Science.gov

Sample records for percussion drilling improved

  1. Steerable percussion air drilling system

    SciTech Connect

    Bui, H.D.; Meyers, J.A.; Yost, A.B. II

    1998-12-31

    By increasing penetration rates and bit life, especially in hard formations, the use of down-hole air hammers in the oil field has significantly reduced drilling costs in the Northeast US and West Texas. Unfortunately, drilling by this percussion method has been limited mostly to straight hole applications. This paper presents a new concept of a percussion drilling tool which performs both the function of a down-hole hammer as well as that of a down-hole motor. Such a drilling tool, being introduced here as Steerable Percussion Air Drilling System (SPADS), eliminates the necessity to rotate the drill string and, consequently, enables the use of down-hole air hammers to drill directional wells.

  2. Investigation of percussion drills for geothermal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    A series of tests was conducted to provide data for an economic evaluation of percussion drilling in geothermal reservoirs. Penetration rate, operation on aqueous foam, and high temperature vulnerabilities of downhole percussion tools are described.

  3. Laboratory Investigations on Percussive Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivade, S. B.; Murthy, Ch. S. N.; Vardhan, Harsha

    2013-10-01

    The laboratory investigation was carried out on ten rock samples using pneumatic drill with drill bits of different diameters. In general, the process of drilling always produces sound. Sound is generated from the bit-rock interface regardless of the material of the bit used in drilling. The predicted sound level and penetration rate are a product of the drill power and the physical properties of the rocks penetrated. Rock samples were collected from the field and physical properties of the rocks were determined in the laboratory. The sound level and penetration rates were correlated with the rock properties. The compressive strength and abrasivity exhibit strong correlations with the sound level and penetration rate. It was concluded that, among the rock properties included in this study, the compressive strength and abrasivity values are the dominant ones affecting the penetration rate and sound level of percussive drills. Though ten rock samples have been covered in this study, detailed analysis of only one of them is presented.

  4. Fundamental Research on Percussion Drilling: Improved rock mechanics analysis, advanced simulation technology, and full-scale laboratory investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Michael S. Bruno

    2005-12-31

    drilling tests, as well as single impact tests, have been designed and executed. Both Berea sandstone and Mancos shale samples are used. In single impact tests, three impacts are sequentially loaded at the same rock location to investigate rock response to repetitive loadings. The crater depth and width are measured as well as the displacement and force in the rod and the force in the rock. Various pressure differences across the rock-indentor interface (i.e. bore pressure minus pore pressure) are used to investigate the pressure effect on rock penetration. For hammer drilling tests, an industrial fluid hammer is used to drill under both underbalanced and overbalanced conditions. Besides calibrating the modeling tool, the data and cuttings collected from the tests indicate several other important applications. For example, different rock penetrations during single impact tests may reveal why a fluid hammer behaves differently with diverse rock types and under various pressure conditions at the hole bottom. On the other hand, the shape of the cuttings from fluid hammer tests, comparing to those from traditional rotary drilling methods, may help to identify the dominant failure mechanism that percussion drilling relies on. If so, encouraging such a failure mechanism may improve hammer performance. The project is summarized in this report. Instead of compiling the information contained in the previous quarterly or other technical reports, this report focuses on the descriptions of tasks, findings, and conclusions, as well as the efforts on promoting percussion drilling technologies to industries including site visits, presentations, and publications. As a part of the final deliveries, the 3D numerical model for rock mechanics is also attached.

  5. Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills (PARoD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ressa, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    A percussive augmenter is being developed and it is designed to add ultrasonic hammering to a conventional commercial rotary drill through an adapter using a piezoelectric actuator. The combination of ultrasonic hammering and rotation creates a drill that requires low power and low axial load while providing faster penetration than conventional rotary-only drills. These characteristics make percussive augmentation of rotary drills ideal for not only planetary exploration but commercial applications as well. The purpose of this internship was to produce, test, and optimize an augmenter that drives a 2 inch diameter bit. This task was part of the percussive augmenter's phase II of an ongoing contract and it involved increasing the capability of the .25 inch version of the augmenter prototype that was developed in phase I. Due to fabrication delays of the augmenter, an extensive part of the test effort was conducted using previous rotary and hammer drill prototypes. These tests focused on drilling deep over long periods of time to provide for effective stress test of the drill. Modifications were made to the drill, its components, and the testing procedure to achieve desired borehole depths. These results were used to start initial testing on the 2 inch augmenter and provide preliminary data on the augmenter's ability to significantly improve penetration rate over conventional rotary-only drills.

  6. Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills (PARoD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Chang, Zensheu; Donnelly, Chris; Aldrich, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly, NASA exploration mission objectives include sample acquisition tasks for in-situ analysis or for potential sample return to Earth. To address the requirements for samplers that could be operated at the conditions of the various bodies in the solar system, a piezoelectric actuated percussive sampling device was developed that requires low preload (as low as 10N) which is important for operation at low gravity. This device can be made as light as 400g, can be operated using low average power, and can drill rocks as hard as basalt. Significant improvement of the penetration rate was achieved by augmenting the hammering action by rotation and use of a fluted bit to provide effective cuttings removal. Generally, hammering is effective in fracturing drilled media while rotation of fluted bits is effective in cuttings removal. To benefit from these two actions, a novel configuration of a percussive mechanism was developed to produce an augmenter of rotary drills. The device was called Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills (PARoD). A breadboard PARoD was developed with a 6.4 mm (0.25 in) diameter bit and was demonstrated to increase the drilling rate of rotation alone by 1.5 to over 10 times. Further, a large PARoD breadboard with 50.8 mm diameter bit was developed and its tests are currently underway. This paper presents the design, analysis and preliminary test results of the percussive augmenter.

  7. Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills (PARoD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Hasenoehrl, Jennifer; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Chang, Zensheu; Ostlund, Patrick; Aldrich, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, NASA exploration mission objectives include sample acquisition tasks for in-situ analysis or for potential sample return to Earth. To address the requirements for samplers that could be operated at the conditions of the various bodies in the solar system, a piezoelectric actuated percussive sampling device was developed that requires low preload (as low as 10 N) which is important for operation at low gravity. This device can be made as light as 400 g, can be operated using low average power, and can drill rocks as hard as basalt. Significant improvement of the penetration rate was achieved by augmenting the hammering action by rotation and use of a fluted bit to provide effective cuttings removal. Generally, hammering is effective in fracturing drilled media while rotation of fluted bits is effective in cuttings removal. To benefit from these two actions, a novel configuration of a percussive mechanism was developed to produce an augmenter of rotary drills. The device was called Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills (PARoD). A breadboard PARoD was developed with a 6.4 mm (0.25 in) diameter bit and was demonstrated to increase the drilling rate of rotation alone by 1.5 to over 10 times. The test results of this configuration were published in a previous publication. Further, a larger PARoD breadboard with a 50.8 mm (2.0 in) diameter bit was developed and tested. This paper presents the design, analysis and test results of the large diameter bit percussive augmenter.

  8. Results from Testing of Two Rotary Percussive Drilling Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriechbaum, Kristopher; Brown, Kyle; Cady, Ian; von der Heydt, Max; Klein, Kerry; Kulczycki, Eric; Okon, Avi

    2010-01-01

    The developmental test program for the MSL (Mars Science Laboratory) rotary percussive drill examined the e ect of various drill input parameters on the drill pene- tration rate. Some of the input parameters tested were drill angle with respect to gravity and percussive impact energy. The suite of rocks tested ranged from a high strength basalt to soft Kaolinite clay. We developed a hole start routine to reduce high sideloads from bit walk. The ongoing development test program for the IMSAH (Integrated Mars Sample Acquisition and Handling) rotary percussive corer uses many of the same rocks as the MSL suite. An additional performance parameter is core integrity. The MSL development test drill and the IMSAH test drill use similar hardware to provide rotation and percussion. However, the MSL test drill uses external stabilizers, while the IMSAH test drill does not have external stabilization. In addition the IMSAH drill is a core drill, while the MSL drill uses a solid powdering bit. Results from the testing of these two related drilling systems is examined.

  9. Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills for Operating as a Rotary-Hammer Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, Jack Barron (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Scott, James Samson (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A percussive augmenter bit includes a connection shaft for mounting the bit onto a rotary drill. In a first modality, an actuator percussively drives the bit, and an electric slip-ring provides power to the actuator while being rotated by the drill. Hammering action from the actuator and rotation from the drill are applied directly to material being drilled. In a second modality, a percussive augmenter includes an actuator that operates as a hammering mechanism that drives a free mass into the bit creating stress pulses that fracture material that is in contact with the bit.

  10. ROPEC - ROtary PErcussive Coring Drill for Mars Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Philip; Spring, Justin; Zacny, Kris

    2014-01-01

    The ROtary Percussive Coring Drill is a light weight, flight-like, five-actuator drilling system prototype designed to acquire core material from rock targets for the purposes of Mars Sample Return. In addition to producing rock cores for sample caching, the ROPEC drill can be integrated with a number of end effectors to perform functions such as rock surface abrasion, dust and debris removal, powder and regolith acquisition, and viewing of potential cores prior to caching. The ROPEC drill and its suite of end effectors have been demonstrated with a five degree of freedom Robotic Arm mounted to a mobility system with a prototype sample cache and bit storage station.

  11. Testing and Development of a Percussive Augmenter for Rotary Drills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnelly, Christopher; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart

    2011-01-01

    Hammering drills are effective in fracturing the drilled medium while rotary drills remove cuttings. The combination provides a highly effective penetration mechanism. Piezoelectric actuators were integrated into an adapter to produce ultrasonic percussion; augmenting rotary drilling. The drill is capable of operating at low power, low applied force and, with proper tuning, low noise. These characteristics are of great interest for future NASA missions and the construction/remodeling industry. The developed augmenter connects a commercially available drill and bit and was tested to demonstrate its capability. Input power to the drill was read using a multimeter and the augmenter received a separate input voltage. The drive frequency of the piezoelectric actuator was controlled by a hill climb algorithm that optimizes and records average power usage to operate the drill at resonating frequency. Testing the rotary drill and augmenter across a range of combinations with total power constant at 160 Watts has shown results in concrete and limestone samples that are as good as or better than the commercial drill. The drill rate was increased 1.5 to over 10 times when compared to rotation alone.

  12. The behavior of enclosed-type connection of drill pipes during percussive drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadrina, A.; Saruev, L.

    2015-11-01

    Percussion drilling is the efficient method to drill small holes (≥ 70 mm) in medium- hard and harder rocks. The existing types of drill strings for geological explorations are not intended for strain wave energy transfer. The description of the improved design of the drill string having enclosed-type nipple connections is given in this paper presents. This nipple connection is designed to be used in drilling small exploration wells with formation sampling. Experimental findings prove the effectiveness of the enclosed nipple connection in relation to the load distribution in operation. The paper presents research results of the connection behavior under quasistatic loading (compression-tension). Loop diagrams are constructed and analyzed in force-displacement coordinates. Research results are obtained for shear stresses occurred in the nipple connection. A mechanism of shear stress distribution is described for the wave strain propagation over the connecting element. It is shown that in the course of operation the drill pipe tightening reduces the shear stress three times.

  13. Percussion drilling of metals using bursts of nanosecond pulses.

    PubMed

    Hendow, Sami T; Romero, Rosa; Shakir, Sami A; Guerreiro, Paulo T

    2011-05-23

    The effect of ns bursting on percussion drilling of metal is investigated experimentally and analytically, and compared with the efficiency and quality of drilling using single ns pulses. Key advantages are demonstrated, correlating well with the results from a thermal theoretical model. The 1064 nm bursts contain up to 14 pulses of various pulse widths and spacing, and at frequencies of tens of MHz within the burst. The individual pulses have pulse widths of 10 to 200 ns, and up to 12 kW peak power. Burst repetition frequency is single shot to 500 kHz. PMID:21643280

  14. Dynamics of ultrasonic percussive drilling of hard rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiercigroch, M.; Wojewoda, J.; Krivtsov, A. M.

    2005-02-01

    Ultrasonic percussive drilling with diamond-coated tools has been extensively studied under laboratory conditions on rocks such as sandstone, limestone, granite and basalt, in order to investigate the applicability of this technique to downhole drilling. An experimental set-up, a programme of work and example results are presented. The studies showed that an introduction of high-frequency axial vibration significantly enhances drilling rates compared to the traditional rotary type method. It has been found out that the material removal rate (MRR) as a function of static load has at least one maximum. Looking at the time histories of the measured drilling force, strong nonlinear effects have been observed, which were explained using simple nonlinear models. Among them, pure impact and impact with dry friction oscillators were used to provide an insight into the complex dynamics of ultrasonic percussive drilling. It is postulated that the main mechanism of the MRR enhancement is associated with high amplitudes of forces generated by impacts. Novel procedures for calculating MRR are proposed, explaining an experimentally observed fall of MRR at higher static loads.

  15. A Study of Specific Fracture Energy at Percussion Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, Shadrina; T, Kabanova; V, Krets; L, Saruev

    2014-08-01

    The paper presents experimental studies of rock failure provided by percussion drilling. Quantification and qualitative analysis were carried out to estimate critical values of rock failure depending on the hammer pre-impact velocity, types of drill bits and cylindrical hammer parameters (weight, length, diameter), and turn angle of a drill bit. Obtained data in this work were compared with obtained results by other researchers. The particle-size distribution in granite-cutting sludge was analyzed in this paper. Statistical approach (Spearmen's rank-order correlation, multiple regression analysis with dummy variables, Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test) was used to analyze the drilling process. Experimental data will be useful for specialists engaged in simulation and illustration of rock failure.

  16. Rotary and Rotary-Percussive Drilling of Lunar Simulant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, G.; Zacny, K.; Maksymuk, M.; Wilson, J.; Santoro, C.; Chu, P.; Davis, K.; Roberts, D.; Kumar, N.; Kusack, A.

    2008-12-01

    Honeybee Robotics has been developing a rotary and a rotary-preliminary drill system for planetary exploration. This is a test drill with a power rating of 1000 Watt, whose purpose it to test various drill bits and augers in rotary and rotary percussive operation. It is not optimized for power or mass but rather to acquire qualitative drilling data such as penetration rate, power, and torque, temperature, Weight on Bit, vibration energy and others. In addition, the design of the drill allows it to acquire drill bit temperatures and use pneumatic system (instead of augers) for removing of rock cuttings. The drill is designed to have a 1 meter stroke. In addition to the drill system, we have been developing a matching split vacuum chamber, which is 3ft wide, 3ft deep and 11 feet tall. The chamber consists of two smaller chambers (84 inches tall and 48 inches tall) assembled on top of each other. This allows for additional flexibility if only a smaller chamber is required for some testing. The chamber will be able to maintain pressure of below 1 torr. Maintaining sample temperature will be achieved by closed loop cooling system down to -40C or by using liquid nitrogen that allows a temperature of 77K. The test samples can be varied raging from solid rocks, to loose soils to icy soils and pure ice. The sample holder could also be integrated with temperatures for acquiring of thermal data during drilling process.

  17. Rotary Percussive Auto-Gopher for Deep Drilling and Sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart

    2009-01-01

    The term "rotary percussive auto-gopher" denotes a proposed addition to a family of apparatuses, based on ultrasonic/ sonic drill corers (USDCs), that have been described in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. These apparatuses have been designed, variously, for boring into, and/or acquiring samples of, rock or other hard, brittle materials of geological interest. In the case of the rotary percussive autogopher, the emphasis would be on developing an apparatus capable of penetrating to, and acquiring samples at, depths that could otherwise be reached only by use of much longer, heavier, conventional drilling-and-sampling apparatuses. To recapitulate from the prior articles about USDCs: A USDC can be characterized as a lightweight, low-power jackhammer in which a piezoelectrically driven actuator generates ultrasonic vibrations and is coupled to a tool bit through a free mass. The bouncing of the free mass between the actuator horn and the drill bit converts the actuator ultrasonic vibrations into sonic hammering of the drill bit. The combination of ultrasonic and sonic vibrations gives rise to a hammering action (and a resulting chiseling action at the tip of the tool bit) that is more effective for drilling than is the microhammering action of ultrasonic vibrations alone. The hammering and chiseling actions are so effective that the size of the axial force needed to make the tool bit advance into soil, rock, or another material of interest is much smaller than in ordinary rotary drilling, ordinary hammering, or ordinary steady pushing. The predecessor of the rotary percussive auto-gopher is an apparatus, now denoted an ultrasonic/sonic gopher and previously denoted an ultrasonic gopher, described in "Ultrasonic/ Sonic Mechanism for Drilling and Coring" (NPO-30291), NASA Tech Briefs Vol. 27, No. 9 (September 2003), page 65. The ultrasonic/sonic gopher is intended for use mainly in acquiring cores. The name of the apparatus reflects the fact that, like a

  18. Analysis of the hole shape evolution in fs-pulse percussion drilling with bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kämmer, H.; Dreisow, F.; Tünnermann, A.; Nolte, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    We analyze the use of bursts of ultra-short pulses in order to improve drilling efficiency and quality. Silicon is used as a non-transparent model material, in which the behavior of laser percussion drilling with 1030 nm bursts consisting of 200 fs pulses separated by a time delay between 1 ps and 4 ns was investigated. The deep drilling process is directly imaged perpendicular to the drilling direction using a CCD camera and an illumination beam at 1064 nm, where the silicon sample is transparent. The results are compared to drilling without bursts for different pulse energies. The efficiency of the drilling process, hole quality, as well as reproducibility of the hole shape are analyzed. Pulse separation times within the burst from 1 ps to 8 ps result in deeper holes with a larger silhouette area, however equal or reduced hole quality and reproducibility compared to drilling with individual pulses. In contrast with pulse separation times from 510 ps to 4 ns a quality and reproducibility improvement is visible. For these delay times the achieved depth was equal or higher compared to micromachining without bursts.

  19. In situ 24 kHz coherent imaging of morphology change in laser percussion drilling.

    PubMed

    Webster, Paul J L; Yu, Joe X Z; Leung, Ben Y C; Anderson, Mitchell D; Yang, Victor X D; Fraser, James M

    2010-03-01

    We observe sample morphology changes in real time (24 kHz) during and between percussion drilling pulses by integrating a low-coherence microscope into a laser micromachining platform. Nonuniform cut speed and sidewall evolution in stainless steel are observed to strongly depend on assist gas. Interpulse morphology relaxation such as hole refill is directly imaged, showing dramatic differences in the material removal process dependent on pulse duration/peak power (micros/0.1 kW, ps/20 MW) and material (steel, lead zirconate titanate PZT). Blind hole depth precision is improved by over 1 order of magnitude using in situ feedback from the imaging system. PMID:20195306

  20. Percussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, F. Michael

    1975-01-01

    In consideration of the great amount of change in demand for specific sounds and colors from the percussion section, the author provided some hints for selecting sticks and mallets, practice pads, snare drums, cymbals, timpani, and keyboard instruments. (Author/RK)

  1. Developmental test report, assessment of XT-70E percussion drill rig operation in tank farms

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, L.F., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-10

    The following report documents the testing of the XT-70E percussion drill rig for use in the 241-SX Tank Farm. The test is necessary to support evaluation of the safety and authorization level of the proposed activity of installing up to three new drywells in the 241- SX Tank Farm. The proposed activity plans to install drywells by percussion drilling 7 inch O.D./6 inch I.D. pipe in close proximity of underground storage tanks and associated equipment. The load transmitted from the drill rig`s percussion hammer through the ground to the tank structure and equipment is not known and therefore testing is required to ensure the activity is safe and authorized.

  2. Voice Coil Percussive Mechanism Concept for Hammer Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okon, Avi

    2009-01-01

    A hammer drill design of a voice coil linear actuator, spring, linear bearings, and a hammer head was proposed. The voice coil actuator moves the hammer head to produce impact to the end of the drill bit. The spring is used to store energy on the retraction and to capture the rebound energy after each impact for use in the next impact. The maximum actuator stroke is 20 mm with the hammer mass being 200 grams. This unit can create impact energy of 0.4 J with 0.8 J being the maximum. This mechanism is less complex than previous devices meant for the same task, so it has less mass and less volume. Its impact rate and energy are easily tunable without changing major hardware components. The drill can be driven by two half-bridges. Heat is removed from the voice coil via CO2 conduction.

  3. Bifurcations and the penetrating rate analysis of a model for percussive drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Qing-Jie; Wiercigroch, Marian; Pavlovskaia, Ekaterina; Yang, Shao-Pu

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate a low dimensional model of percussive drilling with vibro-impact to mimic the nonlinear dynamics of the bounded progression. Non-holonomity which arises in the stick-slip caused by the impact during drilling fails to be correctly identified via the classical techniques. A reduced model without non-holonomity is derived by the introduction of a new state variable, of which averaging technique is employed successfully to detect the periodic motions. Local bifurcations are presented directly by using C-L method. Numerical simulations and the penetrating rate analysis along different choices of parameters have been carried out to probe the nonlinear behaviour and the optimal penetrating rate of the drilling system.

  4. A drifting impact oscillator with periodic impulsive loading: Application to percussive drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depouhon, A.; Denoël, V.; Detournay, E.

    2013-09-01

    Percussive drilling is extensively used to drill hard rocks in the earth resource industry, where it performs best compared to other drilling technologies. In this paper, we propose a novel model of the process that consists of a drifting oscillator under impulsive loading coupled with a bilinear force/penetration interface law, together with a kinetic energy threshold for continuous bit penetration. Following the formulation of the model, we analyze its steady-state response and show that there exists a parallel between theoretical and experimental predictions, as both exhibit a maximum of the average penetration rate with respect to the vertical load on bit. In addition, the existence of complex long-term dynamics with the coexistence of periodic solutions in certain parameter ranges is demonstrated.

  5. ANN Models for Prediction of Sound and Penetration Rate in Percussive Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivade, Sangshetty B.; Murthy, Chivukula Surya Naryana; Vardhan, Harsha

    2015-10-01

    In the recent years, new techniques such as; Artificial Neural Network (ANN) were employed for developing of the predictive models to estimate the needed parameters. Soft computing techniques are now being used as alternate statistical tool. In this study, ANN models were developed to predict rock properties of sedimentary rock, by using penetration and sound level produced during percussive drilling. The data generated in the laboratory investigation was utilized for the development of ANN models for predicting rock properties like, uniaxial compressive strength, abrasivity, tensile strength, and Schmidt rebound number using air pressure, thrust, bit diameter, penetration rate and sound level. Further, ANN models were also developed for predicting penetration rate and sound level using air pressure, thrust, bit diameter and rock properties as input parameters. The constructed models were checked using various prediction performance indices. ANN models were more acceptable for predicting rock properties.

  6. Deep Drilling and Sampling via the Wireline Auto-Gopher Driven by Piezoelectric Percussive Actuator and EM Rotary Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Zacny, Kris; Paulsen, Gale L; Beegle, Luther; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2012-01-01

    The ability to penetrate subsurfaces and perform sample acquisition at depths of meters is critical for future NASA in-situ exploration missions to bodies in the solar system, including Mars and Europa. A corer/sampler was developed with the goal of acquiring pristine samples by reaching depths on Mars beyond the oxidized and sterilized zone. To developed rotary-hammering coring drill, called Auto-Gopher, employs a piezoelectric actuated percussive mechanism for breaking formations and an electric motor rotates the bit to remove the powdered cuttings. This sampler is a wireline mechanism that is incorporated with an inchworm mechanism allowing thru cyclic coring and core removal to reach great depths. The penetration rate is being optimized by simultaneously activating the percussive and rotary motions of the Auto-Gopher. The percussive mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) mechanism that is driven by piezoelectric stack and that was demonstrated to require low axial preload. The Auto-Gopher has been produced taking into account the a lessons learned from the development of the Ultrasonic/Sonic Gopher that was designed as a percussive ice drill and was demonstrated in Antarctica in 2005 to reach about 2 meters deep. A field demonstration of the Auto-Gopher is currently being planned with objective of reaching as deep as 3 to 5 meters in tufa subsurface.

  7. Modeling and optimization of laser beam percussion drilling of thin aluminum sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Sanjay; Yadava, Vinod

    2013-06-01

    Modeling and optimization of machining processes using coupled methodology has been an area of interest for manufacturing engineers in recent times. The present paper deals with the development of a prediction model for Laser Beam Percussion Drilling (LBPD) using the coupled methodology of Finite Element Method (FEM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). First, 2D axisymmetric FEM based thermal models for LBPD have been developed, incorporating the temperature-dependent thermal properties, optical properties, and phase change phenomena of aluminum. The model is validated after comparing the results obtained using the FEM model with self-conducted experimental results in terms of hole taper. Secondly, sufficient input and output data generated using the FEM model is used for the training and testing of the ANN model. Further, Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) coupled with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has been effectively used for the multi-objective optimization of the LBPD process using data predicted by the trained ANN model. The developed ANN model predicts that hole taper and material removal rates are highly affected by pulse width, whereas the pulse frequency plays the most significant role in determining the extent of HAZ. The optimal process parameter setting shows a reduction of hole taper by 67.5%, increase of material removal rate by 605%, and reduction of extent of HAZ by 3.24%.

  8. Measuring the sound power level of percussion drills. Report of Investigations/1994

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    Occupational noise caused by the rock drills used in mining was investigated by the U.S. Bureau of Mines. Using a large reverberation chamber and an automated drill test fixture (ADTF), the sound power levels of mining drills were measured to determine if there are types of drills that are advantageous from a noise production standpoint. Test results show that while there are not large variations among types of drills, there are still some choices that could produce a positive effect on overall noise exposure. It is also shown that lower noise exposures are possible using larger drills because of higher production rates and better operator positioning.

  9. Spatially and temporally resolved temperature measurements of plasma generated in percussion drilling with a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ii, M.; Duffey, T. P.; Mazumder, J.

    1998-10-01

    Results of spectroscopic temperature measurements of the laser-induced plasma generated during percussion drilling with a high power diode-pumped, pulsed Nd:YAG laser are presented. SAE 52100 steel was drilled with varying average powers. Helium and oxygen were each used as the shield gas. Emission spectra were collected with a monochrometer and an intensified charge coupled detector connected to the optical multichannel analyzer. The plasma electron temperatures were calculated from the relative intensities of the spectral lines. The spatial and temporal temperature distributions are presented. Both drilling times and spatial distributions indicate energy absorption by the plasma.

  10. Modeling and optimization of laser beam percussion drilling of nickel-based superalloy sheet using Nd: YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Sanjay; Yadava, Vinod

    2013-06-01

    The creation of small diameter holes in thin sheets (<3 mm) of superalloys using a laser beam is a challenging task. Knowledge of the effect of laser related process variables on hole related responses with respect to variation of sheet thickness is essential to obtain a hole of requisite quality. Therefore, in this paper a coupled methodology comprising of Finite Element Method (FEM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been used to develop a prediction model for the Laser Beam Percussion Drilling (LBPD) process. First, a 2D axisymmetric FEM-based thermal model for LBPD has been developed incorporating temperature-dependent thermal properties, optical properties and phase change phenomena of the sheet material. The developed FEM-based thermal model is validated with self-conducted experimental results in terms of hole taper which is further used to generate adequate input and output data for training and testing of the ANN model. Gray Relational Analysis (GRA) coupled with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has been effectively used for the multi-objective optimization of the LBPD process utilizing the data predicted by the trained ANN model. The developed ANN model has been used to predict the performance characteristics of the LBPD process. The results predicted by the ANN model show that with the increase in pulse width and peak power the hole taper, material removal rate (MRR) and heat-affected zone (HAZ) increases. The acquired combination of optimal process variables produce a hole with good integral quality, i.e., a reduction of hole taper by 32.1%, increase of material removal rate by 28.9% and reduction of extent of HAZ by 4.5%.

  11. High-quality percussion drilling of silicon with a CW fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Joe X. Z.; Webster, Paul J. L.; Leung, Ben Y. C.; Fraser, James M.

    2010-02-01

    It has been shown that 30 ns FWHM duration pulses from a MOPA fiber laser (wavelength: 1064 nm) cleanly micromachines silicon with little cracking or heat-affected zone1. In this paper, we show that similar results can be achieved using a 1070 nm quasi-continuous wave laser pulsed with a 6.6 μs duration (average power: 2.8 W) in combination with coaxially delivered nitrogen assist gas. The holes are cut at a 5 kHz repetition rate with a resulting diameter on the order of 15 μm and an etch rate of up to 18 μm/pulse. Hole size is increased for longer pulses and the heat-affected zone broadens to greater than 25 μm with no assist gas. By combining low coherence microscopy with machining, we depth image the machining front and obtain in situ images during and after the drilling process showing rich cut dynamics in real time.

  12. Horizontal drilling improves recovery in Abu Dhabi

    SciTech Connect

    Muhairy, A.A. ); Farid, E.A. )

    1993-09-13

    Both onshore and offshore Abu Dhabi, horizontal wells have increased productivity three to four times more than that from vertical and deviated wells in the same reservoirs. Horizontal drilling technology was first applied in Abu Dhabi in February 1988, and through March 1993, 48 wells have been horizontally drilled. During the 5 years of horizontal drilling, the experience gained by both operating company and service company personnel has contributed to a substantial improvement in drilling rate, and hence, a reduction in drilling costs. The improvements in drilling and completions resulted from the following: The horizontal drilling and completion operations were analyzed daily, and these follow-up analyses helped optimize the planning of subsequent wells. The bits and bottom hole assemblies were continuously analyzed for optimum selections. Steerable drilling assemblies were found very effective in the upper sections of the wells. The paper describes drilling activities onshore and offshore, completion design, and the outlook for future well drilling.

  13. Development of the RANCOR Rotary-Percussive Coring System for Mars Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulsen, Gale; Indyk, Stephen; Zacny, Kris

    2014-01-01

    A RANCOR drill was designed to fit a Mars Exploration Rover (MER) class vehicle. The low mass of 3 kg was achieved by using the same actuator for three functions: rotation, percussions, and core break-off. Initial testing of the drill exposed an unexpected behavior of an off-the-shelf sprag clutch used to couple and decouple rotary-percussive function from the core break off function. Failure of the sprag was due to the vibration induced during percussive drilling. The sprag clutch would back drive in conditions where it was expected to hold position. Although this did not affect the performance of the drill, it nevertheless reduced the quality of the cores produced. Ultimately, the sprag clutch was replaced with a custom ratchet system that allowed for some angular displacement without advancing in either direction. Replacing the sprag with the ratchet improved the collected core quality. Also, premature failure of a 300-series stainless steel percussion spring was observed. The 300-series percussion spring was ultimately replaced with a music wire spring based on performances of previously designed rotary-percussive drill systems.

  14. Development of advanced drilling, completion, and stimulation systems for minimum formation damage and improved efficiency: A program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Layne, A.W.; Yost, A.B. II

    1994-12-31

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Natural Gas Resource and Extraction Program consists of industry/government co-sponsored research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) projects, which focus on gas recovery from both conventional and nonconventional resources. The current focus of the Project is on the development of underbalanced drilling technology and minimum formation damage stimulation technology concurrently with the appropriate completion hardware to improve the economics of domestic natural gas field development. Ongoing drilling technology projects to be discussed include development of an electromagnetic measurement while drilling system for directional and horizontal drilling in underbalanced drilling applications and the development of a steerable air percussion drilling system for hard formation drilling and improved penetration rates. Ongoing stimulation technology projects to be discussed include introduction of carbon dioxide/sand fracturing technology for minimal formation damage.

  15. Oil field slim hole drilling technology improving

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-23

    Recent advances in slim hole drilling technology have improved the application of this drilling technique to oil and gas exploration and development wells. These advancements include Optimization of slim hole drilling hydraulics, Application of a small particle weighing agent to improve well control and coring operations, Use of slim hole techniques to drill horizontal wells, Use of a new polycrystalline diamond compact cutter to allow economical re-entry of small diameter wells in hard rock. Slim hole continuous coring and drilling is becoming more accepted as a viable drilling method, especially as exploration budgets become smaller. Typical applications for slim hole equipment include drilling in frontier areas where logistics can be a problem and reentry operations in which the existing well has a small diameter. Typically, slim hole drilling operations use technology borrowed from the mining industry. The rigs are smaller and drill with much higher rotational speeds. Definitions of slim holes vary from a well with 90% drilled, with a diameter of less than 7 in. To a well with 70% drilled with less than 5 in. A goal of slim hole, however it is defined, is the drilling of a well with a diameter smaller than that used on conventional wells in the area. The reduced diameter helps cut rig time and cost and reduces the cost of the tubulars. Another goal of slim hole drilling is the ability to retrieve cores from the entire well during drilling.

  16. Percussive Excavation of Lunar Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittaker, Matthew P.

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested using a percussive motion could improve the efficiency of excavation by up to 90%. If this is proven to be true it would be very beneficial to excavation projects on the Moon and Mars. The purpose of this study is to design, build and test a percussive tool which could dig a trench and then compare this data against that of a non-percussive tool of the same shape and size. The results of this test thus far have been inconclusive due to malfunctions in the testbed and percussive bucket; however, experimental results from small scale experiments confirm this higher efficiency and support further testing.

  17. Development and Testing of a Jet Assisted Polycrystalline Diamond Drilling Bit. Phase II Development Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    David S. Pixton

    1999-09-20

    Phase II efforts to develop a jet-assisted rotary-percussion drill bit are discussed. Key developments under this contract include: (1) a design for a more robust polycrystalline diamond drag cutter; (2) a new drilling mechanism which improves penetration and life of cutters; and (3) a means of creating a high-pressure mud jet inside of a percussion drill bit. Field tests of the new drill bit and the new robust cutter are forthcoming.

  18. Percussive Force Magnitude in Permafrost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eustes, A. W., III; Bridgford, E.; Tischler, A.; Wilcox, B. H.

    2000-01-01

    An in-depth look at percussive drilling shows that the transmission efficiency is very important; however, data for percussive drilling in hard rock or permafrost is rarely available or the existing data are very old. Transmission efficiency can be used as a measurement of the transmission of the energy in the piston to the drill steel or bit and from the bit to the rock. Having a plane and centralized impact of the piston on the drill steel can optimize the transmission efficiency from the piston to the drill steel. A transmission efficiency of near 100% between piston and drill steel is possible. The transmission efficiency between bit and rock is dependent upon the interaction within the entire system. The main factors influencing this transmission efficiency are the contact area between cutting structure and surrounding rock (energy loss due to friction heat), damping characteristics of the surrounding rock (energy dampening), and cuttings transport. Some of these parameters are not controllable. To solve the existing void regarding available drilling data, an experiment for gathering energy data in permafrost for percussive drilling was designed. Fifteen artificial permafrost samples were prepared. The samples differed in the grain size distribution to observe a possible influence of the grain size distribution on the drilling performance. The samples were then manually penetrated (with a sledge-hammer) with two different spikes.

  19. Percussion tool

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Teddy R.

    2006-11-28

    A percussion tool is described and which includes a housing mounting a tool bit; a reciprocally moveable hammer borne by the housing and which is operable to repeatedly strike the tool bit; and a reciprocally moveable piston enclosed within the hammer and which imparts reciprocal movement to the reciprocally moveable hammer.

  20. Innovative drilling improves THUMS islands operations

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.D.

    1983-08-01

    During the last 2 years, THUMS Long Beach Co. has made tremendous improvements in drilling and production efficiencies. The company implemented several innovative ideas which have reduced drilling time by as much as 25%, as well as increased well productivity. THUMS' engineering and drilling staffs should be credited with willingness to explore and to try state-of-the-art technology to improve ongoing operations. The company as one of the first to use computer optimization for well bore planning, measurement-while-drilling (MWD) tools for monitoring directional drilling parameters, and more recently for using the combination of polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) underreamers and high-torque, low-speed mud motors to underream selected intervals.

  1. Improved Hardfacing for Drill Bits and Drilling Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sue, Albert; Sreshta, Harry; Qiu, Bao He

    2011-01-01

    New flame spray hardfacing, DSH (DuraShell® Steel Hardfacing, US patent pending), was developed to improve thermal conductivity, abrasion wear, and erosion resistance for subterranean drilling application. The materials consisted of spherical cast WC/W2C and Ni-Si-B alloy powders. The hardfacing compositions were tailored for various processes such as flame spray and laser cladding. Typically, the hardfacing comprised hard tungsten carbide particles being uniformly distributed in a tough Ni-alloy matrix. The hardness of WC/W2C exceeded 2300 Hv.3 and that of Ni-alloy matrix varied from about 400 to 700 Hv.3. High- and low-stress abrasion resistances of these hardfacing materials were characterized and compared to the conventional hard coatings of cast WC/W2C and Ni-Cr-Si-B-Fe. The increase in thermal, wear, and erosion resistances of the hardfacing improved the durability of PDC (polycrystalline diamond compact) steel body bit and drilling tools and their cost-effective performance. Several case studies of DSH hardfacings on drill bits were described.

  2. Automated Rotational Percussion Bed and Bronchoscopy Improves Respiratory Mechanics and Oxygenation in ARDS Patients Supported with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Nirmal S; Wille, Keith M; Bellot, S Christopher; Diaz-Guzman, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been used to provide "lung rest" through the use of low tidal volume (6 ml/kg) and ultralow tidal volume (<6 ml/kg) ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Low and ultralow tidal volume ventilation can result in low dynamic respiratory compliance and potentially increased retention of airway secretions. We present our experience using automated rotational percussion beds (ARPBs) and bronchoscopy in four ARDS patients to manage increased pulmonary secretions. These beds performed automated side-to-side tilt maneuver and intermittent chest wall percussion. Their use resulted in substantial reduction in peak and plateau pressures in two patients on volume control ventilation, while the driving pressures (inspiratory pressure) to attain the desired tidal volumes in patients on pressure control ventilation also decreased. In addition, mean partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2)/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ratio (109 pre-ARPB vs. 157 post-ARPB), positive end-expiratory pressure (10 cm H2O vs. 8 cm H2O), and FiO2 (0.88 vs. 0.52) improved after initiation of ARPB. The improvements in the respiratory mechanics and oxygenation helped us to initiate early ECMO weaning. Based on our experience, the use of chest physiotherapy, frequent body repositioning, and bronchoscopy may be helpful in the management of pulmonary secretions in patients supported with ECMO. PMID:26771392

  3. Autophagy Modulation by Lanthionine Ketimine Ethyl Ester Improves Long-Term Outcome after Central Fluid Percussion Injury in the Mouse.

    PubMed

    Hensley, Kenneth; Poteshkina, Aleksandra; Johnson, Ming F; Eslami, Pirooz; Gabbita, S Prasad; Hristov, Alexandar M; Venkova-Hristova, Kalina M; Harris-White, Marni E

    2016-08-15

    Diffuse axonal injury is recognized as a progressive and long-term consequence of traumatic brain injury. Axonal injury can have sustained negative consequences on neuronal functions such as anterograde and retrograde transport and cellular processes such as autophagy that depend on cytoarchitecture and axon integrity. These changes can lead to somatic atrophy and an inability to repair and promote plasticity. Obstruction of the autophagic process has been noted after brain injury, and rapamycin, a drug used to stimulate autophagy, has demonstrated positive effects in brain injury models. The optimization of drugs to promote beneficial autophagy without negative side effects could be used to attenuate traumatic brain injury and promote improved outcome. Lanthionine ketimine ethyl ester, a bioavailable derivative of a natural sulfur amino acid metabolite, has demonstrated effects on autophagy both in vitro and in vivo. Thirty minutes after a moderate central fluid percussion injury and throughout the survival period, lanthionine ketimine ethyl ester was administered, and mice were subsequently evaluated for learning and memory impairments and biochemical and histological changes over a 5-week period. Lanthionine ketimine ethyl ester, which we have shown previously to modulate autophagy markers and alleviate pathology and slow cognitive decline in the 3 × TgAD mouse model, spared cognition and pathology after central fluid percussion injury through a mechanism involving autophagy modulation. PMID:26530250

  4. Laser drilling for improving circuit board manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Gang; Zhang, Jincheng; Gao, Chunlin; Wang, Honcai; Li, Ping; An, Yongqiang; Zhang, Guiqiu

    1998-08-01

    We reported here a novel technique for laser high speed drillings on Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs). A CNC solid laser based system is developed to drill through and blind vias as an alternative to mechanical drilling. The system employs an Acousto-Optic Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, a computer control system and an X-Y moving table which can handle up to 400 X 400 mm PCB. With a special designed cavity the laser system works in a pulsed operation in order to generate pulses with width down to 0.5 microseconds and maximum peak power over 10 kW at 10 k repetition rate. Delivered by an improved optical beam transforming system, the focused laser beam can drill holes including blind vias on PCBs with diameter in the range of 0.1 - 0.4 mm and at up to 300 - 500 vias per second (depending on the construction of PCBs). By means of a CNC X-Y moving system, laser pulses with pulse-to-pulse superior repeatability can be fired at desired location on a PCBs with high accuracy. This alternative technology for drilling through or blind vias on PCBs or PWBs (printed wiring boards) will obviously enhance the capability to printed boards manufacturing.

  5. Impedance matched joined drill pipe for improved acoustic transmission

    DOEpatents

    Moss, William C.

    2000-01-01

    An impedance matched jointed drill pipe for improved acoustic transmission. A passive means and method that maximizes the amplitude and minimize the temporal dispersion of acoustic signals that are sent through a drill string, for use in a measurement while drilling telemetry system. The improvement in signal transmission is accomplished by replacing the standard joints in a drill string with joints constructed of a material that is impedance matched acoustically to the end of the drill pipe to which it is connected. Provides improvement in the measurement while drilling technique which can be utilized for well logging, directional drilling, and drilling dynamics, as well as gamma-ray spectroscopy while drilling post shot boreholes, such as utilized in drilling post shot boreholes.

  6. Development of advanced drilling, completion, and stimulation systems for minimum formation damage and improved efficiency: A program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Layne, A.W.; Yost, A.B. II

    1994-07-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Natural Gas Resource and Extraction Program consists of industry/government co-sponsored research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) projects, which focus on gas recovery from both conventional and nonconventional resources. The Drilling, Completion, and Stimulation (DCS) Project focuses on advanced, non-damaging technology systems and equipment for improving gas recovery from conventional and nonconventional reservoirs. As operators move from development of current day economically attractive gas-field development to the lower permeability geologic regions of domestic onshore plays, increasing the emphasis on minimum formation damage DCS will permit economic development of gas reserves. The objective of the Project is to develop and demonstrate cost-effective, advanced technology to accelerate widespread use and acceptance of minimum formation damage DCS systems. The goal of this product development effort is to reduce costs and improve the overall efficiency of vertical, directional, and horizontally drilled wells in gas formations throughout the US. The current focus of the Project is on the development of underbalanced drilling technology and minimum formation damage stimulation technology concurrently with the appropriate completion hardware to improve the economics of domestic natural gas field development. Ongoing drilling technology projects to be discussed include development of an electromagnetic measurement while drilling system for directional and horizontal drilling in underbalanced drilling applications and the development of a steerable air percussion drilling system for hard formation drilling and improved penetration rates. Ongoing stimulation technology projects to be discussed include introduction of carbon dioxide/sand fracturing technology for minimal formation damage.

  7. Operators, service companies improve horizontal drilling accuracy offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle, D.

    1996-04-01

    Continuing efforts to get more and better measurement and logging equipment closer to the bit improve accuracy in offshore drilling. Using current technology, both in measurement while drilling and logging while drilling, a target can consistently be hit within five vertical feet.

  8. Improve dust capture on your surface drill

    SciTech Connect

    Page, S.J.; Listak, J.M.; Reed, R.

    2008-09-15

    Researchers have developed a model to describe airborne respirable dust (ARD) generation on surface coal mine drills. By measuring a few basic parameters and using a graph, a drill operator or engineer can estimate the relative severity of drill dust emissions as well as how much of a reduction in ARD can be obtained by changing any given parameter. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Prediction of penetration rate of rotary-percussive drilling using artificial neural networks - a case study / Prognozowanie postępu wiercenia przy użyciu wiertła udarowo-obrotowego przy wykorzystaniu sztucznych sieci neuronowych - studium przypadku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalizad, Seyed Ali; Rashidinejad, Farshad

    2012-12-01

    Penetration rate in rocks is one of the most important parameters of determination of drilling economics. Total drilling costs can be determined by predicting the penetration rate and utilized for mine planning. The factors which affect penetration rate are exceedingly numerous and certainly are not completely understood. For the prediction of penetration rate in rotary-percussive drilling, four types of rocks in Sangan mine have been chosen. Sangan is situated in Khorasan-Razavi province in Northeastern Iran. The selected parameters affect penetration rate is divided in three categories: rock properties, drilling condition and drilling pattern. The rock properties are: density, rock quality designation (RQD), uni-axial compressive strength, Brazilian tensile strength, porosity, Mohs hardness, Young modulus, P-wave velocity. Drilling condition parameters are: percussion, rotation, feed (thrust load) and flushing pressure; and parameters for drilling pattern are: blasthole diameter and length. Rock properties were determined in the laboratory, and drilling condition and drilling pattern were determined in the field. For create a correlation between penetration rate and rock properties, drilling condition and drilling pattern, artificial neural networks (ANN) were used. For this purpose, 102 blastholes were observed and drilling condition, drilling pattern and time of drilling in each blasthole were recorded. To obtain a correlation between this data and prediction of penetration rate, MATLAB software was used. To train the pattern of ANN, 77 data has been used and 25 of them found for testing the pattern. Performance of ANN models was assessed through the root mean square error (RMSE) and correlation coefficient (R2). For optimized model (14-14-10-1) RMSE and R2 is 0.1865 and 86%, respectively, and its sensitivity analysis showed that there is a strong correlation between penetration rate and RQD, rotation and blasthole diameter. High correlation coefficient and low

  10. Ultrasonic technology improves drill cuttings disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Avern, N.; Copercini, A.

    1997-07-01

    Advancements are being made by employing ultrasonics for onsite cuttings size reduction for slurrification prior to disposal. The size reduction proficiency of this new ultrasonics slurrification system as a medium to reduce the particle size of drill cuttings presents operators with a system that can enhance existing disposal techniques. This article presents results from a recent field trial, where ultrasonic processors were used to Agip (UK) Limited to reduce the particle size of drill cuttings prior to disposal into the water column and natural dispersement.

  11. How to improve your horizontal drilling in fractured carbonates

    SciTech Connect

    Stopkley, C.O. )

    1991-10-01

    Lessons leared from drilling hundreds of wells in recent years have led to the development of new tools and techniques that can markedly improve economics of horizontal drilling in fractured carbonates. More horizontal wells have been drilled in such lithology - mainly in the Austin Chalk of South Texas - than in any other type of reservoir. This paper reports on key things that should be done to most effectively achieve objectives which include: carefully plan borehole positions for both vertical and lateral sections; optimize drilling programs for vertical, build and lateral sections; use a clean drilling fluid to reduce formation damage and fracture plugging; use well control and fluids processing systems which provide optimum safety for personnel and minimum environmental impact from gas flaring, spills and brine disposal.

  12. Teaching Techniques for Accessory Percussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micallef, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Everyone is familiar with the main percussion instruments of the contemporary orchestra: bass drum, snare drum, suspended cymbal, vibraphone, and timpani. But as source material broadens, so do the demands placed on the percussion section. Accessory, or auxiliary percussion, can make the difference between a typical rendition of a well-known piece…

  13. Step improvements made in Timor Sea drilling performance

    SciTech Connect

    Krepp, T.; Richardson, B.

    1997-05-01

    Drilling operations in the Timor Sea, north of Australia, can be quite troublesome and inefficient. In early 1996, BHPP looked to further improve its Timor Sea drilling performance, which was already class-leading for the region. BHPP`s casing designs had already been through a phase of continuous streamlining. Recent and historical drilling performances were analyzed, and barriers to step changes in improvement identified. Use of synthetic-based mud (SBM) was identified as a potential tool to continue the aggressive optimization of well designs. SBM was expected to remove time dependency of the Jamieson shales, while also possibly allowing reduced mud weights for stability. Although it was believed that instability was primarily tectonic stress related, the contribution of chemical inhibition (or lack thereof) was unknown. The paper discusses the initial performance improvement with early trials of SBM.

  14. Music: Instrumental Techniques, Percussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl, Jesse

    A course in introduction to music emphasizing harmony is presented. The approach used is a laboratory approach in which pupils will develop skill in playing percussion instruments, sing, listen to, read and compose music with emphasis on elementary concepts of harmony. Course objectives include: (1) The student will recognize duple, triple,…

  15. New PDC cutters improve drilling efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Mensa-Wilmot, G.

    1997-10-27

    New polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) cutters increase penetration rates and cumulative footage through improved abrasion, impact, interface strength, thermal stability, and fatigue characteristics. Studies of formation characterization, vibration analysis, hydraulic layouts, and bit selection continue to improve and expand PDC bit applications. The paper discusses development philosophy, performance characteristics and requirements, Types A, B, and C cutters, and combinations.

  16. Development of a drilling and coring test-bed for lunar subsurface exploration and preliminary experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaomeng; Deng, Zongquan; Quan, Qiquan; Tang, Dewei; Hou, Xuyan; Jiang, Shengyuan

    2014-07-01

    Drill sampling has been widely employed as an effective way to acquire deep samples in extraterrestrial exploration. A novel sampling method, namely, flexible-tube coring, was adopted for the Chang'e mission to acquire drilling cores without damaging stratification information. Since the extraterrestrial environment is uncertain and different from the terrestrial environment, automated drill sampling missions are at risk of failure. The principles of drilling and coring for the lunar subsurface should be fully tested and verified on earth before launch. This paper proposes a test-bed for conducting the aforementioned experiments on earth. The test-bed comprises a rotary-percussive drilling mechanism, penetrating mechanism, drilling medium container, and signal acquisition and control system. For granular soil, coring experiments indicate that the sampling method has a high coring rate greater than 80%. For hard rock, drilling experiments indicate that the percussive frequency greatly affects the drilling efficiency. A multi-layered simulant composed of granular soil and hard rock is built to test the adaptability of drilling and coring. To tackle complex drilling media, an intelligent drilling strategy based on online recognition is proposed to improve the adaptability of the sampling drill. The primary features of this research are the proposal of a scheme for drilling and coring a test-bed for validation on earth and the execution of drilling experiments in complex media.

  17. An Industry/DOE Program to Develop and Benchmark Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits and HP/HT Drilling Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    TerraTek

    2007-06-30

    A deep drilling research program titled 'An Industry/DOE Program to Develop and Benchmark Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits and HP/HT Drilling Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration' was conducted at TerraTek's Drilling and Completions Laboratory. Drilling tests were run to simulate deep drilling by using high bore pressures and high confining and overburden stresses. The purpose of this testing was to gain insight into practices that would improve rates of penetration and mechanical specific energy while drilling under high pressure conditions. Thirty-seven test series were run utilizing a variety of drilling parameters which allowed analysis of the performance of drill bits and drilling fluids. Five different drill bit types or styles were tested: four-bladed polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC), 7-bladed PDC in regular and long profile, roller-cone, and impregnated. There were three different rock types used to simulate deep formations: Mancos shale, Carthage marble, and Crab Orchard sandstone. The testing also analyzed various drilling fluids and the extent to which they improved drilling. The PDC drill bits provided the best performance overall. The impregnated and tungsten carbide insert roller-cone drill bits performed poorly under the conditions chosen. The cesium formate drilling fluid outperformed all other drilling muds when drilling in the Carthage marble and Mancos shale with PDC drill bits. The oil base drilling fluid with manganese tetroxide weighting material provided the best performance when drilling the Crab Orchard sandstone.

  18. Cool Mist Irrigation Improves Heat Dissipation during Surgical Bone Drilling.

    PubMed

    Siljander, Breana R; Wang, Anthony C; Zhang, Lihui; Shih, Albert J; Sullivan, Stephen E; Tai, Bruce L

    2014-08-01

    Objective High-speed drilling generates heat in small cavities and may pose a risk for neurovascular tissues. We hypothesize that a continuous pressurized cold mist could be an alternative approach for better cooling during drilling of bone to access cranial lesions. This study aims to examine this idea experimentally. Design Ex-vivo drilling tests with controlled speed, feed, and depth were performed on cortical bone samples. Thermocouples were embedded underneath the drilling path to compare the temperature rises under mist cooling (at 3°C, < 300 mL/h) and flood irrigation (at 22°C, > 800 mL/h). Results A significant difference exists between these two systems (p value < 0.05). The measured temperature was ∼ 4°C lower for mist cooling than for flood irrigation, even with less than a third of the flow rate. Conclusion Experimental data indicate the capability of mist cooling to reduce heat generation while simultaneously enabling flow reduction and targeted cooling. An improved field of view in an extremely narrow access corridor may be achieved with this technology. PMID:25093147

  19. Cool Mist Irrigation Improves Heat Dissipation during Surgical Bone Drilling

    PubMed Central

    Siljander, Breana R.; Wang, Anthony C.; Zhang, Lihui; Shih, Albert J.; Sullivan, Stephen E.; Tai, Bruce L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective High-speed drilling generates heat in small cavities and may pose a risk for neurovascular tissues. We hypothesize that a continuous pressurized cold mist could be an alternative approach for better cooling during drilling of bone to access cranial lesions. This study aims to examine this idea experimentally. Design Ex-vivo drilling tests with controlled speed, feed, and depth were performed on cortical bone samples. Thermocouples were embedded underneath the drilling path to compare the temperature rises under mist cooling (at 3°C, < 300 mL/h) and flood irrigation (at 22°C, > 800 mL/h). Results A significant difference exists between these two systems (p value < 0.05). The measured temperature was ∼ 4°C lower for mist cooling than for flood irrigation, even with less than a third of the flow rate. Conclusion Experimental data indicate the capability of mist cooling to reduce heat generation while simultaneously enabling flow reduction and targeted cooling. An improved field of view in an extremely narrow access corridor may be achieved with this technology. PMID:25093147

  20. Program for the improvement of downhole drilling motors

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.

    1983-11-01

    This report describes the work done under contract to Sandia National Labs and to the Department of Energy for improvement of downhole drilling motors. The focus of this program was the development of a better bearing-and-seal assembly that could be used in different kinds of drilling motors in a geothermal environment. Major tasks were: (1) design and construction of seal testing devices, (2) screening and evaluation of candidate seals in a simulated bearing/seal package, (3) tests of the most promising candidates in a full-scale bearing/seal package, and (4) analysis of failed seals after testing. The key results from this program were: (1) identification of seal/shaft/lubricant systems that performed well at high pressure and temperature, (2) identification of other seal designs that should be avoided for similar applications, and (3) evaluation of the test machines' design.

  1. Normabaric Hyperoxia Treatment Improved Locomotor Activity of C57BL/6J Mice through Enhancing Dopamine Genes Following Fluid-Percussion Injury in Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Muthuraju, Sangu; Taha, Syed; Pati, Soumya; Rafique, Mohamed; Jaafar, Hasnan; Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2013-01-01

    Closed traumatic brain injury (CTBI) leads to increase mortality rates in developing countries. However, a sustainable therapeutic approach has not been established yet. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the impact of normabaric hyperoxia treatment (NBOT) on striatum associated Locomotor Activity (LA) in IntelliCage after Fluid-Percussion Injury (FPI). Animals were divided in four groups: Group I control (n=24), Group II sham (n=24), Group III FPI (n=24) and Group IV FPI with NBOT (n=24). Animals were habituated in IntelliCage for 4 days following transponder implanted in mice neck region on day 5. Then the LA of all groups was assessed 6hr daily for 5 days before inducing FPI. On day 6, cannula was implanted on the striatum, on day 7 FPI was performed in Group III (kept in normal environment) and IV (immediately exposed to NBOT for 3 hr). LA (in terms of number of visits in all four corners) was assessed 6 hr at days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 following FPI. After the animals were sacrificed to study the neuronal damage, dopamine receptors and transporters expression in striatum. The results suggested that the LA of FPI impaired mice as compared to the control and sham showed less number of visits in all four corners in IntelliCage. Morphological results revealed that FPI induced neuronal damage as compared to sham and control. Dopamine receptors and transporters were down regulated in the FPI group as compared to the control. Immediate exposure to NBOT improved LA in terms of increased number of visits in all four corners, reduced number of cell death and improved receptor expression as compared to FPI. In conclusion, NBOT exposure could improve the LA of mice following FPI through prevention of neuronal damage, improved dopamine receptors and transporters. PMID:24711754

  2. Robotic Planetary Drill Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian J.; Thompson, S.; Paulsen, G.

    2010-01-01

    Several proposed or planned planetary science missions to Mars and other Solar System bodies over the next decade require subsurface access by drilling. This paper discusses the problems of remote robotic drilling, an automation and control architecture based loosely on observed human behaviors in drilling on Earth, and an overview of robotic drilling field test results using this architecture since 2005. Both rotary-drag and rotary-percussive drills are targeted. A hybrid diagnostic approach incorporates heuristics, model-based reasoning and vibration monitoring with neural nets. Ongoing work leads to flight-ready drilling software.

  3. Mars Science Laboratory Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okon, Avi B.

    2010-01-01

    The Drill for the Mars Science Laboratory mission is a rotary-percussive sample acquisition device with an emphasis on toughness and robustness to handle the harsh environment on Mars. The unique challenges associated with autonomous drilling from a mobile robot are addressed. A highly compressed development schedule dictated a modular design architecture that satisfies the functional and load requirements while allowing independent development and testing of the Drill subassemblies. The Drill consists of four actuated mechanisms: a spindle that rotates the bit, a chuck that releases and engages bits, a novel voice-coil-based percussion mechanism that hammers the bit, and a linear translation mechanism. The Drill has three passive mechanisms: a replaceable bit assembly that acquires and collects sample, a contact sensor / stabilizer mechanism, and, lastly a flex harness service loop. This paper describes the various mechanisms that makeup the Drill and discusses the solutions to their unique design and development challenges.

  4. Reduced-impact sliding pressure control valve for pneumatic hammer drill

    DOEpatents

    Polsky, Yarom; Grubelich, Mark C.; Vaughn, Mark R.

    2012-05-15

    A method and means of minimizing the effect of elastic valve recoil in impact applications, such as percussive drilling, where sliding spool valves used inside the percussive device are subject to poor positioning control due to elastic recoil effects experienced when the valve impacts a stroke limiting surface. The improved valve design reduces the reflected velocity of the valve by using either an energy damping material, or a valve assembly with internal damping built-in, to dissipate the compression stress wave produced during impact.

  5. Laser drilling of thermal barrier coated jet-engine components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezer, H. K.

    Aero engine hot end components are often covered with ceramic Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs). Laser drilling in the TBC coated components can be a source of service life TBC degradation and spallation. The present study aims to understand the mechanisms of TBC delamination and develop techniques to drill holes without damaging the TBC, Nimonic 263 workpieces coated with TBC are used in the experiments. Microwave non-destructive testing (NDT) is employed to monitor the integrity of the coating /substrate interfaces of the post-laser drilled materials. A numerical modelling technique is used to investigate the role of melt ejection on TBC delamination. The model accounts for the vapour and the assist gas flow effects in the process. Broadly, melt ejection induced mechanical stresses for the TBC coating / bond coating and thermal effects for the bond coating / substrate interfaces are found the key delamination mechanisms. Experiments are carried out to validate the findings from the model. Various techniques that enable laser drilling without damaging the TBC are demonstrated. Twin jet assisted acute angle laser drilling is one successful technique that has been analysed using the melt ejection simulation. Optimisation of the twin jet assisted acute angle laser drilling process parameters is carried out using Design of Experiments (DoE) and statistical modelling approaches. Finally, an industrial case study to develop a high speed, high quality laser drilling system for combustor cans is described. Holes are drilled by percussion and trepan drilling in TBC coated and uncoated Haynes 230 workpieces. The production rate of percussion drilling is significantly higher than the trepan drilling, however metallurgical hole quality and reproducibility is poor. A number of process parameters are investigated to improve these characteristics. Gas type and gas pressure effects on various characteristics of the inclined laser drilled holes are investigated through theoretical

  6. Two-riser system improves drilling at Auger prospect

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, R.; Marsh, G.L.; Ritter, P.B.; Mendel, P.E. )

    1992-02-10

    This paper reports on a two-rise system (TRS) for drilling deepwater development wells which eliminates some of the limitations of conventional subsea technology and allows flexibility in well programs. Shell Offshore Inc.'s deep exploratory wells in Garden Banks 426 and 471 have encountered drilling problems that were attributed to limitations in casing sizes imposed by conventional subsea drilling systems. These problems are not uncommon in exploratory deepwater, deep well drilling in the Gulf of Mexico. Reservoir depths of up to 19,500 ft true vertical depth (TVD) and 7-in. production casing requirements led to potentially troublesome and expensive well plans. Because of the constraints placed on the development drilling program by completion requirements and directional drilling, a two-riser system was designed and fabricated. Solving such significant drilling problems has reduced overall development costs.

  7. Percussive arc welding apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hollar, Jr., Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    A percussive arc welding apparatus includes a generally cylindrical actuator body having front and rear end portions and defining an internal recess. The front end of the body includes an opening. A solenoid assembly is provided in the rear end portion in the internal recess of the body, and an actuator shaft assembly is provided in the front end portion in the internal recess of the actuator body. The actuator shaft assembly includes a generally cylindrical actuator block having first and second end portions, and an actuator shaft having a front end extending through the opening in the actuator body, and the rear end connected to the first end portion of the actuator block. The second end portion of the actuator block is in operational engagement with the solenoid shaft by a non-rigid connection to reduce the adverse rebound effects of the actuator shaft. A generally transversely extending pin is rigidly secured to the rear end of the shaft. One end of the pin is received in a slot in the nose housing sleeve to prevent rotation of the actuator shaft during operation of the apparatus.

  8. Ways to Prevent Percussion Overuse Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidyk, Steve

    2009-01-01

    It is a proven fact that the repetitive nature of percussion playing can cause carpal tunnel syndrome, bursitis, and tendinitis. This paper offers ways to prevent percussion overuse injuries, particularly by developing a healthy warmup routine.

  9. Development of a jet-assisted polycrystalline diamond drill bit

    SciTech Connect

    Pixton, D.S.; Hall, D.R.; Summers, D.A.; Gertsch, R.E.

    1997-12-31

    A preliminary investigation has been conducted to evaluate the technical feasibility and potential economic benefits of a new type of drill bit. This bit transmits both rotary and percussive drilling forces to the rock face, and augments this cutting action with high-pressure mud jets. Both the percussive drilling forces and the mud jets are generated down-hole by a mud-actuated hammer. Initial laboratory studies show that rate of penetration increases on the order of a factor of two over unaugmented rotary and/or percussive drilling rates are possible with jet-assistance.

  10. Drag drill bit having improved arrangement of cutting elements

    SciTech Connect

    Deane, J.D.

    1989-07-18

    This patent describes a rotary drill bit of the drag type for drilling a bore hole in an earth formation. The generally cylindrical bit body having a fluid passage therein adapted to be connected to a drill string for rotation therewith about a longitudinal axis and to receive drilling fluid from the drillstring; blades on the bit body extending in a generally spiral pattern from adjacent the center of the bit body to the outer periphery thereof and separated from each other by deep groves; each blade having a curved leading side with respect to the direction of rotation extending generally to the outer periphery of the generally cylindrical bit body, a curved trailing side spaced from the leading side, and an outer surface connecting the leading and trailing sides to define the lower surface and crown of the bit body. The surface providing a relatively long length mounting area thereon for cutting elements.

  11. Improved seal for geothermal drill bit. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.F.

    1984-07-06

    Each of the two field test bits showed some promise though their performances were less than commercially acceptable. The Ohio test bit ran just over 3000 feet where about 4000 is considered a good run but it was noted that a Varel bit of the same type having a standard O ring seal was completely worn out after 8-1/2 hours (1750 feet drilled). The Texas test bit had good seal-bearing life but was the wrong cutting structure type for the formation being drilled and the penetration rate was low.

  12. Optimization of Deep Drilling Performance - Development and Benchmark Testing of Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits & HP/HT Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2005-09-30

    This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS AND HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION contract for the year starting October 2004 through September 2005. The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit-fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit--fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. As of report date, TerraTek has concluded all Phase 1 testing and is planning Phase 2 development.

  13. World Percussion Approaches in Collegiate Percussion Programs: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernly, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    As world percussion has grown in popularity in American colleges and universities, two main problems have emerged. The first problem is that no known source exists detailing how percussion instructors have incorporated world percussion into their collegiate teaching. A review of the literature has highlighted four main approaches to incorporating…

  14. Mixed metal hydroxide mud improves drilling in unstable shales

    SciTech Connect

    Sparling, D.P. ); Williamson, D. )

    1991-06-10

    A mixed metal hydroxide (MMH) mud reduced some of the hole problems common to offset wells in the Arkoma basin. By specially engineering the MMH rheology, cuttings removal efficiency increased, and well bore problems were minimized. Wells drilled in the Arkoma basin frequently have experienced problems associated with hole instability: excessive reaming, stuck pipe, packing off, and difficulty in obtaining open hole logs. These problems often occur in the massive shale intervals of Atokan age. The causes of such problems are generally thought to be related to the dissolution of the reactive shales and clays in the Atoka interval, particularly along microfractures created by the tectonic stresses associated with overthrust environment. There exist insufficient data regarding the borehole stress states, primarily the minimum and maximum horizontal stresses. It is also possible that shear failure at the borehole wall is a result of the stress imbalances. In this area, wells are frequently air-drilled to 5,000-8,000 ft, resulting in significant borehole enlargement, which compounds the problems. Operators typically approach the problem in two ways. Oil muds are used worldwide to reduce the trouble time associated with shales. They have been particularly successful in the Arkoma basin for over 25 years.

  15. Instrumented drop ball tester for percussion primers

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, C.M.; Robinson, M.A.; Merten, C.W.; Robbins, V.E. ); Begeal, D.R. )

    1991-01-01

    The drop ball tester has historically been used for determining the threshold characteristics of percussion primers. Typically, the data obtained from such a tester show a wide variation with significantly large standard deviations. This requires that the acceptance specifications for primers be fairly lax. To determine how much of the data scatter was due to the tester alone, a drop ball tester was instrumented with a force monitoring gage, velocity capabilities, deflection gages, and a pressure time output measuring system. This paper deals with the basic fundamental physics involved with the tester and presents results of improvements to the tester geometry. Threshold test results are presented, correlating all of the variables measured. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  16. Research and development of improved cavitating jets for deep-hole drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, V.E. Jr.; Lindenmuth, W.T.; Chahine, G.L.; Conn, A.F.; Frederick, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    Improved cavitating nozzles have been developed as part of an on-going program to increase the rate of penetration of deep-hole drill bits. Based on the four criteria of: incipient cavitation number, amplitude of pressure fluctuation (and hence enhanced structuring of the jet flow), rock cutting, and cleaning chips from the hole bottom - these new, STRATOJET (STRuctured Acoustically Tuned Oscillating JET) cavitating nozzle systems have out-performed both conventional drill bit nozzles and the basic CAVIJET cavitating jets. Although nozzle designs which provide large amplitude pressure modulations are now available for the operation in water, additional research is needed to optimize self-resonating jets for use: (a) in mud, (b) in specific drill bit designs, and (c) at higher system pressures than now currently used for deep-hole drilling.

  17. OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS & HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2004-10-01

    The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit-fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit-fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. As of report date, TerraTek has concluded all major preparations for the high pressure drilling campaign. Baker Hughes encountered difficulties in providing additional pumping capacity before TerraTek's scheduled relocation to another facility, thus the program was delayed further to accommodate the full testing program.

  18. Optimization of Deep Drilling Performance--Development and Benchmark Testing of Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits & HP/HT Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2003-10-01

    This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS AND HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION contract for the year starting October 2002 through September 2002. The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit--fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit--fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. Accomplishments to date include the following: 4Q 2002--Project started; Industry Team was assembled; Kick-off meeting was held at DOE Morgantown; 1Q 2003--Engineering meeting was held at Hughes Christensen, The Woodlands Texas to prepare preliminary plans for development and testing and review equipment needs; Operators started sending information regarding their needs for deep drilling challenges and priorities for large-scale testing experimental matrix; Aramco joined the Industry Team as DEA 148 objectives paralleled the DOE project; 2Q 2003--Engineering and planning for high pressure drilling at TerraTek commenced; 3Q 2003--Continuation of engineering and design work for high pressure drilling at TerraTek; Baker Hughes INTEQ drilling Fluids and Hughes Christensen commence planning for Phase 1 testing--recommendations for bits and fluids.

  19. Auto-Gopher: A Wireline Deep Sampler Driven by Piezoelectric Percussive Actuator and EM Rotary Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Ressa, Aaron; Jae Lee, Hyeong; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Zacny, Kris; Paulsen, Gale L.; Beegle, Luther; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2013-01-01

    The ability to penetrate subsurfaces and perform sample acquisition at depth of meters may be critical for future NASA in-situ exploration missions to bodies in the solar system, including Mars and Europa. A corer/sampler was developed with the goal of enabling acquisition of samples from depths of several meters where if used on Mars would be beyond the oxidized and sterilized zone. For this purpose, we developed a rotary-hammering coring drill, called Auto-Gopher, which employs a piezoelectric actuated percussive mechanism for breaking formations and an electric motor that rotates the bit to remove the powdered cuttings. This sampler is a wireline mechanism that can be fed into and retrieved from the drilled hole using a winch and a cable. It includes an inchworm anchoring mechanism allowing the drill advancement and weight on bit control without twisting the reeling and power cables. The penetration rate is being optimized by simultaneously activating the percussive and rotary motions of the Auto-Gopher. The percussive mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) mechanism that is driven by piezoelectric stack and that was demonstrated to require low axial preload. The design and fabrication of this device were presented in previous publications. This paper presents the results of laboratory and field tests and lessons learned from this development.

  20. Improving the Welfare of a Zoo-Housed Male Drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus poensis) Aggressive Toward Visitors.

    PubMed

    Martín, Olga; Vinyoles, Dolors; García-Galea, Eduardo; Maté, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Improving the welfare of nonhuman animals in captivity and maintaining behavioral competence for future conservation purposes is of the highest priority for zoos. The behavior of an aggressive male drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus poensis) was assessed in Barcelona Zoo. The 2-year study presented in this article examined the effects of introducing changes in the exhibit of the drill to improve his welfare by analyzing scan behaviors. First, a partial visual barrier was applied and proved to be insufficient to decrease the long-term stress indicators assessed. Next, a feeding enrichment program was implemented. The results supported the hypothesis that feeding and explorative activities would increase, whereas apathetic and stereotypic behaviors would decrease. However, visitor-directed aggression did not vary, indicating that more profound structural modifications were needed to reduce the negative impact of the agonistic interactions between the drill and the public. The study emphasized the usefulness of environmental enrichment evaluations in assessing captive animal welfare. PMID:26983783

  1. Field drilling tests on improved geothermal unsealed roller-cone bits. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, R.R.; Jones, A.H.; Winzenried, R.W.; Maish, A.B.

    1980-05-01

    The development and field testing of a 222 mm (8-3/4 inch) unsealed, insert type, medium hard formation, high-temperature bit are described. Increased performance was gained by substituting improved materials in critical bit components. These materials were selected on bases of their high temperature properties, machinability and heat treatment response. Program objectives required that both machining and heat treating could be accomplished with existing rock bit production equipment. Six of the experimental bits were subjected to air drilling at 240/sup 0/C (460/sup 0/F) in Franciscan graywacke at the Geysers (California). Performances compared directly to conventional bits indicate that in-gage drilling time was increased by 70%. All bits at the Geysers are subjected to reaming out-of-gage hole prior to drilling. Under these conditions the experimental bits showed a 30% increase in usable hole drilled, compared with the conventional bits. The materials selected improved roller wear by 200%, friction per wear by 150%, and lug wear by 150%. These tests indicate a potential well cost savings of 4 to 8%. Savings of 12% are considered possible with drilling procedures optimized for the experimental bits.

  2. Optimizing drilling performance using a selected drilling fluid

    DOEpatents

    Judzis, Arnis; Black, Alan D.; Green, Sidney J.; Robertson, Homer A.; Bland, Ronald G.; Curry, David Alexander; Ledgerwood, III, Leroy W.

    2011-04-19

    To improve drilling performance, a drilling fluid is selected based on one or more criteria and to have at least one target characteristic. Drilling equipment is used to drill a wellbore, and the selected drilling fluid is provided into the wellbore during drilling with the drilling equipment. The at least one target characteristic of the drilling fluid includes an ability of the drilling fluid to penetrate into formation cuttings during drilling to weaken the formation cuttings.

  3. Compact drilling and sample system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis-Smith, Greg R.; Petercsak, Doug

    1998-01-01

    The Compact Drilling and Sample System (CDSS) was developed to drill into terrestrial, cometary, and asteroid material in a cryogenic, vacuum environment in order to acquire subsurface samples. Although drills were used by the Apollo astronauts some 20 years ago, this drill is a fraction of the mass and power and operates completely autonomously, able to drill, acquire, transport, dock, and release sample containers in science instruments. The CDSS has incorporated into its control system the ability to gather science data about the material being drilled by measuring drilling rate per force applied and torque. This drill will be able to optimize rotation and thrust in order to achieve the highest drilling rate possible in any given sample. The drill can be commanded to drill at a specified force, so that force imparted on the rover or lander is limited. This paper will discuss the cryo dc brush motors, carbide gears, cryogenic lubrication, quick-release interchangeable sampling drill bits, percussion drilling and the control system developed to achieve autonomous, cryogenic, vacuum, lightweight drilling.

  4. Implementation of improved underbalanced drilling in AbuDhabi onshore field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhammadi, Adel Mohammed

    Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Oil Operations (ADCO) is considering Underbalanced Drilling (UBD) as a means to develop lower permeability units in its fields. In addition to productivity and recovery gains, ADCO also expects reservoir characterization benefits from UBD. Reservoir screening studies were carried out on all of ADCO's reservoirs to determine their applicability for UBD. The primary business benefits of UBD were determined to be reservoir characterization, damage Mitigation, and rate of Penetration "ROP" Improvement. Apart from the primary benefits, some of the secondary benefits of UBD that were identified beforehand included rig performance. Since it's a trial wells, the challenge was to drill these wells safely, efficiently and of course meeting well objectives. Many operators worldwide drill these well in underbalanced mode but complete it overbalanced. In our case the plan was to drill and complete these wells in underbalanced condition. But we had to challenge most operators and come up with special and unique casing hanger design to ensure well control barriers exists while fishing the control line of the Downhole Deployment Valve "DDV". After intensive studies and planning, the hanger was designed as per our recommendations and found to be effective equipment that optimized the operational time and the cost as well. This report will provide better understanding of UBD technique in general and shade on the special designed casing hanger compared to conventional or what's most used worldwide. Even thought there were some issues while running the casing hanger prior drilling but managed to capture the learning's from each well and re-modified the hanger and come up with better deign for the future wells. Finally, the new design perform a good performance of saving the operation time and assisting the project to be done in a safe and an easy way without a major impact on the well cost. This design helped to drill and complete these wells safely with

  5. Rotary Percussive Sample Acquisition Tool (SAT): Hardware Development and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Kerry; Badescu, Mircea; Haddad, Nicolas; Shiraishi, Lori; Walkemeyer, Phillip

    2012-01-01

    In support of a potential Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission an Integrated Mars Sample Acquisition and Handling (IMSAH) architecture has been proposed to provide a means for Rover-based end-to-end sample capture and caching. A key enabling feature of the architecture is the use of a low mass sample Acquisition Tool (SAT) that is capable of drilling and capturing rock cores directly within a sample tube in order to maintain sample integrity and prevent contamination across the sample chain. As such, this paper will describe the development and testing of a low mass rotary percussive SAT that has been shown to provide a means for core generation, fracture, and capture.

  6. Improvement of the casing cementation of deep and ultradeep wells. Part 1: Drilling muds and washing fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arens, K. H.; Akstinat, M.

    1982-07-01

    Drilling muds, washers, and washing fluids were investigated in order to improve the casing cementation of deep and ultradeep wells. Rheological requirements, the temperature stability of mud systems and the properties of nondamaging drilling muds were studied. For washing fluids, two test methods were developed and the necessity of filter cake removal was shown. The efficiency of several washing fluids was compared and evaluated for various mud systems (drilling muds with and without clays).

  7. Extended reach drilling advancements dramatically improve performance on Bass Strait wells

    SciTech Connect

    Santostefano, V.; Krepp, A.N.

    1994-12-31

    Esso Australia Ltd. (EAL) has been drilling deviated wells in Bass Strait since 1968. Recent technological developments have been employed on the Mackerel Infill Drilling Project, that have significantly improved EAL`s ability to drill Long Reach (LR)/Extended Reach (ER) wells more economically and consistently. The more notable achievements have been: advancements in hole condition reporting, utilizing torque and drag monitoring; the successful use of non-rotating drillpipe rubbers to reduce surface torque to acceptable levels; deeper casing setting depths, to minimize torque and drag, and to reduce time-dependent hole problems; the use of inhibitive/encapsulating mud systems for control of reactive clays/shales; and use of wellbore stability modeling. These advancements have helped EAL to drill 50% greater meterage than was expected in 1993, at 16% lower cost per meter. This paper chronicles the engineering decisions behind these advancements, their applications in the field, the success/failure story on Mackerel to date, and how these developments have been incorporated in EAL`s future well planning.

  8. Can fiber laser improve high speed multi-pulse drilling of aeronautic alloy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, M.; Loumena, C.; Bussière, A.; Kling, R.; Delor, C.; Freysz, E.

    2016-03-01

    Processing of helicopter engines faster, better and more reliably is the triptych which binds LOMA, ALPhANOV and TURBOMECA. In current production machines, flash lamp pumped lasers are employed to drill thousands of cooling holes with specific geometries and diameters to ensure a homogeneous air flow over the surface. However we aim to enhance the production process. Therefore, the three partners started an initiative to identify and overcome the shortcomings of the current process, where the laser source is a key element for improvement. In this paper, we report on the latest developments in multi-pulse drilling using an IPG fiber laser. The latter delivers, at a tunable repetition rate (from single shot up to 2 kHz), laser pulses whose width and peak power are adjustable in between 0.2 - 10 ms and 0 - 12 kW respectively. We have focused our work on drilling of thick sheets of metal alloys with different geometries and different processing strategies. We will show that using such laser system it is possible to decrease the processing time while limiting the heat affected zones and collateral effects. Finally, the impact of the different physical processes in play during the drilling on the geometry of the holes will be discussed.

  9. Microgravity Drill and Anchor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew A.; King, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    This work is a method to drill into a rock surface regardless of the gravitational field or orientation. The required weight-on-bit (WOB) is supplied by a self-contained anchoring mechanism. The system includes a rotary percussive coring drill, forming a complete sampling instrument usable by robot or human. This method of in situ sample acquisition using micro - spine anchoring technology enables several NASA mission concepts not currently possible with existing technology, including sampling from consolidated rock on asteroids, providing a bolt network for astronauts visiting a near-Earth asteroid, and sampling from the ceilings or vertical walls of lava tubes and cliff faces on Mars. One of the most fundamental parameters of drilling is the WOB; essentially, the load applied to the bit that allows it to cut, creating a reaction force normal to the surface. In every drilling application, there is a minimum WOB that must be maintained for the system to function properly. In microgravity (asteroids and comets), even a small WOB could not be supported conventionally by the weight of the robot or astronaut. An anchoring mechanism would be needed to resist the reactions, or the robot or astronaut would push themselves off the surface and into space. The ability of the system to anchor itself to a surface creates potential applications that reach beyond use in low gravity. The use of these anchoring mechanisms as end effectors on climbing robots has the potential of vastly expanding the scope of what is considered accessible terrain. Further, because the drill is supported by its own anchor rather than by a robotic arm, the workspace is not constrained by the reach of such an arm. Yet, if the drill is on a robotic arm, it has the benefit of not reflecting the forces of drilling back to the arm s joints. Combining the drill with the anchoring feet will create a highly mobile, highly stable, and highly reliable system. The drilling system s anchor uses hundreds of

  10. Analytical model of the contact interaction between the components of a special percussive mechanism for planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila, Luis J.; Malla, Ramesh B.

    2016-01-01

    Special percussive mechanisms, e.g. Auto Gopher and UltraSonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC) have been developed by NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Honeybee Robotics Spacecraft Mechanisms, Corp. to address some of the limitations of current drilling techniques for planetary exploration. The percussive mechanism consists of an ultrasonic horn, a free mass (hammer) and the drill rod. This paper presents the analysis of the interaction between these three components. The impact between the components (i.e. ultrasonic horn and free mass, and free mass and drill rod) is analyzed using solid body collision analysis applying the principle of conservation of momentum. The drill rod is modeled for both undamped and damped cases with equivalent generalized single degree of freedom system. Various values are used for the coefficient of restitution to account for energy loss during impact. The energy transferred to the drill rod by the free mass is obtained determining the change in kinetic energy due to impact. It is observed that the free mass converts the high frequency of oscillation of the ultrasonic horn into lower frequency impacts on the drill rod. A decrease in the coefficient of restitution results in a decrease in the number of impacts, impulse imparted to the drill rod and energy transferred to the drill rod by the impact of the free mass.

  11. Interactive computer graphics system improves planning of directionally drilled wells in the East Wilmington field

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, T.S.; Kendle, D.W.

    1988-06-01

    The Long Beach Unit of the East Wilmington field contains more than 1,200 wells directionally drilled from four manmade islands and five land-based drilling sites. Planning new wells that avoid interference with existing wells becomes more difficult and time-consuming as the density of wells in the Unit increases. Improvements and modifications in design procedures have culminated in the interactive computer graphics system now in use. The interactive computer-graphics system (ICGS) permits the viewing of a proposed new well or redrill well course, together with all existing well surveys and other proposed well courses in the area of interest. Plan, section, and traveling cylinder views can be displayed to allow the identification of design problems. The significance of the problems is then minimized by use of the interactive features of the system to refine the design parameters. The system's interactive features are also used to create, edit, and plot the finalized design. Reductions in design and drilling costs and many other less-direct benefits have been realized as a result of the system's use. The step-by-step use of the system from the user's point of view is described and examples of its graphic output are presented. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most advanced system of its kind in use today.

  12. Drill System Development for the Lunar Subsurface Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacny, Kris; Davis, Kiel; Paulsen, Gale; Roberts, Dustyn; Wilson, Jack; Hernandez, Wilson

    Reaching the cold traps at the lunar poles and directly sensing the subsurface regolith is a primary goal of lunar exploration, especially as a means of prospecting for future In Situ Resource Utilization efforts. As part of the development of a lunar drill capable of reaching a depth of two meters or more, Honeybee Robotics has built a laboratory drill system with a total linear stroke of 1 meter, capability to produce as much as 45 N-m of torque at a rotational speed of 200 rpm, and a capability of delivering maximum downforce of 1000 N. Since this is a test-bed, the motors were purposely chosen to be relative large to provide ample power to the drill system (the Apollo drill was a 500 Watt drill, i.e. not small in current standards). In addition, the drill is capable of using three different drilling modes: rotary, rotary percussive and percussive. The frequency of percussive impact can be varied if needed while rotational speed can be held constant. An integral part of this test bed is a vacuum chamber that is currently being constructed. The drill test-bed is used for analyzing various drilling modes and testing different drill bit and auger systems under low pressure conditions and in lunar regolith simulant. The results of the tests are used to develop final lunar drill design as well as efficient drilling protocols. The drill was also designed to accommodate a downhole neutron spectrometer for measuring the amount of hydrated material in the area surrounding the borehole, as well as downhole temperature sensors, accelerometers, and electrical properties tester. The presentation will include history of lunar drilling, challenges of drilling on the Moon, a description of the drill and chamber as well as preliminary drilling test results conducted in the ice-bound lunar regolith simulant with a variety of drill bits and augers systems.

  13. Program for the improvement of downhole drilling motor bearings and seals. Phase V. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    DeLafosse, P.H.; Tibbitts, G.A.; Black, A.D.; DiBona, B.G.

    1983-08-01

    The work done during the fifth and final phase of a program to improve downhole drilling motor bearing and seals is described. The principal activities in this phase were: (a) testing seals with abrasive-laden mud on the low-pressure side; (b) test second and third generation designs of both elastomeric chevron seals and Teflon U-seals; and (c) testing a full-scale bearing/seal package. Several operating parameters which have a radical effect on seal life were identified, and some promising designs and materials were tested.

  14. Improved Tubulars for Better Economics in Deep Gas Well Drilling using Microwave Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dinesh Agrawal; Paul Gigl; Mark Hunt; Mahlon Dennis

    2007-07-31

    The main objective of the entire research program has been to improve the rate-of-penetration in deep hostile environments by improving the life cycle and performance of coiled-tubing, an important component of a deep well drilling system for oil and gas exploration, by utilizing the latest developments in the microwave materials technology. Based on the results of the Phase I and insurmountable difficulties faced in the extrusion and de-waxing processes, the approach of achieving the goals of the program was slightly changed in the Phase II in which an approach of microwave sintering combined with Cold Isostatic Press (CIP) and joining (by induction or microwave) has been adopted. This process can be developed into a semicontinuous sintering process if the CIP can produce parts fast enough to match the microwave sintering rates. The main objective of the Phase II research program is to demonstrate the potential to economically manufacture microwave processed coiled tubing with improved performance for extended useful life under hostile coiled tubing drilling conditions. After the completion of the Phase II, it is concluded that scale up and sintering of a thin wall common O.D. size tubing that is widely used in the market is still to be proved and further experimentation and refinement of the sintering process is needed in Phase III. Actual manufacturing capability of microwave sintered, industrial quality, full length tubing will most likely require several million dollars of investment.

  15. Improved Tubulars for Better Economics in Deep Gas Well Drilling Using Microwave Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dinesh Agrawal

    2006-09-30

    The main objective of the entire research program has been to improve the rate-of-penetration in deep hostile environments by improving the life cycle and performance of coiled-tubing, an important component of a deep well drilling system for oil and gas exploration, by utilizing the latest developments in the microwave materials technology. Based on the results of the Phase I and insurmountable difficulties faced in the extrusion and de-waxing processes, the approach of achieving the goals of the program was slightly changed in the Phase II in which an approach of microwave sintering combined with Cold Isostatic Press (CIP) and joining (by induction or microwave) has been adopted. This process can be developed into a semicontinuous sintering process if the CIP can produce parts fast enough to match the microwave sintering rates. The main objective of the Phase II research program is to demonstrate the potential to economically manufacture microwave processed coiled tubing with improved performance for extended useful life under hostile coiled tubing drilling conditions. After the completion of the Phase II, it is concluded that scale up and sintering of a thin wall common O.D. size tubing that is widely used in the market is still to be proved and further experimentation and refinement of the sintering process is needed in Phase III. Actual manufacturing capability of microwave sintered, industrial quality, full length tubing will most likely require several million dollars of investment.

  16. Instrumental Music: Wind and Percussion. Arkansas Public School Course Content Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    Developed by music teachers, curriculum specialists, and Arkansas Department of Education personnel, this course content guide is designed to provide a basis for improving student skills with wind and percussion instruments. Developed on six levels, each level corresponds to one year of instruction and consists of basic skills for developing…

  17. Mars Technology Rover with Arm-Mounted Percussive Coring Tool, Microimager, and Sample-Handling Encapsulation Containerization Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Younse, Paulo J.; Dicicco, Matthew A.; Morgan, Albert R.

    2012-01-01

    A report describes the PLuto (programmable logic) Mars Technology Rover, a mid-sized FIDO (field integrated design and operations) class rover with six fully drivable and steerable cleated wheels, a rocker-bogey suspension, a pan-tilt mast with panorama and navigation stereo camera pairs, forward and rear stereo hazcam pairs, internal avionics with motor drivers and CPU, and a 5-degrees-of-freedom robotic arm. The technology rover was integrated with an arm-mounted percussive coring tool, microimager, and sample handling encapsulation containerization subsystem (SHEC). The turret of the arm contains a percussive coring drill and microimager. The SHEC sample caching system mounted to the rover body contains coring bits, sample tubes, and sample plugs. The coring activities performed in the field provide valuable data on drilling conditions for NASA tasks developing and studying coring technology. Caching of samples using the SHEC system provide insight to NASA tasks investigating techniques to store core samples in the future.

  18. Learning expressive percussion performance under different visual feedback conditions.

    PubMed

    Brandmeyer, Alex; Timmers, Renee; Sadakata, Makiko; Desain, Peter

    2011-03-01

    A study was conducted to test the effect of two different forms of real-time visual feedback on expressive percussion performance. Conservatory percussion students performed imitations of recorded teacher performances while receiving either high-level feedback on the expressive style of their performances, low-level feedback on the timing and dynamics of the performed notes, or no feedback. The high-level feedback was based on a Bayesian analysis of the performances, while the low-level feedback was based on the raw participant timing and dynamics data. Results indicated that neither form of feedback led to significantly smaller timing and dynamics errors. However, high-level feedback did lead to a higher proficiency in imitating the expressive style of the target performances, as indicated by a probabilistic measure of expressive style. We conclude that, while potentially disruptive to timing processes involved in music performance due to extraneous cognitive load, high-level visual feedback can improve participant imitations of expressive performance features. PMID:20574662

  19. Finite element analysis of a percussion device for pulmonary diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, Aneesh

    A pneumothorax is a medical condition where one or both lungs are unable to remain expanded due to air in the pleural space. Finite Element Analysis simulations were conducted on a Percussion Device, which is able to diagnose a pneumothorax using an automated percussion technique. The simulations helped determine the natural modes of vibration of the Percussion Device. These modes were then compared to the motion experimentally measured by an accelerometer on the Percussion Device. It was observed that the modes of the percussion head occurred in the range of 0 to 100 Hz, while the sensor membrane modes occurred in the range of 600 to 900 Hz. Most of these modes were found to match with peaks in the experimental spectra. The simulations performed are reliable and provide an understanding of the contribution of the normal modes to the complex signals measured using the Percussion Device.

  20. Geometric improvement of electrochemical discharge micro-drilling using an ultrasonic-vibrated electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Min-Seop; Min, Byung-Kwon; Lee, Sang Jo

    2009-06-01

    Electrochemical discharge machining (ECDM) is a spark-based micromachining method especially suitable for the fabrication of various microstructures on nonconductive materials, such as glass and some engineering ceramics. However, since the spark discharge frequency is drastically reduced as the machining depth increases ECDM microhole drilling has confronted difficulty in achieving uniform geometry for machined holes. One of the primary reasons for this is the difficulty of sustaining an adequate electrolyte flow in the narrow gap between the tool and the workpiece, which results in a widened taper at the hole entrance, as well as a significant reduction of the machining depth. In this paper, ultrasonic electrolyte vibration was used to enhance the machining depth of the ECDM drilling process by assuring an adequate electrolyte flow, thus helping to maintain consistent spark generation. Moreover, the stability of the gas film formation, as well as the surface quality of the hole entrance, was improved with the aid of a side-insulated electrode and a pulse-power generator. The side-insulated electrode prevented stray electrolysis and concentrated the spark discharge at the tool tip, while the pulse voltage reduced thermal damage to the workpiece surface by introducing a periodic pulse-off time. Microholes were fabricated in order to investigate the effects of ultrasonic assistance on the overcut and machining depth of the holes. The experimental results demonstrated that the possibility of consistent spark generation and the machinability of microholes were simultaneously enhanced.

  1. Energy-saving compression valve of the rock drill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazov, A. N.; Efanov, A. A.; Aikina, T. Yu

    2015-11-01

    The relevance of the research is due to the necessity to create pneumatic rock drills with low air consumption. The article analyzes the reasons for low efficiency of percussive machines. The authors state that applying a single distribution body in the percussive mechanism does not allow carrying out a low-energy operating cycle of the mechanism. Using the studied device as an example, it is substantiated that applying a compression valve with two distribution bodies separately operating the working chambers makes it possible to significantly reduce the airflow. The authors describe the construction of a core drill percussive mechanism and the operation of a compression valve. It is shown that in the new percussive mechanism working chambers are cut off the circuit by the time when exhaust windows are opened by the piston and air is not supplied into the cylinder up to 20% of the cycle time. The air flow rate of the new mechanism was 3.8 m3/min. In comparison with the drill PK-75, the overall noise level of the new machine is lower by 8-10 dB, while the percussive mechanism efficiency is 2.3 times higher.

  2. Mars Science Laboratory Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okon, Avi B.; Brown, Kyle M.; McGrath, Paul L.; Klein, Kerry J.; Cady, Ian W.; Lin, Justin Y.; Ramirez, Frank E.; Haberland, Matt

    2012-01-01

    This drill (see Figure 1) is the primary sample acquisition element of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) that collects powdered samples from various types of rock (from clays to massive basalts) at depths up to 50 mm below the surface. A rotary-percussive sample acquisition device was developed with an emphasis on toughness and robustness to handle the harsh environment on Mars. It is the first rover-based sample acquisition device to be flight-qualified (see Figure 2). This drill features an autonomous tool change-out on a mobile robot, and novel voice-coil-based percussion. The drill comprises seven subelements. Starting at the end of the drill, there is a bit assembly that cuts the rock and collects the sample. Supporting the bit is a subassembly comprising a chuck mechanism to engage and release the new and worn bits, respectively, and a spindle mechanism to rotate the bit. Just aft of that is a percussion mechanism, which generates hammer blows to break the rock and create the dynamic environment used to flow the powdered sample. These components are mounted to a translation mechanism, which provides linear motion and senses weight-on-bit with a force sensor. There is a passive-contact sensor/stabilizer mechanism that secures the drill fs position on the rock surface, and flex harness management hardware to provide the power and signals to the translating components. The drill housing serves as the primary structure of the turret, to which the additional tools and instruments are attached. The drill bit assembly (DBA) is a passive device that is rotated and hammered in order to cut rock (i.e. science targets) and collect the cuttings (powder) in a sample chamber until ready for transfer to the CHIMRA (Collection and Handling for Interior Martian Rock Analysis). The DBA consists of a 5/8-in. (.1.6- cm) commercial hammer drill bit whose shank has been turned down and machined with deep flutes designed for aggressive cutting removal. Surrounding the shank of the

  3. Korean Percussion Ensemble ("Samulnori") in the General Music Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Sangmi; Yoo, Hyesoo

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces "samulnori" (Korean percussion ensemble), its cultural background, and instructional methods as parts of a classroom approach to teaching upper-level general music. We introduce five of eight sections from "youngnam nong-ak" (a style of samulnori) as a repertoire for teaching Korean percussion music to…

  4. 10 Tips for Wind Players Who Teach Percussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Wind players who become school band directors often struggle with their percussion section. They are not always sure how to deal with the technical aspects of percussion, such as double-stroke rolls or flares. They may also wonder how to get their drummers to stop talking and be ready to play. These questions reveal common concerns among…

  5. Drill, Baby, Drill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerkhoff, Todd

    2009-01-01

    School fire drills are quickly becoming insignificant and inconvenient to school administrators. When the time for the monthly fire drill rolls around, it is often performed with a "let's get this over with" attitude. Although all schools conduct fire drills, seldom do they effectively train students and staff members how to respond in a real…

  6. Thermal and rheological properties improvement of drilling fluids using functionalized carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazelabdolabadi, Babak; Khodadadi, Abbas Ali; Sedaghatzadeh, Mostafa

    2015-08-01

    The application of functionalized/unfunctionalized (multi-walled) carbon nanotubes (CNT) was investigated in the context of formulating nano-based drilling fluids from water/oil-based fluid templates. CNT functionalization was attempted by applying hydrophilic functional groups onto the surface of the nanotubes via acid treatment. Experimental data were collected for thermal conductivity, viscosity/yield point, and filtrate amount in all samples. The time evolution of thermal conductivity was studied, as well as the effects of temperature and CNTs volume fraction on the parameter. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to monitor CNTs dispersion quality. The thermal conductivity results unveil considerable enhancements, by as much as 23.2 % (1 % vol. functionalized CNT) in CNT-water-based case at ambient temperature, with extended improvement of 31.8 % at an elevated temperature of 50 °C. Corresponding results for the CNT-oil-based case exhibit an improvement in thermal conductivity by 40.3 % (unfunctionalized) and 43.1 % (functionalized) and 1 % volume fraction of CNT. The rheological results follow an analogous improvement trend. For the CNT-oil-based case, the filtration tests conducted at 138 °C and 500 (psi) show a 16.67 % reduction in filtrate amount (1 % vol. CNT). The time evolution of thermal conductivity was found to nearly equalize (at an amount of 9.7 %) after 100 h of sample preparation in both functionalized and unfunctionalized CNT-oil-based cases.

  7. A Ship for Scientific Drilling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, M. N. A.; MacTernan, F. C.

    1982-01-01

    Traces the history and development of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, focusing on the Glomar Challenger, drilling improvements, and international significance. Includes photographs, illustrations, and tables. (DC)

  8. Drill-motor holding fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chartier, E. N.; Culp, L. N.

    1980-01-01

    Guide improves accuracy and reduces likelihood of bit breakage in drilling large work pieces. Drill motor is mounted on pipe that slides on furniture clamp. Drill is driven into work piece by turning furniture-clamp handle.

  9. Improved diamond coring bits developed for dry and chip-flush drilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, W. E.; Hampe, W. R.; Hampton, W. H.; Simon, A. B.

    1971-01-01

    Two rotary diamond bit designs, one operating with a chip-flushing fluid, the second including auger section to remove drilled chips, enhance usefulness of tool for exploratory and industrial core-drilling of hard, abrasive mineral deposits and structural masonry.

  10. Program for the Improvement of Downhole Drilling-Motor Bearings and Seals. Phase III, Part 2: final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    Six months of activity to improve downhole drilling-motor bearings and seals for geothermal applications are reported. The following are covered: seal testing and evaluation, bearing-seal package testing and evaluation, lubricant testing and evaluation, and program status, plans and schedule. (MHR)

  11. IMPROVED TUBULARS FOR BETTER ECONOMICS IN DEEP GAS WELL DRILLING USING MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Dinesh Agrawal

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of the research program has been to improve the rate-of-penetration in deep hostile environments by improving the life cycle and performance of coiled-tubing, an important component of a deep well drilling system for oil and gas exploration, by utilizing the latest developments in the microwave materials technology. This is being accomplished by developing an efficient and economically viable continuous microwave process to sinter continuously formed/extruded steel powder for the manufacture of seamless coiled tubing and other tubular products. The entire program has been spread over three phases with the following goals: Phase I--Demonstration of the feasibility concept of continuous microwave sintering process for tubular steel products. Phase II--Design, building and testing of a prototype microwave system which shall be combined with a continuous extruder for steel tubular objects. Phase III--Execution of the plan for commercialization of the technology by one of the industrial partners. The criteria for the success of the program is based on the performance of coiled tubing made by the microwave process. It is expected that this product will have superior quality and performance to the standard product, and will be economically viable.

  12. Improving Cleanliness of 95CrMo Drill Rod Steel by Slag Refining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linzhu; Yang, Shufeng; Li, Jingshe; Wu, Tuo; Liu, Wei; Xiong, Jiaze

    2016-02-01

    Industrial experiments were performed to improve the cleanliness of 95CrMo drill rod steel by slag refining. Higher steel cleanliness, lower corrosion, and small inclusions were obtained using the optimal slag composition (pctCaO/pctSiO2 = 3.7 to 4, pctCaO/pctAl2O3 = 6 to 8). Layered composite inclusions formed during vacuum decarburizing refining. CaS first precipitated around the spinel and subsequently formed inclusions in which solid CaS-CaO wrapped around the Al2O3-MgO-SiO2-CaO system as the modification and diffusion progressed. The thermodynamic equilibrium between slag and liquid 95CrMo steel at 1873 K (1600 °C) was also studied to understand the effect of slag composition on the oxygen content and absorption capacity for Al2O3. A mathematical model based on an investigation of slag viscosity and the interfacial tension between slag and inclusions was used to predict the size of critical inclusions for different slags. The evolution of typical inclusions is discussed in terms of the study of reactions between slag and steel.

  13. Laser-drilled micro-hole arrays on polyurethane synthetic leather for improvement of water vapor permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Wang, A. H.; Zheng, R. R.; Tang, H. Q.; Qi, X. Y.; Ye, B.

    2014-06-01

    Three kinds of lasers at 1064, 532 and 355 nm wavelengths respectively were adopted to construct micro-hole arrays on polyurethane (PU) synthetic leather with an aim to improve water vapor permeability (WVP) of PU synthetic leather. The morphology of the laser-drilled micro-holes was observed to optimize laser parameters. The WVP and slit tear resistance of the laser-drilled leather were measured. Results show that the optimized pulse energy for the 1064, 532 and 355 nm lasers are 0.8, 1.1 and 0.26 mJ, respectively. The diameters of the micro-holes drilled with the optimized laser pulse energy were about 20, 15 and 10 μm, respectively. The depths of the micro-holes drilled with the optimized pulse energy were about 21, 60 and 69 μm, respectively. Compared with the untreated samples, the highest WVP growth ratio was 38.4%, 46.8% and 53.5% achieved by the 1064, 532 and 355 nm lasers, respectively. And the highest decreasing ratio of slit tear resistance was 11.1%, 14.8%, and 22.5% treated by the 1064, 532 and 355 nm lasers, respectively. Analysis of the interaction mechanism between laser beams at three kinds of laser wavelengths and the PU synthetic leather revealed that laser micro-drilling at 355 nm wavelength displayed both photochemical ablation and photothermal ablation, while laser micro-drilling at 1064 and 532 nm wavelengths leaded to photothermal ablation only.

  14. Interior Department Suggests Improvements for Offshore Arctic Oil and Gas Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-03-01

    Shell's "difficulties" during its 2012 program to drill offshore oil and natural gas exploration wells in the Alaskan Arctic Ocean "have raised serious questions regarding its ability to operate safely and responsibly in the challenging and unpredictable conditions offshore Alaska," according to the report "Review of Shell's 2012 Alaska Offshore Oil and Gas Exploration Program," issued by the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) on 8 March. Noting the company's lack of adequate preparation for drilling in the Arctic, its failure to deploy a specialized Arctic Containment System, and the grounding of the Kulluk drilling rig near Kodiak Island last December, the report recommends that Shell develop a comprehensive and integrated plan describing its future drilling program and related operations and that it commission a third-party audit of its management systems, including its safety and environmental management systems program.

  15. Advanced Drilling through Diagnostics-White-Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    FINGER,JOHN T.; GLOWKA,DAVID ANTHONY; LIVESAY,BILLY JOE; MANSURE,ARTHUR J.; PRAIRIE,MICHAEL R.

    1999-10-07

    A high-speed data link that would provide dramatically faster communication from downhole instruments to the surface and back again has the potential to revolutionize deep drilling for geothermal resources through Diagnostics-While-Drilling (DWD). Many aspects of the drilling process would significantly improve if downhole and surface data were acquired and processed in real-time at the surface, and used to guide the drilling operation. Such a closed-loop, driller-in-the-loop DWD system, would complete the loop between information and control, and greatly improve the performance of drilling systems. The main focus of this program is to demonstrate the value of real-time data for improving drilling. While high-rate transfer of down-hole data to the surface has been accomplished before, insufficient emphasis has been placed on utilization of the data to tune the drilling process to demonstrate the true merit of the concept. Consequently, there has been a lack of incentive on the part of industry to develop a simple, low-cost, effective high-speed data link. Demonstration of the benefits of DWD based on a high-speed data link will convince the drilling industry and stimulate the flow of private resources into the development of an economical high-speed data link for geothermal drilling applications. Such a downhole communication system would then make possible the development of surface data acquisition and expert systems that would greatly enhance drilling operations. Further, it would foster the development of downhole equipment that could be controlled from the surface to improve hole trajectory and drilling performance. Real-time data that would benefit drilling performance include: bit accelerations for use in controlling bit bounce and improving rock penetration rates and bit life; downhole fluid pressures for use in the management of drilling hydraulics and improved diagnosis of lost circulation and gas kicks; hole trajectory for use in reducing directional

  16. Advances in drilling with fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeem, Mohammed

    2015-07-01

    High brightness quasi- continuous wave (QCW) and continuous wave (CW) fiber lasers are routinely being used for cutting and welding for a range of industrial applications. However, to date very little work has been carried out or has been reported on laser drilling with these laser sources. This work describes laser drilling ((trepan and percussion) of nickel based superalloys (thermal barrier coated and uncoated) with a high power QCW fiber laser. This presentation will highlight some of the most significant aspect of laser drilling, i.e. SmartPierceTM, deep hole drilling and small hole drilling. These advances in processing also demonstrate the potential for fiber laser processing when an advanced interface between laser and an open architecture controller are used.

  17. IMPROVED TUBULARS FOR BETTER ECONOMICS IN DEEP GAS WELL DRILLING USING MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Dinesh Agrawal; Paul Gigl; Mahlon Dennis; Roderic Stanley

    2005-03-01

    The main objective of the research program has been to improve the rate-of-penetration in deep hostile environments by improving the life cycle and performance of coiled-tubing, an important component of a deep well drilling system for oil and gas exploration, by utilizing the latest developments in the microwave materials technology. Originally, it was proposed to accomplish this by developing an efficient and economically viable continuous microwave process to sinter continuously formed/extruded steel powder for the manufacture of seamless coiled tubing and other tubular products. However, based on the results and faced with insurmountable difficulties in the extrusion and de-waxing processes, the approach of achieving the goals of the program has been slightly changed. In the continuation proposal an approach of microwave sintering combined with Cold Isostatic Press (CIP) and joining (by induction or microwave) is adopted. This process can be developed into a semi-continuous sintering process if the CIP can produce parts fast enough to match the microwave sintering rates. Originally, the entire program was spread over three phases with the following goals: Phase I: Demonstration of the feasibility concept of continuous microwave sintering process for tubular steel products. Phase II: Design, building and testing of a prototype microwave system which shall be combined with a continuous extruder for steel tubular objects. Phase III: Execution of the plan for commercialization of the technology by one of the industrial partners. However, since some of the goals of the phase I were not completed, an extension of nine months was granted and we continued extrusion experiments, designed and built semicontinuous microwave sintering unit.

  18. Drilling tool

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, O.; Dohse, H.P.; Reibetanz, W.; Wanner, K.

    1983-09-27

    A drilling tool is disclosed which has a drilling shaft member, a crown drilling member with an annular wall provided with a plurality of cutting edges and detachably mounted on the shaft member, a center drilling member detachably mounted on the shaft member inside the crown drilling member and having a further cutting edge, and elements for limiting a drilling depth of the tool when the center drilling member is mounted on the shaft member. Thereby, the operator of the drilling tool, after drilling a guiding groove in a rock, is forced to remove the center drilling member from the drilling tool and drill further without the center drilling member, which increases the drilling efficiency.

  19. Hydraulic hammer drilling technology: Developments and capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Melamed, Y.; Kiselev, A.; Gelfgat, M.; Dreesen, D.; Blacic, J.

    1996-12-31

    Percussion drilling technology was considered many years ago as one of the best approaches for hard rock drilling. Unfortunately the efficiency of most hydraulic hammer (HH) designs was very low (8% maximum), so they were successfully used in shallow boreholes only. Thirty years of research and field drilling experience with HH application in Former Soviet Union (FSU) countries led to the development of a new generation of HH designs with a proven efficiency of 40%. That advance achieved good operational results in hard rock at depths up to 2,000 m and more. The most recent research has shown that there are opportunities to increase HH efficiency up to 70%. This paper presents HH basic design principles and operational features. The advantages of HH technology for coiled-tubing drilling is shown on the basis of test results recently conducted in the US.

  20. Numerical-experimental identification of the most effective dynamic operation mode of a vibration drilling tool for improved cutting performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostasevicius, V.; Ubartas, M.; Gaidys, R.; Jurenas, V.; Samper, S.; Dauksevicius, R.

    2012-11-01

    This study is concerned with application of numerical-experimental approach for characterizing dynamic behavior of the developed piezoelectrically excited vibration drilling tool with the aim to identify the most effective conditions of tool vibration mode control for improved cutting efficiency. 3D finite element model of the tool was created on the basis of an elastically fixed pre-twisted cantilever (standard twist drill). The model was experimentally verified and used together with tool vibration measurements in order to reveal rich dynamic behavior of the pre-twisted structure, representing a case of parametric vibrations with axial, torsional and transverse natural vibrations accompanied by the additional dynamic effects arising due to the coupling of axial and torsional deflections ((un)twisting). Numerical results combined with extensive data from interferometric, accelerometric, dynamometric and surface roughness measurements allowed to determine critical excitation frequencies and the corresponding vibration modes, which have the largest influence on the performance metrics of the vibration drilling process. The most favorable tool excitation conditions were established: inducing the axial mode of the vibration tool itself through tailoring of driving frequency enables to minimize magnitudes of surface roughness, cutting force and torque. Research results confirm the importance of the tool mode control in enhancing the effectiveness of vibration cutting tools from the viewpoint of structural dynamics.

  1. Application of the IGSN for improved data - sample - drill core linkage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnken, Andree; Wallrabe-Adams, Hans-Joachim; Röhl, Ursula; Krysiak, Frank

    2016-04-01

    The large number of samples resulting from geoscientific research creates a need for a system that has the ability to allocate unique identifiers for individual samples (cores, core sections, rock samples...). In this abstract we present a solution that utilises the IGSN (1) Registry Metadata Store (2) to automatically register unique IGSN's for samples and submit corresponding metadata. An automated workflow has been set up to register IGSN's and submit metadata for cores stored for example at the IODP (3) Bremen Core Repository (BCR) in Bremen and the BGR National Core Repository for Research Drilling in Berlin, and partly transfer the core information to the GESEP (4) Virtual Core Repository (5). Detailed metadata for these cores are stored in a DIS (6), from which xml files containing all necessary information for IGSN and metadata submission are automatically generated. These files are automatically processed to extract and register the unique IGSN as well as the corresponding metadata. After this parsing process, the IGSN registration and metadata submission processes are triggered by posting the appropriate IGSN API (7) service calls. 1. International Geo Sample Number 2. https://doidb.wdc-terra.org/igsn/ 3. Integrated Ocean Drilling Program / International Ocean Discovery Program 4. German Scientific Earth Probing Consortium 5. http://www.gesep.org/infrastruktur/kernlager/portal/ 6. Drilling Information System 7. https://doidb.wdc-terra.org/igsn/static/apidoc

  2. Improved Tubulars for Better Economics in Deep Gas Well Drilling using Microwave Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dinesh Agrawal; Paul Gigl; Mahlon Dennis

    2006-02-01

    The objective of the research program has been to improve the rate-of-penetration in deep hostile environments by improving the life cycle and performance of coiled-tubing, an important component of a deep well drilling system for oil and gas exploration. The current process of the manufacture long tubular steel products consists of shaping the tube from flat strip, welding the seam and sections into lengths that can be miles long, and coiling onto reels. However, the welds, that are a weak point, now limit the performance of the coil tubing. This is not only from a toughness standpoint but also from a corrosion standpoint. By utilizing the latest developments in the sintering of materials with microwave energy and powder metal extrusion technology for the manufacture of seamless coiled tubing and other tubular products, these problems can be eliminated. The project is therefore to develop a continuous microwave process to sinter continuously steel tubulars and butt-join them using microwave/induction process. The program started about three years ago and now we are in the middle of Phase II. In Phase I (which ended in February 2005) a feasibility study of the extrusion process of steel powder and continuously sinter the extruded tubing was conducted. The research program has been based on the development of microwave technology to process tubular specimens of powder metals, especially steels. The existing microwave systems at the Materials Research Laboratory (MRL) and Dennis Tool Company (DTC) were suitably modified to process tubular small specimens. The precursor powder metals were either extruded or cold isostatically pressed (CIP) to form tubular specimens. After conducting an extensive and systematic investigation of extrusion process for producing long tubes, it was determined that there were several difficulties in adopting extrusion process and it cannot be economically used for producing thousands of feet long green tubing. Therefore, in the Phase II the

  3. Lateral (Parasagittal) Fluid Percussion Model of Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Van, Ken C; Lyeth, Bruce G

    2016-01-01

    Fluid percussion was first conceptualized in the 1940s and has evolved into one of the leading laboratory methods for studying experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI). Over the decades, fluid percussion has been used in numerous species and today is predominantly applied to the rat. The fluid percussion technique rapidly injects a small volume of fluid, such as isotonic saline, through a circular craniotomy onto the intact dura overlying the brain cortex. In brief, the methods involve surgical production of a circular craniotomy, attachment of a fluid-filled conduit between the dura overlying the cortex and the outlet port of the fluid percussion device. A fluid pulse is then generated by the free-fall of a pendulum striking a piston on the fluid-filled cylinder of the device. The fluid enters the cranium, producing a compression and displacement of the brain parenchyma resulting in a sharp, high magnitude elevation of intracranial pressure that is propagated diffusely through the brain. This results in an immediate and transient period of traumatic unconsciousness as well as a combination of focal and diffuse damage to the brain, which is evident upon histological and behavioral analysis. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the rat fluid percussion model reproduces a wide range of pathological features associated with human TBI. PMID:27604722

  4. Drilling, Coring and Sampling Using Piezoelectric Actuated Mechanisms: From the USDC to a Piezo-Rotary-Hammer Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2012-01-01

    NASA exploration missions are increasingly including sampling tasks but with the growth in engineering experience (particularly, Phoenix Scout and MSL) it is now very much recognized that planetary drilling poses many challenges. The difficulties grow significantly with the hardness of sampled material, the depth of drilling and the harshness of the environmental conditions. To address the requirements for samplers that could be operated at the conditions of the various bodies in the solar system, a number of piezoelectric actuated drills and corers were developed by the Advanced Technologies Group of JPL. The basic configuration that was conceived in 1998 is known as the Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC), and it operates as a percussive mechanism. This drill requires as low preload as 10N (important for operation at low gravity) allowing to operate with as low-mass device as 400g, use an average power as low as 2- 3W and drill rocks as hard as basalt. A key feature of this drilling mechanism is the use of a free-mass to convert the ultrasonic vibrations generated by piezoelectric stack to sonic impacts on the bit. Using the versatile capabilities f the USDC led to the development of many configurations and device sizes. Significant improvement of the penetration rate was achieved by augmenting the hammering action by rotation and use of a fluted bit to remove cuttings. To reach meters deep in ice a wireline drill was developed called the Ultrasonic/Sonic Gopher and it was demonstrated in 2005 to penetrate about 2-m deep at Antarctica. Jointly with Honeybee Robotics, this mechanism is currently being modified to incorporate rotation and inchworm operation forming Auto-Gopher to reach meters deep in rocks. To take advantage of the ability of piezoelectric actuators to operate over a wide temperatures range, piezoelectric actuated drills were developed and demonstrated to operate at as cold as -200oC and as hot as 500oC. In this paper, the developed mechanisms

  5. Quantifying Traces of Tool Use: A Novel Morphometric Analysis of Damage Patterns on Percussive Tools

    PubMed Central

    Caruana, Matthew V.; Carvalho, Susana; Braun, David R.; Presnyakova, Darya; Haslam, Michael; Archer, Will; Bobe, Rene; Harris, John W. K.

    2014-01-01

    Percussive technology continues to play an increasingly important role in understanding the evolution of tool use. Comparing the archaeological record with extractive foraging behaviors in nonhuman primates has focused on percussive implements as a key to investigating the origins of lithic technology. Despite this, archaeological approaches towards percussive tools have been obscured by a lack of standardized methodologies. Central to this issue have been the use of qualitative, non-diagnostic techniques to identify percussive tools from archaeological contexts. Here we describe a new morphometric method for distinguishing anthropogenically-generated damage patterns on percussive tools from naturally damaged river cobbles. We employ a geomatic approach through the use of three-dimensional scanning and geographical information systems software to statistically quantify the identification process in percussive technology research. This will strengthen current technological analyses of percussive tools in archaeological frameworks and open new avenues for translating behavioral inferences of early hominins from percussive damage patterns. PMID:25415303

  6. Quantifying traces of tool use: a novel morphometric analysis of damage patterns on percussive tools.

    PubMed

    Caruana, Matthew V; Carvalho, Susana; Braun, David R; Presnyakova, Darya; Haslam, Michael; Archer, Will; Bobe, Rene; Harris, John W K

    2014-01-01

    Percussive technology continues to play an increasingly important role in understanding the evolution of tool use. Comparing the archaeological record with extractive foraging behaviors in nonhuman primates has focused on percussive implements as a key to investigating the origins of lithic technology. Despite this, archaeological approaches towards percussive tools have been obscured by a lack of standardized methodologies. Central to this issue have been the use of qualitative, non-diagnostic techniques to identify percussive tools from archaeological contexts. Here we describe a new morphometric method for distinguishing anthropogenically-generated damage patterns on percussive tools from naturally damaged river cobbles. We employ a geomatic approach through the use of three-dimensional scanning and geographical information systems software to statistically quantify the identification process in percussive technology research. This will strengthen current technological analyses of percussive tools in archaeological frameworks and open new avenues for translating behavioral inferences of early hominins from percussive damage patterns. PMID:25415303

  7. Reducing extra-terrestrial excavation forces with percussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, R.; Smith, J. D.; Lippitt, T.; Schuler, J.; Nick, A.

    High launch costs and mission requirements drive the need for low mass excavators with mobility platforms, which in turn have little traction and excavation reaction capacity in low gravity environments. This presents the need for precursor and long term future missions with low mass robotic mining technology to perform In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) tasks. This paper discusses a series of experiments that investigate the effectiveness of a percussive digging device to reduce excavation loads and thereby the mass of the excavator itself. A percussive mechanism and 30" wide pivoting bucket were attached to a test stand simulating a basic backhoe with a percussion direction tangent to the direction of movement. Impact energies from 13.6J to 30.5J and frequencies from 0 to 700 beats per minute (BPM) were investigated. A reduction in excavation force of as much as 50% was achieved in this experimental investigation.

  8. Reducing Extra-Terrestrial Excavation Forces with Percussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert; Schuler, Jason M.; Smith, Jonathan Drew; Nick, Andrew J.; Lippitt, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    High launch costs and mission requirements drive the need for low mass excavators with mobility platforms, which in turn have little traction and excavation reaction capacity in low gravity environments. This presents the need for precursor and long term future missions with low mass robotic mining technology to perform In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) tasks. This paper discusses a series of experiments that investigate the effectiveness of a percussive digging device to reduce excavation loads and thereby the mass of the excavator itself. A percussive mechanism and 30" wide pivoting bucket were attached at the end of the arm simulating a basic backhoe with a percussion direction tangent to the direction of movement. Impact energies from 13.6J to 30.5J and frequencies from 0 BPM to 700 BPM were investigated. A reduction in excavation force of as much as 50% was achieved in this experimental investigation.

  9. Drill Presses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, Nancy; And Others

    These instructional materials provide an orientation to the drill press for use at the postsecondary level. The first of seven sections lists seven types of drill presses. The second section identifies 14 drill press parts. The third section lists 21 rules for safe use of drilling machines. The fourth section identifies the six procedures for…

  10. Quantitative Percussion Diagnostics For Evaluating Bond Integrity Between Composite Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poveromo, Scott Leonard

    Conventional nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques used to detect defects in composites are not able to determine intact bond integrity within a composite structure and are costly to use on large and complex shaped surfaces. To overcome current NDT limitations, a new technology was utilized based on quantitative percussion diagnostics (QPD) to better quantify bond quality in fiber reinforced composite materials. Experimental results indicate that this technology is capable of detecting 'kiss' bonds (very low adhesive shear strength), caused by the application of release agents on the bonding surfaces, between flat composite laminates bonded together with epoxy adhesive. Specifically, the local value of the loss coefficient determined from quantitative percussion testing was found to be significantly greater for a release coated panel compared to that for a well bonded sample. Also, the local value of the probe force or force returned to the probe after impact was observed to be lower for the release coated panels. The increase in loss coefficient and decrease in probe force are thought to be due to greater internal friction during the percussion event for poorly bonded specimens. NDT standards were also fabricated by varying the cure parameters of an epoxy film adhesive. Results from QPD for the variable cure NDT standards and lap shear strength measurements taken of mechanical test specimens were compared and analyzed. Finally, experimental results have been compared to a finite element analysis to understand the visco-elastic behavior of the laminates during percussion testing. This comparison shows how a lower quality bond leads to a reduction in the percussion force by biasing strain in the percussion tested side of the panel.

  11. Rock Drilling Performance Evaluation by an Energy Dissipation Based Rock Brittleness Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, H.; Taheri, A.; Chanda, E. K.

    2016-08-01

    To reliably estimate drilling performance both tool-rock interaction laws along with a proper rock brittleness index are required to be implemented. In this study, the performance of a single polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) cutter cutting and different drilling methods including PDC rotary drilling, roller-cone rotary drilling and percussive drilling were investigated. To investigate drilling performance by rock strength properties, laboratory PDC cutting tests were performed on different rocks to obtain cutting parameters. In addition, results of laboratory and field drilling on different rocks found elsewhere in literature were used. Laboratory and field cutting and drilling test results were coupled with values of a new rock brittleness index proposed herein and developed based on energy dissipation withdrawn from the complete stress-strain curve in uniaxial compression. To quantify cutting and drilling performance, the intrinsic specific energy in rotary-cutting action, i.e. the energy consumed in pure cutting action, and drilling penetration rate values in percussive action were used. The results show that the new energy-based brittleness index successfully describes the performance of different cutting and drilling methods and therefore is relevant to assess drilling performance for engineering applications.

  12. Reducing Extra-Terrestrial Excavation Forces with Percussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuler, Jason; Mueller, Robert; Smith, Drew; Nick, Andrew; Lippitt, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    High launch costs and mission requirements drive the need for low mass excavators with mobility platforms, which in turn have little traction and excavation reaction capacity in low gravity environments. This presents the need for precursor and long term future missions with low mass robotic mining technology to perform In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) tasks. This paper discusses a series of experiments that investigate the effectiveness of a percussive digging device to reduce excavation loads and thereby the mass of the excavator itself. The goal of percussive excavation is to fluidize dry regolith in front of the leading edge of the tool by mechanically separating the microscopic interlocking grains resulting in a reduced force needed to shear the soil. There are several variables involved with this technique; this experiment varied: Impact energy, frequency, and excavation speed and held constant: impact direction, depth of cut, angle of tool, and soil bulk density. The test apparatus consisted of an aluminum truss bridge with a central pivoting arm. Attached to the arm was a winch with a load cell in line that recorded the tension in the cable and therefore the excavation load. The arm could be adjusted for excavation depth which was recorded along with the arm angle relative to the bridge. A percussive mechanism and 30" wide pivoting bucket were attached at the end of the arm simulating a basic backhoe with a percussion direction tangent to the direction of . movement. Internally the mechanism used a set of die springs and barrel cam to produce the percussive blow. By changing the springs and the speed of the motor the impact energy and frequency of percussion could be varied independently. Impact energies from 11.2J to 30.5J and frequencies from 0 BPM to 700 BPM were investigated. A reduction in excavation force of as much as 51% was achieved in this experimental investigation. Smaller percussive digging implements, tested by others, have achieved a

  13. Drilling method

    SciTech Connect

    Stokley, C.O.; Haas, R.C.

    1991-04-30

    This patent describes a drilling method. It includes: rotating a drill bit in a well head to drill a well in an earth formation while circulating drilling fluid consisting essentially of a liquid; conducting the returning drilling fluid, and oil and gas from the formation to a flow rate control valve and to a pressure control valve; and conducting fluid from the flow rate control valve and the pressure control valve to a separator vessel maintained under pressure.

  14. Proceedings of the drilling technology symposium 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, P.D.; Kastor, R.L. )

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of a symposium on drilling technology. Topics covered include: Improvement in rock bit performance; Coring the horizontal hole; Drill pipe failures; and Slim drill horizontal workover system.

  15. Novel drilling technology and reduction in drilling costs

    SciTech Connect

    Enger, T.; Torvund, T.; Mikkelsen, J.

    1995-12-31

    Historically offshore drilling costs represent a large part of Norsk Hydro`s E and P investments. Thus a reduction in drilling costs is a major issue. Consequently an aggressive approach to drilling has taken place focusing upon: (1) Reduction in conventional drilling costs, both in exploration and production drilling. An ambitious program to reduce drilling costs by 50% has been introduced. The main improvement potentials include rapid drilling, improved contracts and more selective data gathering. (2) Drilling of long reach wells up to approximately 9 km to reduce the number of subsea wells and fixed platforms, and thus improving the total field economy. Norsk Hydro has also been aggressive in pursuing drilling techniques which could improve the total oil recovery. Horizontal drilling has made possible the development of the giant Troll oil field, even though the oil leg is only 0--26 m thick. Oil reserves in the order of up to 650 mill bbl will be recovered solely due to introduction of horizontal wells. Recently, offshore tests of techniques such as coiled tubing drilling and conventional slim hole drilling have been carried out. The aim is to qualify a concept which could enable them to use a light vessel for exploration drilling, and not the large semi submersible rigs presently used. Potential future savings could be substantial.

  16. Effects of Working Angle on Pneumatic Down-the-hole Hammer Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhi; Meng, Yingfeng; Li, Yongjie; Shi, Xiangchao; Xiang, Chengliao

    2015-09-01

    The effects of the wor king angle on pneumatic down-the-hole (DTH) hammer drilling was investigated since these hammers were developed for vertical drilling and their performances in inclined positions need to be tested. The investigation begins by establishing a calculation model with which to simulate the percussive drilling of the hammer. The model consists of two parts. The first gives the kinetic energy of the piston at impact by simulating the thermodynamic cycle of the DTH hammer, and the second simulates the percussive drilling process according to the analyses of stress-wave propagation. In the meantime, a laboratory-scale test device was made for multi-angle hammer drilling tests. This device is based on a small pneumatic DTH hammer used in deep well drilling. By analyzing the force acting on the rock during impact at different angles, the percussive drilling process is carefully examined. Theoretical predictions and experimental results appear in fairly good agreement. The hammer's working performance in inclined positions can be obtained directly using the proposed model. Furthermore, when detailed evaluation is required, the hammer can be tested using the method proposed in this paper.

  17. Precision micro drilling with copper vapor lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, J.J.; Martinez, M.W.; Warner, B.E.; Dragon, E.P.; Huete, G.; Solarski, M.E.

    1994-09-02

    The authors have developed a copper vapor laser based micro machining system using advanced beam quality control and precision wavefront tilting technologies. Micro drilling has been demonstrated through percussion drilling and trepanning using this system. With a 30 W copper vapor laser running at multi-kHz pulse repetition frequency, straight parallel holes with size varying from 500 microns to less than 25 microns and with aspect ratio up to 1:40 have been consistently drilled on a variety of metals with good quality. For precision trepanned holes, the hole-to-hole size variation is typically within 1% of its diameter. Hole entrance and exit are both well defined with dimension error less than a few microns. Materialography of sectioned holes shows little (sub-micron scale) recast layer and heat affected zone with surface roughness within 1--2 microns.

  18. Advanced drilling systems study

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, K.G.; Livesay, B.J.

    1995-03-01

    This work was initiated as part of the National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technologies (NADET) Program. It is being performed through joint finding from the Department of Energy Geothermal Division and the Natural Gas Technology Branch, Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Interest in advanced drilling systems is high. The Geothermal Division of the Department of Energy has initiated a multi-year effort in the development of advanced drilling systems; the National Research Council completed a study of drilling and excavation technologies last year; and the MIT Energy Laboratory recently submitted a proposal for a national initiative in advanced drilling and excavation research. The primary reasons for this interest are financial. Worldwide expenditures on oil and gas drilling approach $75 billion per year. Also, drilling and well completion account for 25% to 50% of the cost of producing electricity from geothermal energy. There is incentive to search for methods to reduce the cost of drilling. Work on ideas to improve or replace rotary drilling technology dates back at least to the 1930`s. There was a significant amount of work in this area in the 1960`s and 1970`s; and there has been some continued effort through the 1980`s. Undoubtedly there are concepts for advanced drilling systems that have yet to be studied; however, it is almost certain that new efforts to initiate work on advanced drilling systems will build on an idea or a variation of an idea that has already been investigated. Therefore, a review of previous efforts coupled with a characterization of viable advanced drilling systems and the current state of technology as it applies to those systems provide the basis for the current study of advanced drilling.

  19. Content Analysis of Students' Journals in a Percussion Methods Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlton, Dave S.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an empirical investigation of music education students' journals within a percussion methods course at a Midwestern university in the United States. The findings of this investigation raise issues about music education students' sense of self-awareness, specificity within the journals, and the predominance of discussions…

  20. Improved assumed-stress hybrid shell element with drilling degrees of freedom for linear stress, buckling, and free vibration analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rengarajan, Govind; Aminpour, Mohammad A.; Knight, Norman F., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    An improved four-node quadrilateral assumed-stress hybrid shell element with drilling degrees of freedom is presented. The formulation is based on Hellinger-Reissner variational principle and the shape functions are formulated directly for the four-node element. The element has 12 membrane degrees of freedom and 12 bending degrees of freedom. It has nine independent stress parameters to describe the membrane stress resultant field and 13 independent stress parameters to describe the moment and transverse shear stress resultant field. The formulation encompasses linear stress, linear buckling, and linear free vibration problems. The element is validated with standard tests cases and is shown to be robust. Numerical results are presented for linear stress, buckling, and free vibration analyses.

  1. OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE--A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Arnis Judzis

    2004-07-01

    This document details the progress to date on the ''OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE--A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING'' contract for the quarter starting April 2004 through June 2004. The DOE and TerraTek continue to wait for Novatek on the optimization portion of the testing program (they are completely rebuilding their fluid hammer). The latest indication is that the Novatek tool would be ready for retesting only 4Q 2004 or later. Smith International's hammer was tested in April of 2004 (2Q 2004 report). Accomplishments included the following: (1) TerraTek re-tested the ''optimized'' fluid hammer provided by Smith International during April 2004. Many improvements in mud hammer rates of penetration were noted over Phase 1 benchmark testing from November 2002. (2) Shell Exploration and Production in The Hague was briefed on various drilling performance projects including Task 8 ''Cutter Impact Testing''. Shell interest and willingness to assist in the test matrix as an Industry Advisor is appreciated. (3) TerraTek participated in a DOE/NETL Review meeting at Morgantown on April 15, 2004. The discussions were very helpful and a program related to the Mud Hammer optimization project was noted--Terralog modeling work on percussion tools. (4) Terralog's Dr. Gang Han witnessed some of the full-scale optimization testing of the Smith International hammer in order to familiarize him with downhole tools. TerraTek recommends that modeling first start with single cutters/inserts and progress in complexity. (5) The final equipment problem on the impact testing task was resolved through the acquisition of a high data rate laser based displacement instrument. (6) TerraTek provided Novatek much engineering support for the future re-testing of their optimized tool. Work was conducted on slip ring [electrical] specifications and tool collar sealing in the testing vessel with a reconfigured flow system on Novatek's collar.

  2. Center of percussion of hand-held implements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2004-05-01

    The center of percussion is commonly regarded as a sweet spot when referring to a baseball bat or a tennis racquet because it is assumed that there will be no sudden motion of the handle with respect to the hand if the corresponding axis of rotation passes through the hand. A problem with this interpretation is that the hand extends over a finite length of the handle and exerts an opposing reaction force on the handle. The hand also changes the total mass and moment of inertia of the system, while the arm restricts free motion of the hand. Experimental results are presented showing that the axis of rotation passes through the hand or the wrist for all the usual impact points on a hand-held implement. As a result, the impact point that feels best is usually the node of the fundamental vibration mode, not the center of percussion.

  3. Fluid percussion barotrauma chamber: a new in vitro model for traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Shepard, S R; Ghajar, J B; Giannuzzi, R; Kupferman, S; Hariri, R J

    1991-11-01

    Advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury have implicated a number of cellular events as fundamental to the evolution of neurologic dysfunction in this process. Following the primary biomechanical insult, a highly complex series of biochemical changes occur, some of which are reversible. The development of fluid percussion injury as an in vivo model for traumatic brain injury has greatly improved our ability to study this disease. However, a comparable in vitro model of biomechanical injury which would enable investigators to study the response to injury in isolated cell types has not been described. We have developed a model of transient barotrauma in cell culture to examine the effects of this form of injury on cell metabolism. This model employs the same fluid percussion device commonly used in in vivo brain injury studies. The effect of this injury was evaluated in monolayers of human glial cells. Cell viability by trypan blue exclusion and the production of leukotrienes following increasing barotrauma was investigated. This model provided a reproducible method of subjecting cells in culture to forces similar to those currently used in animal experimental head injury. PMID:1758175

  4. Improving Oral Reading Fluency through Response Opportunities: A Comparison of Phrase Drill Error Correction with Repeated Readings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begeny, John C.; Daly, Edward J., III; Valleley, Rachel J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two oral reading fluency treatments (repeated readings and phrase drill error correction) which differ in the way they prompt student responding. Repeated readings (RR) and phrase drill (PD) error correction were alternated with a baseline and a reward condition within an alternating treatments design with…

  5. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery and improved drilling technology. Progress review No. 34, quarter ending March 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Linville, B.

    1983-07-01

    Progress achieved for the quarter ending March 1983 are presented for field projects and supporting research for the following: chemical flooding; carbon dioxide injection; and thermal/heavy oil. In addition, progress reports are presented for: resource assessment technology; extraction technology; environmental and safety; microbial enhanced oil recovery; oil recovered by gravity mining; improved drilling technology; and general supporting research. (ATT)

  6. Stability of rat models of fluid percussion-induced traumatic brain injury: comparison of three different impact forces.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yun-Peng; Jiang, Rong-Cai; Zhang, Jian-Ning

    2015-07-01

    Fluid percussion-induced traumatic brain injury models have been widely used in experimental research for years. In an experiment, the stability of impaction is inevitably affected by factors such as the appearance of liquid spikes. Management of impact pressure is a crucial factor that determines the stability of these models, and direction of impact control is another basic element. To improve experimental stability, we calculated a pressure curve by generating repeated impacts using a fluid percussion device at different pendulum angles. A stereotactic frame was used to control the direction of impact. We produced stable and reproducible models, including mild, moderate, and severe traumatic brain injury, using the MODEL01-B device at pendulum angles of 6°, 11° and 13°, with corresponding impact force values of 1.0 ± 0.11 atm (101.32 ± 11.16 kPa), 2.6 ± 0.16 atm (263.44 ± 16.21 kPa), and 3.6 ± 0.16 atm (364.77 ± 16.21 kPa), respectively. Behavioral tests, hematoxylin-eosin staining, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed that models for different degrees of injury were consistent with the clinical properties of mild, moderate, and severe craniocerebral injuries. Using this method, we established fluid percussion models for different degrees of injury and stabilized pathological features based on precise power and direction control. PMID:26330831

  7. Application of TiO2 and fumed silica nanoparticles and improve the performance of drilling fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheraghian, Goshtasp; Hemmati, Mahmood; Bazgir, Saeed

    2014-03-01

    In these experiments, two nano particles dissolved that in water, are used to inject into simulated environment and also the effect of these nano particles in water base drilling typical fluid have been investigated. Using nanoparticles in all samples has resulted in recovery increase. Finally, considering the experiments, it is demonstrated that flows with nano and in particular Titanium dioxide nano(TiO2) have the highes amount of recovery factors. So, using nanoparticles in water flooding and even some of the polymer flooding ones. Also, results of the other tests, regarding each typical drilling costs of each foot and importance of time in the operation, it is possible to replace technically and economically ordinary additional (here, the widely used sodium hydroxide) with Fumed silica nano in drilling fluid to prevent cement-contamination of the drilling fluid. The advantages of nano TiO2 are possessing suitable thermal transition qualities in the drilling fluid.

  8. Thoracic percussion yields reversible mechanical changes in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Fernando S; Zin, Walter A

    2008-11-01

    In order to characterize the mechanical effects of thoracic percussion per se in lung parenchyma, we analyzed respiratory impedance parameters by impulse oscillometry (12 healthy subjects) and lung mechanics by the least square method (6 healthy subjects) before (PRE-TP) and after (POS-TP) thoracic percussion, and after a deep-breath-maneuver (POS-DB). Pulmonary resistance was similar among PRE-TP, POS-TP and POS-DB while pulmonary dynamic compliance showed a significant reduction after TP (mean +/- SEM: from 0.15 +/- 0.018 L/cmH(2)O to 0.12 +/- 0.016 L/cmH(2)O; P = 0.001), returning to basal values (mean +/- SEM: 0.15 +/- 0.021; P = 0.004) after DB. Reactance parameters (AX and f (0)) evaluated by oscillometry increased significantly after TP, returning to previous values after DB. Total impedance (Z5) and respiratory system resistance at 5 Hz (R5) did not differ significantly among experimental conditions. Our data strongly suggest that thoracic percussion can promote changes in respiratory mechanics compatible with lung collapse and/or pneumoconstriction, which are, however, reversible by deep inspirations. PMID:18584197

  9. Improved structural characterization of the Earth's crust at the German Continental Deep Drilling Site using advanced seismic imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hloušek, F.; Hellwig, O.; Buske, S.

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the principles of three novel seismic imaging techniques and their application to two deep seismic reflection data sets from the vicinity of the German Continental Deep Drilling Site (KTB). These imaging techniques are based on Kirchhoff prestack depth migration and use an inherent restriction of the migration operator to focus the wavefield to its actual reflection point. For Fresnel volume migration, the emergent angle at the receivers is estimated and then used to propagate the wavefield back into the subsurface along which the Fresnel volume is determined. The migration operator is restricted to this volume, thereby focusing the image to the part of the isochrone which physically contributes to the reflection. For coherency migration, the coherency of the wavefield at neighboring traces is calculated and used as a weighting factor within the migration integral, leading to a comparable focusing to the reflection point. For coherency-based Fresnel volume migration, both approaches are combined, resulting in an even more focused seismic image with significantly increased image quality. We applied these methods to two seismic data sets from the area around the KTB: a survey with standard split-spread geometry (KTB8502) and a sparse data set with a small number of source points in combination with short receiver lines (INSTRUCT93). The focusing approaches yield major improvements in the final images for both data sets. Incoherent noise and migration artifacts are reduced and the visibility of crustal structures is strongly enhanced, allowing for an improved geologic and tectonic characterization.

  10. Lockdown Drills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    As a result of House Bill 1215, introduced and passed during the 2011 North Dakota legislative session, every school building in North Dakota must conduct a lockdown drill. While no timeframe, tracking or penalty was identified in the state law, the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction (DPI) advocates annual drills, at a minimum, which…

  11. Drilling reorganizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    As the first in a proposed series of steps that would move scientific ocean drilling from its own niche within the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Directorate for Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences (AAEO) into the agency's Division of Ocean Sciences, Grant Gross, division director, has been appointed acting director of the Office of Scientific Ocean Drilling (OSOD). Gross will retain the directorship of the division, which also is part of AAEO. Allen M. Shinn, Jr., OSOD director for nearly 2 years, has been reassigned effective July 10 to a position in NSF's Office of Planning and Resource Management.The move aims to tie drilling operations more closely to the science with which it is associated, Gross said. This first step is an organizational response to the current leaning toward using a commercial drilling vessel as the drilling platform, he said. Before the market for such commercial drill ships opened (Eos, February 22, 1983, p . 73), other ship options for scientific ocean drilling included refurbishing the aging Glomar Challenger or renovating, at great expense, the Glomar Explorer. A possible next step in the reorganization is to make OSOD the third section within the Ocean Sciences Division. Currently, the division is divided into the Oceanographic Facilities and Support Section and the Ocean Sciences Research Section.

  12. Levetiracetam prophylaxis ameliorates seizure epileptogenesis after fluid percussion injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan-Hao; Huang, Eagle Yi-Kung; Kuo, Tung-Tai; Hoffer, Barry J; Wu, Pei-Jie; Ma, Hsin-I; Tsai, Jing-Jr; Chou, Yu-Ching; Chiang, Yung-Hsiao

    2016-07-01

    To determine whether post-traumatic seizure severity would be affected by the interval between seizures and head injury, we measured seizures after various times with or without fluid percussion brain injury (2atm fluid percussion injury; FPI). To determine efficacy of anti-seizure medication, we also determined if levetiracetam (LEV) would alter the relationship between injury and subsequent seizures. Early post-traumatic seizures were induced by Kainic acid (KA) at one week after 2atm fluid percussion injury (FPI) in one group (FPI-ES). Seizures were induced at two weeks after FPI by KA in another group (FPI-LS). In addition, one group had induced seizures by KA without FPI, (sham-ES). Finally one group of animals received the antiepileptic agent (levetiracetam) infusion for one week after FPI and then had seizures induced by KA (FPI-LEV-ES). We measured seizure onset time, ictal duration and severity of seizures using a modified Racine's scale. Histopathological changes in the hippocampus CA1 region were also analyzed. Severity of seizures were increased in the FPI-ES group compared with sham-ES animals. Severity was also enhanced in early post-injury seizures induced by KA (FPI-ES vs. FPI-LS); this exacerbation of seizure severity could be ameliorated by levetiracetam infusion (FPI-ES vs. FPI-LEV-ES). Neuronal degeneration in CA1 was more severe in the FPI-ES group and this degeneration was also diminished by LEV. We conclude that early post injury seizures exacerbate susceptibility and severity of post traumatic seizures and increase neuronal degeneration in the CA1 layer of hippocampus. These changes are partially reversed by LEV infusion after FPI. PMID:27106270

  13. Geothermal drilling research in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Varnado, S.G.; Maish, A.B.

    1980-01-01

    The high cost of drilling and completing geothermal wells is an impediment to the development of this resource. The Department of Energy (DOE), Division of Geothermal Energy (DGE), is conducting an R and D program directed at reducing well costs through improvements in geothermal drilling and completion technology. This program includes R and D activities in high temperature drilling hardware, drilling fluids, lost circulation control methods, completion technology, and advanced drilling systems. An overview of the program is presented.

  14. Drilling choke

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, R.D.

    1984-09-11

    A drilling choke is disclosed for controlling flow of drilling fluids from a well comprising: a body having an inlet and outlet and an intermediate cavity therebetween; a seat member coaxially disposed in the body outlet; an operator assembly removably attached to the body; and a stem assembly connected to the operator assembly for axial movement thereof. A portion of the stem assembly is removable, upon removal of the operator assembly from the body, without otherwise disturbing the operator assembly.

  15. Implications of the Iceland Deep Drilling Project for improving understanding of hydrothermal processes at slow spreading mid-ocean ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, Wilfred A.; Friðleifsson, Guðmundur Ómar

    The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) is investigating producing geothermal energy from magma-hydrothermal systems at supercritical conditions. This requires drilling to depths of 4 to 5 km where temperatures should be in the range of 450-600°C or higher. Modeling studies suggest producing superheated steam from supercritical temperatures >450°C could increase power output tenfold relative to steam produced from a 300°C reservoir. The first IDDP well was drilled at Krafla within a volcanic caldera in the active rift zone of NE Iceland. At the end of June 2009, drilling was terminated at only 2100 m depth when a >900°C rhyolitic magma flowed into the drill hole. The well was completed with a casing cemented a few meters above the magma. Depending on the result of a planned flow test, there is the possibility of creating the world's hottest "Engineered Geothermal System" by injecting water in a nearby well to produce superheated steam from the magma. An advantage of such a strategy would be that the acidic gases likely to be given off by the magma could be neutralized by injecting suitably treated water. Two new wells, ˜4 km deep, are planned to be drilled during 2010-2012 at the Hengill and the Reykjanes geothermal fields in SW Iceland to explore for supercritical zones. The Reykjanes geothermal system produces hydrothermally modified seawater. This presents an ideal situation to study a high-temperature magma-hydrothermal system at depth analogous to those responsible for the black smokers at submarine divergent plate margins.

  16. Sample Acqusition Drilling System for the the Resource Prospector Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacny, K.; Paulsen, G.; Quinn, J.; Smith, J.; Kleinhenz, J.

    2015-12-01

    The goal of the Lunar Resource Prospector Mission (RPM) is to capture and identify volatiles species within the top meter of the lunar regolith. The RPM drill has been designed to 1. Generate cuttings and place them on the surface for analysis by the the Near InfraRed Volatiles Spectrometer Subsystem (NIRVSS), and 2. Capture cuttings and transfer them to the Oxygen and Volatile Extraction Node (OVEN) coupled with the Lunar Advanced Volatiles Analysis (LAVA) subsystem. The RPM drill is based on the Mars Icebreaker drill developed for capturing samples of ice and ice cemented ground on Mars. The drill weighs approximately 10 kg and is rated at ~300 Watt. It is a rotary-percussive, fully autonomous system designed to capture cuttings for analysis. The drill consists of: 1. Rotary-Percussive Drill Head, 2. Sampling Auger, 3. Brushing station, 4. Z-stage, 5. Deployment stage. To reduce sample handling complexity, the drill auger is designed to capture cuttings as opposed to cores. High sampling efficiency is possible through a dual design of the auger. The lower section has deep and low pitch flutes for retaining of cuttings. The upper section has been designed to efficiently move the cuttings out of the hole. The drill uses a "bite" sampling approach where samples are captured in ~10 cm intervals. The first generation drill was tested in Mars chamber as well as in Antarctica and the Arctic. It demonstrated drilling at 1-1-100-100 level (1 meter in 1 hour with 100 Watt and 100 N Weight on Bit) in ice, ice cemented ground, soil, and rocks. The second generation drill was deployed on a Carnegie Mellon University rover, called Zoe, and tested in Atacama in 2012. The tests demonstrated fully autonomous sample acquisition and delivery to a carousel. The third generation drill was tested in NASA GRC's vacuum chamber, VF13, at 10-5 torr and approximately 200 K. It demonstrated successful capture and transfer of icy samples to a crucible. The drill has been modified and

  17. Lightweight Low Force Rotary Percussive Coring Tool for Planetary Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hironaka, Ross; Stanley, Scott

    2010-01-01

    A prototype low-force rotary-percussive rock coring tool for use in acquiring samples for geological surveys in future planetary missions was developed. The coring tool could eventually enable a lightweight robotic system to operate from a relatively small (less than 200 kg) mobile or fixed platform to acquire and cache Mars or other planetary rock samples for eventual return to Earth for analysis. To gain insight needed to design an integrated coring tool, the coring ability of commercially available coring bits was evaluated for effectiveness of varying key parameters: weight-on-bit, rotation speed, percussive rate and force. Trade studies were performed for different methods of breaking a core at its base and for retaining the core in a sleeve to facilitate sample transfer. This led to a custom coring tool design which incorporated coring, core breakage, core retention, and core extraction functions. The coring tool was tested on several types of rock and demonstrated the overall feasibility of this approach for robotic rock sample acquisition.

  18. Percussive and Proboscis Based Lunar Heat Flow Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumm, E.; Zacny, K.; Kumar, N.

    2009-12-01

    The subsurface temperature of the Moon is strongly influenced by the diurnal, annual, and precession fluctuations of the insolation. Therefore, to measure the heat flow, the probe has to be inserted to a depth of at least 3m. There are a number of ways the heat flow probe can be deployed. These methods differ in many ways such as simplicity and mass of the deployment system, power required to deploy it, extent of thermal isolation between temperature sensors and between sensors themselves and surface system (deployment system, lander, electronics box etc), thermal sensor placement within the hole (radiative as opposed to conducive coupling), and methods of deployment. The percussive based heat flow probe utilizes a percussive approach to drive a small diameter (20mm) cone penetrometer to >3 meter depths, deploying ring-like thermal sensors every 30 cm. It leaves only small sensors in the borehole, maximizing measurement sensitivity by minimizing thermal coupling from the lander to the electrical tether. The proboscis based heat flow probe utilizes a pneumatic (gas) approach to lower the heat flow probe, a lenticular tape, to 3 meters. The system offers extremely low mass, volume, and simple deployment.

  19. Drilling force and temperature of bone under dry and physiological drilling conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Linlin; Wang, Chengyong; Jiang, Min; He, Huiyu; Song, Yuexian; Chen, Hanyuan; Shen, Jingnan; Zhang, Jiayong

    2014-11-01

    Many researches on drilling force and temperature have been done with the aim to reduce the labour intensiveness of surgery, avoid unnecessary damage and improve drilling quality. However, there has not been a systematic study of mid- and high-speed drilling under dry and physiological conditions(injection of saline). Furthermore, there is no consensus on optimal drilling parameters. To study these parameters under dry and physiological drilling conditions, pig humerus bones are drilled with medical twist drills operated using a wide range of drilling speeds and feed rates. Drilling force and temperature are measured using a YDZ-II01W dynamometer and a NEC TVS-500EX thermal infrared imager, respectively, to evaluate internal bone damage. To evaluate drilling quality, bone debris and hole morphology are observed by SEM(scanning electron microscopy). Changes in drilling force and temperature give similar results during drilling such that the value of each parameter peaks just before the drill penetrates through the osteon of the compact bone into the trabeculae of the spongy bone. Drilling temperatures under physiological conditions are much lower than those observed under dry conditions, while a larger drilling force occurs under physiological conditions than dry conditions. Drilling speed and feed rate have a significant influence on drilling force, temperature, bone debris and hole morphology. The investigation of the effect of drilling force and temperature on internal bone damage reveals that a drilling speed of 4500 r/min and a feed rate of 50 mm/min are recommended for bone drilling under physiological conditions. Drilling quality peaks under these optimal parameter conditions. This paper proposes the optimal drilling parameters under mid- and high-speed surgical drilling, considering internal bone damage and drilling quality, which can be looked as a reference for surgeons performing orthopedic operations.

  20. Near-Term Developments in Geothermal Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, James C.

    1989-03-21

    The DOE Hard Rock Penetration program is developing technology to reduce the costs of drilling geothermal wells. Current projects include: R & D in lost circulation control, high temperature instrumentation, underground imaging with a borehole radar insulated drill pipe development for high temperature formations, and new technology for data transmission through drill pipe that can potentially greatly improve data rates for measurement while drilling systems. In addition to this work, projects of the Geothermal Drilling Organization are managed. During 1988, GDO projects include developments in five areas: high temperature acoustic televiewer, pneumatic turbine, urethane foam for lost circulation control, geothermal drill pipe protectors, an improved rotary head seals.

  1. Measurement-while-drilling (MWD) development for air drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, L.A.; Harrison, W.H.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this program is to tool-harden and make commercially available an existing wireless MWD tool to reliably operate in an air, air-mist, or air-foam environment during Appalachian Basin oil and gas directional drilling operations in conjunction with downhole motors and/or (other) bottom-hole assemblies. The application of this technology is required for drilling high angle (holes) and horizontal well drilling in low-pressure, water sensitive, tight gas formations that require air, air-mist, and foam drilling fluids. The basic approach to accomplishing this objective was to modify GEC's existing electromagnetic (e-m) CABLELESS''{trademark} MWD tool to improve its reliability in air drilling by increasing its tolerance to higher vibration and shock levels (hardening). Another important aim of the program is to provide for continuing availability of the resultant tool for use on DOE-sponsored, and other, air-drilling programs.

  2. Measurement-while-drilling (MWD) development for air drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, L.A.; Harrison, W.H.

    1992-06-01

    The objective of this program is to tool-harden and make commercially available an existing wireless MWD tool to reliably operate in an air, air-mist, or air-foam environment during Appalachian Basin oil and gas directional drilling operations in conjunction with downhole motors and/or (other) bottom-hole assemblies. The application of this technology is required for drilling high angle (holes) and horizontal well drilling in low-pressure, water sensitive, tight gas formations that require air, air-mist, and foam drilling fluids. The basic approach to accomplishing this objective was to modify GEC`s existing electromagnetic (e-m) ``CABLELESS``{trademark} MWD tool to improve its reliability in air drilling by increasing its tolerance to higher vibration and shock levels (hardening). Another important aim of the program is to provide for continuing availability of the resultant tool for use on DOE-sponsored, and other, air-drilling programs.

  3. Measurement-while-drilling (MWD) development for air drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, W.H.; Rubin, L.A.

    1992-05-01

    The objective of this program is to tool-harden and make commercially available an existing wireless MWD tool to reliably operate in an air, air-mist, or air-foam environment during Appalachian Basin oil and gas directional drilling operations in conjunction with downhole motors and/or (other) bottom-hole assemblies. The application of this technology is required for drilling high angle (holes) and horizontal well drilling in low- pressure, water sensitive, tight gas formations that require air, air-mist, and foam drilling fluids. The basic approach to accomplishing this objective was to modify GEC`s existing electromagnetic (e-m) {open_quotes}Cableless{close_quotes} MWD tool to improve its reliability in air drilling by increasing its tolerance to higher vibration and shock levels (hardening). Another important aim of the program is to provide for continuing availability of the resultant tool for use on DOE-sponsored, and other, air-drilling programs.

  4. Drill bit assembly for releasably retaining a drill bit cutter

    SciTech Connect

    Glowka, David A.; Raymond, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A drill bit assembly is provided for releasably retaining a polycrystalline diamond compact drill bit cutter. Two adjacent cavities formed in a drill bit body house, respectively, the disc-shaped drill bit cutter and a wedge-shaped cutter lock element with a removable fastener. The cutter lock element engages one flat surface of the cutter to retain the cutter in its cavity. The drill bit assembly thus enables the cutter to be locked against axial and/or rotational movement while still providing for easy removal of a worn or damaged cutter. The ability to adjust and replace cutters in the field reduces the effect of wear, helps maintains performance and improves drilling efficiency.

  5. Reaching 1 m deep on Mars: the Icebreaker drill.

    PubMed

    Zacny, K; Paulsen, G; McKay, C P; Glass, B; Davé, A; Davila, A F; Marinova, M; Mellerowicz, B; Heldmann, J; Stoker, C; Cabrol, N; Hedlund, M; Craft, J

    2013-12-01

    The future exploration of Mars will require access to the subsurface, along with acquisition of samples for scientific analysis and ground-truthing of water ice and mineral reserves for in situ resource utilization. The Icebreaker drill is an integral part of the Icebreaker mission concept to search for life in ice-rich regions on Mars. Since the mission targets Mars Special Regions as defined by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), the drill has to meet the appropriate cleanliness standards as requested by NASA's Planetary Protection Office. In addition, the Icebreaker mission carries life-detection instruments; and in turn, the drill and sample delivery system have to meet stringent contamination requirements to prevent false positives. This paper reports on the development and testing of the Icebreaker drill, a 1 m class rotary-percussive drill and triple redundant sample delivery system. The drill acquires subsurface samples in short, approximately 10 cm bites, which makes the sampling system robust and prevents thawing and phase changes in the target materials. Autonomous drilling, sample acquisition, and sample transfer have been successfully demonstrated in Mars analog environments in the Arctic and the Antarctic Dry Valleys, as well as in a Mars environmental chamber. In all environments, the drill has been shown to perform at the "1-1-100-100" level; that is, it drilled to 1 m depth in approximately 1 hour with less than 100 N weight on bit and approximately 100 W of power. The drilled substrate varied and included pure ice, ice-rich regolith with and without rocks and with and without 2% perchlorate, and whole rocks. The drill is currently at a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 5. The next-generation Icebreaker drill weighs 10 kg, which is representative of the flightlike model at TRL 5/6. PMID:24303959

  6. Lateral fluid percussion: model of traumatic brain injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Alder, Janet; Fujioka, Wendy; Lifshitz, Jonathan; Crockett, David P; Thakker-Varia, Smita

    2011-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) research has attained renewed momentum due to the increasing awareness of head injuries, which result in morbidity and mortality. Based on the nature of primary injury following TBI, complex and heterogeneous secondary consequences result, which are followed by regenerative processes (1,2). Primary injury can be induced by a direct contusion to the brain from skull fracture or from shearing and stretching of tissue causing displacement of brain due to movement (3,4). The resulting hematomas and lacerations cause a vascular response (3,5), and the morphological and functional damage of the white matter leads to diffuse axonal injury (6-8). Additional secondary changes commonly seen in the brain are edema and increased intracranial pressure (9). Following TBI there are microscopic alterations in biochemical and physiological pathways involving the release of excitotoxic neurotransmitters, immune mediators and oxygen radicals (10-12), which ultimately result in long-term neurological disabilities (13,14). Thus choosing appropriate animal models of TBI that present similar cellular and molecular events in human and rodent TBI is critical for studying the mechanisms underlying injury and repair. Various experimental models of TBI have been developed to reproduce aspects of TBI observed in humans, among them three specific models are widely adapted for rodents: fluid percussion, cortical impact and weight drop/impact acceleration (1). The fluid percussion device produces an injury through a craniectomy by applying a brief fluid pressure pulse on to the intact dura. The pulse is created by a pendulum striking the piston of a reservoir of fluid. The percussion produces brief displacement and deformation of neural tissue (1,15). Conversely, cortical impact injury delivers mechanical energy to the intact dura via a rigid impactor under pneumatic pressure (16,17). The weight drop/impact model is characterized by the fall of a rod with a specific

  7. Lateral Fluid Percussion: Model of Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Alder, Janet; Fujioka, Wendy; Lifshitz, Jonathan; Crockett, David P.; Thakker-Varia, Smita

    2011-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) research has attained renewed momentum due to the increasing awareness of head injuries, which result in morbidity and mortality. Based on the nature of primary injury following TBI, complex and heterogeneous secondary consequences result, which are followed by regenerative processes 1,2. Primary injury can be induced by a direct contusion to the brain from skull fracture or from shearing and stretching of tissue causing displacement of brain due to movement 3,4. The resulting hematomas and lacerations cause a vascular response 3,5, and the morphological and functional damage of the white matter leads to diffuse axonal injury 6-8. Additional secondary changes commonly seen in the brain are edema and increased intracranial pressure 9. Following TBI there are microscopic alterations in biochemical and physiological pathways involving the release of excitotoxic neurotransmitters, immune mediators and oxygen radicals 10-12, which ultimately result in long-term neurological disabilities 13,14. Thus choosing appropriate animal models of TBI that present similar cellular and molecular events in human and rodent TBI is critical for studying the mechanisms underlying injury and repair. Various experimental models of TBI have been developed to reproduce aspects of TBI observed in humans, among them three specific models are widely adapted for rodents: fluid percussion, cortical impact and weight drop/impact acceleration 1. The fluid percussion device produces an injury through a craniectomy by applying a brief fluid pressure pulse on to the intact dura. The pulse is created by a pendulum striking the piston of a reservoir of fluid. The percussion produces brief displacement and deformation of neural tissue 1,15. Conversely, cortical impact injury delivers mechanical energy to the intact dura via a rigid impactor under pneumatic pressure 16,17. The weight drop/impact model is characterized by the fall of a rod with a specific mass on the closed

  8. Human-based percussion and self-similarity detection in electroacoustic music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, John Anderson, III

    Electroacoustic music is music that uses electronic technology for the compositional manipulation of sound, and is a unique genre of music for many reasons. Analyzing electroacoustic music requires special measures, some of which are integrated into the design of a preliminary percussion analysis tool set for electroacoustic music. This tool set is designed to incorporate the human processing of music and sound. Models of the human auditory periphery are used as a front end to the analysis algorithms. The audio properties of percussivity and self-similarity are chosen as the focus because these properties are computable and informative. A collection of human judgments about percussion was undertaken to acquire clearly specified, sound-event dimensions that humans use as a percussive cue. A total of 29 participants was asked to make judgments about the percussivity of 360 pairs of synthesized snare-drum sounds. The grouped results indicate that of the dimensions tested rise time is the strongest cue for percussivity. String resonance also has a strong effect, but because of the complex nature of string resonance, it is not a fundamental dimension of a sound event. Gross spectral filtering also has an effect on the judgment of percussivity but the effect is weaker than for rise time and string resonance. Gross spectral filtering also has less effect when the stronger cue of rise time is modified simultaneously. A percussivity-profile algorithm (PPA) is designed to identify those instants in pieces of music that humans also would identify as percussive. The PPA is implemented using a time-domain, channel-based approach and psychoacoustic models. The input parameters are tuned to maximize performance at matching participants' choices in the percussion-judgment collection. After the PPA is tuned, the PPA then is used to analyze pieces of electroacoustic music. Real electroacoustic music introduces new challenges for the PPA, though those same challenges might affect

  9. Prediction and improvement of the solid particles transfer rate for the bulk handing system design of offshore drilling vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Mincheol; Jeon, Dong Soo; Kim, Yooil

    2015-11-01

    Numerous experiments with a scaled pilot facility were carried out to compare the relative bulk transfer performance of three special devices for applications to drilling systems. The pipe diameter for bulk transportation was 3 in., which corresponds to around half of the actual system dimensions. Two different pressures, 3 and 4 bar, were considered to check the relative performance under different pressure conditions at a bulk storage tank. And to make a practical estimation method of the bulk transfer rate at the early design stages of the bulk handling system, a series of experiments were conducted for real scaled bulk handing systems of two drilling vessels. The pressure drops at each pipe element as well as the bulk transfer rates were measured under different operating conditions. Using the measured results, the friction factor for each pipe element was calculated and a procedure for transfer rate estimation was developed. Compared to the measured transfer rate results for other drilling vessels, the estimated transfer rates were within a maximum 15% error bound.

  10. Midline (Central) Fluid Percussion Model of Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Rachel K; Griffiths, Daniel R; Lifshitz, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Research models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) hold significant validity towards the human condition, with each model replicating a subset of clinical features and symptoms. After 30 years of characterization and implementation, fluid percussion injury (FPI) is firmly recognized as a clinically relevant model of TBI, encompassing concussion through severe injury. The midline variation of FPI may best represent mild and diffuse clinical brain injury, because of the acute behavioral deficits, the late onset of subtle behavioral morbidities, and the absence of gross histopathology. This chapter outlines the procedures for midline (diffuse) FPI in adult male rats and mice. With these procedures, it becomes possible to generate brain-injured laboratory animals for studies of injury-induced pathophysiology and behavioral deficits, for which rational therapeutic interventions can be implemented. PMID:27604721

  11. Listening-touch, Affect and the Crafting of Medical Bodies through Percussion

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The growing abundance of medical technologies has led to laments over doctors’ sensory de-skilling, technologies viewed as replacing diagnosis based on sensory acumen. The technique of percussion has become emblematic of the kinds of skills considered lost. While disappearing from wards, percussion is still taught in medical schools. By ethnographically following how percussion is taught to and learned by students, this article considers the kinds of bodies configured through this multisensory practice. I suggest that three kinds of bodies arise: skilled bodies; affected bodies; and resonating bodies. As these bodies are crafted, I argue that boundaries between bodies of novices and bodies they learn from blur. Attending to an overlooked dimension of bodily configurations in medicine, self-perception, I show that learning percussion functions not only to perpetuate diagnostic craft skills but also as a way of knowing of, and through, the resource always at hand; one’s own living breathing body. PMID:27390549

  12. A physical approach to the automated classification of clinical percussion sounds.

    PubMed

    Pantea, M A; Maev, R Gr; Malyarenko, E V; Baylor, A E

    2012-01-01

    Chest percussion is a traditional technique used for the physical examination of pulmonary injuries and diseases. It is a method of tapping body parts with fingers or small instruments to evaluate the size, consistency, borders, and presence of fluid/air in the lungs and abdomen. Percussion has been successfully used for the diagnosis of such potentially lethal conditions as traumatic and tension pneumothorax. This technique, however, has certain shortcomings, including limitations of the human ear and the subjectivity of the administrator, that lead to overall low sensitivity. Automation of the method by using a standardized percussion source and computerized classification of digitized signals would remove the subjective factor and other limitations of the technique. It would also enable rapid on-site diagnostics of pulmonary traumas when thorough clinical examination is impossible. This paper lays the groundwork for an objective signal classification approach based on a general physical model of a damped harmonic oscillator. Using this concept, critical parameters that effectively subdivide percussion signals into three main groups, historically known as "tympanic," "resonant," and "dull," are identified, opening the possibility for automated diagnostics of air/liquid inclusions in the thorax and abdomen. The key role of damping in forming the character of the percussion signal is investigated using a 3D thorax phantom. The contribution of the abdominal component into the complex multimode spectrum of chest percussion signals is demonstrated. PMID:22280623

  13. Automated Classification of Medical Percussion Signals for the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Injuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuiyan, Md Moinuddin

    Used for centuries in the clinical practice, audible percussion is a method of eliciting sounds by areas of the human body either by finger tips or by a percussion hammer. Despite its advantages, pulmonary diagnostics by percussion is still highly subjective, depends on the physician's skills, and requires quiet surroundings. Automation of this well-established technique could help amplify its existing merits while removing the above drawbacks. In this study, an attempt is made to automatically decompose clinical percussion signals into a sum of Exponentially Damped Sinusoids (EDS) using Matrix Pencil Method, which in this case form a more natural basis than Fourier harmonics and thus allow for a more robust representation of the signal in the parametric space. It is found that some EDS represent transient oscillation modes of the thorax/abdomen excited by the percussion event, while others are associated with the noise. It is demonstrated that relatively few EDS are usually enough to accurately reconstruct the original signal. It is shown that combining the frequency and damping parameters of these most significant EDS allows for efficient classification of percussion signals into the two main types historically known as "resonant" and "tympanic". This classification ability can provide a basis for the automated objective diagnostics of various pulmonary pathologies including pneumothorax.

  14. Direct investigation of the ablation rate evolution during laser drilling of high-aspect-ratio micro-holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzapesa, Francesco P.; Sibillano, Teresa; Columbo, Lorenzo L.; Di Niso, Francesca; Ancona, Antonio; Dabbicco, Maurizio; De Lucia, Francesco; Lugarà, Pietro M.; Scamarcio, Gaetano

    2012-03-01

    The recent development of ultrafast laser ablation technology in precision micromachining has dramatically increased the demand for reliable and real-time detection systems to characterize the material removal process. In particular, the laser percussion drilling of metals is lacking of non-invasive techniques able to monitor into the depth the spatial- and time-dependent evolution all through the ablation process. To understand the physical interaction between bulk material and high-energy light beam, accurate in-situ measurements of process parameters such as the penetration depth and the removal rate are crucial. We report on direct real time measurements of the ablation front displacement and the removal rate during ultrafast laser percussion drilling of metals by implementing a contactless sensing technique based on optical feedback interferometry. High aspect ratio micro-holes were drilled onto steel plates with different thermal properties (AISI 1095 and AISI 301) and Aluminum samples using 120-ps/110-kHz pulses delivered by a microchip laser fiber amplifier. Percussion drilling experiments have been performed by coaxially aligning the diode laser probe beam with the ablating laser. The displacement of the penetration front was instantaneously measured during the process with a resolution of 0.41 μm by analyzing the sawtooth-like induced modulation of the interferometric signal out of the detector system.

  15. Auto Indexer Auto-Indexer for Percussive Hammers: Vane Motor Dynamometer Testing

    DOE Data Explorer

    Su, Jiann

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Options associated with geothermal drilling operations are generally limited by factors such as formation temperature and rock strength. The objective of the research is to expand the "tool box" available to the geothermal driller by furthering the development of a high-temperature drilling motor that can be used in directional drilling applications for drilling high temperature geothermal formations. The motor is specifically designed to operate in conjunction with a pneumatic down-the-hole-hammer. It provides a more compact design compared to traditional drilling motors such as PDMs (positive displacement motors). The packaging can help to enhance directional drilling capabilities. It uses no elastomeric components, which enables it to operate in higher temperatures ( >250 °F). Current work on the motor has shown that is a capable of operating under pneumatic power with a down-the-hole-hammer. Further development work will include continued testing and refining motor components and evaluating motor capabilities. Targets/Milestones Complete testing current motor - 12/31/2010 Make final material and design decisions - 01/31/2011 Build and test final prototype - 04/31/2011 Final demonstration - 07/31/2011 Impacts The development of the motor will help to achieve program technical objectives by improving well construction capabilities. This includes enabling high-temperature drilling as well as enhancing directional drilling. A key component in the auto indexer is the drive motor. It is an air-driven vane motor that converts the energy stored in the compressed air to mechanical energy. The motor is attached to hammer-like components which impart an impulsive load onto the drive shaft. The impulsive force on the drive shaft in turn creates an indexing action. A controlled test was performed to characterize the performance of the the vane motor for a given pressure. The Sandia dynamometer test station was used to determine the performance of the motor for a

  16. [Irbesartan reduces inflammatory response of central nervous system in a rat model of fluid percussion brain injury].

    PubMed

    Xing, Guoxiang; Wei, Min; Xiu, Binhua; Ma, Yinghui; Liu, Tao

    2016-07-01

    Objective To investigate the neuroprotective effect of the angiotensin II receptor 1 (AT1) antagonist irbesartan on rat models with lateral fluid percussion brain injury (FPBI). Methods FPBI models were prepared using a modified fluid percussion injury method. Before and after modeling, irbesartan was given to the rats. The regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was monitored by laser Doppler flowmetry. Neurologic status was evaluated before and 1, 3, 5, 7 days after FPBI surgery. Brains were removed for immunohistochemical evaluation of active microglias and macrophages. Results Compared to sham group, the rCBF and neurologic score of FPBI rats decreased significantly, while microglia and macrophage activation were confirmed. Treatment with irbesartan before FPBI surgery increased rCBF and improved neurological functions. In the peri-infarct cortex, irbesartan treatment attenuated the invasion of activated microglias and macrophages on day 7 after FPBI surgery. Conclusion Irbesartan can play a neuroprotective role through inhibiting microglia and macrophage activation in FPBI rats. PMID:27363272

  17. Geothermal well drilling manual at Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez P., A.; Flores S., M.

    1982-08-10

    The objective of the drilling manual is to solve all problems directly related to drilling during the construction of a well. In this case, the topics dealt which are drilling fluids and hydraulics to be applied in the field to improve drilling progress, eliminate risks and achieve good well-completion. There are other topics that are applicable such as drill bits and the drilling string, which are closely linked to drilling progress. On this occasion drilling fluid and hydraulics programs are presented, in addition to a computing program for a Casio FX-502P calculator to be applied in the field to optimize hydraulics and in the analysis of hydraulics for development and exploration wells at their different intervals.

  18. Hydraulic straight hole drill collar

    SciTech Connect

    Townson, J. D.

    1985-01-15

    An improved drill collar for forming relatively straight holes in crooked hole type formations. One or more hydraulic drill collars are connected in series relationship within a drill string above a rotary bit at the point of tangency. Each drill collar includes at least one outwardly opening, longitudinally extending slot formed on the exterior thereof. The slot includes a back wall connected to confronting sidewalls and opposed end walls. One lower end of a slot commences in spaced relationship to the lower pin end of the collar. As the drill string is rotated, drilling fluid forms a cushion between the slot and the nearest sidewall of the borehole, thereby kicking or forcing the drill collar away from the borehole sidewall, which in turn forces the drill bit to penetrate in a downwardly direction back towards a vertical position. The borehole meanders a very small amount, as for example 3-4 degrees, rather than uncontrollably leaving the vertical and forming an excessively crooked hole. Various configurations and arrangements of slots are disclosed in the collar.

  19. Micro drilling using deformable mirror for beam shaping of ultra-short laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smarra, Marco; Strube, Anja; Dickmann, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    Using ultra-short laser pulses for micro structuring or drilling applications reduces the thermal influence to the surrounding material. The best achievable beam profile equals a Gaussian beam. Drilling with this beam profile results in cylindrical holes. To vary the shape of the holes, the beam can either be scanned or - for single pulse and percussion drilling - manipulated by masks or lenses. A high flexible method for beam shaping can be realized by using a deformable mirror. This mirror contains a piezo-electric ceramic, which can be deformed by an electric potential. By separating the ceramic into independent controllable segments, the shape of the surface can be varied individually. Due to the closed surface of the mirror, there is no loss of intensity due to diffraction. The mirror deformation is controlled by Zernike polynomials and results e.g. in a lens behavior. In this study a deformable mirror was used to generate e.g. slits in thin steel foils by percussion drilling using ultra-short laser pulses. The influence of the cylindrical deformation to the laser beam and the resulting geometry of the generated holes was studied. It was demonstrated that due to the high update rate up to 150 Hz the mirror surface can be varied in each scan cycle, which results in a high flexible drilling process.

  20. Drilling fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, J.A.; Patel, B.B.

    1987-11-03

    A drilling fluid additive mixture is described consisting essentially of a sulfoalkylated tannin in admixture with a non-sulfoalkylated alkali-solubilized lignite wherein the weight ratio of the sulfoalkylated tannin to the non-sulfoalkylated lignite is in the range from about 2:1 to about 1:1. The sulfoalkylated tannin has been sulfoalkylated with at least one -(C(R-)/sub 2/-SO/sub 3/M side chain, wherein each R is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and alkyl radicals containing from 1 to about 5 carbon atoms, and M is selected from the group consisting of ammonium and the alkali metals.

  1. Drilling of bone: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Rupesh Kumar; Panda, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Bone fracture treatment usually involves restoring of the fractured parts to their initial position and immobilizing them until the healing takes place. Drilling of bone is common to produce hole for screw insertion to fix the fractured parts for immobilization. Orthopaedic drilling during surgical process causes increase in the bone temperature and forces which can cause osteonecrosis reducing the stability and strength of the fixation. Methods A comprehensive review of all the relevant investigations carried on bone drilling is conducted. The experimental method used, results obtained and the conclusions made by the various researchers are described and compared. Result Review suggests that the further improvement in the area of bone drilling is possible. The systematic review identified several consequential factors (drilling parameters and drill specifications) affecting bone drilling on which there no general agreement among investigators or are not adequately evaluated. These factors are highlighted and use of more advanced methods of drilling is accentuated. The use of more precise experimental set up which resembles the actual situation and the development of automated bone drilling system to minimize human error is addressed. Conclusion In this review, an attempt has been made to systematically organize the research investigations conducted on bone drilling. Methods of treatment of bone fracture, studies on the determination of the threshold for thermal osteonecrosis, studies on the parameters influencing bone drilling and methods of the temperature measurement used are reviewed and the future work for the further improvement of bone drilling process is highlighted. PMID:26403771

  2. Drilling systems for extraterrestrial subsurface exploration.

    PubMed

    Zacny, K; Bar-Cohen, Y; Brennan, M; Briggs, G; Cooper, G; Davis, K; Dolgin, B; Glaser, D; Glass, B; Gorevan, S; Guerrero, J; McKay, C; Paulsen, G; Stanley, S; Stoker, C

    2008-06-01

    Drilling consists of 2 processes: breaking the formation with a bit and removing the drilled cuttings. In rotary drilling, rotational speed and weight on bit are used to control drilling, and the optimization of these parameters can markedly improve drilling performance. Although fluids are used for cuttings removal in terrestrial drilling, most planetary drilling systems conduct dry drilling with an auger. Chip removal via water-ice sublimation (when excavating water-ice-bound formations at pressure below the triple point of water) and pneumatic systems are also possible. Pneumatic systems use the gas or vaporization products of a high-density liquid brought from Earth, gas provided by an in situ compressor, or combustion products of a monopropellant. Drill bits can be divided into coring bits, which excavate an annular shaped hole, and full-faced bits. While cylindrical cores are generally superior as scientific samples, and coring drills have better performance characteristics, full-faced bits are simpler systems because the handling of a core requires a very complex robotic mechanism. The greatest constraints to extraterrestrial drilling are (1) the extreme environmental conditions, such as temperature, dust, and pressure; (2) the light-time communications delay, which necessitates highly autonomous systems; and (3) the mission and science constraints, such as mass and power budgets and the types of drilled samples needed for scientific analysis. A classification scheme based on drilling depth is proposed. Each of the 4 depth categories (surface drills, 1-meter class drills, 10-meter class drills, and deep drills) has distinct technological profiles and scientific ramifications. PMID:18598141

  3. Musique instrumentale 10-20-30: Instruments a vent et a percussion. (Instrumental Music 10-20-30: Wind and Percussion Instruments. Teaching Guide).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Language Services Branch.

    The introduction for this Alberta (Canada) music education guide offers reasons for students to study the fine arts at the secondary school level. A philosophy of music education is presented along with 5 key outcomes and 11 music appreciation expectations for secondary students to attain. The volume features wind and percussion instruments. The…

  4. Percussive technology in human evolution: an introduction to a comparative approach in fossil and living primates

    PubMed Central

    de la Torre, Ignacio; Hirata, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Percussive technology is part of the behavioural suite of several fossil and living primates. Stone Age ancestors used lithic artefacts in pounding activities, which could have been most important in the earliest stages of stone working. This has relevant evolutionary implications, as other primates such as chimpanzees and some monkeys use stone hammer-and-anvil combinations to crack hard-shelled foodstuffs. Parallels between primate percussive technologies and early archaeological sites need to be further explored in order to assess the emergence of technological behaviour in our evolutionary line, and firmly establish bridges between Primatology and Archaeology. What are the anatomical, cognitive and ecological constraints of percussive technology? How common are percussive activities in the Stone Age and among living primates? What is their functional significance? How similar are archaeological percussive tools and those made by non-human primates? This issue of Phil. Trans. addresses some of these questions by presenting case studies with a wide chronological, geographical and disciplinary coverage. The studies presented here cover studies of Brazilian capuchins, captive chimpanzees and chimpanzees in the wild, research on the use of percussive technology among modern humans and recent hunter–gatherers in Australia, the Near East and Europe, and archaeological examples of this behaviour from a million years ago to the Holocene. In summary, the breadth and depth of research compiled here should make this issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, a landmark step forward towards a better understanding of percussive technology, a unique behaviour shared by some modern and fossil primates. PMID:26483526

  5. WRITING ORAL DRILLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NEY, JAMES W.

    ALL ORAL LANGUAGE DRILLS MAY BE SEPARATED INTO TWO TYPES--(1) MIM-MEM OR MIMICRY MEMORIZATION DRILLS OR (2) PATTERN PRACTICE DRILLS. THESE TWO LARGER CATEGORIES CAN BE SUB-DIVIDED INTO A NUMBER OF OTHER TYPES, SUCH AS TRANSFORMATION AND SUBSTITUTION DRILLS. THE USE OF ANY PARTICULAR TYPE DEPENDS ON THE PURPOSE TO WHICH THE DRILL IS PUT. IN ANY…

  6. Drill string enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, D.K.; Kuhns, D.J.; Wiersholm, O.; Miller, T.A.

    1993-03-02

    The drill string enclosure consists of six component parts, including; a top bracket, an upper acrylic cylinder, an acrylic drill casing guide, a lower acrylic cylinder, a bottom bracket, and three flexible ducts. The upper acrylic cylinder is optional based upon the drill string length. The drill string enclosure allows for an efficient drill and sight operation at a hazardous waste site.

  7. Drill string enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Douglas K.; Kuhns, Douglass J.; Wiersholm, Otto; Miller, Timothy A.

    1993-01-01

    The drill string enclosure consists of six component parts, including; a top bracket, an upper acrylic cylinder, an acrylic drill casing guide, a lower acrylic cylinder, a bottom bracket, and three flexible ducts. The upper acrylic cylinder is optional based upon the drill string length. The drill string enclosure allows for an efficient drill and sight operation at a hazardous waste site.

  8. Underbalanced drilling in remedial operations

    SciTech Connect

    Cuthbertson, R.L.; Vozniak, J.

    1997-06-01

    Operators are finding additional applications for underbalanced drilling (UBD) technology that deliver benefits besides faster, more trouble-free drilling and improved well productivity. Underbalanced workovers, completions and re-drills are being performed with impressive results. This article will describe some of the jobs and applications, and detail the special surface equipment being used to make this a success. This is the fifth in a series of articles on UBD technology and its rapid development in this field. The paper discusses deep gas wells in the Texas Panhandle, gas and condensate wells near Mobile, Alabama, and the Austin Chalk wells in Texas and Louisiana.

  9. Optical coherence tomography guided dental drill

    DOEpatents

    DaSilva, Luiz B.; Colston, Jr., Bill W.; James, Dale L.

    2002-01-01

    A dental drill that has one or multiple single mode fibers that can be used to image in the vicinity of the drill tip. It is valuable to image below the surface being drilled to minimize damage to vital or normal tissue. Identifying the boundary between decayed and normal enamel (or dentine) would reduce the removal of viable tissue, and identifying the nerve before getting too close with the drill could prevent nerve damage. By surrounding a drill with several optical fibers that can be used by an optical coherence domain reflectometry (OCDR) to image several millimeters ahead of the ablation surface will lead to a new and improved dental treatment device.

  10. Stacked rig refurbished for ultradeep gas drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Noevig, T.; Gutsche, W. )

    1995-01-09

    A heavy drilling rig, cold stacked for several years, recently underwent numerous structural, equipment, and computer upgrades for drilling ultradeep (8,000 m) gas wells in Germany. The technical improvements on the rig included supplementary installations and modifications to safety, quality, engineering, noise abatement, and environmental protection systems. With a maximal hook load of 700 tons, the drilling rig is one of the heaviest of its kind in Europe. The rig has a drilling depth range of 7,000--8,000 m, and the top drive system enables horizontal drilling. The paper describes the rig site, mast, top drive, substructure, draw works, power station, mud system, instrumentation, and other equipment.

  11. Shaft drilling rig

    SciTech Connect

    Wada, M.; Ajiro, S.

    1986-06-17

    A shaft drilling rig is described which consists of: a supporting structure for a drill string having a plurality of components for drilling a shaft into the earth by imparting a turning and thrust for drilling at least to a drill bit on the drill string, the drilling being down to a predetermined depth, and then a further drill string component having at least at the bottom end thereof an inner wall extending substantially in the axial direction of the component being newly added to the drill string for further drilling; means for receiving at least the bottom end of the further drill string component and for supporting it, and having a member with the outer circumference engageable with the inner wall of the further component, the receiving means supporting the further drill string component in a free standing position; means for supporting the receiving means and having a guiding device for guiding the receiving means between a position where the further drill string component is to be added to the drill string and a parking position spaced laterally of the drill string from the first mentioned position; and means for holding a lower part of the drill string which has been separated from the upper part of the drill string preparatory to adding the further drill string component so that the axis of the lower part is substantially aligned with the drilling direction.

  12. The musical environment and auditory plasticity: hearing the pitch of percussion

    PubMed Central

    McLachlan, Neil M.; Marco, David J. T.; Wilson, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    Although musical skills clearly improve with training, pitch processing has generally been believed to be biologically determined by the behavior of brain stem neural mechanisms. Two main classes of pitch models have emerged over the last 50 years. Harmonic template models have been used to explain cross-channel integration of frequency information, and waveform periodicity models have been used to explain pitch discrimination that is much finer than the resolution of the auditory nerve. It has been proposed that harmonic templates are learnt from repeated exposure to voice, and so it may also be possible to learn inharmonic templates from repeated exposure to inharmonic music instruments. This study investigated whether pitch-matching accuracy for inharmonic percussion instruments was better in people who have trained on these instruments and could reliably recognize their timbre. We found that adults who had trained with Indonesian gamelan instruments were better at recognizing and pitch-matching gamelan instruments than people with similar levels of music training, but no prior exposure to these instruments. These findings suggest that gamelan musicians were able to use inharmonic templates to support accurate pitch processing for these instruments. We suggest that recognition mechanisms based on spectrotemporal patterns of afferent auditory excitation in the early stages of pitch processing allow rapid priming of the lowest frequency partial of inharmonic timbres, explaining how music training can adapt pitch processing to different musical genres and instruments. PMID:24187543

  13. Experimental assessment of borehole wall drilling damage in basaltic rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1986-06-01

    Ring tension tests, permeability tests, and microscopic fracture studies have been performed to investigate the borehole damage induced at low confining pressure by three drilling techniques (diamond, percussion and rotary). Specimens are drilled with three hole sizes (38, 76, and 102 mm diameter) in Pomona basalt and Grande basaltic andesite. The damaged zone is characterized in terms of fractures and fracture patterns around the hole, and in terms of tensile strength reduction of the rock around the holes. Experimental results show that the thickness of the damaged zone around the hole ranges from 0.0 to 1.7 mm. A larger drill bit induces more wall damage than does a smaller one. Different drilling techniques show different damage characteristics (intensity and distribution). Damage characteristics are governed not only by drilling parameters (bit size, weight on bit, rotational speed, diamond radius, and energy), but also by properties of the rock. The weaker rock tends to show more intense damage than does the stronger one. Cracks within grains or cleavage fractures are predominant in slightly coarser grained rock (larger than 0.5 mm grain size) while intergranular cracks are predominant in very fine grained rock (smaller than 0.01 mm grain size). The damaged zones play no significant role in the flow path around a borehole plug.

  14. Solicitation - Geothermal Drilling Development and Well Maintenance Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Sattler, A.R.

    1999-07-07

    Energy (DOE)-industry research and development (R and D) organization, sponsors near-term technology development projects for reducing geothermal drilling and well maintenance costs. Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque, NM) administers DOE funds for GDO cost-shared projects and provides technical support. The GDO serves a very important function in fostering geothermal development. It encourages commercialization of emerging, cost-reducing drilling technologies, while fostering a spirit of cooperation among various segments of the geothermal industry. For Sandia, the GDO also serves as a means of identifying the geothermal industry's drilling fuel/or well maintenance problems, and provides an important forum for technology transfer. Successfully completed GDO projects include: the development of a high-temperature borehole televiewer, high-temperature rotating head rubbers, a retrievable whipstock, and a high-temperature/high-pressure valve-changing tool. Ongoing GDO projects include technology for stemming lost circulation; foam cement integrity log interpretation, insulated drill pipe, percussive mud hammers for geothermal drilling, a high-temperature/ high-pressure valve changing tool assembly (adding a milling capability), deformed casing remediation, high- temperature steering tools, diagnostic instrumentation for casing in geothermal wells, and elastomeric casing protectors.

  15. Comparison of Clinical and Radiological Improvement Between the Modified Trephine and High-speed Drill as Main Osteotomy Instrument in Pedicle Subtraction Osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Ma, Lei; Yang, Dalong; Zhang, Di; Shen, Yong; Ding, Wenyuan

    2015-11-01

    High-speed drill is the main osteotomy instrument in pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) currently. Considering the long duration of surgery, the large amount of blood loss, and the high incidence of neurovascular injury, the osteotomy procedure is challenging. Use of trephine for the osteotomy displays high efficiency by shortening surgery time and reducing blood loss in anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion. However, the potential risk of neurological injury is high. We modified the trephine by adding locking instrument, when the serrated top of the trephine reaches the tip of the probe; the locking instrument on the probe restricts the trephine and improves security during the osteotomy procedure.The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and radiological improvement between the modified trephine and high-speed drill as main osteotomy instrument in PSO.From February 2009 to 2013, 50 patients with severe thoracolumbar kyphotic deformity caused by old compressive vertebrae were prospectively reviewed. All patients were randomly assigned to the experimental group (27 patients received PSO with modified trephine) and the control group (23 patients received PSO with high-speed drill). The clinical records were reviewed and compared for surgical time, operative blood loss, functional improvement (Oswestry Disability Index), and pain relief (visual analog scale). The radiological records were reviewed and compared for correction of kyphotic deformity postoperatively and correction loss at 2-year follow-up.All patients successfully finished the PSO procedure, and got satisfactory kyphotic deformity correction and overall function improvement. The surgery time was shorter in the experimental group than that in the control group (132.7 ± 12.6 vs 141.7 ± 16.7 min; P = 0.03). No significant difference was found in blood loss (882.9 ± 98.9 mL vs 902.2 ± 84.9 mL; P = 0.47) or correction of the kyphotic angle (33.4 ± 3.4° vs 32

  16. Drill user's manual. [drilling machine automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    Instructions are given for using the DRILL computer program which converts data contained in an Interactive Computer Graphics System (IGDS) design file to production of a paper tape for driving a numerically controlled drilling machine.

  17. Metal drilling with portable hand drills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmiston, W. B.; Harrison, H. W.; Morris, H. E.

    1970-01-01

    Study of metal drilling solves problems of excessive burring, oversized holes, and out-of-round holes. Recommendations deal with using the proper chemical coolants, applying the coolants effectively, employing cutting oils, and dissipating the heat caused by drilling.

  18. Comparative Study Between The Alternative Used By The IMP Type Pecussion Drills And The Version Using Fluid Elements Regarding The Supplying, Command And Automatic Adjustment Systems Of The Injection Water Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotetiu, Adriana; Cotetiu, Radu; Ungureanu, Nicolae

    2015-12-01

    Starting from analyzing of an existing solution regarding the injection water feeding system for the pneumatic rotating and percussion drilling installations, which is included in the structure of the perforator installation (IMP-1or IMP-2), the paper presents part of a research regarding an original solution of the automatic command and regulate with monostable fluidic elements, with different physical nature jets. This solution is applicable to this drilling installations type, made in Romania.

  19. Trepanning drilling of stainless steel using a high-power Ytterbium-doped fiber ultrafast laser: influence of pulse duration on hole geometry and processing quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, John; Dijoux, Mathieu; Devillard, Raphael; Faucon, Marc; Kling, Rainer

    2014-03-01

    Percussion drilling is a well-established technique for several applicative markets such as for aircraft and watch industries. Lamp pumped solid state lasers and more recently fiber lasers, operating in millisecond or nanosecond regimes, are classically used for these applications. However, due to their long pulse duration, these technologies are not suitable for emerging applicative market such as fuel injectors for automotive industry. Only the ultrashort laser technology, combined with special drilling optics like trepanning head, has the potential to fulfill the needs for this new market in terms of processing quality, custom-shape capabilities and short drilling time. Although numerous papers dealing with percussion drilling have been reported in the literature, only few papers are dedicated to trepanning drilling. In this context, we present some results on the influence of pulse duration on gas-assisted laser drilling of stainless steel using a trepanning head and a high power Ytterbium doped fiber ultrafast laser (20W). The influence of pulse energy (7- 64μJ), fluence (3-25 J/cm2), drilling time (1-20s), processing gas pressure and drilling strategy will be discussed as well.

  20. Drilling mud dispersants

    SciTech Connect

    Gleason, P. A.; Brase, I. E.

    1985-05-21

    Dispersants useful in aqueous drilling mud formulations employed in the drilling of subterranean wells where high temperature and high pressure environments are encountered are disclosed. The dispersants, when used in amounts of about 0.1 to 25 ppb provide muds containing colloidal material suspended in an aqueous medium with improved high temperature and high pressure stability. The dispersants are water soluble sulfonated vinyl toluene-maleic anhydride copolymers which have a molar ratio of vinyl toluene to maleic anhydride of about 1:1 to less than about 2:1, a molecular weight of 1,000 to 25,000 and at least about 0.7 sulfonic acid groups per vinyl toluene unit.

  1. Two experiments for the measurement of the centre of percussion of a physical pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malgieri, Massimiliano; Onorato, Pasquale; Mascheretti, Paolo; De Ambrosis, Anna

    2016-09-01

    In this article we describe two experiments, performed with instrumentation commonly available in undergraduate laboratories, to measure the position of the centre of percussion of a physical pendulum. The first one makes use of a constant external force provided by a common spring dynamometer, and allows for a straightforward analysis founded on basic concepts of rigid body dynamics. The second one is, more properly, an experiment based on a percussion, i.e. a collision involving an almost impulsive force, and displays the typical difficulties, but also the physical richness, of this type of phenomena. We provide an historical overview of the problem of the centre of percussion, starting from its first formulation given by Bernardino Baldi at the end of the 16th century, and we show how the mathematical model built for analysing the impact between a physical pendulum and a localised object is helpful in understanding that such a problem, in its original formulation, does not have a unique answer.

  2. Automatic Quality Inspection of Percussion Cap Mass Production by Means of 3D Machine Vision and Machine Learning Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellaeche, A.; Arana, R.; Ibarguren, A.; Martínez-Otzeta, J. M.

    The exhaustive quality control is becoming very important in the world's globalized market. One of these examples where quality control becomes critical is the percussion cap mass production. These elements must achieve a minimum tolerance deviation in their fabrication. This paper outlines a machine vision development using a 3D camera for the inspection of the whole production of percussion caps. This system presents multiple problems, such as metallic reflections in the percussion caps, high speed movement of the system and mechanical errors and irregularities in percussion cap placement. Due to these problems, it is impossible to solve the problem by traditional image processing methods, and hence, machine learning algorithms have been tested to provide a feasible classification of the possible errors present in the percussion caps.

  3. Quantitative Percussion Diagnostics and Bone Density Analysis of the Implant-Bone Interface in a Pre- and Postmortem Human Subject

    PubMed Central

    Hui, DiDi; Bajaj, Vaibhav; Earthman, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose It has been hypothesized that a correlation exists between the density of surrounding cortical bone and the stability of an implant under percussion loading that can be used to quantify the implant's osseointegration. The purpose of the present research was to explore whether quantitative percussion testing of dental implants gives reasonable indications of the level of osseointegration that are consistent with bone configuration and its influence on osseointegration quality. Material and Methods Data from percussion testing of a live human subject, obtained using the Periometer®, were compared with corresponding bone density estimates from high-resolution computer tomography images and postmortem percussion probe data. Results The results confirm the hypothesis that the nature of an implant’s response to percussion is determined by its cortical bone support. Conclusions The findings suggest that the cortical bone supporting the crestal and apical regions of the implant is primarily responsible for structural stability. PMID:24278927

  4. Geothermal drilling in Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez A., Bernardo

    1982-08-10

    The number of characteristics of the different wells that have been drilled in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field to date enable one to summarize the basic factors in the applied technology, draw some conclusions, improve systems and procedures, and define some problems that have not yet been satisfactorily solved, although the existing solution is the best now available. For all practical purposes, the 100 wells drilled in the three areas or blocks into which the Cerro Prieto field has been divided have been completed. Both exploratory and production wells have been drilled; problems of partial or total lack of control have made it necessary to abandon some of these wells, since they were unsafe to keep in production or even to be used for observation and/or study. The wells and their type, the type of constructed wells and the accumulative meters that have been drilled for such wells are summarized.

  5. How to drill horizontal sections faster

    SciTech Connect

    Chaffin, M. )

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports that fewer trips, reduced slide time and lower drag during sliding have resulted from the application of downhole-adjustable stabilizers to horizontal drilling. Faster drilling times mean lower measurement while drilling (MWD) cost, and less wear on downhole equipment, motors and bits. These advantages combined with reduced drilling shocks have increased drilling rates and efficiency. Applying existing technology in new situations is an important way of reducing the cost of finding, exploring for and developing reserves. Engineers are responsible for using current technology to its fullest and developing new technology to reduce drilling expenses. Horizontal drilling was used in its early stages to develop the Austin chalk formation in Pearsall oil field more effectively. As procedures were generated to drill horizontal wells, Oryx drilling engineers began to develop new technology and investigate ways for existing technology to be used or altered to fit horizontal drilling programs. The new technology of downhole-adjustable stabilizers has been used successfully to further improve horizontal drilling efficiency.

  6. Single Piezo-Actuator Rotary-Hammering Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2011-01-01

    This innovation comprises a compact drill that uses low-axial preload, via vibrations, that fractures the rock under the bit kerf, and rotates the bit to remove the powdered cuttings while augmenting the rock fracture via shear forces. The vibrations fluidize the powered cuttings inside the flutes around the bit, reducing the friction with the auger surface. These combined actions reduce the consumed power and the heating of the drilled medium, helping to preserve the pristine content of the produced samples. The drill consists of an actuator that simultaneously impacts and rotates the bit by applying force and torque via a single piezoelectric stack actuator without the need for a gearbox or lever mechanism. This reduces the development/fabrication cost and complexity. The piezoelectric actuator impacts the surface and generates shear forces, fragmenting the drilled medium directly under the bit kerf by exceeding the tensile and/or shear strength of the struck surface. The percussive impact action of the actuator leads to penetration of the medium by producing a zone of finely crushed rock directly underneath the struck location. This fracturing process is highly enhanced by the shear forces from the rotation and twisting action. To remove the formed cuttings, the bit is constructed with an auger on its internal or external surface. One of the problems with pure hammering is that, as the teeth become embedded in the sample, the drilling efficiency drops unless the teeth are moved away from the specific footprint location. By rotating the teeth, they are moved to areas that were not fragmented, and thus the rock fracturing is enhanced via shear forces. The shear motion creates ripping or chiseling action to produce larger fragments to increase the drilling efficiency, and to reduce the required power. The actuator of the drill consists of a piezoelectric stack that vibrates the horn. The stack is compressed by a bolt between the backing and the horn in order to

  7. The LITA Drill and Sample Delivery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, G.; Yoon, S.; Zacny, K.; Wettergreeng, D.; Cabrol, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Life in the Atacama (LITA) project has a goal of demonstrating autonomous roving, sample acquisition, delivery and analysis operations in Atacama, Chile. To enable the sample handling requirement, Honeybee Robotics developed a rover-deployed, rotary-percussive, autonomous drill, called the LITA Drill, capable of penetrating to ~80 cm in various formations, capturing and delivering subsurface samples to a 20 cup carousel. The carousel has a built-in capability to press the samples within each cup, and position target cups underneath instruments for analysis. The drill and sample delivery system had to have mass and power requirements consistent with a flight system. The drill weighs 12 kg and uses less than 100 watt of power to penetrate ~80 cm. The LITA Drill auger has been designed with two distinct stages. The lower part has deep and gently sloping flutes for retaining powdered sample, while the upper section has shallow and steep flutes for preventing borehole collapse and for efficient movement of cuttings and fall back material out of the hole. The drill uses the so called 'bite-sampling' approach that is samples are taken in short, 5-10 cm bites. To take the first bite, the drill is lowered onto the ground and upon drilling of the first bite it is then retracted into an auger tube. The auger with the auger tube are then lifted off the ground and positioned next to the carousel. To deposit the sample, the auger is rotated and retracted above the auger tube. The cuttings retained on the flutes are either gravity fed or are brushed off by a passive side brush into the cup. After the sample from the first bite has been deposited, the drill is lowered back into the same hole to take the next bite. This process is repeated until a target depth is reached. The bite sampling is analogous to peck drilling in the machining process where a bit is periodically retracted to clear chips. If there is some fall back into the hole once the auger has cleared the hole, this

  8. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James; Boudreau, Kate; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom; Zhang, Shujun

    2009-01-01

    The current NASA Decadal mission planning effort has identified Venus as a significant scientific target for a surface in-situ sampling/analyzing mission. The Venus environment represents several extremes including high temperature (460 deg C), high pressure (9 MPa), and potentially corrosive (condensed sulfuric acid droplets that adhere to surfaces during entry) environments. This technology challenge requires new rock sampling tools for these extreme conditions. Piezoelectric materials can potentially operate over a wide temperature range. Single crystals, like LiNbO3, have a Curie temperature that is higher than 1000 deg C and the piezoelectric ceramics Bismuth Titanate higher than 600 deg C. A study of the feasibility of producing piezoelectric drills that can operate in the temperature range up to 500 deg C was conducted. The study includes the high temperature properties investigations of engineering materials and piezoelectric ceramics with different formulas and doping. The drilling performances of a prototype Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) using high temperate piezoelectric ceramics and single crystal were tested at temperature up to 500 deg C. The detailed results of our study and a discussion of the future work on performance improvements are presented in this paper.

  9. Optically Aligned Drill Press

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adderholdt, Bruce M.

    1994-01-01

    Precise drill press equipped with rotary-indexing microscope. Microscope and drill exchange places when turret rotated. Microscope axis first aligned over future hole, then rotated out of way so drill axis assumes its precise position. New procedure takes less time to locate drilling positions and produces more accurate results. Apparatus adapted to such other machine tools as milling and measuring machines.

  10. Rotary blasthole drilling update

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-02-15

    Blasthole drilling rigs are the unsung heroes of open-pit mining. Recently manufacturers have announced new tools. Original equipment manufactures (OEMs) are making safer and more efficient drills. Technology and GPS navigation systems are increasing drilling accuracy. The article describes features of new pieces of equipment: Sandvik's DR460 rotary blasthole drill, P & H's C-Series drills and Atlas Copco's Pit Viper PV275 multiphase rotary blasthole drill rig. DrillNav Plus is a blasthole navigation system developed by Leica Geosystems. 5 photos.

  11. Precision drilling of fused silica with 157-nm excimer laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temme, Thorsten; Ostendorf, Andreas; Kulik, Christian; Meyer, Klaus

    2003-07-01

    μFor drilling fused silica, mechanical techniques like with diamond drills, ultrasonic machining, sand blasting or water jet machining are used. Also chemical techniques like laser assisted wet etching or thermal drilling with CO2-lasers are established. As an extension of these technologies, the drilling of micro-holes in fused silica with VUV laser radiation is presented here. The high absorption of the 157 nm radiation emitted by the F2 excimer laser and the short pulse duration lead to a material ablation with minimised impact on the surrounding material. Contrary to CO2-laser drilling, a molten and solidified phase around the bore can thus be avoided. The high photon energy of 7.9 eV requires either high purity nitrogen flushing or operation in vacuum, which also effects the processing results. Depending on the required precision, the laser can be used for percussion drilling as well as for excimer laser trepanning, by applying rotating masks. Rotating masks are especially used for high aspect ratio drilling with well defined edges and minimised debris. The technology is suitable particularly for holes with a diameter below 200 μm down to some microns in substrates with less than 200 μm thickness, that can not be achieved with mechanical methods. Drilling times in 200 μm fused silica substrates are in the range of ten seconds, which is sufficient to compete with conventional methods while providing similar or even better accuracy.

  12. Geothermal drilling technology update

    SciTech Connect

    Glowka, D.A.

    1997-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories conducts a comprehensive geothermal drilling research program for the US Department of Energy, Office of Geothermal Technologies. The program currently includes seven areas: lost circulation technology, hard-rock drill bit technology, high-temperature instrumentation, wireless data telemetry, slimhole drilling technology, Geothermal Drilling Organization (GDO) projects, and drilling systems studies. This paper describes the current status of the projects under way in each of these program areas.

  13. Using Flashcard Drill Methods and Self-Graphing Procedures to Improve the Reading Performance of English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albers, Craig A.; Hoffman, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    The increasing numbers of English language learners who are enrolled in schools across the nation, combined with the escalating academic demands placed on all students, warrant the evaluation of instructional strategies designed to improve English language learners' reading performance. In this study, the authors used a multiple baseline design…

  14. Laser beam drilling of metal-based composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riegel, H.; Merkel, M.; Ã-chsner, A.

    2014-02-01

    Laser drilling is a highly efficient technique to generate holes in almost any material. The relatively small amount of heat being involved during the process results in a small heat affected zone. This characteristic makes laser processing interesting for composite materials. The drilling process has to be adapted to the special characteristics of the composite material. In this paper investigations were performed with an advanced composite material, that is a metallic hollow sphere structure (MHSS). Numerical simulation was used to predict heat flux and temperature levels for different geometric parameters of the spheres (diameter, wall thickness) in order to optimize the drilling process. The numerical simulation allows a detailed analysis of the physical process in the zone that is influenced by the laser beam, which can hardly be analyzed by any measuring technique. The models for transient numerical analysis consider heat conduction and convection. The experimental work was done by a CO2-laser. The percussion drilling method has been used as drilling technique. The pulse duration was in the millisecond time regime. Investigations have been done with a mean power of 100 W, 200 W and 400 W. Two focal lenses have been used with focal lengths of 5.0´´ and 7.5´´. The laser beam melts the hollow sphere structure inside the beam leaving a hole in the structure as well as in individual hollow spheres. An image processing technique was developed to determine the circularity on the spheres and the drilled diameter in the structure. The circularity declines with increasing drill depth. The diameter as function of depth can be well described with lines of constant intensity of the focussed laser beam, the isophotes.

  15. Effective dust control systems on concrete dowel drilling machinery.

    PubMed

    Echt, Alan S; Sanderson, Wayne T; Mead, Kenneth R; Feng, H Amy; Farwick, Daniel R; Farwick, Dawn Ramsey

    2016-09-01

    Rotary-type percussion dowel drilling machines, which drill horizontal holes in concrete pavement, have been documented to produce respirable crystalline silica concentrations above recommended exposure criteria. This places operators at potential risk for developing health effects from exposure. United States manufacturers of these machines offer optional dust control systems. The effectiveness of the dust control systems to reduce respirable dust concentrations on two types of drilling machines was evaluated under controlled conditions with the machines operating inside large tent structures in an effort to eliminate secondary exposure sources not related to the dowel-drilling operation. Area air samples were collected at breathing zone height at three locations around each machine. Through equal numbers of sampling rounds with the control systems randomly selected to be on or off, the control systems were found to significantly reduce respirable dust concentrations from a geometric mean of 54 mg per cubic meter to 3.0 mg per cubic meter on one machine and 57 mg per cubic meter to 5.3 mg per cubic meter on the other machine. This research shows that the dust control systems can dramatically reduce respirable dust concentrations by over 90% under controlled conditions. However, these systems need to be evaluated under actual work conditions to determine their effectiveness in reducing worker exposures to crystalline silica below hazardous levels. PMID:27074062

  16. Doing Anger Differently: Two Controlled Trials of Percussion Group Psychotherapy for Adolescent Reactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Michael; Startup, Mike

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates efficacy and effectiveness of "Doing Anger Differently" (DAD), a group treatment for reactively aggressive 12-15 year old males. DAD uses percussion exercises to aid treatment. Study 1 compared a ten-week treatment with a waitlist control at pre, post and 6 month (treatment group only) follow-up. Study 2 replicated Study 1,…

  17. Development of Young Adults' Fine Motor Skills when Learning to Play Percussion Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gzibovskis, Talis; Marnauza, Mara

    2012-01-01

    When playing percussion instruments, the main activity is done with the help of a motion or motor skills; to perform it, developed fine motor skills are necessary: the speed and precision of fingers, hands and palms. The aim of the research was to study and test the development of young adults' fine motor skills while learning to play percussion…

  18. Program for the improvement of downhole drilling motor bearings and seals. Phase IV. Semi-annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Tibbitts, G.A.; DeLafosse, P.H.; Black, A.; Green, S.J.

    1980-07-01

    Four main areas of development for the project are covered: design and fabrication of a dynamometer and a mud cooling system for the Bearing-Seal Package Test Facility; modification of the Bearing-Seal Package Test Facility based on test results; testing of new lubricant samples from Pacer Lubricants, Inc., in the Terra Tek High Temperature Lubricant Tester; and testing of new seal types in the Terra Tek Sea Tester. The Maurer Engineering Report, Semi-Annual Progress Report on Improvement of Downhole Motor Bearings and Seals by Jeff L. Barnwell, has been included as Appendix B.

  19. Drill wear monitoring in cortical bone drilling.

    PubMed

    Staroveski, Tomislav; Brezak, Danko; Udiljak, Toma

    2015-06-01

    Medical drills are subject to intensive wear due to mechanical factors which occur during the bone drilling process, and potential thermal and chemical factors related to the sterilisation process. Intensive wear increases friction between the drill and the surrounding bone tissue, resulting in higher drilling temperatures and cutting forces. Therefore, the goal of this experimental research was to develop a drill wear classification model based on multi-sensor approach and artificial neural network algorithm. A required set of tool wear features were extracted from the following three types of signals: cutting forces, servomotor drive currents and acoustic emission. Their capacity to classify precisely one of three predefined drill wear levels has been established using a pattern recognition type of the Radial Basis Function Neural Network algorithm. Experiments were performed on a custom-made test bed system using fresh bovine bones and standard medical drills. Results have shown high classification success rate, together with the model robustness and insensitivity to variations of bone mechanical properties. Features extracted from acoustic emission and servomotor drive signals achieved the highest precision in drill wear level classification (92.8%), thus indicating their potential in the design of a new type of medical drilling machine with process monitoring capabilities. PMID:25922212

  20. In Vivo Evaluation of Quantitative Percussion Diagnostics for Determining Implant Stability

    PubMed Central

    VanSchoiack, Lindsey R.; Shubayev, Veronica I.; Myers, Robert R.; Sheets, Cherilyn G.; Earthman, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose A percussion instrument (Periometer®, Perimetrics LLC, Newport Beach, CA, USA) and rat model were used to test the hypothesis: percussion diagnostics provides reliable, reproducible indications of osseointegration. Materials and Methods Titanium implants were placed in femurs of 36 Sprague-Dawley rats. Each animal was assigned to one of six groups of six defined by one of three time points (2, 4, or 8 weeks post-placement) and one of two treatments (MMP inhibitor or vehicle). Percussion testing was conducted three times/subject at implant placement and at one of the time points. For each time point, there was an experimental group that received daily intraperitoneal injections of GM6001, and a control group that received no MMP inhibitor. The percussion data consisted of loss coefficient (LC) values that characterize energy dissipation. Statistical analysis was performed on the LC values for two animal groups using the paired Student t test to assess differences as a function of time, and the independent t test to compare mean LC for the study groups at sacrifice (α=0.05). Histological evaluation using the osteogenic CD40 protein marker was also performed. Results A nearly significant difference in mean LC at the 2-week time point was observed between the two treatments with the GM6001 group having the higher value (p = 0.053). There was a greater difference between the mean LC values for the 4-week GM6001 and vehicle groups (p = 0.001). The histological evidence for subjects in these two groups confirmed reduction of osteogenesis at the implant interface after administration of the MMP inhibitor. Conclusions Lower vehicle LC values relative to the GM6001 therapeutic group were observed, consistent with the effect MMP inhibition has on matrix remodeling at the implant bone interface. This finding in conjunction with histological observations confirms that osseointegration can be monitored using percussion diagnostics. PMID:24066319

  1. Albania has active but difficult drilling program

    SciTech Connect

    Shehu, F. ); Johnston, D. )

    1991-11-18

    The technical and economic performance of drilling operations in Albania has improved during the past few years, though it has not reached a high level. The low performance results from geological complications and the use of old equipment with low capacities. Most of the rigs do not have adequate hydraulic or kinematic systems. Low quality spare parts, a lack of imported material, and infrequent maintenance cause downtime from mechanical failures. The average time spent drilling is only 25-40% of the time on location, and the average drilling rate is about 4-5 m/hr. This paper reviews production drilling statistics for oil and gas wells in Albanies.

  2. Drill pipe threaded nipple connection design development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saruev, A. L.; Saruev, L. A.; Vasenin, S. S.

    2015-11-01

    The paper presents the analysis of the behavior of the drill pipe nipple connection under the additional load generated by power pulses. The strain wave propagation through the nipple thread connection of drill pipes to the bottomhole is studied in this paper. The improved design of the nipple thread connection is suggested using the obtained experimental and theoretical data. The suggested connection design allows not only the efficient transmission of strain wave energy to a drill bit but also the automation of making-up and breaking-out drill pipes.

  3. Ultrasonic drilling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duran, Edward L.; Lundin, Ralph L.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation.

  4. Ultrasonic drilling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duran, E.L.; Lundin, R.L.

    1988-06-20

    Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation. 3 figs.

  5. Deep Sea Drilling Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneps, Ansis

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the goals of the ocean drilling under the International Phase of Ocean Drilling, which include sampling of the ocean crust at great depths and sampling of the sedimentary sequence of active and passive continental margins. (MLH)

  6. Plug and drill template

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orella, S.

    1979-01-01

    Device installs plugs and then drills them after sandwich face sheets are in place. Template guides drill bit into center of each concealed plug thereby saving considerable time and fostering weight reduction with usage of smaller plugs.

  7. Modeling micro-electronics drill bit behavior with ABAQUS Standard

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, C.A.; Ricketson, E.

    1997-06-01

    Modeling of drill bit behavior under applied forces as well as modeling of the drilling process itself can aid in the understanding of the relative importance of the various drill bit process parameters and can eventually lead to improved drill bit designs. In this paper the authors illustrate the application of ABAQUS Standard to the stress and deformation analysis of micro-electronics drill bits that are used in manufacturing printed circuit boards. Effects of varying point geometry, web taper and flute length on the stress and deformation in a drill bit are illustrated.

  8. Hydromechanical drilling device

    DOEpatents

    Summers, David A.

    1978-01-01

    A hydromechanical drilling tool which combines a high pressure water jet drill with a conventional roller cone type of drilling bit. The high pressure jet serves as a tap drill for cutting a relatively small diameter hole in advance of the conventional bit. Auxiliary laterally projecting jets also serve to partially cut rock and to remove debris from in front of the bit teeth thereby reducing significantly the thrust loading for driving the bit.

  9. Evaluation of commercial drilling and geological software for deep drilling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierdominici, Simona; Prevedel, Bernhard; Conze, Ronald; Tridec Team

    2013-04-01

    The avoidance of operational delays, financial losses and drilling hazards are key indicators for successful deep drilling operations. Real-time monitoring of drilling operation data as well as geological and petrophysical information obtained during drilling provide valuable knowledge that can be integrated into existing geological and mechanical models in order to improve the drilling performance. We have evaluated ten different geological and drilling software packages capable to integrate real-time drilling and planning data (e.g. torque, drag, well path, cementing, hydraulic data, casing design, well control, geo-steering, cost and time) as well as other scientific and technical data (i.e. from drilling core, geophysical downhole logging, production test) to build geological and geophysical models for planning of further deep drillings in a given geological environment. To reach this goal, the software has to be versatile to handle different data formats from disciplines such as geology, geophysics, petrophysics, seismology and drilling engineering as well as data from different drilling targets, such as geothermal fluids, oil/gas, water reservoirs, mining purpose, CO2 sequestration, or scientific goals. The software must be capable to analyze, evaluate and plan in real-time the next drilling steps in the best possible way and under safe conditions. A preliminary geological and geophysical model with the available data from site surveys and literature is built to address a first drilling plan, in which technical and scientific aspects are taken into consideration to perform the first drilling (wildcat well). During the drilling, the acquired scientific and technical data will be used to refine the previous geological-drilling model. The geological model hence becomes an interactive object strongly linked to the drilling procedure, and the software should allow to make rapid and informed decisions while drilling, to maximize productivity and minimize drilling

  10. Drilling at Advanced Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Doug

    1977-01-01

    Instances where drilling is useful for advanced language are discussed. Several types of drills are recommended, with the philosophy that advanced level drills should have a lighter style and be regarded as a useful, occasional means of practicing individual new items. (CHK)

  11. HydroPulse Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    J.J. Kolle

    2004-04-01

    Tempress HydroPulse{trademark} tool increases overbalanced drilling rates by generating intense suction pulses at the drill bit. This report describes the operation of the tool; results of pressure drilling tests, wear tests and downhole drilling tests; and the business case for field applications. The HydroPulse{trademark} tool is designed to operate on weighted drilling mud at conventional flow rates and pressures. Pressure drilling tests confirm that the HydroPulse{trademark} tool provides 33% to 200% increased rate of penetration. Field tests demonstrated conventional rotary and mud motor drilling operations. The tool has been operated continuous for 50 hours on weighted mud in a wear test stand. This level of reliability is the threshold for commercial application. A seismic-while-drilling version of the tool was also developed and tested. This tool was used to demonstrate reverse vertical seismic profiling while drilling an inclined test well with a PDC bit. The primary applications for the HydroPulse{trademark} tool are deep onshore and offshore drilling where rate of penetration drives costs. The application of the seismic tool is vertical seismic profiling-while-drilling and look-ahead seismic imaging while drilling.

  12. Strong growth projected for underbalanced drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Duda, J.R.; Medley, G.H. Jr.; Deskins, W.G.

    1996-09-23

    The use of underbalanced drilling technology should grow steadily during the next decade. The projected growth is primarily driven by increased concern about formation damage, the potential for higher penetration rates, and the ability to reduce lost circulation in depleted reservoirs. The Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center manages a portfolio of drilling-related research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) projects designed to reduce costs and improve efficiencies. The Department of Energy sponsored Maurer Engineering Inc. (MEI) to develop a user-friendly foam drilling model that can accurately predict pressure drops, cuttings lifting velocities, foam quality, and other foam drilling variables. A second objective of the project was to develop a light-weight drilling fluid that would allow underbalanced drilling in low-pressure reservoirs without the limitations commonly associated with existing light-weight fluids. Maurer performed a study to gauge the potential for light-weight drilling fluids and the extent of underbalanced drilling activity in the US. Data from many industry sources, including recent publications on the potential for air drilling, were evaluated and incorporated into this study. This paper discusses the findings from this survey.

  13. Offshore drilling, construction: Fortunes tied to stable gas prices

    SciTech Connect

    Pagano, S.S.; Marsh, T.

    1993-01-01

    Significantly improved US natural gas prices fueled an upswing in offshore drilling in the Gulf of Mexico in late 1992. Stabilized gas prices will be necessary to support both the off-shore drilling and construction markets in 1993 and beyond. The article discusses both these segments in detail: offshore drilling and offshore construction.

  14. Operations Recognition at Drill-Rigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmael, B.; Fruhwirth, R.; Arnaout, A.; Thonhauser, G.

    2012-04-01

    Drilling an oil & gas well is always guided by the demand to prevent crises affecting technique, investment and security. To overcome uncertainties caused by lack of knowledge about geological formations during drilling, real-time sensor measurements are used to support the prediction and thus the prevention of such crises. The proposed method supports the extraction of knowledge from sensor data to improve productivity and performance, prevent from mistakes and resolve problems faster. Many mechanical parameters, such as hookload and block position are continuously measured during drilling oil wells. Considering the amount and complexity of the drilling data, it is a real big challenge for a human expert to discover and understand the patterns within the data. In this work machine learning techniques are applied to discover and understand the patterns occurring in such drilling data. We propose a hierarchical approach for drilling operations recognition to break the total drilling time down into a set of pre-defined operation states. This process supports the drilling engineers not only to measure the performance of the drilling process but also to identify patterns in the data that presumably indicate emerging crises. The proposed approach consists of two phases. In the first phase, five principal states describing very basic operational states at the rig will be recognized by use of the sensor data. In the second phase, those principal states will be combined to a set of drilling operational states. The principal operation states can be considered as an intermediate layer between sensor data and high level drilling operations. The five physical states used in the intermediate layer are related to drill string rotation & movement, mud circulation, the actual drilling itself and a state where the drill string is suspended from the hook. All those states are binary (yes/no) except drill string movement which has three values (up/down/static). For recognition of

  15. Optimal Force Control of Vibro-Impact Systems for Autonomous Drilling Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, Jack B.; Okon, Avi B.

    2012-01-01

    The need to maintain optimal energy efficiency is critical during the drilling operations performed on future and current planetary rover missions (see figure). Specifically, this innovation seeks to solve the following problem. Given a spring-loaded percussive drill driven by a voice-coil motor, one needs to determine the optimal input voltage waveform (periodic function) and the optimal hammering period that minimizes the dissipated energy, while ensuring that the hammer-to-rock impacts are made with sufficient (user-defined) impact velocity (or impact energy). To solve this problem, it was first observed that when voice-coil-actuated percussive drills are driven at high power, it is of paramount importance to ensure that the electrical current of the device remains in phase with the velocity of the hammer. Otherwise, negative work is performed and the drill experiences a loss of performance (i.e., reduced impact energy) and an increase in Joule heating (i.e., reduction in energy efficiency). This observation has motivated many drilling products to incorporate the standard bang-bang control approach for driving their percussive drills. However, the bang-bang control approach is significantly less efficient than the optimal energy-efficient control approach solved herein. To obtain this solution, the standard tools of classical optimal control theory were applied. It is worth noting that these tools inherently require the solution of a two-point boundary value problem (TPBVP), i.e., a system of differential equations where half the equations have unknown boundary conditions. Typically, the TPBVP is impossible to solve analytically for high-dimensional dynamic systems. However, for the case of the spring-loaded vibro-impactor, this approach yields the exact optimal control solution as the sum of four analytic functions whose coefficients are determined using a simple, easy-to-implement algorithm. Once the optimal control waveform is determined, it can be used

  16. Changes in localization of synaptophysin following fluid percussion injury in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Shojo, Hideki; Kibayashi, Kazuhiko

    2006-03-17

    Traumatic brain injuries damage neurons and cause progressing dysfunctions of the brain. Synaptophysin (SYP), a major integral transmembrane protein of synaptic vesicles, provides a molecular marker for the synapse and serves as a functional marker of the brain. This study examined magnitude-dependent changes of SYP in the rat brain 2 days following low, moderate or high fluid percussion injuries and investigated time-dependent changes of SYP in the rat brain with moderate fluid percussion injury 2, 15 and 30 days after trauma using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. SYP immunoreactivity increased in the lateral cortex and in the subcortical white matter, with increasing magnitude of injury and time after trauma. Increased SYP immunoreactivity was accompanied with degeneration of neuronal cell bodies, their processes and terminals as well as glial cell proliferations. Amounts of SYP measured by Western blotting remained unchanged in brains with moderate fluid percussion within 30 days after trauma. These findings indicate that trauma accumulates SYP at injured sites of neurons without changing SYP contents and that increased SYP immunoreactivity in the cerebral cortex following traumatic injury reflects an inhibition of synaptic vesicle transportation and dysfunction of synapses, thus providing a histological substrate for brain dysfunctions. PMID:16497279

  17. First riser drilling in Scientific Ocean Drilling history, Observatory drilling and casing in the Nankai Trough (IODP Exp 319)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toczko, S.; Eguchi, N. O.; Takahashi, K.; Araki, E.; Byrne, T. B.; McNeill, L. C.; Saffer, D. M.

    2009-12-01

    IODP Expedition 319 (“Riser and Riserless Observatory-1”, NanTroSEIZE Stage 2) was the first time in IODP history that scientific riser operations were conducted. As part of this groundbreaking advance in scientific drilling, other technologies and sampling methods were also introduced: scientific mud-gas monitoring, drilling cuttings collection and analysis, MDT, and VSP (walk-away and zero-offset). Although the goals and achievements for Expedition 319 were modest, we will describe the operational portions of these technologies, and also discuss the potential and benefits of future riser drilling operations. JAMSTEC’s Center for Deep Earth Exploration (CDEX), the Japanese Implementing Organization and operator of the riser drillship Chikyu, this year performed the inaugural riser drilling expedition for IODP, as part of NanTroSEIZE Stage 2, Expedition 319, “Riser and Riserless Observatories”. Riser drilling is a typical method of drilling in industry, since it helps prevent loss of petroleum while drilling at sea, and also allows for deeper drilling depths, when compared with the usual non-riser drilling. The system aboard Chikyu is an industrial design riser system, which has just completed drilling operations in the Kumano Basin, drilling and casing a riser hole, Hole C0009A, to 1607.3 mBSF in water 2054 m BSL deep. The riser drilling system maintains a connection between the riser pipe suspended from the drillship to the sea floor blowout preventer (BOP), which makes a seal between the riser pipe and well head, and below to the cased intervals of the borehole below the seafloor. This allows the drilling mud to circulate down through the drillpipe, out the bit, and back up the casing and riser pipe to the drillship. This cools the bit, clears the borehole of cuttings (recovered aboard ship in the shale shakers) and allows real-time mud-gas monitoring. Mud weight can be more carefully controlled and adjusted, improving the quality of mudcake on the

  18. Geothermal Drilling in Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Aguirre, B. D.; Garcia, G. S.

    1981-01-01

    To date, 71 geothermal wells have been drilled in Cerro Prieto. The activity has been divided into several stages, and, in each stage, attempts have been made to correct deficiencies that were gradually detected. Some of these problems have been solved; others, such as those pertaining to well casing, cement, and cementing jobs, have persisted. The procedures for well completion--the most important aspect for the success of a well--that were based on conventional oil well criteria have been improved to meet the conditions of the geothermal reservoir. Several technical aspects that have improved should be further optimized, even though the resolutions are considered to be reasonably satisfactory. Particular attention has been given to the development of a high-temperature drilling fluid capable of being used in drilling through lost circulation zones. Conventional oil well drilling techniques have been used except where hole-sloughing is a problem. Sulfonate lignitic mud systems have been used with good results. When temperatures exceed 300 C (572 F), it has been necessary to use an organic polymer to stabilize the mud properties.

  19. Accountability and assessment of emergency drill performance at schools.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Marizen; Kubicek, Katrina; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Wong, Marleen

    2009-01-01

    Many schools throughout the United States are mandated to hold drills, or operational exercises, to prepare for fires, earthquakes, violence, and other emergencies. However, drills have not been assessed for their effectiveness in improving preparedness at schools. This mixed-methods study measures the quantity and the quality of drills in an urban school district in Los Angeles. Compliance with California mandates was fair; most schools barely met requirements. Drills were not used as opportunities to improve procedures. Sites neither conducted any self-assessments nor made changes to procedures on the basis of performance. Suggestions include developing realistic simulated exercises, debriefing, and better school accountability for drills. PMID:19305209

  20. Active Suppression of Drilling System Vibrations For Deep Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, David W.; Blankenship, Douglas A.; Buerger, Stephen; Mesh, Mikhail; Radigan, William Thomas; Su, Jiann-Cherng

    2015-10-01

    The dynamic stability of deep drillstrings is challenged by an inability to impart controllability with ever-changing conditions introduced by geology, depth, structural dynamic properties and operating conditions. A multi-organizational LDRD project team at Sandia National Laboratories successfully demonstrated advanced technologies for mitigating drillstring vibrations to improve the reliability of drilling systems used for construction of deep, high-value wells. Using computational modeling and dynamic substructuring techniques, the benefit of controllable actuators at discrete locations in the drillstring is determined. Prototype downhole tools were developed and evaluated in laboratory test fixtures simulating the structural dynamic response of a deep drillstring. A laboratory-based drilling applicability demonstration was conducted to demonstrate the benefit available from deployment of an autonomous, downhole tool with self-actuation capabilities in response to the dynamic response of the host drillstring. A concept is presented for a prototype drilling tool based upon the technical advances. The technology described herein is the subject of U.S. Patent Application No. 62219481, entitled "DRILLING SYSTEM VIBRATION SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS AND METHODS", filed September 16, 2015.

  1. Robotic Lunar Drilling Development for the Construction and Resource Utilization Explorer (CRUX) Project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacny, K.; Bartlett, P. W.; Glaser, D.

    2005-12-01

    The Construction Resource Utilization eXplorer (CRUX) Project is a NASA funded R&D project intended to provide technology for the exploration of lunar and planetary surfaces and subsurfaces. CRUX will have ten instruments, six of which will require subsurface access. Central to the CRUX project is a low power, low mass, robotic drilling system capable of reaching, and delivering scientific instruments to, a target depth currently set at 2 m. Two drilling methods for lunar application have been investigated thus far. The first uses purely rotary drilling, and the second rotary-percussive drilling, similar to what was used by the Apollo astronauts. Both drilling methods utilize an auger for the removal of drilled cuttings. A breadboard drilling system able to function in rotary-drag and rotary-percussive modes was produced to develop and prove out the approach through testing. Spacecraft weight, power, soil properties, and environments are among the key design constraints. The drilling algorithm, rotation and penetration rates, drill bit designs, and auger designs are among the key design variables. The test results presented demonstrate the progress made in simulating the environment, designing an automated system to perform in it, and characterizing the performance of the system. During the initial phase of the research effort, drilling tests were performed in two different lunar soil simulants (FJS-1 and JSC-1, made in Japan and the USA respectively) that were prepared in the following manner. Each soil sample was first mixed with 10wt% distilled water, compacted to 2 g/cc using the Modified Proctor Test (ASTM D1557), and then frozen at 190K. Under these conditions, the soil became as hard as sandstone and served to simulate the water-rich soils that are theorized to exist in permanently shaded craters at the lunar poles. The high bulk density, high water concentration, and binding nature of the water within the regolith were all chosen to serve as a worst case to

  2. Method of deep drilling

    DOEpatents

    Colgate, Stirling A.

    1984-01-01

    Deep drilling is facilitated by the following steps practiced separately or in any combination: (1) Periodically and sequentially fracturing zones adjacent the bottom of the bore hole with a thixotropic fastsetting fluid that is accepted into the fracture to overstress the zone, such fracturing and injection being periodic as a function of the progression of the drill. (2) Casing the bore hole with ductile, pre-annealed casing sections, each of which is run down through the previously set casing and swaged in situ to a diameter large enough to allow the next section to run down through it. (3) Drilling the bore hole using a drill string of a low density alloy and a high density drilling mud so that the drill string is partially floated.

  3. Drilling cost-cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Capuano, L.E. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Louis E. Capuano, Jr., President, ThermaSource, Inc., discusses cost-cutting in the drilling phase of geothermal energy exploration and production. All aspects of a geothermal project including the drilling must be streamlined to make it viable and commercial. If production could be maximized from each well, there would be a reduction in drilling costs. This could be achieved in several ways, including big hole and multi-hole completion, directional drilling, better knowledge of the resource and where to penetrate, etc.

  4. Remote drill bit loader

    SciTech Connect

    Dokos, James A.

    1997-01-01

    A drill bit loader for loading a tapered shank of a drill bit into a similarly tapered recess in the end of a drill spindle. The spindle has a transverse slot at the inner end of the recess. The end of the tapered shank of the drill bit has a transverse tang adapted to engage in the slot so that the drill bit will be rotated by the spindle. The loader is in the form of a cylinder adapted to receive the drill bit with the shank projecting out of the outer end of the cylinder. Retainer pins prevent rotation of the drill bit in the cylinder. The spindle is lowered to extend the shank of the drill bit into the recess in the spindle and the spindle is rotated to align the slot in the spindle with the tang on the shank. A spring unit in the cylinder is compressed by the drill bit during its entry into the recess of the spindle and resiliently drives the tang into the slot in the spindle when the tang and slot are aligned.

  5. Remote drill bit loader

    DOEpatents

    Dokos, J.A.

    1997-12-30

    A drill bit loader is described for loading a tapered shank of a drill bit into a similarly tapered recess in the end of a drill spindle. The spindle has a transverse slot at the inner end of the recess. The end of the tapered shank of the drill bit has a transverse tang adapted to engage in the slot so that the drill bit will be rotated by the spindle. The loader is in the form of a cylinder adapted to receive the drill bit with the shank projecting out of the outer end of the cylinder. Retainer pins prevent rotation of the drill bit in the cylinder. The spindle is lowered to extend the shank of the drill bit into the recess in the spindle and the spindle is rotated to align the slot in the spindle with the tang on the shank. A spring unit in the cylinder is compressed by the drill bit during its entry into the recess of the spindle and resiliently drives the tang into the slot in the spindle when the tang and slot are aligned. 5 figs.

  6. Horizontal drilling developments

    SciTech Connect

    Gust, D.

    1997-05-01

    The advantages of horizontal drilling are discussed. Use of horizontal drilling has climbed in the past half decade as technology and familiarity offset higher costs with higher production rates and greater recoveries from new and existing wells. In essence, all types of horizontal wells expose a larger section of the reservoir to the wellbore with a resulting increase in flow rates. (A horizontal well may also be drilled to provide coning control or to intersect vertical fractures.) Thus, drilling horizontally, both onshore and offshore, reduces the number of wells necessary to develop a field.

  7. Statistical Analysis of Femtosecond Pulses Laser on Hole Drilling of Silicon Wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, L.; Ng, E. Y. K.; Zheng, H.; Wee, L. M.

    This study investigated the relationship and parameters interactions between five independent variables in laser percussion drilling of micro-hole. Experiments were conducted on single crystal silicon wafer with material thickness of 725 μm using femtosecond (fs) laser with wavelength of 775 nm and pulse duration of 200 fs. Laser power, focus position, number of pulses, workpiece temperature and assist liquid were selected as independent process variables. Taguchi L18 orthogonal array was applied to design the experiments. The drilling process was evaluated in terms of entrance hole diameter and exit hole diameter. The analysis of the variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the significant parameters that are affecting the entrance hole diameter and exit hole diameter. The result shows that laser power and focus position has highly significant effect on entrance hole diameter. The number of pulses, focus position and assist liquid however has highly significant effect on exit hole diameter.

  8. Demonstrations of Gravity-Independent Mobility and Drilling on Natural Rock using Microspines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew; King, Jonathan P.; Thatte, Nitish

    2012-01-01

    The video presents microspine-based anchors be ing developed for gripping rocks on the surfaces of comets and asteroids, or for use on cliff faces and lava tubes on Mars. Two types of anchor prototypes are shown on supporting forces in all directions away from the rock; >160 N tangent, >150 N at 45?, and >180 N normal to the surface of the rock. A compliant robotic ankle with two active degrees of freedom interfaces these anchors to the Lemur IIB robot for future climbing trials. Finally, a rotary percussive drill is shown coring into rock regardless of gravitational orientation. As a harder- than-zero-g proof of concept, inverted drilling was performed creating 20mm diameter boreholes 83 mm deep in vesicular basalt samples while retaining 12 mm diameter rock cores in 3-6 pieces.

  9. A self propelled drilling system for hard-rock, horizontal and coiled tube drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Biglin, D.; Wassell, M.

    1997-12-31

    Several advancements are needed to improve the efficiency and reliability of both hard rock drilling and extended reach drilling. This paper will present a Self Propelled Drilling System (SPDS) which can grip the borehole wall in order to provide a stable platform for the application of weight on bit (WOB) and resisting the reactive torque created by the downhole drilling motor, bit and formation interaction. The system will also dampen the damaging effects of drill string vibration. This tool employs two hydraulically activated anchors (front and rear) to grip the borehole wall, and a two-way thrust mandrel to apply both the drilling force to the bit, and a retraction force to pull the drill string into the hole. Forward drilling motion will commence by sequencing the anchor pistons and thrust mandrel to allow the tool to walk in a stepping motion. The SPDS has a microprocessor to control valve timing, sensing and communication functions. An optional Measurement While Drilling (MWD) interface can provide two-way communication of critical operating parameters such as hydraulic pressure and piston location. This information can then be telemetered to the surface, or used downhole to autonomously control system parameters such as anchor and thrust force or damping characteristics.

  10. Drilling Square Holes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Scott G.

    1993-01-01

    A Reuleaux triangle is constructed by drawing an arc connecting each pair of vertices of an equilateral triangle with radius equal to the side of the triangle. Investigates the application of drilling a square hole using a drill bit in the shape of a Reuleaux triangle. (MDH)