3) the control of visual information. The anchorage of visual perception is defined as the distribution of structure in the surrounding optical array or the distribution of optical structure over the retinal surface. A debate was provoked about whether the referent of visual event perception, and in turn control, is optical motion, kinetics, or dynamics. The interface of control theory and visual perception is also considered. The relationships among these problems is the basis of this article.

  11. Lacking control increases illusory pattern perception.

    PubMed

    Whitson, Jennifer A; Galinsky, Adam D

    2008-10-01

    We present six experiments that tested whether lacking control increases illusory pattern perception, which we define as the identification of a coherent and meaningful interrelationship among a set of random or unrelated stimuli. Participants who lacked control were more likely to perceive a variety of illusory patterns, including seeing images in noise, forming illusory correlations in stock market information, perceiving conspiracies, and developing superstitions. Additionally, we demonstrated that increased pattern perception has a motivational basis by measuring the need for structure directly and showing that the causal link between lack of control and illusory pattern perception is reduced by affirming the self. Although these many disparate forms of pattern perception are typically discussed as separate phenomena, the current results suggest that there is a common motive underlying them. PMID:18832647

  12. Brunswikian resources for event-perception research.

    PubMed

    Kirlik, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Recent psychological research aimed at determining whether dynamic event perception is direct or mediated by cue-based inference convincingly demonstrates evidence of both modes of perception or apprehension. This work also shows that noise is involved in attaining any perceptual variable, whether it perfectly (invariantly) specifies or imperfectly (fallibly) indicates the value of a target or criterion variable. As such, event-perception researchers encounter both internal (sensory or inferential) and external ecological sources of noise or uncertainty, owing to the organism's possible use of imperfect or 'nonspecifying' variables (or cues) and cue-based inference. Because both sources play central roles in Egon Brunswik's theory of probabilistic functionalism and methodology of representative design, event-perception research will benefit by explicitly leveraging original Brunswikian and, more recent, neo-Brunswikian scientific resources. Doing so will result in a more coherent and powerful approach to perceptual and cognitive psychology than is currently displayed in the scientific literature. PMID:19485133

  13. Marketing of menthol cigarettes and consumer perceptions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In order to more fully understand why individuals smoke menthol cigarettes, it is important to understand the perceptions held by youth and adults regarding menthol cigarettes. Perceptions are driven by many factors, and one factor that can be important is marketing. This review seeks to examine what role, if any, the marketing of menthol cigarettes plays in the formation of consumer perceptions of menthol cigarettes. The available literature suggests that menthol cigarettes may be perceived as safer choices than non-menthol cigarettes. Furthermore, there is significant overlap between menthol cigarette advertising campaigns and the perceptions of these products held by consumers. The marketing of menthol cigarettes has been higher in publications and venues whose target audiences are Blacks/African Americans. Finally, there appears to have been changes in cigarette menthol content over the past decade, which has been viewed by some researchers as an effort to attract different types of smokers. PMID:21624148

  14. Visual motion integration for perception and pursuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, L. S.; Beutter, B. R.; Lorenceau, J.

    2000-01-01

    To examine the relationship between visual motion processing for perception and pursuit, we measured the pursuit eye-movement and perceptual responses to the same complex-motion stimuli. We show that humans can both perceive and pursue the motion of line-figure objects, even when partial occlusion makes the resulting image motion vastly different from the underlying object motion. Our results show that both perception and pursuit can perform largely accurate motion integration, i.e. the selective combination of local motion signals across the visual field to derive global object motion. Furthermore, because we manipulated perceived motion while keeping image motion identical, the observed parallel changes in perception and pursuit show that the motion signals driving steady-state pursuit and perception are linked. These findings disprove current pursuit models whose control strategy is to minimize retinal image motion, and suggest a new framework for the interplay between visual cortex and cerebellum in visuomotor control.

  15. Elementary School Principals' Perceptions of Childhood Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, James H.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This survey assessed school principals' perceptions regarding childhood obesity and the schools' role in dealing with the problem. Results of a survey of 277 elementary school principals are presented. (Author/MT)

  16. Perceptions of Communicator Style and Educational Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansford, Brian; Hattie, John

    1989-01-01

    A study examined the relationship between Australian high school students' perceptions of communication style and their preferred and actual educational (school and classroom) environments, and the effects of gender or grade level on that relationship. Results are discussed. (MSE)

  17. Principals' Perceptions Regarding Their Supervision and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hvidston, David J.; Range, Bret G.; McKim, Courtney Ann

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of principals concerning principal evaluation and supervisory feedback. Principals were asked two open-ended questions. Respondents included 82 principals in the Rocky Mountain region. The emerging themes were "Superintendent Performance," "Principal Evaluation Components," "Specific…

  18. Hazard perception in emergency medical service responders.

    PubMed

    Johnston, K A; Scialfa, C T

    2016-10-01

    The perception of on-road hazards is critically important to emergency medical services (EMS) professionals, the patients they transport and the general public. This study compared hazard perception in EMS and civilian drivers of similar age and personal driving experience. Twenty-nine EMS professionals and 24 non-professional drivers were given a dynamic hazard perception test (HPT). The EMS group demonstrated an advantage in HPT that was independent of simple reaction time, another indication of the validity of the test. These results are also consistent with the view that professional driving experience results in changes in the ability to identify and respond to on-road hazards. Directions for future research include the development of a profession-specific hazard perception tool for both assessment and training purposes. PMID:27415813

  19. Visual Cues for Enhancing Depth Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, L. M.; Smith, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    This article describes the physiological mechanisms involved in three-dimensional depth perception and presents a variety of distance and depth cues and strategies for detecting and estimating curbs and steps for individuals with impaired vision. (Author/DB)

  20. Michigan Citizens' Knowledge and Perceptions about Groundwater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suvedi, Murari; Krueger, David; Shrestha, Anil; Bettinghouse, Dixie

    2000-01-01

    Assesses the knowledge and perceptions of Michigan residents about groundwater in order to develop a comprehensive educational program and provide baseline information to document the program's impact over time. (Author/CCM)

  1. Ethnic Identification and Perception of Racial Harmony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egginton, Everett

    1980-01-01

    Reports on a study of White and minority middle school and high school students' perceptions of racial tension and harmony in classrooms and schools in Louisville, Kentucky, following court-ordered busing to achieve racial desegregation. (EF)

  2. Tilt perception during dynamic linear acceleration.

    PubMed

    Seidman, S H; Telford, L; Paige, G D

    1998-04-01

    Head tilt is a rotation of the head relative to gravity, as exemplified by head roll or pitch from the natural upright orientation. Tilt stimulates both the otolith organs, owing to shifts in gravitational orientation, and the semicircular canals in response to head rotation, which in turn drive a variety of behavioral and perceptual responses. Studies of tilt perception typically have not adequately isolated otolith and canal inputs or their dynamic contributions. True tilt cannot readily dissociate otolith from canal influences. Alternatively, centrifugation generates centripetal accelerations that simulate tilt, but still entails a rotatory (canal) stimulus during important periods of the stimulus profiles. We reevaluated the perception of head tilt in humans, but limited the stimulus to linear forces alone, thus isolating the influence of otolith inputs. This was accomplished by employing a centrifugation technique with a variable-radius spinning sled. This allowed us to accelerate the sled to a constant angular velocity (128 degrees/s), with the subject centered, and then apply dynamic centripetal accelerations after all rotatory perceptions were extinguished. These stimuli were presented in the subjects' naso-occipital axis by translating the subjects 50 cm eccentrically either forward or backward. Centripetal accelerations were thus induced (0.25 g), which combined with gravity to yield a dynamically shifting gravitoinertial force simulating pitch-tilt, but without actually rotating the head. A magnitude-estimation task was employed to characterize the dynamic perception of pitch-tilt. Tilt perception responded sluggishly to linear acceleration, typically reaching a peak after 10-30 s. Tilt perception also displayed an adaptation phenomenon. Adaptation was manifested as a per-stimulus decline in perceived tilt during prolonged stimulation and a reversal aftereffect upon return to zero acceleration (i.e., recentering the subject). We conclude that otolith

  3. Evolutionary Specialization of Tactile Perception in Vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Eve R; Gracheva, Elena O; Bagriantsev, Slav N

    2016-05-01

    Evolution has endowed vertebrates with the remarkable tactile ability to explore the world through the perception of physical force. Yet the sense of touch remains one of the least well understood senses at the cellular and molecular level. Vertebrates specializing in tactile perception can highlight general principles of mechanotransduction. Here, we review cellular and molecular adaptations that underlie the sense of touch in typical and acutely mechanosensitive vertebrates. PMID:27053733

  4. Role of saliva in oral food perception.

    PubMed

    Neyraud, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Saliva is the first fluid that comes into contact with food during oral processing. Because saliva is the medium that bathes the taste receptors, is the fluid through which taste and aroma compounds are released into the oral cavity and is mixed continuously with food during bolus formation, it is an essential actor in oral chemosensory perception. The complexity of saliva composition, with compounds originating from different salivary glands, from gingival crevicular fluid, from micro-organisms and from food debris, together with its variable nature increases the possibilities for interactions with food compounds and for different roles in perception. These factors are increasingly being taken into account in current research on food perception. The aim of this paper is to review the principal roles of saliva in oral perception, with particular focus on chemosensory perception. These include the protection of taste buds, the effects of flow rates, salivary hormones, electrolytes and organic compounds, and finally the impact of perception on salivary secretions. PMID:24862595

  5. Public perceptions of Florida red tide risks.

    PubMed

    Kuhar, Sara E; Nierenberg, Kate; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Tobin, Graham A

    2009-07-01

    This research integrates theoretical frameworks of risk perception, social amplification of risk, and the role of place-specific contexts in order to explore the various perceptions surrounding Florida red tides. Florida red tides are naturally occurring events that are increasing in frequency, duration, and severity. This has implications for public health, the local economy, and ecosystem health. While many of the negative impacts of Florida red tides are not easily controlled, some of the secondary impacts may be mitigated through individuals' responses. However, public perception and consequent reactions to Florida red tides have not been investigated. This research uses questionnaire surveys, and semi-structured interviews, to explore the various perceptions of the risk surrounding red tides. Surveys and interviews were conducted along two Florida west coast beaches. The results indicate that the underlying foundations of the social amplification of the risk framework are applicable to understanding how individuals form perceptions of risk relative to red tide events. There are key differences between the spatial locations of individuals and corresponding perceptions, indicating that place-specific contexts are essential to understanding how individuals receive and interpret risk information. The results also suggest that individuals may be lacking efficient and up-to-date information about Florida red tides and their impacts because of inconsistent public outreach. Overall, social and spatial factors appear to be influential as to whether individuals amplify or attenuate the risks associated with Florida red tides. PMID:19392675

  6. Public Perceptions of Florida Red Tide Risks

    PubMed Central

    Kuhar, Sara E.; Nierenberg, Kate; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Tobin, Graham A.

    2009-01-01

    This research integrates theoretical frameworks of risk perception, social amplification of risk, and the role of place-specific contexts in order to explore the various perceptions surrounding Florida red tides. Florida red tides are naturally occurring events that are increasing in frequency, duration, and severity. This has implications for public health, the local economy, and ecosystem health. While many of the negative impacts of Florida red tides are not easily controlled, some of the secondary impacts may be mitigated through individuals’ responses. However, public perception and consequent reactions to Florida red tides have not been investigated. This research uses questionnaire surveys, and semi-structured interviews, to explore the various perceptions of the risk surrounding red tides. Surveys and interviews were conducted along two Florida west coast beaches. The results indicate that the underlying foundations of the social amplification of the risk framework are applicable to understanding how individuals form perceptions of risk relative to red tide events. There are key differences between the spatial locations of individuals and corresponding perceptions, indicating that place-specific contexts are essential to understanding how individuals receive and interpret risk information. The results also suggest that individuals may be lacking efficient and up-to-date information about Florida red tides and their impacts because of inconsistent public outreach. Overall, social and spatial factors appear to be influential as to whether individuals amplify or attenuate the risks associated with Florida red tides. PMID:19392675

  7. Auditory perception bias in speech imitation

    PubMed Central

    Postma-Nilsenová, Marie; Postma, Eric

    2013-01-01

    In an experimental study, we explored the role of auditory perception bias in vocal pitch imitation. Psychoacoustic tasks involving a missing fundamental indicate that some listeners are attuned to the relationship between all the higher harmonics present in the signal, which supports their perception of the fundamental frequency (the primary acoustic correlate of pitch). Other listeners focus on the lowest harmonic constituents of the complex sound signal which may hamper the perception of the fundamental. These two listener types are referred to as fundamental and spectral listeners, respectively. We hypothesized that the individual differences in speakers' capacity to imitate F0 found in earlier studies, may at least partly be due to the capacity to extract information about F0 from the speech signal. Participants' auditory perception bias was determined with a standard missing fundamental perceptual test. Subsequently, speech data were collected in a shadowing task with two conditions, one with a full speech signal and one with high-pass filtered speech above 300 Hz. The results showed that perception bias toward fundamental frequency was related to the degree of F0 imitation. The effect was stronger in the condition with high-pass filtered speech. The experimental outcomes suggest advantages for fundamental listeners in communicative situations where F0 imitation is used as a behavioral cue. Future research needs to determine to what extent auditory perception bias may be related to other individual properties known to improve imitation, such as phonetic talent. PMID:24204361

  8. Time Perception Mechanisms at Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Fontes, Rhailana; Ribeiro, Jéssica; Gupta, Daya S.; Machado, Dionis; Lopes-Júnior, Fernando; Magalhães, Francisco; Bastos, Victor Hugo; Rocha, Kaline; Marinho, Victor; Lima, Gildário; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Orsini, Marco; Pessoa, Bruno; Leite, Marco Antonio Araujo; Teixeira, Silmar

    2016-01-01

    The five senses have specific ways to receive environmental information and lead to central nervous system. The perception of time is the sum of stimuli associated with cognitive processes and environmental changes. Thus, the perception of time requires a complex neural mechanism and may be changed by emotional state, level of attention, memory and diseases. Despite this knowledge, the neural mechanisms of time perception are not yet fully understood. The objective is to relate the mechanisms involved the neurofunctional aspects, theories, executive functions and pathologies that contribute the understanding of temporal perception. Articles form 1980 to 2015 were searched by using the key themes: neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, theories, time cells, memory, schizophrenia, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and Parkinson’s disease combined with the term perception of time. We evaluated 158 articles within the inclusion criteria for the purpose of the study. We conclude that research about the holdings of the frontal cortex, parietal, basal ganglia, cerebellum and hippocampus have provided advances in the understanding of the regions related to the perception of time. In neurological and psychiatric disorders, the understanding of time depends on the severity of the diseases and the type of tasks. PMID:27127597

  9. A physical basis for sensory perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norwich, Kenneth H.

    2014-11-01

    It is argued that the process of perception takes origin within physics itself. A simple, physical model of a biological sensory receptor unit, a unit which mediates perception at its most elemental level, is developed. This model will be not just a detector of sensory signals (like a light meter or sound level meter), but will transduce these signals to the level of consciousness. The properties of this physical model of the sensory receptor unit are drawn from classical physics. Because of its simplicity, the receptor model allows for perception of only discrete quantities of incident signal energy. My primary goal in presenting this reduced model of perception is to teach concepts without the need for detailed anatomy or physiology. Using the simple mathematical properties of the receptor model, we are able to derive a number of the empirical equations of sensory science. Since the idea has been advanced that the process of perception, at a fundamental level, belongs to physics whose validity is universal, it is suggested that the “laws” of perception of the world manifested by organisms anywhere within the universe will be similar to the laws we observe here on earth.

  10. Mind Perception Is the Essence of Morality

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Kurt; Young, Liane; Waytz, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Mind perception entails ascribing mental capacities to other entities, whereas moral judgment entails labeling entities as good or bad or actions as right or wrong. We suggest that mind perception is the essence of moral judgment. In particular, we suggest that moral judgment is rooted in a cognitive template of two perceived minds—a moral dyad of an intentional agent and a suffering moral patient. Diverse lines of research support dyadic morality. First, perceptions of mind are linked to moral judgments: dimensions of mind perception (agency and experience) map onto moral types (agents and patients), and deficits of mind perception correspond to difficulties with moral judgment. Second, not only are moral judgments sensitive to perceived agency and experience, but all moral transgressions are fundamentally understood as agency plus experienced suffering—that is, interpersonal harm—even ostensibly harmless acts such as purity violations. Third, dyadic morality uniquely accounts for the phenomena of dyadic completion (seeing agents in response to patients, and vice versa), and moral typecasting (characterizing others as either moral agents or moral patients). Discussion also explores how mind perception can unify morality across explanatory levels, how a dyadic template of morality may be developmentally acquired, and future directions. PMID:22754268

  11. Nutrition communication: consumer perceptions and predicting intentions.

    PubMed

    Dean, Moira; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Shepherd, Richard

    2011-02-01

    Health claims on food products, which aim at informing the public about the health benefits of the product, represent one type of nutrition communication; the use of these is regulated by the European Union. This paper provides an overview of the research on health claims, including consumers' perceptions of such claims and their intention to buy products that carry health-related claims. This is followed by a discussion on the results from some recent studies investigating public perceptions and willingness to use products with health claims. In these studies, claims are presented in the form of messages of different lengths, types, framing, with and without qualifying words and symbols. They also investigate how perceptions and intentions are affected by individual needs and product characteristics. Results show that adding health claims to products does increase their perceived healthiness. Claim structure was found to make a difference to perceptions, but its influence depended on the level of relevance, familiarity and individuals' need for information. Further, the type of health benefit proposed and the base product used also affected perceptions of healthiness. The paper concludes that while healthiness perceptions relating to products with health claims may vary between men and women, old and young and between countries, the main factor influencing perceived healthiness and intention to buy a product with health claim is personal relevance. PMID:21266092

  12. Time Perception Mechanisms at Central Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Fontes, Rhailana; Ribeiro, Jéssica; Gupta, Daya S; Machado, Dionis; Lopes-Júnior, Fernando; Magalhães, Francisco; Bastos, Victor Hugo; Rocha, Kaline; Marinho, Victor; Lima, Gildário; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Orsini, Marco; Pessoa, Bruno; Leite, Marco Antonio Araujo; Teixeira, Silmar

    2016-04-01

    The five senses have specific ways to receive environmental information and lead to central nervous system. The perception of time is the sum of stimuli associated with cognitive processes and environmental changes. Thus, the perception of time requires a complex neural mechanism and may be changed by emotional state, level of attention, memory and diseases. Despite this knowledge, the neural mechanisms of time perception are not yet fully understood. The objective is to relate the mechanisms involved the neurofunctional aspects, theories, executive functions and pathologies that contribute the understanding of temporal perception. Articles form 1980 to 2015 were searched by using the key themes: neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, theories, time cells, memory, schizophrenia, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and Parkinson's disease combined with the term perception of time. We evaluated 158 articles within the inclusion criteria for the purpose of the study. We conclude that research about the holdings of the frontal cortex, parietal, basal ganglia, cerebellum and hippocampus have provided advances in the understanding of the regions related to the perception of time. In neurological and psychiatric disorders, the understanding of time depends on the severity of the diseases and the type of tasks. PMID:27127597

  13. Sensorimotor influences on speech perception in infancy.

    PubMed

    Bruderer, Alison G; Danielson, D Kyle; Kandhadai, Padmapriya; Werker, Janet F

    2015-11-01

    The influence of speech production on speech perception is well established in adults. However, because adults have a long history of both perceiving and producing speech, the extent to which the perception-production linkage is due to experience is unknown. We addressed this issue by asking whether articulatory configurations can influence infants' speech perception performance. To eliminate influences from specific linguistic experience, we studied preverbal, 6-mo-old infants and tested the discrimination of a nonnative, and hence never-before-experienced, speech sound distinction. In three experimental studies, we used teething toys to control the position and movement of the tongue tip while the infants listened to the speech sounds. Using ultrasound imaging technology, we verified that the teething toys consistently and effectively constrained the movement and positioning of infants' tongues. With a looking-time procedure, we found that temporarily restraining infants' articulators impeded their discrimination of a nonnative consonant contrast but only when the relevant articulator was selectively restrained to prevent the movements associated with producing those sounds. Our results provide striking evidence that even before infants speak their first words and without specific listening experience, sensorimotor information from the articulators influences speech perception. These results transform theories of speech perception by suggesting that even at the initial stages of development, oral-motor movements influence speech sound discrimination. Moreover, an experimentally induced "impairment" in articulator movement can compromise speech perception performance, raising the question of whether long-term oral-motor impairments may impact perceptual development. PMID:26460030

  14. Temporal asynchrony and spatial perception

    PubMed Central

    Lev, Maria; Polat, Uri

    2016-01-01

    Collinear facilitation is an enhancement in the visibility of a target by laterally placed iso-oriented flankers in a collinear (COL) configuration. Iso-oriented flankers placed in a non-collinear configuration (side-by-side, SBS) produce less facilitation. Surprisingly, presentation of both configurations simultaneously (ISO-CROSS) abolishes the facilitation rather than increases it - a phenomenon that can’t be fully explained by the spatial properties of the target and flankers. Based on our preliminary data and recent studies, we hypothesized that there might be a novel explanation based on the temporal properties of the excitation and inhibition, resulting in asynchrony between the lateral inputs received from COL and SBS, leading to cancelation of the facilitatory component in ISO-CROSS. We explored this effect using a detection task in humans. The results replicated the previous results showing that the preferred facilitation for COL and SBS was abolished for the ISO-CROSS configuration. However, presenting the SBS flankers, but not the COL flankers 20 msec before ISO-CROSS restored the facilitatory effect. We propose a novel explanation that the perceptual advantage of collinear facilitation may be cancelled by the delayed input from the sides; thus, the final perception is determined by the overall spatial-temporal integration of the lateral interactions. PMID:27460532

  15. Brain networks underlying bistable perception.

    PubMed

    Baker, Daniel H; Karapanagiotidis, Theodoros; Coggan, David D; Wailes-Newson, Kirstie; Smallwood, Jonathan

    2015-10-01

    Bistable stimuli, such as the Necker Cube, demonstrate that experience can change in the absence of changes in the environment. Such phenomena can be used to assess stimulus-independent aspects of conscious experience. The current study used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to index stimulus-independent changes in neural activity to understand the neural architecture that determines dominance durations during bistable perception (using binocular rivalry and Necker cube stimuli). Anterior regions of the Superior Parietal Lobule (SPL) exhibited robust connectivity with regions of primary sensorimotor cortex. The strength of this region's connectivity with the striatum predicted shorter dominance durations during binocular rivalry, whereas its connectivity to pre-motor cortex predicted longer dominance durations for the Necker Cube. Posterior regions of the SPL, on the other hand, were coupled to associative cortex in the temporal and frontal lobes. The posterior SPL's connectivity to the temporal lobe predicted longer dominance during binocular rivalry. In conjunction with prior work, these data suggest that the anterior SPL contributes to perceptual rivalry through the inhibition of incongruent bottom up information, whereas the posterior SPL influences rivalry by supporting the current interpretation of a bistable stimulus. Our data suggests that the functional connectivity of the SPL with regions of sensory, motor, and associative cortex allows it to regulate the interpretation of the environment that forms the focus of conscious attention at a specific moment in time. PMID:26123379

  16. Perception of power among dietitians.

    PubMed

    Mandel, E D; Garey, J G

    1993-04-01

    Power is a new concept in the field of nutrition that has increasing relevance for the survival of the profession in the 1990s. This study reports on dietitians' perception of power. A survey questionnaire was mailed to all members of the New Jersey State Dietetic Association (1,969 members). Usable responses were obtained from 521 dietitians (a response rate of 27%). The majority of respondents were female, married, and younger than 40 years of age; 37% were in clinical positions and 62% had completed internship and master's degree programs. Respondents rated power as very important (30%) or important (44%), and the terms accomplishments, control, intelligence, and connections were key descriptors of power. Power was felt to be acquired through knowledge, education, and position/title. The positions of department head, chief clinical dietitian, and nutrition support dietitian ranked in the middle of a power hierarchy. The top positions were chief executive officer and physician, and the bottom position was tray-line worker. Responses to "power" scenarios showed greater professional concern (60%) than personal concern (35%) over a clinical scenario (loss of control of the nutrition formulary) than a managerial scenario (threatened layoffs) (38% and 32%, respectively). Dietitians need to focus on and understand the concept and realistic use of power in the workplace. Initially, basic concepts and skills related to power must be incorporated into dietetics and continuing education using a gender-focused teaching approach. PMID:8454810

  17. Visual adaptation and face perception

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Michael A.; MacLeod, Donald I. A.

    2011-01-01

    The appearance of faces can be strongly affected by the characteristics of faces viewed previously. These perceptual after-effects reflect processes of sensory adaptation that are found throughout the visual system, but which have been considered only relatively recently in the context of higher level perceptual judgements. In this review, we explore the consequences of adaptation for human face perception, and the implications of adaptation for understanding the neural-coding schemes underlying the visual representation of faces. The properties of face after-effects suggest that they, in part, reflect response changes at high and possibly face-specific levels of visual processing. Yet, the form of the after-effects and the norm-based codes that they point to show many parallels with the adaptations and functional organization that are thought to underlie the encoding of perceptual attributes like colour. The nature and basis for human colour vision have been studied extensively, and we draw on ideas and principles that have been developed to account for norms and normalization in colour vision to consider potential similarities and differences in the representation and adaptation of faces. PMID:21536555

  18. Demodulation processes in auditory perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feth, Lawrence L.

    1994-08-01

    The long range goal of this project is the understanding of human auditory processing of information conveyed by complex, time-varying signals such as speech, music or important environmental sounds. Our work is guided by the assumption that human auditory communication is a 'modulation - demodulation' process. That is, we assume that sound sources produce a complex stream of sound pressure waves with information encoded as variations ( modulations) of the signal amplitude and frequency. The listeners task then is one of demodulation. Much of past. psychoacoustics work has been based in what we characterize as 'spectrum picture processing.' Complex sounds are Fourier analyzed to produce an amplitude-by-frequency 'picture' and the perception process is modeled as if the listener were analyzing the spectral picture. This approach leads to studies such as 'profile analysis' and the power-spectrum model of masking. Our approach leads us to investigate time-varying, complex sounds. We refer to them as dynamic signals and we have developed auditory signal processing models to help guide our experimental work.

  19. Modeling color percepts of dichromats.

    PubMed

    Wachtler, Thomas; Dohrmann, Ulrike; Hertel, Rainer

    2004-11-01

    Protanopes and deuteranopes, despite lacking a chromatic dimension at the receptor level, use the color terms "red" and "green", together with "blue" and "yellow", to describe their color percepts. Color vision models proposed so far fail to account for these findings in dichromats. We confirmed, by the method of hue scaling, the consistent use of these color terms, as well as their dependence on intensity, in subjects shown to have only a single X-chromosomal opsin gene each. We present a model for the processing of photoreceptor signals which, under physiologically plausible assumptions, achieves a trichromat-like representation of dichromatic receptor signals. Key feature of the dichromat model is the processing of the photoreceptor signals in parallel channels with different gains and nonlinearities. In this way, the two-dimensional receptor signals are represented on a manifold in a higher-dimensional space, supporting categorization for efficient image segmentation. Introducing a third cone opsin yields a model that explains normal, trichromat hue scaling. PMID:15342228

  20. Fechner, information, and shape perception.

    PubMed

    Lappin, Joseph S; Norman, J Farley; Phillips, Flip

    2011-11-01

    How do retinal images lead to perceived environmental objects? Vision involves a series of spatial and material transformations--from environmental objects to retinal images, to neurophysiological patterns, and finally to perceptual experience and action. A rationale for understanding functional relations among these physically different systems occurred to Gustav Fechner: Differences in sensation correspond to differences in physical stimulation. The concept of information is similar: Relationships in one system may correspond to, and thus represent, those in another. Criteria for identifying and evaluating information include (a) resolution, or the precision of correspondence; (b) uncertainty about which input (output) produced a given output (input); and (c) invariance, or the preservation of correspondence under transformations of input and output. We apply this framework to psychophysical evidence to identify visual information for perceiving surfaces. The elementary spatial structure shared by objects and images is the second-order differential structure of local surface shape. Experiments have shown that human vision is directly sensitive to this higher-order spatial information from interimage disparities (stereopsis and motion parallax), boundary contours, texture, shading, and combined variables. Psychophysical evidence contradicts other common ideas about retinal information for spatial vision and object perception. PMID:21879419

  1. Selective perceptions of hydraulic fracturing.

    PubMed

    Sarge, Melanie A; VanDyke, Matthew S; King, Andy J; White, Shawna R

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) is a focal topic in discussions about domestic energy production, yet the American public is largely unfamiliar and undecided about the practice. This study sheds light on how individuals may come to understand hydraulic fracturing as this unconventional production technology becomes more prominent in the United States. For the study, a thorough search of HF photographs was performed, and a systematic evaluation of 40 images using an online experimental design involving N = 250 participants was conducted. Key indicators of hydraulic fracturing support and beliefs were identified. Participants showed diversity in their support for the practice, with 47 percent expressing low support, 22 percent high support, and 31 percent undecided. Support for HF was positively associated with beliefs that hydraulic fracturing is primarily an economic issue and negatively associated with beliefs that it is an environmental issue. Level of support was also investigated as a perceptual filter that facilitates biased issue perceptions and affective evaluations of economic benefit and environmental cost frames presented in visual content of hydraulic fracturing. Results suggested an interactive relationship between visual framing and level of support, pointing to a substantial barrier to common understanding about the issue that strategic communicators should consider. PMID:26399946

  2. Modeling the perception of tempo.

    PubMed

    Elowsson, Anders; Friberg, Anders

    2015-06-01

    A system is proposed in which rhythmic representations are used to model the perception of tempo in music. The system can be understood as a five-layered model, where representations are transformed into higher-level abstractions in each layer. First, source separation is applied (Audio Level), onsets are detected (Onset Level), and interonset relationships are analyzed (Interonset Level). Then, several high-level representations of rhythm are computed (Rhythm Level). The periodicity of the music is modeled by the cepstroid vector-the periodicity of an interonset interval (IOI)-histogram. The pulse strength for plausible beat length candidates is defined by computing the magnitudes in different IOI histograms. The speed of the music is modeled as a continuous function on the basis of the idea that such a function corresponds to the underlying perceptual phenomena, and it seems to effectively reduce octave errors. By combining the rhythmic representations in a logistic regression framework, the tempo of the music is finally computed (Tempo Level). The results are the highest reported in a formal benchmarking test (2006-2013), with a P-Score of 0.857. Furthermore, the highest results so far are reported for two widely adopted test sets, with an Acc1 of 77.3% and 93.0% for the Songs and Ballroom datasets. PMID:26093407

  3. Fast perception of binocular disparity.

    PubMed

    Caziot, Baptiste; Valsecchi, Matteo; Gegenfurtner, Karl R; Backus, Benjamin T

    2015-08-01

    Is depth perception from binocular disparities-stereopsis-slow or fast? Many of the temporal properties of stereopsis are known. For example, rapidly changing disparities are perceptually difficult to track, which suggests that stereopsis is generally slow. But, remarkably, this basic question has not yet been addressed. We compared speed-accuracy trade-off functions between 2 forced-choice discriminations: 1 based on stereoscopic depth and 1 based on luminance. Unexpectedly, both speed-accuracy trade-off functions deviated from chance levels of accuracy at the same response time-approximately 200 ms-with stereo accuracy increasing, on average, more slowly than luminance accuracy after this initial delay. Thus, the initial processing of disparity for perceived depth took no longer than the initial processing of luminance for perceived brightness. This finding, that binocular disparities are available early during visual processing, means that depth is perceived quickly, and, intriguingly, that disparities may be more important for everyday visual function than previously thought. PMID:26121497

  4. Community support: older adults' perceptions.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Louise P; Truglio-Londrigan, Marie

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this inquiry was to determine older adults' perceptions of facilitators and barriers in their use of community support. A descriptive, exploratory design was used incorporating focus group methodology. Fifteen participants were recruited in two separate senior citizen housing complexes, 10 in one building and 5 in the second. All participants were 65 years of age and older, alert, oriented, and English speaking. Systematic content analysis of the focus groups revealed two general categories: knowledge and systems. Under each category, facilitators and barriers were identified. Knowledge facilitators included life experiences and learning from one another. A major knowledge barrier was lack of awareness. A system facilitator was caring connections. System barriers included complex connections, pseudoconnections, superficial connections, and cookie cutter connections. The data suggest the need for additional research to further clarify these facilitators and barriers. The information obtained from this research will be a beginning step in the development of supportive intervention strategies for assisting older adults as they live in their home communities. PMID:14768765

  5. Neural basis of music perception.

    PubMed

    Janata, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Music is a multifaceted psychologic phenomenon, and separating the perceptual aspects of musical experiences from other aspects of those experiences is difficult, given music's propensity to trigger memories, movements, and emotions. Given that music is primarily an auditory phenomenon, it is reasonable to assume that the auditory cortex will play a major role in the representation of musical auditory scenes. The primary objective of this chapter was to survey the literature and perform a meta-analysis of the neuroimaging literature in order to determine whether a delineation of the lateral temporal lobes emerges in terms of the processing of tonal, temporal, and timbral aspects of musical information. The meta-analysis revealed both overlapping and non-overlapping areas of auditory cortex, with a tendency for melodic and harmonic manipulations to activate areas outside the primary auditory cortex. Regions of the superior temporal gyrus and superior temporal sulcus rostral and ventral to the auditory cortex appear to play an important role in the perception of melodic intervals and patterns, and harmonies, but may not play a direct role in maintaining or evaluating higher-order tonal relationships that govern key membership or relationships between major and minor keys. PMID:25726270

  6. Public School Uniforms: Effect on Perceptions of Gang Presence, School Climate, and Student Self-Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Kathleen Kiley; Stafford, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relationship between public school uniforms and student self-worth and student and staff perceptions of gang presence and school climate. Surveys of middle school students and teachers indicated that although students' perceptions did not vary across uniform policy, teachers from schools with uniform policies perceived lower levels of…

  7. New Zealand High School Students' Perception of Accounting: How and Why Those Perceptions Were Formed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Paul K.

    2015-01-01

    Attempts to change the negative perceptions high school students have of accounting appear to have been unsuccessful. Using the social psychology theory of stereotyping, this study explains why such attempts have been unsuccessful and proposes intervention strategies. Individual perception data were collected through questionnaires and focus…

  8. Foreign language learning in French speakers is associated with rhythm perception, but not with melody perception.

    PubMed

    Bhatara, Anjali; Yeung, H Henny; Nazzi, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    There has been increasing interest in links between language and music. Here, we investigate the relation between foreign language learning and music perception. We administered tests measuring melody and rhythm perception as well as a questionnaire on musical and foreign language experience to 147 monolingual French speakers. As expected, we found that musicians had better melody and rhythm perception than nonmusicians and that, among musicians, there was a positive correlation between the total number of years of music training and test scores. Crucially, we also found a positive correlation between the total number of years learning foreign languages and rhythm perception, but we found no such relation with melody perception. Moreover, the degree to which participants were better at rhythm than melody perception was also related to foreign language experience. Results suggest that both music training and learning foreign languages (primarily English, Spanish, and German in our sample) are related to French speakers' perception of rhythm, but not to their perception of melody. These results are discussed with respect to the rhythmic properties of French and suggest a common perceptual basis for rhythm in language and music. PMID:25621578

  9. Haptic perception of mutiple objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaisier, M. A.

    2010-03-01

    In this thesis a series of investigations into haptic (touch) perception of multiple objects is presented. When we hold a collection of objects in our hand, we can extract different types of information about these objects. We can, for instance, identify which objects we are holding. The first chapters of this thesis aim at providing insight into how fast humans can find a certain object among other objects using touch and which specific features make an object stand out among the other objects. To this end human subjects were instructed to respond as fast as possible whether a certain target item was present among a varying number of distractor items. This way response times were measured as a function of the number of items. In chapters 2 and 3 subjects were asked to search a plane on which items could be placed. The results show that a rough item is highly salient among less rough items (chapter 2) and that in this produces ‘pop-out’ effect. In chapter 3 it is shown that very poor visual information can already guide haptic exploration effectively. In chapters 4 and 5 items consisted of three-dimensional shapes (spheres, cubes, tetrahedrons, cylinders and ellipsoids) that could be grasped together in the hand. We show that shapes with edges are highly salient and that there is a whole range of search slopes depending on the target -distractor combination. In addition to identifying the object we may hold in our hand, we can also determine how many objects we are holding. In chapters 6 to 8 we investigated haptic numerosity judgement. From vision it is known that numerosity judgment is fast and error-free up to 3 or 4 items, while for larger numbers response times and error-rates increase rapidly. The process used for assessing small numerosities has been labeled ‘subitizing’, while the process for larger numerosities is referred to as ‘counting’. In chapter 6 we show that subitizing also occurs in haptics when subjects are asked to determine the

  10. Patient perceptions of orthognathic surgery.

    PubMed

    Flanary, C M; Barnwell, G M; Alexander, J M

    1985-08-01

    A retrospective study of ninety orthognathic surgery patients was conducted to investigate (1) their presurgical concerns and motivations, (2) their preoperative preparation for surgery, and (3) their perceptions of the postsurgical outcome. All subjects completed a twenty-three-item questionnaire and Rotter's Locus of Control Inventory. Statistical date analyses were performed by means of frequency distributions, chi-square, Spearman's r, and Fisher's exact probability tests. The results are presented as thirteen tentative conclusions categorized into three broad areas: motivations and concerns, presurgical preparation, and postsurgical outcome. In the area of motivations and concerns, those with primarily esthetic motivations have less initial reticence toward having orthognathic surgery and less difficulty adjusting to their new appearance than those with strong functional incentives. Younger patients and those patients with strong cosmetic motivations are less concerned about surgical risks. Under the category of presurgical preparation, more females than males desire to speak to a previous orthognathic surgery patient. Patients who receive inadequate explanation of the surgical procedure are more likely to be emotionally unprepared. One of the leading factors in patient dissatisfaction with surgery is the patient's experience of postoperative "surprises." In the area of postsurgical outcome, two-jaw operations precipitate more pain complaints than single-arch procedures. With time, however, patients tend to forget the degree of postoperative pain. Maxillary surgical procedures lead to less severe pain complaints than mandibular procedures, but there are more initial complaints of breathing difficulties and sinus problems following maxillary procedures. Surgical goal fulfillment does not guarantee that a patient would re-elect to have the treatment. PMID:3861099

  11. Public Perceptions of Arctic Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, L.

    2014-12-01

    What does the general US public know, or think they know, about Arctic change? Two broad nationwide surveys in 2006 and 2010 addressed this topic in general terms, before and after the International Polar Year (IPY). Since then a series of representative national or statewide surveys have carried this research farther. The new surveys employ specific questions that assess public knowledge of basic Arctic facts, along with perceptions about the possible consequences of future Arctic change. Majorities know that late-summer Arctic sea ice area has declined compared with 30 years ago, although substantial minorities -- lately increasing -- believe instead that it has now recovered to historical levels. Majorities also believe that, if the Arctic warms in the future, this will have major effects on the weather where they live. Their expectation of local impacts from far-away changes suggests a degree of global thinking. On the other hand, most respondents do poorly when asked whether melting Arctic sea ice, melting Greenland/Antarctic land ice, or melting Himalayan glaciers could have more effect on sea level. Only 30% knew or guessed the right answer to this question. Similarly, only 33% answered correctly on a simple geography quiz: whether the North Pole could best be described as ice a few feet or yards thick floating over a deep ocean, ice more than a mile thick over land, or a rocky, mountainous landscape. Close analysis of response patterns suggests that people often construct Arctic "knowledge" on items such as sea ice increase/decrease from their more general ideology or worldview, such as their belief (or doubt) that anthropogenic climate change is real. When ideology or worldviews provide no guidance, as on the North Pole or sealevel questions, the proportion of accurate answers is no better than chance. These results show at least casual public awareness and interest in Arctic change, unfortunately not well grounded in knowledge. Knowledge problems seen on

  12. [Perception and attitude toward pain].

    PubMed

    Péoc'h, Nadia

    2012-09-01

    Traditionally, the pain sends back to the infringement of the flesh and the suffering on the infringement of the psyche. The relation of care and the accompanying are due to nature a social fact of relation. In the right line of a first study (Péoc'h et al., 2007) concerning professional representations of health care professionals with respect to the care of the pain, we studied in the context of the theoretical model of the "social thought" (Rouquette, 1973), attitudes, perceptions and the ideological positions of patients about their pain's living. 244 patients hospitalized within the Hospitals of Toulouse have completed a questionnaire included free associations tasks, attitude answers, and answers concerning the ideological dimension of pain (beliefs, religious or anthropological orientation), in fine, a fourth party entered into a phenomenological perspective. The object "pain" will be suspected under the angle of the consciousness and the lived of the patient by using the protocol of the "narrative story of life" (Le Grand, 1989), with a praxeological design. Results indicate that the conceptions of the pain proposed by the patient make references to two different areas: that of the body (evil, handicap) and that of the psyche (evil-being, suffering). The term suffering reveal the social face of the pain in a double constituent: existential (solitude, incomprehension) and ideological (" it is necessary to take its evil in patience ", P = 73,3 %; chi2 = 39,83, p. < .05). The representation universe of the pain comes along with a certain indecision between these two events of the disease : pain versus suffering. PMID:23091918

  13. Perceptions of a Healthy Diet

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Regan L.; Denby, Nigel; Haycock, Bryan; Sherif, Katherine; Steinbaum, Suzanne; von Schacky, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Limited data exist on consumer beliefs and practices on the role of omega-3 fatty acid and vitamin D dietary supplements and health. For this reason, the Global Health and Nutrition Alliance conducted an online survey in 3 countries (n = 3030; United States = 1022, Germany = 1002, United Kingdom = 1006) of a convenience sample of adults (aged 18–66 years) who represented the age, gender, and geographic composition within each country. More than half of the sample (52%) believed they consume all the key nutrients needed for optimal nutrition through food sources alone; fewer women (48%) than men (57%), and fewer middle-aged adults (48%) than younger (18–34 years [56%]) and older (≥55 years [54%]) adults agreed an optimal diet could be achieved through diet alone. Overall, 32% reported using omega-3s (45% in United States, 29% in United Kingdom, and 24% in Germany), and 42% reported using vitamin D dietary supplements (62% in United States, 32% in United Kingdom, and 31% in Germany). Seventy eight percent of the sample agreed that omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial for heart health; however, only 40% thought that their diet was adequate in omega-3 fatty acids. Similarly, 84% agreed that vitamin D was beneficial to overall, and 55% of adults from all countries were unsure or did not think they consume enough vitamin D in their diet. For most findings in our study, US adults reported more dietary supplement use and had stronger perceptions about the health effects of omega-3s and vitamin D than their counterparts in the United Kingdom and Germany. Nevertheless, the consistent findings across all countries were that adults are aware of the importance of nutrition, and most adults believe their diet is optimal for health. Our data serve to alert dietitians and health professionals that consumers may have an elevated sense of the healthfulness of their own diets and may require guidance and education to achieve optimal diets. PMID:26663954

  14. Enhancing Student Perceptions of Fairness: The Relationship between Instructor Credibility and Classroom Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chory, Rebecca M.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between college students' perceptions of instructor credibility (competence, character, and caring) and their perceptions of classroom justice (distributive, procedural, and interactional justice). Results indicate that perceptions of instructor credibility positively predicted perceptions of…

  15. Contrast affects flicker and speed perception differently

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, P.; Stone, L. S.

    1997-01-01

    We have previously shown that contrast affects speed perception, with lower-contrast, drifting gratings perceived as moving slower. In a recent study, we examined the implications of this result on models of speed perception that use the amplitude of the response of linear spatio-temporal filters to determine speed. In this study, we investigate whether the contrast dependence of speed can be understood within the context of models in which speed estimation is made using the temporal frequency of the response of linear spatio-temporal filters. We measured the effect of contrast on flicker perception and found that contrast manipulations produce opposite effects on perceived drift rate and perceived flicker rate, i.e., reducing contrast increases the apparent temporal frequency of counterphase modulated gratings. This finding argues that, if a temporal frequency-based algorithm underlies speed perception, either flicker and speed perception must not be based on the output of the same mechanism or contrast effects on perceived spatial frequency reconcile the disparate effects observed for perceived temporal frequency and speed.

  16. Perception and the temporal properties of speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Peter C.

    1991-11-01

    Four experiments addressing the role of attention in phonetic perception are reported. The first experiment shows that the relative importance of two cues to the voicing distinction changes when subjects must perform an arithmetic distractor task at the same time as identifying a speech stimulus. The voice onset time cue loses phonetic significance when subjects are distracted, while the F0 onset frequency cue does not. The second experiment shows a similar pattern for two cues to the distinction between the vowels /i/ (as in 'beat') and /I/ (as in 'bit'). Together these experiments indicate that careful attention to speech perception is necessary for strong acoustic cues to achieve their full phonetic impact, while weaker acoustic cues achieve their full phonetic impact without close attention. Experiment 3 shows that this pattern is obtained when the distractor task places little demand on verbal short term memory. Experiment 4 provides a large data set for testing formal models of the role of attention in speech perception. Attention is shown to influence the signal to noise ratio in phonetic encoding. This principle is instantiated in a network model in which the role of attention is to reduce noise in the phonetic encoding of acoustic cues. Implications of this work for understanding speech perception and general theories of the role of attention in perception are discussed.

  17. Rate-distortion theory and human perception.

    PubMed

    Sims, Chris R

    2016-07-01

    The fundamental goal of perception is to aid in the achievement of behavioral objectives. This requires extracting and communicating useful information from noisy and uncertain sensory signals. At the same time, given the complexity of sensory information and the limitations of biological information processing, it is necessary that some information must be lost or discarded in the act of perception. Under these circumstances, what constitutes an 'optimal' perceptual system? This paper describes the mathematical framework of rate-distortion theory as the optimal solution to the problem of minimizing the costs of perceptual error subject to strong constraints on the ability to communicate or transmit information. Rate-distortion theory offers a general and principled theoretical framework for developing computational-level models of human perception (Marr, 1982). Models developed in this framework are capable of producing quantitatively precise explanations for human perceptual performance, while yielding new insights regarding the nature and goals of perception. This paper demonstrates the application of rate-distortion theory to two benchmark domains where capacity limits are especially salient in human perception: discrete categorization of stimuli (also known as absolute identification) and visual working memory. A software package written for the R statistical programming language is described that aids in the development of models based on rate-distortion theory. PMID:27107330

  18. Perception and self-organized instability

    PubMed Central

    Friston, Karl; Breakspear, Michael; Deco, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers state-dependent dynamics that mediate perception in the brain. In particular, it considers the formal basis of self-organized instabilities that enable perceptual transitions during Bayes-optimal perception. The basic phenomena we consider are perceptual transitions that lead to conscious ignition (Dehaene and Changeux, 2011) and how they depend on dynamical instabilities that underlie chaotic itinerancy (Breakspear, 2001; Tsuda, 2001) and self-organized criticality (Beggs and Plenz, 2003; Plenz and Thiagarajan, 2007; Shew et al., 2011). Our approach is based on a dynamical formulation of perception as approximate Bayesian inference, in terms of variational free energy minimization. This formulation suggests that perception has an inherent tendency to induce dynamical instabilities (critical slowing) that enable the brain to respond sensitively to sensory perturbations. We briefly review the dynamics of perception, in terms of generalized Bayesian filtering and free energy minimization, present a formal conjecture about self-organized instability and then test this conjecture, using neuronal (numerical) simulations of perceptual categorization. PMID:22783185

  19. [Midwives' perception of reproductive risk factors].

    PubMed

    García-Barrios, C; Castañeda-Camey, X; Romero-Guerrero, X; González-Hernández, D; Langer-Glas, A

    1993-01-01

    Midwives in rural areas of the State of Morelos are one of the most important resources used by rural women for health care of pregnancy, delivery and the puerperium. This work was aimed at identifying midwives perceptions of pregnant women's risk factors, in order to include this knowledge in reproductive health programs which articulate institutional and traditional health systems. We applied a questionnaire to all midwives in the Municipalities of Ocuituco, yecapixtla and Zacualpan, Morelos (n = 35). Four key informants were selected and interviewed. These instruments enabled us to measure variability in perception of risk factors. Knowledge of risk factors is defective among midwives. Previous training made a big difference. Sixty three per cent of midwives who attended training courses are better qualified from an academic medicine point of view. Only 28.7 per cent of non-trained midwives (43% for both groups), indicating that sociocultural aspects prevail over technical training in midwives perceptions of reproductive risk factors. PMID:8470023

  20. Perceptions of submissiveness: implications for victimization.

    PubMed

    Richards, L; Rollerson, B; Phillips, J

    1991-07-01

    Some researchers have suggested that a precondition of affective submissiveness may increase the likelihood of female victimization in sexual assault, whereas others have suggested that criminal offenders use perceptions of vulnerability when selecting a victim. In this study, based on American college students, men (decoders) rated videotaped women (encoders) dominant versus submissive using a semantic differential instrument. Cue evaluators analyzed the body language and appearance of the videotaped women using a Likert instrument. The results suggest that (a) men form differentiated perceptions of dominant versus submissive women, (b) such perceptions substantially rely on nonverbal cues, (c) dominant and submissive women display visually different behaviors and appearances, and (d) men tend to select submissive females for exploitation. PMID:1757895

  1. Unconscious Effects of Action on Perception

    PubMed Central

    Halász, Veronika; Cunnington, Ross

    2012-01-01

    We spend much of our life predicting the future. This involves developing theories and making predictions about others’ intentions, goals and about the consequences of the actions we are observing. Adapting our actions and behaviours to the environment is required for achieving our goals, and to do this the motor system relies on input from sensory modalities. However, recent theories suggest that the link between motor and perceptual areas is bidirectional, and that predictions based on planned or intended actions can unconsciously influence and modify our perception. In the following review we describe current theories on the link between action and perception, and examine the ways in which the motor system can unconsciously alter our perception. PMID:24962769

  2. Euthanasia: the perceptions of nurses in India.

    PubMed

    Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Nagarajaiah; Konduru, Reddemma; Math, Suresh Bada

    2013-04-01

    Euthanasia provokes controversies in various domains, such as the moral, ethical, legal, religious, scientific, and economic. India legalised passive euthanasia (withdrawal of life support) for patients with brain death or who are in a permanent vegetative state in 2011, but research on perceptions of euthanasia among people in India is limited. This study aimed to examine nurses' perceptions of the practice of euthanasia as well as factors influencing those perceptions. A non-probability quantitative, cross-sectional design was adopted for a sample of 214 nurses working at a tertiary care centre. Data was collected through self-reported questionnaires at the nurses workplace.The findings revealed mixed opinions on euthanasia among the nurses. However, the majority of the participants did not agree with the practice of euthanasia. Nonetheless, further research is needed on this issue across the country among various health professionals in the context of current legislation. PMID:23967773

  3. The emotional body and time perception.

    PubMed

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Gil, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of emotional bodily expressions on the perception of time. Participants were shown bodily expressions of fear, happiness and sadness in a temporal bisection task featuring different stimulus duration ranges. Stimulus durations were judged to be longer for bodily expressions of fear than for those of sadness, whereas no significant difference was observed between sad and happy postures. In addition, the magnitude of the lengthening effect of fearful versus sad postures increased with duration range. These results suggest that the perception of fearful bodily expressions increases the level of arousal which, in turn, speeds up the internal clock system underlying the representation of time. The effect of bodily expressions on time perception is thus consistent with findings for other highly arousing emotional stimuli, such as emotional facial expressions. PMID:25817441

  4. An existential approach to risk perception.

    PubMed

    Langford, Ian H

    2002-02-01

    Existential, or existential-phenomenological philosophical approaches to the social psychology of risk perception provide a novel framework for understanding issues that are common to all humanity, such as fear of death, freedom and responsibility, isolation and meaninglessness, as these anxieties are a function of existing, or being-in-the-world. These fundamental anxieties can be related theoretically to the ways people perceive risks within social and cultural milieus, and can also be used practically within case studies, as demonstrated in the three examples presented, which examine perceptions of climate change, food-related risks, and environmental awareness via a mixture of quantitative and qualitative techniques. The discussion focuses on the possible insights that can be gained from taking an existential perspective on risk perception, and relates notions of contemporary technologically-oriented societies to the existential challenges faced by individuals and societies in the contemporary world. PMID:12017353

  5. Perception of saturation in natural scenes.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Florian; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2016-03-01

    We measured how well perception of color saturation in natural scenes can be predicted by different measures that are available in the literature. We presented 80 color images of natural scenes or their gray-scale counterparts to our observers, who were asked to choose the pixel from each image that appeared to be the most saturated. We compared our observers' choices to the predictions of seven popular saturation measures. For the color images, all of the measures predicted perception of saturation quite well, with CIECAM02 performing best. Differences between the measures were small but systematic. When gray-scale images were viewed, observers still chose pixels whose counterparts in the color images were saturated above average. This indicates that image structure and prior knowledge can be relevant to perception of saturation. Nevertheless, our results also show that saturation in natural scenes can be specified quite well without taking these factors into account. PMID:26974924

  6. ON THE PERCEPTION OF PROBABLE THINGS

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Perception is influenced both by the immediate pattern of sensory inputs and by memories acquired through prior experiences with the world. Throughout much of its illustrious history, however, study of the cellular basis of perception has focused on neuronal structures and events that underlie the detection and discrimination of sensory stimuli. Relatively little attention has been paid to the means by which memories interact with incoming sensory signals. Building upon recent neurophysiological/behavioral studies of the cortical substrates of visual associative memory, I propose a specific functional process by which stored information about the world supplements sensory inputs to yield neuronal signals that can account for visual perceptual experience. This perspective represents a significant shift in the way we think about the cellular bases of perception. PMID:22542178

  7. Adolescents’ Perceptions of Family Belonging in Stepfamilies

    PubMed Central

    King, Valarie; Boyd, Lisa M.; Thorsen, Maggie L.

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has established that adolescents’ perceptions of family belonging are associated with a range of well-being indicators and that adolescents in stepfamilies report lower levels of family belonging than adolescents in two-biological-parent families. Yet, we know little regarding what factors are associated with adolescents’ perceptions of family belonging in stepfamilies. Guided by family systems theory, the authors addressed this issue by using nationally representative data (Add Health) to examine the associations between family characteristics and adolescents’ perceptions of family belonging in stepfather families (N = 2,085). Results from structural equation models revealed that both the perceived quality of the stepfather–adolescent relationship, and in particular the perceived quality of the mother–adolescent relationship, were the factors most strongly associated with feelings of family belonging. PMID:26166845

  8. Dental Students' Perceptions of the Difficulty of Faculty Positions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Christopher H.; Eisner, J. E.

    1987-01-01

    A study of dental student perceptions of faculty responsibilities and roles, such as administrative duties, part-time teaching, and research, concludes that these perceptions must be considered if positive changes are to made in the teaching environment. (MSE)

  9. Cognitive Problems (Disorientation, Perception, Attention, Learning and Problem-Solving)

    MedlinePlus

    ... SOMEONE WITH EMOTIONAL & BEHAVIORAL NEEDS Cognitive Problems (Disorientation, Perception, Attention, Learning & Problem-Solving) Cognition is the process ... What Are Some Other Cognitive Problems? What Is Perception? Remember What Is Attention or Concentration? More Resources ...

  10. Theme: Changing Perceptions of Aging and the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenk, Dena, Ed.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Special issue includes 20 articles in 3 categories: personal and individual perceptions of aging, varieties of images and perceptions (social, historical, cross-cultural), and institutional responses over time (ageism, federal responses, literature, mass media). (SK)

  11. Extraction of percept-related induced local field potential during spontaneously reversing perception.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhisong; Logothetis, Nikos K; Liang, Hualou

    2009-01-01

    The question of how perception arises from neuronal activity in the visual cortex is of fundamental importance in cognitive neuroscience. To address this question, we adopt a unique experimental paradigm in which bistable structure-from-motion (SFM) stimuli are employed to dissociate the visual input from perception while monitoring the cortical neural activity called local field potential (LFP). Consequently, the stimulus-evoked activity of LFP is not related to perception but the oscillatory induced activity of LFP may be percept-related. In this paper we focus on extracting the percept-related features of the induced activity from LFP in a monkey's visual cortex for decoding its bistable structure-from-motion perception. We first estimate the stimulus-evoked activity via a wavelet-based method and remove it from the single-trial LFP. We then use the common spatial patterns (CSP) approach to design spatial filters to extract the percept-related features from the remaining induced activity. We exploit the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier on the extracted features to decode the reported perception on a single-trial basis. We demonstrate that our approach has excellent performance in estimating the stimulus-evoked activity, outperforming the Wiener filter, least mean square (LMS), and a local regression method called the locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (LOWESS), and that our approach is effective in extracting the discriminative features of the percept-related induced activity from LFP, which leads to excellent decoding performance. We also discover that the enhanced gamma band synchronization and reduced alpha band desynchronization may be the underpinnings of the induced activity. PMID:19608383

  12. Musicians' illness perceptions of musculoskeletal complaints.

    PubMed

    Kok, Laura M; Vliet Vlieland, Theodora P M; Fiocco, Marta; Kaptein, Ad A; Nelissen, Rob G H H

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to know the views of people about their illness, i.e., illness perceptions, determine coping strategies, and outcome. Previous research suggests a higher prevalence and a different perception of musculoskeletal complaints between musicians and nonmusicians. The aim of this study is to compare illness perceptions related to musculoskeletal complaints between musicians and nonmusicians. In this cross-sectional study, students from three music academies (n = 345) and one university medical center (n = 2,870) in the Netherlands received an electronic questionnaire concerning questions on sociodemographic characteristics, use of musical instruments, occurrence and characteristics of musculoskeletal complaints in the past year, and the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ). Baseline and B-IPQ scores were compared between the samples by means of t tests, chi-square tests, and regression models to adjust for differences in sociodemographic characteristics. Eighty-three music academy students and 494 medical students completed the questionnaire (response rates, 25.5 and 17.6 %, respectively). Seventy-four (89 %) persons in the musician group and 382 (78 %) persons in the nonmusician group reported occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints during the last 12 months. Adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, the B-IPQ scores of the domains consequences (my illness is a serious condition), concern (I am extremely concerned about my illness), and emotions (my illness makes me scared) were significantly higher among musicians, whereas personal control (there is little I can do to improve my illness), identity (number of symptoms patient sees as part of illness) were not significantly different. Music academy students had a significant more positive score on treatment control. Music academy students report more negative perceptions of their musculoskeletal complaints compared to medical students. Although some selection bias is

  13. Adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Prevalence of tobacco use among adolescents in India is very high. Despite many epidemiological studies exploring tobacco use among youth, there is no published data on adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Indian society and its implications on tobacco control. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a stratified random sampling with probability proportional to school-type (government or private owned). Data was collected using a pretested, self-administered, anonymous questionnaire with a mix of close and open-ended questions from a sample of 1087 students. Chi-square test was used to measure associations. Qualitative data was analysed through inductive coding. Results The response rate for the study was 82.5% and the sample population had a mean age of 16.9 years (SD = 1.9) with 57.8% male students. Majority of respondents (84.6%) reported negative perceptions about smokers while 20.4% of respondents reported positive perceptions. Female students reported significantly higher disapproval rate (negative perceptions) for smoking compared to male students (89.7% Vs 71.6% in case of male smoker; 81.2% Vs 67.3% in case of female smoker). Dominant themes defining perceptions about smokers included 'hatred/hostility/Intolerance', 'against family values/norms', 'not aware of tobacco harms' and 'under stress/emotional trauma'. Themes like 'culture', 'character' and 'power' specifically described negative social image of female smoker but projected a neutral or sometimes even a positive image of male smoker. There was a significant association between adolescents' positive perceptions of smokers and tobacco use by themselves as well as their close associates. Conclusions Adolescents' stereotypes of smokers, especially female smokers are largely negative. We suggest that tobacco control interventions targeting adolescents should be gender specific, should also involve their peers, family and school personnel, and should go beyond providing

  14. Perception of string quartet synchronization

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Alan M.; Endo, Satoshi; Yates, Tim; Bradbury, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Timing variation in small group musical performance results from intentional, expressive, and unintentional, error components in individual player timing. These timing fluctuations produce variability in between-player note asynchrony and require timing adjustments to keep the ensemble together. The size of the adjustments relative to the asynchrony (correction gain) affects the amount and nature of asynchrony variability. We present new listening tests to estimate thresholds for perception of between-player asynchrony variability and to determine whether listeners use differences in the nature of the variability, as well as in its magnitude, to judge asynchrony. In two experiments, computer-simulated ensemble performances of a 48-note excerpt from Haydn Op. 74 No. 1 were generated. Between-player note asynchrony was systematically manipulated in terms of level of within-player timing variability (Experiment 1) and correction gain (Experiment 2). On each trial, participants listened to two samples, one (“target”) with more between-player asynchrony variability than the other (“test”), and reported which was “less together.” In both experiments, the test sample correction gain was fixed at the statistically optimal value of 0.25 and the within-player timing variability was minimal (zero except for random variability in the initial note). In Experiment 1 the target correction gain was fixed at 0.25 and the timing variability was adjusted over trials by a staircase algorithm designed to converge on the level of asynchrony variability giving 75% correct identification. In Experiment 2 the timing variability in the target was set at half that in Experiment 1 and the correction gain was varied to converge on 75% correct identification. Our results show that the between-player asynchrony variability giving 75% correct identification in Experiment 2 was significantly lower than in Experiment 1. This finding indicates that people are sensitive to both the degree

  15. Stereomotion speed perception is contrast dependent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, K.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of contrast on the perception of stimulus speed for stereomotion and monocular lateral motion was investigated for successive matches in random-dot stimuli. The familiar 'Thompson effect'--that a reduction in contrast leads to a reduction in perceived speed--was found in similar proportions for both binocular images moving in depth, and for monocular images translating laterally. This result is consistent with the idea that the monocular motion system has a significant input to the stereomotion system, and dominates the speed percept for approaching motion.

  16. The Perception of Asthma Severity in Children.

    PubMed

    Still, Lindsay; Dolen, William K

    2016-07-01

    The ability to perceive the onset and severity of symptoms of worsening asthma is important, not only for initial diagnosis but also for early identification of an asthma exacerbation and prompt management. There are subjective and objective methods for identifying symptoms. Symptom perception is affected by multiple mechanisms, and not all patients can accurately perceive symptoms of airflow limitation. Hyperperceivers will report substantial discomfort in the face of minimal bronchoconstriction, and poor perceivers will report no symptoms even in the presence of severe obstruction. The use of objective measures of airflow limitation is essential for such patients. Regimens for training perception in children and adults have been studied and are available. PMID:27333779

  17. Student conception and perception of Newton's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handhika, Jeffry; Cari, C.; Soeparmi, A.; Sunarno, Widha

    2016-02-01

    This research aims to reveal the student's conception and perception of Newton's Law. Method of this research is qualitative with the sample is taken using purposive sampling consist of second semester (25 students), fourth semester (26 students), sixth semester VI (25 students), and eight semester (18 students) IKIP PGRI MADIUN, which have taken the first basic physics and mechanics courses The data was collected with essay questions, interview, and FCI test. It can be concluded that Mathematical language (symbol and visual) perception and intuition influence students conception. The results of analysis showed that an incorrect conception arises because students do not understand the language of physics and mathematics correctly.

  18. Women's perceptions of health care in prison.

    PubMed

    Young, D S

    2000-01-01

    Fifteen female inmates' perceptions of medical care and the manner in which treatment is provided are explored through individual interviews in a state prison. The women did not hold exclusively negative or positive views about the care and treatment they received; however, the predominant view was negative. Examples of inadequate medical care are described by 14 of the 15 women. Nonempathetic treatment, such as being treated as if undeserving of care, is described by all 15. Examples of adequate medical care and empathetic treatment are offered as well, and the overlap between positive and negative perceptions of care is explored. PMID:11111467

  19. Predictive dynamics of human pain perception.

    PubMed

    Cecchi, Guillermo A; Huang, Lejian; Hashmi, Javeria Ali; Baliki, Marwan; Centeno, María V; Rish, Irina; Apkarian, A Vania

    2012-01-01

    While the static magnitude of thermal pain perception has been shown to follow a power-law function of the temperature, its dynamical features have been largely overlooked. Due to the slow temporal experience of pain, multiple studies now show that the time evolution of its magnitude can be captured with continuous online ratings. Here we use such ratings to model quantitatively the temporal dynamics of thermal pain perception. We show that a differential equation captures the details of the temporal evolution in pain ratings in individual subjects for different stimulus pattern complexities, and also demonstrates strong predictive power to infer pain ratings, including readouts based only on brain functional images. PMID:23133342

  20. Thai female adolescents' perceptions of dating violence.

    PubMed

    Thongpriwan, Vipavee; McElmurry, Beverly J

    2009-10-01

    We explored how Thai female adolescents describe the meaning and context of dating violence. Twenty-four students, aged 15-17, were purposively recruited from a secondary school in Bangkok for individually audio-taped interviews. The interviews lasted 45- 70 minutes. ATLAS ti 5.2 was selected for content analysis. Five themes emerged, including characteristics of adolescent romantic relationships, influences on adolescent romantic relationships, perceptions of dating violence, cycle of dating-violence experiences, and influences on adolescents' perceptions of dating violence. The findings indicate a foundation for developing culturally sensitive programs for dating-violence prevention among Thai adolescents. PMID:19742362

  1. Motion and color analysis for animat perception

    SciTech Connect

    Rabie, T.F.; Terzopoulos, D.

    1996-12-31

    We propose novel gaze control algorithms for active perception in mobile autonomous agents with directable, foveated vision sensors. Our agents are realistic artificial animals, or animals, situated in physics-based virtual worlds. Their active perception systems continuously analyze photorealistic retinal image streams to glean information useful for controlling the animal`s eyes and body. The vision system computes optical flow and segments moving targets in the low-resolution visual periphery. It then matches segmented targets against mental models of colored objects of interest. The eyes saccade to increase acuity by foveating objects, The resulting sensorimotor control loop supports complex behaviors, such as predation.

  2. Current research on music perception in cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Limb, Charles J; Rubinstein, Jay T

    2012-02-01

    The authors present a comprehensive review of the state of music perception with cochlear implant (CI) users. They discuss methods of assessment and results of studies of the aspects of music perception, melody, timbre, rhythm, and so forth in individuals with cochlear implants. They discuss neural mechanisms of music perception and the anticipation of broader acceptance of standardized tests for music perception in CI users. PMID:22115686

  3. Perceptions and Attitudes of Mothers about Child Neglect in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Selda; Tasar, Aysin; Ozkan, Secil; Yeltekin, Sevinc; Cakir, Bahar Cuhac; Akbaba, Sevil; Sahin, Figen; Camurdan, Aysu Duyan; Beyazova, Ufuk

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perceptions and attitudes about child neglect of a group of mothers, in Ankara, Turkey, and to determine the factors affecting perception and attitudes of these mothers about child neglect. A questionnaire consisting of 15 scenarios about perception of child neglect and 12 behavioral descriptions about…

  4. The Relationship between Tests of Creativity and Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindauer, Martin S.

    The relationship between creativity and perception was examined in two studies that correlated a combined total of 11 tests of perception (e.g., figure-ground and physiognomy) and creativity (e.g., remote associates and figure preferences). Four of the tests dealt with perception, five with creativity, and two with both. Since several of the tests…

  5. Speech-Perception-in-Noise Deficits in Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Johannes C.; Pech-Georgel, Catherine; George, Florence; Lorenzi, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Speech perception deficits in developmental dyslexia were investigated in quiet and various noise conditions. Dyslexics exhibited clear speech perception deficits in noise but not in silence. "Place-of-articulation" was more affected than "voicing" or "manner-of-articulation." Speech-perception-in-noise deficits persisted when performance of…

  6. High School Students' Perceptions of Local, National, and Institutional Scholarships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Laura W.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses data from 15 descriptive case studies to explore high school students' perceptions of scholarships and the forces that contribute to these perceptions. The findings describe six themes that emerged from the data analyses: (a) awareness of scholarships; (b) perceptions of institutional scholarships; (c) motivations for pursuing…

  7. Intelligibility of Dysarthric Speech: Perceptions of Speakers and Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walshe, Margaret; Miller, Nick; Leahy, Margaret; Murray, Aisling

    2008-01-01

    Background: Many factors influence listener perception of dysarthric speech. Final consensus on the role of gender and listener experience is still to be reached. The speaker's perception of his/her speech has largely been ignored. Aims: (1) To compare speaker and listener perception of the intelligibility of dysarthric speech; (2) to explore the…

  8. Self-Perception in Late Adolescence: An Interactive Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Helen Altman

    1995-01-01

    Examined self-perception during late adolescence as a correlate of individual temperament. Found that positive self-perception correlated with approaching, flexible, and positive mood patterns, and with high task orientation. Different aspects of self-perception showed distinct relationships with specific temperament dimensions. Noted men's and…

  9. A Self-Categorization Explanation for Opinion Consensus Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jinguang; Reid, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    The public expression of opinions (and related communicative activities) hinges upon the perception of opinion consensus. Current explanations for opinion consensus perceptions typically focus on egocentric and other biases, rather than functional cognitions. Using self-categorization theory we showed that opinion consensus perceptions flow from…

  10. Social Work Students' Perceptions of Team-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macke, Caroline; Taylor, Jessica Averitt; Taylor, James E.; Tapp, Karen; Canfield, James

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to examine social work students' perceptions of Team-Based Learning (N = 154). Aside from looking at overall student perceptions, comparative analyses examined differences in perceptions between BSW and MSW students, and between Caucasian students and students of color. Findings for the overall sample revealed favorable…

  11. A Longitudinal Study on Newcomers' Perception of Organisational Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turker, Duygu; Altuntas, Ceren

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse how newcomers' perceptions of organisational culture can change over time. The study tries to address whether initial working experience changes newcomers' perceptions about the ideal organisational culture, and whether these perceptions converge with those of their supervisors.…

  12. Weight Perception, Academic Performance, and Psychological Factors in Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Bin; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Reynolds, Kim; Clark, Florence; Palmer, Paula H.; Gallaher, Peggy; Sun, Ping; Guo, Qian; Johnson, C. Anderson

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate weight perception and related psychological factors in Chinese adolescents. Methods: A questionnaire on weight perception, academic performance, stress, hostility, and depression was completed by 6863 middle and high school students. Weight and height were measured. Results: Overweight perception was related to…

  13. Children's and Adolescents' Developing Perceptions of Gender Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Kristin D.; Cooper, Carey E.; Woodruff, Althea L.

    2007-01-01

    Two studies examined children's and adolescents' developing perceptions of gender inequality. The first study examined perceptions of inequality among 272 early, middle, and late adolescents, focusing on the spheres of politics, business, and the home. Results indicated an age-related increase in perceptions of male dominance. Men were seen to…

  14. Leadership Styles: Perceptions in Information Technology Project Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fune, Roy P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to uncover Information Technology (IT) Project Managers' and IT Professionals' perceptions of effective leadership styles as they apply to project success. There have been prior studies dealing with the differences in perceptions between IT Functional Manager's leadership self-perception versus staff…

  15. Perceptions of College Business Students: Gender and Alcoholic Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James O.; Gribble, T. D.; Tomkiewicz, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigated the perceptions of undergraduate business students toward male and female managers who were alcoholics. Since most of the respondents were soon to graduate and seek employment opportunities in business organizations, their perceptions and predispositions seemed relevant. While it was found that the perceptions of alcoholic…

  16. Young Children's Perceptions of Scientists: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buldu, Mehmet

    2006-01-01

    Background: Since the 1950s, there has been a growing body of research dealing with perceptions children have of scientists. Typically, research studies in this area have utilized children's drawings in an effort to discern what those perceptions are. Studies assessing perceptions children have of scientists have shown that children have…

  17. Perceptions of Work and Leisure among the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roadburg, Alan

    1981-01-01

    Interviews with elderly respondents (N=245) indicated that perceptions of work were influenced by type of job held before retirement. Perceptions of leisure were influenced by forced or voluntary retirement. Generally as people age or retire, their perception of leisure tends to shift away from "freedom" and toward "pleasure." (Author)

  18. Perception and Production of English Lexical Stress by Thai Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jangjamras, Jirapat

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of first language prosodic transfer on the perception and production of English lexical stress and the relation between stress perception and production by second language learners. To test the effect of Thai tonal distribution rules and stress patterns on native Thai speakers' perception and production of…

  19. Physical Activity Perceptions of Task- and Ego-Oriented Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruickshanks, Carla M.

    2010-01-01

    Children begin to show sedentary behaviors around the age of 12 and increased mortality is associated with sedentary behaviors in children and adults. This case study examined physical activity (PA) perceptions of task oriented and ego oriented children. Research has addressed perceptions based on goal orientations and how perception of PA changes…

  20. Alternative Organization of Speech Perception Deficits in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosy, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Children's first-language perception base takes shape gradually from birth onwards. Empirical research has confirmed that children may continue to fall short of age-based expectations in their speech perception. The purpose of this study was to assess the contribution of various perception processes in both reading and learning disabled children.…

  1. The Marihuana Perception Inventory: The Effects of Substance Abuse Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabany, Steve G.; Plummer, Portia

    1990-01-01

    Studied 617 high school and college students prior to and after substance abuse instruction to determine relationship between perceptions and demographic characteristics, and to learn whether substance abuse instruction was related to changes in student's perception of relationships. Findings from Marihuana Perception Inventory showed five factors…

  2. When Writing Impairs Reading: Letter Perception's Susceptibility to Motor Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Karin H.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    The effect of writing on the concurrent visual perception of letters was investigated in a series of studies using an interference paradigm. Participants drew shapes and letters while simultaneously visually identifying letters and shapes embedded in noise. Experiments 1-3 demonstrated that letter perception, but not the perception of shapes, was…

  3. The Mirror Reflects both Ways: Action Influences Perception of Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaesi, Sabine; Wilson, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Substantial evidence links perception of others' bodies and mental representation of the observer's own body; however, the overwhelming majority of this evidence is unidirectional, showing influence from perception to action. It has been proposed that the influence also runs from action to perception, but to date the evidence is scant. Here we…

  4. A Brief Measure of Adolescent Perceptions of School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Nick; La Salle, Tamika; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Meyers, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Student perceptions of school climate represent the ways students feel about the school environment. These include perceptions regarding safety, teaching and learning, and relationships within the school. It has been found that student perceptions of school climate are positively correlated with academic achievement (Brookover et al., 1978), and…

  5. Teacher and Administrator Perceptions of Bullying in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Tom D.; Russom, Ashley G.; Kevorkian, Meline M.

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to explore the differences between teacher and administrator perceptions of bullying. Data were collected from 139 practicing educators and administrators who completed a survey regarding their perceptions of bullying in schools. Mann Whitney U tests were conducted to determine if perceptions of bullying varied…

  6. A Qualitative Study of the Perceptions of Substitute Teaching Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Peter W.

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed Utah teachers, substitute teachers, substitute teacher managers, and principals to examine the perceived quality of substitute teachers, reasons for these perceptions, and potential effects of the perceptions. Substitute teaching was generally assumed to be low quality. Two perceptions driving this assumption were: low pay results in poor…

  7. Hiring Managers' Perceptions of the Value of an Online MBA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Jeffrey S.; Flegle, Larry V.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have theorized that online degrees are less valuable in the perception of hiring managers. Identifying the factors which influence the hiring managers' perceptions and if obtaining a degree from a for-profit institution influences that perception is critical in designing programs and courses. The purpose of this study was to identify…

  8. Knowledge-Linking Perceptions of Late-Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuh, Kathy L.; Kuo, Yi-Lung; Knupp, Tawnya L.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes student perceptions of potential elaborative or generative learning strategies called student knowledge links. This construct was assessed using the Student Knowledge Linking Instrument-Perceptions (SKLIP), a new learning inventory to measure late-elementary student perceptions of the creation of student knowledge links. After…

  9. Emotion perception, but not affect perception, is impaired with semantic memory loss

    PubMed Central

    Lindquist, Kristen A.; Gendron, Maria; Feldman Barrett, Lisa; Dickerson, Bradford C.

    2014-01-01

    For decades, psychologists and neuroscientists have hypothesized that the ability to perceive emotions on others’ faces is inborn, pre-linguistic, and universal. Concept knowledge about emotion has been assumed to be epiphenomenal to emotion perception. In this paper, we report findings from three patients with semantic dementia that cannot be explained by this “basic emotion” view. These patients, who have substantial deficits in semantic processing abilities, spontaneously perceived pleasant and unpleasant expressions on faces, but not discrete emotions such as anger, disgust, fear, or sadness, even in a task that did not require the use of emotion words. Our findings support the hypothesis that discrete emotion concept knowledge helps transform perceptions of affect (positively or negatively valenced facial expressions) into perceptions of discrete emotions such as anger, disgust, fear and sadness. These findings have important consequences for understanding the processes supporting emotion perception. PMID:24512242

  10. Effects of Production Training and Perception Training on Lexical Tone Perception--Are the Effects Domain General or Domain Specific?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Shuang

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between speech perception and production has been debated for a long time. The Motor Theory of speech perception (Liberman et al., 1989) claims that perceiving speech is identifying the intended articulatory gestures rather than perceiving the sound patterns. It seems to suggest that speech production precedes speech perception,…

  11. Ascertaining Disabling Perceptions Using Perceptual Mapping: Applications to Teachers' Perceptions of Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rush, S. Craig; Wheeler, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that humans form perceptions as a result of a variety of complex cognitive processes. The purpose of this pilot study is to demonstrate the potential use of perceptual mapping as a means to capture the perceptions of groups of individuals who work closely with people with disabilities and examine their perceptions in a…

  12. Perception, experience and body identity.

    PubMed

    López-Ibor, Juan J; Ortiz, Tomás; López-Ibor, María I

    2011-12-01

    there is a confrontation between the body object and the body subject that has made it possible to investigate how the perception of the own body is and how the brain generates the schema and the body image. The study of the body experience, from the phenomenology and the anthropological psychiatry perspective, has made it possible to go greater in-depth into the knowledge of the alterations of the experience of the own body in different mental diseases, especially in those in which a confrontation between the body and the personal identity arises makes it necessary to consider the process of individual identification and a category of personal identity disorders that would include body dysmorphic disorder, erythrophobia, anorexia nervosa, body integrity identity as well as the gender-type disorders (transsexualism, nonfetishistic transvestism, gender identity disorder during childhood). Key words: Dualism, Monism, Agnosia, Phantom limb, Cenesthesia, Body schema, Body image, Body experience, Personal identity disorders, Body dysmorphic disorder, Anorexia nervosa, Personal integrity identity disorder. PMID:22990877

  13. Principals' Perceptions of School Public Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Robert C.; Chan, Tak Cheung; Patterson, Judith

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate school principals' perceptions on school public relations in five areas: community demographics, parental involvement, internal and external communications, school council issues, and community resources. Findings indicated that principals' concerns were as follows: rapid population growth, change of…

  14. Educational Faculty Members' Perceptions on Multicultural Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Günay, Rafet; Aslan, Dolgun

    2016-01-01

    This purpose of this study is to determine how the perceptions of teaching personnel members were conceptualized through use of metaphorical images with regard to the multicultural teacher. In this study, a phenomenological design, a type of qualitative research design was used. A total of 323 teaching personnel members employed at 71 educational…

  15. Are Students Customers? Perceptions of Academic Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lomas, Laurie

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the notion of the student as a customer in a university, focusing on the perceptions of academic staff. Changes in the higher education sector in recent years have significantly reduced the differences between universities and other types of organisations and it has been argued that students have become "consumers" of higher…

  16. Key Stakeholders' Perceptions of Effective School Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odhiambo, George; Hii, Amy

    2012-01-01

    There has been limited research on how teachers, parents and students perceive effective school leadership in practice. The purpose of this article is to present some of the findings derived from a study of key stakeholders' perceptions of effective school leadership. Key stakeholders were identified as teachers, students and parents. Data were…

  17. Arabic Spelling: Errors, Perceptions, and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosh, Hezi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated common spelling errors among first language English speakers who study Arabic at the college level. A sample of 63 students (45 males and 18 females) was asked to write texts about a variety of topics and then to answer survey questions regarding their perceptions and strategies. Their writing produced 457 spelling errors,…

  18. Teachers' Perceptions of Modular Technology Education Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Kara S.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine teachers' perceptions concerning the modular technology approach to teaching technology education in Georgia. The study addressed the following basic research question: What do teachers in Georgia perceive to be the main advantages and drawbacks to teaching technology education in a modular environment…

  19. Organizational Image Perceptions of Higher Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Küçüksüleymanoglu, Rüyam

    2015-01-01

    Colleges and universities rely on their image to attract new members. Organizational image is the total of thoughts, emotions and perceptions resulting from clear conclusions of information formed in the minds of stakeholders as a result of communication with the institution about that institution and its elements. The purpose of this study is to…

  20. Perceptions of Elders' Substance Abuse and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael N.; Green, Diane

    2009-01-01

    Human service students' (social work, criminal justice, public administration, psychology) were surveyed (N = 242). Their perceptions about older persons' resilience and recovery from substance abuse were investigated. Overall, respondents did not agree that treating older persons for a substance abuse problem was wasteful of resources or older…

  1. Social Justice Perceptions of Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turhan, Muhammed

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to determine the social justice perceptions of teacher candidates being trained in an education faculty. For this purpose, national and international literature was reviewed by the researcher and a 32-item questionnaire was developed and implemented on 237 senior year education faculty students. Data from the questionnaires were…

  2. Evaluating Student Perceptions of Course Delivery Platforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramorski, Tom; Madan, Manu S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate effectiveness of course delivery mode on three dimensions: values, networking opportunities and learning. While students and their future employers are two important customers for the business program, we focus on the perception of students regarding the effectiveness of course delivery mode on program performance. The…

  3. Students' Perception of Industrial Internship Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renganathan, Sumathi; Karim, Zainal Ambri Bin Abdul; Li, Chong Su

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: An important aspect of an academic curriculum in higher learning institutions for technical disciplines is the industrial internship programme for students. The purpose of this paper is to investigate students' perception of the effectiveness of an industrial internship programme offered by a private technological university in Malaysia.…

  4. Neural and behavioral investigations into timbre perception

    PubMed Central

    Town, Stephen M.; Bizley, Jennifer K.

    2013-01-01

    Timbre is the attribute that distinguishes sounds of equal pitch, loudness and duration. It contributes to our perception and discrimination of different vowels and consonants in speech, instruments in music and environmental sounds. Here we begin by reviewing human timbre perception and the spectral and temporal acoustic features that give rise to timbre in speech, musical and environmental sounds. We also consider the perception of timbre by animals, both in the case of human vowels and non-human vocalizations. We then explore the neural representation of timbre, first within the peripheral auditory system and later at the level of the auditory cortex. We examine the neural networks that are implicated in timbre perception and the computations that may be performed in auditory cortex to enable listeners to extract information about timbre. We consider whether single neurons in auditory cortex are capable of representing spectral timbre independently of changes in other perceptual attributes and the mechanisms that may shape neural sensitivity to timbre. Finally, we conclude by outlining some of the questions that remain about the role of neural mechanisms in behavior and consider some potentially fruitful avenues for future research. PMID:24312021

  5. Millisecond Precision Spike Timing Shapes Tactile Perception

    PubMed Central

    Mackevicius, Emily L.; Best, Matthew D.; Saal, Hannes P.

    2012-01-01

    In primates, the sense of touch has traditionally been considered to be a spatial modality, drawing an analogy to the visual system. In this view, stimuli are encoded in spatial patterns of activity over the sheet of receptors embedded in the skin. We propose that the spatial processing mode is complemented by a temporal one. Indeed, the transduction and processing of complex, high-frequency skin vibrations have been shown to play an important role in tactile texture perception, and the frequency composition of vibrations shapes the evoked percept. Mechanoreceptive afferents innervating the glabrous skin exhibit temporal patterning in their responses, but the importance and behavioral relevance of spike timing, particularly for naturalistic stimuli, remains to be elucidated. Based on neurophysiological recordings from Rhesus macaques, we show that spike timing conveys information about the frequency composition of skin vibrations, both for individual afferents and for afferent populations, and that the temporal fidelity varies across afferent class. Furthermore, the perception of skin vibrations, measured in human subjects, is better predicted when spike timing is taken into account, and the resolution that predicts perception best matches the optimal resolution of the respective afferent classes. In light of these results, the peripheral representation of complex skin vibrations draws a powerful analogy with the auditory and vibrissal systems. PMID:23115169

  6. Experiential Influences on Multimodal Perception of Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackman, Jessica E.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2005-01-01

    The impact of 2 types of learning experiences on children's perception of multimodal emotion cues was examined. Children (aged 7-12 years) were presented with conflicting facial and vocal emotions. The effects of familiarity were tested by varying whether emotions were presented by familiar or unfamiliar adults. The salience of particular…

  7. Elementary School Students' Perceptions of Overweight Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Tracey; Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Grigerick, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is a growing epidemic in the United States. Children who are overweight tend to participate in fewer activities, to withdraw from social situations, and to be less physically active than their normal-weight peers. Additionally, they have lower self-image and often suffer from depression. Research on children's perceptions of overweight…

  8. Phonological and Phonetic Biases in Speech Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Key, Michael Parrish

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates how knowledge of phonological generalizations influences speech perception, with a particular focus on evidence that phonological processing is autonomous from (rather than interactive with) auditory processing. A model is proposed in which auditory cue constraints and markedness constraints interact to determine a…

  9. Explaining Sibling Similarities: Perceptions of Sibling Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteman, Shawn D.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined older siblings' influence on their younger brothers and sisters by assessing the connections between youth's perceptions of sibling influence and sibling similarities in four domains: Risky behavior, peer competence, sports interests, and art interests. Participants included two adolescent-age siblings (firstborn age M=17.34;…

  10. Pattern playback revisited: unvoiced stop consonant perception.

    PubMed

    Kiefte, Michael; Kluender, Keith R

    2005-10-01

    Among the most influential publications in speech perception is Liberman, Delattre, and Cooper's [Am. J. Phys. 65, 497-516 (1952)] report on the identification of synthetic, voiceless stops generated by the Pattern Playback. Their map of stop consonant identification shows a highly complex relationship between acoustics and perception. This complex mapping poses a challenge to many classes of relatively simple pattern recognition models which are unable to capture the original finding of Liberman et al. that identification of /k/ was bimodal for bursts preceding front vowels but otherwise unimodal. A replication of this experiment was conducted in an attempt to reproduce these identification patterns using a simulation of the Pattern Playback device. Examination of spectrographic data from stimuli generated by the Pattern Playback revealed additional spectral peaks that are consistent with harmonic distortion characteristic of tube amplifiers of that era. Only when harmonic distortion was introduced did bimodal /k/ responses in front-vowel context emerge. The acoustic consequence of this distortion is to add, e.g., a high-frequency peak to midfrequency bursts or a midfrequency peak to a low-frequency burst. This likely resulted in additional /k/ responses when the second peak approximated the second formant of front vowels. Although these results do not challenge the main observations made by Liberman et al. that perception of stop bursts is context dependent, they do show that the mapping from acoustics to perception is much less complex without these additional distortion products. PMID:16266180

  11. Teachers' Perceptions of Technology Use in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, James E.; Lindsey, Pam

    2008-01-01

    This study surveyed 103 professional K-12 educators representing rural and urban independent school districts in north central Texas concerning educational technology perceptions and its use in their classrooms. Descriptive statistics were utilized to describe participants' responses to survey items. A chi-squared cross tabulation (3X3) table was…

  12. Urban Teachers' Perceptions of School Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Gregory L.

    2011-01-01

    Teachers may not be trained on how to prevent or address school violence and/or may lack the skills necessary to provide adequate intervention strategies. The purpose of this study was to explore urban K-6 teachers' perceptions of school violence at one metropolitan school. The conceptual framework for this study was supported by Bronfenbrenner's…

  13. College Students' Perceptions on Interactions across Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle-Heimann, Kristen P.

    This study examined college students' perceptions on interactions across racial and cultural differences at a major research university in the United States. Approximately 30 freshman students from various groups volunteered to participate in a year-long program intended to encourage students to become cross-cultural mentors and allies for each…

  14. Hispanic Mothers' Perceptions of Self-Determination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shogren, Karrie

    2012-01-01

    Limited research has explored the perceptions of self-determination held by diverse families. In this study, seven mothers of transition-age youth with severe disabilities who were Hispanic were interviewed. Each mother was actively engaged in advocacy related to diverse children with disabilities in their local schools and communities. Mothers…

  15. LGBT Educators' Perceptions of School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Tiffany E.

    2010-01-01

    A national survey of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) educators examined differences of perceptions within seven identified factors: homophobia, principal support, policies of bullying language, policies of human rights, job safety, personal safety, and outness. It found that safety is best understood in two dimensions: personal…

  16. Implicit Semantic Perception in Object Substitution Masking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodhew, Stephanie C.; Visser, Troy A. W.; Lipp, Ottmar V.; Dux, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    Decades of research on visual perception has uncovered many phenomena, such as binocular rivalry, backward masking, and the attentional blink, that reflect "failures of consciousness". Although stimuli do not reach awareness in these paradigms, there is evidence that they nevertheless undergo semantic processing. Object substitution masking (OSM),…

  17. Overcoming Graduate Students' Negative Perceptions of Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalayants, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Although there has been some attention in the literature to such issues as students' attitudes toward statistics, instructors are still constantly faced with the challenge to engage students; understand their perceptions, motivations, and interests; and deal with their reluctance and negative attitudes toward the field of statistics. The purpose…

  18. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  19. Student Teachers' Perceptions of Humanistic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, John W.; Boisvert, Gloria

    1988-01-01

    Explored student teachers' perceptions of humanistic education in light of their own home, school, and university experiences. Data from 70 4th-year education students strongly endorsed humanistic education. Responses to some items, however, suggest that respondents did not understand the philosophical/conceptual basis of humanistic education.…

  20. School Social Workers' Perceptions of Cyberbullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slovak, Karen; Singer, Jonathan B.

    2011-01-01

    Although cyberbullying is a growing concern among students, parents, and school personnel, there has been little research exploring school social workers (SSWs) at the elementary, middle, and high school levels about their perceptions of the seriousness and pervasiveness of this issue as well as their responses to it. Data for this study came from…

  1. Managerial Perception and Success in Farming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathis, Gilbert Lander

    To improve farm management instruction in vocational agriculture, survey data were secured from 125 young farmers in 35 Ohio counties to determine the relationship between their perception of themselves as entrepreneurs and their success in farming. The respondents represented a range of success in farming, were full-time farmers between the ages…

  2. Teachers' Perceptions of Collaboration and Clinical Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riordan, G. P.

    This paper reports on a study of teachers involved in a collaborative model of clinical supervision. Study participants were interviewed in order to ascertain their perceptions of their collaborative relationship and the focus and effect of their collaboration. The study found that the most effective collaborations were characterized by…

  3. Career Choices, Perceptions of Work by Undergrads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endres, Fred F.; Wearden, Stanley T.

    1990-01-01

    Investigates why university students become journalism/mass communication majors. Indicates students' reasons for studying advertising, print news, radio-television, or public relations. Presents students' perceptions of the work that their chosen fields will require and their feelings on what would bring them job satisfaction. (SG)

  4. Teachers' Perceptions Regarding Mobbing at Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gülcan, Murat Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine whether there are mobbing applications at schools and if so, at which level and between whom. The Mobbing Perception Scale is applied, based on Leymann's (1993), "Mobbing Typology," and developed by Yavuz (2007), to 154 teachers at 5 selected schools in Ankara for the purpose of the study. According…

  5. Stimulus Intensity and the Perception of Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, William J.; Stewart, Neil; Wearden, John H.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the widely reported finding that the subjective duration of a stimulus is positively related to its magnitude. In Experiments 1 and 2 we show that, for both auditory and visual stimuli, the effect of stimulus magnitude on the perception of duration depends upon the background: Against a high intensity background, weak stimuli…

  6. Examining Beginning Teachers' Perceptions of Workplace Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Alison; Deaney, Rosemary; Wilson, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper, taking a participatory perspective of learning, seeks to look at the interaction between individuals and their workplace, focusing on the perceptions of workplaces and self by beginning teachers in terms of support for their learning. Design/methodology/approach: The study presents an analysis of 37 interviews from 17…

  7. Neurophysiological Evidence for Categorical Perception of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Amanda; Franklin, Anna; Clifford, Alexandra; Davies, Ian

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to examine the time course and the relative contributions of perceptual and post-perceptual processes to categorical perception (CP) of color. A visual oddball task was used with standard and deviant stimuli from same (within-category) or different (between-category) categories, with chromatic separations for…

  8. PERSONAL VALUES, BELIEFS, AND ECOLOGICAL RISK PERCEPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A mail survey on ecological risk perception was administered in the summer of 2002 to a randomized sample of the lay public and to selected risk professionals at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The ranking of 24 ecological risk items, from global climate change...

  9. Spatial Brightness Perception of Trichromatic Stimuli

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, Michael P.; Houser, Kevin W.

    2012-11-16

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of tuning optical radiation on brightness perception for younger (18-25 years of age) and older (50 years of age or older) observers. Participants made forced-choice evaluations of the brightness of a full factorial of stimulus pairs selected from two groups of four metameric stimuli. The large-field stimuli were created by systematically varying either the red or the blue primary of an RGB LED mixture. The results indicate that light stimuli of equal illuminance and chromaticity do not appear equally bright to either younger or older subjects. The rank-order of brightness is not predicted by any current model of human vision or theory of brightness perception including Scotopic to Photopic or Cirtopic to Photopic ratio theory, prime color theory, correlated color temperature, V(λ)-based photometry, color quality metrics, linear brightness models, or color appearance models. Age may affect brightness perception when short-wavelength primaries are used, especially those with a peak wavelength shorter than 450 nm. The results suggest further development of metrics to predict brightness perception is warranted, and that including age as a variable in predictive models may be valuable.

  10. International perceptions of US nuclear policy.

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, Elizabeth A. (Georgetown Universtiy, Washington, DC)

    2006-02-01

    The report presents a summary of international perceptions and beliefs about US nuclear policy, focusing on four countries--China, Iran, Pakistan and Germany--chosen because they span the spectrum of states with which the United States has relationships. A paradox is pointed out: that although the goal of US nuclear policy is to make the United States and its allies safer through a policy of deterrence, international perceptions of US nuclear policy may actually be making the US less safe by eroding its soft power and global leadership position. Broadly held perceptions include a pattern of US hypocrisy and double standards--one set for the US and its allies, and another set for all others. Importantly, the US nuclear posture is not seen in a vacuum, but as one piece of the United States behavior on the world stage. Because of this, the potential direct side effects of any negative international perceptions of US nuclear policy can be somewhat mitigated, dependent on other US policies and actions. The more indirect and long term relation of US nuclear policy to US international reputation and soft power, however, matters immensely to successful multilateral and proactive engagement on other pressing global issues.

  11. Environmental Inversion Effects in Face Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidenko, Nicolas; Flusberg, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Visual processing is highly sensitive to stimulus orientation; for example, face perception is drastically worse when faces are oriented inverted vs. upright. However, stimulus orientation must be established in relation to a particular reference frame, and in most studies, several reference frames are conflated. Which reference frame(s) matter in…

  12. Students' Self-Perceptions of Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villalobos, Anna Marie

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to examine students with disabilities self-perceptions of their academic and social supports in the general and special education classroom and the impact of the students' counterstories to inform the design of classroom supports. This study was anchored in organizational theory, critical race theory, and the…

  13. Infant Perception of Atypical Speech Signals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vouloumanos, Athena; Gelfand, Hanna M.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to decode atypical and degraded speech signals as intelligible is a hallmark of speech perception. Human adults can perceive sounds as speech even when they are generated by a variety of nonhuman sources including computers and parrots. We examined how infants perceive the speech-like vocalizations of a parrot. Further, we examined how…

  14. Cooperative Learning: Middle School Students' Math Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Rhonda

    2010-01-01

    Many American middle school students have negative perceptions of mathematics that could be impacting math achievement. Previous studies have examined the impact of cooperative learning on mathematics achievement and not on attitudes. The purpose of this quasi-experimental quantitative study was to measure the effect of Student Teams Achievement…

  15. Value Perceptions as Influences upon Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Lee A.

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to assess whether changes in stakeholders' perceptions about the value generated by an institution might influence the nature of their engagement with it. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of research data revealed a positive correlation between stakeholders who believed an institution generated social or economic value…

  16. Student Perception as Moderator for Student Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Petegem, Karen; Aelterman, Antonia; Rosseel, Yves; Creemers, Bert

    2007-01-01

    Student motivation as well as student perception of interpersonal teacher behaviour are linked to the sense of wellbeing at student level. However, while most of the variance in the measurement of student wellbeing was situated at student level, eleven percent of variance was found at classroom level. In this article we focus on this variance at…

  17. School Nurses' Perceptions of Empowerment and Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSisto, Marie C.; DeSisto, Thomas Patrick

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Kanter's Theory of Structural Power in Organizations, using school nurses and to answer the research question of whether there is a relationship between empowerment and autonomy in school nurses. This study found a positive relationship between the nurses' perceptions of empowerment and autonomy. The school…

  18. California Teacher Retirement: Perception, Satisfaction, and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Justin L.

    2012-01-01

    Concerns over fiscal and personal appropriateness for public retirement pensions have become prevalent within conversations throughout the United States. However, with some important exceptions (e.g., DeArmond and Goldhaber, 2010) limited research has focused upon perceptions of teachers who receive these pension plans. As such, the purpose of…

  19. Problematic Internet Use: Perceptions of Addiction Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acier, Didier; Kern, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing number of publications on problematic Internet use (PIU), there is no consensus on the nature of the phenomenon, its constituent criteria, and its clinical threshold. This qualitative study examines the perceptions of addiction counsellors who have managed individuals with PIU in Quebec (Canada). Four focus groups were conducted…

  20. Teachers' Perceptions of the Principal's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannangelo, Duane M.; Malone, Marguerite G.

    To gain an insight into teachers' perceptions of the role and responsibilities of school principals, 143 teachers from a large metropolitan area were surveyed. They were asked to respond to the following four questions: (1) What do you believe are the most important functions of the principal?; (2) What do principals say to teachers are the…

  1. The Impact of Perceptions on Conflict Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longaretti, Lynette; Wilson, Jeni

    2006-01-01

    This article describes research that explored student and teacher perceptions and management of conflict within the primary school context. It was found that both teachers and students shared similarities in their views of conflict and in their management of interpersonal problems at school. Conflict was generally perceived to be a negative…

  2. Chief Academic Officers' Perceptions about Faculty Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Kent F.; Rhodes, T. Michael

    The perceptions of chief academic officers (CAOs) at four-year colleges and universities and specialized institutions were examined to determine the criteria used to evaluate faculty teaching, college and community service, scholarship, and overall performance by Carnegie classification, type of control (public or private), and faculty…

  3. Teachers' Perceptions of High-Stakes Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Marianne; Gordon, Stephen P.; Price, Larry R.

    2004-01-01

    Over 900 Texas teachers were surveyed on their perceptions of the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS), which at the time of the survey was Texas's high-stakes achievement test. The sample included elementary, middle, and high schools within each of four test performance levels: exemplary, recommended, acceptable, and low performing.…

  4. Neural and behavioral investigations into timbre perception.

    PubMed

    Town, Stephen M; Bizley, Jennifer K

    2013-01-01

    Timbre is the attribute that distinguishes sounds of equal pitch, loudness and duration. It contributes to our perception and discrimination of different vowels and consonants in speech, instruments in music and environmental sounds. Here we begin by reviewing human timbre perception and the spectral and temporal acoustic features that give rise to timbre in speech, musical and environmental sounds. We also consider the perception of timbre by animals, both in the case of human vowels and non-human vocalizations. We then explore the neural representation of timbre, first within the peripheral auditory system and later at the level of the auditory cortex. We examine the neural networks that are implicated in timbre perception and the computations that may be performed in auditory cortex to enable listeners to extract information about timbre. We consider whether single neurons in auditory cortex are capable of representing spectral timbre independently of changes in other perceptual attributes and the mechanisms that may shape neural sensitivity to timbre. Finally, we conclude by outlining some of the questions that remain about the role of neural mechanisms in behavior and consider some potentially fruitful avenues for future research. PMID:24312021

  5. Middle School Teachers' Perceptions of Instructional Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteman, Karen Marie

    2013-01-01

    Ensuring student learning and success is the primary goal of any school administrator, so their leadership must embody and champion this. Therefore, strong instructional leadership skills are necessary for administrators to possess and be able to apply. However, teachers often have negative perceptions of instructional leadership which make the…

  6. Emotional Modulation of Perception in Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corden, Ben; Chilvers, Rebecca; Skuse, David

    2008-01-01

    Using an attentional blink paradigm, we show that the typical enhancement of perception for emotionally arousing events is significantly reduced in Asperger's syndrome (AS) at short inter-target intervals. Control experiments demonstrate that this finding cannot be attributed to differences in the perceived arousal of the stimuli, or to a global…

  7. Perceptions of Trust in Public Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Lucy; Baird, Jo-Anne

    2013-01-01

    Over recent years, the credibility of public examinations in England has increasingly come to the fore. Government agencies have invested time and money into researching public perceptions of the reliability and validity of examinations. Whilst such research overlaps into the conceptual domain of trust, trust in examinations remains an elusive…

  8. Experiments on shape perception in stereoscopic displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, Laure; Fuchs, Philippe; Paljic, Alexis; Moreau, Guillaume

    2009-02-01

    Stereoscopic displays are increasingly used for computer-aided design. The aim is to make virtual prototypes to avoid building real ones, so that time, money and raw materials are saved. But do we really know whether virtual displays render the objects in a realistic way to potential users? In this study, we have performed several experiments in which we compare two virtual shapes to their equivalent in the real world, each of these aiming at a specific issue by a comparison: First, we performed some perception tests to evaluate the importance of head tracking to evaluate if it is better to concentrate our efforts on stereoscopic vision; Second, we have studied the effects of interpupillary distance; Third, we studied the effects of the position of the main object in comparison with the screen. Two different tests are used, the first one using a well-known shape (a sphere) and the second one using an irregular shape but with almost the same colour and dimension. These two tests allow us to determine if symmetry is important in their perception. We show that head tracking has a more important effect on shape perception than stereoscopic vision, especially on depth perception because the subject is able to move around the scene. The study also shows that an object between the subject and the screen is perceived better than an object which is on the screen, even if the latter is better for the eye strain.

  9. Students' Perceptions of Assessment in Undergraduate Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannone, Paola; Simpson, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    A consistent message emerges from research on undergraduate students' perceptions of assessment which describes traditional assessment as detrimental to learning. However this literature has not included students in the pure sciences. Mathematics education literature advocates the introduction of innovative assessment at university. In this…

  10. Business Students' Perceptions of Corporate Ethical Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Philip; And Others

    Business students' observations of corporate ethical behavior and social responsibility were studied. The research objective was to examine the contention that the education of business managers should include courses in business and society because such courses would heighten student perceptions of the ethical and social dimensions of managerial…

  11. Prisoner Perceptions of Effective Teacher Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allday, R. Allan

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined prisoner perceptions of effective teacher behavior. A survey was administered to prisoners (N = 371) containing ten statements of teacher behavior. Results revealed significant differences between ratings of teachers perceived to have taught the prisoner the "most" and teachers perceived to have taught the prisoner the…

  12. Community College Students' Perceptions of Academic Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Bradbury Stewart

    2010-01-01

    This study compares community college students' perceptions of their academic readiness before and after they participated in community college coursework. Students enroll in community colleges for many reasons but many drop-out before reaching their goals. High rates of attrition suggest that students may not accurately assess their levels of…

  13. Variations in Perceptions of Child Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Susan J.; Meezan, William

    1996-01-01

    Explored differences in perceptions of the seriousness of nine components of neglect among mothers from three cultural groups and child welfare workers from two areas of child protection. Found members of minorities perceive some types of neglect as more serious than do Caucasians, and that mothers see most neglect as more serious than do service…

  14. Perceptions of College Faculty Regarding Outcomes Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrs, Heath

    2009-01-01

    The perceptions of college faculty regarding outcomes assessment were explored using a qualitative interview research approach. Three faculty members at a liberal arts college in the United States were interviewed about their understandings, reactions to, and concerns regarding the assessment movement. Faculty members differed in their…

  15. Faculty Perceptions toward the Scholarship of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenefield, Diana C.

    2012-01-01

    Nursing educators have been encouraged to engage in the scholarship of teaching as a form of best practice in education. Despite professional documents and encouragement by leaders in the field of nursing, there is very little known about nursing educators' perceptions and engagement in the scholarship of teaching. The purpose of this…

  16. Primary School Students' Perceptions of Interactive Whiteboards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Ian; Higgins, S

    2005-01-01

    Students involved in the interactive whiteboard (IWB) evaluation, sponsored by the Centre for British Teachers (CfBT), were interviewed in regard to their perceptions about IWBs. Twelve group interviews (72 students) were conducted between January and Easter 2004 with Year 6 students (between 10 and 11 years of age) in six Local Education…

  17. Mentors' Ethical Perceptions: Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study attempts to describe mentors' perceptions of their ethical dilemmas, the derived mentor roles, and the ethical guidelines suggested by mentors, with reference to previous studies exploring the mentors' multifaceted roles. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 60 mentors participated in a two-phase study: the mentors were…

  18. How prior expectations shape multisensory perception.

    PubMed

    Gau, Remi; Noppeney, Uta

    2016-01-01

    The brain generates a representation of our environment by integrating signals from a common source, but segregating signals from different sources. This fMRI study investigated how the brain arbitrates between perceptual integration and segregation based on top-down congruency expectations and bottom-up stimulus-bound congruency cues. Participants were presented audiovisual movies of phonologically congruent, incongruent or McGurk syllables that can be integrated into an illusory percept (e.g. "ti" percept for visual «ki» with auditory /pi/). They reported the syllable they perceived. Critically, we manipulated participants' top-down congruency expectations by presenting McGurk stimuli embedded in blocks of congruent or incongruent syllables. Behaviorally, participants were more likely to fuse audiovisual signals into an illusory McGurk percept in congruent than incongruent contexts. At the neural level, the left inferior frontal sulcus (lIFS) showed increased activations for bottom-up incongruent relative to congruent inputs. Moreover, lIFS activations were increased for physically identical McGurk stimuli, when participants segregated the audiovisual signals and reported their auditory percept. Critically, this activation increase for perceptual segregation was amplified when participants expected audiovisually incongruent signals based on prior sensory experience. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the lIFS combines top-down prior (in)congruency expectations with bottom-up (in)congruency cues to arbitrate between multisensory integration and segregation. PMID:26419391

  19. Children's Perceptions of National Identity in Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Alison; Laugharne, Janet

    2013-01-01

    The project forms part of a larger doctoral study which examines children's perceptions of national identity and its construction and importance in the world of the child in Wales. The research took place in a primary school class in the South Wales valleys, in a class of 27 children aged 7-8 years. Following an introductory activity, children…

  20. Gender Differences within Perceptions of Virtual Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Vernon, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Virtual communities are quickly becoming the standard mode of interaction in educational and professional contexts. However, the literature fails to accurately address the possibility of differences in the perceptions of these communities related to sex. Two-hundred and twenty-six students from a medium-sized university in the Mid-Atlantic United…

  1. Multicultural Education: Teachers' Perceptions and Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alismail, Halah Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on theory and practice in multicultural education as it pertains to the preparation of preservice teachers. The literature reviews the history and definition of multiculturalism and investigates multiple theoretical frameworks around the ongoing debate and issues of multicultural education. Teachers' perceptions of multicultural…

  2. Student Perceptions of On-Line Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherrer, Christina R.; Butler, Renee J.; Burns, Shekinah

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to study general student perceptions of online education and characterize the differences that exist between various student demographic groups, with a focus on differences between those who have and have not previously taken courses online. We surveyed more than 300 students and analyzed their responses. Although…

  3. Student Perceptions of Small-Group Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florez, Ida Rose; McCaslin, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Background/Context: Elementary school teachers regularly arrange students in small groups for learning activities. A rich literature discusses various types of small-group learning formats and how those formats affect achievement. Few studies, however, have examined students' perceptions of small-group learning experiences. Our work extends the…

  4. Defining Parental Involvement: Perception of School Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Clara Y.; Austin, Sheila M.; Growe, Roslin

    2013-01-01

    There remains a plaguing question of how to get parents involved with their child's education. Many parents and educators have different perceptions of what parental involvement means. Miscommunication between the two groups often exists because of how parental involvement is conceptualized. While educators define parental involvement as…

  5. Measuring Environmental Health Perception among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Brown, Stephen L.; Middleton, Wendi K.; Wodika, Alicia B.

    2011-01-01

    One's knowledge, perception, and attitude are fundamental in determining how one behaves regarding environmental hazards. While science has made great strides in promoting environmental health, threats still exist, largely due to individual actions in response to potential health hazards. Undergraduate students (n = 395) enrolled in an…

  6. Student Perceptions of the Alternative School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrington, Tina Sabrina

    2012-01-01

    Some students find it difficult to reach graduation in a regular secondary school setting, but may be successful in an alternative setting. Causes of not graduating could include high absenteeism and behavior problems, which may result in dropping out. This study sought student perceptions of an alternative program in a public school district in…

  7. Perceptions of Stepfathers: Disciplinary and Affectionate Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claxton-Oldfield, Stephen

    1992-01-01

    College students read vignettes and rated behavior of adult, identified as stepfather or father and depicted as spanking child (Study 1) or behaving affectionately toward child (Study 2). Findings revealed less positive perception of stepfathers, compared to fathers, carrying out disciplinary role in Study 1. In Study 2, affectionate stepfathers…

  8. Assessing Interpersonal Perceptions Using the Interpersonal Grid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskowitz, D. S.; Zuroff, David C.

    2005-01-01

    Three studies were conducted using the interpersonal grid, a method for assessing perceptions of agentic and communal behavior based on the interpersonal circumplex. The 1st examined consistency across perceivers and convergence between perceiver and the perceived person. The 2nd examined whether responses to the interpersonal grid were sensitive…

  9. Worldview and Counseling: Perceptions of Singaporean Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soong, Cecilia

    This paper examines the worldviews of Singapore students, comprised of Chinese, Malays, and Indians, and explores students' perceptions of and preference for counseling approaches. A modified version of Ibrahim and Kahn's Scale to Assess World Views (1994) was used to assess 970 Secondary Four students' worldviews with the independent variables…

  10. Interior Design Students Perceptions of Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Johnnie; Park, Jin Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This longitudinal study assessed student perceptions of sustainable design issues in the context of an accredited interior design program. Although literature exists documenting the integration of sustainable strategies into interior design curriculum, more analysis is needed to determine the impact of program experiences on students'…

  11. Highly Motivated Children's Perceptions of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Kelli Ann

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this interpretive case study was to explore the reading perceptions and attitudes of children who exhibited high levels of motivation to read. The study explored the extent to which the highly motivated children read and the extent to which they enjoy reading. Seven children enrolled in the fifth grade at a small, rural elementary…

  12. Phonological abstraction without phonemes in speech perception.

    PubMed

    Mitterer, Holger; Scharenborg, Odette; McQueen, James M

    2013-11-01

    Recent evidence shows that listeners use abstract prelexical units in speech perception. Using the phenomenon of lexical retuning in speech processing, we ask whether those units are necessarily phonemic. Dutch listeners were exposed to a Dutch speaker producing ambiguous phones between the Dutch syllable-final allophones approximant [r] and dark [l]. These ambiguous phones replaced either final /r/ or final /l/ in words in a lexical-decision task. This differential exposure affected perception of ambiguous stimuli on the same allophone continuum in a subsequent phonetic-categorization test: Listeners exposed to ambiguous phones in /r/-final words were more likely to perceive test stimuli as /r/ than listeners with exposure in /l/-final words. This effect was not found for test stimuli on continua using other allophones of /r/ and /l/. These results confirm that listeners use phonological abstraction in speech perception. They also show that context-sensitive allophones can play a role in this process, and hence that context-insensitive phonemes are not necessary. We suggest there may be no one unit of perception. PMID:23973464

  13. Change, Stability and Context: Prospective Teachers' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Abdurrahman; Cokadar, Hulusi

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to explore and compare first-year and fourth-year prospective teachers' perceptions of good teaching, a good teacher, and a good student. A questionnaire with close- and open-ended questions was administered to 142 first-year and 138 fourth-year prospective teachers enrolled in the Faculty of Education at Pamukkale University.…

  14. Rehabilitation Counseling Student Perceptions of Obese Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Steven P.; Thomas, Kenneth R.

    1981-01-01

    Investigated whether stigmatization of obese persons has affected rehabilitation counseling students' perceptions of such clients. Results suggest that rehabilitation students perceive obese clients more negatively. If a counselor's first impression of an obese client is that he is less competent and less attractive, rehabilitation outcome could…

  15. Audience Perceptions of Family Viewing Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Brian F.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Discusses a survey on Family Viewing Time designed to determine audience reactions to program content including violent and sexual content, audience perceptions of the suitability of program offerings for family viewing, and audience viewing habits with respect to Family Viewing Time. (MH)

  16. The Development of Ambiguous Figure Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimmer, Marina C.; Doherty, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Ambiguous figures have fascinated researchers for almost 200 years. The physical properties of these figures remain constant, yet two distinct interpretations are possible; these reverse (switch) from one percept to the other. The consensus is that reversal requires complex interaction of perceptual bottom-up and cognitive top-down elements. The…

  17. Regular Classroom Teachers' Perceptions of Mainstreaming Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringlaben, Ravic P.; Price, Jay R.

    To assess regular classroom teachers' perceptions of mainstreaming, a 22 item questionnaire was completed by 117 teachers (K through 12). Among results were that nearly half of the Ss indicated a lack of preparation for implementing mainstreaming; 47% tended to be very willing to accept aminstreamed students; 42% said mainstreaming was working…

  18. Student Perceptions of High-Achieving Classmates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Händel, Marion; Vialle, Wilma; Ziegler, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The reported study investigated students' perceptions of their high-performing classmates in terms of intelligence, social skills, and conscientiousness in different school subjects. The school subjects for study were examined with regard to cognitive, physical, and gender-specific issues. The results show that high academic achievements in…

  19. Pattern Perception and Pictures for the Blind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Morton A.; McCarthy, Melissa; Clark, Ashley

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews recent research on perception of tangible pictures in sighted and blind people. Haptic picture naming accuracy is dependent upon familiarity and access to semantic memory, just as in visual recognition. Performance is high when haptic picture recognition tasks do not depend upon semantic memory. Viewpoint matters for the ease…

  20. Exploring Principals' Perceptions of Supervised Agricultural Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayfield, John; Wilson, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of principals at high schools with agricultural education programs in regard to Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE). There is evidence that suggests that high school principals' attitudes may both directly and indirectly affect factors that influence school climate and student achievement. In this study,…

  1. Measuring the Experience and Perception of Suffering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Richard; Monin, Joan K.; Czaja, Sara J.; Lingler, Jennifer H.; Beach, Scott R.; Martire, Lynn M.; Dodds, Angela; Hebert, Randy S.; Zdaniuk, Bozena; Cook, Thomas B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Assess psychometric properties of scales developed to assess experience and perception of physical, psychological, and existential suffering in older individuals. Design and Methods: Scales were administered to 3 populations of older persons and/or their family caregivers: individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their family…

  2. Student Perceptions of Thai University Initiations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubbs, Samuel J.

    2013-01-01

    Recently there have been several sensational reports of serious consequences of freshmen initiation rites at Thai universities. The purpose of this study was to investigate Thai freshmen students' perceptions of the faculty initiation process. For this study, roughly 1,000 freshmen students took a pre-test during the first week of their…

  3. Business Students' Perceptions of Ethics in Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaedeke, Ralph M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A survey investigating perceptions of 327 students about ethics in marketing today found that (1) students believe business leaders should be accountable; (2) they do not perceive the value of codes of ethics; and (3) they believe ethics should be taught in business and marketing curricula. (JOW)

  4. Jackhammers and Alarm Clocks: Perceptions in Stereo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picard, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    Discusses commercial bilingualism in Quebec. Deals with Canada's two official languages and classifies their contact with each other in the world of corporate or brand identity. Discusses what these languages must accomplish in the business world and the new perceptions resulting from their contact. Submits a theory of contact between three…

  5. African American's Perceptions of Psychotherapy and Psychotherapists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Vetta L. Sanders; Akbar, Maysa D.; Bazile, Anita

    The attitudes and beliefs about utilization of mental health services of 201 African Americans, 18 years and older, are explored. One hundred and thirty-four females and 66 males participated in mixed sex focus groups conducted in an urban, Midwestern city. Discussion probes addressed participant perceptions of psychotherapists and psychotherapy,…

  6. Elementary School Nurses' Perceptions of Student Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendershot, Candace; Dake, Joseph A.; Price, James H.; Lartey, Grace K.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess elementary school nurses' perceptions of student bullying, actions when they encounter bullies or victims, and perceived level of preparation for dealing with this problem. School nurses identified the most common barriers to dealing with bullying, which included bullying taking place where the nurse is not…

  7. Development of Ordinal Sequence Perception in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewkowicz, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Perception of the ordinal position of a sequence element is critical to many cognitive and motor functions. Here, the prediction that this ability is based on a domain-general perceptual mechanism and, thus, that it emerges prior to the emergence of language was tested. Infants were habituated with sequences of moving/sounding objects and then…

  8. An Expert Map of Gambling Risk Perception.

    PubMed

    Spurrier, Michael; Blaszczynski, Alexander; Rhodes, Paul

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the moderating or mediating role played by risk perception in decision-making, gambling behaviour, and disordered gambling aetiology. Eleven gambling expert clinicians and researchers completed a semi-structured interview derived from mental models and grounded theory methodologies. Expert interview data was used to construct a comprehensive expert mental model 'map' detailing risk-perception related factors contributing to harmful or safe gambling. Systematic overlapping processes of data gathering and analysis were used to iteratively extend, saturate, test for exception, and verify concepts and emergent themes. Findings indicated that experts considered idiosyncratic beliefs among gamblers result in overall underestimates of risk and loss, insufficient prioritization of needs, and planning and implementation of risk management strategies. Additional contextual factors influencing use of risk information (reinforcement and learning; mental states, environmental cues, ambivalence; and socio-cultural and biological variables) acted to shape risk perceptions and increase vulnerabilities to harm or disordered gambling. It was concluded that understanding the nature, extent and processes by which risk perception predisposes an individual to maintain gambling despite adverse consequences can guide the content of preventative educational responsible gambling campaigns. PMID:25060132

  9. The Neural Substrates of Infant Speech Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homae, Fumitaka; Watanabe, Hama; Taga, Gentaro

    2014-01-01

    Infants often pay special attention to speech sounds, and they appear to detect key features of these sounds. To investigate the neural foundation of speech perception in infants, we measured cortical activation using near-infrared spectroscopy. We presented the following three types of auditory stimuli while 3-month-old infants watched a silent…

  10. English Primary Trainee Teachers' Perceptions of Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Emma

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarises the findings of research conducted with one cohort of English undergraduate primary teacher trainees on point of entry to a 4-year course. The research examines the perceptions held of geography as a subject discipline and the purposes of teaching the subject. Two hundred and eleven trainees were asked to define geography and…

  11. Student Teachers' Perceptions towards Teaching Practice Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chireshe, R.; Chireshe, E.

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated the perceptions of student teachers towards teaching practice assessment. Participants N=180:90 males, 90 females were randomly drawn from three primary school teachers' colleges in Masvingo Educational Region of Zimbabwe. A questionnaire was used to gather data from the respondents. A chi-square test was used to analyse the…

  12. UAE Teachers' Awareness & Perceptions of Testing Modifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elhoweris, Hala; Alsheikh, Negmeldin

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were threefold: (a) to determine whether the United Arab Emirates (UAE) general and special education teachers were making any specific testing modifications for students with disabilities; (b) to survey UAE general and special education teachers' perceptions of testing modifications in terms of their usefulness,…

  13. Chinese University EFL Teachers' Perceptions of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Jun; Hu, Guangwei

    2015-01-01

    Although Chinese university students' perceptions of plagiarism have been extensively investigated, those of their teachers have been surprisingly under-researched. This study sought to address this gap by investigating 112 Chinese university English teachers' knowledge of and attitudes towards plagiarism. While 57 participating teachers had…

  14. University Students' Perceptions of Computer Technology Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue, Yukiko

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of a survey as a research method (involving from designing surveys to reporting on surveys), the author examined students' perceptions of computers and information technology. In fall 2005, a survey questionnaire was administered to students enrolled in education courses at a university in the western Pacific. Attention was given to…

  15. Faculty Perceptions of Basic Skills Faculty Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Michelle Moreau

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions of faculty regarding why they choose to attend basic skills faculty development; what they choose to implement in their classrooms; and how they determine the effectiveness of the strategies selected. A survey was completed by 173 full and part-time faculty from a large, suburban single-campus community…

  16. Challenging Negative Perceptions of Black Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, H. Richard

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on a case study of an African-American teacher's perceptions about teaching and instructional practices in an urban middle school, Bridge Middle School. He provides a counter to some negative conceptions of Black teachers in general through a focus on this teacher: the way she thinks about her roles and…

  17. Perceptions of Online Credentials for School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Jayson W.; McLeod, Scott; Dikkers, Amy Garrett

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the perceptions of human resource directors in the USA about online credentials earned by K-12 school principals and principal candidates. Design/methodology/approach: In this mixed methods study, a survey was sent to a random sample of 500 human resource directors in K-12 school districts…

  18. School Counselors' Perceptions of Biracial Students' Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindaichi, Mai Margaret

    2010-01-01

    The number of biracial school-aged youth has continued to increase dramatically (Jones & Smith, 2001), and has drawn timely attention to the extent to which practicing school counselors address biracial youths' concerns in a culturally competent manner. This study examined the perceptions of a nationally-based random sample of 203 White school…

  19. College Students' Perception of AIDS Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Roger C.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Evaluated college students' (N=60) perceptions of victims of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) based on how the victim contracted the disease. Found in nondeterioration condition victims contracting AIDS via sexual encounters or illicit drug injection were perceived as less trustworthy, less moral, and less desirable as a prospective…

  20. Ethical Dilemmas in Retail Merchandising: Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulins, V. Ann; Lombardy, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas observed by students in retailing internships were the basis for a survey in which students indicated their perceptions as to whether case situations involved unethical behavior. Expanded case situations were offered to students for further exploration. The specific questions posed in this study included the following: (1) In what…

  1. Faculty Perceptions of Online Accounting Coursework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Amanda M.; Johnson, Leigh R.

    2015-01-01

    The perceptions of faculty members, who design and evaluate online accounting coursework content, are an important consideration in determining the quality inherent in such content. This study reports the results of a survey which examines accounting faculty members' attitudes towards online education (measured as their willingness to accept…

  2. The Dynamics of Perception and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, William H.

    2006-01-01

    How might one account for the organization in behavior without attributing it to an internal control structure? The present article develops a theoretical framework called behavioral dynamics that integrates an information-based approach to perception with a dynamical systems approach to action. For a given task, the agent and its environment are…

  3. Comparative Perceptions of Practicum Counselor Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barak, Azy; Lacrosse, Michael B.

    1977-01-01

    Counseling interviews (N=19) were rated on the Counselor Rating Form in terms of perceived counselor expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness. Results indicated all three sources of perceptions were similar, although counselors rated their own behavior as significantly less expert than their clients. (Author)

  4. The Principalship in Georgia: Teachers' Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Professional Standards Commission, Atlanta.

    This report, the last in a series of three studies on the nature of school administration in Georgia, provides an array of statistical tables and charts, along with interpretive information, on teachers' perceptions of the principalship. These data highlight the following issues: imbalance of the work force; role of the principal; quality and…

  5. Students' Perceptions of a "Quality" Advisory Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halbert, Kelsey

    2015-01-01

    The current research education context in Australia is one of increased pressures for timely completion with a spotlight on the scope and depth of training and a profound increase in enrolments. These factors inevitably shape the supervision experiences of doctoral candidates. This paper discusses student perceptions of supervision. Supervision is…

  6. Perceptions of Oncology as a Medical Specialty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassileth, Barrie R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics and prestige associated with oncology and assessed shifts in medical students' perceptions as a result of participation in an oncology course are explored. Respondents were asked to rate the prestige of eight specialities and asked to select characteristics "that best describe each type of specialist." (MLW)

  7. Perceptions of Learning among Swiss Watch Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tajeddini, Kayhan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore managers' perceptions of learning within a sample of Swiss watch firms. Design/methodology/approach: A purposeful (judgmental) stratified sampling method was employed, where in-depth interviews with 13 marketing managers and owners were carried out over a three-month period. Meaning units (MUs) were abstracted,…

  8. Patient Perceptions of Electronic Health Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lulejian, Armine

    2011-01-01

    Research objective. Electronic Health Records (EHR) are expected to transform the way medicine is delivered with patients/consumers being the intended beneficiaries. However, little is known regarding patient knowledge and attitudes about EHRs. This study examined patient perceptions about EHR. Study design. Surveys were administered following…

  9. The Perception of Cyberbullying in Adolescent Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevcikova, Anna; Smahel, David; Otavova, Mlada

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore how victims of cyberbullying perceive online aggressive attacks and when they see them as harmful. Interviews were carried out with 16 cybervictimised participants aged 15-17 years. The findings showed differences in the perception of online victimisation when perpetrated by an anonymous Internet user versus…

  10. Student Perceptions of Online Synchronous Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cereijo, Maria Victora Perez; Tyler-Wood, Tandra; Young, Jon

    This study identified student reasons for participating in synchronous Web-based learning environments. Students were interviewed after completing a series of surveys designed to elicit their perceptions of the strengths and weaknesses of the delivery methodology. Responses indicated that both convenience and learning enhancement were considered…

  11. Neuropsychology of Timing and Time Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meck, W.H.

    2005-01-01

    Interval timing in the range of milliseconds to minutes is affected in a variety of neurological and psychiatric populations involving disruption of the frontal cortex, hippocampus, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Our understanding of these distortions in timing and time perception are aided by the analysis of the sources of variance attributable…

  12. Self-Perceptions of Culturally Disadvantaged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, Anthony T.; Soares, Louise M.

    1969-01-01

    A comparative study was undertaken of the self perceptions of disadvantaged children with those of advantaged children in grades four to eight. Each child's self concept, ideal concepts, and reflected values were measured. The result from an analysis of variance design, indicated more positive self images on all measures for disadvantaged children…

  13. Musicians' Perception of Beat in Monotonic Stimuli.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    Assesses musicians' perceptions of beat in monotonic stimuli and attempts to define empirically the range of perceived beat tempo in music. Subjects performed a metric pulse in response to periodic stimulus tones. Results indicate a relatively narrow range within which beats are perceived by trained musicians. (LS)

  14. Effect of Tempo on Pitch Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Robert A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents a study which investigated the perception of music majors and nonmusic majors concerning their ability to discriminate the way in which altered musical excerpts differed in pitch or tempo (or both) from preceding presentations. Concludes that both groups responded similarly across conditions and replications, and that tempo changes were…

  15. Nontraditional Student Perceptions of Collegiate Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkowsky, Patricia; Mendez, Sylvia; Ogunbowo, Oluwafolakemi; Clayton, Grant; Hernandez, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    This study explored student responses to a Student Inclusiveness Survey (SIS), with specific attention to nontraditional student responses about collegiate inclusion. Specifically, the SIS constructs that related to inclusion, the Perceptions of Inclusiveness and Institutional Safeguarding of Inclusiveness, were analyzed descriptively, and…

  16. Professional Development: Perceptions of Benefits for Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaik Hourani, Rida; Stringer, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Schools in Abu Dhabi are going through change and reform. Abu Dhabi Education Council (ADEC) has initiated professional development for principals to facilitate change and school improvement. This paper explores principals' perception on the benefits of professional development received in light of managing school change and reforms.…

  17. Employee Perceptions and Value of Performance Appraisals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagnell, Rhea

    2012-01-01

    Performance appraisals traditionally have been studied quantitatively, from the manager's point of view, without considering their value or lack of value to workers. The absence of this information indicates that workers' perceptions and feelings have not always been considered. Therefore, the purpose of this phenomenological study was…

  18. Teachers' Efficacy Perceptions about Individualized Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadag, Ruhan

    2010-01-01

    The population of the study consists of primary school teachers working in the province of Eskisehir. The sample of the study consists of 321 primary school teachers working at 40 primary schools. In the present study, a questionnaire, an instrument to collect data, was used to determine teachers' perceptions of efficacy about individualized…

  19. Racially Biased Policing: Determinants of Citizen Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitzer, Ronald; Tuch, Steven A.

    2005-01-01

    The current controversy surrounding racial profiling in America has focused renewed attention on the larger issue of racial bias by the police. Yet little is known about the extent of police racial bias and even less about public perceptions of the problem. This article analyzes recent national survey data on citizens' views of and reported…

  20. Evaluating Employability Skills: Employer and Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Venetia; Zuzel, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Graduate employability is a key issue for Higher Education. In this two-part study student employability skills have been evaluated from the perspective of sandwich students and graduates in biomolecular science, and their employers. A strong correlation was found between employer and sandwich student/graduate perceptions of the relative…

  1. Personality Correlates of Pain Perception and Tolerance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukin, Penny R.; Ray, A. Bartow

    1982-01-01

    Explored personality correlates of pain perception and tolerance in a nonmedical sample and setting. Results showed no significant correlations with personality measures and cold-pressor scores, but a significant relationship between pain tolerance and cognitive focus; those who focused on the experimental situation had much shorter tolerance…

  2. Adolescent Perceptions of Educators with Physical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beattie, Marie

    2007-01-01

    This study was exploratory, addressing a topic that has not been investigated previously: the perceptions of adolescents toward educators with physical disabilities. To do so, the researcher administered a self-developed survey to a sample of 200 public high school students in Texas. Results were reported by grade level and gender. Overall the…

  3. Exploring Staff Perceptions of Student Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint, Abbi; Clegg, Sue; Macdonald, Ranald

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents analysis of qualitative data from a research project looking at staff perceptions of plagiarism at a post-1992 university. Twenty-six members of staff from departments and academic schools from across the university took part in open and semi-structured interviews. Analysis shows that variable definitions of plagiarism exist;…

  4. Watching the Watchdog: Antecedents of Media Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Douglas M.

    A study examined the effects of several structural and individual variables on the perceived role of the media by media representatives and the general public. The focus of the study was on public perceptions of the media as "watchdog," but the images of the media as "guide dog,""rabid dog,""lap dog" and "guard dog" were included. Subjects, 567…

  5. Infants' Reasoning about Others' False Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Hyun-joo; Baillargeon, Renee

    2008-01-01

    Prior research suggests that children younger than age 3 or 4 do not understand that an agent may be deceived by an object's misleading appearance. The authors asked whether 14.5-month-olds would give evidence in a violation-of-expectation task that they understand that agents may form false perceptions. Infants first watched events in which an…

  6. Color Perception in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Anna; Sowden, Paul; Burley, Rachel; Notman, Leslie; Alder, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether color perception is atypical in children with autism. In experiment 1, accuracy of color memory and search was compared for children with autism and typically developing children matched on age and non-verbal cognitive ability. Children with autism were significantly less accurate at color memory and search than…

  7. Teachers' Perceptions of Their Students' Gender Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatar, Moshe; Emmanuel, Gina

    2001-01-01

    Investigated Israeli teachers' attitudes and perceptions regarding their students' gender roles. Surveys of 221 elementary and secondary teachers indicated no extreme egalitarian or chauvinistic responses. Elementary and female teachers tended to give more gender egalitarian responses. Only 15 percent of respondents had attended courses on gender…

  8. Olfactory searches with limited space perception

    PubMed Central

    Masson, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-01-01

    Various insects and small animals can navigate in turbulent streams to find their mates (or food) from sparse pheromone (odor) detections. Their access to internal space perception and use of cognitive maps still are heavily debated, but for some of them, limited space perception seems to be the rule. However, this poor space perception does not prevent them from impressive search capacities. Here, as an attempt to model these behaviors, we propose a scheme that can perform, even without a detailed internal space map, searches in turbulent streams. The algorithm is based on a standardized projection of the probability of the source position to remove space perception and on the evaluation of a free energy, whose minimization along the path gives direction to the searcher. An internal “temperature” allows active control of the exploration/exploitation balance during the search. We demonstrate the efficiency of the scheme numerically, with a computational model of odor plume propagation, and experimentally, with robotic searches of thermal sources in turbulent streams. In addition to being a model to describe animals’ searches, this scheme may be applied to robotic searches in complex varying media without odometry error corrections and in problems in which active control of the exploration/exploitation balance is profitable. PMID:23803855

  9. Industry Leader Perceptions of Workplace Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Erik Scott

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions of workplace safety held by industry leaders who were near completion of a Master of Business Administration (MBA) degree. This was a qualitative study that utilized interpretivism as the theoretical framework. The study sought to answer four research questions. (1) How do participants conceptualize…

  10. Literacy and Prisoners: Reassessing Popular Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Stephen

    1991-01-01

    Research findings are discussed that lead to a reassessment of popular perceptions about literacy and prisoners, particularly that the percentage of illiterate prisoners is higher than in the general population and that many prisoners are reluctant to participate in prison literacy programs. (Contains 24 references.) (LB)

  11. Sensory Perception, Rationalism and Outdoor Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auer, Matthew R.

    2008-01-01

    There is a strong emphasis on sensory perception and "hands-on" learning in the outdoor environmental education of children. In addition, normative concerns infuse children's environmental curricula, and in particular, the notion that environmental education is not a passive undertaking; when one appreciates the essential value of the environment,…

  12. Graduate Students' Perceptions of Contrapower Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohipp, Charmaine; Senn, Charlene Y.

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the perceptions of 172 graduate students to traditional versus contrapower sexual harassment. Graduate students are a unique sample due to their dual role as a student and a teacher. After controlling for attitudes toward feminism and sexual harassment, participants viewed contrapower sexual harassment as less indicative of…

  13. Students Computer Literacy: Perception versus Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Kelly

    2006-01-01

    Students believe that they are computer literate. When asked, students perceive themselves as skilled in a variety of computer applications. This research compares students' perceptions with their reality. Students did not perform well on pretests of Microsoft Office, but improved their posttests scores with instruction. The study also examined…

  14. An Insight into Student Perceptions of Cyberbullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Kay Kyeong-Ju; Tunningley, Joan; Warner, Zachary; Buening, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Cyberbullying is a major public concern due to its physical, emotional, and psychological impact affecting both victims and perpetrators. This study analyzed existing survey results from seventh- and eighth-grade students at a school in the midwestern United States to investigate possible similarities and differences in perceptions of…

  15. Special Education Professionals' Perceptions toward Accessible Playgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.; Schmidt, Eric L.

    2016-01-01

    The perceptions and beliefs of 303 special education professionals toward currently available playgrounds in their school or community were examined. Survey respondents (a) indicated that their students with a disability could not fully participate in their school or community's playground offerings, (b) discussed the need for a peer buddy program…

  16. Administrators' Perceptions of the Performance Appraisal Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Earl E.

    This study focused on department heads'/ chairs' perceptions of the appraisal interview (a face-to-face interpersonal communication event), assessment of the faculty member's role in the appraisal interview, and assessment of the academic administrator's role in the appraisal interview. The results indicate that approximately 20% of respondents…

  17. Client Perceptions of Prison Counselor Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, J. A. Gordon

    Research evidence indicates that counselors rated as more effective are lower in dogmatism. Additional research suggests that the counseling relationship with deliquent populations is different from that with nondelinquent populations. It is the intent of this study to investigate perceptions of counselor effectiveness held by clients in a major…

  18. Visual perception of order-disorder transition

    PubMed Central

    Katkov, Mikhail; Harris, Hila; Sagi, Dov

    2015-01-01

    Our experience with the natural world, as composed of ordered entities, implies that perception captures relationships between image parts. For instance, regularities in the visual scene are rapidly identified by our visual system. Defining the regularities that govern perception is a basic, unresolved issue in neuroscience. Mathematically, perfect regularities are represented by symmetry (perfect order). The transition from ordered configurations to completely random ones has been extensively studied in statistical physics, where the amount of order is characterized by a symmetry-specific order parameter. Here we applied tools from statistical physics to study order detection in humans. Different sets of visual textures, parameterized by the thermodynamic temperature in the Boltzmann distribution, were designed. We investigated how much order is required in a visual texture for it to be discriminated from random noise. The performance of human observers was compared to Ideal and Order observers (based on the order parameter). The results indicated a high consistency in performance across human observers, much below that of the Ideal observer, but well-approximated by the Order observer. Overall, we provide a novel quantitative paradigm to address order perception. Our findings, based on this paradigm, suggest that the statistical physics formalism of order captures regularities to which the human visual system is sensitive. An additional analysis revealed that some order perception properties are captured by traditional texture discrimination models according to which discrimination is based on integrated energy within maps of oriented linear filters. PMID:26113826

  19. Teacher and Peer Perceptions of Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britsch, Brenda; And Others

    This study investigated neighborhood differences in perceptions of aggressive behavior from teachers and students' peers. Predominantly African American students (n=764) in grades 3 through 5 from 2 urban public schools (29 classrooms) in southern California participated in this study. The neighborhoods surrounding the schools differ substantially…

  20. Perceptions of Violence: A Youthful Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ausbrooks, Angela R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions of violence among youths, specifically as it relates to problem solving and conflict resolution or retaliation. I conducted a qualitative study with adolescents from fourteen to nineteen years old who completed age- and sex-based scenarios involving a peer conflict. The results indicate…

  1. Human Visual Perception--Learning at Workstations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaal, Stefen; Bogner, Franz X.

    2005-01-01

    This study compares two methods of instruction in practical school biology. The content remains the same but two teaching methods are used, one based on workstations (Group 1) and the other a conventional approach (Group 2). The content was a regular 9th grade syllabus issue: visual perception. Method 1 included a phenomenological introduction,…

  2. Perceptions of the Students toward Studio Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gok, Tolga

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was not only to report the development process of the studio model, but also to determine the students' perceptions about the studio model. This model retains the large lecture component but combines recitation and laboratory instruction into studio model. This research was based on qualitative analysis. The data of the…

  3. Selected Correlates of Perceptions of Black Militancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucher, Richard D.

    1986-01-01

    Differences in students' perceptions of Black militancy were studied both within and between three economically distinctive community colleges. Approximately 200 students from each of three schools completed questionnaires evaluating the legitimacy and effectiveness of protest actions in two hypothetical situations. Significant differences existed…

  4. PERCEPTIONS OF EXTENSION WORK IN MEXICO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHENA-GONZALEZ, RODOLFO

    THE STUDY EXPLORED BASIC PATTERNS OF PERCEPTIONS AMONG PROFESSIONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKERS IN MEXICO ABOUT THE IMPORTANCE OF POSSIBLE NEW OBJECTIVES, KINDS OF FUNCTIONS, AND TYPES OF TRAINING FOR ITS EXTENSION AGENTS. DATA WERE COLLECTED FROM 147 EXTENSION AGENTS AND SUPERVISORS, EXPERIMENTALISTS, RESEARCH LEADERS, AND PROFESSORS, BY A MAILED…

  5. A Probabilistic Model of Melody Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temperley, David

    2008-01-01

    This study presents a probabilistic model of melody perception, which infers the key of a melody and also judges the probability of the melody itself. The model uses Bayesian reasoning: For any "surface" pattern and underlying "structure," we can infer the structure maximizing P(structure [vertical bar] surface) based on knowledge of P(surface,…

  6. Perceptions and Incidence of Test Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerwing, Travis G.; Rash, Joshua A.; Allen Gerwing, Alyssa M.; Bramble, Bev; Landine, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Test anxiety (TA) can lower student GPA and increase dropout rates in populations of university students. Despite numerous treatment options, many students still suffer from TA. The stigma attached to this type of anxiety and the incidence rates and perceptions of TA were quantified through surveys distributed to 1,099 students at a Canadian…

  7. Speech Perception in Individuals with Auditory Neuropathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeng, Fan-Gang; Liu, Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Speech perception in participants with auditory neuropathy (AN) was systematically studied to answer the following 2 questions: Does noise present a particular problem for people with AN: Can clear speech and cochlear implants alleviate this problem? Method: The researchers evaluated the advantage in intelligibility of clear speech over…

  8. English Language Learners' Perceptions of School Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Diane; Ringler, Marjorie; O'Neal, Debbie; Bunn, Kelley

    2009-01-01

    The number of students who speak languages other than English continues to grow in both rural and urban public schools in the United States. This study investigated the perceptions of 123 students (57 monolingual and 66 English language learners [ELLs]) from a rural public elementary school in North Carolina with respect to school climate,…

  9. Classroom Incivilities: Students' Perceptions about Professors' Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stork, Elizabeth; Hartley, Nell Tabor

    2009-01-01

    A learning environment is a social one, and as a social environment it impacts what learners retain, how they form ideas, and what connections are made and lost when acquiring new skills and knowledge (Goleman, 2006). Today's college students' expectations for and perceptions of professors in the classroom are likely to influence their learning…

  10. Student Perceptions of Institutional Racial Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabokela, Reitumetse Obakeng

    2001-01-01

    Examines the attitudes and perceptions of black and white students at two historically white South African universities regarding various aspects of transformation occurring on campus, focusing on the racial climate. Student surveys and interviews indicate that all students perceive racial conflict on campus, though there are significant…

  11. American Students' Perceptions of American Foreign Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Robert N.

    The perception of typical U.S. college students toward the Reagan administration's foreign policy is that it is based on the principle that Communism must be stopped at any cost. Students' beliefs are defined according to their reactions to specific U.S. foreign policy initiatives. Three areas have aroused considerable campus reaction and…

  12. Leadership Self-Perceptions of WLC Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Tracy A.; Townsend, Christine D.; Briers, Gary E.; Cummins, Richard; Conrad, Charles R.

    2002-01-01

    Future Farmers of America (FFA) members (n=291) who attended the Washington Leadership Conference completed a leadership skills inventory. Size of FFA chapter, involvement in activities, and service as an officer were slightly positively correlated with perceptions of leadership skills. (Contains 18 references.) (SK)

  13. Thin-Slice Perception Develops Slowly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balas, Benjamin; Kanwisher, Nancy; Saxe, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Body language and facial gesture provide sufficient visual information to support high-level social inferences from "thin slices" of behavior. Given short movies of nonverbal behavior, adults make reliable judgments in a large number of tasks. Here we find that the high precision of adults' nonverbal social perception depends on the slow…

  14. Saccadic Corollary Discharge Underlies Stable Visual Perception

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Rebecca A.; Joiner, Wilsaan M.; Wurtz, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Saccadic eye movements direct the high-resolution foveae of our retinas toward objects of interest. With each saccade, the image jumps on the retina, causing a discontinuity in visual input. Our visual perception, however, remains stable. Philosophers and scientists over centuries have proposed that visual stability depends upon an internal neuronal signal that is a copy of the neuronal signal driving the eye movement, now referred to as a corollary discharge (CD) or efference copy. In the old world monkey, such a CD circuit for saccades has been identified extending from superior colliculus through MD thalamus to frontal cortex, but there is little evidence that this circuit actually contributes to visual perception. We tested the influence of this CD circuit on visual perception by first training macaque monkeys to report their perceived eye direction, and then reversibly inactivating the CD as it passes through the thalamus. We found that the monkey's perception changed; during CD inactivation, there was a difference between where the monkey perceived its eyes to be directed and where they were actually directed. Perception and saccade were decoupled. We established that the perceived eye direction at the end of the saccade was not derived from proprioceptive input from eye muscles, and was not altered by contextual visual information. We conclude that the CD provides internal information contributing to the brain's creation of perceived visual stability. More specifically, the CD might provide the internal saccade vector used to unite separate retinal images into a stable visual scene. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Visual stability is one of the most remarkable aspects of human vision. The eyes move rapidly several times per second, displacing the retinal image each time. The brain compensates for this disruption, keeping our visual perception stable. A major hypothesis explaining this stability invokes a signal within the brain, a corollary discharge, that informs

  15. Event justice perceptions and employees' reactions: perceptions of social entity justice as a moderator.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaepil

    2008-05-01

    Building on 2 paradigms in organizational justice research and on fairness heuristic theory, the author argues that employees' perceptions about the fairness of social entities (their supervisor and their organization) moderate the relationship between their perceptions about the fairness of specific events and their reactions. A survey of 265 supervisor-employee pairs in 4 companies was conducted to test this argument. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses showed that when employees perceived their organization to be generally fair, this perception moderated the relationship between the perceived justice of a particular event and their reactions to the organization (organizational commitment and organization-directed citizenship behavior). In addition, employees' perceptions of the fairness of their supervisor were found to moderate the relationship between the perceived justice of a particular event and their supervisor-directed responses (trust in managers and supervisor-directed citizenship behavior) and their organization-directed responses. The results suggest that employee attitudes and behavior can be better understood when both event justice perceptions and social entity justice perceptions are considered together. PMID:18457484

  16. Speech perception as an active cognitive process

    PubMed Central

    Heald, Shannon L. M.; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2014-01-01

    One view of speech perception is that acoustic signals are transformed into representations for pattern matching to determine linguistic structure. This process can be taken as a statistical pattern-matching problem, assuming realtively stable linguistic categories are characterized by neural representations related to auditory properties of speech that can be compared to speech input. This kind of pattern matching can be termed a passive process which implies rigidity of processing with few demands on cognitive processing. An alternative view is that speech recognition, even in early stages, is an active process in which speech analysis is attentionally guided. Note that this does not mean consciously guided but that information-contingent changes in early auditory encoding can occur as a function of context and experience. Active processing assumes that attention, plasticity, and listening goals are important in considering how listeners cope with adverse circumstances that impair hearing by masking noise in the environment or hearing loss. Although theories of speech perception have begun to incorporate some active processing, they seldom treat early speech encoding as plastic and attentionally guided. Recent research has suggested that speech perception is the product of both feedforward and feedback interactions between a number of brain regions that include descending projections perhaps as far downstream as the cochlea. It is important to understand how the ambiguity of the speech signal and constraints of context dynamically determine cognitive resources recruited during perception including focused attention, learning, and working memory. Theories of speech perception need to go beyond the current corticocentric approach in order to account for the intrinsic dynamics of the auditory encoding of speech. In doing so, this may provide new insights into ways in which hearing disorders and loss may be treated either through augementation or therapy. PMID

  17. Personal values, beliefs, and ecological risk perception.

    PubMed

    Slimak, Michael W; Dietz, Thomas

    2006-12-01

    A mail survey on ecological risk perception was administered in the summer of 2002 to a randomized sample of the lay public and to selected risk professionals at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The ranking of 24 ecological risk items, from global climate change to commercial fishing, reveals that the lay public is more concerned about low-probability, high-consequence risks whereas the risk professionals are more concerned about risks that pose long-term, ecosystem-level impacts. To test the explanatory power of the value-belief-norm (VBN) theory for risk perception, respondents were questioned about their personal values, spiritual beliefs, and worldviews. The most consistent predictors of the risk rankings are belief in the new ecological paradigm (NEP) and Schwartz's altruism. The NEP and Schwartz's altruism explain from 19% to 46% of the variance in the risk rankings. Religious beliefs account for less than 6% of the variance and do not show a consistent pattern in predicting risk perception although religious fundamentalists are generally less concerned about the risk items. While not exerting as strong an impact, social-structural variables do have some influence on risk perception. Ethnicities show no effect on the risk scales but the more educated and financially well-off are less concerned about the risk items. Political leanings have no direct influence on risk rankings, but indirectly affect rankings through the NEP. These results reveal that the VBN theory is a plausible explanation for the differences measured in the respondents' perception of ecological risk. PMID:17184406

  18. Sensorimotor influences on speech perception in infancy

    PubMed Central

    Bruderer, Alison G.; Danielson, D. Kyle; Kandhadai, Padmapriya; Werker, Janet F.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of speech production on speech perception is well established in adults. However, because adults have a long history of both perceiving and producing speech, the extent to which the perception–production linkage is due to experience is unknown. We addressed this issue by asking whether articulatory configurations can influence infants’ speech perception performance. To eliminate influences from specific linguistic experience, we studied preverbal, 6-mo-old infants and tested the discrimination of a nonnative, and hence never-before-experienced, speech sound distinction. In three experimental studies, we used teething toys to control the position and movement of the tongue tip while the infants listened to the speech sounds. Using ultrasound imaging technology, we verified that the teething toys consistently and effectively constrained the movement and positioning of infants’ tongues. With a looking-time procedure, we found that temporarily restraining infants’ articulators impeded their discrimination of a nonnative consonant contrast but only when the relevant articulator was selectively restrained to prevent the movements associated with producing those sounds. Our results provide striking evidence that even before infants speak their first words and without specific listening experience, sensorimotor information from the articulators influences speech perception. These results transform theories of speech perception by suggesting that even at the initial stages of development, oral–motor movements influence speech sound discrimination. Moreover, an experimentally induced “impairment” in articulator movement can compromise speech perception performance, raising the question of whether long-term oral–motor impairments may impact perceptual development. PMID:26460030

  19. Students’ perceptions on feedback module in pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Varsha J.; Malhotra, Supriya D.; Rana, Devang A.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Feedback is an integral part of formative assessment though underutilized in medical education. The objective of this study was to review our feedback module through students’ perceptions. Methodology: We have developed a feedback module which is practiced by us for last 10 years for term ending examination that gives collective feedback to the whole class, followed by individual student-teacher interactions. Students were also exposed to 6–7 multiple choice questions (MCQs) based assessment during the course of pharmacology. Immediately after each MCQ test the answer keys is displayed along with an explanation. Two classes of students were requested to give their perceptions about the feedback by responding on Likert scale for the statements in the questionnaire. All the 206 students who volunteered for the study were enrolled in the study. Mann–Whitney test was used to calculate the difference in perceptions. Results: Of 278 students of two classes, 206 responded (74%). Students’ agreement varied from 93% to 98% for 5 items in the questionnaire for the feedback after term ending examinations. Perception of students attending one or more than one feedback session did not differ significantly. For MCQs, tests agreement was 91% to 98% for the 4 items. There was no significant difference between two classes in their perceptions regarding feedback practices (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Students gave a favorable opinion for our feedback module. In the medical colleges with a large number of students, this module is feasible for feedback in formative assessment in the form of written tests. PMID:27500170

  20. EFFECT OF SEDATION ON PAIN PERCEPTION

    PubMed Central

    Frölich, Michael A.; Zhang, Kui; Ness, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Background Sedation or anesthesia is used to facilitate many cases of an estimated 45 million diagnostic and therapeutic medical procedures in the United States. Preclinical studies have called attention to the possibility that sedative hypnotic drugs can increase pain perception but it remains unclear whether this observation holds true in humans and whether pain-modulating effects are agent specific or characteristic of intravenous sedation in general. Methods To study this important clinical question, we recruited 86 healthy volunteers and randomly assigned them to receive one of three sedative drugs; midazolam, propofol or dexmedetomidine. We asked participants to rate their pain in response to four experimental pain tasks (cold, heat, ischemic or electrical pain) before and during moderate sedation. Results Midazolam increased cold, heat and electrical pain perception significantly (10-point pain rating scale change = 0.82 ± 0.29, mean ± SEM). Propofol reduced ischemic pain and dexmedetomidine reduced both cold and ischemic pain significantly (−1.58 ± 0.28, mean ± SEM). We observed a gender-by-race interaction for dexmedetomidine. In addition to these drug specific effects, we observed gender effects on pain perception; females rated identical experimental pain stimuli higher than males. We also noted racedrug interaction effects for dexmedetomidine with higher doses of drug needed to sedate Caucasians when compared to African-Americans. Conclusions The results of our study call attention to the fact that intravenous sedatives may increase pain perception. The effect of sedation on pain perception is agent and pain type specific. Knowledge of these effects provides a rational basis for analgesia and sedation to facilitate medical procedures. PMID:23314164

  1. Ambiguity in Tactile Apparent Motion Perception

    PubMed Central

    Liaci, Emanuela; Bach, Michael; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Heinrich, Sven P.; Kornmeier, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Background In von Schiller’s Stroboscopic Alternative Motion (SAM) stimulus two visually presented diagonal dot pairs, located on the corners of an imaginary rectangle, alternate with each other and induce either horizontal, vertical or, rarely, rotational motion percepts. SAM motion perception can be described by a psychometric function of the dot aspect ratio (“AR”, i.e. the relation between vertical and horizontal dot distances). Further, with equal horizontal and vertical dot distances (AR = 1) perception is biased towards vertical motion. In a series of five experiments, we presented tactile SAM versions and studied the role of AR and of different reference frames for the perception of tactile apparent motion. Methods We presented tactile SAM stimuli and varied the ARs, while participants reported the perceived motion directions. Pairs of vibration stimulators were attached to the participants’ forearms and stimulator distances were varied within and between forearms. We compared straight and rotated forearm conditions with each other in order to disentangle the roles of exogenous and endogenous reference frames. Results Increasing the tactile SAM’s AR biased perception towards vertical motion, but the effect was weak compared to the visual modality. We found no horizontal disambiguation, even for very small tactile ARs. A forearm rotation by 90° kept the vertical bias, even though it was now coupled with small ARs. A 45° rotation condition with crossed forearms, however, evoked a strong horizontal motion bias. Discussion Existing approaches to explain the visual SAM bias fail to explain the current tactile results. Particularly puzzling is the strong horizontal bias in the crossed-forearm conditions. In the case of tactile apparent motion, there seem to be no fixed priority rule for perceptual disambiguation. Rather the weighting of available evidence seems to depend on the degree of stimulus ambiguity, the current situation and on the perceptual

  2. Melodic Pitch Perception and Lexical Tone Perception in Mandarin-Speaking Cochlear Implant Users

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Duoduo; Deng, Rui; Jiang, Ye; Galvin, John J.; Fu, Qian-Jie; Chen, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relationship between lexical tone perception and melodic pitch perception in Mandarin-speaking cochlear implant (CI) users, and to investigate the influence of previous acoustic hearing on CI users’ speech and music perception. Design Lexical tone perception and melodic contour identification (MCI) were measured in 21 prelingual and 11 postlingual young (age: 6–26 years old) Mandarin-speaking CI users. Lexical tone recognition was measured for four tonal patterns: Tone 1 (flat F0), Tone 2 (rising F0), Tone 3 (falling-rising F0), and Tone 4 (falling F0). MCI was measured using 9 five-note melodic patterns that contained changes in pitch contour, as well as different semitone spacing between notes. Results Lexical tone recognition was generally good (overall mean = 81% correct), and there was no significant difference between subject groups. MCI performance was generally poor (mean = 23% correct). MCI performance was significantly better for postlingual (mean = 32% correct) than for prelingual CI participants (18% correct). After correcting for outliers, there was no significant correlation between lexical tone recognition and MCI performance for prelingual or post-lingual CI participants. Age at deafness was significantly correlated with MCI performance only for postlingual participants. CI experience was significantly correlated with MCI performance for both prelingual and postlingual participants. Duration of deafness was significantly correlated with tone recognition only for prelingual participants. Conclusions Despite the prevalence of pitch cues in Mandarin, the present CI participants had great difficulty perceiving melodic pitch. The availability of amplitude and duration cues in lexical tones most likely compensated for the poor pitch perception observed with these CI listeners. Previous acoustic hearing experience seemed to benefit postlingual CI users’ melodic pitch perception. Longer CI experience was associated with

  3. Aesthetic perception and its minimal content: a naturalistic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Xenakis, Ioannis; Arnellos, Argyris

    2014-01-01

    Aesthetic perception is one of the most interesting topics for philosophers and scientists who investigate how it influences our interactions with objects and states of affairs. Over the last few years, several studies have attempted to determine “how aesthetics is represented in an object,” and how a specific feature of an object could evoke the respective feelings during perception. Despite the vast number of approaches and models, we believe that these explanations do not resolve the problem concerning the conditions under which aesthetic perception occurs, and what constitutes the content of these perceptions. Adopting a naturalistic perspective, we here view aesthetic perception as a normative process that enables agents to enhance their interactions with physical and socio-cultural environments. Considering perception as an anticipatory and preparatory process of detection and evaluation of indications of potential interactions (what we call “interactive affordances”), we argue that the minimal content of aesthetic perception is an emotionally valued indication of interaction potentiality. Aesthetic perception allows an agent to normatively anticipate interaction potentialities, thus increasing sense making and reducing the uncertainty of interaction. This conception of aesthetic perception is compatible with contemporary evidence from neuroscience, experimental aesthetics, and interaction design. The proposed model overcomes several problems of transcendental, art-centered, and objective aesthetics as it offers an alternative to the idea of aesthetic objects that carry inherent values by explaining “the aesthetic” as emergent in perception within a context of uncertain interaction. PMID:25285084

  4. Acute Alcohol Drinking Promotes Piecemeal Percepts during Binocular Rivalry.

    PubMed

    Cao, Dingcai; Zhuang, Xiaohua; Kang, Para; Hong, Sang W; King, Andrea C

    2016-01-01

    Binocular rivalry refers to perceptual alternation when two eyes view different images. One of the potential percepts during binocular rivalry is a spatial mosaic of left- and right-eye images, known as piecemeal percepts, which may result from localized rivalries between small regions in the left- and right-eye images. It is known that alcohol increases inhibitory neurotransmission, which may reduce the number of alternations during binocular rivalry. However, it is unclear whether alcohol affects rivalry dynamics in the same manner for both coherent percepts (i.e., percepts of complete left or right images) and piecemeal percepts. To address this question, the present study measured the dynamics of binocular rivalry before and after 15 moderate-to-heavy social drinkers consumed an intoxicating dose of alcohol versus a placebo beverage. Both simple rivalrous stimuli consisting of gratings with different orientations, and complex stimuli consisting of a face or a house were tested to examine alcohol effects on rivalry as a function of stimulus complexity. Results showed that for both simple and complex stimuli, alcohol affects coherent and piecemeal percepts differently. More specifically, alcohol reduced the number of coherent percepts but not the mean dominance duration of coherent percepts. In contrast, for piecemeal percepts, alcohol increased the mean dominance duration but not the number of piecemeal percepts. These results suggested that alcohol drinking may selectively affect the dynamics of transitional period of binocular rivalry by increasing the duration of piecemeal percepts, leading to a reduction in the number of coherent percepts. The differential effect of alcohol on the dynamics of coherent and piecemeal percepts cannot be accounted for by alcohol's effect on a common inhibitory mechanism. Other mechanisms, such as increasing neural noise, are needed to explain alcohol's effect on the dynamics of binocular rivalry. PMID:27092096

  5. Acute Alcohol Drinking Promotes Piecemeal Percepts during Binocular Rivalry

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Dingcai; Zhuang, Xiaohua; Kang, Para; Hong, Sang W.; King, Andrea C.

    2016-01-01

    Binocular rivalry refers to perceptual alternation when two eyes view different images. One of the potential percepts during binocular rivalry is a spatial mosaic of left- and right-eye images, known as piecemeal percepts, which may result from localized rivalries between small regions in the left- and right-eye images. It is known that alcohol increases inhibitory neurotransmission, which may reduce the number of alternations during binocular rivalry. However, it is unclear whether alcohol affects rivalry dynamics in the same manner for both coherent percepts (i.e., percepts of complete left or right images) and piecemeal percepts. To address this question, the present study measured the dynamics of binocular rivalry before and after 15 moderate-to-heavy social drinkers consumed an intoxicating dose of alcohol versus a placebo beverage. Both simple rivalrous stimuli consisting of gratings with different orientations, and complex stimuli consisting of a face or a house were tested to examine alcohol effects on rivalry as a function of stimulus complexity. Results showed that for both simple and complex stimuli, alcohol affects coherent and piecemeal percepts differently. More specifically, alcohol reduced the number of coherent percepts but not the mean dominance duration of coherent percepts. In contrast, for piecemeal percepts, alcohol increased the mean dominance duration but not the number of piecemeal percepts. These results suggested that alcohol drinking may selectively affect the dynamics of transitional period of binocular rivalry by increasing the duration of piecemeal percepts, leading to a reduction in the number of coherent percepts. The differential effect of alcohol on the dynamics of coherent and piecemeal percepts cannot be accounted for by alcohol’s effect on a common inhibitory mechanism. Other mechanisms, such as increasing neural noise, are needed to explain alcohol’s effect on the dynamics of binocular rivalry. PMID:27092096

  6. Worldwide clustering of the corruption perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulus, Michal; Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2015-06-01

    We inspect a possible clustering structure of the corruption perception among 134 countries. Using the average linkage clustering, we uncover a well-defined hierarchy in the relationships among countries. Four main clusters are identified and they suggest that countries worldwide can be quite well separated according to their perception of corruption. Moreover, we find a strong connection between corruption levels and a stage of development inside the clusters. The ranking of countries according to their corruption perfectly copies the ranking according to the economic performance measured by the gross domestic product per capita of the member states. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first one to present an application of hierarchical and clustering methods to the specific case of corruption.

  7. Are there interactive processes in speech perception?

    PubMed

    McClelland, James L; Mirman, Daniel; Holt, Lori L

    2006-08-01

    Lexical information facilitates speech perception, especially when sounds are ambiguous or degraded. The interactive approach to understanding this effect posits that this facilitation is accomplished through bi-directional flow of information, allowing lexical knowledge to influence pre-lexical processes. Alternative autonomous theories posit feed-forward processing with lexical influence restricted to post-perceptual decision processes. We review evidence supporting the prediction of interactive models that lexical influences can affect pre-lexical mechanisms, triggering compensation, adaptation and retuning of phonological processes generally taken to be pre-lexical. We argue that these and other findings point to interactive processing as a fundamental principle for perception of speech and other modalities. PMID:16843037

  8. The Perception of Materials through Oral Sensation

    PubMed Central

    Howes, Philip D.; Wongsriruksa, Supinya; Laughlin, Zoe; Witchel, Harry J.; Miodownik, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a multimodal study of oral perception conducted with a set of material samples made from metals, polymers and woods, in which both the somatosensory and taste factors were examined. A multidimensional scaling analysis coupled with subjective attribute ratings was performed to assess these factors both qualitatively and quantitatively. The perceptual somatosensory factors of warmth, hardness and roughness dominated over the basic taste factors, and roughness was observed to be a less significant sensation compared to touch-only experiments. The perceptual somatosensory ratings were compared directly with physical property data in order to assess the correlation between the perceived properties and measured physical properties. In each case, a strong correlation was observed, suggesting that physical properties may be useful in industrial design for predicting oral perception. PMID:25136793

  9. How do disaster characteristics influence risk perception?

    PubMed

    Ho, Ming-Chou; Shaw, Daigee; Lin, Shuyeu; Chiu, Yao-Chu

    2008-06-01

    The main purpose of this study is to examine how risk perception is influenced by the type of disaster (flood or landslide) and victim characteristics. The data reported here are based on the National Risk Perception Survey (NRPS) that was administered for the victims and the general public in Taiwan in 2004. In that year, many towns in Taiwan were seriously affected by floods and landslides, resulting in huge economic losses and fatalities. The primary findings are: (1) the victims and the general public are concerned about the different potential hazards that might affect their residential area, (2) the negative associations between the sense of controllability and the perceived impact is high for landslide victims, but not for flood victims, and (3) disaster type, gender, and previously experienced disasters are good predictors of victims' attitudes toward natural disasters. PMID:18643821

  10. Lay and Expert Perceptions of Planetary Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Race, Margaret S.; MacGregor, Donald G.; Slovic, Paul

    2000-01-01

    As space scientists and engineers plan new missions to Mars and other planets in our solar system, they will face critical questions about the potential for biological contamination of planetary surfaces. In a society that places ever-increasing importance on the role of public involvement in science and technology policy, questions about risks of biological contamination will be examined and debated in the media, and will lead to the formation of public perceptions of planetary-contamination risks. These perceptions will, over time, form an important input to the development of space policy. Previous research in public and expert perceptions of technological risks and hazards has shown that many of the problems faced by risk-management organizations are the result of differing perceptions of risk (and risk management) between the general public and scientific and technical experts. These differences manifest themselves both as disagreements about the definition (and level) of risk associated with a scientific, technological or industrial enterprise, and as distrust about the ability of risk-management organizations (both public and private) to adequately protect people's health and safety. This report presents the results of a set of survey studies designed to reveal perceptions of planetary exploration and protection from a wide range of respondents, including both members of the general public and experts in the life sciences. The potential value of this research lies in what it reveals about perceptions of risk and benefit that could improve risk-management policies and practices. For example, efforts to communicate with the public about Mars sample return missions could benefit from an understanding of the specific concerns that nonscientists have about such a mission by suggesting areas of potential improvement in public education and information. Assessment of both public and expert perceptions of risk can also be used to provide an advanced signal of

  11. Racial Bias in Perceptions of Others’ Pain

    PubMed Central

    Trawalter, Sophie; Hoffman, Kelly M.; Waytz, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The present work provides evidence that people assume a priori that Blacks feel less pain than do Whites. It also demonstrates that this bias is rooted in perceptions of status and the privilege (or hardship) status confers, not race per se. Archival data from the National Football League injury reports reveal that, relative to injured White players, injured Black players are deemed more likely to play in a subsequent game, possibly because people assume they feel less pain. Experiments 1–4 show that White and Black Americans–including registered nurses and nursing students–assume that Black people feel less pain than do White people. Finally, Experiments 5 and 6 provide evidence that this bias is rooted in perceptions of status, not race per se. Taken together, these data have important implications for understanding race-related biases and healthcare disparities. PMID:23155390

  12. Bilingual exposure influences infant VOT perception.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liquan; Kager, René

    2015-02-01

    Linking the discrimination of voice onset time (VOT) in infancy with infant language background, we examine the perceptual changes of two VOT contrasts (/b/-/p/ and /p(h)/-/p/) by Dutch monolingual and bilingual infants from 8 to 15 months of age. Results showed that language exposure and language dominance had a strong impact on monolingual and bilingual infant VOT perceptual patterns. In addition, perceptual turbulence was found at 8-9 months for bilingual infants, and stabilized perception was presented for all infants from 11 months onwards. We thus report a general input-driven developmental VOT perception in both monolingual and bilingual infants, with perceptual turbulence for bilinguals in the second half of the first year of life. PMID:25555248

  13. Ebola Risk Perception in Germany, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Rübsamen, Nicole; Castell, Stefanie; Horn, Johannes; Karch, André; Ott, Jördis J.; Raupach-Rosin, Heike; Zoch, Beate; Krause, Gérard

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks have occurred during the past 5 decades, but none has affected European countries like the 2014 epidemic in West Africa. We used an online questionnaire to investigate risk perceptions in Germany during this epidemic peak. Our questionnaire covered risk perceptions, knowledge about transmission routes, media use, reactions to the outbreak, attitudes toward measures to prevent the spread of EVD and vaccination against EVD, and willingness to volunteer for aid missions. Of 974 participants, 29% indicated that they worried about EVD, 4% correctly stated virus transmission routes, and 75% incorrectly rated airborne transmission and transmission by asymptomatic patients as possible. Many indicated that if a patient were flown to Germany for treatment in a nearby hospital, they would adapt preventive behavior. Although most participants were not worried about EVD at the current stage of the epidemic, misperceptions regarding transmission were common and could trigger inappropriate behavior changes. PMID:25989020

  14. Fitting perception in and to cognition.

    PubMed

    Goldstone, Robert L; de Leeuw, Joshua R; Landy, David H

    2015-02-01

    Perceptual modules adapt at evolutionary, lifelong, and moment-to-moment temporal scales to better serve the informational needs of cognizers. Perceptual learning is a powerful way for an individual to become tuned to frequently recurring patterns in its specific local environment that are pertinent to its goals without requiring costly executive control resources to be deployed. Mechanisms like predictive coding, categorical perception, and action-informed vision allow our perceptual systems to interface well with cognition by generating perceptual outputs that are systematically guided by how they will be used. In classic conceptions of perceptual modules, people have access to the modules' outputs but no ability to adjust their internal workings. However, humans routinely and strategically alter their perceptual systems via training regimes that have predictable and specific outcomes. In fact, employing a combination of strategic and automatic devices for adapting perception is one of the most promising approaches to improving cognition. PMID:25496987

  15. The perception of materials through oral sensation.

    PubMed

    Howes, Philip D; Wongsriruksa, Supinya; Laughlin, Zoe; Witchel, Harry J; Miodownik, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a multimodal study of oral perception conducted with a set of material samples made from metals, polymers and woods, in which both the somatosensory and taste factors were examined. A multidimensional scaling analysis coupled with subjective attribute ratings was performed to assess these factors both qualitatively and quantitatively. The perceptual somatosensory factors of warmth, hardness and roughness dominated over the basic taste factors, and roughness was observed to be a less significant sensation compared to touch-only experiments. The perceptual somatosensory ratings were compared directly with physical property data in order to assess the correlation between the perceived properties and measured physical properties. In each case, a strong correlation was observed, suggesting that physical properties may be useful in industrial design for predicting oral perception. PMID:25136793

  16. Ballroom dance and body size perception.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Cristiane Costa; Thurm, Bianca Elisabeth; Vecchi, Rodrigo Luiz; Gama, Eliane Florencio

    2014-10-01

    Ballroom dancing consists in the performance of rhythmic movements guided by music, which provide sensorimotor integration and stimulate feelings. The body schema is the unconscious sensorimotor representation that allows the individual to perceive his anatomical body in space. Comprising tactile, proprioceptive, kinesthetic, and environmental information, it is directly related to movement. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of non-competitive practice of ballroom dancing on body perception. The projection point test was applied to 30 volunteers before and after a period of 3 mo.; 15 controls attended lectures on body perception and 15 participants took dance lessons. It was observed that ballroom dancing brought perceptual benefits for those who practiced it. PMID:25349891

  17. Metrical perception of trisyllabic speech rhythms.

    PubMed

    Benadon, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The perception of duration-based syllabic rhythm was examined within a metrical framework. Participants assessed the duration patterns of four-syllable phrases set within the stress structure XxxX (an Abercrombian trisyllabic foot). Using on-screen sliders, participants created percussive sequences that imitated speech rhythms and analogous non-speech monotone rhythms. There was a tendency to equalize the interval durations for speech stimuli but not for non-speech. Despite the perceptual regularization of syllable durations, different speech phrases were conceived in various rhythmic configurations, pointing to a diversity of perceived meters in speech. In addition, imitations of speech stimuli showed more variability than those of non-speech. Rhythmically skilled listeners exhibited lower variability and were more consistent with vowel-centric estimates when assessing speech stimuli. These findings enable new connections between meter- and duration-based models of speech rhythm perception. PMID:23417710

  18. The Hitselberger sign as a perception phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Benz, B; Baumgarten, D

    1987-01-01

    In the Hitselberger test the patient has to estimate the magnitude of the tactile part of a compound audio-tactile stimulus. From this point of view it is doubtful, that the sign is a simple peripheral phenomenon based on the impairment of the facial nerve by tumor pressure. To investigate the process of audiotactile perception we developed a device which delivers a calibrated compound audio-tactile stimulus. In the tested 70 patients with different sensorineural lesions there was no significant difference between the percentage values of positive Hitselberger signs in the various diagnostic groups. Evaluation of the different factors influencing the Hitselberger test results in a new concept of audiotactile perception. PMID:3604652

  19. From local perception to global perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, Flavio; Stocker, Thomas F.

    2015-08-01

    Recent sociological studies show that over short time periods the large day-to-day, month-to-month or year-to-year variations in weather at a specific location can influence and potentially bias our perception of climate change, a more long-term and global phenomenon. By weighting local temperature anomalies with the number of people that experience them and considering longer time periods, we illustrate that the share of the world population exposed to warmer-than-normal temperatures has steadily increased during the past few decades. Therefore, warming is experienced by an increasing number of individuals, counter to what might be simply inferred from global mean temperature anomalies. This behaviour is well-captured by current climate models, offering an opportunity to increase confidence in future projections of climate change irrespective of the personal local perception of weather.

  20. Social Psychological Face Perception: Why Appearance Matters

    PubMed Central

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A.; Montepare, Joann M.

    2009-01-01

    We form first impressions from faces despite warnings not to do so. Moreover, there is considerable agreement in our impressions, which carry significant social outcomes. Appearance matters because some facial qualities are so useful in guiding adaptive behavior that even a trace of those qualities can create an impression. Specifically, the qualities revealed by facial cues that characterize low fitness, babies, emotion, and identity are overgeneralized to people whose facial appearance resembles the unfit (anomalous face overgeneralization), babies (babyface overgeneralization), a particular emotion (emotion face overgeneralization), or a particular identity (familiar face overgeneralization). We review studies that support the overgeneralization hypotheses and recommend research that incorporates additional tenets of the ecological theory from which these hypotheses are derived: the contribution of dynamic and multi-modal stimulus information to face perception; bidirectional relationships between behavior and face perception; perceptual learning mechanisms and social goals that sensitize perceivers to particular information in faces. PMID:20107613