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Sample records for perdas interna subsidiando

  1. Perda de massa em ventos empoeirados de estrelas supergigantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidotto, A. A.; Jatenco-Pereira, V.

    2003-08-01

    Em praticamente todas as regiões do diagrama HR, as estrelas apresentam evidências observacionais de perda de massa. Na literatura, pode-se encontrar trabalhos que tratam tanto do diagnóstico da perda de massa como da construção de modelos que visam explicá-la. O amortecimento de ondas Alfvén tem sido utilizado como mecanismo de aceleração de ventos homogêneos. Entretanto, sabe-se que os envelopes de estrelas frias contêm grãos sólidos e moléculas. Com o intuito de estudar a interação entre as ondas Alfvén e a poeira e a sua conseqüência na aceleração do vento estelar, Falceta-Gonçalves & Jatenco-Pereira (2002) desenvolveram um modelo de perda de massa para estrelas supergigantes. Neste trabalho, apresentamos um estudo do modelo acima proposto para avaliar a dependência da taxa de perda de massa com alguns parâmetros iniciais como, por exemplo, a densidade r0, o campo magnético B0, o comprimento de amortecimento da onda L0, seu fluxo f0, entre outros. Sendo assim, aumentando f0 de 10% a partir de valores de referência, vimos que aumenta consideravelmente, enquanto que um aumento de mesmo valor em r0, B0 e L0 acarreta uma diminuição em .

  2. Ultrastructure of the theca interna of ovarian follicles in sheep.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, J D; Cran, D G; Hay, M F; Moor, R M

    1978-03-13

    The theca interna of non-atretic ovarian follicles from 2.0 mm in diameter up to the stage shortly following ovulation was studied by light and electron microscopy. In follicles less than 3.0 mm in diameter, the theca interna consisted of about 8-12 layers of flattened cells, together with many capillaries and small bundles of collagen. Two main forms of cellular differentiation were seen. These were towards either fibroblast-like cells or presumed steroidogenic cells whose cytoplasm contained large amounts of predominantly smooth tubular endoplasmic reticulum, to which some ribosomes were attached. The majority of cells were of relatively undifferentiated or intermediate structure. In larger follicles up to the early stages of oestrus the theca interna cells became larger and less flattened, and cells rich in tubular endoplasmic reticulum became proportionately more numerous. By 18 h after the onset of oestrus the theca interna was oedematous, and many cells possessed pseudopodia. Many cells also contained numerous lipid droplets, but there were no signs of thecal cell degeneration or death. Shortly after ovulation the basal lamina of the membrana granulosa was incomplete, and it became more difficult to distinguish between theca and granulosa layers. Structural heterogeneity, with two major cell types and cells of intermediate structure, was present at all stages. It was concluded that: (1) the theca interna of 2.0-2.9 mm follicles contained many cells whose structure was compatible with a steroidogenic capacity; (2) changes in the differentiated thecal cells up to the early stages of oestrus were quantitative rather than qualitative, and suggestive of an increased steroidogenic capacity; (3) the accumulation of lipid in many cells of the theca interna by 18 h after the onset of oestrus probably reflected a reduction in steroidogenic activity; and (4) there was no evidence of any structural specialization to facilitate the transport of steroids from the theca

  3. Theca interna: the other side of bovine follicular atresia.

    PubMed

    Clark, Leigh J; Irving-Rodgers, Helen F; Dharmarajan, Arun M; Rodgers, Raymond J

    2004-10-01

    Currently, histological classifications of ovarian follicular atresia are almost exclusively based on the morphology of the membrana granulosa without reference to the theca interna. Atresia in the bovine small antral ovarian follicle has been redefined into antral or basal atresia where cell death commences initially within antral or basal regions of the membrana granulosa, respectively. To examine cell death in the theca interna in the two types of atretic follicles, bovine ovaries were collected and processed for immunohistochemistry and light microscopy. Follicles were classified as healthy, antral atretic, or basal atretic. Follicle diameter was recorded and sections stained with lectin from Bandeiraea simplicifolia to identify endothelial cells or with an antibody to cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage to identify steroidogenic cells and combined with TUNEL labeling to identify dead cells. The numerical density of steroidogenic cells within the theca interna was significantly reduced (P < 0.001) in basal atretic follicles in comparison with other follicles. Cell death was greater in both endothelial cells (P < 0.05) and steroidogenic cells (P < 0.01) of the theca interna of basal atretic follicles compared with healthy and antral atretic follicles. Thus, we conclude that the theca interna is susceptible to cell death early in atresia, particularly in basal atretic follicles. PMID:15175236

  4. Hyperostosis frontalis interna in a Neandertal from Marillac (Charente, France).

    PubMed

    Garralda, María Dolores; Maureille, Bruno; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    2014-02-01

    The site of Marillac (Charente, France) has yielded an important stratigraphic sequence containing numerous Neandertal remains (some of them with peri-mortem manipulations) from lithofacies 2 (Quina Mousterian). This level has been correlated with MIS 4 and is associated with a TL date of 57,600 ± 4600 years BP (before present). The study of one of the cranial fragments (Marillac 3) revealed a grade 2 or Type B Hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI), remodelling and altering the internal table of the thick frontal bone. This pathology has been analysed macroscopically together with radiography and sections made using a microscanner and a scanner. The development of the HFI is compared with published evidence for Sangiran 3 (Homo erectus), two other Neandertals (Forbes' Quarry and Shanidar 5), and several archaeological samples. Forbes' Quarry seems to display more advanced HFI than either Shanidar 5 or Marillac 3. The three Neandertals may be considered mature individuals (≥40 years) and it seems likely that the aetiology of this pathology may be associated with hormonal alterations, as has been suggested for past and extant populations. While the prevalence of HFI in contemporary post-menopausal women is well documented, the identification of HFI amongst males from several archaeological samples (Neanderthals, Ancient Egypt, Syrian Bronze Age or the Anasazi), with different stages of development, confirm that the pathology affected both sexes in past populations. Additional data and research are still needed to elucidate the etiopathogenesis of this illness and to better understand the relationship between environmental factors and their possible influences/consequences for the development of metabolic disorders in prehistoric populations. PMID:24491378

  5. Transcriptome Profiling of the Theca Interna in Transition from Small to Large Antral Ovarian Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Hatzirodos, Nicholas; Hummitzsch, Katja; Irving-Rodgers, Helen F.; Rodgers, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    The theca interna layer of the ovarian follicle forms during the antral stage of follicle development and lies adjacent to and directly outside the follicular basal lamina. It supplies androgens and communicates with the granulosa cells and the oocyte by extracellular signaling. To better understand developmental changes in the theca interna, we undertook transcriptome profiling of the theca interna from small (3–5 mm, n = 10) and large (9–12 mm, n = 5) healthy antral bovine follicles, representing a calculated >7-fold increase in the amount of thecal tissue. Principal Component Analysis and hierarchical classification of the signal intensity plots for the arrays showed no clustering of the theca interna samples into groups depending on follicle size or subcategories of small follicles. From the over 23,000 probe sets analysed, only 76 were differentially expressed between large and small healthy follicles. Some of the differentially expressed genes were associated with processes such as myoblast differentiation, protein ubiquitination, nitric oxide and transforming growth factor β signaling. The most significant pathway affected from our analyses was found to be Wnt signaling, which was suppressed in large follicles via down-regulation of WNT2B and up-regulation of the inhibitor FRZB. These changes in the transcriptional profile could have been due to changes in cellular function or alternatively since the theca interna is composed of a number of different cell types it could have been due to any systematic change in the volume density of any particular cell type. However, our study suggests that the transcriptional profile of the theca interna is relatively stable during antral follicle development unlike that of granulosa cells observed previously. Thus both the cellular composition and cellular behavior of the theca interna and its contribution to follicular development appear to be relatively constant throughout the follicle growth phase examined

  6. [Anales de Medicina Interna: standardization, dissemination and bibliometric indicators. (I) Standards evaluation].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Pérez, R; Delgado López-Cozar, E; Jiménez Contreras, E

    1997-08-01

    The evaluation of scientific journal has become a necessary exercise for a variety of purposes and parties. We evaluated compliance with ISO standards for periodicals by the Spanish biomedical journal An. Med. Interna. Compliance with 136 data items based on different standards was evaluated with the help of a specially developed data sheet, and expressed as overall mean compliance (49.2%) and actual mean compliance (83.4%), i.e., compliance with those items considered necessary for the effective transfer of information via data bases. Items for which standardization was not optimal were examined in detail and specific recommendations for correction were given. We conclude that An. Med. Interna effectively fulfills its mission as an instrument for the communication of research results. In comparison with Spanish journals covering different areas and published by different organizations, compliance with international standards was better in An. Med. Interna. PMID:9376476

  7. Transcriptome Profiling of the Theca Interna from Bovine Ovarian Follicles during Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Hatzirodos, Nicholas; Irving-Rodgers, Helen F.; Hummitzsch, Katja; Rodgers, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    The theca interna is a specialized stromal layer that envelops each growing ovarian follicle. It contains capillaries, fibroblasts, immune cells and the steroidogenic cells that synthesize androgens for conversion to estradiol by the neighboring granulosa cells. During reproductive life only a small number of follicles will grow to a sufficient size to ovulate, whereas the majority of follicles will undergo regression/atresia and phagocytosis by macrophages. To identify genes which are differentially regulated in the theca interna during follicular atresia, we undertook transcriptome profiling of the theca interna from healthy (n = 10) and antral atretic (n = 5) bovine follicles at early antral stages (<5 mm). Principal Component Analyses and hierarchical classification of the signal intensity plots for the arrays showed primary clustering into two groups, healthy and atretic. A total of 543 probe sets were differentially expressed between the atretic and healthy theca interna. Further analyses of these genes by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and Gene Ontology Enrichment Analysis Toolkit software found most of the genes being expressed were related to cytokines, hormones and receptors as well as the cell cycle and DNA replication. Cell cycle genes which encode components of the replicating chromosome complex and mitotic spindle were down-regulated in atretic theca interna, whereas stress response and inflammation-related genes such as TP53, IKBKB and TGFB1 were up-regulated. In addition to cell cycle regulators, upstream regulators that were predicted to be inhibited included Retinoblastoma 1, E2 transcription factor 1, and hepatocyte growth factor. Our study suggests that during antral atresia of small follicles in the theca interna, arrest of cell cycle and DNA replication occurs rather than up- regulation of apoptosis-associated genes as occurs in granulosa cells. PMID:24956388

  8. Appearance of hyperostosis frontalis interna on indium-111 leukocyte scans: potential diagnostic pitfall

    SciTech Connect

    Floyd, J.L.; Jackson, D.E. Jr.; Carretta, R.

    1986-04-01

    The appearance of hyperostosis frontalis interna on an (/sup 111/In)leukocyte scan is reported. Recognition of the potential for normal accumulation of 111In-labeled white blood cells within this common process involving the skull is necessary to avoid misdiagnosis.

  9. [Anales de Medicina Interna: standardization, dissemination and bibliometric indicators. (II) Bibliometric analysis].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Contreras, E; Delgado López-Cozar, E; Ruiz Pérez, R

    1997-08-01

    National and international diffusion, composition of the collective of authors who publish in the journal, and cocitation were studies for the journal An. Med. Interna. Diffusion was analyzed by examining the presence of the journal in medical data bases and specialized libraries in Spain. The institutional affiliations and geographical location of authors were determined on the basis of the affiliations given in the article by-lines. The journal is included in the major medical data bases and in approximately 80% of the libraries studied. The predominant professional affiliation among authors was clinical (hospital); the geographical origin of the authors (expressed as a percentage of all authors) approximately paralleled the volume of scientific publications generated by each of Spain's 17 autonomous regions. The cocitation study showed that An. Med. Interna ranked somewhere in the middle of the group' of 38 Spanish medical journals considered representative of research being done in Spain. PMID:9376477

  10. Globus Pallidus Interna Deep Brain Stimulation in a Patient with Medically Intractable Meige Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Dae-Woong; Son, Byung-chul; Kim, Joong-Seok

    2014-01-01

    Medical therapies in patients with Meige syndrome, including botulinum toxin injection, have been limited because of incomplete response or adverse side effects. We evaluated a patient with Meige syndrome who was successfully treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the globus pallidus interna (GPi). This case report and other previous reports suggest that bilateral GPi DBS may be an effective treatment for medically refractory Meige syndrome, without significant adverse effects. PMID:25360233

  11. Delayed cerebritis after bilateral stereotactic implantation of globus pallidus interna electrodes for treatment of dystonia.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Pawel P; Lessig, Stephanie; Nguyen, Andrew D; Barba, David

    2013-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is being used to treat an increasing number of movement and psychiatric disorders. However, the risk of infection remains as a problem that can hinder the usefulness of this technology. We report a case of a patient with dystonia who underwent bilateral globus pallidus interna electrode and impulse generator (IPG) placement, developed an infection of his IPG, and later cerebritis. The patient was initially treated with antibiotics and partial hardware removal. Follow-up cranial imaging showed an area concerning for cerebritis around one of the intracranial electrodes. The patient was then treated with complete hardware removal followed by a course of intravenous antibiotics. Four-month follow-up imaging showed resolution of the infection. This case demonstrates the importance of following cranial imaging in DBS patients with delayed infection, continued vigilance for infection in implanted patients and that partial hardware removal may not be successful in the setting of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus infections. PMID:23378545

  12. Transcriptome comparisons identify new cell markers for theca interna and granulosa cells from small and large antral ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Hatzirodos, Nicholas; Hummitzsch, Katja; Irving-Rodgers, Helen F; Rodgers, Raymond J

    2015-01-01

    In studies using isolated ovarian granulosa and thecal cells it is important to assess the degree of cross contamination. Marker genes commonly used for granulosa cells include FSHR, CYP19A1 and AMH while CYP17A1 and INSL3 are used for thecal cells. To increase the number of marker genes available we compared expression microarray data from isolated theca interna with that from granulosa cells of bovine small (n = 10 for both theca and granulosa cells; 3-5 mm) and large (n = 4 for both theca and granulosa cells, > 9 mm) antral follicles. Validation was conducted by qRT-PCR analyses. Known markers such as CYP19A1, FSHR and NR5A2 and another 11 genes (LOC404103, MGARP, GLDC, CHST8, CSN2, GPX3, SLC35G1, CA8, CLGN, FAM78A, SLC16A3) were common to the lists of the 50 most up regulated genes in granulosa cells from both follicle sizes. The expression in theca interna was more consistent than in granulosa cells between the two follicle sizes. Many genes up regulated in theca interna were common to both sizes of follicles (MGP, DCN, ASPN, ALDH1A1, COL1A2, FN1, COL3A1, OGN, APOD, COL5A2, IGF2, NID1, LHFP, ACTA2, DUSP12, ACTG2, SPARCL1, FILIP1L, EGFLAM, ADAMDEC1, HPGD, COL12A1, FBLN5, RAMP2, COL15A1, PLK2, COL6A3, LOXL1, RARRES1, FLI1, LAMA2). Many of these were stromal extracellular matrix genes. MGARP, GLDC, CHST8, GPX3 were identified as new potential markers for granulosa cells, while FBLN5, OGN, RAMP2 were significantly elevated in the theca interna. PMID:25775029

  13. Transcriptome Comparisons Identify New Cell Markers for Theca Interna and Granulosa Cells from Small and Large Antral Ovarian Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Hatzirodos, Nicholas; Hummitzsch, Katja; Irving-Rodgers, Helen F.; Rodgers, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    In studies using isolated ovarian granulosa and thecal cells it is important to assess the degree of cross contamination. Marker genes commonly used for granulosa cells include FSHR, CYP19A1 and AMH while CYP17A1 and INSL3 are used for thecal cells. To increase the number of marker genes available we compared expression microarray data from isolated theca interna with that from granulosa cells of bovine small (n = 10 for both theca and granulosa cells; 3-5 mm) and large (n = 4 for both theca and granulosa cells, > 9 mm) antral follicles. Validation was conducted by qRT-PCR analyses. Known markers such as CYP19A1, FSHR and NR5A2 and another 11 genes (LOC404103, MGARP, GLDC, CHST8, CSN2, GPX3, SLC35G1, CA8, CLGN, FAM78A, SLC16A3) were common to the lists of the 50 most up regulated genes in granulosa cells from both follicle sizes. The expression in theca interna was more consistent than in granulosa cells between the two follicle sizes. Many genes up regulated in theca interna were common to both sizes of follicles (MGP, DCN, ASPN, ALDH1A1, COL1A2, FN1, COL3A1, OGN, APOD, COL5A2, IGF2, NID1, LHFP, ACTA2, DUSP12, ACTG2, SPARCL1, FILIP1L, EGFLAM, ADAMDEC1, HPGD, COL12A1, FBLN5, RAMP2, COL15A1, PLK2, COL6A3, LOXL1, RARRES1, FLI1, LAMA2). Many of these were stromal extracellular matrix genes. MGARP, GLDC, CHST8, GPX3 were identified as new potential markers for granulosa cells, while FBLN5, OGN, RAMP2 were significantly elevated in the theca interna. PMID:25775029

  14. Hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI) and castration: the case of the famous singer Farinelli (1705–1782)

    PubMed Central

    Belcastro, Maria Giovanna; Todero, Antonio; Fornaciari, Gino; Mariotti, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    The famous castrato singer Farinelli (1705–1782) was exhumed by our research group in July 2006 for the purpose of gaining some insight into his biological profile through a study of his skeletal remains. Farinelli was castrated before puberty to preserve the treble pitch of the boy's voice into adult life. His powerful and sweet voice became legendary. In spite of its bad preservation state, the skeleton displayed some interesting characteristics that are probably related to the effects of castration, including long limb-bones, persistence of epiphyseal lines and osteoporosis. In particular, the frontal bone was affected by severe hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI). This condition consists in a symmetrical thickening of the inner table of the bone. The epidemiology of HFI shows that it is relatively common in postmenopausal women but very rare in men. Men affected by this pathology suffer from diseases, syndromes or treatments causing androgen deficiency. In the case of Farinelli, castration was probably responsible for the onset and development of this lesion. PMID:21740437

  15. Preliminary evidence for human globus pallidus pars interna neurons signaling reward and sensory stimuli.

    PubMed

    Howell, Nicholas A; Prescott, Ian A; Lozano, Andres M; Hodaie, Mojgan; Voon, Valerie; Hutchison, William D

    2016-07-22

    The globus pallidus pars interna (GPi) is a component of the basal ganglia, a network of subcortical nuclei that process motor, associative, and limbic information. While non-human primate studies have suggested a role for the GPi in non-motor functions, there have been no single-unit studies of non-motor electrophysiological behavior of human GPi neurons. We therefore sought to extend these findings by collecting single-unit recordings from awake patients during functional stereotactic neurosurgery targeting the GPi for deep brain stimulation. To assess cellular responses to non-motor information, patients performed a reward task where virtual money could be won, lost, or neither, depending on their performance while cellular activity was monitored. Changes in the firing rates of isolated GPi neurons after the presentation of reward-related stimuli were compared between different reward contingencies (win, loss, null). We observed neurons that modulated their firing rate significantly to the presentation of reward-related stimuli. We furthermore found neurons that responded to visual-stimuli more broadly. This is the first single-unit evidence of human GPi neurons carrying non-motor information. These results are broadly consistent with previous findings in the animal literature and suggest non-motor information may be represented in the single-unit activity of human GPi neurons. PMID:27109924

  16. Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography, Wide-Field Photography, and Fundus Autofluorescence Correlation of Posterior Ophthalmomyiasis Interna.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Yannis M; Butler, Nicholas J

    2016-07-01

    Posterior ophthalmomyiasis interna is a rare, potentially devastating infestation of the posterior segment by fly larvae. The authors report the first demonstration of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) (Spectralis; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany), wide-field angiography (Optos, Dunfermline, Scotland) and photography, and fundus autofluorescence with temporal progression during a period of 6 months. A 12-year-old white female presented with acute, painless vision loss with hand motions visual acuity. No larva was visible, so she was treated with oral ivermectin. Visual acuity improved to 20/80. OCT demonstrated hyporeflective spaces of the outer retina and retinal pigment epithelium, which resolved during 1-month period with improved ellipsoid layer by 6 months. Fundus autofluorescence demonstrated linear hypoautofluorescent tracks. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:682-685.]. PMID:27434903

  17. Neuronal discharge patterns in the globus pallidus pars interna in a patient with Parkinson's disease and hemiballismus secondary to subthalamotomy.

    PubMed

    Cerquetti, Daniel; Obeso, José Angel; Merello, Marcelo

    2011-09-01

    Alterations in the basal ganglia-thalamocortical "motor" circuit activity, have been proposed to explain many features associated with hypokinetic and hyperkinetic movement disorders. We describe the firing pattern of the globus pallidus pars interna in a Parkinson disease's patient who developed Hemichorea-Ballismus subsequent to ipsilateral subthalamotomy, and compare findings to those from PD patients submitted to pallidotomy while in the OFF-medication state. Single units obtained from extracellular recordings were extracted and mean discharge frequency, interspike interval and coefficient of variation (defined as Tonicity Score) were computed. Discharge density histograms, analysis of distribution and spectral analysis were also performed. Mean firing frequency showed no significant difference between PD patients in the OFF state and the patient we report. However, a significant difference in tonicity was found for this patient characterized by a regular, non-bursting firing pattern. The findings indicate that in HB caused by lesions to STN in the parkinsonian state, GPi firing rates can be similar to and firing pattern more regular than those observed in GPi of PD patients OFF-medication with intact STN. PMID:21786135

  18. Localization of the gene for hyperostosis cranialis interna to chromosome 8p21 with analysis of three candidate genes.

    PubMed

    Borra, V M; Waterval, J J; Stokroos, R J; Manni, J J; Van Hul, W

    2013-07-01

    Hyperostosis cranialis interna (HCI) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by intracranial hyperostosis and osteosclerosis, which is confined to the skull, especially the calvarium and the skull base. The rest of the skeleton is not affected. Progressive bone overgrowth causes nerve entrapment that leads to recurrent facial nerve palsy, disturbance of the sense of smell, hearing and vision impairments, impairment of facial sensibility, and disturbance of balance due to vestibular areflexia. The treatment is symptomatic. Histomorphological investigations showed increased bone formation with a normal tissue structure. Biochemical parameters were normal. Until today the disease has been described in only three related Dutch families with common progenitors and which consist of 32 individuals over five generations. HCI was observed in 12 family members over four generations. Patients are mildly to severely affected. Besides HCI, several bone dysplasias with hyperostosis and sclerosis of the craniofacial bones are known. Examples are Van Buchem disease, sclerosteosis, craniometaphyseal dysplasia, and Camurati-Engelmann disease. However, in these cases the long bones are affected as well. Linkage analysis in a family with HCI resulted in the localization of the disease-causing gene to a region on chromosome 8p21 delineated by markers D8S282 and D8S382. Interesting candidate genes in this region are BMP1, LOXL2, and ADAM28. Sequence analysis of these genes did not reveal any putative mutations. This suggests that a gene not previously involved in a sclerosing bone dysplasia is responsible for the abnormal growth in the skull of these patients. PMID:23640157

  19. Cambios históricos en el aporte terrígeno de la cuenca del Río de la Plata sobre la plataforma interna Uruguaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero, Analía; Tudurí, Adriana; Pérez, Laura; Cuña, Caroline; Muniz, Pablo; Lopes Figueira, Rubens; Michaelovitch de Mahiques, Michel; Alves de Lima Ferreira, Paulo; Pittauerová, Daniela; Hanebuth, Till; García Rodríguez, Felipe

    2014-12-01

    El Río de la Plata (RdlP) presenta significativas variaciones naturales (hidrodinámicas y oceanográficas) asociadas a diferentes condiciones climáticas. El propósito de este trabajo es inferir los cambios de aportes continentales de sedimentos y su relación con las variaciones hidrológicas del Río de la Plata, a través del análisis de proxies sedimentológicos y geoquímicos en testigos de sedimentos de la plataforma interna uruguaya que registran los últimos 100 años, aproximadamente. A partir de la datación por 210Pb de dos testigos de sedimentos (GeoB 13813-4 y BAR1) se reconstruyó la geocronología del ambiente, y se relacionó con datos de las forzantes climáticas Pacific Decadal Oscillation, El Niño/La Niña Southern Oscillation, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, y las anomalías hidrológicas de los ríos Paraná y Uruguay. Los valores más positivos y estables del Southern Oscillation Index, los cuales corresponden a fases La Niña, se observan en el periodo correspondiente entre 1910-1970, respecto al resto de la serie, donde se aprecia una mayor variabilidad y una tendencia hacia valores más negativos (eventos El Niño). Se hicieron dendrogramas (clustering) jerárquicos para ambos testigos. Para el testigo GeoB 13813-4, se utilizó la relación Ca/Ti y la granulometría, mientras que para BAR1 se recurrió a variables granulométricas y la tasa de sedimentación. El mayor aporte continental hacia la región de la plataforma adyacente al Río de la Plata registrado a partir del año 1970, podría ser el factor principal de los agrupamientos observados en los clusters para ambos testigos. Las agrupaciones mostraron una diferenciación en la década de 1970, lo que estaría asociado al aumento de los caudales de los ríos Paraná y Uruguay, durante las últimas tres décadas del siglo XX. Por otra parte se observa que la granulometría del testigo BAR1 presentó un mayor tamaño de grano y más variabilidad que en el caso del testigo Geo

  20. [New data on the pathogenesis of endometriosis interna].

    PubMed

    Damirov, M M; Kulakov, V I; Bakuleva, L P; Shabanov, A M; Sliusar', N N; Sarkisov, S E

    1993-01-01

    Eighty-six patients with histologically verified internal endometriosis were examined using histochemical, morphometric methods, and measurements of blood and myometrial tissue phosphatidyl inosites. Blood levels of phosphatidyl inosites were found reliably decreased in the patients vs. normal subjects, whereas their levels in myometrial tissue were significantly increased. Increased counts of tissue basophils, microcirculation disorders, lymphostasis and membranogenic stromal edema development were observed round endometriosis foci. Changes in the basic substance and fibrous structures of myometrial connective tissue complex were revealed, most marked in the areas adjacent to the endometrium. A possible mechanism of the development of pathologic shifts in internal endometriosis is discussed. PMID:8250133

  1. Riprese CCD della chioma interna della cometa Ikeya-Zhang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comolli, Lorenzo

    2003-03-01

    During the period of maximum brightness of comet Ikeya-Zhang we acquired many unsaturated CCD images thanks to a period of good weather. The series of images of about 2 weeks can be animated so that changes in the inner coma are made evident. Elaborations with Larson-Sekanina filter and masking filters evidence details like concentric halos, jets and shells.

  2. Comparison of Various Radiation Therapy Techniques in Breast Cancer Where Target Volume Includes Mammaria Interna Region

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, Mehmet Hakan; Zincircioglu, Seyit Burhanedtin Zorlu, Faruk

    2009-04-01

    In breast cancer radiotherapy, the internal mammary lymphatic chain is treated in the target volume in a group of patients with high-risk criteria. Because of the variability of the anatomic region and structures in the irradiation field, there are a number of different techniques in breast radiotherapy. While irradiating the target volume, we also consider minimizing the dose to critical structures such as heart, lung, and contralateral breast tissue. In this study, we evaluated the dose distribution of different radiotherapy techniques in patients with left-sided breast cancer who had breast-conserving surgery. A three-dimensional computerized planning system (3DCPS) was used for each patient to compare wide-field, oblique photon-electron, and perpendicular photon-electron techniques in terms of dose homogeneities in the target volume; the doses received by the contralateral breast, heart, and lung; and the coverage of the internal mammary chain. Data from 3DCPS were controlled by the Rando-phantom and thermoluminescence dosimetry. Critical structures were irradiated with acceptable dose percentages in addition to the internal mammary chain with both wide-field and photon-electron techniques. We detected more frequent hot spots in the oblique photon-electron technique than in the other techniques, and this situation necessitated changing the junctions. The wide-field technique was easy to perform and exposed less radiation dose to the heart than photon-electron techniques. In conclusion, we suggest the use of the wide-field technique in breast irradiation when the internal mammary area is in the target volume.

  3. [The clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment of the corpus-isthmus location of uterine endometriosis interna].

    PubMed

    Damirov, M M; Kulakov, V I; Bakuleva, L P; Shabanov, A M; Sarkisov, S E; Sliusar', N N

    1993-01-01

    The authors analyze the results of comprehensive examinations and treatment of 79 patients with corporal isthmic adenomyosis. Comprehensive examinations making use of clinical, instrumental (hysteroscopy, hysterosalpingography, echography), biochemical (measurements of blood and myometrial phosphatidylinosites), and morphologic methods are needed for a reliable diagnosis of this condition. Blood phosphatidylinosite measurements may be used as an objective test to assess the efficacy of hormonal therapy. Trental and lipostabil forte are advisable for adenomyosis therapy. If amputation of the uterus has to be resorted to, intraoperative histologic express testing of the lower edge of the uterus for endometriosis may help choose the optimal volume of surgical intervention and prevent extirpation of the uterus that is not at all neutral for the body. PMID:8048686

  4. [The dynamics of the rapid changes in the phospholipids of the whole blood and blood cells in patients with endometriosis interna].

    PubMed

    Kulakov, V I; Sliusar', N N; Bakuleva, L P; Damirov, M M; Kargapolov, A V

    1993-01-01

    Time course of rapid changes in blood phospholipids and blood cells was studied in 44 patients with endometriosis. Rapid reversible blood phospholipid changes were observed when these patients' red cells and lymphocytes were incubated with calcium chloride. Time course of rapid changes in phosphoinosites, sphyngomyelines, phosphatidylserines, phosphlatidylethanolamines of patients' red and white blood cells, whole blood, and myometrial tissue differed significantly from that in healthy women. The authors suppose that cellular proliferation processes in endometriosis are connected with phospholipid homeostasis disorders in blood cells and tissue. PMID:8250135

  5. 50 CFR 648.86 - NE Multispecies possession restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... common pool sub-ACL in that fishing year. (2) Possession restrictions to facilitate harvest of sub-ACLs..., a per-DAS possession limit and/or a maximum trip limit in order to facilitate harvest and enable...

  6. Mission Simulators

    NASA Video Gallery

    Students will use NASA Web-based simulators to follow sequenced directions and complete ordered tasks while learning how the shuttle is made ready for flight, how the shuttle docks with the Interna...

  7. Future of Human Space Exploration

    NASA Video Gallery

    Now that the Space Shuttle era is over, NASA is writing the next chapters in human Spaceflight with its commercial and international partners. It is advancing research and technology on the Interna...

  8. Topographic characterisation of dental implants for commercial use

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Arnau, Amparo; Vallecillo-Capilla, Manuel-Francisco; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, Miguel-Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Background To characterize the surface topography of several dental implants for commercial use. Material and Methods Dental implants analyzed were Certain (Biomet 3i), Tissue Level (Straumann), Interna (BTI), MG-InHex (MozoGrau), SPI (Alphabio) and Hikelt (Bioner). Surface topography was ascertained using a confocal microscope with white light. Roughness parameters obtained were: Ra, Rq, Rv, Rp, Rt, Rsk and Rku. The results were analysed using single-factor ANOVA and Student-Neuman-Keuls(p<0.05) tests. Results Certain and Hikelt obtained the highest Ra and Rq scores, followed by Tissue Level. Interna and SPI obtained lower scores, and MG-InHex obtained the lowest score. Rv scores followed the same trend. Certain obtained the highest Rp score, followed by SPI and Hikelt, then Interna and Tissue Level. MG-InHex obtained the lowest scores. Certain obtained the highest Rt score, followed by Interna and Hikelt, then SPI and Tissue Level. The lowest scores were for MG-InHex. Rsk was negative (punctured surface) in the MG-InHex, SPI and Tissue Level systems, and positive (pointed surface) in the other systems. Rku was higher than 3 (Leptokurtic) in Tissue Level, Interna, MG-InHex and SPI, and lower than 3 (Platykurtic) in Certain and Hikelt. Conclusions The type of implant determines surface topography, and there are differences in the roughness parameters of the various makes of implants for clinical use. Key words:Implants for clinical use, topography, confocal microscopy. PMID:27475680

  9. Key Issue: Increasing Teacher Retention to Facilitate the Equitable Distribution of Effective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasagna, Molly

    2009-01-01

    The term "teacher retention" refers to the ability to keep teachers on the job. In other words, it is the ability to reduce or eliminate teacher turnover. "Turnover" refers to the migration of teachers between schools or districts "and" the attrition of teachers from the profession (Ingersoll & Perda, 2009). From the perspective of a principal,…

  10. How the Cultural Contexts of Urban Teaching Affect Novice Science Educators: Implications for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Marlina

    2014-01-01

    While the challenge to retain highly competent teachers affects all schools, the crisis is critical in urban districts, which historically suffer from high teacher turnover (Ingersoll, 2004). This high turnover is especially problematic in the content areas of science (Ingersoll & Perda, 2010). Through ethnographic case studies the first year…

  11. Comprehensive School Reform & Student Achievement in Kentucky Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans-Andris, Melissa; Usui, Wayne M.

    2008-01-01

    This project examines the effects of Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) models on the achievement of students in Kentucky middle schools. Previous studies exploring the effects of CSR on schools and student achievement have rendered mixed results (Berends, 2000; May & Supovitz, 2006; May, Supovitz, & Perda, 2004; RAND, 2002; Zhang, Shkolnik, &…

  12. How to: applying and interpreting the SWAT autocalibration tools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watershed-level modelers have expressed a need, through ongoing discussions within the USDA-ARS Conservation Effects Assessment Program and the broader international research community, for a better understanding of uncertainty related to hard-to-measure input parameters and to the remaining interna...

  13. Coatings Guide

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Coatings Guide is a free online information resource that focuses on alternative, low-emission coatings for metal, plastic, and architectural substrates. Developed cooperatively by the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development and Research Triangle Institute (RTI) Interna...

  14. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: IN SITU MITIGATION OF MERCURY CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER IN KAZAKHSTAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract for EPA Science Forum.

    The EPA Office of International Affairs is managing a U.S. State Department -funded project to redirect former Soviet Union biological weapons scientists. Scientists in countries of the former Soviet Union receive funding through the Interna...

  15. Psychiatric and Cognitive Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Nassery, Adam; Palmese, Christina A; Sarva, Harini; Groves, Mark; Miravite, Joan; Kopell, Brian Harris

    2016-10-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is effective for Parkinson's disease (PD), dystonia, and essential tremor (ET). While motor benefits are well documented, cognitive and psychiatric side effects from the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus interna (GPi) DBS for PD are increasingly recognized. Underlying disease, medications, microlesions, and post-surgical stimulation likely all contribute to non-motor symptoms (NMS). PMID:27539167

  16. A comparison of internal and external lipids of nondiapausing and diapause initiation phase adult Colorado potato beetles, Leptinotarsa decemlineata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, reared under diapause inducing conditions will emerge from the soil as an adult and enter the diapause initiation phase, a period where metabolic reserves are stockpiled before the beetles enter the nonfeeding diapause maintenance phase. Interna...

  17. Modelagem do vento e da fotosfera de AG Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groh, J. H.; Damineli, A.

    2003-08-01

    A trajetória evolutiva das estrelas de alta massa depende fortemente de suas taxas de perda de massa. Apesar do rápido progresso no estudo destas estrelas, a taxa de perda de massa e outros parâmetros físicos básicos, como a temperatura superficial e a velocidade terminal do vento ainda não estão bem determinados. Isto ocorre devido à presença de ventos irregulares, rápidos e fortes ao redor destas estrelas, tornando a interpretação dos seus espectros uma tarefa difícil. Assim, a modelagem do vento e da fotosfera dessas estrelas está sendo cada vez mais usada para obter tais parâmetros a partir dos espectros. O aumento da taxa de perda de massa durante a fase LBV (Variáveis Luminosas Azuis), comparado com outros tipos de estrelas, tem sido atribuído a instabilidades do tipo S Doradus. Dispomos de uma base de dados espectroscópicos cobrindo 22 anos de observações de AG Carinae, incluindo um ciclo S Doradus completo, com espectros CCD em alta resolução na faixa óptica e infravermelha. Utilizamos o programa desenvolvido por Schmutz (1997) para uma análise preliminar desse ciclo, obtendo a taxa de perda de massa a partir da linha do Ha. Não existe uma correlação clara da taxa de perda de massa com mudanças da temperatura efetiva, do raio da estrela e do fluxo na banda V. A estrela atingiu seu mínimo fotométrico (raio mínimo) em 1990 e o máximo fotométrico (raio máximo) em 1995, enquanto que o fluxo máximo da linha do Ha ocorreu em 1996. Além disso a taxa de perda de massa não segue esse ciclo, contrariamente às idéias correntes. Para fazer um modelo mais realista estamos usando o programa CMFGEN (Hillier & Miller), que trata a fotosfera e o vento estelar de forma consistente, considerando a radiação fora do equilíbrio termodinâmico (NLTE) e com blanketting total de linhas. Simulamos o espectro de AG Carinae em duas épocas extremas do ciclo S Dor para testar os resultados obtidos com o modelo mais simplificado.

  18. First 3D reconstruction of the rhizocephalan root system using MicroCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noever, Christoph; Keiler, Jonas; Glenner, Henrik

    2016-07-01

    Parasitic barnacles (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala) are highly specialized parasites of crustaceans. Instead of an alimentary tract for feeding they utilize a system of roots, which infiltrates the body of their hosts to absorb nutrients. Using X-ray micro computer tomography (MicroCT) and computer-aided 3D-reconstruction, we document the spatial organization of this root system, the interna, inside the intact host and also demonstrate its use for morphological examinations of the parasites reproductive part, the externa. This is the first 3D visualization of the unique root system of the Rhizocephala in situ, showing how it is related to the inner organs of the host. We investigated the interna from different parasitic barnacles of the family Peltogastridae, which are parasitic on anomuran crustaceans. Rhizocephalan parasites of pagurid hermit crabs and lithodid crabs were analysed in this study.

  19. The fine structure of capillaries and small arteries.

    PubMed

    MOORE, D H; RUSKA, H

    1957-05-25

    Details of capillary endothelia of the mammalian heart are described and compared with capillaries of other organs and tissues. Continuous invagination and pinching off of the plasma membrane to form small vesicles which move across the cytoplasm are suggested as constituting a means of active and selective transmission through capillary walls (12). This might be designated as cytopempsis (transmission by cell). The fine structure of the different layers in the walls of small heart arteries is demonstrated. Endothelial protrusions extend through windows of the elestica interna to make direct contact with smooth muscle plasma membranes. The elastica interna appears to vary greatly in both thickness and density, and probably restricts filtration, diffusion, and osmosis to such an extent that windows and the transport mechanisms described (cytopempsis) are necessary for the functional integrity of the smooth muscle layer. The contractile material consists of very fine, poorly oriented filaments. PMID:13438930

  20. [Diagnostic references in osteo-archeology. The contribution of historical medical data].

    PubMed

    Charon, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Some examples of anatomo-radio-clinical (or medico-historical) collation, studied in the Dupuytren Museum of Paris, among osteoplastic conditions, including hyperostosis frontalis interna, fibrous dysplasia of bone, osteochondromas, angioma of bone and osteosarcomas, demonstrate how that triad allows to constitute more secure guidelines for the archaeologist who have not clinical data at his disposal. So, they encourage to support the defence and maintenance actions of such anatomico-pathological museums. PMID:21936216

  1. Inventario mundial de la calidad del carbon mineral (WoCQI) [The world coal quality inventory (WoCQI)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, R.B.; Lovern, V.S.

    2001-01-01

    Los oficiales encargados de la politica comercial de cada pais requieren informacion clara y precisa sobre el recurso del carbon mineral, particularmente sobre sus propiedades y caracteristicas, para tomar decisiones bien fundamentadas con respecto al mejor uso de los recursos naturales, necesidades de importacion y oportunidades de exportacion, objetivos de politica interna y externa, oportunidades de transferencia tecnologica, posibilidades de inversion externa, estudios ambientales y de salud, y asuntos relacionados con el uso de productos secundarios y su disposicion.

  2. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors in bovine cystic follicles.

    PubMed

    Isobe, N; Kitabayashi, M; Yoshimura, Y

    2008-06-01

    Cystic follicles have excess fluid derived from blood flow in the theca interna of the follicle; therefore, the vasculature network is related to cystic follicle formation. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent stimulator of blood vessel permeability and angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of VEGF receptors proteins and mRNA in cystic follicles to elucidate the VEGF system in cystic follicles. The expression of protein for VEGF receptors; fms-like-tyrosine kinase-1 (Flt-1) and foetal liver kinase-1 (Flk-1) was detected by the immunohistochemical method. The mRNA expression of Flt-1 and Flk-1 in cystic follicles was determined by RT-PCR. Concentration of oestradiol-17beta and progesterone in the follicular fluid of cystic follicles was determined using ELISA. Flt-1- and Flk-1 proteins were localized in granulosa and theca interna cells and endothelial cells of theca layers. The intensity of Flt-1 and Flk-1 immunoreaction was similar among cystic follicles with various ratios of oestradiol-17beta/progesterone concentrations. The expression of Flt-1 and Flk-1 mRNA was similar, regardless of the ratio of oestradiol-17beta to progesterone in follicular fluid. These results demonstrate that cystic follicles have both VEGF receptors in the granulosa and theca interna layers, which may be responsible for the increased permeability of microvessels, causing the accumulation of follicular fluid in cystic follicles. PMID:18042207

  3. Cranial arterial pattern of the Sri Lankan spotted chevrotain, Moschiola memmina, and comparative basicranial osteology of the Tragulidae

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The cranial arterial pattern of artiodactyls deviates significantly from the typical mammalian pattern. One of the most striking atypical features is the rete mirabile epidurale: a subdural arterial meshwork that functionally and anatomically replaces the arteria carotis interna. This meshwork facilitates an exceptional ability to cool the brain, and was thought to be present in all artiodactyls. Recent research, however, has found that species of mouse deer (Artiodactyla: Tragulidae) endemic to the Malay Archipelago possess a complete a. carotis interna instead of a rete mirabile epidurale. As tragulids are the sister group to pecoran ruminants, the lack of a rete mirabile epidurale in these species raises intriguing evolutionary questions about the origin and nature of artiodactyl thermoregulatory cranial vasculature. In this study, cranial arterial patterns are documented for the remaining species within the Tragulidae. Radiopaque latex vascular injection, computed tomography (CT-scanning), and digital 3-dimensional anatomical reconstruction are used to image the cranial arteries of a Sri Lankan spotted chevrotain, Moschiola meminna. Sites of hard and soft tissue interaction were identified, and these osteological correlates were then sought in nine skulls representative of the remaining tragulid species. Both hard and soft tissue surveys confirm that the presence of an a. carotis interna is the common condition for tragulids. Moreover, the use of a 3-D, radiographic anatomical imaging technique enabled identification of a carotico-maxillary anastomosis that may have implications for the evolution of the artiodactyl rete mirabile epidurale. PMID:26644983

  4. One map policy (OMP) implementation strategy to accelerate mapping of regional spatial planing (RTRW) in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasyim, Fuad; Subagio, Habib; Darmawan, Mulyanto

    2016-06-01

    A preparation of spatial planning documents require basic geospatial information and thematic accuracies. Recently these issues become important because spatial planning maps are impartial attachment of the regional act draft on spatial planning (PERDA). The needs of geospatial information in the preparation of spatial planning maps preparation can be divided into two major groups: (i). basic geospatial information (IGD), consist of of Indonesia Topographic maps (RBI), coastal and marine environmental maps (LPI), and geodetic control network and (ii). Thematic Geospatial Information (IGT). Currently, mostly local goverment in Indonesia have not finished their regulation draft on spatial planning due to some constrain including technical aspect. Some constrain in mapping of spatial planning are as follows: the availability of large scale ofbasic geospatial information, the availability of mapping guidelines, and human resources. Ideal conditions to be achieved for spatial planning maps are: (i) the availability of updated geospatial information in accordance with the scale needed for spatial planning maps, (ii) the guideline of mapping for spatial planning to support local government in completion their PERDA, and (iii) capacity building of local goverment human resources to completed spatial planning maps. The OMP strategies formulated to achieve these conditions are: (i) accelerating of IGD at scale of 1:50,000, 1: 25,000 and 1: 5,000, (ii) to accelerate mapping and integration of Thematic Geospatial Information (IGT) through stocktaking availability and mapping guidelines, (iii) the development of mapping guidelines and dissemination of spatial utilization and (iv) training of human resource on mapping technology.

  5. The fine structure of granules in eosinophil leucocytes from aquatic and terrestrial birds.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, M H

    1978-01-01

    The ultrastructure of eosinophil granules from various aquatic and terrestrial birds has been described. Granules of three basic types were found. The first had a crystalline internum and was found only in the order Anseriformes, which included the black-necked screamer, ducks, geese and swans. The crystals occurred in three morphological forms. The second and least common granule examined contained a non-crystalline internum which was either homogeneous or composed of microfilaments or microtubules. The largest and most common group of birds had a homogenous granule with no internum shown. Homogeneous granules occurred less frequently than did those with interna. PMID:566969

  6. Neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of itch.

    PubMed

    Wallengren, Joanna

    2005-01-01

    The specific pathway of "pure," histaminergic itch is traced from the mechano-insensitive nerve fibers in the skin to their central cortical projections. Neuropathic itch created at different levels of this anatomical pathway is reviewed. In this review the present author discusses damage to pruritoceptors in the skin, entrapment syndromes, damage to spinal ganglia, nerve root impingement, injury of the spinal cord, and cerebral damage in the distribution of the middle cerebral artery, capsula interna, or thalamus. Itch in inflamed skin resulting from interactions between nerve transmitters and other mediators of inflammation is described. PMID:16297000

  7. Dynamic changes in the expression of relaxin-like factor (INSL3), cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome p450, and 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in bovine ovarian follicles during growth and atresia.

    PubMed

    Irving-Rodgers, Helen F; Bathgate, Ross A D; Ivell, Richard; Domagalski, Roger; Rodgers, Raymond J

    2002-04-01

    Relaxin-like factor (RLF) is a new member of the insulin-relaxin gene family known to be expressed in the ovarian follicular thecal cells of ruminants. To investigate the pattern of RLF expression in development and atresia of bovine follicles, antisera were raised in rats and rabbits to recombinantly expressed bovine pro-RLF and to chemically synthesized ovine RLF B chain, respectively. On dot blotting analysis, the rat antiserum bound to pro-RLF and less strongly to a synthetic mature ovine RLF lacking the C-domain, whereas the rabbit antiserum bound the mature form of ovine RLF. These antisera were used to immunostain bovine ovarian follicles of differing sizes and stages of health and atresia. 3beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase was colocalized with pro-RLF (n = 86 follicles), and cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 was localized in another section of many of the same follicles (n = 66). Not all follicles expressed pro-RLF in the theca interna, so the results are presented as the proportion of follicles expressing pro-RLF. Both mature and pro-RLF were immunolocalized to steroidogenic thecal cells of healthy follicles. As follicles enlarged to >5 mm, the proportion expressing pro-RLF declined (19/19 for <5 mm and 18/26 for >6 mm). Atresia was divided into antral (antral granulosa cells dying first) or basal (basal cells dying first) and further divided into early, middle, and late. For antral atresia of small follicles (2-5 mm), no decline in the proportion expressing pro-RLF was observed (early 6/6, middle 2/2) until the late stages (1/4). For basal atresia, which only occurs in small follicles (2-5 mm), the proportion expressing pro-RLF declined in the middle (2/5) and late (0/8) stages. In larger follicles (>6 to <10 mm), the proportion expressing pro-RLF also declined with atresia (1/13). These declines in RLF expression with atresia or increasing size were not accompanied by a decline in the expression of steroidogenic enzymes in the theca

  8. Polarization vision in crayfish motion detectors.

    PubMed

    Glantz, Raymon M

    2008-06-01

    Motion detector interneurons were examined to determine their responsiveness to the motion of polarized light images (i.e. images segmented by spatial variations in e-vector angle). Computer generated images were displayed as intensity contrasts or polarization contrasts on a modified LCD projection panel. The stimuli included the motion of a single stripe (45 degrees -55 degrees /s) and the global motion of a square wave grating (3.3 degrees /s). Neurons were impaled in the medulla interna. Of the neurons which exhibited a directional response to the motion of intensity contrast stimuli, about 2/3 were also directional in the response to polarized light images. Transient (nondirectional) stimuli included looming and jittery motions. The responses to the transient motions of the polarized light images were roughly comparable to those elicited by intensity contrast. The results imply that behavioral responses to polarized light images (i.e. optokinetic and defense reflexes) may have a basis in the polarization sensitivity and synaptic organization of the medulla interna. PMID:18386016

  9. Uma grade de perfis teóricos para estrelas massivas em transição

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, C. M. P.; Machado, M. A.

    2003-08-01

    Na XXVIII Reunião Anual da Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira (2002) apresentamos uma grade de perfis calculados de acordo com os pontos da trajetória evolutiva de metalicidade solar, Z = 0.02 e taxa de perda de massa () padrão, para estrelas com massa inicial de 25, 40, 60, 85 e 120 massas solares. Estes perfis foram calculados com o auxílio de um código numérico adequado para descrever os ventos de objetos massivos, supondo simetria esférica, estacionaridade e homogeneidade. No presente trabalho, apresentamos a complementação da grade com os perfis teóricos relativos às trajetórias de Z = 0.02 com taxa de perda de massa dobrada em relação a padrão (2´), e de metalicidade Z = 0.008. Para cada ponto das três trajetórias obtemos os perfis teóricos de Ha, Hb, Hg e Hd, e como esperado eles se apresentam em pura emissão, pura absorção ou em P-Cygni. Para valores de taxa de perda de massa muito baixos (~10-7) não há formação de linhas, o que é visto nos primeiros pontos em todas as trajetórias. Em geral, para um mesmo ponto a componente de emissão diminui e a absorção aumenta de Ha para Hd. É verificado que as trajetórias com Z = 0.02 e padrão possuem menos circuitos (loops) do que as com metalicidade Z = 0.02 e 2´ padrão, e seus perfis são, em geral, menos intensos. Em relação a trajetória de Z = 0.008, verifica-se menos circuitos e maior variação em luminosidade, e seus perfis mostram-se em, algumas trajetórias, mais intensos. Verificamos também que, pontos distintos em uma mesma trajetória, apresentam perfis diferentes para valores similares de luminosidade e temperatura efetiva. Sendo assim, uma grade de perfis teóricos parece ser útil para fornecer uma informação preliminar sobre o estágio evolutivo de uma estrela massiva.

  10. M S MOLECULARES Rumo aos limites da miniaturiza o - (Molecular Magnets - towards the limits of miniaturization)

    SciTech Connect

    Reis, Mario S; Moreira Dos Santos, Antonio F

    2010-01-01

    Por s culos, acreditou-se que o magnetismo s se manifestava em metais, como aqueles contendo ferro; hoje, a imagem mais comum de um m talvez seja a daquelas plaquinhas flex veis coladas geladeira com propagandas dos mais diversos tipos. O leitor conseguiria imaginar um material puramente org nico daqueles que formam os seres vivos como magn tico? E m s do tamanho de mol culas? fato: ambos existem. Esses novos materiais, conhecidos como magnetos moleculares, descobertos e desenvolvidos em v rios laborat rios do mundo, j re nem longa lista de aplica es, do tratamento do c ncer a refrigeradores ecol gicos, passando pela transmiss o de eletricidade sem perda de calor e a fabrica o de computadores extremamente velozes.

  11. Steroid productions by co-cultures of granulosa cells with inner and outer theca cells in preovulatory follicles of gonadotropin stimulated calves.

    PubMed

    Bosc, M J; Nicolle, A

    1997-06-01

    Granulosa, interna and externa theca cells were isolated from large follicles of equine-chorionic-gonadotropin (eCG)-primed calves and co-cultured during 3 days in the absence or in the presence of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Co-cultures were performed by adding defined numbers of theca and/or granulosa cells which represented 0, 10, 20, 50 or 100% of total cells per well. Secretion of oestradiol-17beta (E2), androstenedione (A4) and progesterone (P4) depended on the type of theca cells (P < 0.001), on the percentage of seeded granulosa cells (P < 0.001) and on the day of culture (P < 0.001). DHEA increased (P < 0.001) E2 and A4, but not P4 (P > 0.05) productions. Interactions existed between these factors (P < 0.01). On day 1, A4 production was nil in granulosa cells alone. E2 production was negligible in theca cells alone but it increased when granulosa cells were added. E2 and A4 varied in an opposite manner according to the percentage of granulosa cells and with the type of theca cells. On day 3, without DHEA, E2 and A4 were low. On day 3 with DHEA, E2 production was maintained in granulosa cells alone but not with any combination of theca cells. In these conditions, A4 production was maintained in the presence of theca cells but not in granulosa cells alone. Granulosa cells alone secreted more P4 than theca cells. P4 increased as a function of the percentage of granulosa in co-cultures with externa but not interna theca cells with which it remained low. In conclusion, theca cells in culture have two effects in relation to the granulosa cells, which differ according to the steroid concerned and to the cell combination. Both types of theca cells have an inhibitory effect on E2 secretion whereas only interna theca cells are able to alter P4 production. PMID:9393957

  12. An imbalance between apoptosis and proliferation contributes to follicular persistence in polycystic ovaries in rats

    PubMed Central

    Salvetti, Natalia R; Panzani, Carolina G; Gimeno, Eduardo J; Neme, Leandro G; Alfaro, Natalia S; Ortega, Hugo H

    2009-01-01

    Background Cystic ovarian disease is an important cause of infertility that affects bovine, ovine, caprine and porcine species and even human beings. Alterations in the ovarian micro-environment of females with follicular cysts could alter the normal processes of proliferation and programmed cell death in ovarian cells. Thus, our objective was to evaluate apoptosis and proliferation in ovarian cystic follicles in rats in order to investigate the cause of cystic follicle formation and persistence. Methods We compared the number of in situ apoptotic cells by TUNEL assay, expression of active caspase-3 and members of Bcl-2 family by immunohistochemistry; and cell proliferation by the expression of the proliferation markers: PCNA and Ki-67. Results The proliferation index was low in granulosa of tertiary and cystic follicles of light exposed rats when compared with tertiary follicles of control animals, while in theca interna only cystic follicles presented low proliferation index when compared with tertiary follicles (p < 0.05). The granulosa of cysts exhibited a similar cell DNA fragmentation to early atretic follicles. In the granulosa and theca interna, active caspase-3 shown similar immunostaining levels in tertiary and cystic follicles (p < 0.05). The granulosa cells presented high expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Bcl-w in the tertiary and cystic follicles with diminishing intensity in the atretic follicles, except with Bcl-w where the intensity was maintained in the atretic follicles (p < 0.05). The expression of Bax was weak in the healthy and cystic follicles. In the theca interna, Bcl-2 expression was the same as the pattern found in the granulosa; no differences were found between tertiary and cystic follicles from both groups for Bcl-xL and Bcl-w. The expression of Bax in this layer was higher in the tertiary follicles of the treated animals (p < 0.05) while the values for cystic follicles were similar to those in the tertiary follicles of controls. The

  13. Clinical and Neurophysiological Improvement of SGCE Myoclonus-Dystonia with GPi Deep Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Kurtis, Monica M; San Luciano, Marta; Yu, Qiping; Goodman, Robert R; Ford, Blair; Raymond, Deborah; Pullman, Seth

    2009-01-01

    Myoclonus-dystonia (M-D) is characterized by early onset myoclonus and dystonia. It is thought to be subcortical in origin. Response to oral medications may be incomplete, such that deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery to the globus pallidum interna (GPi) or ventral intermediate thalamic nucleus (VIM) may be considered. The optimal site is not known. The physiology and surgical response for a 63 year-old woman who underwent GPi DBS for M-D with onset at age 2 and related to a mutation in the epsilon-sarcoglycan gene (SGCE) is described. She showed excellent clinical and neurophysiological improvement of both myoclonus and dystonia, suggesting that modulation by DBS is effective even after long disease duration and only partial response to oral medications. PMID:19896264

  14. Optical and tomographic imaging of a middle ear malformation in the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, Seth S.; Simmons, Andrea Megela; Ketten, Darlene R.

    2005-08-01

    Using a combination of in vivo computerized tomography and histological staining, a middle ear anomaly in two wild-caught American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) is characterized. In these animals, the tympanic membrane, extrastapes, and pars media (shaft) of the stapes are absent on one side of the head, with the other side exhibiting normal morphology. The pars interna (footplate) of the stapes and the operculum are present in their normal positions at the entrance of the otic capsule on both the affected and unaffected sides. The pattern of deformity suggests a partial failure of development of tympanic pathway tissues, but with a preservation of the opercularis pathway. While a definitive proximate cause of the condition could not be determined, the anomalies show similarities to developmental defects in mammalian middle ear formation.

  15. Red eye: Rule out Ophthalmomyiasis too

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Pankaj; Rathore, Mahesh Kumar; Dwivedi, Premchand; Lakhtakia, Sujata; Chalisgaonkar, Charudatt; Dwivedi, Anamika

    2013-01-01

    Ophthalmomyiasis is the infestation of human eye by the larvae of certain flies. Sheep botfly commonly manifests as Ophthalmomyiasis externa when there is conjunctival involvement or rarely as Opthalmomyiasis interna when there is larval penetration into the eyeball. It appears to be more common than what has been indicated by previously published reports. We present a report of seven cases of Ophthalmomyiasis by Oestrus ovis, from central India who presented with features of conjunctivitis varying between mild to severe. The larvae were seen in bulbar and palpebral conjunctiva and also entangled in lashes with discharge. Since the larvae are photophobic, it is prudent to look for them in the fornices and also in discharge. Prompt removal of the larvae from the conjunctiva helps in relieving the symptoms and also prevents serious complications. Taxonomic identification of the species is important to estimate the risk of globe penetration by the larvae. PMID:23803482

  16. Role of Glucocorticoids in Cystic Ovarian Disease: Expression of Glucocorticoid Receptor in the Bovine Ovary.

    PubMed

    Amweg, Ayelen N; Rodríguez, Fernanda M; Huber, Emilia; Marelli, Belkis E; Salvetti, Natalia R; Rey, Florencia; Ortega, Hugo H

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the components of normal bovine ovary and in animals with cystic ovarian disease (COD). Changes in the protein and mRNA expression levels were determined in control cows and cows with COD by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. GR protein expression in granulosa cells was higher in cysts from animals with spontaneous COD and adrenocorticotropic hormone-induced COD than in tertiary follicles from control animals. In theca interna cells, GR expression was higher in cysts from animals with spontaneous COD than in tertiary follicles from control animals. The increase in GR expression observed in cystic follicles suggests a mechanism of action for cortisol and its receptor through the activation/inactivation of specific transcription factors. These factors could be related to the pathogenesis of COD in cattle. PMID:26677854

  17. Pallidal targeting with the COMPASS system.

    PubMed

    Alterman, R L; Kall, B; Beric, A; Sterio, D; Kelly, P J

    1997-01-01

    The authors describe their initial experience with the new pallidotomy targeting software for the COMPASS system. As COMPASS permits window and contrast settings to be changed at any time, multiple imaging modalities can be employed for targeting. This feature allowed the incorporation of fast-spin echo/inversion recovery (FSE/IR) magnetic resonance images (MRI) into the planning protocol. COMPASS has now been employed for 33 consecutive pallidotomies over the last year (July 96-June 97). A statistically significant reduction in the number of microelectrode recording trajectories required to physiologically localize sensorimotor globus pallidus interna (GPi) is noted in these cases as compared to the 41 cases performed in the previous year with a different computer planning system. The authors conclude that the COMPASS system accurately and efficiently targets the internal pallidum when FSE/IR MRI is employed. Nevertheless, pallidotomy should not be performed without neurophysiological localization. PMID:9711736

  18. Confirming Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera: Oestridae) human ophthalmomyiasis by larval DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Rukke, Bjørn Arne; Cholidis, Symira; Johnsen, Arild; Ottesen, Preben

    2014-06-01

    DNA barcoding is a practical tool for species identification, when morphological classification of an organism is difficult. Herein we describe the utilisation of this technique in a case of ophthalmomyiasis interna. A 12-year-old boy was infested during a summer holiday in northern Norway, while visiting an area populated with reindeer. Following medical examination, a Diptera larva was surgically removed from the boy's eye and tentatively identified from its morphological traits as Hypoderma tarandi (L.) (Diptera: Oestridae). Ultimately, DNA barcoding confirmed this impression. The larval cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) DNA sequence was matched with both profiles of five adult H. tarandi from the same region where the boy was infested, and other established profiles of H. tarandi in the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) identification engine. PMID:24827102

  19. Improved capsulotomy for refractory Tourette's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bomin; Krahl, Scott E; Zhan, Shikun; Shen, Jiankang

    2005-01-01

    The effects of bilateral anterior capsulotomy were analyzed in 12 patients with Tourette's syndrome (TS). All of the patients underwent bilateral anterior capsulotomy. In 7 patients, the target was the anterior one third of the anterior limb of the capsula interna, while in 5 patients, the posterior one third of this structure was targeted. Radiofrequency thermolesions were created at 80 degrees C for 60 s. These surgeries resulted in a reduction in TS symptoms (motor and vocal tics and/or obsessive-compulsive behavior) of >50% in all patients, regardless of the target. A comparison of the two lesion sites suggests that patients with lesions of the posterior one third of the anterior limb have a greater reduction in TS symptoms (>80%) than patients receiving lesions of the anterior one third of the anterior limb (>50%). No severe, permanent side effects were observed in any patient. PMID:15990467

  20. Clinical Outcome and Characterization of Local Field Potentials in Holmes Tremor Treated with Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Zamora, Adolfo; Kaszuba, Brian C.; Gee, Lucy; Prusik, Julia; Danisi, Fabio; Shin, Damian; Pilitsis, Julie G

    2016-01-01

    Background Holmes tremor (HT) is an irregular, low-frequency rest tremor associated with prominent action and postural tremors. Currently, the most effective stereotactic target and neurophysiologic characterization of HT, specifically local field potentials (LFPs) are uncertain. We present the outcome, intraoperative neurophysiologic analysis with characterization of LFPs in a patient managed with left globus pallidus interna deep brain stimulation (Gpi DBS). Case Report A 24-year-old male underwent left Gpi DBS for medically refractory HT. LFPs demonstrated highest powers in the delta range in Gpi. At the 6-month follow-up, a 90% reduction in tremor was observed. Discussion Pallidal DBS should be considered as an alternative target for management of refractory HT. LFP demonstrated neuronal activity associated with higher power in the delta region, similarly seen in patients with generalized dystonia. PMID:27441097

  1. Ophthalmomyiasis caused by the reindeer warble fly larva.

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, M S; Nilssen, A C; Lyslo, A; Syrdalen, P; Dannevig, L

    1991-01-01

    Two boys with ophthalmomyiasis caused by the first instar larva of the reindeer warble fly Hypoderma tarandi are reported. Both were 9 years old and came from the coast of northern Norway. One had ophthalmomyiasis interna posterior and one eye had been removed because of progressive pain and blindness. Histological examination showed the remains of a fly larva. The second boy had ophthalmomyiasis externa with a tumour in the upper eyelid, and histological examination showed a warble with a well preserved larva. Identification of the parasite in the histological material was based on the finding of cuticular spines and parts of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton identical with those of the first instar larva of H tarandi. Images PMID:2030144

  2. Treatment of Wilson's disease motor complications with deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Hedera, Peter

    2014-05-01

    A considerable proportion of patients with Wilson's disease (WD) experience neurologic symptoms that are functionally disabling. The most common neurologic problems in advanced WD include dystonia and tremor. Medically refractory idiopathic dystonia and essential tremor (ET) have been successfully treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS), functional surgical therapy targeting the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi), or the ventral intermediate (Vim) thalamic nucleus. Even though the pathophysiology of tremor is different in WD and ET, available experience supports DBS targeting the Vim for WD patients. Dystonia associated with WD is classified as secondary dystonia and GPi stimulation has yielded mixed results in these patients. The presence of structural changes in the basal ganglia may limit the therapeutic success of DBS for WD dystonia compared with idiopathic dystonia. In spite of these limitations, DBS in WD may be an effective approach to treat medically refractory residual neurologic symptoms in carefully selected patients. PMID:24547944

  3. Improving Efficiency of Gear Shaping of Wheels with Internal Non-involute Gears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarapanov, A.; Anisimov, R.; Kanatnikov, N.; Pilipenko, A.

    2016-04-01

    In the article questions of improving efficiency of gear shaping of wheels with internal non-involute profile gears. The technique of the analysis of kinematics parameters of gear shaping process is presented. Researches devoted to the influence of root profile form of processed wheel with interna. In the article questions of improving efficiency of gear shaping of wheels with internal non-involute profile gears. The technique of the analysis of kinematics parameters of gear shaping process is presented. Researches devoted to the influence of root profile form of processed wheel with internal non-involute gears on the thickness of the cutting-off metal layer, size of components of cutting forces and a roughness of the processed surface are given.

  4. Treatment of Superior Vena Cava (SVC) Syndrome and Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) Thrombosis in a Patient with Colorectal Cancer: Combination of SVC Stenting and IVC Filter Placement to Palliate Symptoms and Pave the Way for Port Implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Sauter, Alexander; Triller, Juergen; Schmidt, Felix; Kickuth, Ralph

    2008-07-15

    Thrombosis of the inferior vena cava is a life-threatening complication in cancer patients leading to pulmonary embolism. These patients can also be affected by superior vena cava syndrome causing dyspnea followed by trunk or extremity swelling. We report the case of a 61-year-old female suffering from an extended colorectal tumor who became affected by both of the mentioned complications. Due to thrombus formation within the right vena jugularis interna, thrombosis of the inferior vena cava, and superior vena cava syndrome, a combined interventional procedure via a left jugular access with stenting of the superior vena cava and filter placement into the inferior vena cava was performed As a consequence, relief of the patient's symptoms, prevention of pulmonary embolism, and paving of the way for further venous chemotherapy were achieved.

  5. Ovarian Follicular Atresia of Ewes during Spring Puerperium

    PubMed Central

    Vlčková, Radoslava; Sopková, Drahomíra; Pošivák, Ján; Valocký, Igor

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of healthy and atretic follicles on the ovarian surface of improved Valachian ewes 17, 24, and 32 days postpartum is reported in this study. The number of healthy follicles was higher on day 24 postpartum and their mean diameter tended to increase to day 32 (P < 0.05) with the greatest diameter of 5 mm. 78–81% of atretic follicles ≥3 mm in diameter was observed where apoptosis began in the follicular cells situated at the follicular cavity. The early atretic follicles are characterized by the presence of mitotic pictures. In one ewe 24 days postpartum, small regressive follicular cysts were observed. Contracting atresia is characterized by thickening of the theca interna even to 190 μm. Progesterone and oestradiol-17β concentrations were maintained at relatively low levels, but with no significant difference between the days postpartum. PMID:22567543

  6. L'eliosismologia: onde sismiche per studiare l'interno del Sole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mauro, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Negli ultimi cinquanta anni siamo stati testimoni di una straordinaria rivoluzione della conoscenza e comprensione della nostra stella grazie alla nascita dell'Eliosismologia, lo studio delle oscillazioni solari. Analogamente a ciò che accade nella Terra durante i terremoti, anche l'interno del Sole è pervaso continuamente da onde sismiche che provocano piccole oscillazioni, ovvero deformazioni della fotosfera. Le oscillazioni sono la manifestazione di diversi processi che avvengono all'interno della struttura del Sole e le frequenze sismiche dei modi osservati e misurati sulla superficie sono legate direttamente ai parametri fisici degli strati interni attraversati dalle onde sismiche. Lo studio delle oscillazioni rappresenta, quindi, l'unico metodo diretto per studiare la struttura e la dinamica interna del Sole. In questo articolo verranno illustrate le caratteristiche generali delle oscillazioni solari e verranno presentati i risultati importanti e i progressi notevoli raggiunti grazie all'Eliosismologia.

  7. Anatomical study of total cystoprostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Benoit, G; Boccon-Gibod, L; Steg, A

    1985-01-01

    The authors describe an anatomical study of total cystoprostatectomy. They show that Denonvilliers' fascia is made up of many membranous layers starting at the bladder. They recall the fact that the preprostatic veins are attached at the bottom, not only to the venae dorsales penis, but also to the venae pudendae internae which runs under the levator ani muscle. These preprostatic veins lie inside a vessel-bearing blade of tissue made of muscular and collagenous tissue derived from the anterior vesical wall. This anatomical study recalls the fact that the interprostatorectal dissection line is behind Denonvilliers' fascia and that the preprostatic vein dissection line is on the anterior aspect of the membranous urethra. PMID:4043160

  8. Development of the Anxiety Scale for Natural Disaster: Examination of its Reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Miki; Yatabe, Ryuichi

    The objective of present study was to develop the a nxiety scale for natural disaster, and to examineits reliability. We developed the 14 items for the anxiety scale based on anticipated damage of Nankai earthquake in Ehime prefecture. The subjects consist of 391 people in Yawatahama city, Ehime prefecture. Firstly, we analyzed the latent factors which influenced the anxiety for natural disaster by using the factor analysis method. Secondly, we cal culated Cronbach's coefficient alpha. The result of the factor analysis confirmed the three factors such as "anxiety for lifeline damage", "anxiety for second ary disaster" and "fear for others". Cronbach's coefficient alpha for each factor showed the high interna l consistency reliability. We considered that each factor could prove to be a valuable tool for researc h about the person's anxiety for natural disaster.

  9. Ascending aorta of hooded seals with particular emphasis on its vasa vasorum.

    PubMed

    Blix, Arnoldus Schytte; Kuttner, Samuel; Messelt, Edward B

    2016-07-01

    The pressure-volume relationship in the ascending aorta ("windkessel") of the hooded seal was determined and the morphology of its vasa vasorum described in some detail. We found that the ascending aorta has a high compliance and can easily accommodate the entire stroke volume when the peripheral vascular resistance becomes much increased and maintain perfusion pressure during the much extended diastole and thereby reduce cardiac stroke work during diving. We also found that the 3- to 5-mm thick wall of the ascending aorta had a very elaborate vasa vasorum interna with a hitherto undescribed vascular structure that penetrates the entire vascular wall. If similar structures with similar importance for the nutrition of the wall of the vessel are found in humans, important implications for the understanding of pathological conditions, such as aneurisms, may be indicated. PMID:27122367

  10. Structure of the ovaries of the Nimba otter shrew, Micropotamogale lamottei, and the Madagascar hedgehog tenrec, Echinops telfairi.

    PubMed

    Enders, A C; Carter, A M; Künzle, H; Vogel, P

    2005-01-01

    The otter shrews are members of the subfamily Potamogalinae within the family Tenrecidae. No description of the ovaries of any member of this subfamily has been published previously. The lesser hedgehog tenrec, Echinops telfairi, is a member of the subfamily Tenrecinae of the same family and, although its ovaries have not been described, other members of this subfamily have been shown to have ovaries with non-antral follicles. Examination of these two species illustrated that non-antral follicles were characteristic of the ovaries of both species, as was clefting and lobulation of the ovaries. Juvenile otter shrews range from those with only small follicles in the cortex to those with 300- to 400-microm follicles similar to those seen in non-pregnant and pregnant adults. As in other species, most of the growth of the oocyte occurred when follicles had one to two layers of granulosa cells. When larger follicles became atretic in the Nimba otter shrew, hypertrophy of the theca interna produced nodules of glandular interstitial tissue. In the tenrec, the hypertrophying theca interna cells in most large follicles appeared to undergo degeneration. Both species had some follicular fluid in the intercellular spaces between the more peripheral granulosa cells. It is suggested that this fluid could aid in separation of the cumulus from the remaining granulosa at ovulation. The protruding follicles in lobules and absence of a tunica albuginea might also facilitate ovulation of non-antral follicles. Ovaries with a thin-absent tunica albuginea and follicles with small-absent antra are widespread within both the Eulipotyphla and in the Afrosoricida, suggesting that such features may represent a primitive condition in ovarian development. Lobulated and deeply crypted ovaries are found in both groups but are not as common in the Eulipotyphla making inclusion of this feature as primitive more speculative. PMID:16046864

  11. Biochemical analysis and immunohistochemical examination of a GnRH-like immunoreactive peptide in the central nervous system of a decapod crustacean, the kuruma prawn (Marsupenaeus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Amano, Masafumi; Okumura, Takuji; Okubo, Kataaki; Amiya, Noriko; Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Oka, Yoshitaka

    2009-12-01

    We examined whether a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-like peptide exists in the central nervous system (CNS) of the kuruma prawn, Marsupenaeus japonicus, by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (rpHPLC) combined with time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) analysis and by immunohistochemistry. The displacement curve obtained for serially diluted extracts of the kuruma prawn brain paralleled the chicken GnRH-II (cGnRH-II) standard curve obtained by cGnRH-II TR-FIA using the anti-cGnRH-II antibody, which cross-reacts not only with cGnRH-II but also with lamprey GnRH-II (lGnRH-II) and octopus GnRH (octGnRH). Extracts of kuruma prawn brains and eyestalks showed a similar retention time to synthetic lGnRH-II and octGnRH in rpHPLC combined with TR-FIA analysis. Using this antibody, we detected GnRH-like-immunoreactive (ir) cell bodies in the anterior-most part of the supraesophageal ganglion (brain), the protocerebrum. Furthermore, GnRH-like-ir fibers were observed in the protocerebrum and deutocerebrum. In the eyestalk, GnRH-like-ir cell bodies were detected in the medulla interna, and GnRH-like-ir fibers were distributed in the medulla interna, medulla externa, and lamina ganglionalis. In the thoracic ganglion, GnRH-like-ir fibers, but not GnRH-like-ir cell bodies, were detected. No GnRH-like-ir cell bodies or fibers were detected in the abdominal ganglion or ovary. Thus, we have shown the existence and distribution of a GnRH-like peptide in the CNS of the kuruma prawn. PMID:19968471

  12. Ovarian localization of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11βHSD): effects of ACTH stimulation and its relationship with bovine cystic ovarian disease.

    PubMed

    Amweg, A N; Salvetti, N R; Stangaferro, M L; Paredes, A H; Lara, H H; Rodríguez, F M; Ortega, H H

    2013-10-01

    Cystic ovarian disease (COD) is an important cause of infertility in cattle, and ACTH has been involved in regulatory mechanisms related to ovarian function associated with ovulation, steroidogenesis, and luteal function. Here, we examined the localization of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1) and 11βHSD2 proteins in the ovary of healthy cows and animals with spontaneous and ACTH-induced COD and the in vitro response of the follicular wall exposed to ACTH. After stimulation by ACTH, we documented changes in 11βHSD expression and cortisol secretion by the follicular wall of large antral and follicular cysts. Follicular cysts showed a higher constitutive expression of both enzymes, whereas ACTH induced an increase in 11βHSD1 in tertiary follicles and follicular cysts and a decrease in 11βHSD2 in follicular cysts. Moderate expression of 11βHSD1 was observed by immunohistochemistry in granulosa of control animals, with an increase (P < 0.05) from primary to secondary, tertiary, and atretic follicles. The level of immunostaining in theca interna was lower than that in granulosa. The expression of 11βHSD2 was lower in the granulosa of primary follicles than in that of secondary, tertiary, and atretic follicles and was lower in the theca interna than in the granulosa. In ACTH-induced and spontaneously occurring follicular cysts, differences from controls were observed only in the expression of 11βHSD1 in the granulosa, being higher (P < 0.05) than in tertiary follicles. These findings indicate that follicular cysts may be exposed to high local concentrations of active glucocorticoids and indicate a local role for cortisol in COD pathogenesis and in regulatory mechanisms of ovarian function. PMID:23972491

  13. Alteration in localization of steroid hormone receptors and coregulatory proteins in follicles from cows with induced ovarian follicular cysts.

    PubMed

    Salvetti, Natalia R; Alfaro, Natalia S; Velázquez, Melisa M L; Amweg, Ayelen N; Matiller, Valentina; Díaz, Pablo U; Ortega, Hugo H

    2012-12-01

    Cystic ovarian disease (COD) is an important cause of infertility in cattle. The altered follicular dynamics and cellular differentiation observed in COD may be mediated through a disruption of the expression of steroid receptors and their associated transcriptional cofactors. The aim of this study was to determine the protein expression profiles of ESR1, ESR2, PGR, AR, NCOA3, NCOR2, and PHB2 (REA) in ovarian follicles in an experimental model of COD induced by the administration of ACTH. Ovaries were collected and follicles were dissected from heifers during the follicular phase (control) or from heifers treated with ACTH to induce the formation of ovarian follicular cysts. Ovaries were fixed, sectioned, and stained immunohistochemically for steroid receptors and the associated transcription factors. The relative expression of ESR1 was similar in follicular cysts and in tertiary follicles from both control and cystic cows and was significantly higher than in secondary follicles. The expression of ESR2 in the granulosa was higher in cystic follicles. No differences were seen for PGR. The expression of androgen receptor was significantly increased in tertiary follicles with lower immunostaining in cysts. The expression of NCOA3 was observed in the granulosa and theca with a significantly increased expression in the theca interna of cystic follicles. The highest levels of NCOR2 expression in granulosa, theca interna, and theca externa were observed in cysts. In granulosa cells, NCOR2 levels increase progressively as follicles mature and the treatment had no effect. In summary, ovaries from animals with induced COD exhibited altered steroid receptor expression compared with normal animals, as well as changes in the expression of their regulators. It is reasonable to suggest that in conditions characterized by altered ovulation and follicular persistence, such as COD, changes in the intra-ovarian expression of these proteins could play a role in their pathogenesis

  14. Developmental Programming: Does Prenatal Steroid Excess Disrupt the Ovarian VEGF System in Sheep?1

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Hugo Héctor; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Sreedharan, Shilpa; del Luján Velázquez, Melisa María; Salvetti, Natalia Raquel; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T), but not dihydrotestosterone (DHT), excess disrupts ovarian cyclicity and increases follicular recruitment and persistence. We hypothesized that the disruption in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) system contributes to the enhancement of follicular recruitment and persistence in prenatal T-treated sheep. The impact of T/DHT treatments from Days 30 to 90 of gestation on VEGFA, VEGFB, and their receptor (VEGFR-1 [FLT1], VEGFR-2 [KDR], and VEGFR-3 [FLT4]) protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry on Fetal Days 90 and 140, 22 wk, 10 mo (postpubertal), and 21 mo (adult) of age. Arterial morphometry was performed in Fetal Day 140 and postpubertal ovaries. VEGFA and VEGFB expression were found in granulosa cells at all stages of follicular development with increased expression in antral follicles. VEGFA was present in theca interna, while VEGFB was present in theca interna/externa and stromal cells. All three receptors were expressed in the granulosa, theca, and stromal cells during all stages of follicular development. VEGFR-3 increased with follicular differentiation with the highest level seen in the granulosa cells of antral follicles. None of the members of the VEGF family or their receptor expression were altered by age or prenatal T/DHT treatments. At Fetal Day 140, area, wall thickness, and wall area of arteries from the ovarian hilum were larger in prenatal T- and DHT-treated females, suggestive of early androgenic programming of arterial differentiation. This may facilitate increased delivery of endocrine factors and thus indirectly contribute to the development of the multifollicular phenotype. PMID:26178718

  15. Developmental Programming: Does Prenatal Steroid Excess Disrupt the Ovarian VEGF System in Sheep?

    PubMed

    Ortega, Hugo Héctor; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Sreedharan, Shilpa; del Luján Velázquez, Melisa María; Salvetti, Natalia Raquel; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2015-09-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T), but not dihydrotestosterone (DHT), excess disrupts ovarian cyclicity and increases follicular recruitment and persistence. We hypothesized that the disruption in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) system contributes to the enhancement of follicular recruitment and persistence in prenatal T-treated sheep. The impact of T/DHT treatments from Days 30 to 90 of gestation on VEGFA, VEGFB, and their receptor (VEGFR-1 [FLT1], VEGFR-2 [KDR], and VEGFR-3 [FLT4]) protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry on Fetal Days 90 and 140, 22 wk, 10 mo (postpubertal), and 21 mo (adult) of age. Arterial morphometry was performed in Fetal Day 140 and postpubertal ovaries. VEGFA and VEGFB expression were found in granulosa cells at all stages of follicular development with increased expression in antral follicles. VEGFA was present in theca interna, while VEGFB was present in theca interna/externa and stromal cells. All three receptors were expressed in the granulosa, theca, and stromal cells during all stages of follicular development. VEGFR-3 increased with follicular differentiation with the highest level seen in the granulosa cells of antral follicles. None of the members of the VEGF family or their receptor expression were altered by age or prenatal T/DHT treatments. At Fetal Day 140, area, wall thickness, and wall area of arteries from the ovarian hilum were larger in prenatal T- and DHT-treated females, suggestive of early androgenic programming of arterial differentiation. This may facilitate increased delivery of endocrine factors and thus indirectly contribute to the development of the multifollicular phenotype. PMID:26178718

  16. A fonte ionizante do disco de acreção no núcleo de NGC1097

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, R. N.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.

    2003-08-01

    Observações em raios-X revelam o "coração" dos núcleos ativos de galáxias, pois esse tipo de radiação provém das suas regiões mais internas, próximas ao buraco negro central. Neste trabalho apresentamos observações em raios-X da região central da galáxia NGC1097, que hospeda um buraco negro supermassivo e um disco de acreção cuja emissão vem sendo observada há dez anos através da linha de emissão Ha larga (10000 km/s) e de duplo pico. As observações em raios-X - que foram obtidas com o Telescópio Chandra - foram combinadas com observações no ultravioleta obtidas com o Telescópio Espacial Hubble e são usadas para estudar as características da fonte central que ioniza o disco de acreção. A distribuição espectral de energia é comparada com a predita por modelos, em particular o de uma estrutura "ADAF" ("advection dominated accretion flow") na parte interna do disco. Tal estrutura produz um espectro de emissão de linhas estreitas tipo LINER, como observado em NGC1097 e em rádio-galáxias que apresentam linhas de Balmer largas de duplo pico. Apresentamos também uma comparação entre outros LINERs com linhas de emissão largas de duplo pico, disponíveis na literatura ou nos arquivos do Chandra e do Telescópio Espacial Hubble e discutimos as correspondentes implicações para modelos da fonte central.

  17. Immunohistochemical localization of basic fibroblast growth factor in bovine ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    van Wezel, I L; Umapathysivam, K; Tilley, W D; Rodgers, R J

    1995-12-29

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, FGF2) controls cell proliferation and differentiation in many organs and tissues. In the ovary, cells proliferate and differentiate during folliculogenesis and during formation of the corpus luteum. While previous studies have inferred a role for bFGF in these processes, the precise contribution of bFGF to follicular activation or recruitment has not been established. For this reason, bFGF was immunolocalized in bovine follicles, using anti-bFGF immunoglobulin specific for the 1-24-amino acid terminus of the 18-kDa peptide. Basic FGF was immunolocalized to the cytoplasm of oocytes from bovine primordial and primary follicles. Strong immunostaining was also observed in corpora lutea, the ovarian surface epithelium, and smooth muscle cells surrounding blood vessels, while substantial levels of immunostaining were also present in cells of the theca interna. In most of the healthy antral follicles examined, the three or so layers of granulosa cells which were closest to the basement membrane were also stained, with greatest levels of staining at the most basal region of each cell. Atretic antral follicles had significant and uniform levels of immunostaining throughout the theca interna and the membrana granulosa. Immunostaining as described above was reduced to background levels when the primary specific immunoglobulin was preabsorbed with a 350 molar excess of peptide comprising the NH2-terminal 24 amino acids of bFGF. Based upon our previous observations and those reported here, we propose that basic fibroblast growth factor is synthesized by immature oocytes, especially those from primordial and primary follicles, and that bFGF has a potential role in activating follicle growth via stimulation of granulosa cell proliferation and follicular basement membrane synthesis. PMID:8824888

  18. Ultrastructural observations of previtellogenic ovarian follicles of the caecilians Ichthyophis tricolor and Gegeneophis ramaswamii.

    PubMed

    Beyo, Reston S; Sreejith, Parameswaran; Divya, Lekha; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2007-04-01

    The ultrastructural organization of the previtellogenic follicles of the caecilians Ichthyophis tricolor and Gegeneophis ramaswamii, of the Western Ghats of India, were observed. Both species follow a similar seasonal reproductive pattern. The ovaries contain primordial follicles throughout the year with previtellogenic, vitellogenic, or postvitellogenic follicles, depending upon the reproductive status. The just-recruited primordial follicle includes an oocyte surrounded by a single layer of follicle and thecal cells. The differentiation of the theca into externa and interna layers, the follicle cells into dark and light variants, and the appearance of primordial yolk platelets and mitochondrial clouds in the ooplasm mark the transition of the primordial follicle into a previtellogenic follicle. During further development of the previtellogenic follicle the following changes occur: i) the theca loses distinction as externa and interna; ii) all the follicle cells become the dark variant and increase in the complexity of ultrastructural organization; iii) the nucleus of the oocyte transforms into the germinal vesicle and there is amplification of the nucleoli; iv) the primordial yolk platelets of the cortical cytoplasm of the oocyte increase in abundance; v) the mitochondrial clouds fragment and the mitochondria move away from the clouds, leaving behind the cementing matrix, which contains membrane-bound vesicles of various sizes, either empty or filled with a lipid material; vi) the perivitelline space appears first as troughs at the junctional points between the follicle cells and oocyte, which subsequently spread all around to become continuous; vii) macrovilli and microvilli develop from the follicle cells and oocyte, respectively; and viii) the precursor material of the vitelline envelop arrives at the perivitelline space. The sequential changes in the previtellogenic follicles of two species of caecilians are described. PMID:17345639

  19. Cometa Hyakutake (C/1996 B2): análise do gás e características físicas das partículas de poeira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanzovo, G. C.; de Almeida, A. A.; Boczko, R.

    2003-08-01

    A completa caracterização e compreensão do núcleo de um cometa novo é de fundamental importância para a elucidação dos processos físicos e químicos atuantes na época da formação do Sistema Solar. O Cometa Hyakutake, conjuntamente com o Cometa Hale-Bopp representam os objetos mais brilhantes que visitaram o Sistema Solar Interno nos últimos 20 anos. Neste Trabalho, nós aplicamos o Método Semi-Empírico das Magnitudes Visuais (MSEMV) à aproximadamente 4000 dados observacionais que correlacionam a magnitude visual absoluta com a distância heliocêntrica para o Cometa Hyakutake nas fases pré- e pós-periélicas. Como produto da aplicação desse método, conseguimos caracterizar dimensionalmente seu núcleo e área ativa efetiva. As taxas de produção dos radicais CN, C2 e C3, obtidos a partir de dados disponíveis na literatura, revelam que, além de muito brilhante, o Hyakutake é um cometa "normal" no sentido de Cochran (1986). Desse modo, deduzimos as taxas de perdas de água (em moléculas/s) a partir da análise de sua magnitude visual aparente, e as convertemos em taxas de perdas de gás (em g/s), despreendido pelo nucleo cometário. Com o auxílio do modelo fotométrico clássico da poeira, realizamos uma análise sistemática e uniforme dessa componente cometária, a partir dos fluxos observacionais no contínuo, para os comprimentos de onda 365,0 e 484,5 nm, assumindo que esses fluxos são o resultado da radiação solar espalhada por grãos de partículas micrométricos presentes na coma. Com isso, pudemos obter as taxas de produção (em g/s), cores (relativas à cor neutra solar), e as dimensões efetivas médias das partículas de poeira, bem como as razões poeira-gás.

  20. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in a spontaneous singleton pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Cabar, Fábio Roberto

    2016-05-24

    The ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is the combination of increased ovarian volume, due to the presence of multiple cysts and vascular hyperpermeability, with subsequent hypovolemia and hemoconcentration. We report a case of spontaneous syndrome in a singleton pregnancy. This was a spontaneous pregnancy with 12 weeks of gestational age. The pregnancy was uneventful until 11 weeks of gestational age. After that, the pregnant woman complained of progressive abdominal distention associated with abdominal discomfort. She did not report other symptoms. In the first trimester, a routine ultrasonography showed enlarged ovaries, multiples cysts and ascites. Upon admission, the patient was hemodynamically stable, her serum β-hCG was 24,487mIU/mL, thyroid-stimulating hormone was 2.2µUI/mL and free T4 was 1.8ng/dL. All results were within normal parameters. However, levels of estradiol were high (10,562pg/mL). During hospitalization, she received albumin, furosemide and prophylactic dose of enoxaparin. The patient was discharged on the sixth hospital day. RESUMO A síndrome de hiperestimulação ovariana é a combinação do aumento dos ovários, devido à presença de múltiplos cistos e de hiperpermeabilidade vascular, com subsequente hipovolemia e hemoconcentração. Relata-se um caso de síndrome espontânea em uma gestação única. Trata-se de gravidez espontânea com 12 semanas de idade gestacional. A gravidez ocorreu sem intercorrências até 11 semanas de idade gestacional. Após, a gestante passou a se queixar de distensão abdominal progressiva, associada com desconforto abdominal. A paciente não relatava outros sintomas. A ultrassonografia de rotina no primeiro trimestre mostrou ovários aumentados com múltiplos cistos e ascite. No momento da internação, a paciente apresentava-se hemodinamicamente estável, com β-hCG sérico de 24.487mUI/mL, hormônio estimulante da tireoide de 2,2µUI/m e T4 livre de 1,8ng/dL, ou seja, valores dentro dos par

  1. Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation Improves Higher Control of the Oculomotor System in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Antoniades, Chrystalina A; Rebelo, Pedro; Kennard, Christopher; Aziz, Tipu Z; Green, Alexander L; FitzGerald, James J

    2015-09-23

    The frontal cortex and basal ganglia form a set of parallel but mostly segregated circuits called cortico-basal ganglia loops. The oculomotor loop controls eye movements and can direct relatively simple movements, such as reflexive prosaccades, without external help but needs input from "higher" loops for more complex behaviors. The antisaccade task requires the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which is part of the prefrontal loop. Information flows from prefrontal to oculomotor circuits in the striatum, and directional errors in this task can be considered a measure of failure of prefrontal control over the oculomotor loop. The antisaccadic error rate (AER) is increased in Parkinson's disease (PD). Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has no effect on the AER, but a previous case suggested that DBS of the globus pallidus interna (GPi) might. Our aim was to compare the effects of STN DBS and GPi DBS on the AER. We tested eye movements in 14 human DBS patients and 10 controls. GPi DBS substantially reduced the AER, restoring lost higher control over oculomotor function. Interloop information flow involves striatal neurons that receive cortical input and project to pallidum. They are normally silent when quiescent, but in PD they fire randomly, creating noise that may account for the degradation in interloop control. The reduced AER with GPi DBS could be explained by retrograde stimulation of striatopallidal axons with consequent activation of inhibitory collaterals and reduction in background striatal firing rates. This study may help explain aspects of PD pathophysiology and the mechanism of action of GPi DBS. Significance statement: Parkinson's disease causes symptoms including stiffness, slowness of movement, and tremor. Electrical stimulation of specific areas deep in the brain can effectively treat these symptoms, but exactly how is not fully understood. Part of the cause of such symptoms may be impairments in the way information flows

  2. Comparison of cellular distribution of LH receptors and steroidogenic enzymes in the porcine ovary.

    PubMed

    Meduri, G; Vu Hai, M T; Jolivet, A; Takemori, S; Kominami, S; Driancourt, M A; Milgrom, E

    1996-03-01

    Previous studies have shown a heterogeneous expression of LH receptors in various structures of the porcine ovary. Specially striking was the existence in the preovulatory follicle of inner layers of theca interna cells devoid of LH receptor and the confinement in the corpus luteum of the LH receptor to the external cellular layers. In the present study, we have compared the steroidogenic capabilities of LH receptor-positive and -negative cells using immunocytochemistry for side-chain cleavage P450, 3 beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase, 17 alpha-hydroxylase P450 and aromatase P450. We have also examined, using the same methods, the evolution of the various cell types after ovulation and during the development of the corpus luteum. In preovulatory follicles the inner layers of theca cells which were not labelled with anti-LH receptor antibodies appeared to express the steroidogenic enzymes in a way similar to that of the outer LH receptor-positive cell layers. Ovulation per se did not change the distribution of LH receptors (present in the outer luteal cells and in the granulosa) or of steroidogenic enzymes. However, 48 h after follicular rupture there as a marked decrease in overall labelling with anti-LH receptor antibody, and especially a disappearance of immunostaining in the luteal cells of granulosa origin. In the mid-luteal phase (6 days after ovulation), the receptor content seemed to increase in the peripheral luteal cells derived from the theca but the receptor did not reappear in the granulosa-derived luteal cells. Thus the down-regulation of LH receptor appeared to be reversible in the external thecal layers but irreversible in the granulosa cells. Furthermore, the distribution of the various steroidogenic enzymes in the corpora lutea delineated granulosa-derived from theca-derived cells and showed that only the external layers of the latter expressed the LH receptor. These results showed the existence in the preovulatory follicle of two theca interna

  3. Gradiente radial de [Mg/Fe] em duas galáxias elípticas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milone, A.; Capelato, H.

    2003-08-01

    Basicamente, são propostos dois cenários de evolução quí mio-dinâmico para os sistemas esferoidais: (i) o hierárquico através da fusão e/ou acresção de sub-sistemas com ou sem surtos de formação estelar, e (ii) o colapso monolí tico dissipativo com formação estelar interrompida por um vento galáctico. Ambos, dentro de certos limites, conseguem explicar os gradientes internos de metalicidade estelar presentes nas galáxias elí pticas bem como a relação observada entre a metalicidade central e a massa (Mg20 vs. log sv0). No entanto, nenhum prevê uma variação interna para a razão de abundâncias Mg/Fe que indiretamente define a escala temporal da formação estelar. Empregamos a espectroscopia óptica de fenda longa com a finalidade de recuperar as histórias de formação estelar, de enriquecimento quí mico e da dinâmica dentro de determinadas regiões das galáxias. Os espectros de média resolução (FWHM = 7,1 Å) e escala angular de 1,092 arcsec/pixel foram coletados com o telescópio 1,60m do OPD/LNA. Comparamos nossas medidas de linhas de absorção com resultados espectrofotométricos de modelos de populações estelares simples - mais especificamente os í ndices do Sistema Lick como Mg2, Mg b, < Fe > e Hb - a fim de se investigar as variações internas de [Fe/H], [Mg/Fe] e idade. Para duas galáxias elí pticas, NGC 1052 e NGC 7796, pertencentes a ambientes de baixa densidade, encontramos uma variação radial da razão Mg/Fe decrescente do centro para fora em regiões de 0,6 e 1 raio efetivo respectivamente. Discutimos alguns cenários de enriquecimento quí mico para estas duas galáxias.

  4. Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation Improves Higher Control of the Oculomotor System in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rebelo, Pedro; Kennard, Christopher; Aziz, Tipu Z.; Green, Alexander L.

    2015-01-01

    The frontal cortex and basal ganglia form a set of parallel but mostly segregated circuits called cortico-basal ganglia loops. The oculomotor loop controls eye movements and can direct relatively simple movements, such as reflexive prosaccades, without external help but needs input from “higher” loops for more complex behaviors. The antisaccade task requires the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which is part of the prefrontal loop. Information flows from prefrontal to oculomotor circuits in the striatum, and directional errors in this task can be considered a measure of failure of prefrontal control over the oculomotor loop. The antisaccadic error rate (AER) is increased in Parkinson's disease (PD). Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has no effect on the AER, but a previous case suggested that DBS of the globus pallidus interna (GPi) might. Our aim was to compare the effects of STN DBS and GPi DBS on the AER. We tested eye movements in 14 human DBS patients and 10 controls. GPi DBS substantially reduced the AER, restoring lost higher control over oculomotor function. Interloop information flow involves striatal neurons that receive cortical input and project to pallidum. They are normally silent when quiescent, but in PD they fire randomly, creating noise that may account for the degradation in interloop control. The reduced AER with GPi DBS could be explained by retrograde stimulation of striatopallidal axons with consequent activation of inhibitory collaterals and reduction in background striatal firing rates. This study may help explain aspects of PD pathophysiology and the mechanism of action of GPi DBS. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Parkinson's disease causes symptoms including stiffness, slowness of movement, and tremor. Electrical stimulation of specific areas deep in the brain can effectively treat these symptoms, but exactly how is not fully understood. Part of the cause of such symptoms may be impairments in the way information

  5. Evaluación de la utilidad diagnóstica de la versión española del cuestionario al informador «AD8»☆

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, C. Carnero; de la Vega Cotarelo, R.; Alcalde, S. López; Aparicio, C. Martos; Carrillo, R. Vílchez; Gavilán, E. Mora; Galvin, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    Introducción El AD8 es un cuestionario al informador breve que puede ser autoaplicado y facilita la identificación de deterioro cognitivo (DC); nuestro objetivo es evaluar la utilidad diagnóstica (UD) de una versión española. Material y métodos Estudio transversal en una muestra clínica de díadas paciente/ informador, 330 sujetos con sospecha de DC o demencia (DEM) y 71 controles. Se ha evaluado la consistencia interna (α de Cronbach) y la validez (correlaciones parciales con estadio GDS, Fototest e índice funcional [IF]). La UD se ha evaluado para no DC vs DC (GDS 3–4) por medio del área bajo la curva ROC (aROC) y se ha considerado mejor punto de corte aquel que hacía máximo el índice de Youden. Resultados En la muestra, 105 no tenían DC, 99 tenían DC sin DEM y 203 DEM. La consistencia interna es alta (α 0,90, IC del 95%, 0,89–0,92), al igual que las correlaciones con GDS (r = 0,72, p < 0,001), Fototest (r = −0,61, p < 0,001) e IF (r = 0,59, p < 0,001). El aROC del AD8 es 0,90 (IC del 95%, 0,86–0,93), sin diferencia significativa con la del Fototest (aROC 0,93, IC del 95%, 0,89–0,96); el mejor punto de corte es 3/4 con sensibilidad de 0,93 (IC del 95%, 0,88–0,96), especificidad de 0,81 (IC del 95%, 0,72–0,88) y el 88,8% de las clasificaciones correctas. El uso conjunto de AD8 y Fototest mejora de forma significativa la UD de ambos (aROC 0,96, IC del 95%, 0,93–0,98, p < 0,05). Conclusiones La versión española del AD8 conserva las cualidades psicométricas y la UD de la versión original; su uso combinado con el Fototest mejora de forma significativa la UD de ambos. PMID:22652137

  6. Formation and regression of the corpus luteum of the American alligator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guillette, L.J.; Woodward, A.R.; You-Xiang, Q.; Cox, M.C.; Matter, J.H.; Gross, T.S.

    1995-01-01

    Luteal morphology of the American alligator is unique when compared to other reptiles but is similar to that of its phylogenetic relatives, the birds. The theca is extensively hypertrophied, but the granulosa never fills the cavity formed following the ovulation of the ovum. The formation of the corpus luteum (CL) is correlated with elevated plasma progesterone concentrations, which decline dramatically after oviposition with the onset of luteolysis. Unlike those of most other reptiles, the central luteal cell mass is composed of two cell types; one presumably is derived from the granulosa, whereas the other is from the theca interna. Both cell types are present throughout gravidity but only one cell type is seen during mid to late luteolysis. A significant decline in luteal volume occurs following oviposition and continues throughout the post-oviposition period. The fastest decline in luteal volume occurs in the month immediately after oviposition; this rate then slows. Luteolysis appears to continue for a year or more following oviposition, as distinct structures of luteal origin can still be identified in animals 9 months after oviposition. The size of persistent CL can be used to determine whether a given female oviposited during the previous nesting season. Females with CL having volumes greater than 0.2 cm2 or CL diameters greater than 0.4 cm were active the previous season. 

  7. Ovarian follicle apoptosis at the onset of standing estrus in virgin and repeat-breeder dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Båge, R; Bosu, W T; Rodríguez-Martínez, H

    2001-09-15

    There is evidence that repeat breeding in dairy cattle can be caused by both extrinsic, environmental factors and intrinsic, animal factors. In repeat-breeder heifers (RBH), disturbed endocrine patterns and estrous events result in a subsequent decreased fertility associated with delayed ovulation. Whether infertility is also due to the presence of an unsuitable follicular environment impairing normal fertilization, remains to be determined. At the onset of standing estrus, ovaries were obtained from 7 strictly defined RBH and 5 virgin heifers (VH) of the Swedish Red and White breed. Detection of apoptosis in the preovulatory and three subordinate follicle walls was done by using the TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling) technique at light microscopy level. The follicles were histologically assessed for degree of atresia. The ultrastructure of the follicle wall and recovered oocytes was studied using transmission electron microscopy. The overall degree of apoptosis in membrana granulosa and theca interna of preovulatory and subordinate follicles did not differ between RBH and VH, but the numbers of TUNEL-positive cells differed significantly between preovulatory and subordinate follicles in both RBH and VH. There was a strong relationship between density of apoptotic cells and degree of atresia. No differences in follicle wall apoptosis nor morphology were detectable, suggesting that repeat breeder heifers enter standing estrus with the same morphological prerequisites as normal animals, considering follicular structure. PMID:11665874

  8. Mice Drawer System: a Long Duration Animal Experiment on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotronei, Vittorio; Liu, Yi; Pignataro, Salvatore

    Mice represent one of the most important animal models for biomedical research. In the past decade mice have been used as surrogates to understand physiological adaption and its under-lying mechanisms to orbital spaceflight. A breakthrough in this field has been achieved with the launch of MDS experiment inside Shuttle Discovery (mission STS-128) on August 28, 2009 at 23:58 EST, and its re-entry to earth by Shuttle Atlantis (mission STS-129) on November 27 2009 at 9:47 EST, marking this as the first long duration animal experiment on the Interna-tional Space Station (ISS). This presentation will provide the life history and milestones starting from the project brainstorm to the post-ground activities of the recent MDS payload mission. The Italian Space Agency (ASI) initiated and coordinated this multi-disciplinary project by focusing on five areas: the development of a multi-purpose automated payload by industry; bio-compatibility tests of subsystems throughout various critical phases of the payload development by researchers, development of a ground segment to interface with NASA Payload Operations Center and three different geographically distributed Italian Operations Centers; establishment of an international tissue sharing program; specialized bio-specimen intercontinental shipment. With close collaboration with NASA, activities such as pre-flight payload acceptance, animal preparation, in-flight crew intervention and re-entry animal recovery were smoothly and swiftly accomplished.

  9. A detailed examination of substance P in pathologically graded cases of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Beal, M F; Ellison, D W; Mazurek, M F; Swartz, K J; Malloy, J R; Bird, E D; Martin, J B

    1988-03-01

    Substance P concentrations have been found to be reduced in the basal ganglia in Huntington's disease (HD). In order to further examine this finding in the present study we measured substance P-like immunoreactivity (SPLI) in cases of HD which had been graded as to the severity of pathological changes in the striatum. Marked significant reductions of SPLI were found in all striatal nuclei which were significantly correlated with the percentage of neuronal loss in the varying pathologic grades. Similar changes were found in the projection sites of striatal substance P neurons, the globus pallidus interna and the substantia nigra. These changes are consistent with a loss of striatal substance P containing projection neurons in HD. Significant reductions in SPLI were also found in the external pallidum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the subthalamic nucleus. Small significant increases in SPLI (20-30%) were found in 3 frontal cortical regions (Brodmann areas 6, 8 and 9). The finding of neurochemical changes in the subthalamic nucleus is of particular interest since lesions in this nucleus are known to result in chorea and therefore might contribute to the chorea which is a cardinal symptom of HD. PMID:2452859

  10. Insulin-like growth factor I in sera, ovarian follicles and follicular fluid of cows with spontaneous or induced cystic ovarian disease.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Hugo H; Palomar, Martin M; Acosta, Juan C; Salvetti, Natalia R; Dallard, Bibiana E; Lorente, Juan A; Barbeito, Claudio G; Gimeno, Eduardo J

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this research was to determine changes in IGF-I levels in serum and follicular fluid, and immunoreactivity of the follicle wall of cows with spontaneous (slaughter specimens) or ACTH-induced follicular cysts, and to compare results to normal cycling (control) cows after selection of the ovulatory follicle. Concentrations of IGF-I in serum did not differ between control and cystic animals (p=0.76). Fluid from the ovulatory follicle in control cows had 41% higher concentrations of IGF-I than that from cystic follicles collected at slaughter (spontaneous cysts; p<0.05) and 70% higher than that in induced follicular cysts (p<0.05). An intense positive immunostaining with anti-IGF-I was observed in granulosa cells (p<0.05) and in the theca interna (p<0.05) of secondary and tertiary follicles in all three groups of animals, but staining was less intense in cystic (p<0.05) and atretic follicles (p<0.05). This study provides evidence to suggest that cystic ovarian disease in cattle is associated with decreased concentrations of IGF-I in follicular fluid, but not in serum, and decreased production of IGF-I in the follicular wall. These data support the notion that IGF-I plays a role in the regulation of folliculogenesis, and may participate in the pathogenesis of cystic ovarian disease in cattle. PMID:17631370

  11. A single early postnatal estradiol injection affects morphology and gene expression of the ovary and parametrial adipose tissue in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Alexanderson, Camilla; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Kullberg, Joel; Nilsson, Staffan; Levin, Max; Cajander, Stefan; Lönn, Lars; Lönn, Malin; Holmäng, Agneta

    2010-10-01

    Events during early life can affect reproductive and metabolic functions in adulthood. We evaluated the programming effects of a single early postnatal estradiol injection (within 3h after birth) in female rats. We assessed ovarian and parametrial adipose tissue morphology, evaluated gene expression related to follicular development and adipose tissue metabolism, and developed a non-invasive volumetric estimation of parametrial adipose tissue by magnetic resonance imaging. Estradiol reduced ovarian weight, increased antral follicle size and number of atretic antral follicles, and decreased theca interna thickness in atretic antral follicles. Adult estradiol-injected rats also had malformed vaginal openings and lacked corpora lutea, confirming anovulation. Estradiol markedly reduced parametrial adipose tissue mass. Adipocyte size was unchanged, suggesting reduced adipocyte number. Parametrial adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase activity was increased. In ovaries, estradiol increased mRNA expression of adiponectin, complement component 3, estrogen receptor α, and glucose transporter 3 and 4; in parametrial adipose tissue, expression of complement component 3 was increased, expression of estrogen receptor α was decreased, and expression of leptin, lipoprotein lipase, and hormone-sensitive lipase was unaffected. These findings suggest that early postnatal estradiol exposure of female rats result in long-lasting effects on the ovary and parametrial adipose tissue at adult age. PMID:19857573

  12. A new rat model exhibiting both ovarian and metabolic characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mannerås, Louise; Cajander, Stefan; Holmäng, Agneta; Seleskovic, Zamira; Lystig, Theodore; Lönn, Malin; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2007-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder associated with ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism, abdominal obesity, and insulin resistance. However, its etiology is unclear, and its management is often unsatisfactory or requires a diversified approach. Here, we describe a new rat PCOS model, the first to exhibit both ovarian and metabolic characteristics of the syndrome. Female rats received the nonaromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or the aromatase inhibitor letrozole by continuous administration, beginning before puberty, to activate androgen receptors. Adult DHT rats had irregular cycles, polycystic ovaries characterized by cysts formed from atretic follicles, and a diminished granulosa layer. They also displayed metabolic features, including increased body weight, increased body fat, and enlarged mesenteric adipocytes, as well as elevated leptin levels and insulin resistance. All letrozole rats were anovulatory and developed polycystic ovaries with structural changes strikingly similar to those in human PCOS. Our findings suggest that the formation of a "hyperplastic" theca interna reflects the inclusion of luteinized granulosa cells in the cyst wall rather than true hyperplasia. We conclude that the letrozole model is suitable for studies of the ovarian features of human PCOS, while the DHT model is suitable for studies of both ovarian and metabolic features of the syndrome. PMID:17495003

  13. Increased endometrial expression of CC-chemokine receptor-1 in women with adenomyosis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; Yang, Yanfeng; Zhou, Caiyun; Huang, Xiufeng; Lin, Jun; Zhang, Xinmei

    2014-09-01

    Abnormal endometrial expression of CC-chemokine receptor-1 (CCR1) may play a role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Adenomyosis, also called endometriosis interna, occurs when the endometrium invades the myometrium. The objective of this study was to determine CCR1 expression in endometrium in women with adenomyosis as compared to women without adenomyosis. We evaluated endometrial mRNA and protein expression in women with and without adenomyosis using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunohistochemical staining and western blot analysis, respectively. We detected CCR1-immunoreactive expression in endometrium in all women with and without adenomyosis. CCR1-immunoreactive staining in endometrial cells was significantly higher in women with adenomyosis (4.89±1.06) compared to those without adenomyosis (2.21±1.16, P<0.001). Women with adenomyosis had higher levels of CCR1 mRNA in endometrium compared to women without adenomyosis (P<0.05). CCR1 protein levels in endometrium were significantly higher in women with adenomyosis (1.66±0.79) compared to women without adenomyosis (0.56±0.13, P<0.001), and positively correlated with the severity of dysmenorrhea (r=0.87, P<0.001). These results suggest that increased CC-chemokine receptor expression may play a role in the pathogenesis of adenomyosis. PMID:24599574

  14. Immunohistochemical and morphometrical studies on myelin breakdown in the demyelination (dmy) mutant rat.

    PubMed

    Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Kanehara, Toshiko; Tokuda, Satoko; Kumagai, Daijiro; Yamate, Jyoji; Kotani, Takao; Nakane, Yoshifumi; Kuramoto, Takashi; Serikawa, Tadao

    2004-10-01

    The demyelination (dmy) rat is a unique mutant exhibiting severe myelin breakdown in the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we conducted immunohistochemical and morphometrical investigations in the dmy rat. From around 6 weeks of age, the affected rats developed ataxia especially in the hindlimbs. Afterwards, ataxia worsened rapidly, resulting in complete paralysis of the hindlimbs and recumbency. Histopathology at 7 to 10 weeks of age revealed myelin destruction throughout the white matter of the CNS in the dmy rats. The most severely affected lesions were distributed in the corpus callosum, capsula interna, striatum, subcortical white matter, cerebellar peduncle, and ventral and lateral parts of the spinal cord. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated prominent astrogliosis and many ED-1 positive macrophages in the myelin-destructed areas. Until the 4th week, no significant differences in myelin thickness and fiber diameter were found between dmy and control rats. However, from 5 weeks of age, myelin thickness of residual myelinated fibers in dmy rats became significantly less than that in controls. These data indicated that the dmy phenotype shows a prolonged period of myelin destruction, suggesting that dmy mutation affects the adequate maintenance of myelin. PMID:15353220

  15. Investigation of different ontogenetic stages of Raillietiella sp. (Pentastomida:Cephalobaenida): the embryonic gland--glandula embryonalis--or dorsalorgan.

    PubMed

    Stender-Seidel, S; Thomas, G

    1997-01-01

    The "Dorsalorgan" of pentastomids is an embryonic gland. With respect to a general revision of the glandular equipment of pentastomids and its synonyms the term embryonic gland, first mentioned by Esslinger in 1968, or glandula embryonalis (original) appears to be most suitable. Thus, this terminology may no longer lead to confusion of these glands with dorsal organs of other arthropods. The ultrastructure of the embryonic gland and its role within the development of the embryonic envelopes of the pentastomid genus Raillietiella is described herein for the first time. The embryonic gland is composed of numerous secretory cells, which are arranged concentrically around a bottle-shaped cavity. The cells of the neck region produce an extracellular supporting layer to stabilize the collar. The basal cells are characterized by numerous microvilli, secreting mucus into the cavity. The product of the embryonic gland is secreted between the zona radiata externa/interna and the blastoderm cuticle, respectively. The embryonic gland disintegrates before larval hatching. PMID:9039698

  16. Long-term increase in coherence between the basal ganglia and motor cortex after asphyxial cardiac arrest and resuscitation in developing rats

    PubMed Central

    Aravamuthan, Bhooma R.; Shoykhet, Michael

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The basal ganglia are vulnerable to injury during cardiac arrest. Movement disorders are a common morbidity in survivors. Yet, neuronal motor network changes post-arrest remain poorly understood. METHODS We compared function of the motor network in adult rats that, during postnatal week 3, underwent 9.5 min of asphyxial cardiac arrest (n = 9) or sham intervention (n = 8). Six months after injury, we simultaneously recorded local field potentials (LFP) from the primary motor cortex (MCx) and single neuron firing and LFP from the rat entopeduncular nucleus (EPN), which corresponds to the primate globus pallidus pars interna. Data were analyzed for firing rates, power, and coherence between MCx and EPN spike and LFP activity. RESULTS Cardiac arrest survivors display chronic motor deficits. EPN firing rate is lower in cardiac arrest survivors (19.5 ± 2.4 Hz) compared with controls (27.4 ± 2.7 Hz; P < 0.05). Cardiac arrest survivors also demonstrate greater coherence between EPN single neurons and MCx LFP (3—100 Hz; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS This increased coherence indicates abnormal synchrony in the neuronal motor network after cardiac arrest. Increased motor network synchrony is thought to be antikinetic in primary movement disorders. Characterization of motor network synchrony after cardiac arrest may help guide management of post-hypoxic movement disorders. PMID:26083760

  17. The "skin-skull-brain model": a new instrument for the study of gunshot effects.

    PubMed

    Thali, M J; Kneubuehl, B P; Zollinger, U; Dirnhofer, R

    2002-02-18

    In order to create and study wound morphology, a "skin-skull-brain model" had to be designed which would make the laboratory reproduction of a real ballistic injury possible. To simulate the human skin, an artificial skin (a silicon cap) is used. This silicon scalp contains synthetic fibers (artificial leather) to simulate the collagen and fat of the scalp. The artificial skull is a layered polyurethane sphere (19 cm o.d.; and 5, 6, or 7 mm thick) constructed in a specially designed form with a Tabula externa, Tabula interna, and a porous Diploe sandwiched in between. The periostium of the artificial skull is made of latex. This elastic latex layer prevents the bone fragments from scattering after the model has been struck by gunfire. The brain itself is simulated with ordnance gelatin, 10% at 4 degrees C, a material well known in wound ballistics. Gunshots were fired at a distance of 10 m from the model. During the evaluation of the "skin-skull-brain model", it was possible to show that injuries inflicted to this model are fully comparable to the morphology of equivalent real gunshot injuries. Using the "skin-skull-brain model" has some significant advantages: the model is inexpensive, easy to construct, instantly available for use, and eliminates ethics conflicts. The main advantage of such a model is, in comparison with biological substances, the high reproducibility of inflicted traumas. PMID:11909661

  18. Periarteritis nodosa in rats treated with chronic excess sodium chloride (NaCl) after X-irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, H.; Nakagawa, Y.; Ito, A.; Kajihara, H.

    1987-07-01

    Five-week-old male Crj:CD (SD) rats were treated with excess sodium chloride after abdominal X-irradiation. The gastric regions of the rats were irradiated with a total dose of 20 Gy given in two equal fractions separated by 3 days. After X-irradiation, animals were fed a diet containing 10% sodium chloride. Red blood cell anemia appeared 22 weeks after the last irradiation. By gross observation, the mesenteric arteries became reddish in color, and bead- or lead pipe-like nodular thickenings were present. Microscopically, these nodularly thickened mesenteric arteries showed fibrinoid necrosis with massive inflammatory infiltration including eosinophils and neutrophils. In more advanced lesions, elastica interna and externa and medial smooth muscle cells disappeared completely and were replaced by granulation tissue. In old lesions, arterial walls were markedly thickened with fibrous or fibromuscular tissue. These findings were quite similar to those of the human periarteritis nodosa. These arterial lesions could not be found in the rats with X-irradiation only, sodium chloride only, or in nontreated animals. This study demonstrates X-ray-induced, NaCl-promoted periarteritis nodosa-like lesions in rats.

  19. Periarteritis nodosa in rats treated with chronic excess sodium chlorides (NaCl) after X-irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, H.; Nakagawa, Y.; Ito, A.; Kajihara, H.

    1987-07-01

    Five-week-old male Crj:CD (SD) rats were treated with excess sodium chloride after abdominal X-irradiation. The gastric regions of the rats were irradiated with a total dose of 20 Gy given in two equal fractions separated by 3 days. After X-irradiation, animals were fed a diet containing 10% sodium chloride. Red blood cell anemia appeared 22 weeks after the last irradiation. By gross observation, the mesenteric arteries became reddish in color, and bead- or lead pipe-like nodular thickenings were present. Microscopically these nodularly thickened mesenteric arteries showed fibrinoid necrosis with massive inflammatory infiltration including eosinophils and neutrophils. In more advanced lesions, elastica interna and externa and medial smooth muscle cells disappeared completely and were replaced by granulation tissue. In old lesions, arterial walls were markedly thickened with fibrous or fibromuscular tissue. These findings were quite similar to those of the human periarteritis nodosa. These arterial lesions could not be found in the rats with X-irradiation only, sodium chloride only, or in nontreated animals. This study demonstrates X-ray-induced, NaCl-promoted periarteritis nodosa-like lesions in rats.

  20. Neuronal Entropy Depends on the Level of Alertness in the Parkinsonian Globus Pallidus in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Andres, Daniela Sabrina; Cerquetti, Daniel; Merello, Marcelo; Stoop, Ruedi

    2014-01-01

    A new working hypothesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) proposes to focus on the central role of entropy increase in the basal ganglia (BG) in movement disorders. The conditions necessary for entropy increase in vivo are, however, still not fully described. We recorded the activity of single globus pallidus pars interna neurons during the transition from deep anesthesia to full alertness in relaxed, head-restrained, control, and parkinsonian (6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned group-lesioned) rats. We found that during awakening from anesthesia, the variation of neuronal entropy was significantly higher in the parkinsonian than in the control group. This implies in our view that in PD the entropy of the output neurons of the BG varies dynamically with the input to the network, which is determined by the level of alertness. Therefore, entropy needs to be interpreted as a dynamic, emergent property that characterizes the global state of the BG neuronal network, rather than a static property of parkinsonian neurons themselves. Within the framework of the “entropy hypothesis,” this implies the presence of a pathological feedback loop in the parkinsonian BG, where increasing the network input results in a further increase of neuronal entropy and a worsening of akinesia. PMID:25009529

  1. Trypanosoma cruzi: histopathology of endocrine system in immunocompromised mice.

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, K. S.; Lagrange, P. H.; da Costa, S. C.

    1994-01-01

    Naturally immunocompromised athymic mice, neonatal mice and adult outbred OFI mice treated with the immunosuppressive agents cyclophosphamide (CY), dexamethasone (DM) and indomethacin (IM) were infected with trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi Y and CL strains. 10(4) parasites were used, except in the case of IM treatment, where mice received 10(3) trypomastigotes in one group and 10(5) in another. The course of parasitaemia, tissue distribution of amastigotes and time of mortality were compared with an infected thymus intact control group. Neonate and indomethacin treated mice presented the same pattern of parasitaemia. Death occurred as early as 9-10 days after infection. A single dose of CY 200 mg/kg given 5 days after infection enhanced the parasitaemia and increased the number of parasites in the tissues. All groups were similar in terms of colonization of the endocrine system by parasites and the adrenals showed the highest density of amastigotes nests. The thyroid gland (analysed only in neonates) showed intense amastigote accumulation. Colonization of the ovary was observed with amastigotes in both the theca interna and in the stroma. The testes (also examined only in the neonate) showed that the interstitial cells, the tunica albuginea of the seminiferous tubules and the loose connective tissue were infected. Athymic nude mice showed the most intense parasite colonization of the islets of Langerhans. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7734334

  2. Alternative treatment of ovarian cysts with Tribulus terrestris extract: a rat model.

    PubMed

    Dehghan, A; Esfandiari, A; Bigdeli, S Momeni

    2012-02-01

    Tribulus terrestris has long been used in traditional medicine to treat impotency and improve sexual functions in man. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of T. terrestris extract in the treatment of polycystic ovary (PCO) in Wistar rat. Estradiol valerate was injected to 15 mature Wistar rats to induce PCO. Rats were randomly divided into three groups (control, low-dose and high-dose groups) of five each and received 0, 5 and 10 mg of T. terrestris extract, respectively.Treatments began on days 50 and 61 after estradiol injection; at the same time, vaginal smear was prepared. The ovaries were removed on day 62, and histological sections were prepared accordingly. The number and diameter of corpora lutea, thickness of the theca interna layer and the number of all follicles were evaluated in both ovaries. In comparison with the control group, the number of corpora lutea and primary and secondary follicles significantly increased following T. terrestris treatment; however, the number of ovarian cysts significantly decreased. It can be concluded that T. terrestris have a luteinizing effect on ovarian cysts, which may relate to its gonadotropin-like activity; also, a high dose of the extract can efficiently remove ovarian cysts and resume ovarian activity. PMID:21883512

  3. Deep brain stimulation for major depression.

    PubMed

    Schlaepfer, T E; Bewernick, B H

    2013-01-01

    A third of patients suffering from major depression cannot be helped by conventional treatment methods. These patients face reduced quality of life, high risk of suicide, and little hope of recovery. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is under scientific evaluation as a new treatment option for these treatment-resistant patients. First clinical studies with small samples have been stimulated at the subgenual cingulate gyrus (Cg25/24), the anterior limb of the capsula interna (ALIC), and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Long-term antidepressant effects, augmentation of social functioning, and normalization of brain metabolism have been shown in about 50% of patients. Cognitive safety regarding attention, learning, and memory has been reported. Adverse events were wound infection, suicide, and hypomania, amongst others. Larger studies are under way to confirm these preliminary encouraging results. New hypothesis-guided targets (e.g., medial forebrain bundle, habenula) are about to be assessed in clinical trials. The application of DBS for other psychiatric diseases (e.g., bipolar disorder, alcohol dependency, opioid addiction, schizophrenia) is debated and single case studies are under way. Standards are needed for study registration, target selection, patient inclusion and monitoring, and publication of results to guarantee safety for the patients and scientific exchange. PMID:24112897

  4. Multiple-time-scale framework for understanding the progression of Parkinson's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, D. S.; Gomez, F.; Ferrari, F. A. S.; Cerquetti, D.; Merello, M.; Viana, R.; Stoop, R.

    2014-12-01

    Parkinson's disease is marked by neurodegenerative processes that affect the pattern of discharge of basal ganglia neurons. The main features observed in the parkinsonian globus pallidus pars interna (GPi), a subdomain of the basal ganglia that is involved in the regulation of voluntary movement, are pathologically increased and synchronized neuronal activity. How these changes affect the implemented neuronal code is not well understood. Our experimental temporal structure-function analysis shows that in parkinsonian animals the rate-coding window of GPi neurons needed for the proper performance of voluntary actions is reduced. The model of the GPi network that we develop and discuss here reveals indeed that the size of the rate-coding window shrinks as the network activity increases and is expanded if the coupling strength among the neurons is increased. This leads to the novel interpretation that the pathological neuronal synchronization in Parkinson's disease in the GPi is the result of a collective attempt to counterbalance the shrinking of the rate-coding window due to increased activity in GPi neurons.

  5. Design, Fabrication, Simulation and Characterization of a Novel Dual-Sided Microelectrode Array for Deep Brain Recording and Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zongya; Gong, Ruxue; Huang, Hongen; Wang, Jue

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel dual-sided microelectrode array is specially designed and fabricated for a rat Parkinson’s disease (PD) model to study the mechanisms of deep brain stimulation (DBS). The fabricated microelectrode array can stimulate the subthalamic nucleus and simultaneously record electrophysiological information from multiple nuclei of the basal ganglia system. The fabricated microelectrode array has a long shaft of 9 mm and each planar surface is equipped with three stimulating sites (diameter of 100 μm), seven electrophysiological recording sites (diameter of 20 μm) and four sites with diameter of 50 μm used for neurotransmitter measurements in future work. The performances of the fabricated microelectrode array were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry. In addition, the stimulating effects of the fabricated microelectrode were evaluated by finite element modeling (FEM). Preliminary animal experiments demonstrated that the designed microelectrode arrays can record spontaneous discharge signals from the striatum, the subthalamic nucleus and the globus pallidus interna. The designed and fabricated microelectrode arrays provide a powerful research tool for studying the mechanisms of DBS in rat PD models. PMID:27314356

  6. One View of the Current State of Understanding in Basal Ganglia Pathophysiology and What is Needed for the Future

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Erwin B.

    2011-01-01

    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS), arguably, is the most dramatic development in movement disorders since the levodopa for Parkinson’s disease. Yet, its mechanisms of action of DBS are unknown. However, DBS related research already has demonstrated that current concepts of basal ganglia pathophysiology are wrong. Specifically, the notion that over-activity of the globus pallidus interna causes parkinsonism, the basis for the most current theories, is no longer tenable. The development of any new theory will be aided by an understanding of how current theories are wrong and why have these flawed theories persist. Many of the problems of current theories are more matters of inference, assumptions, presumptions, and the accepted level of ambiguity than they are of fact. Consequently, it is imperative that these issues be addressed. Just as the inappropriate use of a tool or method is grounds for criticism, methods of reasoning are tools that can be used inappropriately and should be subject to discussion just as misuse of any other tool. Thorough criticism can provide very important lesions though the process could be mistaken as harsh or personal; neither is the case here. At the least, such analyzes can point to potential pitfalls that could be avoided in the development of new theories. As will be discussed, theories are important for the development of therapies but perhaps most important, for the acceptance of new therapies, as was the case for the recent resurgence of interest in surgical therapies. PMID:24868387

  7. Multiplexed coding in the human basal ganglia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, D. S.; Cerquetti, D.; Merello, M.

    2016-04-01

    A classic controversy in neuroscience is whether information carried by spike trains is encoded by a time averaged measure (e.g. a rate code), or by complex time patterns (i.e. a time code). Here we apply a tool to quantitatively analyze the neural code. We make use of an algorithm based on the calculation of the temporal structure function, which permits to distinguish what scales of a signal are dominated by a complex temporal organization or a randomly generated process. In terms of the neural code, this kind of analysis makes it possible to detect temporal scales at which a time patterns coding scheme or alternatively a rate code are present. Additionally, finding the temporal scale at which the correlation between interspike intervals fades, the length of the basic information unit of the code can be established, and hence the word length of the code can be found. We apply this algorithm to neuronal recordings obtained from the Globus Pallidus pars interna from a human patient with Parkinson’s disease, and show that a time pattern coding and a rate coding scheme co-exist at different temporal scales, offering a new example of multiplexed neuronal coding.

  8. The fine structure of the cumulus oophorus during follicular development in sheep.

    PubMed

    Cran, D G; Hay, M F; Moor, R M

    1979-11-01

    The cumulus and membrana granulosa of non-atretic ovarian follicles from primordial up to a stage shortly before ovulation were studied by electron microscopy. The follicular cells of primordial follicles were undifferentiated and rested on a thick basal lamina. In secondary follicles the endoplasmic reticulum had proliferated forming an anastomosing network. In early antral and antral follicles (0.5--2.0 mm dia.) the ER was composed of short cisternae, the mitochondria had elongated and gap junctions were first observed. In late antral follicles (3.0--5.9 mm dia.) gap junctions were frequent. In the cumulus the glycogen was associated with electron lucent areas whereas in the granulosa it was invariably associated with membranes. In large antral follicles large membrane bound bodies were present in the basal cells of the cumulus. At early oestrus a distinctive mitochondrial morphology was noted in the granulosa but not elsewhere in the follicles. At mid oestrus numerous annular nexuses were present in the granulosa but not in the cumulus. At late oestrus numerous lipid droplets were formed in both cumulus and granulosa, the boundary with theca interna became indistinct and the basal lamina became incomplete. PMID:574800

  9. Nuevos escenarios de la migración México-Estados Unidos. Las consecuencias de la guerra antiinmigrante

    PubMed Central

    MASSEY, Douglas S.; PREN, Karen A.; DURAND, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    La historia de la migración México-Estados Unidos se caracteriza por una serie de periodos durante los cuales los patrones migratorios se transforman y evolucionan como respuesta a los cambios en la política migratoria de Estados Unidos. En la década de 1990 se dio uno de estos cambios, lo que provocó el paso de la ‘era de la contradicción’ a la ‘era de la marginalización’. Actualmente, un gran número de migrantes indocumentados permanecen al margen de la ley, precisamente en un periodo en el que las penas se han incrementado y la persecución ha alcanzado niveles récord. De manera cada vez más notoria, los migrantes indocumentados, por la represión interna y fronteriza, quedan obligados a romper los lazos que los vinculaban con sus lugares de destino, pero al mismo tiempo se sienten cada vez más extraños en una tierra donde la aplicación de políticas antiinmigrantes es cosa de todos los días, lo que los sitúa en una posición de marginalización y gran vulnerabilidad. PMID:21209790

  10. Hypomania: a transcultural perspective

    PubMed Central

    ANGST, JULES; MEYER, THOMAS D.; ADOLFSSON, ROLF; SKEPPAR, PETER; CARTA, MAURO; BENAZZI, FRANCO; LU, RU-BAND; WU, YI-HSUAN; YANG, HAI-CHEN; YUAN, CHENG-MEI; MORSELLI, PAOLO; BRIEGER, PETER; KATZMANN, JUDITH; TEIXEIRA LEÃO, INES ALICE; DEL PORTO, JOSÉ ALBERTO; HUPFELD MORENO, DORIS; MORENO, RICARDO A.; SOARES, ODEILTON T.; VIETA, EDUARD; GAMMA, ALEX

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the transcultural robustness of a screening instrument for hypomania, the Hypomania Checklist-32, first revised version (HCL-32 R1). It was carried out in 2606 patients from twelve countries in five geographic regions (Northern, Southern and Eastern Europe, South America and East Asia). In addition, GAMIAN Europe contributed data from its members. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to examine the transregional stability of the measurement properties of the HCL-32 R1, including the influence of sex and age as covariates. Across cultures, a two-factor structure was confirmed: the first factor (F1) reflected the more positive aspects of hypomania (being more active, elated, self-confident, and cogni-tively enhanced); the second factor (F2) reflected the more negative aspects (being irritable, impulsive, careless, more substance use). The measurement properties of the HCL-32 R1 were largely invariant across cultures. Only few items showed transcultural differences in their relation to hypomania as measured by the test. F2 was higher among men and in more severe manic syndromes; F1 was highest in North and East Europe and lowest in South America. The scores decreased slightly with age. The frequency of the 32 items showed remarkable similarities across geographic areas, with two excep-tions: South Europeans had lower symptom frequencies in general and East Europeans higher rates of substance use. These findings support the interna-tional applicability of the HCL-32 R1 as a screening instrument for hypomania. PMID:20148160

  11. High-Frequency Stimulation of the Rat Entopeduncular Nucleus Does Not Provide Functional or Morphological Neuroprotection from 6-Hydroxydopamine

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, D. Luke; Collier, Timothy J.; Cole-Strauss, Allyson; Wohlgenant, Susan L.; Lipton, Jack W.; Steece-Collier, Kathy; Manfredsson, Fredric P.; Kemp, Christopher J.; Sortwell, Caryl E.

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is the most common neurosurgical treatment for Parkinson’s disease (PD). Whereas the globus pallidus interna (GPi) has been less commonly targeted than the subthalamic nucleus (STN), a recent clinical trial suggests that GPi DBS may provide better outcomes for patients with psychiatric comorbidities. Several laboratories have demonstrated that DBS of the STN provides neuroprotection of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) dopamine neurons in preclinical neurotoxin models of PD and increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). However, whether DBS of the entopeduncular nucleus (EP), the homologous structure to the GPi in the rat, has similar neuroprotective potential in preclinical models has not been investigated. We investigated the impact of EP DBS on forelimb use asymmetry and SNpc degeneration induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and on BDNF levels. EP DBS in male rats received unilateral, intrastriatal 6-OHDA and ACTIVE or INACTIVE stimulation continuously for two weeks. Outcome measures included quantification of contralateral forelimb use, stereological assessment of SNpc neurons and BDNF levels. EP DBS 1) did not ameliorate forelimb impairments induced by 6-OHDA, 2) did not provide neuroprotection for SNpc neurons and 3) did not significantly increase BDNF levels in any of the structures examined. These results are in sharp contrast to the functional improvement, neuroprotection and BDNF-enhancing effects of STN DBS under identical experimental parameters in the rat. The lack of functional response to EP DBS suggests that stimulation of the rat EP may not represent an accurate model of clinical GPi stimulation. PMID:26222442

  12. Case report. Mycotic arteritis due to Aspergillus fumigatus in a diabetic with retrobulbar aspergillosis and mycotic meningitis.

    PubMed

    Nenoff, P; Kellermann, S; Horn, L C; Keiner, S; Bootz, F; Schneider, S; Haustein, U F

    2001-11-01

    A 74-year-old man with diabetes mellitus type II, retinopathy and polyneuropathy suffered from exophthalmus, ptosis and diplopia. Magnetic resonance imaging and computer tomography showed a space-occupying process in the right orbital apex. An extranasal ethmoidectomy accompanied by an orbitotomia revealed the presence of septated hyphae. Aspergillus fumigatus was grown from the tissue. After surgical removal of the fungal masses, therapy with amphotericin B (1 mg kg(-1) body weight) plus itraconazole (Sempera, 200 mg per day) over 6 weeks was initiated. Five months later the patient's condition deteriorated again, with vomiting, nausea and pain behind the right eye plus increasing exophthalmus. Antifungal therapy was started again with amphotericin B and 5-fluorocytosine. Neutropenia did not occur. The patient became somnolent and deteriorated, a meningitis was suggested. Aspergillus antigen (titre 1:2, Pastorex) was detected in liquor. Anti-Aspergillus antibodies were not detectable. Both the right eye and retrobulbar fungal masses were eradicated by means of an exenteratio bulbi et orbitae. However, renal insufficiency and an apallic syndrome developed and the patient died. At autopsy, a mycotic aneurysm of the arteria carotis interna dextra was detected. The mycotic vasculitis of this aneurysm had caused a rupture of the blood vessel followed by a massive subarachnoidal haemorrhage. In addition, severe mycotic sphenoidal sinusitis and aspergillosis of the right orbit were seen, which had led to a bifrontal meningitis. PMID:11766108

  13. Design, Fabrication, Simulation and Characterization of a Novel Dual-Sided Microelectrode Array for Deep Brain Recording and Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zongya; Gong, Ruxue; Huang, Hongen; Wang, Jue

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel dual-sided microelectrode array is specially designed and fabricated for a rat Parkinson's disease (PD) model to study the mechanisms of deep brain stimulation (DBS). The fabricated microelectrode array can stimulate the subthalamic nucleus and simultaneously record electrophysiological information from multiple nuclei of the basal ganglia system. The fabricated microelectrode array has a long shaft of 9 mm and each planar surface is equipped with three stimulating sites (diameter of 100 μm), seven electrophysiological recording sites (diameter of 20 μm) and four sites with diameter of 50 μm used for neurotransmitter measurements in future work. The performances of the fabricated microelectrode array were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry. In addition, the stimulating effects of the fabricated microelectrode were evaluated by finite element modeling (FEM). Preliminary animal experiments demonstrated that the designed microelectrode arrays can record spontaneous discharge signals from the striatum, the subthalamic nucleus and the globus pallidus interna. The designed and fabricated microelectrode arrays provide a powerful research tool for studying the mechanisms of DBS in rat PD models. PMID:27314356

  14. [Diagnostic and therapeutic problems in Osler disease].

    PubMed

    Hauswald, B; Tymnik, G; Fritsche, F

    1986-01-01

    Osler's disease is characterized by the following symptoms: recurring, progressive bleeding, dark red angiomas of needle to rice-grain size in the region of the anterior nasal mucosa, lips, mucosa of the oral cavity, mesopharynx and hypopharynx, skin of the face, and trunk, occasionally conjunctiva. Osler's disease is an inherited disease resulting from a gene mutation. Conventional treatments include the following: as emergency measures, anterior tamponade in layers; Bellocq tamponades; Seiffert inflatable balloons; occasionally, total anterior septum resection by the Kindler method or the Wirth modification; vascular ligatures; local injection with various drugs; chemical cauterization; galvanocauterization; cryotherapy; laser or infrared coagulation. In addition the following are recommended: intra-arterial embolization of the A. maxilleris interna by carotis external angiography and intranasal contact irradiation with cobalt, radium, or iridium. Plastic surgery of the septum by the Saunders method seems to be therapeutically effective; this involves removing the diseased mucosa of the anterior septum, the nasal fundus and the head of the turbinate bone and replacing them with skin of the fissure. In recent years outstanding therapeutic effects have been achieved by administration of hormonal contraceptives, especially by parenteral application of estrogen. In males this therapy is not without risks. It can be recommended for women with consideration of contraindications. PMID:3577236

  15. Deep brain stimulation induces BOLD activation in motor and non-motor networks: An fMRI comparison study of STN and EN/GPi DBS in large animals

    PubMed Central

    Min, Hoon-Ki; Hwang, Sun-Chul; Marsh, Michael P.; Kim, Inyong; Knight, Emily; Striemer, Bryan; Felmlee, Joel P.; Welker, Kirk M.; Blaha, Charles D.; Chang, Su-Youne; Bennet, Kevin E.; Lee, Kendall H.

    2012-01-01

    The combination of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and functional MRI (fMRI) is a powerful means of tracing brain circuitry and testing the modulatory effects of electrical stimulation on a neuronal network in vivo. The goal of this study was to trace DBS-induced global neuronal network activation in a large animal model by monitoring the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) response on fMRI. We conducted DBS in normal anesthetized pigs, targeting the subthalamic nucleus (STN) (n=7) and the entopeduncular nucleus (EN), the non-primate analogue of the primate globus pallidus interna (n=4). Using a normalized functional activation map for group analysis and the application of general linear modeling across subjects, we found that both STN and EN DBS significantly increased BOLD activation in the ipsilateral sensorimotor network (FDR < 0.001). In addition, we found differential, target-specific, non-motor network effects. In each group the activated brain areas showed a distinctive correlation pattern forming a group of network connections. Results suggest that the scope of DBS extends beyond an ablation-like effect and that it may have modulatory effects not only on circuits that facilitate motor function but also on those involved in higher cognitive and emotional processing. Taken together, our results show that the swine model for DBS fMRI, which conforms to human implanted DBS electrode configurations and human neuroanatomy, may be a useful platform for translational studies investigating the global neuromodulatory effects of DBS. PMID:22967832

  16. Gelsolin amyloid angiopathy causes severe disruption of the arterial wall.

    PubMed

    Koskelainen, Susanna; Pihlamaa, Tiia; Suominen, Sinikka; Zhao, Fang; Salo, Tuula; Risteli, Juha; Baumann, Marc; Kalimo, Hannu; Kiuru-Enari, Sari

    2016-08-01

    Hereditary gelsolin amyloidosis (HGA) is a dominantly inherited systemic disease reported worldwide. HGA is characterized by ophthalmological, neurological, and dermatological manifestations. AGel amyloid accumulates at basal lamina of epithelial and muscle cells, thus amyloid angiopathy is encountered in nearly every organ. HGA patients have cardiovascular, hemorrhagic, and potentially vascularly induced neurological problems. To clarify pathomechanisms of AGel angiopathy, we performed histological, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic analyses on facial temporal artery branches from 8 HGA patients and 13 control subjects. We demonstrate major pathological changes in arteries: disruption of the tunica media, disorganization of vascular smooth muscle cells, and accumulation of AGel fibrils in arterial walls, where they associate with the lamina elastica interna, which becomes fragmented and diminished. We also provide evidence of abnormal accumulation and localization of collagen types I and III and an increase of collagen type I degradation product in the tunica media. Vascular smooth muscle cells appear to be morphologically and semi-quantitatively normal, only their basal lamina is often thickened. In conclusion, angiopathy in HGA results in severe disruption of arterial walls, characterized by prominent AGel deposition, collagen derangement and severe elastolysis, and it may be responsible for several, particularly hemorrhagic, disease manifestations in HGA. PMID:27198069

  17. Glomerular ultrastructure of the trout, Salmo gairdneri: effects of angiotensin II and adaptation to seawater.

    PubMed

    Gray, C J; Brown, J A

    1987-08-01

    The effect of angiotensin infusion on the glomerular ultrastructure of freshwater- and seawater-adapted rainbow trout. Salmo gairdneri, has been examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Adaptation of trout to seawater resulted in epithelial podocyte flattening, primary process broadening and apparent loss of foot processes in almost all glomeruli, features which were uncommon in freshwater-adapted trout. Similar changes were induced by infusion of freshwater-adapted animals with angiotensin, suggesting that the renin-angiotensin system plays a role in the modification of glomerular epithelial ultrastructure. Adaptation of trout to seawater also reduced glomerular diameter, but infusion of freshwater-adapted animals with angiotensin did not mirror this effect. Infusion of angiotensin into seawater-adapted animals increased the overall thickness of glomerular basement membrane by increasing the lamina rara interna and lamina densa. This did not occur when freshwater-adapted fish were either infused with angiotensin or adapted to seawater. These findings suggest that other humoral systems are involved in the control of glomerular diameter and basement membrane thickness as part of an integrated response to increased environmental salinity. PMID:3621307

  18. The expression patterns of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic factors in human fetal and adult ovary.

    PubMed

    Poljicanin, Ana; Vukusic Pusic, Tanja; Vukojevic, Katarina; Caric, Ana; Vilovic, Katarina; Tomic, Snjezana; Soljic, Violeta; Saraga-Babic, Mirna

    2013-07-01

    The influence of pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins on the cell death (caspase-3, TUNEL) of different ovarian cell lineages was immunohistochemically analyzed in six fetal and five adult human ovaries in order to disclose possible mechanisms of cell number control. Mild to moderate expression of Bcl-2 characterized ovarian surface epithelium, follicular cells and oocytes of 15 and 22 week human ovaries, while expression of Bax and caspase-3 gradually increased in all ovarian cell populations, except caspase-3 in the ovarian surface epithelium. Different levels of Bax and Bcl-2 proteins co-expression characterized fetal ovarian cells, while TUNEL and caspase-3 co-expression was found only in some of them. In adult ovaries, Bcl-2 was moderately and Bax strongly expressed in the surface ovarian epithelium and stroma. Bcl-2 and Bax expression in granulosa and theca interna cells varied depending on the stage of follicular atresia. Caspase-3 apoptotic cells characterized granulosa cells of adult atretic follicles. Our results indicate that intracellular levels of Bcl-2 and Bax protein might regulate the final destiny of developing germ cells. Caspase-3 dependent apoptosis seems to be the most important, but not the only cell death pathway in ovaries. In adult ovaries, caspase-dependent cell death characterized granulosa cells, but not the germ cells. PMID:23295106

  19. Action of Halowax 1051 on Enzymes of Phase I (CYP1A1) and Phase II (SULT1A and COMT) Metabolism in the Pig Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Barć, Justyna; Karpeta, Anna; Gregoraszczuk, Ewa Łucja

    2013-01-01

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are a group of organochlorinated compounds exhibiting dioxin-like properties. Previously published data showed the direct action of PCN-rich Halowax 1051 on ovarian follicular steroidogenesis. Taking into consideration that the observed biological effects of PCNs may be frequently side effects of metabolites generated by their detoxification, the aim of this study was to determine the activity and expression of enzymes involved in phase I (cytochrome P450, family 1 (CYP1A1)) and phase II (sulfotransferase (SULT1A) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)) detoxification metabolism. Cocultures of granulosa and theca interna cells collected from sexually mature pigs were exposed to 1 pg/mL to 10 ng/mL of Halowax 1051 for 1 to 48 hours, after which levels and activities of CYP1A1, SULT1A, and COMT were measured. Dose-dependent increases of CYP1A1 activity and expression were observed. High doses of Halowax 1051 were inhibitory to COMT and SULT1A activity and reduced their protein levels. In conclusion, fast activation of phase I enzymes with simultaneous inhibition of phase II enzymes indicates that the previously observed effect of Halowax 1051 on follicular steroidogenesis may partially result from metabolite action occurring locally in ovarian follicles. PMID:23653643

  20. Dosimetry and Vibration measurements in BIOLAB and EMCS (Dos-ViBE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ideström, Johan Olof; Hendrik Anken, Ralf; Reitz, Guenther; Berger, Thomas; Hauslage, Jens; Schuber, Marianne; Fossum, Knut R.; Vanhavere, Filip

    Space irradiation and vibrations in even small dosages can impact biological experiments and have not yet been measured in the biological payloads of the Columbus module at the Interna-tional Space Station (ISS). Installing active dosimeters and accelerometers in the Experiment Containers (EC) of Biolab and the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS), to sur-vey in-situ the radiation and vibrations in these facilities, should be performed to serve as a reference of the space conditions to future experiments. To monitor the radiation field, the space radiation should be measured with an active dosime-ter inside the Multi-User-Facilities, as close to the actual shielding conditions of the biological experiments as possible. To measure the full spectrum of vibration frequencies, several instru-ments with different measurement ranges and sensitivity should be combined. The radiation and vibrations should be measured simultaneously in Biolab and EMCS to compare their radiation shielding and sensitivities to vibrations from the ISS. The radiation could also be measured with passive dosimeters. On the one hand this would be a back-up to the active dosimeter and on the other hand it would provide additional data since the passive dosimeters can give additional information on the radiation LET spectrum. As a response to ESA's Announcement of Opportunity (ILSRA-2009), a joint experiment in Biolab and EMCS, entitled Dos-ViBE, was proposed by the co-authors. The objectives and experimental flow of Dos-ViBE are outlined in this presentation.

  1. Shifted pallidal co-release of GABA and glutamate in habenula drives cocaine withdrawal and relapse.

    PubMed

    Meye, Frank J; Soiza-Reilly, Mariano; Smit, Tamar; Diana, Marco A; Schwarz, Martin K; Mameli, Manuel

    2016-08-01

    Cocaine withdrawal produces aversive states and vulnerability to relapse, hallmarks of addiction. The lateral habenula (LHb) encodes negative stimuli and contributes to aversive withdrawal symptoms. However, it remains unclear which inputs to LHb promote this and what the consequences are for relapse susceptibility. We report, using rabies-based retrolabeling and optogenetic mapping, that the entopeduncular nucleus (EPN, the mouse equivalent of the globus pallidus interna) projects to an LHb neuronal subset innervating aversion-encoding midbrain GABA neurons. EPN-to-LHb excitatory signaling is limited by GABAergic cotransmission. This inhibitory component decreases during cocaine withdrawal as a result of reduced presynaptic vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT). This shifts the EPN-to-LHb GABA/glutamate balance, disinhibiting EPN-driven LHb activity. Selective virally mediated VGAT overexpression at EPN-to-LHb terminals during withdrawal normalizes GABAergic neurotransmission. This intervention rescues cocaine-evoked aversive states and prevents stress-induced reinstatement, used to model relapse. This identifies diminished inhibitory transmission at EPN-to-LHb GABA/glutamate synapses as a mechanism contributing to the relapsing feature of addictive behavior. PMID:27348214

  2. The ultrastructure of eosinophil granules of the black-necked crowned crane.

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, M H

    1979-01-01

    The fine structure of the granules of circulating eosinophil leucocytes was studied in five adult black-necked crowned cranes. The interna within these granules showed various crystalline arrangements. Optical diffraction patterns of the crystals revealed linear arrangements measuring 6.2 and 3.8 nm and often, when these arrangements were superimposed, a hexagonal pattern was observed. Bundles of microfilaments measuring 5-7 nm in diameter were found frequently in crystal-containing granules. Staining with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) and various other cytochemical procedures gave results similar to those obtained previously in the shag and the duck. The PTA stain and peroxidase reaction product were found only in the externum of the granules whereas the acid hydrolases, acid phosphatase and arylsulphatase were located within the crystalline matrix and in or between the microfilaments. As with shag eosinophil granules, those of the crane did not appear to contain histone arginine and in this respect they differed from those of the duck and the fowl. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 PMID:422484

  3. Histological study of the external, middle and inner ear of horses.

    PubMed

    Blanke, A; Aupperle, H; Seeger, J; Kubick, C; Schusser, G F

    2015-12-01

    Clinical, anatomical and histological aspects of the equine acoustic organ have been poorly investigated and illustrated in literature so far. It is understood that an intact acoustic organ and hearing function are of vital importance for the well-being of flight animals like horses. The knowledge of the acoustic organ is usually transferred analogously from other mammals to horses. The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed and complete histological description of the healthy equine auditory organ, and to determine its congruity to other mammalians. Anatomical dissections and histological preparations were carried out on ten cadaver heads. Specimens of various parts of the equine acoustic organ were taken and evaluated histologically. The histological composition of external, middle and inner ear structures are predominantly congruent to those of other mammals, especially to human beings. Unique inwardly directed rete pegs within the osseous ear canal and the prominent tensor tympani muscle are described for the first time. Results obtained in this study can be employed as references for further research on the equine acoustic organ and improve the understanding of the clinical development of hearing loss, otitis externa/media/interna or tympanosclerosis. PMID:25283481

  4. La dinámica demográfica y la desigualdad educativa en Méxicoa

    PubMed Central

    Giorguli Saucedo, Silvia E.; Vargas Valle, Eunice D.; Ulloa, Viviana Salinas; Hubert, Celia; Potter, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta una investigación sobre el vínculo entre los procesos educativos y la dinámica demográfica en México. La tradición del pensamiento sobre población y desarrollo ha partido de la hipótesis de que el ritmo de crecimiento poblacional, el tamaño de las familias y la migración influyen sobre la acumulación de capital humano entre la población en edades escolares. Se explora aquí la relación del desempeño educativo de los jóvenes entre 14 y 23 años y la razón de dependencia juvenil, la fecundidad adolescente y la migración interna e internacional; para ello se utilizan datos agregados a escala municipal del año 2000. El análisis incluye indicadores de la oferta educativa municipal basados en estadísticas administrativas de la SEP. PMID:26146427

  5. Morphometry and immunohistochemistry of follicles growth and steroidogenesis in saharian wild sand rat, Psammomys obesus, ovary.

    PubMed

    Boubekri, Amina; Gernigon-Spychalowicz, Thérese; Khammar, Farida; Exbrayat, Jean-Marie

    2009-01-01

    The sand rat (Psammomys obesus) constitutes a model to study seasonal changes and several metabolic disorders. In order to perform breeding laboratory conditions, the reproductive function of this species living in North Occidental Algerian Sahara was studied. The aim of this work was to investigate the follicular growth changes and the steroidogenic associated aspects. The study was performed using morphometrical and immunohistochemical methods. From primordial to preantral states, the follicle diameter increased progressively from 17-20 mum to 192-225 mum. The preovulatory follicles reached about 500 mum in diameter. Immunoreactivity to progesterone, androstenediol and estradiol, varied in the different parts of the ovary and follicular cells. The progesterone antibody appeared clearly labelled in the theca interna of the growing follicle and increased in the granulosa; the androgen antibody was continuously weak and diffuses in all follicles; the estradiol labelling appeared weak and diffuse in preantral follicles then increased in antral follicles in both theca and granulosa or only in granulosa. In antral follicles, estradiol label was clearly localized in granulosa cells and totally devoid in theca cells. In Psammomys ovary, labels of hormone were diffuse or localized, weak or intense in the theca and or in the granulosa according to the follicle size. PMID:20067896

  6. Globus pallidus deep brain stimulation for adult-onset axial dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Aasef G.; Mewes, Klaus; Jinnah, H.A.; DeLong, Mahlon R.; Gross, Robert E.; Triche, Shirley; Freeman, Alan; Factor, Stewart A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Generalized dystonia, both primary and secondary forms, and axial dystonias such as tardive dystonia, and idiopathic cervical dystonia are responsive to globus pallidus interna (GPi) DBS. There is a paucity of investigations probing the impact of DBS on adult-onset axial dystonia. We assessed the efficacy of GPi DBS in four patients with rare adult-onset axial dystonia. Methods Primary outcome measure was improvement in the motor component of the Burke-Fahn-Marsden (BFM) rating scale. Secondary outcome measures were quality of life as determined by the SF-36 questionnaire, time to achieve best possible benefit and DBS parameters that accounted for the best response. In patients with prominent concomitant cervical dystonia we also used the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS). Results GPi DBS improved BFM scores by 87.63 ± 11.46%. Improvement in total severity scale of TWSTRS was 71.5 ± 12.7%. Quality of life also remarkably improved as evidenced by 109.38 ± 82.97 and 7.05 ± 21.48% percent change in psychometrically-based physical component summary (PCS), and a mental component summary (MCS) score respectively. Conclusions GPi DBS is a very effective treatment for adult-onset axial dystonia. Considering its refractoriness to medical therapy and significant impact on quality of life DBS should be considered for this disorder. PMID:25260969

  7. Ventos em supergigantes B[e] das nuvens de Magalhães e da Galáxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Araújo, F. X.; Pilling, D. A.; Pereira, C. B.; Fernandes, M. B.

    2003-08-01

    As Supergigantes B[e] apresentam as seguintes características: (i) alta luminosidade; (ii) espectro típico de estrelas de tipo B; (iii) linhas permitidas e proibidas em emissão de metais de baixa ionização, especialmente FeII; (iv) linhas de Balmer, e por vêzes também dos ions HeI e FeII, com perfis tipo P Cygni indicativos de altas taxas de perda de massa. Atualmente estamos desenvolvendo um projeto que visa comparar as propriedades fisicas (principalmente e v¥) dos ventos destes objetos nas Nuvens de Magalhães e na Galaxia. O objetivo é estudar a influência da metalicidade. No presente painel apresentamos uma determinação das velocidades terminais de 11 estrelas, sendo 4 na GNM (Hen S111, 66, R126 e Hen S93), 4 na PNM (Hen S18, S23, S65 e R4) e 3 na Galaxia (CPD-529243, MWC 300 e GG Car). Nossos dados são espectros de alta resolução obtidos no telescópio 1.52m do ESO com o espectrógrafo FEROS. Para determinar as velocidades terminais usamos as linhas Hd e HeI 3888 Å cujas componentes em absorção costumam estar livres de "blends" e estruturas. Nossos resultados sugerem que as velocidades de expansão na GNM são maiores (ainda que apenas ligeiramente) do que aquelas da PNM, como esperado. No entanto, os objetos da Galaxia não parecem seguir a mesma tendência.

  8. Condições físicas do disco de acréscimo da nova-anã V4140 SGR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, B.; Baptista, R.

    2003-08-01

    Discos de acréscimo são aparatos cósmicos que permitem que matéria seja eficientemente acrescida sobre uma fonte compacta pela remoção de momento angular via tensões viscosas enquanto transforma a energia potencial gravitacional em calor e, posteriormente, em radiação. Sistemas binários semi-ligados, como Variáveis Cataclísmicas (VCs) não-magnéticas, são talvez os melhores ambientes encontrados para o estudo da física desses discos de acréscimo. O desenvolvimento de técnicas de imageamento indireto, como o mapeamento por eclipses (MME) e a tomografia Doppler, permitiu avanços importantes na compreensão da física dos processos de acréscimo desses sistemas. V4140 Sagitarii é uma VC eclipsante de curto período orbital (~ 90 min) que não havia sido classificada como nova-anã ou polar. Neste trabalho apresentamos a análise do mapeamento por eclipse feito com dados de fotometria CCD nas bandas B, V e R de V4140 Sgr realizada no LNA. O objeto foi observado no declínio de erupção em julho de 1992 e em erupção em julho de 2001, isso indicou a classificação do sistema como uma nova-anã. A análise, feita sobre os mapas já apresentados em trabalho anterior, apresenta (i) diagrama cor-cor, que indica uma emissão opticamente espessa nas partes internas do disco em quiescência (R < RL1); (ii) diagrama cor-magnitude, usado para inferir uma distância de 600 +/- 10 pc ao sistema; (iii) a distribuição radial de temperatura observada que concorda com a lei de disco espesso em estado estacionário TµR-3/4, com temperaturas em torno de 10000 K e 3000 K ns partes internas e externas do disco em quiescência, respectivamente; (iv) a evolução da distribuição de temperatura no declínio de erupção; (v) estimativa da transferência de massa de 109.9+/-0.1 M¤/ano em quiescência, similar àquelas observadas em novas-like. O sistema é comparado à outras novas-anãs (e.g. OY Car e Z Cha) em quiescência e erupção, mostrando-se tratar um

  9. Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bronstein, Jeff M.; Tagliati, Michele; Alterman, Ron L.; Lozano, Andres M.; Volkmann, Jens; Stefani, Alessandro; Horak, Fay B.; Okun, Michael S.; Foote, Kelly D.; Krack, Paul; Pahwa, Rajesh; Henderson, Jaimie M.; Hariz, Marwan I.; Bakay, Roy A.; Rezai, Ali; Marks, William J.; Moro, Elena; Vitek, Jerrold L.; Weaver, Frances M.; Gross, Robert E.; DeLong, Mahlon R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To provide recommendations to patients, physicians, and other health care providers on several issues involving deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson disease (PD). Data Sources and Study Selection An international consortium of experts organized, reviewed the literature, and attended the workshop. Topics were introduced at the workshop, followed by group discussion. Data Extraction and Synthesis A draft of a consensus statement was presented and further edited after plenary debate. The final statements were agreed on by all members. Conclusions (1) Patients with PD without significant active cognitive or psychiatric problems who have medically intractable motor fluctuations, intractable tremor, or intolerance of medication adverse effects are good candidates for DBS. (2) Deep brain stimulation surgery is best performed by an experienced neurosurgeon with expertise in stereotactic neurosurgery who is working as part of a interprofessional team. (3) Surgical complication rates are extremely variable, with infection being the most commonly reported complication of DBS. (4) Deep brain stimulation programming is best accomplished by a highly trained clinician and can take 3 to 6 months to obtain optimal results. (5) Deep brain stimulation improves levodopa-responsive symptoms, dyskinesia, and tremor; benefits seem to be long-lasting in many motor domains. (6) Subthalamic nuclei DBS may be complicated by increased depression, apathy, impulsivity, worsened verbal fluency, and executive dysfunction in a subset of patients. (7) Both globus pallidus pars interna and subthalamic nuclei DBS have been shown to be effective in addressing the motor symptoms of PD. (8) Ablative therapy is still an effective alternative and should be considered in a select group of appropriate patients. PMID:20937936

  10. Compound gravity receptor polarization vectors evidenced by linear vestibular evoked potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, S. M.; Jones, T. A.; Bell, P. L.; Taylor, M. J.

    2001-01-01

    The utricle and saccule are gravity receptor organs of the vestibular system. These receptors rely on a high-density otoconial membrane to detect linear acceleration and the position of the cranium relative to Earth's gravitational vector. The linear vestibular evoked potential (VsEP) has been shown to be an effective non-invasive functional test specifically for otoconial gravity receptors (Jones et al., 1999). Moreover, there is some evidence that the VsEP can be used to independently test utricular and saccular function (Taylor et al., 1997; Jones et al., 1998). Here we characterize compound macular polarization vectors for the utricle and saccule in hatchling chickens. Pulsed linear acceleration stimuli were presented in two axes, the dorsoventral (DV, +/- Z axis) to isolate the saccule, and the interaural (IA, +/- Y axis) to isolate the utricle. Traditional signal averaging was used to resolve responses recorded from the surface of the skull. Latency and amplitude of eighth nerve components of the linear VsEP were measured. Gravity receptor responses exhibited clear preferences for one stimulus direction in each axis. With respect to each utricular macula, lateral translation in the IA axis produced maximum ipsilateral response amplitudes with substantially greater amplitude intensity (AI) slopes than medially directed movement. Downward caudal motions in the DV axis produced substantially larger response amplitudes and AI slopes. The results show that the macula lagena does not contribute to the VsEP compound polarization vectors of the sacculus and utricle. The findings suggest further that preferred compound vectors for the utricle depend on the pars externa (i.e. lateral hair cell field) whereas for the saccule they depend on pars interna (i.e. superior hair cell fields). These data provide evidence that maculae saccule and utricle can be selectively evaluated using the linear VsEP.

  11. Burrow ventilation in the tube-dwelling shrimp Callianassa subterranea (Decapoda: thalassinidea). I. Morphology and motion of the pleopods, uropods and telson.

    PubMed

    Stamhuis, E J; Videler, J J

    1998-07-01

    The morphology of the pleopods, uropods and telson of the tube-dwelling shrimp Callianassa subterranea have been studied using dissection microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The kinematics of these appendages were examined by motion analysis of macro-video recordings of ventilating shrimps in transparent artificial burrows. The pleopods show the usual crustacean biramous anatomy, but all segments are rostro-caudally flattened. The protopodite bears a triangular medially oriented endopodite and a scoop-shaped exopodite. The contralateral endopodites are linked by the appendix interna, ensuring a perfect phase relationship between contralateral pleopods. The outer rims of the exopodites are fringed with long fern-leaf-like plumose setae bearing flattened setules. These setae have very mobile joints and can be turned caudally. The slits between contralateral endopodites have rims of leaf-like setae as well. Setae of the same leaf-like type fringe the uropods, but these are non-motile. The telson has a narrow fringe of leaf-like setae, locally interrupted by long mechanoreceptory setae. A shrimp, wandering through the burrow or resting, holds its pleopods against the abdomen with the exopodites and their setal fringes retracted medially. The uropods are folded medially as well, probably to reduce the shrimp's drag. During ventilation, the uropods are extended against the tube wall, leaving only a small opening for flow ventral from the telson, and the pleopods beat at a frequency of approximately 1 Hz (0.9+/-0.2 Hz). Fourier analysis of pleopod kinematics showed that the motion pattern of the first flow-generating pleopod pair (PP1) consisted mainly of the first harmonic (75 %) and to a lesser extent of the third harmonic (20 %), resulting in almost perfect sinusoidal motion. The motion patterns of PP2 and PP3 could be modelled by assigning pure sinusoids with a 120 degrees phase shift and a rostro-caudal ranking to the three pairs of pleopods. PMID:9639589

  12. Conceptuaciones de los estudiantes de las facultades de educacion y ciencias naturales de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, recinto de Rio Piedras, acerca de la ciencia y la pseudociencia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes Medina, Hector A.

    Esta investigacion describe las conceptuaciones de los estudiantes de tercer ano o mas a nivel de bachillerato de los programas de Educacion en Ciencia y Ciencias Naturales de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, Recinto de Rio Piedras, acerca de lo establecido en la literatura para distinguir el conocimiento cientifico de las creencias pseudocientificas. Este estudio se guio por un diseno tipo encuesta transversal que permitio conocer de manera consistente las conceptuaciones de los estudiantes encuestados acerca de la Ciencia y la Pseudociencia. Ademas, permitio desarrollar inferencias estadisticas relacionadas a la poblacion de estudio, sus conceptuaciones y su inclinacion teorica en torno al Realismo y al Racionalismo cientifico moderados. El instrumento utilizado fue el Cuestionario acerca de las concepciones de la ciencia y la pseudocienca en estudiantes universitarios, Reyes (2015). Este cuestionario fue validado mediante la recopilacion de diversas fuentes de evidencias, entre estas se encuentran las evidencias basadas en el contenido, el proceso de respuesta, la estructura interna y de constructo. Tambien, se calculo el Alfa de Crombach para la escala total y para cada componente y se realizo un analisis de factores que demostro la presencia de seis componentes claramente definidos de acuerdo a lo esperado sobre las caracteristicas originales del instrumento. Las estadisticas utilizadas fueron descriptivas. Participaron 302 alumnos, de las facultades de educacion y ciencias naturales. Se encontro que las conceptuaciones de los estudiantes de ambas facultades se inclinan en un 66.2% a favor con lo establecido en el modelo teorico en torno al Realismo y al Racionalismo cientifico moderados. Sin embargo, aun hay un 33.8% de los estudiantes de ambas facultades que poseen conceptuaciones distintas al modelo teorico propuesto.

  13. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel; Martínez-López, Emilio José; Ruiz-Ariza, Alberto; Izquierdo-Rus, Tomás; Salas-Sánchez, Jesús; García-Pinillos, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: el objetivo de este estudio es evaluar las propiedades psicométricas del cuestionario de disfrute por el ejercicio físico (PACES) en adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad.Métodos: participaron 139 adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad: 91 niñas (edad = 13,85 ± 1,92 años; índice de masa corporal [IMC] = 26,83 ± 3,16 kg/m2) y 48 niños (edad = 14,29 ± 1,62 años; IMC = 28,31 ± 3,74 kg/m2). Para analizar el disfrute por la actividad física se empleó el cuestionario Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES).Resultados: los resultados del análisis factorial exploratorio y confirmatorio han mostrado una estructura de dos factores; a su vez el PACES presenta una consistencia interna muy alta (alfa de Cronbach = 0,908). La fiabilidad test-retest indica una buena concordancia temporal (Spearman rho = 0,815, p < 0,001). Por último, el PACES en adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad manifiesta una validez convergente adecuada con la intencionalidad de ser activo (MIFA), la atracción por la actividad física (CAPA), la resistencia cardiorrespiratoria y los pliegues suprailiacoy subescapular.Conclusión: los resultados confirman que el PACES es una medida válida y fiable del disfrute por la actividad física en adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad. El disfrute por la actividad física puede ser relevante en la participación de los adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad en estas actividades. PMID:27513493

  14. Trouble in the aquatic world: How wildlife professionals are battling amphibian declines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, Deanna H.; Chestnut, Tara E.

    2014-01-01

    A parasitic fungus, similar to the one that caused the extinction of numerous tropical frog and toad species, is killing salaman-ders in Europe. Scientists first identified the fungus, Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans, in 2013 as the culprit behind the death of fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra) in the Netherlands (Martel et al. 2013) and are now exploring its potential impact to other species. Although the fungus, which kills the amphibians by infecting their skin, has not yet spread to the United States, researchers believe it's only a mat-ter of time before it does and, when that happens, the impact on salamander populations could be devastating (Martel et al. 2014). Reports of worldwide declines of amphibians began a quarter of a century ago (Blaustein & Wake 1990). Globally, some amphibian popula-tion declines occurred in the late 1950s and early 1960s, and declining trends continued in North America (Houlahan et al. 2000). In the earlier years, population declines were attributed primar-ily to overharvest due to unregulated supply of species such as the northern leopard frog (Litho-bates pipiens) for educational use (Dodd 2013). In later years, however, causes of declines were less evident. In 1989, herpetologists at the First World Congress of Herpetology traded alarming stories of losses across continents and in seemingly pro-tected landscapes, making it clear that amphibian population declines were a "global phenomenon." In response to these reports, in 1991, the Interna-tional Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) established the Declining Amphibian Populations Task Force to better understand the scale and scope of global amphibian declines. Unfortunate-ly, the absence of long-term monitoring data and targeted studies made it difficult for the task force to compile information.

  15. Turning a Negative into a Positive: Ascending GABAergic Control of Cortical Activation and Arousal

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ritchie E.; McKenna, James T.

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. Recent technological advances have illuminated the role of GABAergic neurons in control of cortical arousal and sleep. Sleep-promoting GABAergic neurons in the preoptic hypothalamus are well-known. Less well-appreciated are GABAergic projection neurons in the brainstem, midbrain, hypothalamus, and basal forebrain, which paradoxically promote arousal and fast electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms. Thus, GABA is not purely a sleep-promoting neurotransmitter. GABAergic projection neurons in the brainstem nucleus incertus and ventral tegmental nucleus of Gudden promote theta (4–8 Hz) rhythms. Ventral tegmental area GABAergic neurons, neighboring midbrain dopamine neurons, project to the frontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. They discharge faster during cortical arousal and regulate reward. Thalamic reticular nucleus GABAergic neurons initiate sleep spindles in non-REM sleep. In addition, however, during wakefulness, they tonically regulate the activity of thalamocortical neurons. Other GABAergic inputs to the thalamus arising in the globus pallidus pars interna, substantia nigra pars reticulata, zona incerta, and basal forebrain regulate motor activity, arousal, attention, and sensory transmission. Several subpopulations of cortically projecting GABAergic neurons in the basal forebrain project to the thalamus and neocortex and preferentially promote cortical gamma-band (30–80 Hz) activity and wakefulness. Unlike sleep-active GABAergic neurons, these ascending GABAergic neurons are fast-firing neurons which disinhibit and synchronize the activity of their forebrain targets, promoting the fast EEG rhythms typical of conscious states. They are prominent targets of GABAergic hypnotic agents. Understanding the properties of ascending GABAergic neurons may lead to novel treatments for diseases involving disorders of cortical activation and wakefulness. PMID:26124745

  16. Intrafollicular steroids and anti-mullerian hormone during normal and cystic ovarian follicular development in the cow.

    PubMed

    Monniaux, Danielle; Clemente, Nathalie di; Touzé, Jean-Luc; Belville, Corinne; Rico, Charlène; Bontoux, Martine; Picard, Jean-Yves; Fabre, Stéphane

    2008-08-01

    Development of follicular cysts is a frequent ovarian dysfunction in cattle. Functional changes that precede cyst formation are unknown, but a role for anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in the development of follicular cysts has been suggested in humans. This study aimed to characterize intrafollicular steroids and AMH during follicular growth in a strain of beef cows exhibiting a high incidence of occurrence of follicular cysts. Normal follicular growth and cyst development were assessed by ovarian ultrasonography scanning during the 8 days before slaughtering. Experimental regression of cysts was followed by rapid growth of follicles that reached the size of cysts within 3-5 days. These young cysts exhibited higher intrafollicular concentrations of testosterone, estradiol-17beta, and progesterone than large early dominant follicles did in normal ovaries, but they exhibited similar concentrations of AMH. Later-stage cysts were characterized by hypertrophy of theca interna cells, high intrafollicular progesterone concentration, and high steroidogenic acute regulatory protein mRNA expression in granulosa cells. Progesterone and AMH concentrations in the largest follicles (> or =10 mm) and cysts were negatively correlated (r = -0.45, P < 0.01). Smaller follicles (<10 mm) exhibited higher intrafollicular testosterone and estradiol-17beta concentrations in ovaries with cysts compared to normal ovaries. During follicular growth, AMH concentration dropped in follicles larger than 5 mm in diameter and in a similar way in ovaries with and without cysts. In conclusion, enhanced growth and steroidogenesis in antral follicles <10 mm preceded cyst formation in cow ovaries. Intrafollicular AMH was not a marker of cystic development in the cow, but low AMH concentrations in cysts were associated with luteinization. PMID:18448844

  17. Quantitative investigations on the human entorhinal area: left-right asymmetry and age-related changes.

    PubMed

    Heinsen, H; Henn, R; Eisenmenger, W; Götz, M; Bohl, J; Bethke, B; Lockemann, U; Püschel, K

    1994-08-01

    The total nerve cell numbers in the right and in the left human entorhinal areas have been calculated by volume estimations with the Cavalieri principle and by cell density determinations with the optical disector. Thick gallocyanin-stained serial frozen sections through the parahippocampal gyrus of 22 human subjects (10 female, 12 male) ranging from 18 to 86 years were analysed. The laminar composition of gallocyanin (Nissl)-stained sections could easily be compared with Braak's (1972, 1980) pigmentoarchitectonic study, and Braak's nomenclature of the entorhinal laminas was adopted. Cell-sparse laminae dissecantes can more clearly be distinguished in Nissl than in aldehydefuchsin preparations. These cell-poor dissecantes, lamina dissecans externa (dis-ext), lamina dissecans 1 (dis-1) and lamina dissecans 2 (dis-2), were excluded from nerve cell number determinations. An exact delineation of the entorhinal area is indispensable for any kind of quantitative investigation. We have defined the entorhinal area by the presence of pre-alpha cell clusters and the deeper layers of lamina principalis externa (pre-beta and gamma) separated from lamina principalis interna (pri) by lamina dissecans 1 (dis-1). The human entorhinal area is quantitatively characterized by a left-sided (asymmetric) higher pre-alpha cell number and an age-related nerve cell loss in pre as well as pri layers. At variance with other CNS cortical and subcortical structures, the neuronal number of the entorhinal area appears to decrease continuously from the earliest stages analysed, although a secular trend has to be considered. The asymmetry in pre-alpha cell number is discussed in the context of higher human mental capabilities, especially language. PMID:7818090

  18. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance features of intracranial hemangioendothelioma: A study of 7 cases

    PubMed Central

    TIAN, WEI-ZHONG; YU, XIANG-RONG; WANG, WEI-WEI; ZHANG, BO; XIA, JIAN-GUO; LIU, HAN-QIU

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to present the neuroradiological and histopathological features of intracranial hemangioendothelioma (HE). The computed tomography (CT; n=3) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; n=7) features, and the clinical presentations of 7 patients with pathologically documented HEs were retrospectively analyzed. Lesions were observed in the right side of the skull (the frontal bone in 1 patient and the parietal bone in 1 patient), the tentorium (2 patients), the cerebral falx (1 patient), the right cavernous sinus (1 patient) and the right temporal lobe (1 patient). The tumor was lobulated in 5 cases and round in 2 cases. The majority of tumors appeared isointense or hypointense with multiple scattered hyperintensities on T1-weighted MRI. Moreover, the lesions appeared as inhomogeneous hyperintense regions with multiple enlarged and tortuous blood flow voids on T2-weighted MRI. The lesions also showed marked gadolinium enhancement in a honeycomb pattern. CT scan results showed a isoattenuation region (32–47 HU), with numerous small, round, high-density foci. The 2 cases with skull lesions presented with local bone destruction and discontinuous bone lines of the tabula interna ossis cranii. In 1 case, MR angiography revealed abnormal vessels in the basilar region. A total of 4 cases were epithelial HE, 2 were retiform HE and 1 was kaposiform HE. Histological examination revealed endothelial cell proliferation with vascular lesions and a mucous matrix or dense fibrous mesenchyme. In conclusion, intracranial HE is rare, but should be considered in the differential diagnosis when evaluating intracranial neoplasms. A well-defined lobulated mass and imaging features that include internal heterogeneity, small scattered hemorrhages and thromboses, signal voids of vessels, and marked and delayed enhancement may confirm the diagnosis of HE. PMID:27123072

  19. Regulation of NGFI-B/Nur77 gene expression in the rat ovary and in leydig tumor cells MA-10.

    PubMed

    Inaoka, Yoshihiko; Yazawa, Takashi; Uesaka, Miki; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Yamada, Kazuya; Miyamoto, Kaoru

    2008-05-01

    NR4A1, also called NGFI-B in the rat, Nur77 in the mouse and TR3 in humans, belongs to the orphan nuclear steroid hormone receptor superfamily and is one of the immediate-early genes. In the endocrine organs, including the gonads, NGFI-B/Nur77 gene expression is rapidly induced by pituitary hormones. NGFI-B/Nur77 expression was found to be rapidly reduced by an estrogenic endocrine disrupter, diethylstilbestrol (DES) in theca interna cells of immature rat ovaries. DES treatment also triggered a rapid decrease of serum luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, suggesting that DES acts on the hypothalamo-pituitary axis to suppress LH secretion from the pituitary. The transcriptional regulation of NGFI-B/Nur77 by LH/human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or 8-bromoadenosine 3'-5'-cyclic monophosphate (8 Br-cAMP) was examined in mouse Leydig tumor cells MA-10. Luciferase assays using NGFI-B/Nur77 promoter constructs and electric mobility shift assays (EMSA) showed that NGFI-B/Nur77 gene expression was mediated through three of the four activator protein-1 (AP-1)-like sites, namely the -233 AP-1, -213 AP-1 and -69 AP-1 sites adjacent to the transcription start site of the NGFI-B/Nur77 promoter. We also demonstrated here that both the Jun family and cAMP-responsive element binding (CREB) proteins bind to the -233 AP-1 site, whereas the main binding protein to the -213 AP-1 site was CREB, and Jun family protein to the -69 AP-1 site, respectively. The rapid induction of NGFI-B/Nur77 gene expression by LH/hCG in MA-10 cells appears to be mediated by both CREB and Jun family proteins through the cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. PMID:18163434

  20. High-speed documented experimental gunshot to a skull-brain model and radiologic virtual autopsy.

    PubMed

    Thali, Michael J; Kneubuehl, Beat P; Vock, Peter; Allmen, Gabriel v; Dirnhofer, Richard

    2002-09-01

    The authors documented and evaluated experimental gunshots to a skull-brain model with high-speed photography and subsequent radiographic examination for comparison of the morphologic findings in the model. The artificial skull was a polyurethane ball constructed in layers, with a porous diploe sandwiched between a tabula externa and a tabula interna. The brain itself was simulated with gelatin 10% at 4 degrees C, a material well known in wound ballistics. Gunshots were fired at the model from a distance of 10 m and documented with high-speed photography (up to 50 million frames/sec). Subsequently, a complete examination of the artificial skull was performed, including spiral computed tomography (with two-dimensional and three-dimensional reconstructions) and classic skull autopsy. The high-speed photographs clearly showed the dynamic development of the skull fracture system from an external perspective. The subsequent radiographic examination of the entire head volume created two-dimensional reformations in any plane and three-dimensional reconstructions of the gunshot injury of the polyurethane skull-brain model, especially the wound channel and the fracture system. Thanks to the model and high-speed photographs, the dynamic development of the morphology of a gunshot wound could be documented and studied. The data from computed tomography, using two-dimensional and three-dimensional postprocessing with a perspective view, were very similar to those from classic head autopsy, but derived in a hands-off and nondestructive manner. This examination method leads the way to radiographic digital autopsy or virtual autopsy. PMID:12198345

  1. Ovarian expression of insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) and its receptor (RXFP2) during development of bovine antral follicles and corpora lutea and measurement of circulating INSL3 levels during synchronized estrous cycles.

    PubMed

    Satchell, Leanne; Glister, Claire; Bleach, Emma C; Glencross, Richard G; Bicknell, Andrew B; Dai, Yanzhenzi; Anand-Ivell, Ravinder; Ivell, Richard; Knight, Philip G

    2013-05-01

    Insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3), a major product of testicular Leydig cells, is also expressed by the ovary, but its functional role remains poorly understood. Here, we quantified expression of INSL3 and its receptor RXFP2 in theca interna cell (TIC) and granulosa cell compartments of developing bovine antral follicles and in corpora lutea (CL). INSL3 and RXFP2 mRNA levels were much higher in TIC than granulosa cell and increased progressively during follicle maturation with INSL3 peaking in large (11-18 mm) estrogen-active follicles and RXFP2 peaking in 9- to 10-mm follicles before declining in larger (11-18 mm) follicles. Expression of both INSL3 and RXFP2 in CL was much lower than in TIC. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry confirmed abundant expression of INSL3 mRNA and protein in TIC. These observations indicate follicular TIC rather than CL as the primary site of both INSL3 production and action, implying a predominantly autocrine/paracrine role in TIC. To corroborate the above findings, we showed that in vitro exposure of TIC to a luteinizing concentration of LH greatly attenuated expression of both INSL3 and its receptor while increasing progesterone secretion and expression of STAR and CYP11A1. Moreover, in vivo, a significant cyclic variation in plasma INSL3 was observed during synchronized estrous cycles. INSL3 and estradiol-17β followed a similar pattern, both increasing after luteolysis, before falling sharply after the LH surge. Thus, theca-derived INSL3, likely from the dominant preovulatory follicle, is detectable in peripheral blood of cattle, and expression is down-regulated during luteinization induced by the preovulatory LH surge. Collectively, these findings underscore the likely role of INSL3 as an important intrafollicular modulator of TIC function/steroidogenesis, while raising doubts about its potential contribution to CL function. PMID:23546605

  2. The stigma of low opioid prescription in the hospitalized multimorbid elderly in Italy.

    PubMed

    Marengoni, Alessandra; Nobili, Alessandro; Corli, Oscar; Djade, Codjo Djignefa; Bertoni, Diana; Tettamanti, Mauro; Pasina, Luca; Corrao, Salvatore; Salerno, Francesco; Marcucci, Maura; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio

    2015-04-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of opioid prescriptions in hospitalized geriatric patients. Other aims were to evaluate factors associated with opioid prescription, and whether or not there was consistency between the presence of pain and prescription. Opioid prescriptions were gathered from the REgistro POliterapie Societa` Italiana di Medicina Interna (REPOSI) data for the years 2008, 2010 and 2012. 1,380 in-patients, 65+ years old, were enrolled in the first registry run, 1,332 in the second and 1,340 in the third. The prevalence of opioid prescription was calculated at hospital admission and discharge. In the third run of the registry, the degree of pain was assessed by means of a numerical scale. The prevalence of patients prescribed with opioids at admission was 3.8% in the first run, 3.6% in the second and 4.1% in the third, whereas at discharge rates were slightly higher (5.8, 5.3, and 6.6%). The most frequently prescribed agents were mild opioids such as codeine and tramadol. The number of total prescribed drugs was positively associated with opioid prescription in the three runs; in the third, dementia and a better functional status were inversely associated with opioid prescription. Finally, as many as 58% of patients with significant pain at discharge were prescribed no analgesic at all. The conservative attitude of Italian physicians to prescribe opioids in elderly patients changed very little between hospital admission and discharge through a period of 5 years. Reasons for such a low opioid prescription should be sought in physicians' and patients' concerns and prejudices. PMID:25248643

  3. Developmental programming: prenatal steroid excess disrupts key members of intraovarian steroidogenic pathway in sheep.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Salvetti, Natalia R; Matiller, Valentina; Ortega, Hugo H

    2014-09-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T) excess disrupts ovarian cyclicity and increases circulating estradiol levels as well as follicular recruitment and persistence culminating in multifollicular ovary similar to women with polycystic ovary syndrome. We tested whether prenatal T excess, by androgenic or estrogenic action, disrupts the steroid biosynthetic machinery in sheep in a cell-, follicle stage-, age-, and treatment-specific manner consistent with the ovarian disruptions and increased estradiol release. Impact of T/dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatments from days 30-90 of gestation on steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, cytochrome P-450 17α-hydroxylase/C17, 20-lyase (CYP17A1), and cytochrome P-450 aromatase (CYP19A1) were examined on fetal day 90, 140 and 10 months (postpubertal), and 21 months (adult, no DHT group) of age by immunohistochemistry. All 4 markers changed in a cell-, follicle stage-, and age-specific manner. Both treatments increased steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression in preantral follicles of postpubertal and adult females. Effects of prenatal T and DHT on 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase differed in a follicle- and age-specific manner. CYP17A1 was reduced in the theca interna of antral follicles by T, but not DHT, in 10- and 21-month-old females. CYP19A1 was reduced by both T and DHT at all ages barring an increase on fetal day 140. Reduced granulosa CYP19A1 and thecal CYP17A1 in adults likely disrupt the intrafollicular androgen/estrogen balance contributing to follicular persistence. The reduced thecal CYP17A1 expression suggests that the hyperandrogenic ovarian phenotype may originate from increased enzyme activity or alternatively via a different isoform of CYP17. The reduced CYP19A1 in antral follicles of adults indicates that the increased circulating estradiol release likely arises from the increased number of persisting follicles. PMID:25061847

  4. Effects of simvastatin and taurine on delayed cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    LIN, CHENG; ZHAO, YUANLI; WAN, GANG; ZHU, ANLIN; WANG, HAO

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to observe the effects of simvastatin and taurine on delayed cerebral vasospasm (DCVS) following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in rabbits. A total of 48 New Zealand white rabbits were allocated at random into four groups (control, SAH, SAH + simvastatin and SAH + taurine groups; n=12 each). The rabbit model of DCVS was established using a double hemorrhage method, which involved injecting autologous arterial blood into the cisterna magna in the SAH groups. The SAH + simvastatin group was administered oral simvastatin (5 mg/kg) daily between days 0–6. The SAH + taurine group was administered oral taurine (50 mg/kg) daily between days 0–6. Starch (50 mg/kg) was administered orally to the animals in the other two groups (control and SAH groups). The control group were not subjected to any other injections or treatment. The internal diameter and internal diameter/wall thickness of the basilar artery (BA) were measured. The expression levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 were determined using immunohistochemical and quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods following the sacrifice of all animals on day 7. The activity of nuclear factor (NF)-κB in the BA was also measured using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The BA walls in the SAH + simvastatin and SAH + taurine groups exhibited reduced narrowing and corrugation of the tunica elastica interna compared with the SAH group. At the protein and cDNA levels, it was found that cerebral vasospasm of the BA in the SAH + simvastatin and SAH + taurine groups was alleviated, as indicated by the reduced expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and NF-κB compared with the SAH group (P<0.05). In conclusion, simvastatin and taurine reduced DCVS following SAH in rabbits, which suggests that these compounds may exert anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:27073449

  5. The expression of thrombopoietin and its receptor during different physiological stages in the bovine ovary.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, M; Schilffarth, S; Schams, D; Meyer, Hhd; Berisha, B

    2011-10-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) is known to be involved in megakaryocytopoiesis, but its role in the control of ovarian function is unknown in cattle. The aims of this study were to demonstrate the expression of TPO and its receptor (c-MPL) in detail in bovine corpus luteum (CL) obtained from different stages of the oestrous cycle and during pregnancy--and to demonstrate that TPO/c-MPL system is expressed clearly in bovine follicles. Real-time RT-PCR (qPCR) and ELISA were applied to investigate mRNA expression of examined factors and TPO protein, respectively. In this investigation, increases in the concentrations of TPO protein and the mRNA expression of TPO and c-MPL were noticed during both early luteal stage and late luteal stage of the oestrous cycle. Furthermore, the expression of TPO/c-MPL system does not show any significant regulation in the CL throughout pregnancy. Highest co-expression of TPO/c-MPL system in both theca interna (TI) and granulosa cells (GC) in small follicles (<10 mm in diameter) was observed in this study that may suggest the possible role of TPO/c-MPL system in proliferation of TI and GC cells. To conclude, the results demonstrate the possible involvement of locally produced TPO/c-MPL system as a 'physiological filter' in bovine ovary where they may promote cell selection by inducing proliferation of viable cells and scavenging non-viable cells and thereby may play an important role in modulation of ovarian function. PMID:21198971

  6. What do cranial bones of LB1 tell us about Homo floresiensis?

    PubMed

    Balzeau, Antoine; Charlier, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Cranial vault thickness (CVT) of Liang Bua 1, the specimen that is proposed to be the holotype of Homo floresiensis, has not yet been described in detail and compared with samples of fossil hominins, anatomically modern humans or microcephalic skulls. In addition, a complete description from a forensic and pathological point of view has not yet been carried out. It is important to evaluate scientifically if features related to CVT bring new information concerning the possible pathological status of LB1, and if it helps to recognize affinities with any hominin species and particularly if the specimen could belong to the species Homo sapiens. Medical examination of the skull based on a micro-CT examination clearly brings to light the presence of a sincipital T (a non-metrical variant of normal anatomy), a scar from an old frontal trauma without any evident functional consequence, and a severe bilateral hyperostosis frontalis interna that may have modified the anterior morphology of the endocranium of LB1. We also show that LB1 displays characteristics, related to the distribution of bone thickness and arrangements of cranial structures, that are plesiomorphic traits for hominins, at least for Homo erectus s.l. relative to Homo neanderthalensis and H. sapiens. All the microcephalic skulls analyzed here share the derived condition of anatomically modern H. sapiens. Cranial vault thickness does not help to clarify the definition of the species H. floresiensis but it also does not support an attribution of LB1 to H. sapiens. We conclude that there is no support for the attribution of LB1 to H. sapiens as there is no evidence of systemic pathology and because it does not have any of the apomorphic traits of our species. PMID:27086053

  7. Atlas-based functional radiosurgery: Early results

    SciTech Connect

    Stancanello, J.; Romanelli, P.; Pantelis, E.; Sebastiano, F.; Modugno, N.

    2009-02-15

    Functional disorders of the brain, such as dystonia and neuropathic pain, may respond poorly to medical therapy. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi) and the centromedian nucleus of the thalamus (CMN) may alleviate dystonia and neuropathic pain, respectively. A noninvasive alternative to DBS is radiosurgical ablation [internal pallidotomy (IP) and medial thalamotomy (MT)]. The main technical limitation of radiosurgery is that targets are selected only on the basis of MRI anatomy, without electrophysiological confirmation. This means that, to be feasible, image-based targeting must be highly accurate and reproducible. Here, we report on the feasibility of an atlas-based approach to targeting for functional radiosurgery. In this method, masks of the GPi, CMN, and medio-dorsal nucleus were nonrigidly registered to patients' T1-weighted MRI (T1w-MRI) and superimposed on patients' T2-weighted MRI (T2w-MRI). Radiosurgical targets were identified on the T2w-MRI registered to the planning CT by an expert functional neurosurgeon. To assess its feasibility, two patients were treated with the CyberKnife using this method of targeting; a patient with dystonia received an IP (120 Gy prescribed to the 65% isodose) and a patient with neuropathic pain received a MT (120 Gy to the 77% isodose). Six months after treatment, T2w-MRIs and contrast-enhanced T1w-MRIs showed edematous regions around the lesions; target placements were reevaluated by DW-MRIs. At 12 months post-treatment steroids for radiation-induced edema and medications for dystonia and neuropathic pain were suppressed. Both patients experienced significant relief from pain and dystonia-related problems. Fifteen months after treatment edema had disappeared. Thus, this work shows promising feasibility of atlas-based functional radiosurgery to improve patient condition. Further investigations are indicated for optimizing treatment dose.

  8. Expression of leptin and its receptor genes in the ovarian follicles of cycling and early pregnant pigs.

    PubMed

    Smolinska, N; Kaminski, T; Siawrys, G; Przala, J

    2013-01-01

    Leptin is a polypeptide hormone produced primarily by adipocytes. It has been implicated in the regulation of satiety and energy homeostasis. Leptin has been suggested to play a role in reproduction based on its involvement in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis via endocrine, paracrine and/or autocrine pathways. The aim of the present study was to localize the cellular distribution of leptin and the long isoform of leptin receptor (OB-Rb) genes in porcine ovarian antral follicles and to compare the expression levels of leptin and OB-Rb mRNAs in porcine granulosa cells (GC), theca interna (TIC) and theca externa (TEC) cells during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle and in early pregnancy. The expression of leptin and OB-Rb genes was detected in GC, TIC and TEC. Significantly higher levels of leptin gene expression in GC were observed during the mid- and late-luteal phases of the cycle than on days 30 to 32 of pregnancy. On days 14 to 16 of pregnancy, leptin mRNA expression was higher than that on days 14 to 16 of the cycle. The expression of the OB-Rb gene in GC and TEC increased during pregnancy in comparison with the analyzed luteal phases of the cycle. Our results validate the hypothesis that locally produced leptin plays a role in the regulation of porcine reproduction at the ovarian level and exerts a direct effect on porcine follicles. The differences in OB-Rb gene expression in porcine GC and theca cells also suggest that their sensitivity to leptin varies in the ovaries of pregnant and cyclic pigs. PMID:23031202

  9. The Subthalamic Nucleus in Primary Dystonia: Single-Unit Discharge Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Schrock, Lauren E.; Ostrem, Jill L.; Turner, Robert S.; Shimamoto, Shoichi A.

    2009-01-01

    Most models of dystonia pathophysiology predict alterations of activity in the basal ganglia thalamocortical motor circuit. The globus pallidus interna (GPi) shows bursting and oscillatory neuronal discharge in both human dystonia and in animal models, but it is not clear which intrinsic basal ganglia pathways are implicated in this abnormal output. The subthalamic nucleus (STN) receives prominent excitatory input directly from cortical areas implicated in dystonia pathogenesis and inhibitory input from the external globus pallidus. The goal of this study was to elucidate the role of the STN in dystonia by analyzing STN neuronal discharge in patients with idiopathic dystonia. Data were collected in awake patients undergoing microelectrode recording for implantation of STN deep brain stimulation electrodes. We recorded 62 STN neurons in 9 patients with primary dystonia. As a comparison group, we recorded 143 STN neurons in 20 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Single-unit activity was discriminated off-line by principal component analysis and evaluated with respect to discharge rate, bursting, and oscillatory activity. The mean STN discharge rate in dystonia patients was 26.3 Hz (SD 13.6), which was lower than that in the PD patients (35.6 Hz, SD 15.2), but higher than published values for subjects without basal ganglia dysfunction. Oscillatory activity was found in both disorders, with a higher proportion of units oscillating in the beta range in PD. Bursting discharge was a prominent feature of both dystonia and PD, whereas sensory receptive fields were expanded in PD compared with dystonia. The STN firing characteristics, in conjunction with those previously published for GPi, suggest that bursting and oscillatory discharge in basal ganglia output may be transmitted via pathways involving the STN and provide a pathophysiologic rationale for STN as a surgical target in dystonia. PMID:19846625

  10. Reliability of nutritional assessment in patients with gastrointestinal tumors.

    PubMed

    Poziomyck, Aline Kirjner; Fruchtenicht, Ana Valeria Gonçalves; Kabke, Georgia Brum; Volkweis, Bernardo Silveira; Antoniazzi, Jorge Luiz; Moreira, Luis Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Patients with gastrointestinal cancer and malnutrition are less likely to tolerate major surgical procedures, radiotherapy or chemotherapy. In general, they display a higher incidence of complications such as infection, dehiscence and sepsis, which increases the length of stay and risk of death, and reduces quality of life. The aim of this review is to discuss the pros and cons of different points of view to assess nutritional risk in patients with gastrointestinal tract (GIT) tumors and their viability, considering the current understanding and screening approaches in the field. A better combination of anthropometric, laboratory and subjective evaluations is needed in patients with GIT cancer, since malnutrition in these patients is usually much more severe than in those patients with tumors at sites other than the GIT. RESUMO Pacientes com neoplasia gastrointestinal e desnutridos são menos propensos a tolerar procedimentos cirúrgicos de grande porte, radioterapia ou quimioterapia. Em geral, apresentam maior incidência de complicações, como infecção, deiscência e sepse, o que aumenta o tempo de internação e o risco de morte, e reduz a qualidade de vida. O objetivo desta revisão é abordar os prós e contras de diferentes pontos de vista que avaliam risco nutricional em pacientes com tumores do Trato Gastrointestinal (TGI) e sua viabilidade, considerando o atual entendimento e abordagens de triagem neste campo. Melhor combinação de avaliações antropométricas, laboratoriais e subjetivas se faz necessária em pacientes com câncer do TGI, uma vez que a desnutrição nestes pacientes costuma ser muito mais grave do que naqueles indivíduos com tumores em outros sítios que não o TGI. PMID:27556544

  11. Cerebral multifrequency MR elastography by remote excitation of intracranial shear waves

    PubMed Central

    Fehlner, Andreas; Papazoglou, Sebastian; McGarry, Matthew D.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Guo, Jing; Streitberger, Kaspar-Josche; Hirsch, Sebastian; Braun, Jürgen; Sack, Ingolf

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to introduce remote wave excitation for high-resolution cerebral multifrequency MR elastography (mMRE). mMRE of 25–45-Hz drive frequencies by head rocker stimulation was compared with mMRE by remote wave excitation based on a thorax mat in 12 healthy volunteers. Maps of the magnitude |G*| and phase φ of the complex shear modulus were reconstructed using multifrequency dual elasto-visco (MDEV) inversion. After the scan, the subjects and three operators assessed the comfort and convenience of cerebral mMRE using two methods of stimulating the brain. Images were acquired in a coronal view in order to identify anatomical regions along the spinothalamic pathway. In mMRE by remote actuation, all subjects and operators appreciated an increased comfort and simplified procedural set-up. The resulting strain amplitudes in the brain were sufficiently large to analyze using MDEV inversion, and yielded high-resolution viscoelasticity maps which revealed specific anatomical details of brain mechanical properties: |G*| was lowest in the pons (0.97 ± 0.08 kPa) and decreased within the corticospinal tract in the caudal–cranial direction from the crus cerebri (1.64 ± 0.26 kPa) to the capsula interna (1.29 ± 0.14 kPa). By avoiding onerous mechanical stimulation of the head, remote excitation of intracranial shear waves can be used to measure viscoelastic parameters of the brain with high spatial resolution. Therewith, the new mMRE method is suitable for neuroradiological examinations in the clinic. PMID:26373228

  12. Structural changes occurring during atresia in sheep ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Hay, M R; Cran, D G; Moor, R M

    1976-07-01

    The structural changes that characterize primary, secondary and tertiary atresia in sheep Graafian follicles have been studied by means of histological, histochemical and ultrastructural techniques. In primary atresia vacuoles representing swollen endoplasmic reticulum are prominent along the antral border together with disorganized granulosa cells containing pyknotic nuclei. Phagocytic cells, which increase in number as atresia progresses, were seen within the membrana granulosa and are considered to be transformed granulosa cells. Even in follicles classified as nonatretic, a few antral vacuoles and occasional pyknotic nuclei are present. During secondary atresia there is a large increase in the number of cells with pyknotic nuclei; many of these nuclei had been extruded and had fused to form the characteristic Feulgen-positive atretic bodies found along the edge of the antral cavity. These bodies usually have a diameter of up to 15 mum but occasionally reached as much as 400 mum. A second area of degeneration is frequently present in the membrana granulosa, two or three cell layers from the basal lamina, and it is at this level that exfoliation of granulosa cells occurs in tertiary atresia. In contrast to the membrana granulosa, there are during secondary atresia, only slight indications of degeneration in the cumulus. In tertiary atresia the membrana granulosa is highly disorganized; the atretic bodies are often fewer in number than at earlier stages. The basal lamina remains essentially intact. It is at this stage that the first clear signs of degeneration occur in the theca interna. Despite some disintegration of the cumulus, the integrity of the oocyte is maintained and its nucleus remains vesicular. Changes in the thecal microcirculation may plan a key role in atresia: adjacent to the basal lamina of non-atretic follicles, there is a well-developed capillary network which is significantly reduced as atresia progresses. PMID:991198

  13. Model-based rational feedback controller design for closed-loop deep brain stimulation of Parkinson's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorzelic, P.; Schiff, S. J.; Sinha, A.

    2013-04-01

    Objective. To explore the use of classical feedback control methods to achieve an improved deep brain stimulation (DBS) algorithm for application to Parkinson's disease (PD). Approach. A computational model of PD dynamics was employed to develop model-based rational feedback controller design. The restoration of thalamocortical relay capabilities to patients suffering from PD is formulated as a feedback control problem with the DBS waveform serving as the control input. Two high-level control strategies are tested: one that is driven by an online estimate of thalamic reliability, and another that acts to eliminate substantial decreases in the inhibition from the globus pallidus interna (GPi) to the thalamus. Control laws inspired by traditional proportional-integral-derivative (PID) methodology are prescribed for each strategy and simulated on this computational model of the basal ganglia network. Main Results. For control based upon thalamic reliability, a strategy of frequency proportional control with proportional bias delivered the optimal control achieved for a given energy expenditure. In comparison, control based upon synaptic inhibitory output from the GPi performed very well in comparison with those of reliability-based control, with considerable further reduction in energy expenditure relative to that of open-loop DBS. The best controller performance was amplitude proportional with derivative control and integral bias, which is full PID control. We demonstrated how optimizing the three components of PID control is feasible in this setting, although the complexity of these optimization functions argues for adaptive methods in implementation. Significance. Our findings point to the potential value of model-based rational design of feedback controllers for Parkinson's disease.

  14. Neural code alterations and abnormal time patterns in Parkinson’s disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, Daniela Sabrina; Cerquetti, Daniel; Merello, Marcelo

    2015-04-01

    Objective. The neural code used by the basal ganglia is a current question in neuroscience, relevant for the understanding of the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease. While a rate code is known to participate in the communication between the basal ganglia and the motor thalamus/cortex, different lines of evidence have also favored the presence of complex time patterns in the discharge of the basal ganglia. To gain insight into the way the basal ganglia code information, we studied the activity of the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi), an output node of the circuit. Approach. We implemented the 6-hydroxydopamine model of Parkinsonism in Sprague-Dawley rats, and recorded the spontaneous discharge of single GPi neurons, in head-restrained conditions at full alertness. Analyzing the temporal structure function, we looked for characteristic scales in the neuronal discharge of the GPi. Main results. At a low-scale, we observed the presence of dynamic processes, which allow the transmission of time patterns. Conversely, at a middle-scale, stochastic processes force the use of a rate code. Regarding the time patterns transmitted, we measured the word length and found that it is increased in Parkinson’s disease. Furthermore, it showed a positive correlation with the frequency of discharge, indicating that an exacerbation of this abnormal time pattern length can be expected, as the dopamine depletion progresses. Significance. We conclude that a rate code and a time pattern code can co-exist in the basal ganglia at different temporal scales. However, their normal balance is progressively altered and replaced by pathological time patterns in Parkinson’s disease.

  15. Cognitive and Psychiatric Effects of STN versus GPi Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Yun-Peng; Li, Ji-Ping; Li, Yong-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of either the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or the globus pallidus interna (GPi) can reduce motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and improve their quality of life. However, the effects of STN DBS and GPi DBS on cognitive functions and their psychiatric effects remain controversial. The present meta-analysis was therefore performed to clarify these issues. Methods We searched the PUBMED, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases. Other sources, including internet-based clinical trial registries and grey literature sources, were also searched. After searching the literature, two investigators independently performed literature screens to assess the quality of the included trials and to extract the data. The outcomes included the effects of STN DBS and GPi DBS on multiple cognitive domains, depression, anxiety, and quality of life. Results Seven articles related to four randomized controlled trials that included 521 participants were incorporated into the present meta-analysis. Compared with GPi DBS, STN DBS was associated with declines in selected cognitive domains after surgery, including attention, working memory and processing speed, phonemic fluency, learning and memory, and global cognition. However, there were no significant differences in terms of quality of life or psychiatric effects, such as depression and anxiety, between the two groups. Conclusions A selective decline in frontal-subcortical cognitive functions is observed after STN DBS in comparison with GPi DBS, which should not be ignored in the target selection for DBS treatment in PD patients. In addition, compared to GPi DBS, STN DBS does not affect depression, anxiety, and quality of life. PMID:27248139

  16. Comportamiento dinámico de asteroides en la región 23 < a < 26 UA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López García, F.

    Los Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) pueden ser una fuente de origen de los cometas de corto período. Muchos de los KBOs observados parecen provenir, al igual que el sistema Pluton-Charonte, de órbitas resonantes con Neptuno. Los Centauros son objetos que dinámicamente provienen de órbitas inestables cuyo semieje mayor se encuentra entre las órbitas de Júpiter y Neptuno. Pudiera ser que estos cuerpos fueron expulsados desde la región del cinturón de Kuiper y se encuentran en un proceso de ``scattering" debido a los efectos gravitacionales de los planetas gigantes. Su tiempo de vida dinámico es de algunos millones de años. La evolución orbital de los objetos trans-Neptunianos nos permite conocer su comportamiento anterior, por eso, es importante su relación dinámica con la evolución orbital de Neptuno. El objeto de este trabajo es estudiar el comportamiento dinámico de partículas test que se encuentran entre las resonancias 3:2 con Neptuno y 2:3 con Urano, las cuales comprenden una región de 2 UA aproximadamente. Los primeros resultados indican que la mayoría de los objetos ficticios son eyectados hacia la parte externa del Sistema Solar, mientras que sólo una parte pequeña del total de objetos estudiados, aproximadamente un 7%, son eyectados hacia la parte interna del Sistema Solar, y en algunos casos sus órbitas pueden cruzar la órbita de los planetas terrestres.

  17. Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson’s Disease: Recent Trends and Future Direction

    PubMed Central

    FUKAYA, Chikashi; YAMAMOTO, Takamitsu

    2015-01-01

    To date, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has already been performed on more than 120,000 patients worldwide and in more than 7,000 patients in Japan. However, fundamental understanding of DBS effects on the pathological neural circuitry remains insufficient. Recent studies have specifically shown the importance of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) loops, which were identified as functionally and anatomically discrete units. Three main circuits exist in the CSTC loops, namely, the motor, associative, and limbic circuits. From these theoretical backgrounds, it is determined that DBS sometimes influences not only motor functions but also the cognitive and affective functions of Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. The main targets of DBS for PD are subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus interna (GPi). Ventralis intermedius (Vim)-DBS was found to be effective in improving tremor. However, Vim-DBS cannot sufficiently improve akinesia and rigidity. Therefore, Vim-DBS is seldom carried out for the treatment of PD. In this article, we review the present state of DBS, mainly STN-DBS and GPi-DBS, for PD. In the first part of the article, appropriate indications and practical effects established in previous studies are discussed. The findings of previous investigations on the complications caused by the surgical procedure and on the adverse events induced by DBS itself are reviewed. In the second part, we discuss target selection (GPi vs. STN) and the effect of DBS on nonmotor symptoms. In the final part, as issues that should be resolved, the suitable timing of surgery, symptoms unresponsive to DBS such as on-period axial symptoms, and the related postoperative programing of stimulation parameters, are discussed. PMID:25925761

  18. Uncommon Applications of Deep Brain Stimulation in Hyperkinetic Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kara M.; Spindler, Meredith A.

    2015-01-01

    Background In addition to the established indications of tremor and dystonia, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been utilized less commonly for several hyperkinetic movement disorders, including medication-refractory myoclonus, ballism, chorea, and Gilles de la Tourette (GTS) and tardive syndromes. Given the lack of adequate controlled trials, it is difficult to translate published reports into clinical use. We summarize the literature, draw conclusions regarding efficacy when possible, and highlight concerns and areas for future study. Methods A Pubmed search was performed for English-language articles between January 1980 and June 2014. Studies were selected if they focused primarily on DBS to treat the conditions of focus. Results We identified 49 cases of DBS for myoclonus-dystonia, 21 for Huntington's disease, 15 for choreacanthocytosis, 129 for GTS, and 73 for tardive syndromes. Bilateral globus pallidus interna (GPi) DBS was the most frequently utilized procedure for all conditions except GTS, in which medial thalamic DBS was more common. While the majority of cases demonstrate some improvement, there are also reports of no improvement or even worsening of symptoms in each condition. The few studies including functional or quality of life outcomes suggest benefit. A limited number of studies included blinded on/off testing. There have been two double-blind controlled trials performed in GTS and a single prospective double-blind, uncontrolled trial in tardive syndromes. Patient characteristics, surgical target, stimulation parameters, and duration of follow-up varied among studies. Discussion Despite these extensive limitations, the literature overall supports the efficacy of DBS in these conditions, in particular GTS and tardive syndromes. For other conditions, the preliminary evidence from small studies is promising and encourages further study. PMID:25713746

  19. Is deep brain stimulation a treatment option for anorexia nervosa?

    PubMed

    Oudijn, Marloes S; Storosum, Jitschak G; Nelis, Elise; Denys, Damiaan

    2013-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe psychiatric disorder with high rates of morbidity, comorbidity and mortality, which in a subset of patients (21%) takes on a chronic course. Since an evidence based treatment for AN is scarce, it is crucial to investigate new treatment options, preferably focused on influencing the underlying neurobiological mechanisms of AN. The objective of the present paper was to review the evidence for possible neurobiological correlates of AN, and to hypothesize about potential targets for Deep brain stimulation (DBS) as a treatment for chronic, therapy-refractory AN. One avenue for exploring new treatment options based on the neurobiological correlates of AN, is the search for symptomatologic and neurobiologic parallels between AN and other compulsivity- or reward-related disorders. As in other compulsive disorders, the fronto-striatal circuitry, in particular the insula, the ventral striatum (VS) and the prefrontal, orbitofrontal, temporal, parietal and anterior cingulate cortices, are likely to be implicated in the neuropathogenesis of AN. In this paper we will review the few available cases in which DBS has been performed in patients with AN (either as primary diagnosis or as comorbid condition). Given the overlap in symptomatology and neurocircuitry between reward-related disorders such as obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and AN, and the established efficacy of accumbal DBS in OCD, we hypothesize that DBS of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and other areas associated with reward, e.g. the anterior cingulated cortex (ACC), might be an effective treatment for patients with chronic, treatment refractory AN, providing not only weight restoration, but also significant and sustained improvement in AN core symptoms and associated comorbidities and complications. Possible targets for DBS in AN are the ACC, the ventral anterior limb of the capsula interna (vALIC) and the VS. We suggest conducting larger efficacy studies that also explore the

  20. [Consensus on the detection and management of prediabetes. Consensus and Clinical Guidelines Working Group of the Spanish Diabetes Society].

    PubMed

    Mata-Cases, M; Artola, S; Escalada, J; Ezkurra-Loyola, P; Ferrer-García, J C; Fornos, J A; Girbés, J; Rica, I

    2015-03-01

    In Spain, according to the Di@bet.es study, 13.8% of the adult population suffers from diabetes and 14.8% from some form of prediabetes (impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glucose or both). Since early detection of prediabetes can facilitate the implementation of therapeutic measures to prevent its progression to diabetes, we believe that preventive strategies in primary care and specialized clinical settings should be agreed. Screening for diabetes and prediabetes using a specific questionnaire (FINDRISC) and/or the measurement of fasting plasma glucose in high risk patients leads to detecting patients at risk of developing diabetes and it is necessary to consider how they should be managed. The intervention in lifestyle can reduce the progression to diabetes and reverse a prediabetic state to normal and is a cost-effective intervention. Some drugs, such as metformin, have also been shown effective in reducing the progression to diabetes but are not superior to non-pharmacological interventions. Finally, an improvement in some cardiovascular risk factors has been observed although there is no strong evidence supporting the effectiveness of screening in terms of morbility and mortality. The Consensus and Clinical Guidelines Working Group of the Spanish Diabetes Society has issued some recommendations that have been agreed by the Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición, Sociedad Española de Endocrinología Pediátrica, Sociedad Española de Farmacia Comunitaria, Sociedad Española de Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria, Sociedad Española de Médicos Generales, Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria, Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna, Asociación de Enfermería Comunitaria and Red de Grupos de Estudio de la Diabetes en Atención Primaria. PMID:25648701

  1. [Consensus on the detection and management of prediabetes. Consensus and Clinical Guidelines Working Group of the Spanish Diabetes Society].

    PubMed

    Mata-Cases, M; Artola, S; Escalada, J; Ezkurra-Loyola, P; Ferrer-García, J C; Fornos, J A; Girbés, J; Rica, I

    2015-01-01

    In Spain, according to the Di@bet.es study, 13.8% of the adult population suffers from diabetes and 14.8% from some form of prediabetes (impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glucose or both). Since early detection of prediabetes can facilitate the implementation of therapeutic measures to prevent its progression to diabetes, we believe that preventive strategies in primary care and specialized clinical settings should be agreed. Screening for diabetes and prediabetes using a specific questionnaire (FINDRISC) and/or the measurement of fasting plasma glucose in high risk patients leads to detecting patients at risk of developing diabetes and it is necessary to consider how they should be managed. The intervention in lifestyle can reduce the progression to diabetes and reverse a prediabetic state to normal and is a cost-effective intervention. Some drugs, such as metformin, have also been shown effective in reducing the progression to diabetes but are not superior to non-pharmacological interventions. Finally, an improvement in some cardiovascular risk factors has been observed although there is no strong evidence supporting the effectiveness of screening in terms of morbility and mortality. The Consensus and Clinical Guidelines Working Group of the Spanish Diabetes Society has issued some recommendations that have been agreed by the Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición, Sociedad Española de Endocrinología Pediátrica, Sociedad Española de Farmacia Comunitaria, Sociedad Española de Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria, Sociedad Española de Médicos Generales, Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria, Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna, Asociación de Enfermería Comunitaria and Red de Grupos de Estudio de la Diabetes en Atención Primaria. PMID:25735589

  2. Consensus on the detection and management of prediabetes. Consensus and Clinical Guidelines Working Group of the Spanish Diabetes Society.

    PubMed

    Mata-Cases, M; Artola, S; Escalada, J; Ezkurra-Loyola, P; Ferrer-García, J C; Fornos, J A; Girbés, J; Rica, I

    2015-03-01

    In Spain, according to the Di@bet.es study, 13.8% of the adult population suffers from diabetes and 14.8% from some form of prediabetes (impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glucose or both). Since early detection of prediabetes can facilitate the implementation of therapeutic measures to prevent its progression to diabetes, we believe that preventive strategies in primary care and specialized clinical settings should be agreed. Screening for diabetes and prediabetes using a specific questionnaire (FINDRISC) and/or the measurement of fasting plasma glucose in high risk patients leads to detecting patients at risk of developing diabetes and it is necessary to consider how they should be managed. The intervention in lifestyle can reduce the progression to diabetes and reverse a prediabetic state to normal and is a cost-effective intervention. Some drugs, such as metformin, have also been shown effective in reducing the progression to diabetes but are not superior to non-pharmacological interventions. Finally, an improvement in some cardiovascular risk factors has been observed although there is no strong evidence supporting the effectiveness of screening in terms of morbility and mortality. The Consensus and Clinical Guidelines Working Group of the Spanish Diabetes Society has issued some recommendations that have been agreed by the Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición, Sociedad Española de Endocrinología Pediátrica, Sociedad Española de Farmacia Comunitaria, Sociedad Española de Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria, Sociedad Española de Médicos Generales, Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria, Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna, Asociación de Enfermería Comunitaria and Red de Grupos de Estudio de la Diabetes en Atención Primaria. PMID:25553948

  3. [Consensus on the detection and management of prediabetes. Consensus and Clinical Guidelines Working Group of the Spanish Diabetes Society].

    PubMed

    Mata-Cases, M; Artola, S; Escalada, J; Ezkurra-Loyola, P; Ferrer-García, J C; Fornos, J A; Girbés, J; Rica, I

    2015-01-01

    In Spain, according to the Di@bet.es study, 13.8% of the adult population suffers from diabetes and 14.8% from some form of prediabetes (impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glucose or both). Since early detection of prediabetes can facilitate the implementation of therapeutic measures to prevent its progression to diabetes, we believe that preventive strategies in primary care and specialized clinical settings should be agreed. Screening for diabetes and prediabetes using a specific questionnaire (FINDRISC) and/or the measurement of fasting plasma glucose in high risk patients leads to detecting patients at risk of developing diabetes and it is necessary to consider how they should be managed. The intervention in lifestyle can reduce the progression to diabetes and reverse a prediabetic state to normal and is a cost-effective intervention. Some drugs, such as metformin, have also been shown effective in reducing the progression to diabetes but are not superior to non-pharmacological interventions. Finally, an improvement in some cardiovascular risk factors has been observed although there is no strong evidence supporting the effectiveness of screening in terms of morbility and mortality. The Consensus and Clinical Guidelines Working Group of the Spanish Diabetes Society has issued some recommendations that have been agreed by the Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición, Sociedad Española de Endocrinología Pediátrica, Sociedad Española de Farmacia Comunitaria, Sociedad Española de Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria, Sociedad Española de Médicos Generales, Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria, Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna, Asociación de Enfermería Comunitaria and Red de Grupos de Estudio de la Diabetes en Atención Primaria. PMID:25752863

  4. Cognitive impairment and dementia in Parkinson's disease: practical issues and management.

    PubMed

    Emre, Murat; Ford, Paul J; Bilgiç, Başar; Uç, Ergun Y

    2014-04-15

    Cognitive impairment and dementia pose particular challenges in the management of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Decision-making capacity can render patients vulnerable in a way that requires careful ethical considerations by clinicians with respect to medical decision making, research participation, and public safety. Clinicians should discuss how future decisions will be made as early in the disease course as possible. Because of cognitive, visual, and motor impairments, PD may be associated with unsafe driving, leading to early driving cessation in many. DBS of the STN and, to a lesser degree, globus pallidus interna (GPi) has consistently been associated with decreased verbal fluency, but significant global cognitive decline is usually not observed in patients who undergo rigorous selection. There are some observations suggesting lesser cognitive decline in GPi DBS than STN DBS, but further research is required. Management of PD dementia (PDD) patients involves both pharmacological and nonpharmacological measures. Patients with PDD should be offered treatment with a cholinesterase inhibitor taking into account expected benefits and potential risks. Treatment with neuroleptics may be necessary to treat psychosis; classical neuroleptics, as well as risperidone and olanzapine, should be avoided. Quetiapine might be considered first-line treatment because it does not need special monitoring, although the strongest evidence for efficacy exists for clozapine. Evidence from randomized, controlled studies in the PDD population is lacking; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors may be used to treat depressive features. Clonazepam or melatonin may be useful in the treatment of rapid eye movement behavior disorder. PMID:24757114

  5. Does Dietary Deoxynivalenol Modulate the Acute Phase Reaction in Endotoxaemic Pigs?—Lessons from Clinical Signs, White Blood Cell Counts, and TNF-Alpha

    PubMed Central

    Tesch, Tanja; Bannert, Erik; Kluess, Jeannette; Frahm, Jana; Kersten, Susanne; Breves, Gerhard; Renner, Lydia; Kahlert, Stefan; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    We studied the interaction between deoxynivalenol (DON)-feeding and a subsequent pre- and post-hepatic immune stimulus with the hypothesis that the liver differently mediates the acute phase reaction (APR) in pigs. Barrows (n = 44) were divided into a DON-(4.59 mg DON/kg feed) and a control-diet group, surgically equipped with permanent catheters pre- (V. portae hepatis) and post-hepatic (V. jugularis interna) and infused either with 0.9% NaCl or LPS (7.5 µg/kg BW). Thus, combination of diet (CON vs. DON) and infusion (CON vs. LPS, jugular vs. portal) created six groups: CON_CONjug.-CONpor., CON_CONjug.-LPSpor., CON_LPSjug.-CONpor., DON_CONjug.-CONpor., DON_CONjug.-LPSpor., DON_LPSjug.-CONpor.. Blood samples were taken at −30, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 150, 180 min relative to infusion and analyzed for leukocytes and TNF-alpha. Concurrently, clinical signs were scored and body temperature measured during the same period. LPS as such induced a dramatic rise in TNF-alpha (p < 0.001), hyperthermia (p < 0.01), and severe leukopenia (p < 0.001). In CON-fed pigs, an earlier return to physiological base levels was observed for the clinical complex, starting at 120 min post infusionem (p < 0.05) and persisting until 180 min. DON_LPSjug.-CONpor. resulted in a lower temperature rise (p = 0.08) compared to CON_LPSjug.-CONpor.. In conclusion, APR resulting from a post-hepatic immune stimulus was altered by chronic DON-feeding. PMID:26703732

  6. Early deep brain stimulation in patients with myoclonus-dystonia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Helena; Linhares, Paulo; Chamadoira, Clara; Rosas, Maria José; Vaz, Rui

    2016-05-01

    Myoclonus-dystonia (MD) is a rare movement disorder which is disabling and frequently refractory to medical treatment. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus interna (GPi) has been used to treat some patients. Although there is significant motor improvement with DBS, the impact on disability and on quality of life has been infrequently reported. Also, the benefit of the procedure is not established in patients without ε-sarcoglycan gene (SGCE) mutations. We present two patients with severe MD treated with GPi-DBS, one of the patients without a SGCE mutation. Motor improvements (rest/action/total subscores of the Unified Myoclonus Rating Scale and movement subscore of the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale [BFMRS]) and disability (BFMRS disability subscore) were carefully evaluated preoperatively and at 6 and 12months after surgery. Quality of life (addressed using the Portuguese version of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form General Health Survey, version 2.0 [SF-36v2]) was tested preoperatively and 12months after DBS. At 12-month follow-up, myoclonus improved 78.6% in Patient 1 and 80.7% in Patient 2, while dystonia improved 37% and 86.7%, respectively. Improvements in disability ranged from 71.4% to 75%. With regard to quality of life, all parameters addressed by the SF-36v2 improved or stabilized in both patients. No major adverse effects were noticed. Improvements in motor symptoms are consistent with reports in the literature and were obtained regardless of the identification of a SGCE gene mutation. There were also significant benefits on disability and quality of life. DBS should be considered for MD. PMID:26810467

  7. Generation and evaluation of an ultra-high-field atlas with applications in DBS planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Brian T.; Poirier, Stefan; Guo, Ting; Parrent, Andrew G.; Peters, Terry M.; Khan, Ali R.

    2016-03-01

    Purpose Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a common treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD) and involves the use of brain atlases or intrinsic landmarks to estimate the location of target deep brain structures, such as the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi). However, these structures can be difficult to localize with conventional clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and thus targeting can be prone to error. Ultra-high-field imaging at 7T has the ability to clearly resolve these structures and thus atlases built with these data have the potential to improve targeting accuracy. Methods T1 and T2-weighted images of 12 healthy control subjects were acquired using a 7T MR scanner. These images were then used with groupwise registration to generate an unbiased average template with T1w and T2w contrast. Deep brain structures were manually labelled in each subject by two raters and rater reliability was assessed. We compared the use of this unbiased atlas with two other methods of atlas-based segmentation (single-template and multi-template) for subthalamic nucleus (STN) segmentation on 7T MRI data. We also applied this atlas to clinical DBS data acquired at 1.5T to evaluate its efficacy for DBS target localization as compared to using a standard atlas. Results The unbiased templates provide superb detail of subcortical structures. Through one-way ANOVA tests, the unbiased template is significantly (p <0.05) more accurate than a single-template in atlas-based segmentation and DBS target localization tasks. Conclusion The generated unbiased averaged templates provide better visualization of deep brain nuclei and an increase in accuracy over single-template and lower field strength atlases.

  8. Morphological Studies on the Peripheral Circulation of the Ovary in One-Humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Mokhtar, Doaa M; Abd-Elhafez, Enas A

    2016-08-01

    Histological examination of the peripheral circulation of the ovary of 18 females of the one-humped camel revealed a series of blood vessels with special structures. Throttle or occlusive artery was recorded in the ovarian zona vasculosa and in the cortex, and it showed an intimal cushion-like thickening made up of intimal bolsters that formed of smooth muscle fibres and glomus cells. The smooth muscle cells of the tunica media and the tunica adventitia of throttle artery pursued a circumferential pattern. Anastomosis arteriovenosa included simple bridge-like anastomotic vessels between arteria and venae, and glomus vessels of typical structure were demonstrated. Glomus organs were recorded in the ovary and were comprised of the tortuous glomus vessels and the related afferent and efferent vessels. Glomus cell complexes also were commonly occur at the cortex ovarii that possessed an extremely convoluted course with a hyperplastic wall and a narrow lumen. Atypical glomus vessels were demonstrated within the ovarian zona vasculosa, and the wall of these vessels was relatively thick and consisted of double tunica media with an intimal bolster. Some vessels contained an intimal bolster device of exclusively glomus cell structure (glomus bolster) with a tunica elastic interna demarcated it from the glomus cell media. Some venae represented several layers of longitudinally arranged smooth muscle fibres in the tunica media. Other venae showed wall with variable thickness. Venae with double muscular tunica media were recorded in the medulla. Some venae showed double internal elastic lamina. Also, venae with thick adventitia contained dispersed smooth muscle fibres were determined. Spirally oriented arteriole and venule were demonstrated within the cortex and medulla ovarii. Gestation sclerosis was demonstrated in ovarian zona vasculosa of pregnant females. PMID:26394713

  9. Geodynamics of Central Europe Based On Observations of The GPS Euref Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, V.

    When azimuths of the horizontal movement vectors processed from GPS data mon- itored during several campaigns on regional networks situated in the Central Europe (the East Sudeten, the West Alps, the Trans-Alpen area) were compared, they dis- played remarkable changed in their values evaluated from two sequential campaigns with respect to next ones. As adopted, the GPS data processed of one campaign are ordinarily linked to a close EUREF station (or stations) to be joined to an Interna- tional Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). Even though the interconnection to the ITRF, the vector azimuths for one site evaluated from different campaigns can still show changes. To eliminate this effect, available movements of the Central European EUREF stations were analysed with respect to geological structural units in that rela- tively coincident character of geodynamic movements are expected. Several "geody- namic" units were identified and delineated for an area of the Central Europe. Then, directions of the horizontal vector azimuths of network sites were incorporated into the unit scheme above mentioned. The paper will present data analysis of the EU- REF stations, the geodynamic unit scheme for the Central Europe and comparisons of geodynamic horizontal movements of the EUREF stations and the network sites. Fur- ther, an assessment of interrelated movements among the individual structural units was estimated. The geodynamic pattern of Central European unit movements brings more transparent understanding of mutual relations between EUREF stations and the regional GPS networks observations. The data analyse of GPS observations were sup- ported by the program of Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport 'Research Centre', No. LN00A005, and by the project of the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic, No. 205/01/0480.

  10. Angiogenesis in The Ovary - The Most Important Regulatory Event for Follicle and Corpus Luteum Development and Function in Cow - An Overview.

    PubMed

    Berisha, B; Schams, D; Rodler, D; Pfaffl, M W

    2016-04-01

    In the ovary, the development of new capillaries from pre-existing ones (angiogenesis) is a complex event regulated by numerous local factors. The dominant regulators of angiogenesis in ovarian follicles and corpora lutea are the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), angiopoietin (ANPT) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) family members. Antral follicles in our study were classified according to the oestradiol-17-beta (E2) content in follicular fluid (FF) and were divided into five classes (E2 < 0.5, 0.5-5, 5-20, 20-180 and >180 ng/ml FF). The corresponding sizes of follicles were 5-7, 8-10, 10-13, 12-14 and >14 mm, respectively. Follicle tissue was separated in theca interna (TI) and granulosa cells (GC). The corpora lutea (CL) in our study were assigned to the following stages: days 1-2, 3-4, 5-7, 8-12 13-16 and >18 of the oestrous cycle and months 1-2, 3-4, 6-7 and >8 of pregnancy. The dominant regulators were measured at mRNA and protein expression levels; mRNA was quantified by RT-qPCR, hormone concentrations by RIA or EIA and their localization by immunohistochemistry. The highest expression for VEGF-A, FGF-2, IGF-1 and IGF-2, ANPT-2/ANPT-1 and HIF-1-alpha was found during final follicle maturation and in CL during the early luteal phase (days 1-4) followed by a lower plateau afterwards. The results suggest the importance of these factors for angiogenesis and maintenance of capillary structures for final follicle maturation, CL development and function. PMID:25951313

  11. The climate change and energy security nexus

    SciTech Connect

    King, Marcus Dubois; Gulledge, Jay

    2013-01-01

    The study of the impacts of climate change on national and interna-tional security has grown as a research field, particularly in the last five years. Within this broad field, academic scholarship has concentrated primarily on whether climate change is, or may become, a driver of violent conflict. This relationship remains highly contested. However, national security policy and many non-governmental organizations have identified climate change as a threat multiplier in conflict situations. The U.S. Department of Defense and the United Kingdom's Ministry of Defense have incorporated these findings into strategic planning documents such as the Quadrennial Defense Review and the Strategic Defence and Security Review. In contrast to the climate-conflict nexus, our analysis found that academic scholarship on the climate change and energy security nexus is small and more disciplinarily focused. In fact, a search of social science litera-ture found few sources, with a significant percentage of these works attribut-able to a single journal. Assuming that policymakers are more likely to rely on broader social science literature than technical or scientific journals, this leaves a limited foundation. This then begged the question: what are these sources? We identified a body of grey literature on the nexus of climate change and energy security of a greater size than the body of peer-reviewed social science literature. We reviewed fifty-eight recent reports, issue briefs, and transcripts to better understand the nexus of climate change and energy security, as well as to gain insight about the questions policymakers need answered by those undertaking the research. In this article, we describe the nature of the sources reviewed, highlight possible climate change and energy security linkages found within those sources, identify emerging risks, and offer conclusions that can guide further research.

  12. Modeling plaque fissuring and dissection during balloon angioplasty intervention.

    PubMed

    Gasser, T Christian; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

    2007-05-01

    Balloon angioplasty intervention is traumatic to arterial tissue. Fracture mechanisms such as plaque fissuring and/or dissection occur and constitute major contributions to the lumen enlargement. However, these types of mechanically-based traumatization of arterial tissue are also contributing factors to both acute procedural complications and chronic restenosis of the treatment site. We propose physical and finite element models, which are generally useable to trace fissuring and/or dissection in atherosclerotic plaques during balloon angioplasty interventions. The arterial wall is described as an anisotropic, heterogeneous, highly deformable, nearly incompressible body, whereas tissue failure is captured by a strong discontinuity kinematics and a novel cohesive zone model. The numerical implementation is based on the partition of unity finite element method and the interface element method. The later is used to link together meshes of the different tissue components. The balloon angioplasty-based failure mechanisms are numerically studied in 3D by means of an atherosclerotic-prone human external iliac artery, with a type V lesion. Image-based 3D geometry is generated and tissue-specific material properties are considered. Numerical results show that in a primary phase the plaque fissures at both shoulders of the fibrous cap and stops at the lamina elastica interna. In a secondary phase, local dissections between the intima and the media develop at the fibrous cap location with the smallest thickness. The predicted results indicate that plaque fissuring and dissection cause localized mechanical trauma, but prevent the main portion of the stenosis from high stress, and hence from continuous tissue damage. PMID:17385047

  13. Gene control of tyrosine kinase TIE2 and vascular manifestations of infections.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Chandra C; David, Sascha; Zhang, Ruyang; Berghelli, Anthony; Milam, Katelyn; Higgins, Sarah J; Hunter, Jon; Mukherjee, Aditi; Wei, Yongyue; Tran, Mei; Suber, Freeman; Kobzik, Lester; Kain, Kevin C; Lu, Shulin; Santel, Ansgar; Yano, Kiichiro; Guha, Prajna; Dumont, Daniel J; Christiani, David C; Parikh, Samir M

    2016-03-01

    Ligands of the endothelial-enriched tunica interna endothelial cell kinase 2 (Tie2) are markedly imbalanced in severe infections associated with vascular leakage, yet regulation of the receptor itself has been understudied in this context. Here, we show that TIE2 gene expression may constitute a novel vascular barrier control mechanism in diverse infections. Tie2 expression declined rapidly in wide-ranging models of leak-associated infections, including anthrax, influenza, malaria, and sepsis. Forced Tie2 suppression sufficed to attenuate barrier function and sensitize endothelium to permeability mediators. Rapid reduction of pulmonary Tie2 in otherwise healthy animals attenuated downstream kinase signaling to the barrier effector vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin and induced vascular leakage. Compared with wild-type littermates, mice possessing one allele of Tie2 suffered more severe vascular leakage and higher mortality in two different sepsis models. Common genetic variants that influence TIE2 expression were then sought in the HapMap3 cohort. Remarkably, each of the three strongest predicted cis-acting SNPs in HapMap3 was also associated with the risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in an intensive care unit cohort of 1,614 subjects. The haplotype associated with the highest TIE2 expression conferred a 28% reduction in the risk of ARDS independent of other major clinical variables, including disease severity. In contrast, the most common haplotype was associated with both the lowest TIE2 expression and 31% higher ARDS risk. Together, the results implicate common genetic variation at the TIE2 locus as a determinant of vascular leak-related clinical outcomes from common infections, suggesting new tools to identify individuals at unusual risk for deleterious complications of infection. PMID:26884170

  14. [CONSERVATIVE MANAGEMENT OF PLACENTA ACCRETE DURING VAGINAL DELIVERY].

    PubMed

    Dimirov, A; Garnizov, T; Zlatkov, V; Frundeva, B; Masseva, A

    2016-01-01

    Conservative management of placenta accrete consists in leaving the entire placenta accreta in situ after vaginal delivery of the fetus. This behavior requires active monitoring the vital signs of mother, genital status and paraclinical indicators for an extended period after birth. Monitoring is suspended after full absorption of the placenta. The success of the conservative approach depends on: the adopted protocol formanagement of placenta accreta, whether the diagnosis is known before birth, the possible of application techniques, reducing blood flow to the uterus, keeping the placental period and others. The smallest success with vaginal birth, is when the diagnosis of placenta accreta is not know in advance and proceed with aggressive attempts to extract the placenta, followed by profuse bleeding from the uterus. As additional methods of securing conservative management is reported use of Methotrexate, with unproven effectiveness and embolization of a. Iliaca interna and a. uterine, which require a qualified team and have a lot of complications. Complications of conservative management of placenta accreta are: febrility and genital bleeding, which are the cause of late hysterectomy in about 35% of cases. lnfestion may be not always prevent by application of broad spectrum antibiotics. Late bleeding is usually associated with an active inflammatory process. Low-grade and low grade temperature increase of leukocytes and CRP may be due to necrotic changes in the placenta without the infection process. Tracking involution of the placenta is through abdominal and transvaginal ultrasound, magnetic resonance, using hysteroscopy through serial monitoring the level of hCG. From literature data the time for resorption of the placenta varies from 4 months to 1 year. It is essential to determine the time when it is safely to extract the placenta move in order to prevent late complications of conservative management. Our experience and some authors suggest that there may

  15. Vínculos observacionais para o processo-S em estrelas gigantes de Bário

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiljanic, R. H. S.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; da Silva, L.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas de bário são gigantes vermelhas de tipo GK que apresentam excessos atmosféricos dos elementos do processo-s. Tais excessos são esperados em estrelas na fase de pulsos térmicos do AGB (TP-AGB). As estrelas de bário são, no entanto, menos massivas e menos luminosas que as estrelas do AGB, assim, não poderiam ter se auto-enriquecido. Seu enriquecimento teria origem em uma estrela companheira, inicialmente mais massiva, que evolui pelo TP-AGB, se auto-enriquece com os elementos do processo-s e transfere material contaminado para a atmosfera da atual estrela de bário. A companheira evolui então para anã branca deixando de ser observada diretamente. As estrelas de bário são, portanto, úteis como testes observacionais para teorias de nucleossíntese pelo processo-s, convecção e perda de massa. Análises detalhadas de abundância com dados de alta qualidade para estes objetos são ainda escassas na literatura. Neste trabalho construímos modelos de atmosferas e, procedendo a uma análise diferencial, determinamos parâmetros atmosféricos e evolutivos de uma amostra de dez gigantes de bário e quatro normais. Determinamos seus padrões de abundância para Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu e Gd, concluindo que algumas estrelas classificadas na literatura como gigantes de bário são na verdade gigantes normais. Comparamos dois padrões médios de abundância, para estrelas com grandes excessos e estrelas com excessos moderados, com modelos teóricos de enriquecimento pelo processo-s. Os dois grupos de estrelas são ajustados pelos mesmos parâmetros de exposição de nêutrons. Tal resultado sugere que a ocorrência do fenômeno de bário com diferentes intensidades não se deve a diferentes exposições de nêutrons. Discutimos ainda efeitos nucleossintéticos, ligados ao processo-s, sugeridos na literatura para os elementos Cu, Mn, V e Sc.

  16. Excitação e fotoabsorção de moléculas interestelares no ultra violeta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, A. M. F.; Boechat-Roberty, H. M.; Souza, G. B.; Turci, C. C.

    2003-08-01

    O estudo dos processos de excitação, fotoabsorção e ionização molecular nas nuvens interestelar, permite a análise dos processos químicos, como a formação e destruição de moléculas, até mesmo daquelas que dão origem à vida. Acredita-se que as moléculas como CS2, NH3, CO2 e N2O estão presentes nas nuvens onde são formadas as estrelas e seus sistemas planetários. Estas moléculas são congeladas na superfície de objetos densos, como aqueles encontrados na Nuvem de Oort do nosso Sistema Solar. Quando esses objetos (cometas) desprendem-se dessa região, aproximam-se do Sol, sofrem a interação da radição Ultra Violeta (UV), passam à fase gasosa e são bombardeados por íons e elétrons presentes nos ventos solares. Obtivemos os espectros de fotoabsorção do CS2, NH3 e N2O na faixa do UV, convertendo espectros de Perda de Energia de Elétrons, medidos no menor ângulo de espalhamento e na energia de impacto de 1000 eV. Destes espectros determinamos os valores de força de oscilador (f) e de seção de choque absolutas na faixa de 500 a 2000 Å. Para tal, estudamos e comparamos dois diferentes métodos de conversão. Neste trabalho também geramos muitos dados moleculares como, valores absolutos de seção de choque elástica em função do ângulo de espalhamento e a distribuição de força do oscilador generalizada (df/dE) em função da energia de excitação para diversos ângulos de espalhamento. Comparando nossos espectros de fotoabsorção com o espectro da atmosfera de Júpiter, obtido pelo Telescópio Espacial Hubble, logo após o impacto do cometa Shoemaker-Levy 9, confirmamos a presença do CS2 e da amônia.

  17. Ovarian cysts in high-yielding dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Braw-Tal, R; Pen, S; Roth, Z

    2009-09-15

    We examined the hormonal and morphologic changes associated with ovarian cyst formation in high-yielding dairy cows. Follicle fluid was aspirated from 90 cysts and 15 preovulatory and 18 subordinate follicles and used for hormonal determination. Pieces of cystic wall were subjected to morphologic and immunohistochemical evaluation. Cysts were characterized by low concentrations of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and glucose and high activity of IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs). Insulin and IGF-I levels were (mean+/-SEM) 205+/-22 pg/mL and 146+/-42 ng/mL in preovulatory follicles and 3+/-1 pg/mL and 61+/-6 ng/mL in cysts, respectively (P<0.001). Insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins activity was about 10 times higher in cysts than in preovulatory follicles. Cysts were classified into three types according to their estradiol-to-progesterone (E/P) ratio. Type 1 cysts (n=23) exhibited the highest E/P ratio (10.8+/-2.3), partial loss of granulosa cells, and severe morphologic changes in the theca interna. Expression of P(450) side-chain cleavage and P(450) 17 alpha-hydroxylase was noted in theca cells and expression of inhibin-alpha in granulosa cells. Type 2 cysts (n=35) had a low E/P ratio (0.07+/-0.02), and patches of luteal-like tissue in the cystic wall. Type 3 cysts (n=32) had an E/P ratio of 0.91+/-0.17, and no recognizable granulosa or theca cells. In summary, intrafollicular steroid levels as expressed by E/P ratio, together with IGF-I and insulin levels and morphologic changes in the follicular wall, may serve as accurate cyst-classification parameters. Because IGF-I and/or insulin play an essential role in the final stage of follicle development, it can be speculated that abnormal levels of these metabolic hormones might lead to follicle dysfunction, resulting in follicular regression or cyst formation. PMID:19559473

  18. Thyroid function appears to be significantly reduced in Space-borne MDS mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saverio Ambesi-Impiombato, Francesco; Curcio, Francesco; Fontanini, Elisabetta; Perrella, Giuseppina; Spelat, Renza; Zambito, Anna Maria; Damaskopoulou, Eleni; Peverini, Manola; Albi, Elisabetta

    It is known that prolonged space flights induced changes in human cardiovascular, muscu-loskeletal and nervous systems whose function is regulated by the thyroid gland but, until now, no data were reported about thyroid damage during space missions. We have demonstrated in vitro that, during space missions (Italian Soyuz Mission "ENEIDE" in 2005, Shuttle STS-120 "ESPERIA" in 2007), thyroid in vitro cultured cells did not respond to thyroid stimulating hor-mone (TSH) treatment; they appeared healthy and alive, despite their being in a pro-apopotic state characterised by a variation of sphingomyelin metabolism and consequent increase in ce-ramide content. The insensitivity to TSH was largely due to a rearrangement of specific cell membrane microdomains, acting as platforms for TSH-receptor (TEXUS-44 mission in 2008). To study if these effects were present also in vivo, as part of the Mouse Drawer System (MDS) Tissue Sharing Program, we performed experiments in mice maintained onboard the Interna-tional Space Station during the long-duration (90 days) exploration mission STS-129. After return to earth, the thyroids isolated from the 3 animals were in part immediately frozen to study the morphological modification in space and in part immediately used to study the effect of TSH treatment. For this purpose small fragments of tissue were treated with 10-7 or 10-8 M TSH for 1 hour by using untreated fragments as controls. Then the fragments were fixed with absolute ethanol for 10 min at room temperature and centrifuged for 20 min. at 3000 x g. The supernatants were used for cAMP analysis whereas the pellet were used for protein amount determination and for immunoblotting analysis of TSH-receptor, sphingomyelinase and sphingomyelin-synthase. The results showed a modification of the thyroid structure and also the values of cAMP production after treatment with 10-7 M TSH for 1 hour were significantly lower than those obtained in Earth's gravity. The treatment with TSH

  19. The Moon: Keystone To Understanding Planetary Geological Processes and History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, J. W.

    Extensive and intensive exploration of the Earth's Moon by astronauts and an interna- tional array of automated spacecraft provides data on geology, geochemistry, miner- alogy, petrology, chronology, geophysics and internal structure unequaled except for Earth. This level of detail has proven fundamental to understanding planetary surface processes and evolution, and is essential to linking surface processes with internal and thermal evolution. On the basis of these data, the Moon is a laboratory for under- standing of planetary processes and a keystone for providing evolutionary perspective. Important comparative planetology issues being addressed by lunar studies include- Impact cratering: New information on the nature of the process, depth of excavation, role of oblique impact, nature of the modification stage, production of impact melt, ejecta emplacement dynamics, the role of volatile emplacement and fate, particularly at the poles, and the establishment of crater size-frequency distribution chronology. Magmatic activity: New insight into plutonism (intrusion) and volcanism (extrusion), and their role as major crustal building and resurfacing processes throughout history, as well as the distribution of mantle melting processes in space and time. The nature of magmatic activity during heavy bombardment (intrusion, extrusion, cryptomaria) and in later lunar history, in terms of the mare stratigraphic record, the distribution of basalt types, the distribution of melting in space and time, volume and flux informa- tion, and the full range of eruption styles and their petrogenetic significance. Tectonic activity: The Moon is the type location for tectonics on a one-plate planet which can be understood in the context of the complete lunar data set and extended to other planetary bodies. Issues include distinguishing magmatic and tectonic graben, estab- lishing the three-dimensional structure and chronology of wrinkle ridges and arches, determining the internal

  20. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; Bersano Benavides, Gonzalo; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Tumi Figueroa, Ernesto Nayer; Urra Albornoz, Camilo; Sulla-Torres, Jose; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: validar un cuestionario para medir la preocupación por la alimentación de los adolescentes, verificar la fiabilidad y desarrollar valores normativos en función de la edad, sexo y categoría. Metodología: se estudió a 3.121 (1.645 hombres y 1.476 mujeres) adolescentes de 11,0 a 18,9 años de cinco establecimientos municipales de la región del Maule, Chile. Se evaluó el peso, estatura y se calculó el índice de masa corporal. Se aplicó un cuestionario que mide la preocupación por la alimentación de adolescentes escolares. Se validó por análisis confirmatorio y la fiabilidad se determinó por consistencia interna. Resultados: el análisis factorial confirmó la presencia de cuatro factores (preocupación por la restricción de la comida, preocupación por el consumo de comida, preocupación por la forma de comer y preocupación por el peso corporal). Se eliminaron 5 preguntas que mostraron saturaciones inferiores a 0,39. El instrumento quedó conformado con 24 preguntas que explican 51,8% de la varianza. El alpha de Cronbach mostró valores entre 0,85 y 0,88. Se construyeron percentiles (p15, p50 y p85) a partir del método LMS para valorar la preocupación por la alimentación por categoría, edad y sexo. Conclusión: el instrumento desarrollado es válido y confiable y sirve para valorar el nivel de preocupación por la alimentación de adolescentes escolares. Además, las normas propuestas podrían servir a los profesionales del sistema educativo para llevar a cabo tareas de prevención con los jóvenes que evidencien bajos niveles de preocupación por su alimentación. PMID:27238796

  1. Atlas-based identification of targets for functional radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Stancanello, Joseph; Romanelli, Pantaleo; Modugno, Nicola; Cerveri, Pietro; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Uggeri, Fulvio; Cantore, Giampaolo

    2006-06-15

    Functional disorders of the brain, such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, epilepsy, and neuropathic pain, may exhibit poor response to medical therapy. In such cases, surgical intervention may become necessary. Modern surgical approaches to such disorders include radio-frequency lesioning and deep brain stimulation (DBS). The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is one of the most useful stereotactic targets available: STN DBS is known to induce substantial improvement in patients with end-stage Parkinson's disease. Other targets include the Globus Pallidus pars interna (GPi) for dystonia and Parkinson's disease, and the centromedian nucleus of the thalamus (CMN) for neuropathic pain. Radiosurgery is an attractive noninvasive alternative to treat some functional brain disorders. The main technical limitation to radiosurgery is that the target can be selected only on the basis of magnetic resonance anatomy without electrophysiological confirmation. The aim of this work is to provide a method for the correct atlas-based identification of the target to be used in functional neurosurgery treatment planning. The coordinates of STN, CMN, and GPi were identified in the Talairach and Tournoux atlas and transformed to the corresponding regions of the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) electronic atlas. Binary masks describing the target nuclei were created. The MNI electronic atlas was deformed onto the patient magnetic resonance imaging-T1 scan by applying an affine transformation followed by a local nonrigid registration. The first transformation was based on normalized cross correlation and the second on optimization of a two-part objective function consisting of similarity criteria and weighted regularization. The obtained deformation field was then applied to the target masks. The minimum distance between the surface of an implanted electrode and the surface of the deformed mask was calculated. The validation of the method consisted of comparing the electrode-mask distance to

  2. [Breast-preserving treatment of breast carcinoma: analysis of surgical, pathologic-anatomic and radiotherapeutic data of 291 cases].

    PubMed

    Schwegler, N; Kern, T; Lazovic, N; Notter, M

    1996-01-01

    291 breast cancer patients treated with conserving surgery and subsequent locoregional irradiation were studied. The method of surgery consisted of 200 lumpectomies, 76 quadrantectomies and 15 with either a wide excision or with an atypical resection. In at least 42.6% (124 out of 291), the tumor had been within 10 mm distance to the margin of resected specimen, in 13.4% (39 out of 291) the tumor even reached the border. In the other reports, a numerical description of the distance to the margins was not given. Postoperative radiotherapy was applied with 50 Gy cobalt-60/6-MeV photons to include the whole breast. A boost of tangentially opposed photon beams was added, replacing a technique with direct electron fields used in an earlier period during three years. The supraclavicular fossa received 46 Gy, the retrosternal pathway was covered with 45 to 50 Gy photons/electrons. Locoregional failure after an average observation time of 39.5 months was 4.5% (13 out of 291), within the target volume 3.8% (11 out of 291. The 39 cases on which the tumor reached the margin of resection, 92.3% (36 out of 39) remained free of recurrences. With a tumor-free resection line but a maximal distance of 10 mm, one recurrence (1.2% or 1 out of 85) was found. With the application of tangential photon beams to the tumor bed, which technically allowed sparing skin parts but also slightly reduced daily doses, the incidence of telangiectasis could be lowered to 2.5%. An anatomical was model was constructed to resemble a patient in the treatment position. Dosimeters were implanted and verified by computed tomography. Measurements of the radiation fields were performed within the breast, the lung and along the mammaria-interna chain. Minimal angle changes of 5 degrees decreased the retrosternal dose down with the amount of 56.5%, 10 degrees of 75% and 15 degrees of 85.7%. In contrast, moving the central axis medially by 1 cm and 2 cm increased the lung dose 2.2 and 4.4 times, respectively

  3. Down-regulation of messenger ribonucleic acid encoding an importer of sulfoconjugated steroids during human chorionic gonadotropin-induced follicular luteinization in vivo.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kristy A; Bouchard, Nadine; Lussier, Jacques G; Sirois, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide (SLCO/OATP) superfamily are capable of importing anionic compounds across the lipid bilayer in a sodium-independent manner. Member 2B1 has been shown to transport few substrates, two of which are dihydroepiandrosterone-3-sulfate (DHEA-S) and estrone-3-sulfate. Steroid sulfatase (STS) catalyses the hydrolysis of these steroids into their unconjugated counterparts. The objective of this study was to investigate the regulation of SLCO2B1 and STS mRNAs during human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-induced ovulation/luteinization. The equine SLCO2B1 cDNA was cloned and shown to encode a 709-amino acid protein (OATP2B1) that is highly conserved when compared to mammalian orthologs. RT-PCR/Southern blot analyses were performed to study the regulation of SLCO2B1 and STS transcripts in equine preovulatory follicles isolated between 0 and 39h after hCG treatment. Results showed high levels of SLCO2B1 mRNA expression before hCG, with a marked decrease observed in follicles obtained 24-39h post-hCG (P<0.05). Analyses of isolated granulosa and theca interna cells identified high mRNA expression in both cell types prior to hCG treatment, with granulosa cells showing a more rapid SLCO2B1 mRNA down-regulation. No significant change in STS mRNA was observed in intact follicle walls. However, when both cell types were isolated, a significant decrease in STS mRNA was observed in granulosa cells 24-39h post-hCG. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the hCG-dependent induction of follicular luteinization is accompanied by the down-regulation of SLCO2B1 and STS transcripts. Considering that OATP2B1 can import sulfoconjugated DHEA and estrogens, and that STS can remove the sulfonate moiety from these steroids, their down-regulation in luteinizing preovulatory follicles may provide an additional biochemical basis for the decrease in ovarian 17beta-estradiol biosynthesis after the LH surge. PMID:17049229

  4. Cystogenesis of the ovarian antral follicle of the rat: ultrastructural changes and hormonal profile following the administration of dehydroepiandrosterone.

    PubMed

    Anderson, E; Lee, M T; Lee, G Y

    1992-11-01

    Immature 27-day-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered daily subcutaneous injections of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, 5 mg/100 g BW) to induce the formation of ovarian follicular cysts. Groups of rats were killed on days 0, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30. Ovaries from each group of rats were processed for light and electron microscopy and for follicular or cystic fluid hormone analysis. Normal antral follicle fluid, PMSG-treated preovulatory follicular fluid, and cystic fluids were analyzed for progesterone (P), estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), delta 4-androstenedione (delta 4-A), 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and prolactin (PRL). DHEA induced anovulation, acyclicity, and the formation of follicular cysts. In certain antral follicles, there was a dramatic increase in the quantities of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) in the granulosa cells and many mitochondria had tubular cristae. Further depletion of granulosa cell number was associated with intense blebbing of the cytoplasm into the follicle antrum. Formation of the ovarian follicular cyst was completed when the entire cyst was lined by a single layer of transformed granulosa cells in contact via adhering, gap, and tight junctions. These cells had little cytoplasm, mitochondria with lamellar cristae, vast basal and apical bands of microfilaments, and an extensive array of smooth-surfaced endocytotic invaginations on the basal plasma membrane. These endocytotic pits may subsequently form smooth-surfaced vesicles and thereby serve as one mechanism for moving fluid from the ovarian interstitium into the cyst. Theca interna cells were rarely observed in the peripheral regions of the cyst. Abundant smooth muscle cells were located beneath the basement membrane of the epithelial cells comprising the cyst wall. These acquired morphological and physiological features may ensure persistence of the ovarian cyst and thus potentiate a

  5. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Fariña López, E; Estévez-Guerra, G J; Núñez González, E; Calvo Francés, F; Penelo, E

    2016-01-01

    Fundamento. Adaptar y validar en español el cuestionario Perception of Restraint Use Questionnaire, que mide la importancia que dan los profesionales al uso de restricciones físicas en personas mayores.Método. Estudio multicéntrico, descriptivo y transversal. Tras un proceso de traducción-retrotraducción, se obtuvo una versión en español del cuestionario original. La validación se llevó a cabo entre una muestra de 830 profesionales seleccionados en veinte centros de tres comunidades autónomas españolas. Se analizó la viabilidad, la fiabilidad mediante la consistencia interna y la estabilidad temporal (test-retest), así como la validez de contenido (panel de expertos e índice de validez) y de constructo (análisis factorial).Resultados. De los 17 ítems del cuestionario, 15 pudieron traducirse de manera literal; en dos hubo que realizar modificaciones menores. Un estudio piloto confirmó la adecuada viabilidad del cuestionario. El alfa de Cronbach fue de 0,92 y la fiabilidad test-retest (CCI) de 0,908 (IC del 95%: 0,880-0,933). El índice de validez de contenido fue de 0,89. El análisis factorial exploratorio identificó dos dimensiones que explicaban el 63% de la varianza, presentando una fiabilidad de 0,90 y 0,93 respectivamente. Este fue sometido a un análisis confirmatorio, mostrando los indicadores un adecuado ajuste.Conclusiones. Se ha obtenido un instrumento en español con unas buenas características psicométricas y adaptado al contexto cultural de este país. Una herramienta útil para evaluar en qué situaciones se considera más necesario el uso de las restricciones físicas, lo que podría ayudar a diseñar actividades de formación encaminadas a racionalizar su aplicación.Palabras clave. Cuestionarios. Percepción. Restricción física. Anciano. Estudios de validación. PMID:27125606

  6. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Giner, Manel; Culebras, Jesús M; Meguid, Michael M

    2016-01-01

    En agosto de 1976, un joven llamado LeRoy cayó desde una cornisa fracturándose el fémur. Se sospechó una hemorragia interna importante. Durante una laparotomía se comprobó que todos los órganos internos estaban intactos y los cirujanos ortopédicos arreglaron la fractura. Treintadías después, LeRoy murió. Había comido poco; diariamente, tan solo había recibido tres litros de la glucosa, el equivalente a 510 calorías, por vía intravenosa. La glucosa fue insuficiente para satisfacer sus necesidades nutricionales, perdiendo más del 20% de su peso corporaldurante su estancia en el hospital. La causa de la muerte se debió a "desnutrición médicamente inducida". Mientras tanto, un artículo científico documentó que la prevalencia de desnutrición en los hospitales de Boston era del 44% y que la desnutrición en sí era un predictor de altas tasas de complicaciones y muerte.Como resultado, los médicos sensibilizados formaron una sociedad que creó programas de formación y alentó la formación de equipos de nutrición en los hospitales. La industria comercializó fórmulas de nutrición y catéteres. Las complicaciones en enfermos hospitalizados cayeron en picado, mientras que las tasas de supervivencia aumentaron. California aprobó una legislación para regular el soporte nutricional. Aunque la industria de la atención sanitaria reconoce la importancia de la nutrición en los cuidados al paciente, el Congreso no proporcionó apoyo fiscal para los equipos de nutrición. Como resultado, los hospitales disolvieron sus equipos de nutrición de reciente creación. La educación y las habilidades en nutrición disminuyeron, y las complicaciones hospitalarias y las tasas de mortalidad aumentaron de nuevo. PMID:27238814

  7. Glomerular anionic site distribution in nonproteinuric rats. A computer-assisted morphometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Pilia, P A; Swain, R P; Williams, A V; Loadholt, C B; Ainsworth, S K

    1985-12-01

    The cationic ultrastructural tracer polyethyleneimine (PEI: pI approximately equal to 11.0), binds electrophysically to uniformly spaced discrete electron-dense anionic sites present in the laminae rarae of the rat glomerular basement membrane (GBM), mesangial reflections of the GBM, Bowman's capsule, and tubular basement membranes when administered intravenously. Computer-assisted morphometric analysis of glomerular anionic sites reveals that the maximum concentration of stainable lamina rara externa (lre) sites (21/10,000 A GBM) occurs 60 minutes after PEI injection with a site-site interspacing of 460 A. Lamina rara interna (lri) sites similarly demonstrate a maximum concentration (20/10,000 A GBM) at 60 minutes with a periodicity of 497 A. The concentration and distribution of anionic sites within the lri was irregular in pattern and markedly decreased in number, while the lre possesses an electrical field that is highly regular at all time intervals analyzed (15, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, and 300 minutes). Immersion and perfusion of renal tissue with PEI reveals additional heavy staining of the epithelial and endothelial cell sialoprotein coatings. PEI appears to bind to glomerular anionic sites reversibly: ie, between 60 and 180 minutes the concentration of stained sites decreases. At 300 minutes, the interspacing once again approaches the 60-minute concentration. This suggests a dynamic turnover or dissociation followed by a reassociation of glomerular negatively charged PEI binding sites. In contrast, morphometric analysis of anionic sites stained with lysozyme and protamine sulfate reveals interspacings of 642 A and 585 A, respectively; in addition, these tracers produce major glomerular ultrastructural alterations and induce transient proteinuria. PEI does not induce proteinuria in rats, nor does it produce glomerular morphologic alterations when ten times the tracer dosage is administered intravenously. These findings indicate that the choice of

  8. Characterization of persistent follicles induced by prolonged treatment with progesterone in dairy cows: an experimental model for the study of ovarian follicular cysts.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Pablo U; Stangaferro, Matías L; Gareis, Natalia C; Silvia, William J; Matiller, Valentina; Salvetti, Natalia R; Rey, Florencia; Barberis, Fabián; Cattaneo, Luciano; Ortega, Hugo H

    2015-10-15

    Cystic ovarian disease (COD) is a major factor contributing to poor reproductive efficiency of lactating dairy cows. The objective of the present study was to analyze the endocrine profile, growth dynamics, and histologic characteristics of persistent ovarian follicles-cysts developing in response to long-term administration of intermediate levels of progesterone. To this end, after synchronization of cows, a low dose of progesterone was administered for 5, 10, and 15 days after the expected day of ovulation in treated cows (groups P5, P10, and P15, respectively), using an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device. A significant increase in diameter was detected on Day 11 of progesterone treatment and thereafter (P < 0.05), and at Day 15 of persistence, the diameter of the persistent follicle reached a mean of 23 ± 0.6 mm. Microscopically, the persistent follicles had a complete granulosa, an intensely vascularized theca interna, and a collagenous theca externa layer. Temporal changes in the serum concentrations of estradiol, progesterone, and FSH were detected (effects of time, P < 0.01). Progesterone treatment completely inhibited the LH preovulatory surge in treated cows and affected the basal concentration of LH. The pulse frequency remained high at 5 and 10 days of persistence and declined (P < 0.05) after 15 days of persistence. The LH pulse concentration and pulse amplitude had a significant reduction (P < 0.05) during follicular persistence. Changes in the serum levels of estradiol, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and testosterone in serum and follicular fluid were also observed. In serum, estradiol increased gradually from proestrus to Day 10 of follicular persistence (P < 0.05), progesterone showed an increase (P < 0.05) at Day 5 of follicular persistence, 17-hydroxyprogesterone showed a significant decrease at 5 days of follicular persistence in relation to proestrus, and testosterone showed a significant increase (P < 0.05) from proestrus and

  9. Rotação do jato em DG tau próximo à região de sua formação: análise comparativa das velocidades radiais simuladas e observadas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerqueira, A. H.; de Gouveia dal Pino, E. M.

    2003-08-01

    Os modelos magneto-centrífugos utilizados para explicar a formação dos jatos Herbig-Haro assumem a presença de um disco de acresção em rotação kepleriana na base de lançamento do jato. Neste cenário, o jato transmite a informação da rotação do disco para regiões distantes da fonte central, além da superfície de Alfvén, na região de colimação inicial do jato. Recentemente, Bacciotti et al. (2002, ApJ, 537, L49) obtiveram pela primeira vez uma evidência observacional de rotação em um jato HH, o jato em DG Tau, em regiões próximas da fonte central, compatível (qualitativa e quantitativamente) com o esperado a partir dos modelos magneto-centrífugos para a produção e colimação inicial de jatos HH. No presente trabalho, apresentamos mapas de velocidade radial, obtidos através de simulações numéricas tri-dimensionais SPH, para um jato com características semelhantes ao jato em DG Tau, objetivando uma comparação com os mapas de velocidade radiais obtidos por Bacciotti et al.. Nossos resultados, embora preliminares, indicam que a inclusão de efeitos como a precessão, evidenciada em DG Tau (Dougados et al. 2000, A&A, 357, L61) devem ser levadas em consideração na análise da presença de rotação não só em DG Tau mas em qualquer sistema, com o uso das velocidades radias observadas. A ausência de um grau elevado de simetria axial (quebrada, por exemplo, pela precessão do eixo do jato; ou pela presença de uma superfície interna de trabalho, ou seja, um bow shock interno), implica também em uma maior complexidade nos mapas, com conseqüências relevantes para suas interpretações.

  10. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Morán López, Jesús Manuel; Luengo Pérez, Luis Miguel; Beneítez Moralejo, Belén; Piedra León, María; González Aguado, Rocío; Enciso Izquierdo, Fidel Jesús; Amado Señaris, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la clasificación por procesos según el sistema de los grupos relacionados con el diagnóstico permite clasificar los diferentes procesos acorde a un consumo de recursos equivalentes. La complejidad de los procesos según el índice case-mix permite solicitar un mayor o menor presupuesto para la atención de los pacientes. La desnutrición tiene capacidad para aumentar el índice case-mix si bien en muchos casos este diagnóstico y el de los procesos nutricionales no se realizan de forma adecuada.Objetivo: determinar si la adecuada codificación de la desnutrición es capaz de aumentar el índice case-mix y si este aumento es dependiente de la documentación del mismo por un médico especialista, el tipo de proceso o el servicio de ingreso.Resultados: en una serie aleatorizada de 100 pacientes, la documentación de desnutrición y procesos asociados por parte de un médico especialista en Endocrinología y Nutrición produjo un aumento de 0,68 puntos en el índice case-mix (IC95: 0,48-0,88). El impacto fue mayor en procesos médicos que en quirúrgicos (0,42 puntos [IC95: 0,03-0,81]). Por servicios, el impacto fue positivo en Medicina Interna y Cirugía General. El tamaño muestral para el cálculo del resto de servicios no alcanzó tamaño muestral suficiente.Conclusión: el aumento de recursos humanos (médicos especialistas en Endocrinología y Nutrición) es viable en términos de gestión por el aumento del índice case-mix dependiente de su presencia en un contexto de práctica clínica habitual, no de investigación. PMID:27019246

  11. Reduction of CO2 and orbital debris: can CO2 emission trading principles be applied to debris reduction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, Giovanni; Kinnersley, Mark; Starke, Juergen; Hugel, Sebastian; Hartner, Gloria; Singh, Sanjay; Loubiere, Vincent; Staebler, Dominik-Markus; O'Brien-Organ, Christopher; Schwindt, Stefan; Serreau, Francois; Sharma, Mohit

    In the past years global pollution and the specific situation of global warming changes have been strongly influencing public opinion and thus obliged politicians to initiate/ negotiate in-ternational agreements to control, avoid or at least reduce the impact of CO2 emissions e.g. The Kyoto Protocol (1997) and the International Copenhagen conference on Climate Change (2009). In the orbital debris area the collision between the Iridium33 and Cosmos 2251 satel-lites in 2009 has again pushed to the forefront the discussion of the space pollution by space debris and the increasing risk of critical and catastrophic events during the nominal life time of space objects. It is shown by simulations that for Low Earth Orbits the critical debris situation is already achieved and the existing space objects will probably produce sufficient space debris elements -big enough -to support the cascade effect (Kessler Syndrome). In anal-ogy with CO2 emissions, potential recommendations / regulations to reduce the production of Space Debris or its permanence in orbit, are likely to open new markets involving Miti-gation and Removal of Space Debris. The principle approach for the CO2 emission trading model will be investigated and the applicability for the global space debris handling will be analysed. The major differences of the two markets will be derived and the consequences in-dicated. Potential alternative solutions will be proposed and discussed. For the example of the CO2 emission trading principles within EU and worldwide legal conditions for space debris (national / international laws and recommendations) will be considered as well as the commer-cial approach from the controlled situation of dedicated orders to a free / competitive market in steps. It is of interest to consider forms of potential industrial organisations and interna-tional co-operations to react on a similar architecture for the debris removal trading including incentives and penalties for the different

  12. Detección y estudio mediante Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser de radicales libres formados por Disociación Multifotónica Infrarroja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, M.; Díaz, L.; Torresano, J. A.; Rubio, L.; Samoudi, B.

    Una de las principales aplicaciones actuales de los procesos de disociación multifotónica inducidos por radiación láser infrarroja (DMI) es la producción de radiales libres, con el fin de estudiar sus propiedades cinéticas y espectroscópicas. La disociación de moléculas poliatómicas en el IR con láseres de CO2 tiene lugar desde la superficie de energía molecular mas baja y conduce generalmente a la formación de fragmentos en el estado electrónico fundamental, con diversos grados de excitación vibracional. En el Grupo de Procesos Multifotónicos del Instituto de Estructura de la Materia del C.S.I.C. hemos puesto a punto la técnica de Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser (LIF) para la detección y análisis en tiempo real de los fragmentos producidos en la DMI inducida mediante uno o dos campos láseres de diferentes longitudes de onda. Objetivos de nuestro trabajo han sido el estudio de los canales de disociación mayoritarios y de las especies transitoria producidas, así como de la distribución de energía interna con que éstas son generadas. En particular hemos detectado mediante LIF las especies: C2, CF, CH, SiH2, CF2, CH2, SiHCl, y CF3 a partir de la disociación de, entre otras, las siguientes moléculas: C2H3Br, C3F6, C4H8Si, C2H5ClSi y CH5ClSi. En este trabajo presentamos algunos de los resultados obtenidos mediante el estudio por LIF de estos radicales: estudio temporal de la señal LIF obtenida con determinación de tiempos de vida, espectros de excitación y fluorescencia, temperaturas vibracionales de formación, variación de la intensidad LIF con el tiempo de retraso entre los láseres de disociación y prueba, etc.

  13. THE EXPRESSION OF APELIN AND ITS RECEPTOR APJ DURING DIFFERENT PHYSIOLOGICAL STAGES IN THE BOVINE OVARY

    PubMed Central

    Schilffarth, Stefanie; Antoni, Bernadette; Schams, Dieter; Meyer, Heinrich HD; Berisha, Bajram

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies implicate that apelin and its receptor APJ may have important role for the modulation of angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to further characterise the regulation of apelin/APJ system in bovine ovary. Experiment 1: corpora lutea (CL) were assigned to the following stages: days 1-2, 3-4, 5-7, 8-12, 13-16, >18 (after regression) of oestrous cycle and of gravidity (month <3, 3-5, 6-7 and >8). Experiment 2: Follicles during maturation were divided into granulosa cells (GC) and theca interna (TI) and were examined separately. Classification of follicles occurred by follicle size and oestradiol-17β (E2) concentration in the follicular fluid (FF) (<0.5 ng/ml, 0.5-5 ng/ml; 5-40 ng/ml; 40-180 ng/ml; >180 ng/ml). Real-time RT-PCR (qPCR) was applied to investigate mRNA expression of examined factors. In general, the expression level of apelin during the oestrous cycle was significantly higher compared to the one during pregnancy. Apelin mRNA levels were always high during the cycle with a tendency of decrease after CL regression. The APJ mRNA in the CL was significantly up regulated on days 5-7 and 8-12 followed by a decrease on days 13-16, and further on days >18. The expression of APJ does not show any significant regulation in the CL throughout pregnancy. The expression of apelin and APJ was not statistically regulated in GC, but was significantly up regulated in follicles with an E2 concentration of more than 5 ng/ml and showed an increase according to growth and maturation of follicles. In conclusion, our data suggest that apelin/APJ system is involved in the mechanism regulating angiogenesis during follicle maturation as well as during CL formation and function in the bovine ovary. PMID:19461937

  14. Differences in globus pallidus neuronal firing rates and patterns relate to different disease biology in children with dystonia

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, V M; Valentin, A; Rey, H G; Lumsden, D E; Elze, M C; Selway, R; Alarcon, G; Lin, J-P

    2016-01-01

    Background The pathophysiology underlying different types of dystonia is not yet understood. We report microelectrode data from the globus pallidus interna (GPi) and globus pallidus externa (GPe) in children undergoing deep brain stimulation (DBS) for dystonia and investigate whether GPi and GPe firing rates differ between dystonia types. Methods Single pass microelectrode data were obtained to guide electrode position in 44 children (3.3–18.1 years, median 10.7) with the following dystonia types: 14 primary, 22 secondary Static and 8 progressive secondary to neuronal brain iron accumulation (NBIA). Preoperative stereotactic MRI determined coordinates for the GPi target. Digitised spike trains were analysed offline, blind to clinical data. Electrode placement was confirmed by a postoperative stereotactic CT scan. Findings We identified 263 GPi and 87 GPe cells. Both GPi and GPe firing frequencies differed significantly with dystonia aetiology. The median GPi firing frequency was higher in the primary group than in the secondary static group (13.5 Hz vs 9.6 Hz; p=0.002) and higher in the NBIA group than in either the primary (25 Hz vs 13.5 Hz; p=0.006) or the secondary static group (25 Hz vs 9.6 Hz; p=0.00004). The median GPe firing frequency was higher in the NBIA group than in the secondary static group (15.9 Hz vs 7 Hz; p=0.013). The NBIA group also showed a higher proportion of regularly firing GPi cells compared with the other groups (p<0.001). A higher proportion of regular GPi cells was also seen in patients with fixed/tonic dystonia compared with a phasic/dynamic dystonia phenotype (p<0.001). The GPi firing frequency showed a positive correlation with 1-year outcome from DBS measured by improvement in the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS-m) score (p=0.030). This association was stronger for the non-progressive patients (p=0.006). Interpretation Pallidal firing rates and patterns differ significantly with dystonia aetiology

  15. Assessing the potential of farming regions to fulfill agro-environmental functions: a case study in tuscany (Italy).

    PubMed

    Marraccini, Elisa; Rapey, Hélène; Galli, Mariassunta; Lardon, Sylvie; Bonari, Enrico

    2013-03-01

    The increasing interest in agro-environmental management entails having tools to assess, monitor and map agro-environmental functions (AEFs) in different regional contexts. In Europe, decision-making in agro-environmental policies generally targets single functions instead of multiple ones and rarely considers the regional variability of agricultural or geo-physical conditions that may influence the fulfillment of functions. We propose and test a method to assess the potential of farming regions to fulfill a set of AEFs. The method was applied in the "Collina interna grossetana" farming region (Italy) and concerned three functions: protection of surface water from nitrates, protection of soil from erosion, and conservation of landscape diversity. These functions were qualified and mapped using various geo-physical and land cover descriptors from common geographical datasets. All of the descriptors were combined using geographical cluster analysis to identify their contribution to the three functions, and thus to assess the potential of the farming region to fulfill these functions. Three levels of potential were calculated, according to the more or less favorable fulfillment of soil and water functions. No totally favorable contribution to the functions was identified in the studied area. Moreover, we mapped the spatial patterns obtained for the different levels of potential. The landscape diversity function was found to be the least variable in the study area, while different patterns were identified for the other functions. In fact, the northern and central sections of the study region were organized more in the form of large core areas of different levels of potential, whereas the southern section presented more boundary areas, small core areas and isolated pixels. The method may help to establish local priorities in agro-environmental management pointing out where the set of functions is completely or partially fulfilled, as well as where and how it is more or

  16. Intra-Section Analysis of Human Coronary Arteries Reveals a Potential Role for Micro-Calcifications in Macrophage Recruitment in the Early Stage of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Chatrou, Martijn L. L.; Cleutjens, Jack P.; van der Vusse, Ger J.; Roijers, Ruben B.; Mutsaers, Peter H. A.; Schurgers, Leon J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Vascular calcification is associated with poor cardiovascular outcome. Histochemical analysis of calcification and the expression of proteins involved in mineralization are usually based on whole section analysis, thereby often ignoring regional differences in atherosclerotic lesions. At present, limited information is available about factors involved in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Aim of This Study This study investigates the intra-section association of micro-calcifications with markers for atherosclerosis in randomly chosen section areas of human coronary arteries. Moreover, the possible causal relationship between calcifying vascular smooth muscle cells and inflammation was explored in vitro. Technical Approach To gain insights into the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, we performed analysis of the distribution of micro-calcifications using a 3-MeV proton microbeam. Additionally, we performed systematic analyses of 30 to 40 regions of 12 coronary sections obtained from 6 patients including histology and immuno-histochemistry. Section areas were classified according to CD68 positivity. In vitro experiments using human vascular smooth muscle cells (hVSMCs) were performed to evaluate causal relationships between calcification and inflammation. Results From each section multiple areas were randomly chosen and subsequently analyzed. Depositions of calcium crystals at the micrometer scale were already observed in areas with early pre-atheroma type I lesions. Micro-calcifications were initiated at the elastica interna concomitantly with upregulation of the uncarboxylated form of matrix Gla-protein (ucMGP). Both the amount of calcium crystals and ucMGP staining increased from type I to IV atherosclerotic lesions. Osteochondrogenic markers BMP-2 and osteocalcin were only significantly increased in type IV atheroma lesions, and at this stage correlated with the degree of calcification. From atheroma area type III onwards a considerable

  17. Ediacaran to Cambrian magmatic suites in the Rio Grande do Norte domain, extreme Northeastern Borborema Province (NE of Brazil): Current knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    do Nascimento, Marcos Antonio Leite; Galindo, Antonio Carlos; de Medeiros, Vladimir Cruz

    2015-03-01

    Alk Suite has only one dated body, aged 598 ± 3 Ma (Serra da Garganta pluton). The EHKCalcAlk suite U-Pb dating is younger than the aforementioned suites, ranging from 582 ± 5 Ma (dykes in Dona Inês pluton) and 527 ± 8 (Cerro Corá pluton). The Alk suite was dated at 578 ± 14 Ma (Caxexa pluton, Sm-Nd internal isochron) and at 597 ± 4 Ma (Japi pluton, U-Pb zircon), while ChAlc U-Pb zircon ages of 601 ± 10 Ma and 593 ± 5 Ma (Umarizal pluton). The magmatism of Cambrian age in the Rio Grande do Norte Domain is represented by pegmatite dykes with U-Pb dating between 515 and 510 Ma. xml:lang="pt" Petrograficamente, a Suíte Shos possui composição entre gabros/dioritos e quartzo monzonitos. Na CalcAlcAKP predomina monzogranitos (com granodioritos e quartzo monzonitos, subordinados), semelhante a CalcAlcAKE. A CalcAlc é formada por granodioritos a tonalitos. A Alc é formada por álcali-feldspato granitos (com quartzo álcali-feldspato sienitos e sienogranitos, subordinados), enquanto que a AlcCh tem quartzo mangeritos e charnoquitos. As suítes foram alojadas entre o Ediacarano (635-541 Ma) e o Cambriano (541-485 Ma), predominando no Ediacarano, com base em 34 idades U-Pb (zircão, titanita, monazita e columbita-tantalita), 17 Rb-Sr (rocha total) e 1 isócrona interna Sm-Nd (rocha total e mineral). A Suíte Shos tem idades U-Pb variando de 599 ± 16 (Plúton Poço Verde) a 579 ± 7 (plútons Acari e São João do Sabugi). Esses valores são um pouco mais velhos do que as idades da Suíte CalcAlcAKP que possui valores entre 591 ± 4 Ma (Plúton Totoró) e 544 ± 7 Ma (Plúton São José de Espinharas). A Suíte CalcAlc possui apenas um corpo datado, com idade de 598 ± 3 Ma (Plúton Serra da Garganta). A Suíte CalcAlcAKE possui idades U-Pb mais jovens que as suítes anteriores, com valores entre 582 ± 5 Ma (diques no Plúton Dona Inês) e 527 ± 8 (Plúton Cerro Corá). A Suíte Alc foi datada em 578 ± 14 Ma (Plúton Caxexa, isócrona interna Sm-Nd) e 597 ± 4 Ma (Pl

  18. Ediacaran to Cambrian magmatic suites in the Rio Grande do Norte domain, extreme Northeastern Borborema Province (NE of Brazil): Current knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    do Nascimento, Marcos Antonio Leite; Galindo, Antonio Carlos; de Medeiros, Vladimir Cruz

    2015-03-01

    Alk Suite has only one dated body, aged 598 ± 3 Ma (Serra da Garganta pluton). The EHKCalcAlk suite U-Pb dating is younger than the aforementioned suites, ranging from 582 ± 5 Ma (dykes in Dona Inês pluton) and 527 ± 8 (Cerro Corá pluton). The Alk suite was dated at 578 ± 14 Ma (Caxexa pluton, Sm-Nd internal isochron) and at 597 ± 4 Ma (Japi pluton, U-Pb zircon), while ChAlc U-Pb zircon ages of 601 ± 10 Ma and 593 ± 5 Ma (Umarizal pluton). The magmatism of Cambrian age in the Rio Grande do Norte Domain is represented by pegmatite dykes with U-Pb dating between 515 and 510 Ma. xml:lang="pt" Petrograficamente, a Suíte Shos possui composição entre gabros/dioritos e quartzo monzonitos. Na CalcAlcAKP predomina monzogranitos (com granodioritos e quartzo monzonitos, subordinados), semelhante a CalcAlcAKE. A CalcAlc é formada por granodioritos a tonalitos. A Alc é formada por álcali-feldspato granitos (com quartzo álcali-feldspato sienitos e sienogranitos, subordinados), enquanto que a AlcCh tem quartzo mangeritos e charnoquitos. As suítes foram alojadas entre o Ediacarano (635-541 Ma) e o Cambriano (541-485 Ma), predominando no Ediacarano, com base em 34 idades U-Pb (zircão, titanita, monazita e columbita-tantalita), 17 Rb-Sr (rocha total) e 1 isócrona interna Sm-Nd (rocha total e mineral). A Suíte Shos tem idades U-Pb variando de 599 ± 16 (Plúton Poço Verde) a 579 ± 7 (plútons Acari e São João do Sabugi). Esses valores são um pouco mais velhos do que as idades da Suíte CalcAlcAKP que possui valores entre 591 ± 4 Ma (Plúton Totoró) e 544 ± 7 Ma (Plúton São José de Espinharas). A Suíte CalcAlc possui apenas um corpo datado, com idade de 598 ± 3 Ma (Plúton Serra da Garganta). A Suíte CalcAlcAKE possui idades U-Pb mais jovens que as suítes anteriores, com valores entre 582 ± 5 Ma (diques no Plúton Dona Inês) e 527 ± 8 (Plúton Cerro Corá). A Suíte Alc foi datada em 578 ± 14 Ma (Plúton Caxexa, isócrona interna Sm-Nd) e 597 ± 4 Ma (Pl

  19. Cálculos ab initio con correlación electrónica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merchán Bonete, M.

    campo, y se reflejan en libros publicados recientemente. En la conferencia se analizarán ciertos pormenores de las investigaciones realizadas. El tipo de aplicaciones llevadas a cabo hasta la fecha se ilustrará mediante el estudio teórico del espectro electrónico de ciclooctatetraeno. Dando un paso más en la evolución de nuestra investigación, pretendemos en la actualidad describir, desde un formalismo teórico y al mismo nivel de exigencia, los mecanismos subyacentes que tienen lugar en las reacciones biológicas fototoinducidas, es decir, reacciones que se inician mediante la absorción de luz[3]. Como muestra de la caracterización de los procesos fotofísicos y fotoquímicos en fotobiología teórica, hemos elegido la descripción de la conversión interna ultrarrápida que tiene lugar en los cromóforos del ADN. Los estados excitados de las moléculas de los ácidos nucleicos presentan tiempos de vida media que se encuentran en el rango de sub-picosegundos, sugiriendo la presencia de un canal ultrarrápido de conversión interna, lo que normalmente se asocia en la fotoquímica contemporánea a una intersección cónica entre el estado excitado y el fundamental[4]. De esta forma nuestro ADN previene de forma eficaz posibles reacciones en el estado excitado y se revela como un excelente protector solar.

  20. Psychological distress and community approach to the voice of the community health agent.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Pâmela Câmpelo; Torrenté, Mônica de Olivera Nunes de; Landim, Fátima Luna Pinheiro; Branco, July Grassiely de Oliveira; Tamboril, Bruna Caroline Rodrigues; Cabral, Ana Larisse Teles

    2016-06-01

    como a comunidade percebe a pessoa em sofrimento psíquico e como está se posiciona frente às problemáticas do seu cotidiano, no que se refere a rejeição, preconceito, discriminação e perda de identidade. Contudo destaca-se que, pelo fato de estar inserido na comunidade, o agente comunitário de saúde percebe de forma mais apurada como tal grupo social trata a pessoa em sofrimento mental. A rejeição da pessoa que adoeceu é observada como uma reação bastante comum, acompanhada do preconceito e discriminação, marginalizando-a da sociedade. PMID:27384288

  1. Urban areas of Carbonia (Sardinia, Italy): anthropogenic and natural sinkhole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mureddu, A.; Corda, A. S.

    2012-04-01

    collapses, with the opening of pits on the surface, circular or elliptical, formed by highly inclined or vertical walls. On the surface have been found sinkholes, large depressions with steep walls and slightly elongated forms, which have caused impacts to homes and roads infrastructure. Based on recent surveys carried out, was estimated that the risk area covers about 2.7 square kilometers, jutting out from the center of mining "Serbariu mine" and arrives conurbation of Sirai. To remember besides, in the eastern outskirts of Carbonia, (Cannas locality), and in the district of Serbariu - Perdas Biancas, in any major tectonic lineation Hercynian and Tertiary age, the presence of 9 sinkholes , 6 of which are newly formed, for the which are studying the possible causes due to the exploitation of groundwater. Referring to the geological and structural models of the study sites, were are made firsts geophysical investigation using GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar), in "multi-frequency arrays," in the process of calibration and systematize of the sinkhole phenomenon.

  2. Calibração do sistema imageador do telescópio MASCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejía, J.; D'Amico, F.; Villela, T.; Braga, J.

    2003-08-01

    O MASCO (MÁScara COdificada) é um telescópio imageador de raios-X e gama atualmente configurado para operar na faixa de 50 a 600 keV com uma resolução angular de 14 minutos de arco num campo de visada total circular de 23,5° de diâmetro. O MASCO está totalmente operacional e deverá ser lançado em um balão estratosférico no segundo semestre de 2003 para realizar observações durante ~20 horas a ~40 km de altitude. O telescópio utiliza uma máscara codificada de padrão uniformemente redundante modificado (MURA) de dimensões 19 ´ 19. Esse padrão pertence a uma subclasse de MURAs que apresenta anti-simetria de 90° e conseqüentemente permite a utilização da técnica de subtração de variações sistemáticas de ruído de fundo através de utilização da configuração anti-máscara, obtida com uma simples rotação da máscara. Neste trabalho apresentamos resultados de calibrações em laboratório que tiveram como objetivo testar o sistema imageador. Imagens de fontes radioativas foram obtidas com o telescópio em configuração de vôo, com a máscara girando. Serão discutidos os resultados desses testes e as técnicas desenvolvidas para eliminar ambigüidades de posição de fontes, otimização da relação sinal-ruído e observação de fontes fora do campo totalmente codificado. O sistema de máscara/antimáscara mostrou-se capaz de aumentar a relação sinal-ruído de ~60% para fontes intensas (100 s). Com a máscara girando, a técnica de reconstrução de imagens desenvolvida identificou a posição exata da fonte e não introduziu perda de sensibilidade. Imagens de uma fonte colocada a 8,3° - fora do campo totalmente codificado do telescópio -, mostraram uma diminuição de ~40% na relação sinal/ruído em relação ao centro do campo de visada, o que se deve à codificação incompleta pela máscara e à absorção parcial do fluxo pelos detectores de blindagem.

  3. High-pressure thermal aureoles around two Neoproterozoic synorogenic magmatic epidote-bearing granitoids, Northeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caby, Renaud; Sial, Alcides N.; Ferreira, Valderez P.

    2009-02-01

    Unusual high-pressure inner thermal aureoles are described from the Minador and Angico Torto epidote-bearing tonalitic plutons that emplaced into greenschist-facies metasedimentary rocks of the Neoproterozoic Cachoeirinha-Salgueiro belt, northeastern Brazil. The foliated pelitic hornfelses display the mineral assemblage garnet, kyanite, staurolite, muscovite, biotite, plagioclase ± quartz. Rare fibrolite is only found very close to the contacts. Hornfelses display steep mineral lineations and steeply-dipping foliations concordant with magmatic contacts. Leucocratic veinlets containing quartz, oligoclase, garnet, kyanite, staurolite, rutile and ilmenite suggest that limited melting conditions were reached very close to magmatic contacts ( T ⩾ 650 °C, P around 8 kbar). These high-pressure hornfelses form a few meters thick, rigid envelopes around the two plutons. Contrary to known examples of kyanite-bearing hornfelses that recorded high-temperature decompression, the nearly isobaric cooling down to ca. 450 °C is constrained by 3.20-3.30 Si contents of retrogressive phengites from both inner hornfelses and ductilely-deformed tonalite at the pluton margins. Isograds and bathograds are, therefore, apparently telescoped due to HP/LT shearing, possibly caused by subsequent differential vertical movements affecting these two solidified plutons. The unusual depth of emplacement of these syn-kinematic calc-alkaline plutons is explained by a tentative geodynamic model involving a pre-620 Ma-subduction setting. Resumen Las aureolas internas que rodean dos plutones tonalíticos emplazados dentro de rocas cajas en facies esquistos verdes del Cinturón-plegado Cachoeirinha-Salgueiro al noreste de Brasil, contienen hornfelses pelíticos foliados con granate, kyanita, estaurolita, muscovita, biotita, plagioclasa ± cuarzo. Fibrolita es rara ó es encontrada solamente cerca de las zonas de contacto. Los hornfelses desarrollaron foliaciones concordantes con buzamiento fuerte

  4. [Implementation of a continuum of care for people living with HIV/AIDS in Hanoi (Vietnam)].

    PubMed

    de Loenzien, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    treating HIV/AIDS within its institutions, Vietnam can apply the lessons of interna

  5. Introduzione Nuove tecnologie in urologia.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Giampaolo

    2011-03-30

    emergenti (LESS e NOTES), poco è riportato in letteratura. Altri robot esistono nel mondo urologico che si stanno sviluppando e miniaturizzando (nanotecnologia), questi avranno una maggiore indipendenza nell'esecuzione di alcune manovre chirurgiche. Chirurgia computer assistita Il primo realizzato è stato PAKY, da allora il laboratorio di "urobotica", diretto dall'Ing. Dan Stoianovici, ha sviluppato nuovi prototipi di robot controllati mediante TAC o risonanza magnetica. Con questa tecnologia si programma l'intervento sulla base dell'"imaging" preoperatorio ed il robot esegue autonomamente biopsie ed altri interventi. Oggi sono molti i laboratori di ingegneria-urologica che lavorano nella realizzazione di altri robot (Probot, Acubot, Mr-Bot, Pneu-Step) dedicati all'Image-Guided System (IGS). Realtà virtuale Avanzati sistemi di computer grafica affiancati alle nuove ricostruzioni tridimensionali di TAC e RM, riescono a creare filmati dell'anatomia interna dei pazienti, in particolare degli organi cavi. Con la realtà virtuale si possono assistere tutte le manovre endoscopiche, migliorando notevolmente l'accuratezza della diagnosi delle patologie urologiche. A questo punto il passaggio al "Tissue Navigation System" è automatico, usato da alcuni anni con successo da neurochirurghi e cardiochirurghi. Alcuni recenti studi vengono dalla Cleveland Clinic Fondation (I. Gill), che lo utilizza per assistere interventi di laparoscopia ed endoscopia urologica. I risultati sono entusiasmanti: precisione millimetrica nel rispetto dei margini oncologici, delle strutture neuro-vascolari e linfonodali. Questi sistemi di navigazione abbattono la lunga "learning curve" delle metodiche endoscopiche, riducendo il tempo operatorio ed il rischio di complicanze chirurgiche. PMID:21452158

  6. Maize x Teosinte Hybrid Cobs Do Not Prevent Crop Gene Introgression.

    PubMed

    Chavez, Nancy B; Flores, Jose J; Martin, Joseph; Ellstrand, Norman C; Guadagnuolo, Roberto; Heredia, Sylvia; Welles, Shana R

    2012-06-01

    Maize x Teosinte Hybrid Cobs Do Not Prevent Crop Gene Introgression. Whether introgression from crops to wild relatives can occur is an important component of transgene risk assessment. In the case of maize, which co-occurs with its wild relative teosinte in Mexico, the possibility of introgression has been controversial. Maize is cross-compatible with teosinte, and spontaneous hybridization is known to occur. Some scientists have hypothesized that the maize x teosinte cob infructescence will prevent progeny dispersal, thus preventing introgression. Motivated by a prior study where we found maize x teosinte hybrid fruits naturally dispersed under field conditions, we tested whether hybrid cobs hold their fruits as tightly as maize cobs. We found the force required to detach hybrid fruits was substantially and significantly less than that for maize. Consequently, we expect that introgression of transgenes from maize into teosinte in Mexico should occur largely unimpeded by the hybrid cob.La mazorca o elote híbrido de maíz x teocintle no impide la introgresión de genes transgénicos provenientes del cultivo. La introgresión entre el maíz cultivado y el maíz silvestre, o teocintle, es un componente importante en la evaluación ambiental relacionada con los riesgos de la introducción de genes transgénicos. La posibilidad de introgresión entre el maíz domesticado y el teocintle ha sido un tema controversial, en particular en México, donde maíz y teocintle coexisten. El maíz es compatible con el teocintle y la hibridización espontánea ocurre entre ellos. Algunos científicos han planteado como hipótesis que al cruzar el maíz con teocintle, la estructura interna de la infrutescencia que sujeta los frutos conocida como la mazorca de maíz o el elote, impide la dispersión de la progenie evitando que la introgresión ocurra. Los resultados de un estudio previo evidencian la dispersión de los frutos híbridos del maíz x teocintle en condiciones naturales

  7. Concepciones Alternativas de "Fotosintesis" en estudiantes Universitarios del curso basico de Biologia y posibles correcciones con el Modelo Educativo MODEF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Jesus Roman, Sandra

    Concepciones Alternativas de Fotosíntesis en estudiantes Universitariosdel curso básico de Biología y posibles correcciones con el Modelo Educativo MODEF El modelo educativo para la enseñanza de Fotosíntesis (MODEF) se implantó para trabajar el problema de las concepciones alternativas (CA) en un curso de Biología General. Se evaluaron los resultados en cuanto al logro del aprendizaje significativo. La pregunta central de la investigación fue: ¿Cómo aporta el modelo educativo en la didáctica y comprensión del tema de fotosíntesis? Se efectuó una investigación acción con una fase cuantitativa y una cualitativa. Para la fase cuantitativa se elaboró una prueba para determinar las concepciones alternativas, se validó y se sometió a los estudiantes que participaron en el estudio antes y después de ofrecer la unidad de metabolismo celular. Los participantes eran estudiantes de primer año de la Universidad de Puerto Rico en Bayamón (UPRB). Se llevó a cabo un análisis de consistencia interna de la prueba mediante el método Alfa de Cronbach. Se analizaron las contestaciones a cada pregunta mediante la prueba de Ji cuadrado de contingencia, se efectuó la prueba de t y el coeficiente r de Pearson. La fase cualitativa incluyó la observación participativa de la investigadora- profesora, las reflexiones de los estudiantes y la información de las entrevistas semi-estructuradas que se realizaron a tres estudiantes del curso. El análisis se llevó a cabo mediante el Modelo de Wolcott. Se trabajaron diez CA de las cuales siete fueron corregidas mediante el Modelo MODEF. Las actividades más importantes para el proceso de aprendizaje incluyeron el trabajo de investigación o búsqueda de información para hacer una presentación digital, la elaboración de tablas, los mapas de conceptos, el uso de visuales o videos y las analogías para explicar conceptos o procesos. En conclusión: se recomienda el uso del Modelo MODEF para la discusión del tema de

  8. Seizures, cysticercosis and rural-to-urban migration: the PERU MIGRANT study

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Isidro; Miranda, J Jaime; Rodriguez, Silvia; Vargas, Victor; Cjuno, Alfredo; Smeeth, Liam; Gonzalez, Armando E; Tsang, Victor C W; Gilman, Robert H; Garcia, Hector H

    2015-01-01

    endemicidad de cisticercosis; la migración interna también puede afectar los patrones de endemicidad dentro de un país endémico. Las consecuencias neurológicas de la infección por cisticercos podrían durar más que la respuesta a anticuerpos años después de la migración de zonas rurales a zonas urbanas. PMID:25581851

  9. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    ção máximas, principalmente em solos mais ácidos e pobres em matéria orgânico. A adubação fosfatada é muito importante no crescimento inicial da planta e, além de aumentar a produção de tuberculos em peso e números, aumenta também a quantidade e qualidade do amido neles contidos e reduz perdas durante o armazenamento dos mesmos. A quantidade de fósforo a aplicar dependerá da análise do solo considerando- se principalmente o nível de P existente e a textura do solo. Solos de textura média e arenosa necessitam maior conteúdo de fósforo do que os de textura argilosa para serem considerandos solos de baixo, médio ou alto teor de fósfato. Efeito da potássica Embora seja o elemento mais absorbido pela batateira, nem sempre há resposta positiva da aduba potássica sobre o rendimento da cultura. Provavelmente isto esteja relacionado com níveis elevados deste elemento no solo (Kurnik et all. 2001.). Entretanto, em solos com médios e baixos teores de potássio, aumentos significativos são conseguidos. Por isto, as recomendações de adubação com potássio, nas diversas regiões do mundo, variam de 50-300 kg ha-1 de K2O. Resultados de trabalhos em brasiléiros têm demonstrado que a aduba potássica pode ser substituída pela aplicação de 150 m3 ha-1 de vinhaça de cana de açúcar. Ao elevar- se a dose de fertilização potássica deverá haver precaução para que a adubação magnesiana seja suficiente. O K além de aumentar a produção, em solos deficientes, aumenta também o tamanho dos tubérculos produzidos, e a proporção de tubérculos grandes. Deficiência no suprimento de potássio á planta pode acarretar produção de tubérculos com elevada susceptibilidade aos danos mecánicos pós-colheita. Os tubérculos injuriados enegrecem facilmente e este enegrecimento é inversamente proporcional á quantidade de potássio nos tuberculos. Ademais, quando fritos dão origem a um produto escuro, de baixa valor comercial. Manejo de aduba