Sample records for perfil hormonal sexual

  1. Hormones and Sexuality During Transition to Menopause

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clarisa R. Gracia; Ellen W. Freeman; Mary D. Sammel; Hui Lin; Marjori Mogul

    2007-01-01

    METHODS: Women in the Penn Ovarian Aging Study were assessed at yearly intervals for 3 years with early follicular hormone measurements (estradiol, follicle- stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone (LH), sex hor- mone binding globulin, dehyroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), total testosterone), anthropometric measures, and extensive questionnaires including the Female Sexual Function Index. Univariable analyses were performed to determine the association between hormones, meno-

  2. Minireview: Hormones and human sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Balthazart, Jacques

    2011-08-01

    Many people believe that sexual orientation (homosexuality vs. heterosexuality) is determined by education and social constraints. There are, however, a large number of studies indicating that prenatal factors have an important influence on this critical feature of human sexuality. Sexual orientation is a sexually differentiated trait (over 90% of men are attracted to women and vice versa). In animals and men, many sexually differentiated characteristics are organized during early life by sex steroids, and one can wonder whether the same mechanism also affects human sexual orientation. Two types of evidence support this notion. First, multiple sexually differentiated behavioral, physiological, or even morphological traits are significantly different in homosexual and heterosexual populations. Because some of these traits are known to be organized by prenatal steroids, including testosterone, these differences suggest that homosexual subjects were, on average, exposed to atypical endocrine conditions during development. Second, clinical conditions associated with significant endocrine changes during embryonic life often result in an increased incidence of homosexuality. It seems therefore that the prenatal endocrine environment has a significant influence on human sexual orientation but a large fraction of the variance in this behavioral characteristic remains unexplained to date. Genetic differences affecting behavior either in a direct manner or by changing embryonic hormone secretion or action may also be involved. How these biological prenatal factors interact with postnatal social factors to determine life-long sexual orientation remains to be determined. PMID:21693676

  3. Hormonal profile impact on female sexual function in young women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Craina, Marius; Pater, Liana; Pater, Flavius

    2014-12-01

    Female sexual function is dependent, in physiological milieu upon hormonal impulses: estradiol, testosterone, cortisol, progesterone, prolactin and TSH. Out study tries to appreciate the impact of testosterone, estradiol and prolactin, the major hormones involved in the sexual response, on the normal sexual function. This parameter is approximated by the value of the total FSFI score, a validated international structured interview.

  4. Hormonal predictors of sexual motivation in natural menstrual cycles.

    PubMed

    Roney, James R; Simmons, Zachary L

    2013-04-01

    Little is known regarding which hormonal signals may best predict within- and between-women variance in sexual motivation among naturally cycling women. To address this, we collected daily saliva samples across 1-2 menstrual cycles from a sample of young women; assayed samples for estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone; and also collected daily diary reports of women's sexual behavior and subjective sexual desire. With respect to within-cycle, day-to-day fluctuations in subjective desire, we found evidence for positive effects of estradiol and negative effects of progesterone. Desire exhibited a mid-cycle peak, similar to previous findings; measured progesterone concentrations statistically mediated the fall in desire from mid-cycle to the luteal phase, but no combination of hormone measures substantially mediated the follicular phase rise in desire, which suggests that other signals may be implicated in this effect. Hormonal predictors of within-cycle fluctuations in sexual behavior generally reached only trend levels of statistical significance, though the patterns again suggested positive effects of estradiol and negative effects of progesterone. Between-women and within-women, between-cycle effects of hormone concentrations were generally absent, although statistical power was more limited at these higher levels of analysis. There were no significant effects of testosterone concentrations when controlling for the effects of estradiol and progesterone, which raises questions regarding the importance of this hormone for the regulation of sexual motivation in natural cycles. Our study is among the first to identify hormonal predictors of within-cycle fluctuations in sexual motivation, and thus adds novel evidence regarding the endocrine correlates of human sexuality. PMID:23601091

  5. Hormonal influences on sex-linked sexual attitudes 

    E-print Network

    Charles, Nora

    2009-05-15

    fluctuations (e.g. menstrual cycle studies) has shown additional effects of circulating sex hormones in postnatal life on the expression of a number of sex-linked cognitive and sexual behaviors. This research was designed to replicate previously reported sex...

  6. Development of the renal sexual segment in immature snakes: effect of sex steroid hormones

    E-print Network

    Mason, Robert T.

    snakes, kidney mass was not a reliable indicator of hormone treatment, whereas tubule diameter, epithelial height and number of sexual granules responded to hormone treatment. In male water snakes, either diameter. Garter snakes initiated sexual granule development in response to hormone treatment with males

  7. Development of the renal sexual segment in immature snakes: effect of sex steroid hormones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randolph W. Krohmer; Dora Martinez; Robert T. Mason

    2004-01-01

    The renal sexual segment (RSS) of immature Northern and Diamondback Water Snakes and Red-Sided Garter Snakes exhibited varying responses to testosterone or 17?-estradiol. In both male and female water snakes, kidney mass was not a reliable indicator of hormone treatment, whereas tubule diameter, epithelial height and number of sexual granules responded to hormone treatment. In male water snakes, either hormone

  8. Hormones and History: The Evolution and Development of Primate Female Sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Wallen, Kim; Zehr, Julia L.

    2005-01-01

    Sexual behavior is required for reproduction in internally fertilizing species but poses significant social and physical risks. Females in many nonprimate species have evolved physical and behavioral mechanisms restricting sexual behavior to when females are fertile. The same hormones producing female fertility also control these mechanisms, assuring that sex only occurs when reproduction is possible. In contrast to nonprimate mammals, hormones do not regulate the capacity to engage in sex in female anthropoid primates, uncoupling fertility and the physical capacity to mate. Instead, in primates, sexual motivation has become the primary coordinator between sexual behavior and fertility. This dependence upon psychological mechanisms to coordinate physiology with behavior is possibly unique to primates, including humans, and allows a variety of nonphysiological influences, particularly social context, to regulate sexual behavior. The independence between hormonal state and sexual behavior allows sex to be used for social purposes. This complex regulation of primate sexuality develops during adolescence, where female monkeys show both hormonally influenced sexual motivation and socially modulated sexual behavior. We present findings from rhesus monkeys illustrating how social context and hormonal state interact to modulate adolescent and adult sexuality. It is argued that this flexibility in sexual behavior, combined with a tight regulation of sexual motivational systems by reproductive hormones, allows sexual behavior to be used for nonreproductive purposes while still assuring its occurrence during periods of female fertility. The evolutionary pressures that produced such flexibility in sexual behavior remain puzzling, but may reflect the importance of sexuality to primate social attraction and cohesion. PMID:15216429

  9. Sexual healing in patients with prostate cancer on hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Schover, Leslie R

    2015-01-01

    Since prostate cancer becomes more common with age, at least one-third of men have sexual problems at diagnosis. All localized treatments for prostate cancer greatly increase the prevalence of sexual dysfunction, which include loss of desire, erectile dysfunction, and changes in orgasm. Even men on active surveillance have a higher rate of problems than matched peers without prostate cancer. However, men given androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) have the worst rates of sexual dysfunction. Even after 3 to 4 months of ADT, men's desire for sex is decreased and irreversible damage may occur to the erectile tissue in the penis. Erections do not recover in about one-half of men, even if ADT is discontinued. Although intermittent ADT allows some recovery of sexual function, serum testosterone requires 9 to 12 months off ADT to recover. Again, one-half of men have permanent erectile dysfunction. If ADT causes atrophy of the erectile tissue, blood leaks out of the venous system during erection. This syndrome is difficult to treat except with surgery to implant a penile prosthesis. Despite the high rate of sexual problems in men on ADT, a small group stays sexually active and is able to have reliable erections. To improve men's sexual satisfaction on ADT, it may be important to educate them about getting extra mental and physical sexual stimulation, as well as using penile rehabilitation during hormone therapy. Information on reaching orgasm and coping with problems such as dry orgasm, pain with orgasm, and urinary incontinence during sex also should be provided. PMID:25993223

  10. HORMONES AND BEHAVIOR 19, 400-412 (1985) Sexual Behavior of the Female Porcupine

    E-print Network

    Pretoria, University of

    1985-01-01

    HORMONES AND BEHAVIOR 19, 400-412 (1985) Sexual Behavior of the Female Porcupine Hystrix 0002, South Africa Porcupines are sexually active throughout the estrous cycle, and sexual behavior membrane which is perforated during estrus and parturition (van Aarde, 1985). Porcupines have previously

  11. PRIOR HORMONAL TREATMENT, BUT NOT SEXUAL EXPERIENCE, REDUCES THE NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF RESTRAINT ON FEMALE SEXUAL BEHAVIOR

    PubMed Central

    Uphouse, Lynda; Hiegel, Cindy; Adams, Sarah; Murillo, Vanessa; Martinez, Monique

    2014-01-01

    These experiments were designed to determine if prior sexual experience reduced the negative effect of mild stress on female sexual behavior. In the first experiment, ovariectomized rats were hormonally primed with estradiol benzoate and progesterone for 3 consecutive weeks during which they received 6 mating experiences in a male's home cage or received no sexual experience. The next week, females were primed with 10 ?g estradiol benzoate two days before a 5 min restraint. Both groups were resistant to the negative effects of the stressor. In the second experiment, females received 0, 1, 2, or 3 weeks of 10 ?g estradiol benzoate and were restrained on the fourth week after priming with 10 ?g estradiol benzoate. Rats without prior hormonal priming showed a decline in lordosis behavior after restraint but prior priming with estradiol benzoate reduced this effect. In the third experiment, rats received 3 weeks of hormonal priming with estradiol benzoate and progesterone with or without sexual experience. An additional group received no sexual experience or hormonal priming. Females were then given a 3-week hormone vacation before testing in the restraint paradigm. All groups showed a decline in lordosis behavior after restraint. The fourth experiment was identical to the third except that sexual experience in the male's cage and in a pacing apparatus were compared. There was no effect of either type of sexual experience on the response to restraint. Possible mechanisms responsible for effects of prior hormonal priming are presented and the absence of an effect of sexual experience is discussed in comparison to findings in male rats. PMID:24172220

  12. Sexual behavior in the bull: assessment by seminal vesicle size and response to gonadotropin releasing hormone 

    E-print Network

    Rocha, Antonio Madureira

    1990-01-01

    SEXUAL BEHAVIOR IN THE BULL: ASSESSMENT BY SEMINAL VESICLE SIZE AND RESPONSE TO GONADOTROPIN RELEASING HORMONE A Thesis by ANTONIO MADUREIRA ROCHA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A%M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Physiology of Reproduction SEXUAL BEHAVIOR IN THE BULL: ASSESSMENT BY SEMINAL VESICLE SIZE AND RESPONSE TO GONADOTROPIN RELEASING HORMONE A Thesis by ANTONIO MADUREIRA ROCHA...

  13. Neural Correlates of Erotic Stimulation under Different Levels of Female Sexual Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Abler, Birgit; Kumpfmüller, Daniela; Grön, Georg; Walter, Martin; Stingl, Julia; Seeringer, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated variable influences of sexual hormonal states on female brain activation and the necessity to control for these in neuroimaging studies. However, systematic investigations of these influences, particularly those of hormonal contraceptives as compared to the physiological menstrual cycle are scarce. In the present study, we investigated the hormonal modulation of neural correlates of erotic processing in a group of females under hormonal contraceptives (C group; N?=?12), and a different group of females (nC group; N?=?12) not taking contraceptives during their mid-follicular and mid-luteal phases of the cycle. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure hemodynamic responses as an estimate of brain activation during three different experimental conditions of visual erotic stimulation: dynamic videos, static erotic pictures, and expectation of erotic pictures. Plasma estrogen and progesterone levels were assessed in all subjects. No strong hormonally modulating effect was detected upon more direct and explicit stimulation (viewing of videos or pictures) with significant activations in cortical and subcortical brain regions previously linked to erotic stimulation consistent across hormonal levels and stimulation type. Upon less direct and less explicit stimulation (expectation), activation patterns varied between the different hormonal conditions with various, predominantly frontal brain regions showing significant within- or between-group differences. Activation in the precentral gyrus during the follicular phase in the nC group was found elevated compared to the C group and positively correlated with estrogen levels. From the results we conclude that effects of hormonal influences on brain activation during erotic stimulation are weak if stimulation is direct and explicit but that female sexual hormones may modulate more subtle aspects of sexual arousal and behaviour as involved in sexual expectation. Results may provide a basis for future imaging studies on sexual processing in females, especially in the context of less explicit erotic stimulation. PMID:23418428

  14. Hormonal influences on sex-linked sexual attitudes

    E-print Network

    Charles, Nora

    2009-05-15

    research on hormones and behavior include studies of individuals with known prenatal hormone ?imbalances? (e.g. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia) and correlations of estimates of prenatal hormone exposure with behavior in normal individuals (Cohen...-Bendahan et al., 2005). Evidence for the effects of prenatal androgens on human development comes from studies of children and adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), a syndrome in which adrenal androgens are produced at an above-average level...

  15. Effects of male sex hormones on gender identity, sexual behavior, and cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuan-shan; Cai, Li-qun

    2006-04-01

    Androgens, the male sex hormones, play an essential role in male sexual differentiation and development. However, the influence of these sex hormones extends beyond their roles in sexual differentiation and development. In many animal species, sex hormones have been shown to be essential for sexual differentiation of the brain during development and for maintaining sexually dimorphic behavior throughout life. The principals of sex determination in humans have been demonstrated to be similar to other mammals. However, the hormonal influence on sexual dimorphic differences in the nervous system in humans, sex differences in behaviors, and its correlations with those of other mammals is still an emerging field. In this review, the roles of androgens in gender and cognitive function are discussed with the emphasis on subjects with androgen action defects including complete androgen insensitivity due to androgen receptor mutations and 5alpha-reductase-2 deficiency syndromes due to 5alpha-reductase-2 gene mutations. The issue of the complex interaction of nature versus nurture is addressed. PMID:16706106

  16. Impact of Chemotherapy and Hormone Therapy on Female Sexual Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rossella E. Nappi; Francesca Albani; Maria Rosa Strada; Emmanuele Jannini

    \\u000a In both sexes, diagnosis and treatment of cancer have a crucial impact on each dimension of quality of life and well-being,\\u000a including sexuality [1]. Facing a cancer is a major distress and it is absolutely normal that sexual difficulties may occur\\u000a during the early course of the disease. However, the strong improvement of the survival rate raises the issue of

  17. Hormones, Sex Accessory Structures, and Secondary Sexual Characteristics

    E-print Network

    Sever, David M.

    gland secretions) and secondary sexual characteristics (e.g., genial glands and skin glands of newts pads of American newts (e.g., Notophthalmus viridescens), whereas oxytocin antagonizes the influence of prolactin. In the Japanese newt (Cynops pyrrhogaster), however, estrogens block the action of prolactin

  18. Women's hormone levels modulate the motivational salience of facial attractiveness and sexual dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongyi; Hahn, Amanda C; Fisher, Claire I; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

    2014-12-01

    The physical attractiveness of faces is positively correlated with both behavioral and neural measures of their motivational salience. Although previous work suggests that hormone levels modulate women's perceptions of others' facial attractiveness, studies have not yet investigated whether hormone levels also modulate the motivational salience of facial characteristics. To address this issue, we investigated the relationships between within-subject changes in women's salivary hormone levels (estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol-to-progesterone ratio) and within-subject changes in the motivational salience of attractiveness and sexual dimorphism in male and female faces. The motivational salience of physically attractive faces in general and feminine female faces, but not masculine male faces, was greater in test sessions where women had high testosterone levels. Additionally, the reward value of sexually dimorphic faces in general and attractive female faces, but not attractive male faces, was greater in test sessions where women had high estradiol-to-progesterone ratios. These results provide the first evidence that the motivational salience of facial attractiveness and sexual dimorphism is modulated by within-woman changes in hormone levels. PMID:25244638

  19. Apomictic and sexual germline development differ with respect to cell cycle, transcriptional, hormonal and epigenetic regulation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Anja; Schmid, Marc W; Klostermeier, Ulrich C; Qi, Weihong; Guthörl, Daniela; Sailer, Christian; Waller, Manuel; Rosenstiel, Philip; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2014-07-01

    Seeds of flowering plants can be formed sexually or asexually through apomixis. Apomixis occurs in about 400 species and is of great interest for agriculture as it produces clonal offspring. It differs from sexual reproduction in three major aspects: (1) While the sexual megaspore mother cell (MMC) undergoes meiosis, the apomictic initial cell (AIC) omits or aborts meiosis (apomeiosis); (2) the unreduced egg cell of apomicts forms an embryo without fertilization (parthenogenesis); and (3) the formation of functional endosperm requires specific developmental adaptations. Currently, our knowledge about the gene regulatory programs underlying apomixis is scarce. We used the apomict Boechera gunnisoniana, a close relative of Arabidopsis thaliana, to investigate the transcriptional basis underlying apomeiosis and parthenogenesis. Here, we present the first comprehensive reference transcriptome for reproductive development in an apomict. To compare sexual and apomictic development at the cellular level, we used laser-assisted microdissection combined with microarray and RNA-Seq analyses. Conservation of enriched gene ontologies between the AIC and the MMC likely reflects functions of importance to germline initiation, illustrating the close developmental relationship of sexuality and apomixis. However, several regulatory pathways differ between sexual and apomictic germlines, including cell cycle control, hormonal pathways, epigenetic and transcriptional regulation. Enrichment of specific signal transduction pathways are a feature of the apomictic germline, as is spermidine metabolism, which is associated with somatic embryogenesis in various plants. Our study provides a comprehensive reference dataset for apomictic development and yields important new insights into the transcriptional basis underlying apomixis in relation to sexual reproduction. PMID:25010342

  20. Ovarian activity, circulating hormones and sexual behavior in the cat: relationships during pregnancy, parturition, lactation and the postpartum estrus 

    E-print Network

    Schmidt, Patricia Mary

    1985-01-01

    OVARIAN ACTIVITY. CIRCULATING HORMONES AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOR IN THE CAT. RELATIONSHIPS DURING PREGNANCY, PARTURITION, LACTATION AND THE POSTPARTUM ESTRUS A Thesis by PATRICIA MARY SCHMIDT Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A...&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1985 Major Subject: Veterinary Physiology OVARIAN ACTIVITY. CIRCULATING HORMONES AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOR IN THE CAT. RELATIONSHIPS DURING PREGNANCY, PARTURITION...

  1. Ovarian activity, circulating hormones and sexual behavior in the cat: relationships during pregnancy, parturition, lactation and the postpartum estrus

    E-print Network

    Schmidt, Patricia Mary

    1985-01-01

    OVARIAN ACTIVITY. CIRCULATING HORMONES AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOR IN THE CAT. RELATIONSHIPS DURING PREGNANCY, PARTURITION, LACTATION AND THE POSTPARTUM ESTRUS A Thesis by PATRICIA MARY SCHMIDT Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A...&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1985 Major Subject: Veterinary Physiology OVARIAN ACTIVITY. CIRCULATING HORMONES AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOR IN THE CAT. RELATIONSHIPS DURING PREGNANCY, PARTURITION...

  2. Early hormonal influences on childhood sex-typed activity and playmate preferences: Implications for the development of sexual orientation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheri A. Berenbaum; Elizabeth Snyder

    1995-01-01

    Early hormones have been hypothesized to influence both sexual orientation and related childhood sex-typed behaviors. This study examined hormonal influences on activity and playmate preferences in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) age 2.5 to 12 years (24 girls, 19 boys) and their relatives (16 girls, 25 boys). CAH girls preferred boys' toys and activities. They also had greater preference

  3. Early Hormonal Influences on Childhood Sex-Typed Activity and Playmate Preferences: Implications for the Development of Sexual Orientation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheri A. Berenbaum; Elizabeth Snyder

    1995-01-01

    Early hormones have been hypothesized to influence both sexual orientation and related childhood sex-typed behaviors. This study examined hormonal influences on activity and playmate preferences in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) age 2.5 to 12 years (24 girls, 19 boys) and their relatives (16 girls, 25 boys). CAH girls preferred boys' toys and activities. They also had greater preference

  4. Sexual differentiation of human behavior: effects of prenatal and pubertal organizational hormones.

    PubMed

    Berenbaum, Sheri A; Beltz, Adriene M

    2011-04-01

    A key question concerns the extent to which sexual differentiation of human behavior is influenced by sex hormones present during sensitive periods of development (organizational effects), as occurs in other mammalian species. The most important sensitive period has been considered to be prenatal, but there is increasing attention to puberty as another organizational period, with the possibility of decreasing sensitivity to sex hormones across the pubertal transition. In this paper, we review evidence that sex hormones present during the prenatal and pubertal periods produce permanent changes to behavior. There is good evidence that exposure to high levels of androgens during prenatal development results in masculinization of activity and occupational interests, sexual orientation, and some spatial abilities; prenatal androgens have a smaller effect on gender identity, and there is insufficient information about androgen effects on sex-linked behavior problems. There is little good evidence regarding long-lasting behavioral effects of pubertal hormones, but there is some suggestion that they influence gender identity and perhaps some sex-linked forms of psychopathology, and there are many opportunities to study this issue. PMID:21397624

  5. Sexual transfer of the steroid hormone 20E induces the postmating switch in Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Gabrieli, Paolo; Kakani, Evdoxia G.; Mitchell, Sara N.; Mameli, Enzo; Want, Elizabeth J.; Mariezcurrena Anton, Ainhoa; Serrao, Aurelio; Baldini, Francesco; Catteruccia, Flaminia

    2014-01-01

    Female insects generally mate multiple times during their lives. A notable exception is the female malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae, which after sex loses her susceptibility to further copulation. Sex in this species also renders females competent to lay eggs developed after blood feeding. Despite intense research efforts, the identity of the molecular triggers that cause the postmating switch in females, inducing a permanent refractoriness to further mating and triggering egg-laying, remains elusive. Here we show that the male-transferred steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) is a key regulator of monandry and oviposition in An. gambiae. When sexual transfer of 20E is impaired by partial inactivation of the hormone and inhibition of its biosynthesis in males, oviposition and refractoriness to further mating in the female are strongly reduced. Conversely, mimicking sexual delivery by injecting 20E into virgin females switches them to an artificial mated status, triggering egg-laying and reducing susceptibility to copulation. Sexual transfer of 20E appears to incapacitate females physically from receiving seminal fluids by a second male. Comparative analysis of microarray data from females after mating and after 20E treatment indicates that 20E-regulated molecular pathways likely are implicated in the postmating switch, including cytoskeleton and musculature-associated genes that may render the atrium impenetrable to additional mates. By revealing signals and pathways shaping key processes in the An. gambiae reproductive biology, our data offer new opportunities for the control of natural populations of malaria vectors. PMID:25368171

  6. Sexual Dimorphism in Juvenile Hormone Synthesis by Corpora Allata and in Juvenile Hormone Acid Methyltransferase Activity in Corpora Allata and Accessory Sex Glands of Some Lepidoptera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Govindan Bhaskaran; Steven P. Sparagana; Karl H. Dahm; Punee Barrera; Kenneth Peck

    1988-01-01

    1. Corpora allata of adult Manduca sexta and Heliothis zea are sexually dimorphic in that females produce juvenile hormones (JH) while males lack JH acid methyltransferase and therefore produce JH acid. Male and female CA of Vanessa cardui contain JH acid methyltransferase.2. Male but not female reproductive tract tissues of M. sexta, H. zea, and V. cardui contain JH acid

  7. Hormonally-mediated Epigenetic Changes to Steroid Receptors in the Developing Brain: Implications for Sexual Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Nugent, Bridget M.; Schwarz, Jaclyn M.; McCarthy, Margaret M.

    2010-01-01

    The establishment of sex-specific neural morphology, which underlies sex-specific behaviors, occurs during a perinatal sensitive window in which brief exposure to gonadal steroid hormones produces permanent masculinization of the brain. In the rodent, estradiol derived from testicular androgens is a principle organizational hormone. The mechanism by which transient estradiol exposure induces permanent differences in neuronal anatomy has been widely investigated, but remains elusive. Epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, allow environmental influences to alter long-term gene expression patterns and therefore may be a potential mediator of estradiol-induced organization of the neonatal brain. Here we review data that demonstrate sex and estradiol-induced differences in DNA methylation on the estrogen receptor ? (ER?), estrogen receptor ? (ER?), and progesterone receptor (PR) promoters in sexually dimorphic brain regions across development. Contrary to the overarching view of DNA methylation as a permanent modification directly tied to gene expression, these data demonstrate that methylation patterns on steroid hormone receptors change across the life span and do not necessarily predict expression. Although further exploration into the mechanism and significance of estradiol-induced alterations in DNA methylation patterns in the neonatal brain is necessary, these results provide preliminary evidence that epigenetic alterations can occur in response to early hormone exposure and may mediate estradiol-induced organization of sex differences in the neonatal brain. PMID:20800064

  8. At a Supra-Physiological Concentration, Human Sexual Hormones Act as Quorum-Sensing Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Beury-Cirou, Amélie; Tannières, Mélanie; Minard, Corinne; Soulère, Laurent; Rasamiravaka, Tsiry; Dodd, Robert H.; Queneau, Yves; Dessaux, Yves; Guillou, Catherine; Vandeputte, Olivier M.; Faure, Denis

    2013-01-01

    N-Acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated quorum-sensing (QS) regulates virulence functions in plant and animal pathogens such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A chemolibrary of more than 3500 compounds was screened using two bacterial AHL-biosensors to identify QS-inhibitors (QSIs). The purity and structure of 15 QSIs selected through this screening were verified using HPLC MS/MS tools and their activity tested on the A. tumefaciens and P. aeruginosa bacterial models. The IC50 value of the identified QSIs ranged from 2.5 to 90 µg/ml, values that are in the same range as those reported for the previously identified QSI 4-nitropyridine-N-oxide (IC50 24 µg/ml). Under the tested culture conditions, most of the identified QSIs did not exhibit bacteriostatic or bactericidal activities. One third of the tested QSIs, including the plant compound hordenine and the human sexual hormone estrone, decreased the frequency of the QS-regulated horizontal transfer of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid in A. tumefaciens. Hordenine, estrone as well as its structural relatives estriol and estradiol, also decreased AHL accumulation and the expression of six QS-regulated genes (lasI, lasR, lasB, rhlI, rhlR, and rhlA) in cultures of the opportunist pathogen P. aeruginosa. Moreover, the ectopic expression of the AHL-receptors RhlR and LasR of P. aeruginosa in E. coli showed that their gene-regulatory activity was affected by the QSIs. Finally, modeling of the structural interactions between the human hormones and AHL-receptors LasR of P. aeruginosa and TraR of A. tumefaciens confirmed the competitive binding capability of the human sexual hormones. This work indicates potential interferences between bacterial and eukaryotic hormonal communications. PMID:24376718

  9. Sexual maturation of the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus): a histological, hormonal and spermatic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Fochi, Maria Etelvina; Negrin, Ana Carolina; Scarano, Wellerson Rodrigo; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto; Góes, Rejane Maira

    2014-12-01

    This study determined the phases of sexual development of the male Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) based on an integrative analysis of testicular morphology, hormonal data and sperm parameters. Male gerbils were analysed at 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 50, 60, 70, 90, 100 and 120 days of age. Body, testicular and epididymal weights increased up to Day 70, 60 and 90, respectively. The impuberal phase, characterised by the presence of gonocytes, extended until Day 14. The prepubertal period lasted until Day 42, when puberty was achieved and a drastic increase in serum testosterone levels, mature adult Leydig cells and elongated spermatids was observed. Gerbils at 60 days of age showed a remarkable number of spermatozoa in the testis, epididymidis caput/corpus and cauda, and at Day 70 the maximum daily sperm production was reached. However, the gerbil may be considered sexually mature only from Day 90 onward, when sperm reserves become stable. The total transit time of spermatozoa along the epididymis of sexually mature gerbils was 11 days, with 1 day in the caput/corpus and 10 days in the cauda. These data cover a lacuna regarding the reproductive parameters of this rodent and provide foundations for its use in testicular toxicology studies. PMID:25455583

  10. The role of feeding regimens in regulating metabolism of sexually mature broiler breeders: hepatic lipid metabolism, plasma hormones and metabolites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A trial was conducted to determine the effects of different rearing feed regimens on plasma hormone and metabolite levels and hepatic lipid metabolism on sexually mature broiler breeders. A flock of Cobb 500 birds was divided into two groups at 35 days of age and fed either everyday (ED) or skip-a-d...

  11. Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone Reduces Sexual Motivation But Not Lordosis Behavior In Female Syrian Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Piekarski, David J.; Zhao, Sheng; Jennings, Kimberly J.; Iwasa, Takeshi; Legan, Sandra J.; Mikkelsen, Jens D.; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Kriegsfeld, Lance J.

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive success is maximized when female sexual motivation and behavior coincide with the time of optimal fertility. Both processes depend upon coordinated hormonal events, beginning with signaling by the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal system. Two neuropeptidergic systems that lie upstream of GnRH, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH; also known as RFamide related peptide-3) and kisspeptin, are potent inhibitory and excitatory modulators of GnRH, respectively, participate in the timing of the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge and ovulation. Whether these neuropeptides serve as neuromodulators to coordinate female sexual behavior with the limited window of fertility has not been thoroughly explored. In the present study, either intact or ovariectomized, hormonetreated female hamsters were implanted for fifteen days with chronic release osmotic pumps filled with GnIH or saline. The effect of GnIH on sexual motivation, vaginal scent marking, and lordosis was examined. Following mating, FOS activation was quantified in brain regions implicated in the regulation of female sexual behavior. Intracerebroventricular administration of GnIH reduced sexual motivation and vaginal scent marking, but not lordosis behavior. GnIH administration altered FOS expression in key neural loci implicated in female reproductive behavior, including the medial preoptic area, medial amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, independent of changes in circulating gonadal steroids and kisspeptin cell activation. Together, these data point to GnIH as an important modulator of female proceptive sexual behavior and motivation, independent of downstream alterations in sex steroid production. PMID:23827890

  12. Effects of 4-nonylphenol on balance of steroid and thyroid hormones in sexually immature male yellowfin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus).

    PubMed

    Naderi, Mohammad; Mousavi, Seyed Mohammad; Safahieh, Alireza; Ghatrami, Ebrahim Rajabzade; Zargham, Davood

    2014-04-01

    Nonylphenol (NP) is an endocrine disrupting chemical which has been shown to be able to modulate the endocrine system of various organisms by different mechanisms. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential effects of 4-NP on steroid and thyroid hormone levels in sexually immature male yellowfin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus), a protandrous hermaphrodite species. For this, the fish were injected with ascending doses (10, 50, 100, and 200 ?g g(-1) body weight) of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) or vehicle during 2 weeks. After 7 and 14 days the fish were anesthetized, blood sample were collected and plasma steroid and thyroid hormone concentrations were quantified by radioimmunoassay. The result showed that 4-NP induced a significant increase in 17?-etradiol levels at dose 10 ?g g(-1) , while the levels of this hormone in the higher doses decreased compared with the control group. However, 4-NP treatment did not have any significant effect on plasma levels of testosterone. In addition, it was observed that 4-NP affect the level of thyroid hormones in fish. Plasma thyroxine levels increased in a dose-dependent manner after 7 and 14 days of the exposure. In contrast, a significant decrease in triiodothyronine levels was observed during the experiment period. Moreover, no significant change was detected for thyroid stimulating hormone levels in 4-NP-treated fish. These results indicated that 4-NP could lead to disturb the balance of steroid and thyroid hormones with potential consequences for sexually immature male yellowfin seabream. PMID:22434574

  13. Chemosignals and hormones in the neural control of mammalian sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Petrulis, Aras

    2013-10-01

    Males and females of most mammalian species depend on chemosignals to find, attract and evaluate mates and, in most cases, these appetitive sexual behaviors are strongly modulated by activational and organizational effects of sex steroids. The neural circuit underlying chemosensory-mediated pre- and peri-copulatory behavior involves the medial amygdala (MA), the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), medial preoptic area (MPOA) and ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), each area being subdivided into interconnected chemoreceptive and hormone-sensitive zones. For males, MA-BNST connections mediate chemoinvestigation whereas the MA-MPOA pathway regulates copulatory initiation. For females, MA-MPOA/BNST connections also control aspects of precopulatory behavior whereas MA-VMH projections control both precopulatory and copulatory behavior. Significant gaps in understanding remain, including the role of VMH in male behavior and MPOA in female appetitive behavior, the function of cortical amygdala, the underlying chemical architecture of this circuit and sex differences in hormonal and neurochemical regulation of precopulatory behavior. PMID:23911848

  14. Transcriptomic Analyses of Sexual Dimorphism of the Zebrafish Liver and the Effect of Sex Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Weiling; Xu, Hongyan; Lam, Siew Hong; Luo, Huaien; Karuturi, R. Krishna Murthy; Gong, Zhiyuan

    2013-01-01

    The liver is one of the most sex-dimorphic organs in both oviparous and viviparous animals. In order to understand the molecular basis of the difference between male and female livers, high-throughput RNA-SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression) sequencing was performed for zebrafish livers of both sexes and their transcriptomes were compared. Both sexes had abundantly expressed genes involved in translation, coagulation and lipid metabolism, consistent with the general function of the liver. For sex-biased transcripts, from in addition to the high enrichment of vitellogenin transcripts in spawning female livers, which constituted nearly 80% of total mRNA, it is apparent that the female-biased genes were mostly involved in ribosome/translation, estrogen pathway, lipid transport, etc, while the male-biased genes were enriched for oxidation reduction, carbohydrate metabolism, coagulation, protein transport and localization, etc. Sexual dimorphism on xenobiotic metabolism and anti-oxidation was also noted and it is likely that retinol x receptor (RXR) and liver x receptor (LXR) play central roles in regulating the sexual differences of lipid and cholesterol metabolisms. Consistent with high ribosomal/translational activities in the female liver, female-biased genes were significantly regulated by two important transcription factors, Myc and Mycn. In contrast, Male livers showed activation of transcription factors Ppargc1b, Hnf4a, and Stat4, which regulate lipid and glucose metabolisms and various cellular activities. The transcriptomic responses to sex hormones, 17?-estradiol (E2) or 11-keto testosterone (KT11), were also investigated in both male and female livers and we found that female livers were relatively insensitive to sex hormone disturbance, while the male livers were readily affected. E2 feminized male liver by up-regulating female-biased transcripts and down-regulating male-biased transcripts. The information obtained in this study provides comprehensive insights into the sexual dimorphism of zebrafish liver transcriptome and will facilitate further development of the zebrafish as a human liver disease model. PMID:23349717

  15. Neural mechanisms underlying sexual arousal in connection with sexual hormone levels: a comparative study of the postoperative male-to-female transsexuals and premenopausal and menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gwang-Won; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2014-06-18

    This study compared the brain activation patterns associated with visual sexual arousal in connection with sexual hormone levels in postoperative male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals and normal premenopausal and menopausal women using 3.0 T functional MRI. A total of 30 volunteers including 10 premenopausal women, 10 menopausal women, and 10 postoperative MTF transsexuals who had undergone sex reassignment surgery participated in this study. Brain activity was measured while viewing erotic male and female nude pictures. The free testosterone and estradiol levels of the postoperative MTF transsexuals were not in the normal range seen in normal premenopausal women, but were in range seen in menopausal women. The postoperative MTF transsexuals showed significantly higher activities in the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdala, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, and head of caudate nucleus in response to erotic male nude pictures in contrast to female pictures (P<0.005). The predominant activation areas observed in the postoperative MTF transsexuals in contrast to the menopausal women when viewing male nude pictures included the insula, hippocampus, thalamus, and putamen (P<0.005). Similar to the postoperative MTF transsexuals, the premenopausal women showed significantly higher activities than menopausal women in the insula, hippocampus, thalamus, and parahippocampal gyrus (P<0.005). This study revealed that the brain activation patterns associated with visual sexual arousal in postoperative MTF transsexuals are similar to those in premenopausal women, although the sexual hormone levels in the postoperative MTF transsexuals are in the average range of those in menopausal women. PMID:24800986

  16. Sexual orientation and the 2nd to 4th finger length ratio: evidence for organising effects of sex hormones or developmental instability?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q Rahman; G. D Wilson

    2003-01-01

    It has been proposed that human sexual orientation is influenced by prenatal sex hormones. Some evidence examining putative somatic markers of prenatal sex hormones supports this assumption. An alternative suggestion has been that homosexuality may be due to general developmental disruptions independent of hormonal effects. This study investigated the ratio of the 2nd to 4th finger digits (the 2D:4D ratio),

  17. 46,XX male - testicular disorder of sexual differentiation (DSD): hormonal, molecular and cytogenetic studies.

    PubMed

    Alves, Cresio; Braid, Zilda; Coeli, Fernanda Borchers; Mello, Maricilda Palandi de

    2010-11-01

    The XX male syndrome - Testicular Disorder of Sexual Differentiation (DSD) is a rare condition characterized by a spectrum of clinical presentations, ranging from ambiguous to normal male genitalia. We report hormonal, molecular and cytogenetic evaluations of a boy presenting with this syndrome. Examination of the genitalia at age of 16 months, showed: penis of 3.5 cm, proximal hypospadia and scrotal testes. Pelvic ultrasound did not demonstrate Mullerian duct structures. Karyotype was 46,XX. Gonadotrophin stimulation test yielded insufficient testosterone production. Gonadal biopsy showed seminiferous tubules without evidence of Leydig cells. Molecular studies revealed that SRY and TSPY genes and also DYZ3 sequences were absent. In addition, the lack of deletions or duplications of SOX9, NR5A1, WNT4 and NROB1 regions was verified. The infant was heterozygous for all microsatellites at the 9p region, including DMRT1 gene, investigated. Only 10% of the patients are SRY-negative and usually they have ambiguous genitalia, as the aforementioned patient. The incomplete masculinization suggests gain of function mutation in one or more genes downstream to SRY gene. PMID:21340153

  18. Sociosexual Investigation in Sexually Experienced, Hormonally Manipulated Male Leopard Geckos: Relation With Phosphorylated DARPP-32 in Dopaminergic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, VICTORIA; HEMMINGS, HUGH C.; CREWS, DAVID

    2015-01-01

    Dopaminergic activity is both associated with sociosexual exposure and modulated by sexual experience and hormonal state across vertebrate taxa. Mature leopard geckos, a reptile with temperature-dependent sex determination, have dopaminoceptive nuclei that are influenced by their embryonic environment and sensitive to adult hormonal manipulation. In this study, we exposed hormonally manipulated male leopard geckos from different incubation temperatures to conspecifics and measured their sociosexual investigation, as well as phosphorylated DARPP-32 at Threonine 34 (pDARPP-32) immunoreactivity as a marker for D1 dopamine receptor activity in the nucleus accumbens, striatum, and preoptic area. Social investigation time by males of different incubation temperatures was modulated in opposite directions by exogenous androgen treatment. Males exposed to novel stimuli spent a greater proportion of time investigating females of different incubation temperatures. The time spent investigating females was positively correlated to pDARPP-32 immunoreactivity in the preoptic area. This is the first study quantifying pDARPP-32 in a lizard species, and suggests the protein as a potential marker to measure differences in the dopaminergic pathway in a social setting with consideration of embryonic environment and hormonal state. PMID:25351686

  19. Hormonal regulation of brain circuits mediating male sexual behavior in birds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory F. Ball; Jacques Balthazart

    2004-01-01

    Male sexual behavior in both field and laboratory settings has been studied in birds since the 19th century. Birds are valuable for the investigation of the neuroendocrine mechanisms of sexual behavior, because their behavior can be studied in the context of a large amount of field data, well-defined neural circuits related to reproductive behavior have been described, and the avian

  20. Hormonal contraception and risk of sexually transmitted disease acquisition: Results from a prospective study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jared M. Baeten; Patrick M. Nyange; Barbra A. Richardson; Ludo Lavreys; Bhavna Chohan; Harold L. Martin; Kishorchandra Mandaliya; Jeckoniah O. Ndinya-Achola; Job J. Bwayo; Joan K. Kreiss

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship between use of oral contraceptive pills or depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and sexually transmitted disease acquisition. Study Design: Prospective cohort included 948 Kenyan prostitutes. Multivariate Andersen-Gill proportional hazards models were constructed, adjusting for sexual behavioral and demographic variables. Results: When compared with women who were using no contraception, users of oral contraceptive pills were at increased

  1. Female hormone influences on sexual assaults in northern ireland from 2002 to 2009

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Beirne; Janet Hall; Claire Grills; Tara Moore

    2011-01-01

    In Northern Ireland 1 in every 454 women of 13 years and over during 2008\\/09 reported to police that they had suffered a sexual assault.1,2 This study considered the possibility that women may be more likely to be victims of sexual assault during the fertile phase of their reproductive cycle. Evolutionary psychology suggests that women would have suffered more negative

  2. Larval feeding substrate and species significantly influence the effect of juvenile hormone analog on sexual development/performance in four tropical tephritid flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The juvenile hormone analog methoprene reduces the amount of time it takes laboratory-reared Anastrepha suspensa (Caribbean fruit fly) males to reach sexual maturity by almost half. Here, we examined if methoprene exerted a similar effect on four other species of Anastrepha (A. ludens, A. obliqua, ...

  3. Enhancing male sexual success in a lekking fly (Ananstrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) through a juvenile hormone analog has no effect on adult mortality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While defending lek-territories, male Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) produce chemical, acoustic and visual courtship signals. In the laboratory and under semi-natural conditions, topical application of the juvenile hormone analog methoprene doubles pheromone production and subsequently doubles sexual su...

  4. Sexuality I. Sexual Orienta0on

    E-print Network

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    1 Sexuality I. Sexual Orienta0on II. Hormones & cogni0on III. The Female sexual Behavior of the Human Female (1953) by A. Kinsey #12;2 II. Hormones, Cogni0on & Learning A and female-typical sexual behaviors in vertebrates 1. Testosterone ­ Posi0ve rela0onship

  5. Reproductive hormone monitoring of dugongs in captivity: detecting the onset of sexual maturity in a cryptic marine mammal.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Elizabeth A; Blanshard, Wendy H; Barnes, Andrew D; Gilchrist, Sam; Keeley, Tamara; Chua, Jayce; Lanyon, Janet M

    2013-08-01

    Determining the reproductive status of long-term captive animals is essential because the onset of sexual maturity and reproductive activity may necessitate changes in husbandry requirements. This study reports on the first multi-year reproductive hormone monitoring program for captive dugongs of both sexes using feces. Fecal samples were collected from one male (Pig) over 9 years (4-13.2y of age; n=288 samples, 0.8±0.1 samples per week from July 2007 to February 2012) and one female (Wuru) over 7 years (from neonate to 6.9 y; n=171 samples, 0.5±0.1 samples per week from July 2007 to February 2012), and from one solitary female dugong (Gracie) over 10 months (10.5-11.3y of age; n=54 samples, 1.1±0.2 sample per week from September 2008 to June 2009). Using enzyme-immunoassay, fecal progesterone (fP) and estradiol-17? (fE) concentrations were assayed in the two captive females, and testosterone (fT) concentration in the captive male, and compared these to concentrations in wild dugongs. Female Wuru exhibited increasing fP concentrations at 5+ y, indicating early onset of ovarian cycling typical of non-pregnant adult females. Female Gracie maintained basal fP concentrations consistent with wild immature dugongs, indicating that she had not reached puberty by 11y. Nutritional plane may account for differences in age at sexual maturity in these female dugongs. At age 3-4y, Wuru had fE concentrations 1.4 times greater than maximum concentrations recorded in all wild females, and these concentrations were coincident with a period of rapid weight gain. For the male Pig, increasing fT concentrations at 9y provided early indications of puberty. Pig's tusks erupted by 11y, and sexual maturity (indicated by spermatic semen) was confirmed by 12.8y. Identification of sexual maturation prompted two trials of a male contraceptive treatment using the GnRH agonist, deslorelin (9.4mg administered in 2010 and 15.6mg in 2011). Testosterone production was not significantly suppressed by these dosages, and treatment did not terminate sperm production at week 10-11 post-implantation, even at the larger dose tested. Routine analysis of fecal hormones was helpful for making reproductive management decisions regarding individual captives and in guiding the long-term captive management of this cryptic species. PMID:23870803

  6. Maternal exposure to dioxin imprints sexual immaturity of the pups through fixing the status of the reduced expression of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Tomoki; Fujii, Misaki; Hattori, Yukiko; Yamamoto, Midori; Shimazoe, Takao; Ishii, Yuji; Himeno, Masaru; Yamada, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown that treatment of pregnant rats with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; 1 ?g/kg) at gestational day (GD) 15 reduces the pituitary synthesis of luteinizing hormone (LH) during the late fetal and early postnatal period, leading to the imprinting of defects in sexual behaviors at adulthood. However, it remains unclear how the attenuation of pituitary LH is linked to sexual immaturity. To address this issue, we performed a DNA microarray analysis to identify the gene(s) responsible for dioxin-induced sexual immaturity on the pituitary and hypothalamus of male pups, born of TCDD-treated dams, at the age of postnatal day (PND) 70. Among the reduced genes, we focused on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in the hypothalamus because of published evidence that it has a role in sexual behaviors. An attenuation by TCDD of GnRH expression emerged at PND4, and no subsequent return to the control level was seen. A change in neither DNA methylation nor histone acetylation accounted for the reduced expression of GnRH. Intracerebroventricular infusion of GnRH to the TCDD-exposed pups after reaching maturity restored the impairment of sexual behaviors. Supplying equine chorionic gonadotropin, an LH-mimicking hormone, to the TCDD-exposed fetuses at GD15 resulted in a recovery from the reduced expression of GnRH, as well as from the defects in sexual behavior. These results strongly suggest that maternal exposure to TCDD fixes the status of the lowered expression of GnRH in the offspring by reducing the LH-assisted steroidogenesis at the perinatal stage, and this mechanism imprints defects in sexual behaviors at adulthood. PMID:24132183

  7. Hormone-dependent regulation of GABAA receptor gamma subunit mRNAs in sexually dimorphic regions of the rat brain.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, A S; Myers, M; Robinson, S; Chang, P; Henderson, L P

    1998-01-01

    Transmission mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors expressed within the medial preoptic area (mPOA) and the ventromedial nucleus (VMN) of the hypothalamus is known to play critical, but contrasting, roles in regulating steroid-dependent sexual behaviours in rats. Previous studies have demonstrated a striking dichotomy in receptor composition between the two regions with regard to gamma, but not alpha or beta, subunit expression. To test if gonadal steroids regulate the expression of the gamma subunit genes within the mPOA and the VMN, in situ hybridization analysis for messenger RNAs encoding the gamma 1, gamma 2Short (gamma 2S) and gamma 2Long (gamma 2L) subunits was done in gonadectomized male and female rats and in gonadally intact females over the oestrous cycle. No significant differences in the expression of the gamma subunit mRNAs were observed in gonadectomized male versus female rats. Significant effects of gonadal state in female rats were observed for gamma 1 mRNA levels in the mPOA and gamma 2L levels in the VMN. These data demonstrate that gonadal hormones exert activational control of expression of GABAA receptor gamma subunit mRNAs and suggest that differences in receptor structure may contribute to the functional modulation of female sexual behaviours mediated by GABAergic transmission in these regions. PMID:9802242

  8. A genome-wide survey of sexually dimorphic expression of Drosophila miRNAs identifies the steroid hormone-induced miRNA let-7 as a regulator of sexual identity.

    PubMed

    Fagegaltier, Delphine; König, Annekatrin; Gordon, Assaf; Lai, Eric C; Gingeras, Thomas R; Hannon, Gregory J; Shcherbata, Halyna R

    2014-10-01

    MiRNAs bear an increasing number of functions throughout development and in the aging adult. Here we address their role in establishing sexually dimorphic traits and sexual identity in male and female Drosophila. Our survey of miRNA populations in each sex identifies sets of miRNAs differentially expressed in male and female tissues across various stages of development. The pervasive sex-biased expression of miRNAs generally increases with the complexity and sexual dimorphism of tissues, gonads revealing the most striking biases. We find that the male-specific regulation of the X chromosome is relevant to miRNA expression on two levels. First, in the male gonad, testis-biased miRNAs tend to reside on the X chromosome. Second, in the soma, X-linked miRNAs do not systematically rely on dosage compensation. We set out to address the importance of a sex-biased expression of miRNAs in establishing sexually dimorphic traits. Our study of the conserved let-7-C miRNA cluster controlled by the sex-biased hormone ecdysone places let-7 as a primary modulator of the sex-determination hierarchy. Flies with modified let-7 levels present doublesex-related phenotypes and express sex-determination genes normally restricted to the opposite sex. In testes and ovaries, alterations of the ecdysone-induced let-7 result in aberrant gonadal somatic cell behavior and non-cell-autonomous defects in early germline differentiation. Gonadal defects as well as aberrant expression of sex-determination genes persist in aging adults under hormonal control. Together, our findings place ecdysone and let-7 as modulators of a somatic systemic signal that helps establish and sustain sexual identity in males and females and differentiation in gonads. This work establishes the foundation for a role of miRNAs in sexual dimorphism and demonstrates that similar to vertebrate hormonal control of cellular sexual identity exists in Drosophila. PMID:25081570

  9. Epigenetic contributions to hormonally-mediated sexual differentiation of the brain.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, M M; Nugent, B M

    2013-11-01

    It has been long established that hormones exert enduring influences on the developing brain that direct the reproductive response in adulthood, although the cellular mechanisms by which organisational effects are maintained have not been determined satisfactorily. Recent interest in epigenetic modifications to the nervous system has highlighted the potential for hormone-induced changes to the genome that could endure for the lifespan but not be transmitted to the next generation. Preliminary evidence suggests that this is indeed possible because sex differences in the histone code and in the methylation of CpGs in the promoters of specific genes have been identified and, at times, functionally correlated with behaviour. The present review provides an overview of epigenetic processes and discusses the current state-of-the-art, and also identifies future directions. PMID:23919286

  10. The Association between Nonylphenols and Sexual Hormones Levels among Pregnant Women: A Cohort Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia-Huang; Tsai, Ming-Song; Lin, Ching-Ling; Hou, Jia-Woei; Wang, Tzu-Hao; Tsai, Yen-An; Liao, Kai-Wei; Mao, I-Fang; Chen, Mei-Lien

    2014-01-01

    Background Nonylphenol (NP) has been proven as an endocrine disrupter and had the ability to interfere with the endocrine system. Though the health effects of NP on pregnant women and their fetuses are sustained, these negative associations related to the mechanisms of regulation for estrogen during pregnancy need to be further clarified. The objective of this study is to explore the association between maternal NP and hormonal levels, such as estradiol, testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and progesterone. Methods A pregnant women cohort was established in North Taiwan between March and December 2010. Maternal urine and blood samples from the first, second, and third trimesters of gestation were collected. Urinary NP concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescent detection. A mixed-effects model using a generalised estimating equation (GEE) was applied to assess the associations between maternal NP concentration and plasma hormones throughout the three trimesters. Results In total, 162 singleton pregnant women completed this study through delivery. The geometric mean of creatinine-adjusted urinary NP concentrations were 4.27, 4.21, and 4.10 µg/g cre. in the first, second, and third trimesters respectively. A natural log-transformation of urinary NP concentrations were significantly associated with LH in the GEE model (??=??0.23 mIU/ml, p<0.01). Conclusion This perspective cohort study demonstrates that negative association occurs between maternal NP exposure and plasma LH levels. The estrogen-mimic effect of NP might influence the negative feedback on LH during pregnancy. PMID:25148048

  11. The anabolic effects of parathyroid hormone on cortical bone mass, dimensions and strength—assessed in a sexually mature, ovariectomized rat model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li. Mosekilde; C. C. Danielsen; C. H. Søgaard; J. E. McOsker; T. J. Wronski

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of parathyroid hormone (PTH), the antiresorptive agents estrogen and bisphosphonate (risedronate), and also the combination of PTH with these antiresorptive drugs on femoral cortical bone mass, dimensions and strength in a sexually mature, ovariectomized rat model. A total of 138, 3-month-old SpragueDawley rats were randomized into seven groups: 1—sham operated

  12. Sexual maturation, serum steroid concentrations, and mRNA expression of IGF-1, luteinizing and progesterone hormone receptors and survivin gene in Japanese quail hens.

    PubMed

    Shit, N; Sastry, K V H; Singh, R P; Pandey, N K; Mohan, J

    2014-03-15

    In avian species, sexual maturation represents the evidence of start laying, which is a consequence of the development of ovarian follicles. These follicles are the functional reproductive unit whose maturation and viability critically depends on endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine factors beyond the signals from the central nervous system. The present study was undertaken to investigate the correlation of sexual maturity with tissue growth, mRNA expression of certain genes, and serum steroid concentrations in Japanese quail hens. To carry out the present study, a total of forty Japanese quail hens (5 weeks) were housed individually under uniform husbandry condition with ad libitum quail layer ration and water at 14-hour photo schedule. On sixth week onwards, four birds were sacrificed at each time on 1, 3, 7, 10, 13, 16, 19, 22, 25, and 28 days. Serum was extracted aseptically to analyze the gonadal steroid hormones (estrogen and progesterone) and corticosterone to investigate the liaison with sexual maturation of the species. Expression analyses of four genes i.e., insulin-like growth factor-1, luteinizing hormone receptor, progesterone receptor, and survivin were carried out in the three largest ovarian yellow follicles. A significant (P < 0.05) increase in body weight gain and oviduct weight was recorded during the phase of sexual maturation. Smaller follicles revealed higher insulin-like growth factor-1 and survivin gene expression, whereas the reverse result was manifested in both the luteinizing and progesterone hormone receptors. In biochemical study, the gonadal steroids (estrogen and progesterone) were recorded higher at the first half of the experiment when a gradual decrease in corticosterone concentration was confirmed from the very beginning of this study. This result substantiated that sexual maturation in Japanese quail may be completed by the time of 8 weeks after its birth in support of the analyzed information studied in the current investigation. PMID:24444715

  13. Juvenile hormone mediates a trade-off between primary and secondary sexual traits in stalk-eyed flies.

    PubMed

    Fry, Catherine L

    2006-01-01

    Trade-offs between developing body parts may contribute to variation in allometric scaling relationships in a variety of taxa. Experimental evidence indicates that both circulating levels of juvenile hormone (JH) and sensitivities of developing body parts to JH can influence morphology in polyphenic insects. However, the extent to which JH may regulate both the development of traits that scale continuously with body size and trade-offs between these traits is largely unknown. Here, I present evidence that the JH analog methoprene applied to final instar larvae of a stalk-eyed fly (Cyrtodiopsis dalmanni) can induce males to produce larger eye-stalks relative to their body size. Examination of testis growth, sperm transfer, and egg maturation indicates that JH induces a trade-off between eye-span and gonad development in adult males, but not females. Age at sexual maturity was unaffected by larval JH applications to either sex. Collectively, these results are consistent with JH-mediated allocation of resources to eye-span at the expense of testes, and indicate potential costs for the production of an exaggerated trait. PMID:16509897

  14. Sexual Problems

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... include hormone therapy, antidepressants, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, which are drugs often used for erectile dysfunction, and other medications. ... may improve sexual function. A group of antidepressant drugs called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or SSRIs, often ...

  15. The second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) in a Japanese twin sample: heritability, prenatal hormone transfer, and association with sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Hiraishi, Kai; Sasaki, Shoko; Shikishima, Chizuru; Ando, Juko

    2012-06-01

    The second to fourth digit ratio has been argued to reflect prenatal hormonal influences and is reportedly associated with various psychological and behavioral traits, such as sexual orientation, cognitive abilities, and personality. We examined genetic and environmental influences on the second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) using a Japanese twin sample (N=300). The genetic analysis showed substantial additive genetic influences for both right and left hand 2D:4D. The rest of the variance was explained mainly by environmental influences not shared within twin pairs. These findings were, in general, in accordance with preceding studies with primarily Caucasian twin samples. The bivariate genetic analysis revealed that the additive genetic influences were largely shared between the right and left hand, while the non-shared environmental influences were largely unique to each hand. Results from a comparison of opposite-sex and same-sex twins were not significant, although they were in the predicted direction according to the prenatal hormone transfer hypothesis. Female monozygotic twin pairs discordant in sexual orientation showed significant within-pair differences in left hand 2D:4D, where non-heterosexual twins had lower (more masculinized) 2D:4D. In addition, we found that non-heterosexual male MZ twins had larger (more feminized) 2D:4D than their heterosexual co-twins. These results suggest the existence of non-shared environmental influences that affect both 2D:4D and sexual orientation. PMID:22270254

  16. Endogenous Cortisol, Luteinizing Hormone, and Testosterone Secretion and GnRH-induced Luteinizing Hormone and Testosterone Secretion in Prenatally Stressed Sexually Mature Brahman Bulls 

    E-print Network

    Littlejohn, Brittni Paige

    2014-12-12

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effects of prenatal transportation stress (PNS) on LH, testosterone, and cortisol secretion before and after GnRH stimulation in sexually mature Brahman bulls. Forty-eight ...

  17. Endocrine and behavioral changes in male African elephants: Linking hormone changes to sexual state and reproductive tactics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrik B. Rasmussen; Andre Ganswindt; Iain Douglas-Hamilton; Fritz Vollrath

    2008-01-01

    Hormones play a crucial role in mediating genetic and environmental effects into morphological and behavioral phenotypes. In systems with alternative reproductive tactics (ART) shifts between tactics are hypothesized to be under proximate hormonal control. Most studies of the underlying endocrine changes behind ART have focused on fish and amphibians rather than mammals and few have investigated the potential interaction between

  18. Regulation of Mucosal Immunity in the Female Reproductive Tract: The Role of Sex Hormones in Immune Protection Against Sexually Transmitted Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Wira, Charles R.; Fahey, John V.; Rodriguez-Garcia, Marta; Shen, Zheng; Patel, Mickey V.

    2015-01-01

    The immune system in the female reproductive tract (FRT) does not mount an attack against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or other sexually transmitted infections (STI) with a single endogenously produced microbicide or with a single arm of the immune system. Instead, the body deploys dozens of innate antimicrobials to the secretions of the FRT. Working together, these antimicrobials along with mucosal antibodies attack viral, bacterial, and fungal targets. Within the FRT, the unique challenges of protection against sexually transmitted pathogens coupled with the need to sustain the development of an allogeneic fetus, has evolved in such a way that sex hormones precisely regulate immune function to accomplish both tasks. The studies presented in this review demonstrate that estradiol (E2) and progesterone secreted during the menstrual cycle act both directly and indirectly on epithelial cells, fibroblasts and immune cells in the reproductive tract to modify immune function in a way that is unique to specific sites throughout the FRT. As presented in this review, studies from our laboratory and others demonstrate that the innate and adaptive immune systems are under hormonal control, that protection varies with the stage of the menstrual cycle and as such, is dampened during the secretory stage of the cycle to optimize conditions for fertilization and pregnancy. In doing so, a window of STI vulnerability is created during which potential pathogens including HIV enter the reproductive tract to infect host targets. PMID:24734774

  19. Current hormonal contraceptive use predicts female extra-pair and dyadic sexual behavior: evidence based on Czech National Survey data.

    PubMed

    Klapilová, Kate?ina; Cobey, Kelly D; Wells, Timothy; Roberts, S Craig; Weiss, Petr; Havlí?ek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Data from 1155 Czech women (493 using oral contraception, 662 non-users), obtained from the Czech National Survey of Sexual Behavior, were used to investigate evolutionary-based hypotheses concerning the predictive value of current oral contraceptive (OC) use on extra-pair and dyadic (in-pair) sexual behavior of coupled women. Specifically, the aim was to determine whether current OC use was associated with lower extra-pair and higher in-pair sexual interest and behavior, because OC use suppresses cyclical shifts in mating psychology that occur in normally cycling women. Zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression and negative binomial models were used to test associations between OC use and these sexual measures, controlling for other relevant predictors (e.g., age, parity, in-pair sexual satisfaction, relationship length). The overall incidence of having had an extra-pair partner or one-night stand in the previous year was not related to current OC use (the majority of the sample had not). However, among the women who had engaged in extra-pair sexual behavior, OC users had fewer one-night stands than non-users, and tended to have fewer partners, than non-users. OC users also had more frequent dyadic intercourse than non-users, potentially indicating higher commitment to their current relationship. These results suggest that suppression of fertility through OC use may alter important aspects of female sexual behavior, with potential implications for relationship functioning and stability. PMID:24412772

  20. Early Hormonal Influences on Childhood Sex-Typed Activity and Playmate Preferences: Implications for the Development of Sexual Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berenbaum, Sheri A.; Snyder, Elizabeth

    1995-01-01

    Examined hormonal influences on activity and playmate preferences in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) age 2.5 to 12 years and their relatives. Found that girls with CAH preferred boys' toys and activities, whereas boys with CAH did not differ significantly from controls. Activity and playmate preferences were not related. (MDM)

  1. Sexually dimorphic stress and pro-inflammatory cytokine responses to an intravenous corticotropin-releasing hormone challenge of Brahman cattle following transportation.

    PubMed

    Hulbert, Lindsey E; Carroll, Jeffery A; Ballou, Michael A; Burdick, Nicole C; Dailey, Jeffery W; Caldwell, Lisa C; Loyd, Andrea N; Vann, Rhonda C; Welsh, Thomas H; Randel, Ronald D

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to characterize potential sexually dimorphic stress and immunological responses following a corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) challenge in beef cattle. Six female (heifers) and six male (bulls) Brahman calves (264?±?12?d of age) were administered CRH intravenously (0.5?µg of CRH/kg body mass) after which serum concentrations of cortisol increased from 0.5?h to 4?h. From 1?h to 4?h after CRH administration, serum cortisol concentrations were greater in heifers than in bulls. In all cattle, increased serum concentrations of TNF-?, IL-6 and IFN-? were observed from 2.5?h to 3?h after CRH, with greater concentrations of IFN-? and IL-6 in heifers than bulls. Heifer total leukocyte counts decreased 1?h after CRH administration, while bull leukocyte counts and percent neutrophils decreased 2?h after CRH administration. Heifers had greater rectal temperatures than bulls, yet rectal temperatures did not change following administration of CRH. There was no effect of CRH administration on heart rate. However, bulls tended to have increased heart rate 2?h after CRH administration than before CRH. Heifer heart rate was greater than bulls throughout the study. These data demonstrate that acute CRH administration can elicit a pro-inflammatory response, and cattle exhibit a sexually dimorphic pro-inflammatory cytokine and cortisol response to acute CRH administration. PMID:23112011

  2. Inherent Sexually Dimorphic Expression of Hepatic CYP2C12 Correlated with Repressed Activation of Growth Hormone-Regulated Signal Transduction in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Thangavel, Chellappagounder; Shapiro, Bernard H.

    2008-01-01

    Due to its myriad physiologic functions, it isn't surprising that the actions of growth hormone (GH) are mediated by recruiting/activating dozens of signaling molecules involved in numerous transduction pathways. The particular signal transduction pathway activated by the hormone is determined by the affected target cell, the sexually dimorphic secretory GH profile (masculine episodic or feminine continuous) to which the cell is exposed as well as the individual's sex. In this regard, expression of female-specific CYP2C12, the most abundant cytochrome P450 in female rat liver, is solely regulated by the feminine GH profile. Sex is a modulating factor in this response in that males are considerably less responsive than females to the CYP2C12-induction effects of continuous GH. Using primary hepatocytes derived from male and female hypophysectomized rats, we have identified several factors in a transduction pathway activated by the feminine GH regime and associated with the induction of hepatic CYP2C12. Elements in the proposed pathway, in their likely order of activation, are the growth hormone receptor, extracellular signal-regulated kinases (Erk 1 & 2), the CREB binding protein (CBP), and hepatocyte nuclear factors (HNF-4? and HNF-6) which subsequently bind and activate the CYP2C12 promoter. Recruitment and/or activation levels of all the component factors in the pathway were highly suppressed in male hepatocytes, possibly explaining the dramatically lower induction levels of CYP2C12 in males exposed to the same continuous GH profile as females. PMID:18559485

  3. Maintaining sexuality in menopause.

    PubMed

    Nappi, Rossella E; Martini, Ellis; Martella, Silvia; Capuano, Francesca; Bosoni, David; Giacomini, Sonia; Beraghi, Matteo; Spinillo, Arsenio

    2014-03-13

    Sexual health in the menopause is a medical challenge because the progressive decline of sexual hormones interacts with the aging process and many psychosocial stressors modulate vulnerability for sexual symptoms (low sexual desire, poor arousal and lubrication, dyspareunia, orgasmic dysfunction and lack of satisfaction). In clinical practice, a coordinated approach is needed to optimally manage the risk for developing female sexual dysfunction (FSD), especially when chronic conditions are present. Biomedical and psychosocial interventions include general education, recognition of signs and symptoms, promotion of health, attention to the partner and individualization of treatment. Counselling to overcome personal and relational difficulties should be always combined with hormonal and non-hormonal strategies to maximize biological signals driving the sexual response. By enhancing women's abilities to cope with sexual changes at midlife, health care providers may significantly optimize healthy aging and partnership. PMID:24879777

  4. Male reproductive toxicity and b-luteinizing hormone gene expression in sexually mature and immature rats exposed to 2-bromopropane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Wu; A. S. Faqi; J. Yang; X. Ding; X. Jiang; I. Chahoud

    1999-01-01

    1 The reproductive effects of 2-bromopropane (2-BP) in sexually mature and immature male Sprague-Dawley rats were investigated. The animals were randomly divided into three treatment groups and one control group each of which comprised six mature and six immature rats. The treated groups were injected s.c. 200, 600 and 1800 mg\\/kg of 2-BP on 5 days a week for 5-7

  5. Urinary steroid hormone analysis of ovarian cycles and pregnancy in mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) indicate that menses, copulatory behavior, sexual swellings and reproductive condition are associated with changing estrone conjugates (E(1)C) and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PdG).

    PubMed

    Phillips, Rebecca Sellin; Wheaton, Catharine J

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if sexual swellings in mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) are a reflection of reproductive endocrine state. Urine samples were assayed using an enzyme immunoassay measuring pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PdG) and estrone conjugates (E(1)C). Hormone patterns of ovarian cycles, pregnancy and lactation were characterized and compared with sexual swellings and copulations relative to menses and peak E(1)C. Cycle lengths averaging 28.7 days and pregnancy length of 181 days determined by hormonal and sexual swelling measures were similar to those reported in other Old World primate species. First day of copulation was observed during rising E(1)C concentrations and preceded observations of peak swelling by 1-2 days. Observations of peak sexual swellings occurred at or on the day after peak E(1)C and decreased following the ovulatory increase in PdG. Observations of menses and sexual swellings are a useful method to track mandrill ovarian cycles and can assist zoos in determining the reproductive state of females in their collections. Zoo Biol 27:320-330, 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19360627

  6. Estradiol induces sexual behavior in female túngara frogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mukta Chakraborty; Sabrina S. Burmeister

    2009-01-01

    Steroid hormones play an important role in regulating vertebrate sexual behavior. In frogs and toads, injections of exogenous gonadotropins, which stimulate steroid hormone production, are often used to induce reproductive behavior, but steroid hormones alone are not always sufficient. To determine which hormonal conditions promote sexual behavior in female túngara frogs, we assessed the effect of hormone manipulation on the

  7. Does hormonal therapy influence sexual function in men receiving 3D conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer? 1 1 This work received the 2001 American Radium Society Young Investigator Award

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher T Chen; Richard K Valicenti; Jiandong Lu; Troy Derose; Adam P Dicker; Stephen E Strup; S. Grant Mulholland; Irvin H Hirsch; David E McGinnis; Leonard G Gomella

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: We evaluated the effect of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) with or without hormonal therapy (HT) on sexual function (SF) in prostate cancer patients whose SF was known before all treatment.Methods and Materials: Between March 1996 and March 1999, 144 patients received 3D-CRT (median dose = 70.2 Gy, range 66.6–79.2 Gy) for prostate cancer and had pre- and post-therapy

  8. A Novel Population of Inner Cortical Cells in the Adrenal Gland That Displays Sexually Dimorphic Expression of Thyroid Hormone Receptor-?1.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen-Che Jeff; Kraft, Cary; Moy, Nicole; Ng, Lily; Forrest, Douglas

    2015-06-01

    The development of the adrenal cortex involves the formation and then subsequent regression of immature or fetal inner cell layers as the mature steroidogenic outer layers expand. However, controls over this remodeling, especially in the immature inner layer, are incompletely understood. Here we identify an inner cortical cell population that expresses thyroid hormone receptor-?1 (TR?1), one of two receptor isoforms encoded by the Thrb gene. Using mice with a Thrb(b1) reporter allele that expresses lacZ instead of TR?1, ?-galactosidase was detected in the inner cortex from early stages. Expression peaked at juvenile ages in an inner zone that included cells expressing 20-?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, a marker of the transient, so-called X-zone in mice. The ?-galactosidase-positive zone displayed sexually dimorphic regression in males after approximately 4 weeks of age but persisted in females into adulthood in either nulliparous or parous states. T3 treatment promoted hypertrophy of inner cortical cells, induced some markers of mature cortical cells, and, in males, delayed the regression of the TR?1-positive zone, suggesting that TR?1 could partly divert the differentiation fate and counteract male-specific regression of inner zone cells. TR?1-deficient mice were resistant to these actions of T3, supporting a functional role for TR?1 in the inner cortex. PMID:25774556

  9. PSY 388 Human Sexuality Fall 2011 CRN 17247 (4 cred) 146 Straub Hall MW 8:30-10a

    E-print Network

    Lockery, Shawn

    research. We will cover sexual biology ­ anatomy and physiology of human individuals and the arousal process. Then we will discuss personal issues in sexuality including orientation, sexual behaviors; hormonal, instinctual, and learned factors in sexuality; psychosexual development; sexual orientation

  10. Dealing with Sexual Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the vulva (vulvectomy) Pelvic exenteration Sex and pelvic radiation therapy Sex and chemotherapy Sex and hormone therapy Surgery for breast cancer can affect sexuality, too Summary table of how ...

  11. Effect of exercise intensity on weight changes and sexual hormones (androstenedione and free testosterone) in female rats with estradiol valerate-induced PCOS

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Weight gain and fat accumulation are predisposing factors of PCOS. Life-style modification, including increasing physical activity, is the first line approach in managing PCOS. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of exercise intensity on weight changes, androstenedione and free testosterone level in female rats with estradiol valerate induced PCOS. Method and materials 40 female Wistar rats were selected (180?±?20 g). They had every 2 to 3 consecutive estrous cycles during 12 to 14 days. The study was approved by ethical committee of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences. The first two groups were divided into control (n?=?10) and polycystic (n?=?30) that were induced PCOS by estradiol valerate injection after 60 days. The polycystic groups were divided into three groups of sham (n?=?10), experiment group with low-intensity exercise (pco?+?l.exe) (n = 10) and experiment group with moderate intensity exercise (pco?+?m.exe) (n = 10). Exercises were performed during 6 sessions of 60 minutes per week for 8 weeks. (Moderate intensity: 28 m/min-70%–75%VO2Max. Low intensity (20 m/min-50%–55%VO2Max) running at 0 slope, 1 h/day, 6 days/week). ANOVA and LSD test were used for data analysis. Results In the present study, no significant differences were found in the decrease of total weights of rats. And also androstenedione level changes in experiment groups were higher compared to control group but no significant differences were found, also free testosterone level was significantly higher than the observer group. Conclusion According to weight changes and sexual hormones (Free testosterone and androstenedione) exercise training especially with low intensity may improve symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome. PMID:24708600

  12. Biology and Sexual Minority Status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Byne

    The purpose of this chapter is to provide clinicians with an overview of current knowledge pertaining to the biology of sexual\\u000a minority status. Under the umbrella of sexual minority are included homosexuals, bisexuals, transgenders and intersexes. The\\u000a most developed biologic theory pertaining to sexual minority status is the prenatal hormonal\\u000a hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, prenatal hormones act (primarily during

  13. Sexual Oncology: Sexual Health Issues in Women with Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael L. Krychman; Leanne Pereira; Jeanne Carter; Alison Amsterdam

    2006-01-01

    Sexual problems are widespread among female cancer patients and survivors. Dysfunction may result from various oncologic therapies such as surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormonal manipulation, and cytostatic medication. Additionally, psychologic distress that the patient or her partner experiences during diagnosis and treatment of malignancy can impair a healthy female sexual response cycle. A sexual rehabilitation program in an oncology setting

  14. MODELING HORMONAL CONTROL MENSTRUAL CYCLE

    E-print Network

    of exogenous compounds on the sexual endocrine system of adult women, for testing hormonal methods of birth endocrine systems in both humans and animals. In particular, such compounds may be contributing of exogenous compounds on the sexual endocrine system of adult women. Simulations of this type may be helpful

  15. Sexual Assault

    MedlinePLUS

    ... assault fact sheet Sexual assault fact sheet ePublications Sexual assault fact sheet Print this fact sheet Sexual assault ... assaulted? More information on sexual assault What is sexual assault? Sexual assault and abuse is any type of ...

  16. Perfil Ambiental de Guatemala

    E-print Network

    Lopez-Carr, David

    Perfil Ambiental de Guatemala Informe sobre el estado del ambiente y bases para su evaluación sistemática Guatemala, 2004 UNIVERSIDAD RAFAEL LANDÍVAR Facultad de Ciencias Ambientales y Agrícolas Instituto de Guatemala Informe sobre el estado del ambiente y bases para su evaluación sistemática ISBN: 99922

  17. [Hormone replacement therapy--growth hormone, melatonin, DHEA and sex hormones].

    PubMed

    Fukai, Shiho; Akishita, Masahiro

    2009-07-01

    The ability to maintain active and independent living as long as possible is crucial for the healthy longevity. Hormones responsible for some of the manifestations associated with aging are growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), melatonin, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), sex hormones and thyroid hormones. These hormonal changes are associated with changes in body composition, visceral obesity, muscle weakness, osteoporosis, urinary incontinence, loss of cognitive functioning, reduction in well being, depression, as well as sexual dysfunction. With the prolongation of life expectancy, both men and women today live the latter third life with endocrine deficiencies. Hormone replacement therapy may alleviate the debilitating conditions of secondary partial endocrine deficiencies by preventing or delaying some aspects of aging. PMID:19591292

  18. PHTHALATE ESTER-INDUCED MALFORMATIONS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH CHANGES IN GENE EXPRESSION AND STEROID HORMONE PRODUCTION IN THE FETAL RAT TESTIS DURING SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate ester-induced gubernacular ligament lesions are associated with reduced Insl3 gene expression in the fetal rat testis during sexual differentiation. Vickie S Wilson, Christy Lambright, Johnathan Furr, Joseph Ostby, Carmen Wood, Gary Held, L.Earl Gray Jr. U.S. EPA,...

  19. sexual Assault sexual Assault

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    sexual Assault sexual Assault if You Are a Victim of a sexual Assault 1. Get to a safe place. 2. Call out for help. 3. DiAl 6111 or ask someone to ring for you and state "sEXUAl AssAUlT" giving exact. if You Witness a sexual Assault 1. Everyone is asked to assist in making the campus a safe place by being

  20. The insulin-like androgenic gland hormone in crustaceans: From a single gene silencing to a wide array of sexual manipulation-based biotechnologies.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Tomer; Sagi, Amir

    2012-01-01

    Due to the over-harvesting and deterioration of wild populations, the ever-growing crustacean market is increasingly reliant on aquaculture, driving the need for better management techniques. Since most cultured crustacean species exhibit sexually dimorphic growth patterns, the culture of monosex populations (either all-male or all-female) is a preferred approach for gaining higher yields, with the ecological benefit of reducing the risk of invasion by the cultured species. Sexual manipulations may also render sustainable solutions to the environmental problems caused by the presence of invasive crustacean species with detrimental impacts ranging from aggressive competition with native species for food and shelter, to affecting aquaculture facilities and harvests and causing structural damage to river banks. Recent discoveries of androgenic gland (AG)-specific insulin-like peptides (IAGs) in crustaceans and the ability to manipulate them and their encoding transcripts (IAGs) have raised the possibility of sexually manipulating crustacean populations. Sexual manipulation is already a part of sustainable solutions in fish aquaculture and in the bio-control of insect pest species, and attempts are also being made to implement it with crustaceans. As recently exemplified in a commercially important prawn species, IAG silencing, a temporal, non-genetically modifying and non-transmissible intervention, has enabled the production of non-breeding all-male monosex populations that are the progeny of sexually reversed males ('neo-females'). IAG manipulations-based biotechnologies therefore have the potential to radically transform the entire industry. We review here how this proof of concept could be broadened to meet both aquacultural and environmental needs. We include the major cultured decapod crustacean groups and suggest a sustainable solution for the management of invasive and pest crustacean species. We also review the key considerations for devising a biotechnological approach that specifically tailors the molecular technological abilities to the management of each target group. PMID:22561950

  1. Sexual Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Parents can help their adolescent make healthy choices Sexual Health News & Information Understanding Sexual Health Public Health Reports ... infectious diseases, reproductive health and sexual violence prevention. Sexual Health Topics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Up-to-date information ...

  2. Sexual Assault

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sexual Assault Share This Page: Sexual Assault Resources Sexual Assault Sexual assault is a significant problem affecting American ... National Network at 1-800-656-HOPE (4673). Sexual Assault Examinations It is important to know that a ...

  3. [Sexuality in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Wilk, Bartosz

    2015-03-01

    Sustaining and strengthening the ability of the elderly to continue their sexual needs can be realized as part of improving their quality of life, health and well-being. There is no age at which ends the expression of sexuality and intimacy. Through education, quality of life and advances in medicine, the average life expectancy is still increasing. Sexual activity of older people society usually describe using pejorative terms as an inappropriate, bizarre or obscene, but these labels are different than reality. Hormonal changes and other physiological changes associated with aging affect sexual interest. Erectile dysfunction is a problem in men increasing with age. There is no evidence that premature ejaculation is more common in older age. Cross-sectional studies showed no difference in sexual dysfunction between older and younger women. Age is not a barrier to sexually transmitted diseases. The most common pathogenetic factors for male erectile dysfunction are vascular diseases. In women, the most important symptoms of sexual dysfunction are lack of emotional wellbeing and a sense of intimacy during sexual intercourse. PMID:25815611

  4. Hormonal Programming Across the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Tobet, Stuart A; Lara, Hernan E; Lucion, Aldo B; Wilson, Melinda E; Recabarren, Sergio E; Paredes, Alfonso H

    2013-01-01

    Hormones influence countless biological processes across the lifespan, and during developmental sensitive periods hormones have the potential to cause permanent tissue-specific alterations in anatomy and physiology. There are numerous critical periods in development wherein different targets are affected. This review outlines the proceedings of the Hormonal Programming in Development session at the US-South American Workshop in Neuroendocrinology in August 2011. Here we discuss how gonadal hormones impact various biological processes within the brain and gonads during early development and describe the changes that take place in the aging female ovary. At the cellular level, hormonal targets in the brain include neurons, glia, or vasculature. On a genomic/epigenomic level, transcription factor signaling and epigenetic changes alter the expression of hormone receptor genes across development and following ischemic brain insult. In addition, organizational hormone exposure alters epigenetic processes in specific brain nuclei and may be a mediator of sexual differentiation of the neonatal brain. During development of the ovary, exposure to excess gonadal hormones leads to polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Exposure to excess androgens during fetal development also has a profound effect on the development of the male reproductive system. In addition, increased sympathetic nerve activity and stress during early life have been linked to PCOS symptomology in adulthood. Finally, we describe how age-related decreases in fertility are linked to high levels of nerve growth factor (NGF), which enhances sympathetic nerve activity and alters ovarian function. PMID:22700441

  5. Sexual Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... The Most Common Types of Sexual Problems in Older Adults For women, age-related changes due to menopause ... sexual intercourse. How Common are Sexual Problems in Older Adults? Researchers have found that about half of sexually ...

  6. Hormone action. Part I. Peptide hormones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Birnbaumer; B. W. OMalley

    1985-01-01

    The major sections of this book on the hormonal action of peptide hormones cover receptor assays, identification of receptor proteins, methods for identification of internalized hormones and hormone receptors, preparation of hormonally responsive cells and cell hybrids, purification of membrane receptors and related techniques, assays of hormonal effects and related functions, and antibodies in hormone action.

  7. Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bulllying

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Harassment and Sexual Bullying Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? What Are Sexual ... technology to harass someone sexually (like sending inappropriate text messages, pictures, or videos). Sometimes sexual harassment can ...

  8. Sexual Differentiation of the Central Nervous System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil J. Maclusky; Frederick Naftolin

    1981-01-01

    Sexual differentiation of reproductive and behavior patterns is largely effected by hormones produced by the gonads. In many higher vertebrates, an integral part of this process is the induction of permanent and essentially irreversible sex differences in central nervous function, in response to gonadal hormones secreted early in development.

  9. Sexual Differentiation: From Genes to Gender

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claude J. Migeon; Amy B. Wisniewski

    1998-01-01

    A person’s sex can be considered across various levels. To illustrate, genes, hormones, and genitalia can all be considered physical markers of a person’s sex. In addition to physical markers, behaviors such as gender role, gender identity and sexual orientation can be perceived as stereotypically male or female. The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge of sexual

  10. Stress hormone masculinizes female morphology and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Rosemary; Marsh-Matthews, Edie; Vo, Luanne; Rosencrans, Sarah

    2011-02-23

    Sex steroids play major roles in vertebrate sexual differentiation. Unexpectedly, we now find that exposure to elevated levels of the naturally occurring stress hormone cortisol can also masculinize sexually dimorphic morphological characters and behaviour in adult female mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) in a dose-dependent manner. Females masculinized by cortisol developed elongated anal fins with distal tip features similar to those of mature males. Most masculinized females also attempted to copulate when placed with normal females. Although the mechanism of masculinization is currently unknown, we propose a role for an enzyme that both inactivates cortisol and catalyzes the final step in synthesis of a major teleost androgen. This mechanism may also help explain some previously reported effects of stress on sexual development across vertebrate taxa. Our findings underscore the need to understand the full range of chemicals, both naturally occurring hormones and human-produced endocrine disruptors, that can influence sexual differentiation and reproductive function. PMID:20659923

  11. Sexual Assault

    MedlinePLUS

    Sexual assault is any sexual activity to which you haven't freely given your consent. This includes completed ... trust, a friend, an acquaintance, or a stranger. Sexual assault can affect your health in many ways. It ...

  12. Effect of Sildenafil on Subjective and Physiologic Parameters of the Female Sexual Response in Women with Sexual Arousal Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer R. Berman; Laura A. Berman; H. Lin; E. Flaherty; N. Lahey; Irwin Goldstein; Jean Cantey-Kiser

    2001-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a complaint of 30-50% of American women. Aside from hormone replacement therapy, there are no current FDA-approved medical treatments for female sexual complaints. The goal of this pilot study was to determine safety and efficacy of sildenafil for use in women with sexual arousal disorder (SAD). Evaluations were completed on 48 women with complaints of SAD. Physiologic

  13. Effects of carbamazepine on male reproductive hormones

    PubMed Central

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A.; Dabbaghmanesh, Mohammad Hossein; Ashjazadeh, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Reproductive endocrine disorders and sexual dysfunction are common among men with epilepsy. We investigated sexual hormone serum levels among men with newly diagnosed epilepsy, before starting any antiepileptic drug (AED), and then after starting carbamazepine (CBZ), to determine the role and effects of epilepsy versus CBZ in creating reproductive endocrine disorders. Methods: In this prospective study, male patients 20 to 40 years of age who due to new-onset seizure(s) were referred to the outpatient epilepsy clinic at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences from 2009 through 2012 were studied. A blood sample was obtained to evaluate the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, testosterone, free-testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and sex hormone binding globulin. CBZ was started after blood works. After at least three months of taking CBZ, another blood sample was obtained to determine the serum levels of those hormones again. Results: Twenty patients were included. Their mean age (± standard deviation) was 28 years (± 5). The statistical analysis with paired sample tests did not show any significant changes in serum levels of sex hormones before and after CBZ therapy. Conclusion: Despite the fact that, sexual dysfunction and reproductive disorders are common among men with epilepsy, the exact pathophysiology of these problems is not clear yet. Further studies are required to determine the exact role of epilepsy itself, AEDs, and other possible determinants. PMID:25694997

  14. Lesbian Sexuality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pat Califia

    1979-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine what physical sexual activities lesbians engage in and what attitudes lesbians have toward various aspects of their sexuality. The sample consisted of 286 homosexual women. This article reports results in the following areas: first orgasm, first sexual experience with another women, sexual fantasies, number of sex partners, faking orgasm, sex toys, initiating sex, techniques

  15. Survivorship: sexual dysfunction (female), version 1.2013.

    PubMed

    Denlinger, Crystal S; Carlson, Robert W; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K Scott; Davis, Elizabeth; Edge, Stephen B; Friedman, Debra L; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S; Ligibel, Jennifer A; McCabe, Mary S; McVary, Kevin T; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; O'Connor, Tracey; Paskett, Electra D; Raza, Muhammad; Syrjala, Karen L; Urba, Susan G; Wakabayashi, Mark T; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole; Freedman-Cass, Deborah

    2014-02-01

    Cancer treatment, especially hormonal therapy and therapy directed toward the pelvis, can contribute to sexual problems, as can depression and anxiety, which are common in cancer survivors. Thus, sexual dysfunction is common in survivors and can cause increased distress and have a significant negative impact on quality of life. This section of the NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship provides screening, evaluation, and treatment recommendations for female sexual problems, including those related to sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain. PMID:24586080

  16. Survivorship: Sexual Dysfunction (Female), Version 1.2013

    PubMed Central

    Denlinger, Crystal S.; Carlson, Robert W.; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K. Scott; Davis, Elizabeth; Edge, Stephen B.; Friedman, Debra L.; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S.; Ligibel, Jennifer A.; McCabe, Mary S.; McVary, Kevin T.; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G.; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; O’Connor, Tracey; Paskett, Electra D.; Raza, Muhammad; Syrjala, Karen L.; Urba, Susan G.; Wakabayashi, Mark T.; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole; Freedman-Cass, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Cancer treatment, especially hormonal therapy and therapy directed toward the pelvis, can contribute to sexual problems, as can depression and anxiety, which are common in cancer survivors. Thus, sexual dysfunction is common in survivors and can cause increased distress and have a significant negative impact on quality of life. This section of the NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship provides screening, evaluation, and treatment recommendations for female sexual problems, including those related to sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain. PMID:24586080

  17. Internet Sexualities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola Döring

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a The term “internet sexuality” (or OSA, online sexual activities) refers to sexual-related content and activities observable\\u000a on the internet (cf. Adams, Oye, & Parker, 2003; Cooper, McLoughlin, & Campbell, 2000; Leiblum & Döring, 2002). It designates\\u000a a variety of sexual phenomena (e.g., pornography, sex education, sexual contacts) related to a wide spectrum of online services\\u000a and applications (e.g., websites, online

  18. Hormones and Obesity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Store Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health The Endocrine System What Do Hormones Do? Healthy Living Living Your ... Learn About Clinical Trials Hormones and Health The Endocrine System What Do Hormones Do? Healthy Living Living Your ...

  19. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Store Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health The Endocrine System What Do Hormones Do? Healthy Living Living Your ... Learn About Clinical Trials Hormones and Health The Endocrine System What Do Hormones Do? Healthy Living Living Your ...

  20. Hormone Health Network

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Store Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health The Endocrine System What Do Hormones Do? Healthy Living Living Your ... Learn About Clinical Trials Hormones and Health The Endocrine System What Do Hormones Do? Healthy Living Living Your ...

  1. Sex Differences and Steroid Hormone Receptors

    E-print Network

    Alford, Simon

    · Aromatase converts testosterone to estradiol #12;Sexual differentiation McCarthy MM, Arnold AP. Nat Neurosci induces undifferentiated gonads to form testes · Testes secrete anti-mullerian hormone and testosterone Principles of Neural Science, 4th Edition, Chapter 57 #12;Male aromatase knockout mice exhibit deficits

  2. Internet Sexualities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döring, Nicola

    The term “internet sexuality” (or OSA, online sexual activities) refers to sexual-related content and activities observable on the internet (cf. Adams, Oye, & Parker, 2003; Cooper, McLoughlin, & Campbell, 2000; Leiblum & Döring, 2002). It designates a variety of sexual phenomena (e.g., pornography, sex education, sexual contacts) related to a wide spectrum of online services and applications (e.g., websites, online chat rooms, peer-to-peer networks). If an even broader range of computer networks - such as the Usenet or bulletin board systems - is included in this extensional definition, one speaks of “online sexuality” or “cybersexuality.”

  3. Sexual Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & ... to Defensive Driving Volunteering Learn the facts about sexual health with articles about puberty, menstruation, infections, and just ...

  4. Adolescent Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Thomasina H.

    2003-01-01

    This article offers a medical and psychosocial perspective of adolescent sexual development. Sub-types of sexual development are discussed as well as treatment implications for allied health providers. (Contains 38 references.) (Author)

  5. [Sex hormones].

    PubMed

    van der Kuy, A; van den Bemd, A A; Beysens, A J

    1977-03-15

    An overview of the sex hormones is presented. Testosterone is a natural androgen produced in the testes, adrenal glands, and ovaries. It has anabolic as well as androgenic effects. Testosterone is used to treat inoperable breast cancer and osteoporosis, and to stimulate erythropoesis. Androgens are absolutely counterindicated in cases of prostate cancer. Estrone, estradiol, and estriol are natural estrogens produced in the ovaries, placenta, testes, and adrenal glands. These hormones also influence the production of gonadotropins by the pituitary gland. Estrogens are used to treat menopausal disorders, ovarial insufficiency, estrogen-independent breast cancer, prostate cancer, and in some cases pregnancy disorders. Estrogens and progestagens are 2 components used in oral contraceptives. Progesterone, a natural progestagen, is produced by the corpus luteum. It promotes the proliferation phase of the endometrium, fertilization, and nidation, and it works to maintain pregnancy. Progesterone is used to treat spontaneous abortion, corpus luteum insufficiency, and endometrial cancer. PMID:242426

  6. Sexual Intimacy After Sexual Assault or Sexual Abuse1

    E-print Network

    Machel, Hans

    Sexual Intimacy After Sexual Assault or Sexual Abuse1 Many survivors find that their sexual attitudes and reactions are impacted after a sexual assault or sexual abuse. While these effects are not permanent, they can be very frustrating as they can decrease the enjoyment of one's sexual life and intimacy

  7. Sexual conflict

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracey Chapman; Göran Arnqvist; Jenny Bangham; Locke Rowe

    2003-01-01

    Sexual conflict occurs when the genetic interests of males and females diverge. Recent evidence supporting the view that male and female genomes are in conflict has now revolutionized the way in which we interpret interactions between the sexes, and suggests that sexual conflict is a potent force in male–female coevolution. Here, we consider the nature of sexual conflict and what

  8. Female sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Murray A

    2002-01-01

    Happiness is an attitude, not an event! The glass is either half-full or half-empty; it simply depends on the viewer. Some rich people are miserable...some poor people are ecstatic. You cannot change the world but you can change yourself. You, and you alone, control your destiny. With very little practice, you can learn to think positively. Postmenopausal estrogen deficiency leads to urogenital atrophy. Sexual dysfunction and urinary dysfunction are the most inevitable but least publicized consequences of estrogen deficiency, and these represent important quality-of-life issues that patients and health care providers are often reluctant to discuss. In addition to estrogen deficiency, oophorectomized women may be subject to androgen deficiency and problems with libido. While the relationship with one's partner is the quintessential factor in female sexuality, hormone deficiency remains important, especially in reference to genital atrophy. Humans are the products of learned behavior. We literally become what we think. "I am sick and tired" becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy. Self-esteem represents learned behavior just as ego does...but there is a world of difference between the two. Sexuality is enhanced by good self-esteem and hindered by ego: two partners working together can reach far greater heights than either alone ever imagined...one and one can equal three! There are good data to substantiate that happy people have more sex and that people who have more sex are happier. Partners need to learn to honor one another, communicate in a positive manner, develop touching salutations, be a spouse at home, and make their bedroom a sacred sanctuary. With a little behavior modification and hormone therapy, sexuality can remain a priority ad infinitum. PMID:11900270

  9. Sexual Pseudo-Precocity Caused by a Somatic Activating Mutation of the LH Receptor Preceding True Sexual Precocity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniela Kiepe; Annette Richter-Unruh; Frank Autschbach; Markus Kessler; Jens Peter Schenk; Markus Bettendorf

    2008-01-01

    Aim: We describe the clinical features of a 6-year-old boy with sexual precocity caused by a somatic activating mutation of the luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor gene preceding gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-dependent sexual precocity. Study Design: Genomic DNA was extracted from the right testis and from the peripheral leukocytes followed by DNA amplification and sequencing of the LH receptor gene. We described

  10. Sexual Health

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Lisa; Mann, Janice; McMahon, Sharon; Wong, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Health Issue Much attention is devoted to women's reproductive health, but the formative and mature stages of women's sexual lives are often overlooked. We have analyzed cross-sectional data from the Sexual Behaviour module of the 2000/2001 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), and reviewed the literature and available indicators of the sexual health of Canadian women. Key Findings Contemporary Canadian adolescents are becoming sexually active at younger ages than in previous generations. The gender gap between young males and females in age at first intercourse has virtually disappeared. The mean age at first intercourse for CCHS respondents aged 15–24 years was between 16 and 17. Canadian-born respondents are significantly younger at first intercourse than those who were born outside of Canada. Few adolescents recognize important risks to their sexual health. Older Canadians are sexually active, and continue to find emotional and physical satisfaction in their sexual relationships. Data Gaps and Recommendations Both health surveys and targeted research must employ a broader understanding of sexuality to measure changes in and determinants of the sexual health of Canadians. There is reluctance to direct questions about sexual issues to younger Canadians, even though increased knowledge of sexual health topics is associated with delayed onset of sexual intercourse. Among adults, sex-positive resources are needed to address aspects of aging, rather than medicalizing age-related sexual dysfunction. Age and gender-appropriate sexual health care, education, and knowledge are important not only for women of reproductive age, but for Canadians at all stages of life. PMID:15345087

  11. SEXUAL ASSAULT AND SEXUAL HARASSMENT QUICK REFERENCE

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Michael

    SEXUAL ASSAULT AND SEXUAL HARASSMENT QUICK REFERENCE Sexual Assault Definition ­ any form of sexual contact without both parties' voluntary consent. Contrary to what most people think, sexual assault. ­ Zvulony & Company ­ The Law of Sexual Assault in Canada. Sexual Harassment Definition ­ is comment

  12. ORIGINAL RESEARCH—WOMEN'S SEXUAL HEALTH An Effect on the Subjective Sexual Response in Premenopausal Women with Sexual Arousal Disorder by Bremelanotide (PT141), a Melanocortin Receptor Agonist

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa E. Diamond; Dennis C. Earle; Julia R. Heiman; Raymond C. Rosen; Michael A. Perelman; Ronald Harning

    Introduction. Melanocortins affect multiple physiological responses, including sexual behaviors. Bremelanotide is a synthetic peptide melanocortin analog of ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone that is an agonist at melanocortin receptors MC3R and MC4R. Aim. To evaluate a single intranasal dose of bremelanotide for potential effects on physiological and subjective measurements of sexual arousal and desire in premenopausal women with sexual arousal disorder. Main Outcome

  13. Gene regulation by steroid hormones III

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, A.K.; Clark, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    In this book, the authors discuss the latest advances in molecular endocrinology: - steroid receptor binding to DNA sequences of hormonally controlled genes, - structure of genes controlled by steroid hormones, - heterogeneity of steroid receptors, - immunochemical approaches to receptor studies, and - the most recent approaches to steroid hormone action and biological response. The Contents discussed are: Biochemical Evidence for the Exclusive Nuclear Localization of the Estrogen Receptor. - Structure, Dynamics, and Cloning of the Estrogen Receptor. - Structure, Dynamics, and Cloning of the Estrogen Receptor - Physical and Functional Parameters of Isolated Estrogen Receptor - Type II Binding Sites: Cellular Origin and an Endogeneous Ligand. - The Two Phosphorylation Reactions of the Progesterone Receptor. - Receptor Mediated Action of the Vitamin D Hormone. - Characterization of the Nuclear Binding Sites (Acceptor Sites) for a Steroid Receptor. Antibodies in Estrogen, Progesterone, Glucocorticoid, Vitamin D Receptors and Autoantibodies to Antrogene Receptor. - Isolation and Characterization of cDNA probes for Human CBG and Rat ABP. Ornithine Decarboxy lase mRNAs in Murine Kidney: Structure and Regulation by Androgens - Glucocorticoid Receptors and the Control of Gene Expression. - Activation and Regulation of the Vitellogenin Gene Family. - Intra- and Intercellular Aspects of the Hormonal Regulation of the ..cap alpha..2..mu.. Globulin Gene Expression. - Hormonal Regulation of Sexually Differentiated Isozymes of Cytochrome P-450 in Rat Liver. - Interaction of Thyroid Hormone and Carbohydrates on Hepatic Gene Expression.

  14. Sexy thoughts: Effects of sexual cognitions on testosterone, cortisol, and arousal in women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine L. Goldey; Sari M. van Anders

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that sexual stimuli increase testosterone (T) in women and shows inconsistent effects of sexual arousal on cortisol (C), but effects of cognitive aspects of arousal, rather than behaviors or sensory stimuli, are unclear. The present study examined whether sexual thoughts affect T or C and whether hormonal contraceptive (HC) use moderated this effect, given mixed findings of

  15. Female sexual swelling size, timing of ovulation, and male behavior in wild West African chimpanzees

    E-print Network

    ) direct size measures (from video captures) of female sexual swellings with (ii) urinary hormone dataFemale sexual swelling size, timing of ovulation, and male behavior in wild West African'' hypothesis that take into account not only the pattern but also the exaggerated size of sexual swellings

  16. Compulsory sexuality.

    PubMed

    Emens, Elizabeth F

    2014-02-01

    Asexuality is an emerging identity category that challenges the common assumption that everyone is defined by some type of sexual attraction. Asexuals--those who report feeling no sexual attraction to others--constitute one percent of the population, according to one prominent study. In recent years, some individuals have begun to identify as asexual and to connect around their experiences interacting with a sexual society. Asexuality has also become a protected classification under the antidiscrimination law of one state and several localities, but legal scholarship has thus far neglected the subject. This Article introduces asexuality to the legal literature as a category of analysis, an object of empirical study, and a phenomenon of medical science. It then offers a close examination of the growing community of self-identified asexuals. Asexual identity has revealing intersections with the more familiar categories of gender, sexual orientation, and disability, and inspires new models for understanding sexuality. Thinking about asexuality also sheds light on our legal system. Ours is arguably a sexual law, predicated on the assumption that sex is important. This Article uses asexuality to develop a framework for identifying the ways that law privileges sexuality. Across various fields, these interactions include legal requirements of sexual activity, special carve-outs to shield sexuality from law, legal protections from others' sexuality, and legal protections for sexual identity. Applying this framework, the Article traces several ways that our sexual law burdens, and occasionally benefits, asexuals. This Article concludes by closely examining asexuality's prospects for broader inclusion into federal, state, and local antidiscrimination laws. PMID:24654293

  17. SEXUAL MISCONDUCT = Sexual harassment, gender discrimination or bias, sexual assault, rape, stalking or

    E-print Network

    Dennett, Daniel

    SEXUAL MISCONDUCT = Sexual harassment, gender discrimination or bias, sexual assault, rape. SEXUAL MISCONDUCT = Sexual harassment, gender discrimination or bias, sexual assault, rape, stalking inappropriate sexual materials in a location where others can view them. Sexual assault, rape, or attempted

  18. Growth Hormone Receptor Gene Expression in Puberty.

    PubMed

    Pagani, S; Meazza, C; Gertosio, C; Bozzola, E; Bozzola, M

    2015-07-01

    The mechanisms regulating the synergic effect of growth hormone and other hormones during pubertal spurt are not completely clarified. We enrolled 64 females of Caucasian origin and normal height including 22 prepubertal girls, 26 pubertal girls, and 16 adults to evaluate the role of Growth Hormone/Insulin-like growth factor-I axis (GH/IGF-I) during the pubertal period. In these subjects both serum IGF-I and growth hormone binding protein levels, as well as quantitative growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene expression were evaluated in peripheral lymphocytes of all individuals by real-time PCR. Our results showed significantly lower IGF-I levels in women (148±10?ng/ml) and prepubertal girls (166.34±18.85?ng/ml) compared to pubertal girls (441.95±29.42?ng/ml; p<0.0001). Serum GHBP levels were significantly higher in prepubertal (127.02±20.76?ng/ml) compared to pubertal girls (16.63±2.97?ng/ml; p=0.0001) and adult women (19.95±6.65?ng/ml; p=0.0003). We also found higher GHR gene expression levels in pubertal girls [174.73±80.22?ag (growth hormone receptor)/5×10(5) ag (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase)] compared with other groups of subjects [women: 42.52±7.66?ag (growth hormone receptor)/5×10(5) ag (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase); prepubertal girls: 58.45±0.18.12?ag (growth hormone receptor)/5×10(5) ag (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase)], but the difference did not reach statistical significance. These results suggest that sexual hormones could positively influence GHR action, during the pubertal period, in a dual mode, that is, increasing GHR mRNA production and reducing GHR cleavage leading to GHBP variations. PMID:25602347

  19. Sexual selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malte Andersson; Yoh Iwasa

    1996-01-01

    Competition over mates takes many forms and has far-reaching consequences for many organisms. Recent work suggests that relative reproductive rates of males and females, sperm competition and quality variation among mates affect the strength of sexual selection. Song, other display, body size, visual ornaments and material resource offerings are often sexually selected. There is much empirical evidence of mate choice,

  20. Sexual function of the ageing male.

    PubMed

    Corona, Giovanni; Rastrelli, Giulia; Maseroli, Elisa; Forti, Gianni; Maggi, Mario

    2013-08-01

    With the progressive increase in the proportion of older people, there is an increasing interest in characterizing the modifications of sexual health and the effect of its perturbations as a function of the aging process. The aim of this review is to summarize the available evidence regarding the age-dependent modifications of male sexual function and their interaction with general health and age-dependent modification of endocrine function. Elderly patients are often affected by multiple organic diseases which can interfere with sexual function. Despite this evidence, several studies have indicated that, with advancing age, normal erections are not an absolute prerequisite to remain sexually active. Good physical health, the availability of a partner, and a regular and stable pattern of sexual activity earlier in life predict the maintenance of sexual activity in old age. Conversely, there are no convincing data that hormonal changes, associated with aging, have a primary role in underlying changes in sexual function in healthy aging men. Nonetheless, sexual dysfunctions especially in elderly people are poor investigated. Asking about sexual health remains difficult or embarrassing for many primary care physicians. In addition, many patients find it difficult to raise sexual issues with their doctor. This situation often results in sexual issues not being adequately addressed thus resulting in depression, social withdrawal and delayed diagnosis of underlying medical conditions often resulting in forthcoming cardiovascular events. Education and permission from a health care professional may help to alter such misconceptions. Information from physicians regarding normal age-related changes in sexuality and encouragement, together with advice on how to continue meaningful sexual relations, may play a key role in altering such negative attitudes. PMID:24054932

  1. Updates in hormonal emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Shrader, Sarah P; Hall, Larissa N; Ragucci, Kelly R; Rafie, Sally

    2011-09-01

    In recent years, there have been many updates in hormonal emergency contraception. Levonorgestrel emergency contraception has been available for several years to prevent pregnancy when used within 72 hours after unprotected intercourse or contraceptive failure, and it was recently approved for nonprescription status for patients aged 17 years or older. Current research suggests that the primary mechanism of action is delaying ovulation. Ulipristal is the newest emergency contraception, available by prescription only, approved for use up to 120 hours after unprotected intercourse or contraceptive failure. The primary mechanism of action is delaying ovulation. When compared with levonorgestrel emergency contraception, ulipristal was proven noninferior in preventing pregnancy. Evidence suggests that ulipristal does not lose efficacy from 72-120 hours; however, more studies are warranted to support this claim. Many misconceptions and controversies about hormonal emergency contraception still exist. Research does not support that increased access to emergency contraception increases sexual risk-taking behavior. Several studies suggest that health care providers, including pharmacists, could benefit from increased education about emergency contraception. It is important for pharmacists to remain up-to-date on the most recent hormonal emergency contraception products and information, as pharmacists remain a major point of access to emergency contraception. PMID:21923590

  2. Sex Hormones and Macronutrient Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Comitato, Raffaella; Saba, Anna; Turrini, Aida; Arganini, Claudia; Virgili, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    The biological differences between males and females are determined by a different set of genes and by a different reactivity to environmental stimuli, including the diet, in general. These differences are further emphasized and driven by the exposure to a different hormone flux throughout the life. These differences have not been taken into appropriate consideration by the scientific community. Nutritional sciences are not immune from this “bias” and when nutritional needs are concerned, females are considered only when pregnant, lactating or when their hormonal profile is returning back to “normal,” i.e., to the male-like profile. The authors highlight some of the most evident differences in aspects of biology that are associated with nutrition. This review presents and describes available data addressing differences and similarities of the “reference man” vs. the “reference woman” in term of metabolic activity and nutritional needs. According to this assumption, available evidences of sex-associated differences of specific biochemical pathways involved in substrate metabolism are reported and discussed. The modulation by sexual hormones affecting glucose, amino acid and protein metabolism and the metabolization of nutritional fats and the distribution of fat depots, is considered targeting a tentative starting up background for a gender concerned nutritional science. PMID:24915409

  3. Hormonal correlations of premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Andrea; Romanelli, Francesco; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Lenzi, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    Premature ejaculation is the most frequent male sexual dysfunction, significantly impairing quality of life of both the patient and the partner and affecting up to one-third of men of every age. In the last years, our knowledge about this topic has greatly increased, and studies on the causes and treatments related to ejaculatory disorders have shed a light on previously uncharted territory. Public interest on sexual dysfunctions has likewise increased in the general population: the time lapse between the first symptoms of sexual dysfunction and the seeking of medical advice has been significantly reduced, whereas demand for a treatment has markedly increased. A role of endocrine regulation has been established in all the aspects of male reproduction; however, the endocrine control of ejaculation is not fully understood. Sex steroid, pituitary, and thyroid hormones have all been advocated as potential candidates in the regulation of the ejaculatory process, but exact mechanisms are not clear yet and further studies are required in order to identify potential targets for treatment. PMID:25552341

  4. Prenatal endocrine influences on sexual orientation and on sexually differentiated childhood behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Both sexual orientation and sex-typical childhood behaviors, such as toy, playmate and activity preferences, show substantial sex differences, as well as substantial variability within each sex. In other species, behaviors that show sex differences are typically influenced by exposure to gonadal steroids, particularly testosterone and its metabolites, during early development (prenatally or neonatally). This article reviews the evidence regarding prenatal influences of gonadal steroids on human sexual orientation, as well as sex-typed childhood behaviors that predict subsequent sexual orientation. The evidence supports a role for prenatal testosterone exposure in the development of sex-typed interests in childhood, as well as in sexual orientation in later life, at least for some individuals. It appears, however, that other factors, in addition to hormones, play an important role in determining sexual orientation. These factors have not been well-characterized, but possibilities include direct genetic effects, and effects of maternal factors during pregnancy. Although a role for hormones during early development has been established, it also appears that there may be multiple pathways to a given sexual orientation outcome and some of these pathways may not involve hormones. PMID:21333673

  5. Prenatal endocrine influences on sexual orientation and on sexually differentiated childhood behavior.

    PubMed

    Hines, Melissa

    2011-04-01

    Both sexual orientation and sex-typical childhood behaviors, such as toy, playmate and activity preferences, show substantial sex differences, as well as substantial variability within each sex. In other species, behaviors that show sex differences are typically influenced by exposure to gonadal steroids, particularly testosterone and its metabolites, during early development (prenatally or neonatally). This article reviews the evidence regarding prenatal influences of gonadal steroids on human sexual orientation, as well as sex-typed childhood behaviors that predict subsequent sexual orientation. The evidence supports a role for prenatal testosterone exposure in the development of sex-typed interests in childhood, as well as in sexual orientation in later life, at least for some individuals. It appears, however, that other factors, in addition to hormones, play an important role in determining sexual orientation. These factors have not been well-characterized, but possibilities include direct genetic effects, and effects of maternal factors during pregnancy. Although a role for hormones during early development has been established, it also appears that there may be multiple pathways to a given sexual orientation outcome and some of these pathways may not involve hormones. PMID:21333673

  6. Sexual Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sexual intimacy all play a role in healthy relationships. They also contribute to your sense of well-being. A number of disorders can affect the ability to have or enjoy sex in both men and women. Factors that can ...

  7. Sexy thoughts: effects of sexual cognitions on testosterone, cortisol, and arousal in women.

    PubMed

    Goldey, Katherine L; van Anders, Sari M

    2011-05-01

    Previous research suggests that sexual stimuli increase testosterone (T) in women and shows inconsistent effects of sexual arousal on cortisol (C), but effects of cognitive aspects of arousal, rather than behaviors or sensory stimuli, are unclear. The present study examined whether sexual thoughts affect T or C and whether hormonal contraceptive (HC) use moderated this effect, given mixed findings of HC use confounding hormone responses. Participants (79 women) provided a baseline saliva sample for radioimmunoassay. We created the Imagined Social Situation Exercise (ISSE) to test effects of imagining social interactions on hormones, and participants were assigned to the experimental (sexual) or one of three control (positive, neutral, stressful) conditions. Participants provided a second saliva sample 15 min post-activity. Results indicated that for women not using HCs, the sexual condition increased T compared to the stressful or positive conditions. In contrast, HC using women in the sexual condition had decreased T relative to the stressful condition and similar T to the positive condition. The effect was specific to T, as sexual thoughts did not change C. For participants in the sexual condition, higher baseline T predicted larger increases in sexual arousal but smaller increases in T, likely due to ceiling effects on T. Our results suggest that sexual thoughts change T but not C, baseline T levels and HC use may contribute to variation in the T response to sexual thoughts, and cognitive aspects of sexual arousal affect physiology. PMID:21185838

  8. Sexual sadism in sexual offenders and sexually motivated homicide.

    PubMed

    Briken, Peer; Bourget, Dominique; Dufour, Mathieu

    2014-06-01

    This article gives a clinically oriented overview of forensically relevant forms of sexual sadism disorder and its specific relationship to sexual homicide. In sexual homicide perpetrators, peculiar patterns of sexual sadism may be a motivational pathway to kill. Sexual sadism increases the risk for reoffending in sexual offenders. Through psychotherapy and pharmacological interventions, treatment of sadistic sex offenders has to consider special characteristics that may be different from those of nonsadistic sex offenders. Many of these offenders share a combination of sexual sadistic motives and an intact self-regulation, sometimes combined with a high level of sexual preoccupation. PMID:24877708

  9. SEXUAL MISCONDUCT/SEXUAL ASSAULT POLICY

    E-print Network

    Dennett, Daniel

    SEXUAL MISCONDUCT/SEXUAL ASSAULT POLICY Office of Equal Opportunity Purpose: To establish a work and educational environment at Tufts University that is free from Sexual Misconduct, which includes sexual harassment, sex/gender discrimination, sexual assault, rape and other gender-based misconduct, through

  10. Detecting sexual conflict and sexually antagonistic coevolution

    E-print Network

    Day, Troy

    Detecting sexual conflict and sexually antagonistic coevolution Locke Rowe1,2,* and Troy Day3,4 1 by providing an operational definition of sexual conflict that applies to both inter- and intralocus conflict approaches for detecting interlocus sexual conflict and resultant sexually antagonistic coevolution. We

  11. Endocrinological aspects of aging in men: is hormone replacement of benefit?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heidi Janssens; Dirk M. O. I. Vanderschueren

    2000-01-01

    Age-related decreases of serum testosterone (total, free and bioavailable), DHEA, DHEA-S, growth hormone (GH) and IGF-I are well established in elderly healthy men. Although substantial, the decrease of these hormones is small compared to the estrogen changes observed in postmenopausal women. Elderly men also loose bone and muscle, gain fat and have less sexual appetite. Therefore, the assumption that hormonal

  12. Sexual differentiation of the human brain: relation to gender identity, sexual orientation and neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Bao, Ai-Min; Swaab, Dick F

    2011-04-01

    During the intrauterine period a testosterone surge masculinizes the fetal brain, whereas the absence of such a surge results in a feminine brain. As sexual differentiation of the brain takes place at a much later stage in development than sexual differentiation of the genitals, these two processes can be influenced independently of each other. Sex differences in cognition, gender identity (an individual's perception of their own sexual identity), sexual orientation (heterosexuality, homosexuality or bisexuality), and the risks of developing neuropsychiatric disorders are programmed into our brain during early development. There is no evidence that one's postnatal social environment plays a crucial role in gender identity or sexual orientation. We discuss the relationships between structural and functional sex differences of various brain areas and the way they change along with any changes in the supply of sex hormones on the one hand and sex differences in behavior in health and disease on the other. PMID:21334362

  13. Aging changes in hormone production

    MedlinePLUS

    The endocrine system is made up of organs and tissues that produce hormones. Hormones are natural chemicals produced in one ... hormones that control the other structures in the endocrine system. The amount of these regulating hormones stays about ...

  14. Healthy Aging -- Sexual Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) Sexual health More information on sexual health Many older women ... Protecting yourself Return to top More information on Sexual health Read more from womenshealth.gov Sexually Transmitted Infections ...

  15. Early Hormonal Influences on Cognitive Functioning in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Susan M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reports the results of cognitive test performance and early childhood activities in individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, an autosomal recessive disorder associated with elevated prenatal adrenal androgen levels, demonstrating the effects of early exposure to excess androgenizing hormones on sexually dimorphic cognitive functioning.…

  16. Bone and thyroid hormones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Tremollieres; J. M. Pouilles; J. P. Louvet; C. Ribot

    1989-01-01

    Bone tissue metabolism in influenced by thyroid hormones. Excess endogenous (hyperthyroidism), and exogenous (thyrotoxicosis) thyroid hormones are well known causes of bone loss (1,2), great enough to be responsible for fractures. Lately, a few studies using noninvasive methods for bone mass measurements, have reported the possibility of bone loss in subjects receiving thyroid hormone replacement therapy. These results are of

  17. Student Sexual Misconduct Policy

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jianyu

    Student Sexual Misconduct Policy 2014-2015 #12;1 BOSTON COLLEGE STUDENT SEXUAL MISCONDUCT POLICY INDEX I. INTRODUCTION II. BUILDING AN EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT FREE FROM SEXUAL MISCONDUCT III. PROHIBITED BEHAVIOR a. Definitions i. Sexual Misconduct ii. Sexual Harassment iii. Sexual Assault iv. Consent

  18. Sexual Education and Morality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiecker, Ben

    1992-01-01

    Distinguishes five interpretations of sexual education including factual knowledge; self-control; stressing love; sexual training; and sexual morality. Suggests that sexual education should be understood as teaching children the moral tendencies relevant to sexual conduct. Argues that infantile sexual desire is based on a contradiction in terms…

  19. Was sind hormone?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlson, P.

    1982-01-01

    Historically, the meaning of the term hormone has changed during the last decades. Morphological studies of secreting cells lead Feyrter to the concept of paracrine action of some hormones. While endocrine regulators are blood-borne, paracrine messengers reach their target cells through the diffusion in the intracellular space. Though it is rather difficult to draw a line between true hormones and hormone-like substances, valid definitions for endocrine and paracrine regulatory systems can be given. The term ‘hormonal control’ should be restricted to endocrine systems. For effectors acting by paracrine mechanisms, the term paramone is proposed in this article.

  20. Sexual Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... at times, which is normal in long-term relationships. Reduced interest in sex can have a number of causes, including: A health problem Certain medications Reduced levels of male hormones Emotional or relationship problems As men age, it is natural to ...

  1. Sexual inadequacy in the male

    PubMed Central

    Bancroft, John

    1971-01-01

    The adequacy of sexual functioning in the male depends on a complex interaction between psychological, hormonal and neurophysiological factors. Disturbance of any one of these factors may lead to sexual inadequacy. In the majority of cases no gross abnormality is found but the absence of gross hormonal or neurophysiological abnormality does not necessarily imply a purely psychological cause. Individual variations in the pattern of response of the autonomic nervous system or in the ability to learn control of autonomic responses such as erection or ejaculation may be sufficient to account for some cases of inadequacy and in others may increase the susceptibility to psychological factors. Further research is required to clarify these undoubtedly important psychophysiological relationships. Treatment has been most successful when it has taken into account both psychological and physiological factors. The advances made by Masters & Johnson (1970) in this area have partly depended on their earlier physiological and anatomical studies of sexual response (Masters & Johnson, 1966). It may be that in some cases the use of anxiety-reducing drugs or androgens will be all that is required but further work is required to identify such cases. The placebo effects of such preparations should not be overlooked particularly as many cases of sexual inadequacy are based on lack of confidence or ignorance and require little more than good advice or reassurance. Considerable advances in our understanding of these problems have been made in the past 20 years and techniques of endocrine, physiological and behavioural assessment are now available which should enable further progress to be made in the near future.

  2. Teenage Sexuality

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be ready to have sexual intercourse? Will having sex help my relationship? If I am attracted to a same-sex ... parents about your family's values. Waiting to have sex until you are older, in a serious relationship, and able to accept the responsibilities that come ...

  3. Neurologic Factors in Female Sexual Function and Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Siroky, Mike B.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction affects both men and women, involving organic disorders, psychological problems, or both. Overall, the state of our knowledge is less advanced regarding female sexual physiology in comparison with male sexual function. Female sexual dysfunction has received little clinical and basic research attention and remains a largely untapped field in medicine. The epidemiology of female sexual dysfunction is poorly understood because relatively few studies have been done in community settings. In the United States, female sexual dysfunction has been estimated to affect 40% of women in the general population. Among the elderly, however, it has been reported that up to 87% of women complain of sexual dissatisfaction. Several studies have shown that the prevalence of female sexual arousal disorders correlates significantly with increasing age. These studies have shown that sexual arousal and frequency of coitus in the female decreases with increasing age. The pathophysiology of female sexual dysfunction appears more complex than that of males, involving multidimensional hormonal, neurological, vascular, psychological, and interpersonal aspects. Organic female sexual disorders may include a wide variety of vascular, neural, or neurovascular factors that lead to problems with libido, lubrication, and orgasm. However, the precise etiology and mechanistic pathways of age-related female sexual arousal disorders are yet to be determined. In the past two decades, some advances have been made in exploring the basic hemodynamics and neuroregulation of female sexual function and dysfunction in both animal models and in human studies. In this review, we summarize neural regulation of sexual function and neurological causes of sexual dysfunction in women. PMID:20664775

  4. Determinación del perfil instrumental del EBASIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieva, M. F.; Rodriguez, M. V.; Pintado, O. I.

    Se calcula el perfil instrumental para el telescopio de 2,15m del CASLEO con EBASIM. Para ello se usaron flats de cielo y el espectro solar FTS de Kurucz. El método, que se puede utilizar para otras configuraciones instrumentales, es convolucionar ambos espectros para obtener los coeficientes de corrección.

  5. UV-radiation-induced electron emission by hormones. Hypothesis for specific communication mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getoff, Nikola

    2009-11-01

    The highlights of recently observed electron emission from electronically excited sexual hormones (17?-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone) and the phytohormone genistein in polar media are briefly reviewed. The electron yield, Q(e aq-), dependence from substrate concentration, hormone structure, polarity of solvent, absorbed energy and temperature are discussed. The hormones reactivity with e aq- and efficiency in electron transfer ensure them the ability to communicate with other biological systems in an organism. A hypothesis is presented for the explanation of the mechanisms of the distinct recognition of signals transmitted by electrons, originating from different types of hormones to receiving centres. Biological consequences of the electron emission in respect to cancer are mentioned.

  6. Recycling parental sexual messages.

    PubMed

    Darling, C A; Hicks, M W

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore parent-child sexual communication by investigating the impact of direct and indirect parental messages on the sexual attitudes and sexual satisfaction of young adults. A survey research design was used to obtain data from undergraduate students attending a large Southern university. The findings indicate that both direct and indirect parental sexual messages are negative and restrictive and have a differential impact on sexual satisfaction and sexual attitudes. While sexual satisfaction was positive, sexual attitudes were found to be problematic, especially among females. Suggestions are given for approaches that family life educators and parents may use in order to recycle previous sexual messages. PMID:6631981

  7. Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones

    MedlinePLUS

    Search SEER Training: SEER Training Modules Print Home Glossary Citation Help Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Endocrine System » Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Cancer ...

  8. Sexual assault.

    PubMed

    1997-11-01

    This document provides information on issues related to sexual assault in the US. The specific topics briefly discussed are incidence, psychological impact, assault assessment kits, medical evaluation, legal concerns, counseling, follow-up, and special circumstances. It is stated that a woman who is sexually assaulted would experience intense anxiety, anger or fear, and rape-trauma syndrome. The physician evaluating the victim should be aware of the state statutory requirements, which may involve the use of kits for gathering evidence. Informed consent from the victim and meticulous physical examination of the entire body should be performed with photographs and drawings made in the injured areas. In counseling, the physician should talk with the patient concerning the degree of the injury and the probability of infection or pregnancy. There is a need for patients to be reevaluated concerning her medical and psychological status. PMID:12295376

  9. PERCEPTION OF THE MOLTING HORMONE 20-HYDROXECDYSONE BY HOMARUS AMERICANUS: LOCALIZATION OF STEROID RECEPTORS AND EFFECT ON BEHAVIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is growing evidence that hormones, when released from an animal into the environment, act as chemical signals to other organisms. There is also evidence to suggest that hormones are released by lobsters during sexual and agonistic encounters to signal conspecifics. The go...

  10. Sex Differences in Response to Visual Sexual Stimuli: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Rupp, Heather A.; Wallen, Kim

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews what is currently known about how men and women respond to the presentation of visual sexual stimuli. While the assumption that men respond more to visual sexual stimuli is generally empirically supported, previous reports of sex differences are confounded by the variable content of the stimuli presented and measurement techniques. We propose that the cognitive processing stage of responding to sexual stimuli is the first stage in which sex differences occur. The divergence between men and women is proposed to occur at this time, reflected in differences in neural activation, and contribute to previously reported sex differences in downstream peripheral physiological responses and subjective reports of sexual arousal. Additionally, this review discusses factors that may contribute to the variability in sex differences observed in response to visual sexual stimuli. Factors include participant variables, such as hormonal state and socialized sexual attitudes, as well as variables specific to the content presented in the stimuli. Based on the literature reviewed, we conclude that content characteristics may differentially produce higher levels of sexual arousal in men and women. Specifically, men appear more influenced by the sex of the actors depicted in the stimuli while women’s response may differ with the context presented. Sexual motivation, perceived gender role expectations, and sexual attitudes are possible influences. These differences are of practical importance to future research on sexual arousal that aims to use experimental stimuli comparably appealing to men and women and also for general understanding of cognitive sex differences. PMID:17668311

  11. Sexual function in altered physiological states: comparison of effects of hypertension, diabetes, hyperprolactinemia, and others to “normal” aging in male rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John T. Clark

    1995-01-01

    In this review, we examine the changes in sexual function that accompany deviations from “normal” physiological states. We propose that the changes one observes in many altered physiological states should not be viewed in isolation. We describe our paradigms for assessing sexual function, and proceed to evaluate how sexual function changes with hormonal deprivation and aging, in rat models for

  12. Sexual function, sexual abuse and sexually transmitted diseases in adolescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret J. Blythe

    2003-01-01

    As adolescents progress through puberty, many biological changes occur and, for young women, this includes the onset of menses and the capability for reproduction. During this time, sexual identity is developed and expressions of sexuality become more frequent. Adolescent women engage in a variety of sexual behaviours, both non-coital and coital. As teens begin dating relationships, they are at risk

  13. Your Sexual Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... during treatment of a sexual problem? • Glossary Your Sexual Health 4. Sexual pain disorder What are desire problems? ... by women. A lack of desire before having sex is normal for some women. They may not ...

  14. Men and Sexual Trauma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in women. Who are the perpetrators of male sexual assault? Those who sexually assault men or boys differ ... male gender socialization affect the recognition of male sexual assault? Men who have not dealt with the symptoms ...

  15. Military Sexual Trauma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... used by VA to refer to experiences of sexual assault or repeated, threatening sexual harassment that a Veteran ... make an estimate of the actual rates of sexual assault and harassment experiences among all individuals serving in ...

  16. Immunoendocrinology: faulty hormonal imprinting in the immune system.

    PubMed

    Csaba, György

    2014-06-01

    Hormonal imprinting is an epigenetic process which is taking place perinatally at the first encounter between the developing hormone receptors and their target hormones. The hormonal imprinting influences the binding capacity of receptors, the hormone synthesis of the cells, and other hormonally regulated functions, as sexual behavior, aggressivity, empathy, etc. However, during the critical period, when the window for imprinting is open, molecules similar to the physiological imprinters as synthetic hormone analogs, other members of the hormone families, environmental pollutants, etc. can cause faulty imprinting with life-long consequences. The developing immune system, the cells of which also have receptors for hormones, is very sensitive to faulty imprinting, which causes alterations in the antibody and cytokine production, in the ratio of immune cells, in the defense against bacterial and viral infections as well as against malignant tumors. Immune cells (lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes and mast cells) are also producing hormones which are secreted into the blood circulation as well as are transported locally (packed transport). This process is also disturbed by faulty imprinting. As immune cells are differentiating during the whole life, faulty imprinting could develop any time, however, the most decisive is the perinatal imprinting. The faulty imprinting is inherited to the progenies in general and especially in the case of immune system. In our modern world the number and amount of artificial imprinters (e.g. endocrine disruptors and drugs) are enormously increasing. The effects of the faulty imprinters most dangerous to the immune system are shown in the paper. The present and future consequences of the flood of faulty imprintings are unpredictable however, it is discussed. PMID:24939679

  17. Narrative Sexual Identity Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. Yarhouse

    2008-01-01

    Sexual identity therapy is an alternative to the two polarized positions of sexual reorientation therapy and gay-integrative therapy for clients who present with sexual identity concerns. This alternative model focuses on sexual identity—the private and public acts of identifying and communicating one's sexual preferences—and how the decision to do so is informed by dominant stories about what sexual attractions mean

  18. Assessment of Salivary Hormones

    E-print Network

    Schultheiss, Oliver C.

    on an individual's sex hormones (e.g., Graham & Desjardins, 1980; Roney, Lukaszewski, & Simmons, 2007); or when17 3 Assessment of Salivary Hormones Oliver C. Schultheiss Steven J. Stanton A Primer on Concepts episodic memory when it binds to receptors in the brain (e.g., Beckwith, Petros, Bergloff, & Staebler, 1987

  19. SEXUAL MISCONDUCT = Sexual harassment, gender discrimination or bias, sexual assault, rape, stalking or

    E-print Network

    Dennett, Daniel

    SEXUAL MISCONDUCT = Sexual harassment, gender discrimination or bias, sexual assault, rape. SEXUAL MISCONDUCT = Sexual harassment, gender discrimination or bias, sexual assault, rape, stalking materials in a location where others can view them. Sexual assault, rape, or attempted rape. 3 #12;4 Sexual

  20. Sexual orientation and consistency of sexual identity.

    PubMed

    McConaghy, N; Armstrong, M S

    1983-08-01

    The semantic confusion in the use of the terms sexual and gender identity and role is discussed. Theories concerning the development of the sense of sexual identity in normals have been based largely on the sense of sexual identity in sexually deviant subjects. It is suggested that such subjects may have a stronger and more consistent sense of sexual identity than subjects unaware of sexually deviant impulses. Male medical students in two consecutive years anonymously completed a questionnaire concerning their sexual orientation, preference, role, and identity. In both years, students aware of a homosexual component answered the items investigating their sexual identity with greater consistency than did the students unaware of a homosexual component. PMID:6639327

  1. Original article Sexual dimorphism for growth in Muscovy ducks

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Sexual dimorphism for growth in Muscovy ducks and changes in insulin-like growth slaughter, males are marketed as cut and deboned products, while females are sold, as whole carcasses and thyroxine, T4), growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor

  2. The Problem... ! Sexual Assault & Sexual Harassment are

    E-print Network

    VandeVord, Pamela

    of rape or attempted rape between the age of 14 and 25 ! 9 out of 10 date rapes are not reported ! Women the Terms Sexual Assault #Sexual activity, including but not limited to rape, attempted rape or oral sex, guilt) $ Date rape, a form of sexual assault, is rape by someone the victim is dating. $ Acquaintance

  3. Detecting sexual conflict and sexually antagonistic coevolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Locke Rowe; Troy Day

    2006-01-01

    We begin by providing an operational definition of sexual conflict that applies to both inter- and intralocus conflict. Using this definition, we examine a series of simple coevolutionary models to elucidate fruitful approaches for detecting interlocus sexual conflict and resultant sexually antagonistic coevolution. We then use published empirical examples to illustrate the utility of these approaches. Three relevant attributes emerge.

  4. e.hormone: Your Gateway to the Environment and Hormones

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    e.hormone serves as a "a hub of scientific and media information about environmental signaling." Hosted by the Center for Biomedical Research at Tulane and Xavier Universities, e.hormone is an excellent resource for keeping up with environmental hormone news and research from estrogen-mimicking compounds to mercury contamination and more. e.hormone offers research summaries, links to related news stories, an events calendar, and even an introductory educational section about environmental hormones and the endocrine system in general. e.hormone has recently subsumed Environmental Estrogens and Other Hormones, its former sister site also from Tulane University.

  5. LH-RH agonists modulate amygdala response to visual sexual stimulation: A single case fMRI study in pedophilia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benedikt Habermeyer; Nadja Händel; Patrick Lemoine; Markus Klarhöfer; Erich Seifritz; Volker Dittmann; Marc Graf

    2011-01-01

    Pedophilia is characterized by a persistent sexual attraction to prepubescent children. Treatment with anti-androgen agents, such as luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonists, reduces testosterone levels and thereby sexual drive and arousal. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare visual erotic stimulation pre- and on-treatment with the LH-RH agonist leuprolide acetate in the case of homosexual pedophilia. The pre-treatment

  6. Sexual coercion and the misperception of sexual intent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Coreen Farris; Teresa A. Treat; Richard J. Viken; Richard M. McFall

    2008-01-01

    Misperceiving a woman's platonic interest as sexual interest has been implicated in a sexual bargaining process that leads to sexual coercion. This paper provides a comprehensive review of sexual misperception, including gender differences in perception of women's sexual intent, the relationship between sexual coercion and misperception, and situational factors that increase the risk that sexual misperception will occur. Compared to

  7. Alcohol and Sexual Assault

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonia Abbey; Tina Zawacki; Philip O. Buck; A. Monique Clinton; Pam McAuslan

    2001-01-01

    Conservative estimates of sexual assault prevalence suggest that 25 percent of American women have experienced sexual assault, including rape. Approximately one-half of those cases involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, victim, or both. Alcohol contributes to sexual assault through multiple pathways, often exacerbating existing risk factors. Beliefs about alcohol's effects on sexual and aggressive behavior, stereotypes about drinking women, and

  8. SEXUALITY AND GENDER IDENTITY

    E-print Network

    Viglas, Anastasios

    LEARN TO UNDERSTAND SEXUALITY AND GENDER IDENTITY COUNSELLING AND PSYCHOLOGICAL SERVICES CAPS #12;CONTENTS 01 Questioning your sexuality or gender identity 02 Coming out 04 Sexual health 05 Harassment and discrimination 06 Types of support and information available 08 Useful resources Sexual orientation is about who

  9. Thyroid Hormones and the Brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grant W. Anderson

    2001-01-01

    Significant progress has been made over the past 2 decades toward understanding the molecular basis of thyroid hormone action. It is now widely accepted that thyroid hormones play predominantly a nuclear role and function by regulating the transcription of specific target genes. Understanding thyroid hormone action at the tissue and organismic level requires assessment of the thyroid hormone response apparatus

  10. Hormones, pheromones and reproductive behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norm Stacey

    2003-01-01

    Fish commonly use reproductive hormones (steroids and prostaglandins) both as endogenous signals between reproductive tract and brain and as exogenous signals (hormonal pheromones) that synchronize gamete maturation and\\/or spawning interactions between and among conspecifics. This dual function for hormonal products not only extends traditional concepts that sex hormone actions are limited to reproductive synchrony within the individual, but also implies

  11. Preparation of Rat Growth Hormone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Reisfeld; A. S. Muccilli; D. E. Williams; S. L. Steelman

    1964-01-01

    WE have devised a simple method for the preparation of rat growth hormone from fresh frozen anterior pituitary glands. The hormone preparation was obtained in high yield and showed good biological activity while being essentially free of contamination by other pituitary hormones. Disk electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gels indicated the hormone to be relatively homogeneous. In a typical experiment 300 rat

  12. Copulation in C. elegans males requires a nuclear hormone receptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ge Shan; W. W. Walthall

    2008-01-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, uncoordinated (unc)-55 encodes a nuclear hormone receptor that is necessary for coordinated movement and male mating. An unc-55 reporter gene revealed a sexually dimorphic pattern: early in post-embryonic motor neurons in both sexes; and later in a subset of male-specific cells that included an interneuron and eight muscle cells. A behavioral analysis coupled with RNA interference (RNAi)

  13. Sexual anxiety and female sexual arousal: A comparison of arousal during sexual anxiety stimuli and sexual pleasure stimuli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vicki E. Beggs; Karen S. Calhoun; Sharlene A. Wolchik

    1987-01-01

    Sexual arousal occurring during sexual anxiety stimuli was compared to sexual arousal occurring during sexual pleasure stimuli in 19 sexually functional women. Stimuli were individualized narratives based on descriptions given by each subject. Sexual arousal was measured by monitoring vaginal blood flow with a vaginal photoplethysmograph. Results showed significant increases in vaginal blood flow in response to both sexual anxiety

  14. Menopause and Hormones

    MedlinePLUS

    ... organizations that have assisted in its reproduction and distribution. Learn More about Menopause and Hormones Menopause--Medicines ... Fear Act Site Map Transparency Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver ...

  15. Thyroid Hormone and Leptin in the Testis

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Cristiane Fonte; Zamoner, Ariane

    2014-01-01

    Leptin is primarily expressed in white adipose tissue; however, it is expressed in the hypothalamus and reproductive tissues as well. Leptin acts by activating the leptin receptors (Ob-Rs). Additionally, the regulation of several neuroendocrine and reproductive functions, including the inhibition of glucocorticoids and enhancement of thyroxine and sex hormone concentrations in human beings and mice are leptin functions. It has been suggested that thyroid hormones (TH) could directly regulate leptin expression. Additionally, hypothyroidism compromises the intracellular integration of leptin signaling specifically in the arcuate nucleus. Two TH receptor isoforms are expressed in the testis, TRa and TRb, with TRa being the predominant one that is present in all stages of development. The effects of TH involve the proliferation and differentiation of Sertoli and Leydig cells during development, spermatogenesis, and steroidogenesis. In this context, TH disorders are associated with sexual dysfunction. An endocrine and/or direct paracrine effect of leptin on the gonads inhibits testosterone production in Leydig cells. Further studies are necessary to clarify the effects of both hormones in the testis during hypothyroidism. The goal of this review is to highlight the current knowledge regarding leptin and TH in the testis. PMID:25505448

  16. Menopausal Hormone Therapy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) provides this compilation of Web links for important information on the risks and benefits of hormone replacement therapy. The links lead to relevant NIH Web pages, including the most current NIH research on the subject. Topics covered range from NIH's Women's Health Initiative estrogen/ progestin hormone therapy study to the use of black cohosh as an alternative therapy to osteoporosis and ovarian cancer. A useful and well-organized resource.

  17. Extrapituitary growth hormone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Harvey

    2010-01-01

    Pituitary somatotrophs secrete growth hormone (GH) into the bloodstream, to act as a hormone at receptor sites in most, if\\u000a not all, tissues. These endocrine actions of circulating GH are abolished after pituitary ablation or hypophysectomy, indicating\\u000a its pituitary source. GH gene expression is, however, not confined to the pituitary gland, as it occurs in neural, immune,\\u000a reproductive, alimentary, and

  18. Sexuality and Islam.

    PubMed

    Dialmy, Abdessamad

    2010-06-01

    This paper deals with three major questions: (1) What are the sexual norms defined by the sacred texts (Koran and Sunna)? (2) What are the sexual practices currently observed among Moslems? (3) To which extent are current sexual practices of Moslems dissociated from Islamic sexual norms? Sexual standards in Islam are paradoxical: on the one hand, they allow and actually are an enticement to the exercise of sexuality but, on the other hand, they discriminate between male and female sexuality, between marital and pre- or extramarital sexuality, and between heterosexuality and homosexuality. Men are given more rights with regard to the expression of their sexuality; women are forbidden to have extramarital sex (with their slaves) and both genders to have homosexual relationships. The combination of these paradoxical standards with modernisation leads to the current back and forth swing of sexual practices between repression and openness. Partial modernisation leads to greater sexual tolerance. But restrictive sexual standards have gathered strength and have become idealised as a result of the current radicalisation of Islam. This swing of the pendulum between repression and openness is illustrated by phenomena such as public harassment, premarital sexuality, female pleasure, prostitution, and homosexuality. Currently, Islam is not any more the only reference which provides guidance concerning sexual practices but secularisation of sexual laws is still politically unthinkable today. So the only solution is to achieve reform in the name of Islam, through the reinterpretation of repressive holy texts. PMID:20441406

  19. Sexual compatibility and the sexual desire-motivation relation in females with hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

    PubMed

    Hurlbert, D F; Apt, C; Hurlbert, M K; Pierce, A P

    2000-07-01

    Fifty-four female participants with hypoactive sexual desire disorder supplied daily reports of their sexual desire and motivation. The relation between desire and motivation remained statistically significant when controlling for sexual compatibility, sexual stress, sexual fantasy, and marital and sexual satisfaction. Findings suggest that (a) women higher in sexual compatibility experience greater sexual motivation regardless of their marital and sexual satisfaction, their sexual desire intensity, and depressive symptomatology; and (b) the relation between sexual compatibility and sexual desire is mediated by the propensity of those women high in sexual compatibility to have greater marital and sexual satisfaction. Within-subject analyses that controlled for autocorrelation and linear trends in the time series revealed that 40% of the women experienced significantly higher sexual motivation on greater sexual desire days. A discussion of these findings and evidence for the addition of sexual motivation as a distinct phase in the human sexual response cycle are explored. PMID:10881380

  20. Human sexual conflict from molecules to culture.

    PubMed

    Gorelik, Gregory; Shackelford, Todd K

    2011-01-01

    Coevolutionary arms races between males and females have equipped both sexes with mutually manipulative and defensive adaptations. These adaptations function to benefit individual reproductive interests at the cost of the reproductive interests of opposite-sex mates, and arise from evolutionary dynamics such as parental investment (unequal reproductive costs between the sexes) and sexual selection (unequal access to opposite-sex mates). Individuals use these adaptations to hijack others' reproductive systems, psychological states, and behaviors--essentially using other individuals as extended phenotypes of themselves. Such extended phenotypic manipulation of sexual rivals and opposite-sex mates is enacted by humans with the aid of hormones, pheromones, neurotransmitters, emotions, language, mind-altering substances, social institutions, technologies, and ideologies. Furthermore, sexual conflict may be experienced at an individual level when maternal genes and paternal genes are in conflict within an organism. Sexual conflict may be physically and emotionally destructive, but may also be exciting and constructive for relationships. By extending the biological concept of sexual conflict into social and cultural domains, scholars may successfully bridge many of the interdisciplinary gaps that separate the sciences from the humanities. PMID:22947995

  1. Symptoms: Menopause, Infertility, and Sexual Health.

    PubMed

    Barton, Debra L; Ganz, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    By 2022, the number of survivors is expected to grow to nearly 18 million. Therefore, addressing acute and chronic negative sequelae of a cancer diagnosis and its treatments becomes a health imperative. For women with a history of breast cancer, one of the common goals of treatment and prevention of recurrence is to reduce circulating concentrations of estradiol, especially in women with hormone receptor positive breast cancer. Hormone deprivation after a diagnosis of breast cancer impacts physiological targets other than in the breast tissue and can result in unwanted side effects, all of which can negatively impact quality of life and function and cause distress. Symptoms that are most strongly linked by evidence to hormone changes after cancer diagnosis and treatment include hot flashes, night sweats, sleep changes, fatigue, mood changes, and diminishing sexual function, including vaginal atrophy (decreased arousal, dryness and dyspareunia), infertility, decreased desire and negative self-image. Weight gain and resulting body image changes are often concomitants of the abrupt onset of treatment-induced menopause.The purpose of this chapter is to briefly review what is known about the advent of premature menopause in women treated for breast cancer, menopausal symptoms that are exacerbated by endocrine treatments for breast cancer, and the associated concerns of hot flashes and related menopausal symptoms, sexual health and fertility issues. We will discuss limitations in the current research and propose strategies that address current limitations in order to move the science forward. PMID:26059933

  2. [Impact on human health of hormonal additives used in animal production].

    PubMed

    Larrea, Fernando; Chirinos, Mayel

    2007-01-01

    The establishment of the impact of environmental compounds or additives with hormone-like activity on human health still requires further investigation, as well as a reexamination of biologic models and experimental methodology employed so far. In 1988, the FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives Joint with the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) considered that sexual hormone residues usually present in meat do not represent a risk for human consumption. Nevertheless, this resolution seems to be uncertain since the scientific elements employed for this statement may not be adequate. In this review the principal objections to the evidence used to establish the innocuousness of growth promoter hormones are considered. PMID:17910413

  3. Indian concepts on sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha

    2013-01-01

    India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality. PMID:23858263

  4. Alcohol and Sexual Assault

    PubMed Central

    Abbey, Antonia; Zawacki, Tina; Buck, Philip O.; Clinton, A. Monique; McAuslan, Pam

    2015-01-01

    Conservative estimates of sexual assault prevalence suggest that 25 percent of American women have experienced sexual assault, including rape. Approximately one-half of those cases involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, victim, or both. Alcohol contributes to sexual assault through multiple pathways, often exacerbating existing risk factors. Beliefs about alcohol’s effects on sexual and aggressive behavior, stereotypes about drinking women, and alcohol’s effects on cognitive and motor skills contribute to alcohol-involved sexual assault. Despite advances in researchers’ understanding of the relationships between alcohol consumption and sexual assault, many questions still need to be addressed in future studies. PMID:11496965

  5. Alcohol and sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Abbey, A; Zawacki, T; Buck, P O; Clinton, A M; McAuslan, P

    2001-01-01

    Conservative estimates of sexual assault prevalence suggest that 25 percent of American women have experienced sexual assault, including rape. Approximately one-half of those cases involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, victim, or both. Alcohol contributes to sexual assault through multiple pathways, often exacerbating existing risk factors. Beliefs about alcohol's effects on sexual and aggressive behavior, stereotypes about drinking women, and alcohol's effects on cognitive and motor skills contribute to alcohol-involved sexual assault. Despite advances in researchers' understanding of the relationships between alcohol consumption and sexual assault, many questions still need to be addressed in future studies. PMID:11496965

  6. [Hormones and hair growth].

    PubMed

    Trüeb, R M

    2010-06-01

    With respect to the relationship between hormones and hair growth, the role of androgens for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and hirsutism is best acknowledged. Accordingly, therapeutic strategies that intervene in androgen metabolism have been successfully developed for treatment of these conditions. Clinical observations of hair conditions involving hormones beyond the androgen horizon have determined their role in regulation of hair growth: estrogens, prolactin, thyroid hormone, cortisone, growth hormone (GH), and melatonin. Primary GH resistance is characterized by thin hair, while acromegaly may cause hypertrichosis. Hyperprolactinemia may cause hair loss and hirsutism. Partial synchronization of the hair cycle in anagen during late pregnancy points to an estrogen effect, while aromatase inhibitors cause hair loss. Hair loss in a causal relationship to thyroid disorders is well documented. In contrast to AGA, senescent alopecia affects the hair in a diffuse manner. The question arises, whether the hypothesis that a causal relationship exists between the age-related reduction of circulating hormones and organ function also applies to hair and the aging of hair. PMID:20502852

  7. Causes of sexual dysfunction (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Female sexual dysfunction describes women who are indifferent or hostile to sexual intercourse, who have no response to sexual advances or stimulation, or who are unable to have an orgasm during sexual intercourse.

  8. Using Digital Images of the Zebra Finch Song System as a Tool to Teach Organizational Effects of Steroid Hormones: A Free Downloadable Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A.; Beck McCauley, Lisa M.; Pham, Anh P.; Ruiz, Maureen L.; Fong, Michelle C.; Cui, Xinran

    2011-01-01

    Zebra finch song behavior is sexually dimorphic: males sing and females do not. The neural system underlying this behavior is sexually dimorphic, and this sex difference is easy to quantify. During development, the zebra finch song system can be altered by steroid hormones, specifically estradiol, which actually masculinizes it. Because of the…

  9. Mediators of sexual revictimization risk in adult sexual assault victims.

    PubMed

    Ullman, Sarah E; Vasquez, Amanda L

    2015-04-01

    This study examined sexual risk behaviors and sexual refusal assertiveness in relationship to child sexual abuse, emotion dysregulation, and adult sexual revictimization. Path analyses of 1,094 survivors who had sex in the past year were done to examine sexual risk behavior and sexual refusal assertiveness mediational pathways by which child sexual abuse severity and emotion dysregulation may affect revictimization over one year in adult female sexual assault survivors. Exchanging sex for money and sexual refusal assertiveness were significantly associated with emotion dysregulation, whereas exchanging sex for money, and not sexual refusal assertiveness, was only significantly related to child sexual abuse severity. Both exchanging sex for money and sex refusal assertiveness mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and adult sexual revictimization. Exchanging sex for money mediated the child sexual abuse severity-revictimization relationship. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering both risky and protective sexual behaviors in research and prevention programming that address sexual revictimization in women. PMID:25942287

  10. Prostate Cancer and Sexual Function

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer is now ranked fifth in incidence among cancers in Korean adult males. This is attributable to the more Westernized dietary style which increases the morbidity of prostate cancer and the development of cancer diagnostic technologies, such as prostate-specific antigen and advanced medical systems, increasing the rate of prostate cancer diagnosis. Prostate cancer effects include not only erectile dysfunction caused by the disease itself, but also by psychiatric disorders caused by prostate cancer or its treatments. Prostate cancer by itself reduces sexual desire and the frequency of sexual intercourse. Additionally, surgery or hormonal therapy to block testosterone further increases the frequency of erectile dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction following radical prostatectomy is primarily attributable to nerve injury caused by intraoperative nerve traction, thermal injury, ischemic injury, and local inflammatory reactions. Additionally, the absence of nocturnal penile tumescence causes persistent hypoxia of the corpus cavernosum, which, secondarily, causes anatomical and functional changes in the corpus cavernosum. Preservation of erectile function is one of the most significant issues for patients with local prostate cancer. Erectile dysfunction following radical prostatectomy is known to have various prognoses, depending on preservation of the neurovascular bundle, patient age, and preoperative erectile status. Intracavernosal injections, PDE5 inhibitors, and penile rehabilitation therapy using a vacuum constriction device after radical prostatectomy are known to improve the recovery of erectile function. Recently, testosterone replacement therapy has also drawn attention as a treatment method. PMID:23596596

  11. Stress and hormones.

    PubMed

    Ranabir, Salam; Reetu, K

    2011-01-01

    In the modern environment one is exposed to various stressful conditions. Stress can lead to changes in the serum level of many hormones including glucocorticoids, catecholamines, growth hormone and prolactin. Some of these changes are necessary for the fight or flight response to protect oneself. Some of these stressful responses can lead to endocrine disorders like Graves' disease, gonadal dysfunction, psychosexual dwarfism and obesity. Stress can also alter the clinical status of many preexisting endocrine disorders such as precipitation of adrenal crisis and thyroid storm. PMID:21584161

  12. Low sexual desire--is it all in her head? Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

    PubMed

    Simon, James A

    2010-11-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is thought to be the most prevalent form of female sexual dysfunction (FSD), affecting up to 1 in 10 US women. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder is defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) as persistent or recurrent deficiency or absence of sexual fantasies and thoughts, and/or desire for, or receptivity to, sexual activity, which causes personal distress or interpersonal difficulties and is not caused by a medical condition or drug. This definition has recently received criticism and recommendations for changes encompass the inclusion of duration, intensity, and frequency, and the elimination of distress as a diagnostic criterion. More recently, it has been suggested that arousal and desire be combined into one disorder for the upcoming DSM-V. Causes of low desire include chronic medical conditions, medications, surgeries, and psychosocial factors, but not necessarily increased age; both pre- and postmenopausal women can have HSDD, although the frequency appears to vary by age. Sexual function requires the complex interaction of multiple neurotransmitters and hormones, both centrally and peripherally, and sexual desire is considered the result of a complex balance between inhibitory and excitatory pathways in the brain. For example, dopamine, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone play an excitatory role, whereas serotonin and prolactin are inhibitory. Thus, decreased sexual desire could be due to a reduced level of excitatory activity, an increased level of inhibitory activity, or both. A number of validated self-report and clinician-administered instruments are available for assessing female sexual function; however, most have been used primarily in clinical research trials. The Decreased Sexual Desire Screener (DSDS) was developed for practicing clinicians who are neither trained nor specialized in FSD to assist in making an accurate diagnosis of generalized acquired HSDD. As our understanding of the pathophysiology of HSDD increases, it may become easier for physicians to identify and treat women with low sexual desire. PMID:21084789

  13. Responding to Sexual Assault

    E-print Network

    Ravikumar, B.

    University will not tolerate sexual assault in any form, including acquaintance rape. Where there is probable assault, we think of rape. However, rape is not the only type of sexual assault. These words can be used

  14. Rape (sexual assault) - overview

    MedlinePLUS

    Sex and rape; Date rape; Sexual assault ... Most estimates say that 80 - 90% of rapes are not reported to police. Current trends project that 1 in 3 American women will be sexually assaulted at some point during their ...

  15. Notes on sexuality & space

    E-print Network

    Jacobson, Samuel Ray

    2013-01-01

    Very little has been written on sexuality in architectural scholarship. Sexuality & Space (Princeton Architectural Press, 1992) contains the proceedings of an eponymous 1990 conference at Princeton University, and was both ...

  16. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePLUS

    ... noncontact abuse, such as exposure, voyeurism, and child pornography. Sexually abused children may also develop the following: ... in drawings, games, fantasies unusual aggressiveness, or suicidal behavior Child sexual abusers can make the child very ...

  17. SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... as: Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin; TeBG Formal name: Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Related tests: Testosterone , Free Testosterone, ... know? How is it used? The test for sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is primarily ordered in ...

  18. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test

    MedlinePLUS

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...

  19. Schooling & Sexualities: Teaching for a Positive Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laskey, Louise, Ed.; Beavis, Catherine, Ed.

    This collection of papers contains a Foreword by Jane Kenway, an Introduction by Louise Laskey and Catherine Beavis, and four sections. Section 1, Schools and the Social Construction of Sexuality, contains 3 chapters: (1) Power and Partnership? Challenging the Sexual Construction of Schooling (D. Denborough); (2) Where Do You Draw the Line?…

  20. Testosterone Affects Neural Gene Expression Differently in Male and Female Juncos: A Role for Hormones in

    E-print Network

    of behavioral endocrinological and ecological study, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), using a customTestosterone Affects Neural Gene Expression Differently in Male and Female Juncos: A Role and Female Juncos: A Role for Hormones in Mediating Sexual Dimorphism and Conflict. PLoS ONE 8(4): e61784

  1. Molecular cloning of anti-Müllerian hormone from the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Urushitani; Yoshinao Katsu; Shinichi Miyagawa; Satomi Kohno; Yasuhiko Ohta; Louis J. Guillette; Taisen Iguchi

    2011-01-01

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) plays an important role in male sex differentiation in vertebrates. AMH produced by Sertoli cells of the fetal testis induces regression of the Müllerian duct in mammalian species. In alligators, sexual differentiation is controlled by the temperature during egg incubation, termed temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). The TSD mechanism inducing sex differentiation is thought to be unique and

  2. ORIGINAL PAPER Sexual Self-Schemas, Sexual Dysfunction, and the Sexual Responses

    E-print Network

    Meston, Cindy

    ORIGINAL PAPER Sexual Self-Schemas, Sexual Dysfunction, and the Sexual Responses of Women with a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse Alessandra H. Rellini · Cindy M. Meston Received: 30 June 2009 / Revised to the mediating effects of sexual self-schemas on the sexual difficulties of women with a history of childhood

  3. Sexual Revictimization: The Role of Sexual Self-Esteem and Dysfunctional Sexual Behaviors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa K. Van Bruggen; Marsha G. Runtz; Helena Kadlec

    2006-01-01

    Disproportionately high rates of sexual revictimization have been noted among former victims of child sexual abuse (CSA), yet researchers have yet to determine the source of this apparent vulnerability to reexperience sexual violence. This study explores this issue by examining sexual self-esteem, sexual concerns, and sexual behaviors among 402 university women. Compared to women without a history of CSA (n

  4. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePLUS

    Sexual abuse is one form of child abuse. It includes a wide range of actions between a child and an adult or older child. ... child for pornography is also sexual abuse. Most sexual abusers know the ... If you think a child may have been abused, it's important to report it.

  5. Sexual Harassment in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, D'Ann

    1986-01-01

    In a recent BEST (Bureau of Evaluative Studies and Testing, Indiana University, Bloomington) survey, 10 percent of Indiana University women who responded had experienced some form of sexual harassment. Sexual harassment in education is any attention of a sexual nature from an instructor or professor which makes a student uncomfortable in class or…

  6. Bioidentical Hormones for Menopausal Hormone Therapy: Variation on a Theme

    PubMed Central

    Bythrow, Jenna

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Progesterone creams and natural or bioidentical compounded estrogen preparations are being promoted to consumers as safe alternatives to conventional menopausal hormone therapy and as health-promoting tonics. No reliable data support these claims. SAFETY Natural hormones, including estradiol, estriol, estrone, and progesterone, can be expected to have the same adverse event profile as conventional menopausal hormone regimens. SALIVARY HORMONE TESTS Salivary tests may be used to persuade asymptomatic consumers to use hormones (or symptomatic patients to use higher doses than those needed to mitigate symptoms), a practice that can be expected to result in adverse events. PMID:17549577

  7. Menopausal Hormone Therapy

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... researchers say these findings "provide valuable information to women considering various options for managing menopausal symptoms." I'm Dr. Cindy Haines of HealthDay TV with the information you need to protect your health. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Hormone Replacement Therapy Menopause ...

  8. Hormones and Hypertension

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and factors such as eating too much salt, obesity, and the use of tobacco, alcohol, and certain medications play a part. Hormones made in the kidneys and in blood vessels play a key role in the start and continuation of primary hypertension. Secondary hypertension is due to other diseases such ...

  9. Mechanisms of crosstalk between endocrine systems: regulation of sex steroid hormone synthesis and action by thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Duarte-Guterman, Paula; Navarro-Martín, Laia; Trudeau, Vance L

    2014-07-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are well-known regulators of development and metabolism in vertebrates. There is increasing evidence that THs are also involved in gonadal differentiation and reproductive function. Changes in TH status affect sex ratios in developing fish and frogs and reproduction (e.g., fertility), hormone levels, and gonad morphology in adults of species of different vertebrates. In this review, we have summarized and compared the evidence for cross-talk between the steroid hormone and thyroid axes and present a comparative model. We gave special attention to TH regulation of sex steroid synthesis and action in both the brain and gonad, since these are important for gonad development and brain sexual differentiation and have been studied in many species. We also reviewed research showing that there is a TH system, including receptors and enzymes, in the brains and gonads in developing and adult vertebrates. Our analysis shows that THs influences sex steroid hormone synthesis in vertebrates, ranging from fish to pigs. This concept of crosstalk and conserved hormone interaction has implications for our understanding of the role of THs in reproduction, and how these processes may be dysregulated by environmental endocrine disruptors. PMID:24685768

  10. Clustering of sex hormone disruptors in Singapore's marine environment.

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yinhan; Chin, Hong Soon; Lim, Lis Sa Elissa; Loy, Chong Jin; Obbard, Jeffrey P; Yong, E L

    2003-01-01

    Abnormal sexual differentiation and other reproductive abnormalities in marine animals indicate the presence in seawater of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) that perturb the function of the sex hormone signaling pathways. However, most studies to date have reported on EDC effects in freshwater and sewage samples, and there is a paucity of bioassay data on the effects of EDCs in marine waters. Our aims in this study were to devise robust methodologies suitable for extracting potential EDCs and to measure their summated effects on activities of androgen receptors (ARs) and estrogen receptors (ER-alpha and ER-beta) in marine samples from Singapore's coastal waters. In this study, we examined the ability of C18, hydrophilic and lipophilic balance, and diol cartridges to extract potential EDCs from seawater samples. Extracts from C18 cartridges exhibited the highest sex hormone bioactivities in reporter gene assays based on a human cell line expressing AR, ER-alpha, and ER-beta. Examination of extracts from 20 coastal locations showed high androgenic and estrogenic agonist activities in confined clusters closest to the main island of Singapore. Sex hormone activity declined rapidly in clusters farther from the main coastline and in more open waters. Unexpectedly, surface and mid-depth samples from the confined high-activity clusters, in the presence of hormone, exhibited AR and ER-alpha activities that were 200-900% higher than those observed for the cognate hormone alone. This enhanced sex hormone activity suggests that analyses of complex seawater mixtures may uncover unusual bioactivities that may not be obvious by studying individual compounds. Our data present a "snapshot" of the sex hormone disruptor activity in Singapore's marine environment and indicate that C18 extraction for EDCs used in conjunction with reporter gene bioassays represents a robust and sensitive methodology for measuring summated androgenic and estrogenic activities in seawater. PMID:12948882

  11. Necrophilia and sexual homicide.

    PubMed

    Stein, Michelle L; Schlesinger, Louis B; Pinizzotto, Anthony J

    2010-03-01

    A closed case-file review of 211 sexual homicides identified 16 cases of necrophilia. The results of this unique descriptive study of necrophilia associated with sexual homicide provide information on crime-scene locations, methods of killing, body disposition, premortem sexual assault, specifics of the necrophilic acts, methods of victim abduction, and motivational dynamics. The findings suggest that the most common explanation for necrophilia-the offender's desire to have an unresisting partner-may not always be applicable in cases where this rare paraphilia is connected to sexual murder. The possibility of using crime-scene behaviors in these cases to investigate serial sexual murders is offered. PMID:20102474

  12. Survivorship: sexual dysfunction (male), version 1.2013.

    PubMed

    Denlinger, Crystal S; Carlson, Robert W; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K Scott; Davis, Elizabeth; Edge, Stephen B; Friedman, Debra L; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S; Ligibel, Jennifer A; McCabe, Mary S; McVary, Kevin T; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; O'Connor, Tracey; Paskett, Electra D; Raza, Muhammad; Syrjala, Karen L; Urba, Susan G; Wakabayashi, Mark T; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole; Freedman-Cass, Deborah

    2014-03-01

    Various anticancer treatments, especially those directed toward the pelvis, can damage blood vessels and reduce circulation of blood to the penis and/or damage the autonomic nervous system, resulting in higher rates of erectile dysfunction in survivors than in the general population. In addition, hormonal therapy can contribute to sexual problems, as can depression and anxiety, which are common in cancer survivors. This section of the NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship provides screening, evaluation, and treatment recommendations for male sexual problems, namely erectile dysfunction. PMID:24616541

  13. Survivorship: Sexual Dysfunction (Male), Version 1.2013

    PubMed Central

    Denlinger, Crystal S.; Carlson, Robert W.; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K. Scott; Davis, Elizabeth; Edge, Stephen B.; Friedman, Debra L.; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S.; Ligibel, Jennifer A.; McCabe, Mary S.; McVary, Kevin T.; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G.; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; O’Connor, Tracey; Paskett, Electra D.; Raza, Muhammad; Syrjala, Karen L.; Urba, Susan G.; Wakabayashi, Mark T.; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole; Freedman-Cass, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Various anticancer treatments, especially those directed toward the pelvis, can damage blood vessels and reduce circulation of blood to the penis and/or damage the autonomic nervous system, resulting in higher rates of erectile dysfunction in survivors than in the general population. In addition, hormonal therapy can contribute to sexual problems, as can depression and anxiety, which are common in cancer survivors. This section of the NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship provides screening, evaluation, and treatment recommendations for male sexual problems, namely erectile dysfunction. PMID:24616541

  14. Human sexual response.

    PubMed

    Basson, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The human sexual response to sexually arousing stimuli is a motivational incentive-based cycle comprising subjective experience and physiologic changes. Clinical and empirical data support a circular model of overlapping phases of variable order. Brain imaging data of sexual arousal identify areas of cerebral activation and inhibition reflecting a complex network of cognitive, motivational, emotional, and autonomic components. Psychologic and biologic factors influence the brain's appraisal and processing of sexual stimuli to allow or disallow subsequent arousal. The sexual and non-sexual outcomes influence motivation to future sexual intimacy. Variability is marked both between individuals and within a person's sexual life, influenced by multiple factors, including stage of life cycle, mental health, and relationship happiness. Neurologic disease can interrupt the cycle at many points: by limiting motivation, reducing ability to attend to and feel sexual stimuli, and accomplishing the movements needed to stimulate and experience intercourse. Impairments to genital congestion, penile erection, and orgasm may also occur. Disease-associated changes to the interpersonal relationship and self-image plus frequently comorbid depression will tend to lessen motivation and temper the brain's appraisal of sexual stimuli, so precluding arousal. Therapy begins by explaining the sexual response cycle, clarifying the points of interruption in the patient's own cycle so as to guide treatment. PMID:26003236

  15. Serotonin signaling in the brain of adult female mice is required for sexual preference

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shasha; Liu, Yan; Rao, Yi

    2013-01-01

    A role for serotonin in male sexual preference was recently uncovered by our finding that male mutant mice lacking serotonin have lost sexual preference. Here we show that female mouse mutants lacking either central serotonergic neurons or serotonin prefer female over male genital odors when given a choice, and displayed increased female–female mounting when presented either with a choice of a male and a female target or only with a female target. Pharmacological manipulations and genetic rescue experiments showed that serotonin is required in adults. Behavioral changes caused by deficient serotonergic signaling were not due to changes in plasma concentrations of sex hormones. We demonstrate that a genetic manipulation reverses sexual preference without involving sex hormones. Our results indicate that serotonin controls sexual preference. PMID:23716677

  16. An XX female with sexual infantilism, absent gonads, and lack of Müllerian ducts.

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, G; Zárate, A; Guzmán-Toledano, R; Canales, E S; Jiménez, M

    1976-01-01

    A patient with a 46,XX chromosome constitution showed the following main characteristics: lack of secondary sexual development, female external genitalia with absence of vagina, no gonadal structures, and complete lack of internal genitalia. This is a variant of the gonadal agenesis syndrome so far only described in association with and XY chromosome component. Endrocinology demonstrated that in the absence of gonadal feedback the pituitary responsiveness to synthetic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone was increased. Images PMID:1271429

  17. Obtención de perfiles teóricos de elementos metálicos con velocidades macroscópicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirigliano, D.; Costa, A.; Rovira, M.

    El propósito de este trabajo es poder establecer -a partir de la modelización de perfiles de distintas especies- patrones de comparación observacional que permitan caracterizar los fenómenos físicos que están presentes en las estructuras que se observan. Para ello se resuelven las ecuaciones de equilibrio de ionización para un determinado átomo y una atmósfera de parámetros determinados. A partir de ello se definen las poblaciones para los distintos grados de ionización. Considerando distintas configuraciones e intensidades de flujos de masa se deducen la función fuente, el espesor óptico y se calculan los perfiles de las distintas líneas. Se obtuvieron perfiles teóricos de líneas del CII, CIV y del OIV para flujos entrante, saliente y pasante. La forma del perfil, las intensidades relativas entre los distintos flujos y el corrimiento Doppler da cuenta de una caracterización teórica a partir de la cual se comparará con observaciones.

  18. Development of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area and the influence of estrogen-like compounds.

    PubMed

    He, Zhen; Ferguson, Sherry Ann; Cui, Li; Greenfield, Lazar John; Paule, Merle Gale

    2013-10-15

    One of the well-defined sexually dimorphic structures in the brain is the sexually dimorphic nucleus, a cluster of cells located in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus. The rodent sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area can be delineated histologically using conventional Nissl staining or immunohistochemically using calbindin D28K immunoreactivity. There is increasing use of the bindin D28K-delineated neural cluster to define the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area in rodents. Several mechanisms are proposed to underlie the processes that contribute to the sexual dimorphism (size difference) of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area. Recent evidence indicates that stem cell activity, including proliferation and migration presumably from the 3(rd) ventricle stem cell niche, may play a critical role in the postnatal development of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area and its distinguishing sexually dimorphic feature: a signifi-cantly larger volume in males. Sex hormones and estrogen-like compounds can affect the size of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area. Despite considerable research, it remains un-clear whether estrogen-like compounds and/or sex hormones increase size of the sexually dimor-phic nucleus of the preoptic area via an increase in stem cell activity originating from the 3(rd) ventricle stem cell niche. PMID:25206587

  19. Can Ayahuasca and sleep loss change sexual performance in male rats?

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, T A; Polesel, D N; Matos, G; Garcia, V A; Costa, J L; Tufik, S; Andersen, M L

    2014-10-01

    The ingestion of the beverage Ayahuasca usually occurs in religious ceremonies that are performed during the night leading to sleep deprivation. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the acute effects of Ayahuasca upon the sexual response of sleep deprived male rats. One group of sexually experienced male Wistar rats were submitted to a paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) protocol for 96h, while another group spent the same amount of time in the home cage (CTRL). After this period, either saline or Ayahuasca drink (250, 500 and 1000?gmL(-1)) was administered by gavage and sexual behavior and hormonal concentrations were measured. Ayahuasca alone significantly decreased sexual performance at all doses. However, in sleep deprived rats, the lower dose increased sexual performance while the intermediate dose produced a detrimental effect on sexual response compared to the CTRL rats at the same dose. Regarding the hormonal analyses, a lower testosterone concentration was observed in sleep-deprived saline rats in relation to the CTRL group. Progesterone was significantly lower only in PSD rats at the dose 500?gmL(-1) compared with CTRL-500?gmL(-1) group. Corticosterone was unchanged among the groups evaluated. Our results suggest that Ayahuasca intake markedly impaired sexual performance alone, but, when combined with sleep deprivation, had significant, but heterogeneous, effects on male sexual response. PMID:25256159

  20. RESPONSE TO SEXUAL DISCRIMINATION/HARASSMENT Sexual Harassment

    E-print Network

    Mayfield, John

    , written or electronic. Determination as to whether the alleged conduct constitutes sexual harassmentRESPONSE TO SEXUAL DISCRIMINATION/HARASSMENT Sexual Harassment Sexual harassment is a form of discrimination, as defined in the university Discrimination and Harassment policy. Sexual harassment can include

  1. Brandeis University prohibits all forms of sexual misconduct (including sexual

    E-print Network

    Snider, Barry B.

    Brandeis University prohibits all forms of sexual misconduct (including sexual assault, sexual of the resources below for help. A RESOURCE GUIDE FOR SExUAl ASSAUlt SURVIVORS Updated May 2014 Office Of c AND ASSISTANCE Sexual assault Services and prevention Specialist Sheila McMahon 781-736-3626 smcmahon

  2. A New Paradigm for Understanding Women's Sexuality and Sexual Orientation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Letitia Anne Peplau; Linda D. Garnets

    2000-01-01

    Major scientific findings about women's sexuality and sexual orientation are reviewed. Sexual orientation is unrelated to mental health. There is no inherent association between gender conformity and women's sexual orientation; mascu- linity and femininity are linked to sexual orientation in some social contexts but not in others. Research has so far failed to identify major biological or childhood ante- cedents

  3. Late Adolescent Girls' Sexual Experiences and Sexual Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Impett, Emily A.; Tolman, Deborah L.

    2006-01-01

    This study presented and tested a model of sexual satisfaction for late adolescent girls. In this model, sexual self-concept and approach sexual motives were tested as predictors of adolescent girls' sexual satisfaction with their most recent experience of sexual intercourse. A total of 116 girls in 12th grade (ages 16-19) completed measures of…

  4. Sexual At-Risk Behaviors of Sexually Abused Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinq-Mars, Caroline; Wright, John; Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigated sexual at-risk behaviors of sexually abused adolescent girls. Variables of interest were presence of consensual sexual activity, age at first consensual intercourse, number of sexual partners, condom use, and pregnancies. Participants were 125 sexually abused adolescent girls aged 12 to 17 years. Results showed that…

  5. Expression and Differential Effects of the Activation of Glucocorticoid Receptors in Mouse Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donatella Dondi; Margherita Piccolella; Elio Messi; Marek Demissie; Anna Cariboni; Silvia Selleri; Flavio Piva; Athina Samara; G. Giacomo Consalez; Roberto Maggi

    2005-01-01

    Prenatal exposure of rodents to glucocorticoids (Gc) affects the sexual development of the offspring, possibly interfering with the differentiation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Glucocorticoid receptors (GR) are present on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in the rat hypothalamus, suggesting a direct effect of Gc in the control of the synthesis and\\/or release of the hormone. In this study, we demonstrate the

  6. The wound hormone jasmonate

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Abraham J.K.; Howe, Gregg A.

    2009-01-01

    Plant tissues are highly vulnerable to injury by herbivores, pathogens, mechanical stress, and other environmental insults. Optimal plant fitness in the face of these threats relies on complex signal transduction networks that link damage-associated signals to appropriate changes in metabolism, growth, and development. Many of these wound-induced adaptive responses are triggered by de novo synthesis of the plant hormone jasmonate (JA). Recent studies provide evidence that JA mediates systemic wound responses through distinct cell autonomous and nonautonomous pathways. In both pathways, bioactive JAs are recognized by an F-box protein-based receptor system that couples hormone binding to ubiquitin-dependent degradation of transcriptional repressor proteins. These results provide a new framework for understanding how plants recognize and respond to tissue injury. PMID:19695649

  7. Thyroid Hormone Replacement Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilmar M. Wiersinga

    2001-01-01

    Thyroid hormone replacement has been used for more than 100 years in the treatment of hypothyroidism, and there is no doubt about its overall efficacy. Desiccated thyroid contains both thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3); serum T3 frequently rises to supranormal values in the absorption phase, associated with palpitations. Liothyronine (T3) has the same drawback and requires twice-daily administration in view

  8. Growth hormone and aging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrzej Bartke; Holly Brown-Borg; Beth Kinney; Julie Mattison; Chris Wright; Steven Hauck; Karen Coschigano; John Kopchick

    2000-01-01

    The potential usefulness of growth hormone (GH) as an anti-aging therapy is of considerable current interest. Secretion of\\u000a GH normally declines during aging and administration of GH can reverse age-related changes in body composition. However, mutant\\u000a dwarf mice with congenital GH deficiency and GH resistant GH-R-KO mice live much longer than their normal siblings, while\\u000a a pathological elevation of GH

  9. Youth Who Sexual Offended

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Li Lian; Zeng, Gerald; Teoh, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increased focus on understanding youth sexual offending in recent years, but there has been limited empirical research on the causes, pathways, and treatment of youth who have sexually offended—especially within a non-Western context. The Good Lives and Self-Regulation Models have often been used to understand and rehabilitate adult sexual offenders, but (unfortunately) there is scant research on youth who sexually offended using these models. The present study aims to describe the different primary goods that are associated with youth sexual offending behaviors in an Asian context. In addition, the study sought to explore whether the age of victim (child vs. nonchild) and nature of sexual offense (penetrative vs. nonpenetrative) influenced the youth’s engagement in offense pathways. The results suggest that pleasure, relatedness, and inner peace were the primary human goods that were most sought after by a sample of 168 youth who sexually offended in Singapore. In addition, offender classification (in relation to the age of victim and nature of sexual offense) influenced the pathways to sexual offending. Therefore, these findings have important clinical implications for assessment, management, and intervention planning for youth who sexually offended. PMID:24048701

  10. Insect adipokinetic hormones.

    PubMed

    Beenakkers, A M; Bloemen, R E; De Vlieger, T A; Van der Horst, D J; Van Marrewijk, W J

    1985-01-01

    Peptides with adipokinetic (and usually carbohydrate-mobilizing) potency have been demonstrated in various insects, including Locusta migratoria, Schistocerca gregaria, Manduca sexta, Danaus plexippus and Periplaneta americana. As far as characterized by now the adipokinetic factors are blocked peptides, consisting of eight to ten amino acid residues. In locusts the adipokinetic hormones are synthesized in the glandular lobe of the corpus cardiacum and released into the haemolymph in response to flight stimuli. This release is under direct control of neurons, the cell bodies of which are located in the lateral areas of the protocerebrum, while their axons run via the nervi corporis cardiaci II into the glandular lobe. Hormone release is modulated by axons present in the nervi corporis cardiaci I as well as by the haemolymph trehalose concentration. Trehalose apparently exerts its influence via a neuronal network present in the corpus cardiacum. The fat body is the main target organ of the adipokinetic hormones, which are involved in both mobilization and release of flight substrates from fat body stores, i.e., trehalose from glycogen and diacylglycerol from triacylglycerol. Lipid release is accompanied by haemolymph lipoprotein conversions. PMID:3831971

  11. The Evolution of Sexual Pleasure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felicia De la Garza-Mercer

    2007-01-01

    Sexual pleasure is an innate component of human sexuality. Although disdained throughout history by religious groups and variably explained by theories, philosophers, and societies, sexual pleasure permeates human experience. Traditional evolutionists explain this preoccupation via the development of sexual mating strategies and the human desire to propagate one's genes; however, here I will argue that the saturation of sexual pleasure

  12. Nonvolitional Sex and Sexual Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debra Kalmuss

    2004-01-01

    Nonvolitional sex is sexual behavior that violates a person's right to choose when and with whom to have sex and what sexual behaviors to engage in. The more extreme forms of this behavior include rape, forced sex, childhood sexual abuse, sex trafficking, and violence against people with nonconventional sexual identities. More nuanced forms of nonvolitional sex include engaging in sexual

  13. The adrenal cortex and sexual differentiation during early human development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel J. Asby; Wiebke Arlt; Neil A. Hanley

    2009-01-01

    Human sexual differentiation is a critical process whereby a strict dimorphism is established that enables future reproductive\\u000a success as phenotypic males and females. Significant components of this differentiation pathway unfold during the first three\\u000a months of gestation when they are sensitive to disruption by abnormal hormonal influences. Excessive exposure of female development\\u000a to androgens in conditions such as congenital adrenal

  14. Exotic becomes erotic: A developmental theory of sexual orientation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daryl J. Bern

    1996-01-01

    A developmental theory of erotic\\/romantic attraction is presented that provides the same basic account for opposite-sex and same-sex desire in both men and women. It proposes that biological variables, such as genes, prenatal hormones, and brain neuroanatomy, do not code for sexual orien- tation per se but for childhood temperaments that influence a child's preferences for sex-typical or sex-atypical activities

  15. Sexuality: sexual activity and contraception during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Creatsas, G K

    1993-12-01

    Adolescent sexual activity is increasing. Premature sexual intercourse results in high figures of adolescent pregnancy and abortion, as well as in increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Lack of information on the prevention of STDs and poor hygiene in both boys and girls are also main reasons for increased morbidity because of STDs during adolescence. Contraceptive behaviour during adolescence varies between countries and communities. It seems, however, that the condom and oral contraceptives (OC) are popular contraceptive methods. Ineffective methods such as periodic abstinence, coitus interruptus, and withdrawal before ejaculation are in use. On the other hand, compliance of adolescents on contraception is poor. The above are additional causes for increasing rates of adolescent pregnancies. Countries providing sexual education programs in schools present lower rates of pregnancy and abortion. Adolescent pregnancy is safe if a careful follow up is accepted by the teenager. A significant number of homeless youth are homosexuals or lesbian adolescents. Most of them are at high risk for HIV infection, AIDS, and STDs. It is concluded that sexual education programs are absolutely necessary to offer adolescents the knowledge on the complications of premature sexual activity, as well as prevention of the undesired pregnancy and STDs. PMID:8286689

  16. Sexual interest, attitudes, knowledge, and sexual history in relation to sexual behavior in the institutionalized aged

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles B. White

    1982-01-01

    Although the idea that sexuality is a lifelong need is gaining greater research support and greater acceptability to the general public, few consider the institutionalized aged as having sexual needs or being able to benefit from sexual intimacy. The research presented here indicates that sexual activity in the institutionalized aged is related to their attitudes and behavior to ward sexuality

  17. ORIGINAL PAPER Sexual Self-Schemas, Sexual Dysfunction, and the Sexual Responses

    E-print Network

    Meston, Cindy

    ORIGINAL PAPER Sexual Self-Schemas, Sexual Dysfunction, and the Sexual Responses of Women with a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse Alessandra H. Rellini · Cindy M. Meston Received: 30 June 2009 / Revised access at Springerlink.com Abstract Accumulating evidence points to the mediating effects of sexual self

  18. Parental Non-verbal Sexual Communication: Its Relationship to Sexual Behaviour and Sexual Guilt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hélène Joffe; Ana ClÁUdia Franca-Koh

    2001-01-01

    The study explores the link between remembered non-verbal sexual communication in the home, current sexual behaviours and feelings of sexual guilt, among a sample of young British men and women. Non-verbal sexual communication encapsulates: openness about nudity in the home; the showing of affection between parents; signs of parental sexual activity and contraceptive use; and intimation of mother's menstruation. One

  19. Female sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jennifer J; O'Connor, Kim M

    2015-05-01

    Female sexual dysfunction is a common patient concern. After providing an overview regarding the various types of female sexual dysfunction, we will focus on history taking and treatment options for desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain disorders. Testosterone therapy and management of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-associated sexual dysfunction are reviewed. Treatments for atrophic vaginitis are appraised. Patient cases lead the discussion, providing the reader with clinically relevant information. PMID:25841603

  20. [Sexuality and urological diseases].

    PubMed

    Droupy, Stéphane

    2014-10-01

    Patients with lower urinary tract symptoms related to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) frequently suffer from sexual dysfunction (erectile dysfunction and ejaculatory dysfunction). Erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation are two times more common in men with chronic pelvic pain/chronic prostatitis. All treatments of prostate cancer are responsible for sexual dysfunctions. Sexual disorders frequently appear during the management of infertile couples. Information and support should be offered to couples. Women with urinary incontinence also suffer frequently from coital incontinence. PMID:25201599

  1. Transsexuals' Sexual Stories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas P. Schrock; Lori L. Reid

    2006-01-01

    When viewed through a popular cultural lens, male-to-female transsexuals' sexual biographies can appear to indicate male transvestitism,\\u000a heterosexuality, or homosexuality rather than transsexuality. How do transsexuals subvert such implications and construct\\u000a transsexual identities? Drawing on K. Plummer's (1995) approach to sexual stories, we examine how nine male-to-female transsexuals\\u000a construct their sexual pasts to accomplish what sociologists call “identity work.” Interviewees

  2. Support for the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis in the wild: hormonal manipulation decreases survival in sick damselflies.

    PubMed

    González-Tokman, Daniel M; Munguía-Steyer, Roberto; González-Santoyo, Isaac; Baena-Díaz, Fernanda S; Córdoba-Aguilar, Alex

    2012-10-01

    The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis (ICHH) states that hormones enhance sexual trait expression but impair immunity. Previous tests of the ICHH have been hampered by experimental design problems. Here, we report on an experimental test of the ICHH that includes manipulations of both hormones and infections in males of the territorial damselfly, Hetaerina americana, with accurate survival measurements. We conducted a fully factorial experiment subjecting each individual to one of three topical treatments: methoprene (a juvenile hormone analog), acetone, or control, and one of three injection treatments: bacteria, PBS, or control. We measured survival of manipulated males in both the wild and in captivity. As predicted, survival was most heavily impaired in methoprene-bacteria males than in the other groups in the wild, and no survival differences emerged in captive animals. This result confirms that survival is one cost an animal pays for increased hormonal levels. This corroborates theoretical predictions of the ICHH. PMID:23025617

  3. Sexual Orientation Disparities in Sexually Transmitted Infections: Examining the Intersection Between Sexual Identity and Sexual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Everett, Bethany G.

    2013-01-01

    The terms MSM (men who have sex with men) and WSW (women who have sex with women) have been used with increasing frequency in the public health literature to examine sexual orientation disparities in sexual health. These categories, however, do not allow researchers to examine potential differences in sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk by sexual orientation identity. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health, this study investigated the relationship between self-reported STIs and both sexual orientation identity and sexual behaviors. Additionally, this study examined the mediating role of victimization and STI risk behaviors on the relationship between sexual orientation and self-reported STIs. STI risk was found to be elevated among heterosexual-WSW and bisexual women, whether they report same-sex partners or not, whereas gay-identified WSW were less likely to report an STI compared to heterosexual women with opposite sex relationships only. Among males, heterosexual-identified MSM did not have a greater likelihood of reporting an STI diagnosis; rather, STI risk was concentrated among gay and bisexual identified men who reported both male and female sexual partners. STI risk behaviors mediated the STI disparities among both males and females, and victimization partially mediated STI disparities among female participants. These results suggest that relying solely on behavior-based categories, such as MSM and WSW, may mischaracterize STI disparities by sexual orientation. PMID:22350122

  4. Sexually transmitted proctitis.

    PubMed

    Sigle, Gavin W; Kim, Rebekah

    2015-06-01

    There are many different sexually transmitted infections that can cause proctitis. Recognition of the common symptoms with anoscopic examination is crucial in accurate diagnosis of the pathogen. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion of more than one inciting pathogen. Treatment should be prompt and extended to sexual partners who have been exposed to the disease. Effective treatment can alleviate the discomfort and potentially serious complications associated with sexually transmitted proctitides. This article illustrates and discusses the clinical presentations, diagnostic pearls, and treatments of sexually transmitted proctitides. PMID:26034402

  5. Sexual assault documentation program.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Vickie; Heger, Astrid; Rogers, Christopher; Sathyavagiswaran, Lakshmanan

    2012-03-01

    Since 2001, the Los Angeles County Department of Coroner has collaborated with Los Angeles County-University of Southern California Medical Center Violence Intervention Program and their Sexual Assault Center. The partnership was established at the suggestion of the district attorney's office to enhance the clinical recognition of sexual assault in the medical examiner's office using the extensive experience of experts in the field of sexual assault. As of December 2008, over 5 dozen victims of sexual assault have been evaluated with this collaboration. The partnership relied on the expertise of 2 pediatricians who are established clinical experts in the field of sexual abuse and assault, in collaboration with the staff of the medical examiner's office. In cases of suspected sexual assault, a joint evaluation by the clinical experts and the medical examiner was made. The goal of the project was for the medical examiners to become more confident in their observations and documentation of crimes of sexual abuse. Even though they are still available upon request, consultations with the sexual assault experts have decreased as the skills of the medical examiner to evaluate sexual assault cases have increased. PMID:22442832

  6. Academic Sexual Correctness

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This list on the subject of academic sexual correctness(ASC-L). ASC-L was an outgrowth of CASE (Consenting Academics for Sexual Equity), founded in early 1994 by both professors and students to combat a concerted "feminist" campaign against students and professors who had become involved in an intimate(romantic) relationship. CASE dealt with only one small area of the current emphasis on sexual correctness in academia. Consequently, the need for a network that focused on all aspects of academic sexual correctness became apparent; the ASC-L was a response to that need. ASC-L encompasses all aspects of campus sexual control issues -- irrespective of their ideological origins, such as sexual consent issues, sexual discrimination issues (irrespective of the subjects of the discrimination) and attempts to regulate sexual content of speech on campus or sexual content of course materials. The principles of consent, privacy and academic freedom are the core principles which have motivated the founding of ASC-L.

  7. Conservation of progesterone hormone function in invertebrate reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Stout, E. Paige; La Clair, James J.; Snell, Terry W.; Shearer, Tonya L.; Kubanek, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Steroids play fundamental roles regulating mammalian reproduction and development. Although sex steroids and their receptors are well characterized in vertebrates and several arthropod invertebrates, little is known about the hormones and receptors regulating reproduction in other invertebrate species. Evolutionary insights into ancient endocrine pathways can be gained by elucidating the hormones and receptors functioning in invertebrate reproduction. Using a combination of genomic analyses, receptor imaging, ligand identification, target elucidation, and exploration of function through receptor knockdown, we now show that comparable progesterone chemoreception exists in the invertebrate monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas, suggesting an ancient origin of the signal transduction systems commonly associated with the development and integration of sexual behavior in mammals. PMID:20547846

  8. Hormonal Interactions and Stomatal Responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian C. Dodd

    2003-01-01

    Both environmental and hormonal factors and their interactions affect stomatal behavior. Methodologies for identifying hormonal\\u000a interactions affecting stomatal function are reviewed. Although there is abundant evidence that abscisic acid (ABA) closes\\u000a stomata, evidence that the other classical plant hormones (auxins, cytokinins, ethylene, gibberellins) in isolation alter\\u000a stomatal response often comes from exogenous applications to detached epidermes and leaves, rather than

  9. Sexual Orientation Related Differences in Cortical Thickness in Male Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Abé, Christoph; Johansson, Emilia; Allzén, Elin; Savic, Ivanka

    2014-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated sex and also sexual orientation related structural and functional differences in the human brain. Genetic information and effects of sex hormones are assumed to contribute to the male/female differentiation of the brain, and similar effects could play a role in processes influencing human's sexual orientation. However, questions about the origin and development of a person's sexual orientation remain unanswered, and research on sexual orientation related neurobiological characteristics is still very limited. To contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to compare regional cortical thickness (Cth) and subcortical volumes of homosexual men (hoM), heterosexual men (heM) and heterosexual women (heW). hoM (and heW) had thinner cortices primarily in visual areas and smaller thalamus volumes than heM, in which hoM and heW did not differ. Our results support previous studies, which suggest cerebral differences between hoM and heM in regions, where sex differences have been reported, which are frequently proposed to underlie biological mechanisms. Thus, our results contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation. PMID:25479554

  10. Side Effects of Hormone Therapy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... My Bridge 4 Life Clinical Trials Guides Newsletters Nutrition & Wellness PCF Spotlight Glossary African American Men Living with Prostate Cancer Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects Urinary ...

  11. Sexual Self-Schemas of Female Child Sexual Abuse Survivors: Relationships with Risky Sexual Behavior and Sexual Assault in Adolescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashley F. NiehausJoan; Joan Jackson; Stephanie Davies

    2010-01-01

    Childhood sexual trauma has been demonstrated to increase survivors’ risk for engaging in unrestricted sexual behaviors and\\u000a experiencing adolescent sexual assault. The current study used the sexual self-schema construct to examine cognitive representations\\u000a of sexuality that might drive these behavioral patterns. In Study 1 (N = 774), we attempted to improve the content validity of the Sexual Self Schema Scale for child

  12. Sexual Self-Schemas, Sexual Dysfunction, and the Sexual Responses of Women with a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandra H. RelliniCindy; Cindy M. Meston

    2011-01-01

    Accumulating evidence points to the mediating effects of sexual self-schemas on the sexual difficulties of women with a history\\u000a of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The following study adds to the extant literature by investigating (1) sexual function and\\u000a (2) sexual satisfaction utilizing validated measures, and reporting on the relationship between sexual self-schemas and physiological\\u000a (vaginal photoplethysmography), subjective, and affective responses

  13. Thyroid Hormone Upregulates Hypothalamic kiss2 Gene in the Male Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Satoshi; Ng, Kai We; Xue, Xiaoyu; Ramadasan, Priveena Nair; Sivalingam, Mageswary; Li, Shuisheng; Levavi-Sivan, Berta; Lin, Haoran; Liu, Xiaochun; Parhar, Ishwar S.

    2013-01-01

    Kisspeptin has recently been recognized as a critical regulator of reproductive function in vertebrates. During the sexual development, kisspeptin neurons receive sex steroids feedback to trigger gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. In teleosts, a positive correlation has been found between the thyroid status and the reproductive status. However, the role of thyroid hormone in the regulation of kisspeptin system remains unknown. We cloned and characterized a gene encoding kisspeptin (kiss2) in a cichlid fish, the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Expression of kiss2 mRNA in the brain was analyzed by in situ hybridization. The effect of thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine, T3) and hypothyroidism with methimazole (MMI) on kiss2 and the three GnRH types (gnrh1, gnrh2, and gnrh3) mRNA expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. Expression of thyroid hormone receptor mRNAs were analyzed in laser-captured kisspeptin and GnRH neurons by RT-PCR. The kiss2 mRNA expressing cells were seen in the nucleus of the lateral recess in the hypothalamus. Intraperitoneal administration of T3 (5??g/g body weight) to sexually mature male tilapia significantly increased kiss2 and gnrh1 mRNA levels at 24?h post injection (P?hormone mRNA levels were insensitive to the thyroid hormone manipulations. Furthermore, RT-PCR showed expression of thyroid hormone receptor mRNAs in laser-captured GnRH neurons but not in kiss2 neurons. This study shows that GnRH1 may be directly regulated through thyroid hormone, while the regulation of Kiss2 by T3 is more likely to be indirect. PMID:24324459

  14. The dermatoglyphic characteristics of transsexuals: is there evidence for an organizing effect of sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Slabbekoorn, D; van Goozen, S H; Sanders, G; Gooren, L J; Cohen-Kettenis, P T

    2000-05-01

    It has been proposed that gender identity and sexual orientation are influenced by the prenatal sex steroid milieu. Human dermatoglyphics and brain asymmetry have also been ascribed to prenatal hormone levels. This study investigated dermatoglyphics (total ridge count and finger ridge asymmetry) in 184 male-to-female transsexuals and 110 female-to-male transsexuals. In a subgroup, the relationship between dermatoglyphic asymmetry and spatial ability was tested. All investigations included controls. For all subjects hand preference and sexual orientation were noted. We hypothesized that the dermatoglyphics of male-to-female transsexuals would show similarities with control women and those of female-to-male transsexuals with control men. Our results showed a trend for a sex difference in total ridge count (P<.1) between genetic males and females, but no difference in directional asymmetry was found. Contrary to our expectations, the total ridge count and finger ridge asymmetry of transsexuals were similar to their genetic sex controls. Additionally, directional asymmetry was neither related to sexual orientation, nor to different aspects of spatial ability. In conclusion, we were unable to demonstrate that our chosen dermatoglyphic variables, total ridge count and finger ridge asymmetry are related to gender identity and sexual orientation in adult transsexuals. Hence, we found no support for a prenatal hormonal influence on these characteristics, at least insofar as dermatoglyphics may be regarded as a biological marker of organizing hormonal effects. PMID:10725613

  15. Sprague-Dawley and Fischer Female Rats Differ in Acute Effects of Fluoxetine on Sexual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Miryala, C.S.J.; Hiegel, C.; Uphouse, L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), fluoxetine, leads to sexual dysfunction in a substantial proportion of women. In studies with the Fischer inbred rat, the 5-HT1A receptor has been implicated in this sexual dysfunction. Whether this association with 5-HT1A receptors holds for other rat strains is not known. Aim The effects of acute fluoxetine on sexual behavior in two strains of rats that differ in their response to a 5-HT1A receptor agonist were examined. Whether the strain difference is comparable in naturally cycling and hormonally primed, ovariectomized rats was determined. Main Outcome Measures Lordosis to mount ratios, lordosis quality, and proceptive behaviors were quantified. Sprague-Dawley and Fischer females were compared on each of these measures. The IC50 for inhibition of lordosis behavior was determined. Methods Proestrous rats and ovariectomized rats, hormonally primed with estradiol benzoate and progesterone, were treated with varying doses of fluoxetine. Sexual behavior was examined before and after treatment with the SSRI. Results In both the intact and the hormonally-primed, ovariectomized model, Sprague-Dawley females were less sensitive to the effects of fluoxetine on sexual behavior. In both groups, fluoxetine showed dose-dependency in behavioral inhibition, but a higher dose was required for Sprague-Dawley than for Fischer females. Naturally cycling, proestrous rats required a higher dose of fluoxetine than hormonally-primed ovariectomized rats to produce significant inhibition of sexual behavior. Thus, the strain difference in the response to fluoxetine does not parallel strain differences in the response to a 5-HT1A receptor agonist. Conclusions Acute treatment with fluoxetine inhibits lordosis behavior in both Fischer and Sprague-Dawley females and the strain difference cannot be explained by reported strain differences in the response to a 5-HT1A receptor agonist. Fluoxetine’s inhibition of female rat sexual behavior may involve effects of the SSRI in addition to activation of the 5-HT1A receptor. PMID:23110651

  16. Hormonal interactions and gene regulation can link monoecy and environmental plasticity to the evolution of dioecy in plants.

    PubMed

    Golenberg, Edward M; West, Nicholas W

    2013-06-01

    Most models for dioecy in flowering plants assume that dioecy arises directly from hermaphroditism through a series of independent feminizing and masculinizing mutations that become chromosomally linked. However, dioecy appears to evolve most frequently through monoecious grades. The major genetic models do not explain the evolution of unisexual flowers in monoecious and submonoecious populations, nor do they account for environmentally induced sexual plasticity. In this review, we explore the roles of environmental stress and hormones on sex determination, and propose a model that can explain the evolution of dioecy through monoecy, and the mechanisms of environmental sex determination. Environmental stresses elicit hormones that allow plants to mediate the negative effects of the stresses. Many of these same hormones are involved in the regulation of floral developmental genes. Recent studies have elucidated the mechanisms whereby these hormones interact and can act as switchpoints in regulatory pathways. Consequently, differential concentrations of plant hormones can regulate whole developmental pathways, providing a mechanism for differential development within isogenic individuals such as seen in monoecious plants. Sex-determining genes in such systems will evolve to generate clusters of coexpressed suites. Coexpression rather than coinheritance of gender-specific genes will define the sexual developmental fate. Therefore, selection for gender type will drive evolution of the regulatory sequences of such genes rather than their synteny. Subsequent mutations to hyper- or hyposensitive alleles within the hormone response pathway can result in segregating dioecious populations. Simultaneously, such developmental systems will remain sensitive to external stimuli that modify hormone responses. PMID:23538873

  17. Neuroendocrinology of Sexual Plasticity in Teleost Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Godwin, John

    2010-01-01

    The study of sex differences has produced major insights into the organization of animal phenotypes and the regulatory mechanisms generating phenotypic variation from similar genetic templates. Teleost fishes display the greatest diversity of sexual expression among vertebrate animals. This diversity appears to arise from diversity in the timing of sex determination and less functional interdependence among the components of sexuality relative to tetrapod vertebrates. Teleost model systems therefore provide powerful models for understanding gonadal and non-gonadal influences on behavioral and physiological variation. This review addresses socially controlled sex change and alternate male phenotypes in fishes. These sexual patterns are informative natural experiments that illustrate how variation in conserved neuroendocrine pathways can give rise to a wide range of reproductive adaptations. Key regulatory factors underlying sex change and alternative male phenotypes that have been identified to date include steroid hormones and the neuropeptides GnRH and arginine vasotocin, but genomic approaches are now implicating a diversity of other influences as well. PMID:20176046

  18. Neurobiology of DHEA and effects on sexuality, mood and cognition.

    PubMed

    Pluchino, N; Drakopoulos, P; Bianchi-Demicheli, F; Wenger, J M; Petignat, P; Genazzani, A R

    2015-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate ester, DHEAS, are the most abundant steroid hormones in the humans. However, their physiological significance, their mechanisms of action and their possible roles as treatment are not fully clarified. Biological actions of DHEA(S) in the brain involve neuroprotection, neurite growth, neurogenesis and neuronal survival, apoptosis, catecholamine synthesis and secretion, as well as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiglucocorticoid effects. In addition, DHEA affects neurosteroidogenis and endorphin synthesis/release. We also demonstrated in a model of ovariectomized rats that DHEA therapy increases proceptive behaviors, already after 1 week of treatment, affecting central function of sexual drive. In women, the analyses of clinical outcomes are far from being conclusive and many issues should still be addressed. Although DHEA preparations have been available in the market since the 1990s, there are very few definitive reports on the biological functions of this steroid. We demonstrate that 1 year DHEA administration at the dose of 10mg provided a significant improvement in comparison with vitamin D in sexual function and in frequency of sexual intercourse in early postmenopausal women. Among symptomatic women, the spectrum of symptoms responding to DHEA requires further investigation, to define the type of sexual symptoms (e.g. decreased sexual function or hypoactive sexual desire disorder) and the degree of mood/cognitive symptoms that could be responsive to hormonal treatment. In this regard, our findings are promising, although they need further exploration with a larger and more representative sample size. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Essential role of DHEA. PMID:24892797

  19. ‘Imported’ Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Romanowski, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    A sexual history should be routinely obtained from all travellers. Those whose symptoms indicate a sexually transmitted disease may need to be investigated for unusual infections. Resistant strains of gonorrhea are becoming a major concern. Chancroid should be considered in the differential diagnosis of genital ulcer disease. The possiblility of human immunodeficiency virus infection should be discussed with all these patients. PMID:21233914

  20. What is clinical sexuality?

    PubMed

    Levine, S B

    1995-03-01

    A collage of eight overlapping themes for the definition of sexuality is presented prior to undertaking a historical overview of the rapid development of the field that began in 1970 as "sex therapy." The limitations of theory, behavioral science, and the art of medicine as they apply to helping people with their sexual concerns are highlighted. PMID:7761299

  1. Aging and sexuality.

    PubMed Central

    Meston, C M

    1997-01-01

    Recent research suggesting that a high proportion of men and women remain sexually active well into later life refutes the prevailing myth that aging and sexual dysfunction are inexorably linked. Age-related physiological changes do not render a meaningful sexual relationship impossible or even necessarily difficult. In men, greater physical stimulation is required to attain and maintain erections, and orgasms are less intense. In women, menopause terminates fertility and produces changes stemming from estrogen deficiency. The extent to which aging affects sexual function depends largely on psychological, pharmacological, and illness-related factors. In this article I review the physiological sex-related changes that occur as part of the normal aging process in men and women. I also summarize the effects on sexual function of age-related psychological issues, illness factors, and medication use. An understanding of the sexual changes that accompany normal aging may help physicians give patients realistic and encouraging advice on sexuality. Although it is important that older men and women not fall into the psychosocial trap of expecting (or worse, trying to force) the kind and degree of sexual response characteristic of their youth, it is equally as important that they not fall prey to the negative folklore according to which decreased physical intimacy is an inevitable consequence of the passage of time. PMID:9348761

  2. Sexual Minorities Seeking Services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracey L. Rogers; Kristen Emanuel; Judith Bradford

    2002-01-01

    Understanding the mental health needs of lesbian and bisexual (sexual minority) women is an integral part of designing and providing appropriate mental health services and treatment for them. In an effort to understand the mental health needs of sexual minority women who seek community treatment, a chart review was conducted of the 223 lesbian and bisexual women who presented for

  3. Disclosing Sexual Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciarlante, Mitru

    2007-01-01

    Exploring the process of disclosure for youth who have been sexually victimized, this article provides strategies for creating an environment where sexual violence is not accepted and where youth feel safe disclosing. It also provides strategies for working with youth who haven't yet disclosed. (Contains 1 footnote.)

  4. Maternal Sexuality and Breastfeeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Alison

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the…

  5. Research Focus Stress hormones and mate choice

    E-print Network

    Husak, Jerry F.

    the interactions among glucocor- ticoid stress hormones, sex steroids and body condition. Stress hormones glucocor- ticoid hormones, sex steroids and body condition (Figure 1). The roles of sex steroids (such

  6. Steroid hormones and brain development: some guidelines for understanding actions of pseudohormones and other toxic agents

    SciTech Connect

    McEwen, B.S.

    1987-10-01

    Gonadal, adrenal, and thyroid hormones affect the brain directly, and the sensitivity to hormones begins in embryonic life with the appearance of hormone receptor sites in discrete populations of neurons. Because the secretion of hormones is also under control by its neural and pituitary targets, the brain-endocrine axis during development is in a delicately balanced state that can be upset in various ways, and any agent that disrupts normal hormone secretion can upset normal brain development. Moreover, exogenous substances that mimic the actions of natural hormones can also play havoc with CNS development and differentiation. This paper addresses these issues in the following order: First, actions of glucocorticoids on the developing nervous system related to cell division dendritic growth and neurotransmitter phenotype will be presented followed by a discussion of the developmental effects of synthetic steroids. Second, actions of estrogens related to brain sexual differentiation will be described, followed by a discussion of the actions of the nonsteroidal estrogen, diethylstilbestrol, as an example of exogenous estrogenic substances. The most important aspect of the potency of exogenous estrogens appears to be the degree to which they either bypass protective mechanisms or are subject to transformations to more active metabolites. Third, agents that influence hormone levels or otherwise modify the neuroendocrine system, such as nicotine, barbiturates, alcohol, opiates, and tetrahydrocannabinol, will be noted briefly to demonstrate the diversity of toxic agents that can influence neural development and affect personality, cognitive ability, and other aspects of behavior. 53 references.

  7. Psychopathy and sexual sadism.

    PubMed

    Mokros, Andreas; Osterheider, Michael; Hucker, Stephen J; Nitschke, Joachim

    2011-06-01

    Psychopathic personality disorder and sexual sadism share several common characteristics, such as emotional detachment from the suffering of others or the preparedness to inflict pain or injuries. Based on a sample of 100 male forensic patients (all of them sex offenders, half of them sadistic), the concept of psychopathy and sexual sadism as a unified construct was tested empirically. Pooling indicator variables for psychopathic and sexually sadistic disorders showed that a two-factorial solution yielded a better fit than a single-factor model. The two factors identified psychopathy and sexual sadism as separate latent variables. More specifically, the data were compatible with a path model in which affective deficits and behavioral disinhibition of the psychopathy domain are precursors to sexually sadistic conduct. PMID:20393872

  8. Sexual Desire Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Keith A.

    2008-01-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) and sexual aversion disorder (SAD) are an under-diagnosed group of disorders that affect men and women. Despite their prevalence, these two disorders are often not addressed by healthcare providers and patients due their private and awkward nature. As physicians, we need to move beyond our own unease in order to adequately address our patients’ sexual problems and implement appropriate treatment. Using the Sexual Response Cycle as the model of the physiological changes of humans during sexual stimulation and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition this article will review the current literature on the desire disorders focusing on prevalence, etiology, and treatment. PMID:19727285

  9. SEXUAL MATURATION IN GIRLS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF ESTROGEN-INDUCED

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SEXUAL MATURATION IN GIRLS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF ESTROGEN-INDUCED GONADOTROPIC HORMONE RELEASE J (measured by radioimmunoassay). Only in the group of girls in an advanced stage of puberty (premenarche P4 in two of the five girls at this advanced stage of puberty (P4) the maximum of plasma LH approached

  10. Effect of Testosterone Administration on Sexual Behavior and Mood in Men with Erectile Dysfunction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raul C. Schiavi; Daniel White; John Mandeli; Alice C. Levine

    1997-01-01

    This double-blind placebo controlled, cross-over study was carried out to assess the effect of testosterone administration on sexual behavior mood, and psychological symptoms in healthy men with erectile dysfunction. Biweekly injections of 200 mg of testosterone enanthate were given over a period of 6 weeks separated by a washout period of 4 weeks. Blood samples for hormonal assessment, behavioral and

  11. Effect of Long-Term Castration and Long-Term Androgen Treatment on Sexually Dimorphic

    E-print Network

    Crews, David

    Effect of Long-Term Castration and Long-Term Androgen Treatment on Sexually Dimorphic Estrogen be modified by steroid hormone manipulation. We castrated male whiptail lizards for 1 week (short term) or 6 that in male whiptail lizards, long-term castration increases sensitivity to estradiol as measured by induction

  12. Relationships Among Childhood Sex-Atypical Behavior, Spatial Ability, Handedness, and Sexual Orientation in Men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth M. Cohen

    2002-01-01

    Moderate support was obtained in a sample of 101 gay, bisexual, and heterosexual males for the perinatal hormone theory, which hypothesizes that attenuated levels of androgens during critical periods of male fetal development fail to masculinize and defeminize the brain. Affected individuals develop female-typical sexual orientation (assessed here by a pie chart) and cerebral organization, reflected in visual-spatial abilities and

  13. The Role of Feeding Regimens in Regulating Metabolism of Sexually Mature Broiler Breeders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A trial was conducted to determine the effects of different rearing feed regimens on plasma hormone and metabolite levels and hepatic lipid metabolism and gene expression on sexually mature broiler breeders. Cobb 500 birds were divided into two groups at 4 weeks of age and fed either everyday (ED) ...

  14. Hormone Therapy after Endometrial Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfred O. Mueck; Harald Seeger

    2004-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma is listed among the absolute contra-indications to hormone therapy. After all the existing opinions so far, hormone therapy after FIGO stage I or II endometrial cancer is still thought of as a possibility, and up to now the continuous combined oestrogen\\/progestogen replacement therapy would be recommended. However, until today, only observational studies have been put forward. Although no

  15. Hormonal control of inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    Farsky, Sandra P.

    1993-01-01

    Almost any stage of inflammatory and immunological responses is affected by hormone actions. This provides the basis for the suggestion that hormones act as modulators of the host reaction against trauma and infection. Specific hormone receptors are detected in the reactive structures in inflamed areas and binding of hormone molecules to such receptors results in the generation of signals that influence cell functions relevant for the development of inflammatory responses. Diversity of hormonal functions accounts for recognized pro- and anti-inflammatory effects exerted by these substances. Most hormone systems are capable of influencing inflammatory events. Insulin and glucocorticoids, however, exert direct regulatory effects at concentrations usually found in plasma. Insulin is endowed with facilitatory actions on vascular reactivity to inflammatory mediators and inflammatory cell functions. Increased concentrations of circulating glucocorticoids at the early stages of inflammation results in downregulation of inflammatory responses. Oestrogens markedly reduce the response to injury in a variety of experimental models. Glucagon and thyroid hormones exert indirect anti-inflammatory effects mediated by the activity of the adrenal cortex. Accordingly, inflammation is not only merely a local response, but a hormone-controlled process. PMID:18475521

  16. Plant Hormones: Bioassay for Gibberellin

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sandra L. Biroc (University of Colorado; )

    1988-06-06

    This simply assay makes use of the ability of the plant hormone GA3 to induce starch breakdown in the endosperm of a barley seed from which the embryo has been removed. The effect of the hormone is clear and repeatable.

  17. Recent advances in hormonal contraception.

    PubMed

    Li, Hw Raymond; Anderson, Richard A

    2010-01-01

    This report reviews some of the new studies regarding new hormonal contraceptive formulations (e.g., Yaz, Qlaira(®), extended-cycle or continuous combined contraceptives, subcutaneous depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, and ulipristal acetate as an emergency contraceptive). Recent data on the relationship between hormonal contraceptive use and bone health are also reviewed. PMID:21173872

  18. Recent advances in hormonal contraception

    PubMed Central

    Li, HW Raymond

    2010-01-01

    This report reviews some of the new studies regarding new hormonal contraceptive formulations (e.g., Yaz, Qlaira®, extended-cycle or continuous combined contraceptives, subcutaneous depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, and ulipristal acetate as an emergency contraceptive). Recent data on the relationship between hormonal contraceptive use and bone health are also reviewed. PMID:21173872

  19. Hormones, growth factors and oncogenes

    SciTech Connect

    Pimentel, E.

    1987-01-01

    This book examines the hormones and peptide growth factors involved in the regulation of metabolism, growth and differentiation in metazoan organisms and proto-oncogene expression. It investigates protein products of some proto-oncogenes for involvement in the transductional and post-transductional and mechanisms of hormones and peptide growth factors.

  20. Hormones, Women and Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... symptoms can mean there is a problem. What causes Breast cancer? Your genes and your hormones play a role ... synthetic form of progesterone, another female hormone) can cause breast tissue to grow faster than normal. Cancer usually appears in tissue that grows fast. hoW ...

  1. Sociosexual attitudes and dyadic sexual desire independently predict women's preferences for male vocal masculinity.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Jillian J M; Jones, Benedict C; Fraccaro, Paul J; Tigue, Cara C; Pisanski, Katarzyna; Feinberg, David R

    2014-10-01

    Research suggests that the desire to behave sexually with a partner (dyadic sexual desire) may reflect desire for intimacy whereas solitary sexual desire may reflect pleasure seeking motivations more generally. Because direct reproductive success can only be increased with a sexual partner, we tested whether dyadic sexual desire was a better predictor of women's preferences for lower pitched men's voices (a marker of relatively high reproductive success) than was solitary sexual desire. In Study 1, women (N = 95) with higher dyadic sexual desire scores on the Sexual Desire Inventory-2 preferred masculinized male voices more than did women with lower dyadic sexual desire scores. We did not find a significant relationship between women's vocal masculinity preferences and their solitary sexual desire scores. In Study 2, we tested whether the relationship between voice preferences and dyadic sexual desire scores was related to differences in sociosexual orientation. Women (N = 80) with more positive attitudes towards uncommitted sex had stronger vocal masculinity preferences regardless of whether men's attractiveness was judged for short-term or long-term relationships. Independent of the effect of sociosexual attitudes, dyadic sexual desire positively predicted women's masculinity preferences when assessing men's attractiveness for short-term but not long-term relationships. These effects were independent of women's own relationship status and hormonal contraceptive use. Our results provide further evidence that women's mate preferences may independently reflect individual differences in both sexual desire and openness to short-term relationships, potentially with the ultimate function of maximizing the fitness benefits of women's mate choices. PMID:24830906

  2. Televised Sexual Content and Parental Mediation: Influences on Adolescent Sexuality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah A. Fisher; Douglas L. Hill; Joel W. Grube; Melina M. Bersamin; Samantha Walker; Enid L. Gruber

    2009-01-01

    Little research has been conducted to examine the influence of exposure to televised sexual content on adolescent sexuality or how parental intervention may reduce negative effects of viewing such content. This study uses self-report data from 1,012 adolescents to investigate the relations among exposure to sexually suggestive programming, parental mediation strategies, and three types of adolescent sexuality outcomes: participation in

  3. Textbook Sexual Inadequacy? A Review of Sexuality Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goettsch, Stephen L.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews eight current human sexuality textbooks for both their general organization and substantive content. Addresses specifically the content areas of sexual response cycle; sexual disfunction; acquaintance rape; AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases; extramarital sex; abortion; homosexuality; and pornography. Identifies as a recurring fault…

  4. Sexual sadism and sadistic personality disorder in sexual homicide.

    PubMed

    Hill, Andreas; Habermann, Niels; Berner, Wolfgang; Briken, Peer

    2006-12-01

    Controversies exist about the diagnostic validity of sexual sadism and its relation to sadistic personality disorder in sex offenders. The aim of this study was to investigate which diagnostic, developmental, and criminal characteristics differentiate sexual sadistic from non-sadistic sexual homicide perpetrators. Psychiatric court reports on 166 men who had committed a sexual homicide were evaluated regarding psychiatric, sexual and criminal history. Sixty-one offenders (36.7%) with sexual sadism (SeSd) were compared with 105 (63.3%) offenders without this diagnosis (NSeSd). Besides the sexual sadistic symptoms, there were seven factors that discriminated best between the two groups (sexual masochism, sadistic personality disorder, isolation in childhood, multiple sexual homicide, previous rape, previous tendencies for similar behavior, and long duration of the homicidal act). Sexual sadism is connected with circumscribed other characteristics and has to be considered in risk assessment and treatment of sex offenders. PMID:17192143

  5. Sexual positions and sexual satisfaction of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jian Tao; Lin, Chao Ling; Wan, Gwo Hwa; Liang, Ching Chung

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the sexual positions and sexual satisfaction of women during pregnancy. The authors sampled pregnant women (N = 215) from outpatients registered at the antepartum clinic of a medical center in northern Taiwan. The authors gathered data on recent sexual satisfaction, general sexual satisfaction, and sexual position using a self-report, structured questionnaire. The results showed that coital frequency decreased from the first to third trimester (p < .05). The most common sexual position for pregnant women (67.6%) was man on top, face-to-face. Sexual position did not change significantly by trimester. More women with more sexual satisfaction than women with poor sexual satisfaction tended to adopt the woman-on-top, face-to-face, and abdominal-supportive sexual positions. PMID:20924936

  6. Sexual at-risk behaviors of sexually abused adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Cinq-Mars, Caroline; Wright, John; Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigated sexual at-risk behaviors of sexually abused adolescent girls. Variables of interest were presence of consensual sexual activity, age at first consensual intercourse, number of sexual partners, condom use, and pregnancies. Participants were 125 sexually abused adolescent girls aged 12 to 17 years. Results showed that severity of sexual abuse (e.g., penetration, multiple perpetrators, physical coercion, multiple incidents of abuse) was related to a greater number of sexual at-risk behaviors. For instance, adolescents with a history of sexual abuse involving penetration were 13 times as likely to have been pregnant. Although family characteristics were significantly associated with being sexually active, their effect proved non-significant in the final hierarchical regression. Regression analyses clearly showed that the likelihood of engaging in sexual at-risk behaviors increased as a function of the number of severity factors. PMID:15105081

  7. Quality of Life and Sexual Health in the Aging of PCa Survivors.

    PubMed

    Gacci, Mauro; Baldi, Elisabetta; Tamburrino, Lara; Detti, Beatrice; Livi, Lorenzo; De Nunzio, Cosimo; Tubaro, Andrea; Gravas, Stavros; Carini, Marco; Serni, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy in elderly men. The progressive ageing of the world male population will further increase the need for tailored assessment and treatment of PCa patients. The determinant role of androgens and sexual hormones for PCa growth and progression has been established. However, several trials on androgens and PCa are recently focused on urinary continence, quality of life, and sexual function, suggesting a new point of view on the whole endocrinological aspect of PCa. During aging, metabolic syndrome, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and central obesity, can be associated with a chronic, low-grade inflammation of the prostate and with changes in the sex steroid pathways. These factors may affect both the carcinogenesis processes and treatment outcomes of PCa. Any treatment for PCa can have a long-lasting negative impact on quality of life and sexual health, which should be assessed by validated self-reported questionnaires. In particular, sexual health, urinary continence, and bowel function can be worsened after prostatectomy, radiotherapy, or hormone treatment, mostly in the elderly population. In the present review we summarized the current knowledge on the role of hormones, metabolic features, and primary treatments for PCa on the quality of life and sexual health of elderly Pca survivors. PMID:24744780

  8. Quality of Life and Sexual Health in the Aging of PCa Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Gacci, Mauro; Tamburrino, Lara; Detti, Beatrice; Livi, Lorenzo; De Nunzio, Cosimo; Tubaro, Andrea; Gravas, Stavros; Carini, Marco; Serni, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy in elderly men. The progressive ageing of the world male population will further increase the need for tailored assessment and treatment of PCa patients. The determinant role of androgens and sexual hormones for PCa growth and progression has been established. However, several trials on androgens and PCa are recently focused on urinary continence, quality of life, and sexual function, suggesting a new point of view on the whole endocrinological aspect of PCa. During aging, metabolic syndrome, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and central obesity, can be associated with a chronic, low-grade inflammation of the prostate and with changes in the sex steroid pathways. These factors may affect both the carcinogenesis processes and treatment outcomes of PCa. Any treatment for PCa can have a long-lasting negative impact on quality of life and sexual health, which should be assessed by validated self-reported questionnaires. In particular, sexual health, urinary continence, and bowel function can be worsened after prostatectomy, radiotherapy, or hormone treatment, mostly in the elderly population. In the present review we summarized the current knowledge on the role of hormones, metabolic features, and primary treatments for PCa on the quality of life and sexual health of elderly Pca survivors. PMID:24744780

  9. Human Sexuality: Responsible Life Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryder, Verdene; Smith, Peggy B.

    This book provides a complete course in human sexuality. It can also be used to supplement a family living course. Text content provides current information for teaching high school students about sexuality issues. The text offers basic information on growth and development, sexual development, pregnancy, and birth. It explains the sexual decision…

  10. Body identical hormone replacement.

    PubMed

    Panay, Nick

    2014-05-22

    The adverse outcomes seen in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) (1) were mainly due to an over-dosage of hormones in a relatively elderly population. However, fundamental differences exist between conjugated equine estrogens and 17 beta estradiol and between medroxyprogesterone acetate and natural progesterone. It is likely that these differences also contributed to the adverse outcomes in WHI, which were contrary to the cardiovascular benefits seen in previous observational trials. Recent studies of cardiovascular risk markers in younger women have been designed using predominantly estradiol and natural progesterone (transdermal and oral) as the primary interventions. This paper reviews the effects that body identical estradiol and progesterone can have, both in the physiological environment and also when replaced as transdermal estradiol and micronised oral progesterone. PMID:24879748

  11. Masculinities, Sexualities and Child Sexual Abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annie Cossins

    Empirical evidence shows that child sexual abuse is overwhelmingly a male activity in that the majority of child sex offenders are male irrespective of the sex of the children they abuse. This sex specificity raises both a sex and gender question, as well as the epistemological question of how to characterise the relationship between male offenders and this particular crime.

  12. SEXUAL MISCONDUCT POLICY Case Western Reserve University

    E-print Network

    Yang, Sichun

    1 SEXUAL MISCONDUCT POLICY Case Western Reserve University Table of Contents Page Introduction 3 Definition and Examples 4 Sexual Harassment 4 Sexual Exploitation 4 Non-Consensual Sexual Contact or Activity 5 Forced Sexual Contact or Activity 5 Non-Consensual Sexual Intercourse 5 Forced Sexual Intercourse

  13. The role of salivary cortisol and DHEA-S in response to sexual, humorous, and anxiety-inducing stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Meston, Cindy M.

    2011-01-01

    Stress and anxiety are commonly thought to be detrimental to sexual function. Several studies in both the human and animal literature, however, have found that inducing anxiety can enhance sexual function in women. The mechanisms that explain a negative relationship between physical and psychological stress and sexual functioning are well documented, but little is known about how stress or anxiety might have a facilitatory effect on sexual arousal. As an initial step in exploring the relationship between anxiety and sexual arousal, the present study examined the role of the autonomic nervous system, and the adrenal hormones cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) in response to a sexual film, an anxiety-inducing film, and a humorous film. Nineteen premenopausal women (mean age 24.4 years) who were free from sexual difficulties came into the lab on three separate days. At each session they were shown an anxiety-inducing, sexually arousing, or humorous (control) film while their physiological arousal was measured. They also provided saliva samples before and after each film. Cortisol significantly decreased, while DHEA-S increased in the sexual and humorous conditions. Neither hormone changed significantly in the anxiety-inducing condition. Autonomic nervous system activity measured by heart rate and heart rate variability did not change in response to the sexual or anxiety-inducing films, but heart rate variability increased significantly in response to the humorous film. The cortisol/DHEA-S ratio at the post-sexual film time point was significantly negatively correlated with genital arousal (measured by vaginal pulse amplitude). Anxiety-inducing films did not result in a physiological stress response, which can explain why they do not impair sexual function. PMID:21195074

  14. Sexual Health (Women)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hormonal changes affect blood glucose may vary depending on the individual. Many women, however, notice that their blood ... of osteoporosis and vaginitis and alleviate hot flashes. On the other hand, it can increase the risk of ...

  15. Memories, fantasies and sexual victimization

    E-print Network

    Cockroft, Ronald Duane

    1992-01-01

    late nights, and her kindness and care during my harried hours and fatigue, this thesis would have never have come to completion. TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION Freud's Views of Child Sexual Abuse Repression Sexual Fantasy in the Literature... related to sexual abuse than would non-abused individuals. Freud's Views of Child Sexual Abuse Early in his career, Sigmund Freud addressed the memories of childhood sexual experiences that his clients had related to him. He believed them to be true...

  16. Sexual Behavior, Sexual Knowledge, and Sexual Attitudes of Emerging Adult Women: Implications for Working with Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byno, Lucy H.; Mullis, Ronald L.; Mullis, Ann K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to examine the sexual behavior of emerging adult women in relation to their sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes, and perceptions of their parents' sexual attitudes; and second, to discuss the implications of this research in working with young adult women. Three hundred and sixty-four college-age women…

  17. Sexual scripts and sexual risk behaviors among Black heterosexual men: development of the Sexual Scripts Scale.

    PubMed

    Bowleg, Lisa; Burkholder, Gary J; Noar, Seth M; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J; Tschann, Jeanne M

    2015-04-01

    Sexual scripts are widely shared gender and culture-specific guides for sexual behavior with important implications for HIV prevention. Although several qualitative studies document how sexual scripts may influence sexual risk behaviors, quantitative investigations of sexual scripts in the context of sexual risk are rare. This mixed methods study involved the qualitative development and quantitative testing of the Sexual Scripts Scale (SSS). Study 1 included qualitative semi-structured interviews with 30 Black heterosexual men about sexual experiences with main and casual sex partners to develop the SSS. Study 2 included a quantitative test of the SSS with 526 predominantly low-income Black heterosexual men. A factor analysis of the SSS resulted in a 34-item, seven-factor solution that explained 68% of the variance. The subscales and coefficient alphas were: Romantic Intimacy Scripts (? = .86), Condom Scripts (? = .82), Alcohol Scripts (? = .83), Sexual Initiation Scripts (? = .79), Media Sexual Socialization Scripts (? = .84), Marijuana Scripts (? = .85), and Sexual Experimentation Scripts (? = .84). Among men who reported a main partner (n = 401), higher Alcohol Scripts, Media Sexual Socialization Scripts, and Marijuana Scripts scores, and lower Condom Scripts scores were related to more sexual risk behavior. Among men who reported at least one casual partner (n = 238), higher Romantic Intimacy Scripts, Sexual Initiation Scripts, and Media Sexual Socialization Scripts, and lower Condom Scripts scores were related to higher sexual risk. The SSS may have considerable utility for future research on Black heterosexual men's HIV risk. PMID:24311105

  18. Gender development and sexuality in disorders of sex development.

    PubMed

    Berenbaum, S A; Meyer-Bahlburg, H F L

    2015-05-01

    Understanding psychological development in individuals with disorders of sex development (DSD) is important for optimizing their clinical care and for identifying paths to competence and health in all individuals. In this paper, we focus on psychological outcomes likely to be influenced by processes of physical sexual differentiation that may be atypical in DSD, particularly characteristics related to being male or female (those that show sex differences in the general population, gender identity, and sexuality). We review evidence suggesting that (a) early androgens facilitate several aspects of male-typed behavior, with large effects on activity interests, and moderate effects on some social and personal behaviors (including sexual orientation) and spatial ability; (b) gender dysphoria and gender change occur more frequently in individuals with DSD than in the general population, with rates varying in relation to syndrome, initial gender assignment, and medical treatment; and (c) sexual behavior may be affected by DSD through several paths related to the condition and treatment, including reduced fertility, physical problems associated with genital ambiguity, social stigmatization, and hormonal variations. We also consider limitations to current work and challenges to studying gender and sexuality in DSD. We conclude with suggestions for a research agenda and a proposed research framework. PMID:25853895

  19. Thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroid hormones, and bone loss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mone Zaidi; Terry F. Davies; Alberta Zallone; Harry C. Blair; Jameel Iqbal; Surinder S. Moonga; Jeffrey Mechanick; Li Sun

    2009-01-01

    It has become accepted by virtue of rich anecdotal experience and clinical research that thyrotoxicosis is associated with\\u000a high-turnover osteoporosis. The bone loss, primarily due to accelerated resorption that is not compensated by a coupled increase\\u000a in bone formation, has been attributed solely to elevated thyroid hormone levels. Evidence using mice lacking the thyroid\\u000a hormone receptors ? and ? establishes

  20. The Implications of Sexual Narcissism for Sexual and Marital Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    McNulty, James K.; Widman, Laura

    2013-01-01

    There is theoretical reason to believe narcissism is associated with a number of sexual behaviors and outcomes that affect both sexual and relationship satisfaction. Nevertheless, research on the association between personality and behavior demonstrates that personality traits, such as narcissism, only predict behavior in domains that activate the components of the personality system. Given that global assessments of narcissism do not capture the extent to which the components of narcissism are activated in the sexual domain, we examined the extent to which the facets of a domain-specific measure of sexual narcissism accounted for the trajectories of own and partner sexual and marital satisfaction over the first five years of 120 new marriages. Three of the four facets of sexual narcissism (sexual exploitation, sexual entitlement, and low sexual empathy) were negatively associated with both trajectories. The fourth facet (sexual skill) was positively associated with both trajectories. Notably, sexual satisfaction mediated the effect of every facet of sexual narcissism on marital satisfaction. A global assessment of narcissism was not associated with either trajectory of satisfaction. These findings highlight (1) the importance of narcissistic tendencies for sexual processes, (2) the benefits of using domain-specific measures of personality in research on sexual behavior, and (3) the importance of examining the implications of the specific facets of personality constructs. PMID:23297145

  1. The implications of sexual narcissism for sexual and marital satisfaction.

    PubMed

    McNulty, James K; Widman, Laura

    2013-08-01

    There is theoretical reason to believe narcissism is associated with a number of sexual behaviors and outcomes that affect both sexual and relationship satisfaction. Nevertheless, research on the association between personality and behavior demonstrates that personality traits, such as narcissism, only predict behavior in domains that activate the components of the personality system. Given that global assessments of narcissism do not capture the extent to which the components of narcissism are activated in the sexual domain, we examined the extent to which the facets of a domain-specific measure of sexual narcissism accounted for the trajectories of own and partner sexual and marital satisfaction over the first five years of 120 new marriages. Three of the four facets of sexual narcissism (sexual exploitation, sexual entitlement, and low sexual empathy) were negatively associated with both trajectories. The fourth facet (sexual skill) was positively associated with both trajectories. Notably, sexual satisfaction mediated the effect of every facet of sexual narcissism on marital satisfaction. A global assessment of narcissism was not associated with either trajectory of satisfaction. These findings highlight (1) the importance of narcissistic tendencies for sexual processes, (2) the benefits of using domain-specific measures of personality in research on sexual behavior, and (3) the importance of examining the implications of the specific facets of personality constructs. PMID:23297145

  2. Teen Sexual Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sex and how sex affects your health. Besides pregnancy, having sex puts you at risk of getting a sexually transmitted disease, such as herpes or genital warts, or HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. The only way ...

  3. Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections that you can get from having sex with someone who has the infection. The causes ... is no cure. Sometimes medicines can keep the disease under control. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly ...

  4. Sexual Orientation (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is also not considered a mental disorder or abnormality. Despite myths and misconceptions, there is no evidence ... their sexual orientation secret, even from friends and family who might be supportive. It can take time ...

  5. Sexual Abuse of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csapo, Marg

    1988-01-01

    Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)

  6. Theories of Sexual Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storms, Michael D.

    1980-01-01

    Results indicated homosexuals, heterosexuals, and bisexuals did not differ within each sex on measures of masculinity and femininity. Strong support was obtained for the hypothesis that sexual orientation relates primarily to erotic fantasy orientation. (Author/DB)

  7. Evolutionary biology Sexual ornamentation

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    Evolutionary biology Sexual ornamentation reflects antibacterial activity of ejaculates in mallards the antibacterial activity of semen from mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and tested whether the bactericidal semen exhibits significant antibacterial activity, as measured by the in vitro capacity to kill

  8. Sexual Health and Reproduction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ingrid Waldron

    This activity provides questions and Web sites to guide student investigation of birth control methods, fetal development, risks of alcohol and smoking during pregnancy, changes during puberty, and HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases.

  9. Sexual Assault against Females

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Summer Sports Clinic Training – Exposure – Experience (TEE) Tournament Wheelchair Games Winter Sports Clinic Locations Hospitals & Clinics Vet ... Sexual problems can be among the most long-standing problems experienced by women who are the victims ...

  10. Ghrelin: much more than a hunger hormone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ghrelin is a multifaceted gut hormone that activates its receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Ghrelin's hallmark functions are its stimulatory effects on growth hormone release, food intake and fat deposition. Ghrelin is famously known as the 'hunger hormone'. However, ample recen...

  11. Amelioration of sexual adverse effects in the early breast cancer patient

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Mindy; Rugo, Hope S.

    2010-01-01

    Background As the number of breast cancer survivors increases, the long term consequences of breast cancer treatment are gaining attention. Sexual dysfunction is a common complaint amongst breast cancer survivors, and there are few evidence based recommendations and even fewer well designed clinical trials to establish what treatments are safe or effective in this patient population. Design We conducted a PubMed search for articles published between 1995–2009 containing the terms breast cancer, sexual dysfunction, libido, vaginal dryness, testosterone, and vaginal estrogen. We initially reviewed articles focusing exclusively on sexual issues in breast cancer patients. Given the paucity of clinical trials addressing sexual issues in breast cancer patients, we also included studies evaluating both hormone and non-hormone based interventions for sexual dysfunction in post-menopausal women in general. Conclusions Among breast cancer survivors, vaginal dryness and loss of libido represent some of the most challenging long term side effects of breast cancer treatment. In the general post-menopausal population, topical preparations of estrogens and testosterone both appear to improve sexual function; however there are conflicting reports about the efficacy and safety of these interventions in women with a history of breast cancer, and further research is warranted. PMID:20602189

  12. Monitoring hormones in urine and feces of captive bonobos ( Pan paniscus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Jurke; L. R. Hagey; S. Jurke; N. M. Czekala

    2000-01-01

    Urinary and fecal hormones were analyzed on average every other day in 17 female bonobos kept at four US zoos (San Diego Zoo\\u000a and Wild Animal Park, Milwaukee, Columbus, and Cincinnati). Ovarian cycle activity was monitored throughout the 15-month study\\u000a period using estrogen and progesterone profiles and swelling charts. Behavioral data on sexual activity were also collected\\u000a on a daily

  13. Thyrotropin Regulation by Thyroid Hormone in Thyroid Hormone Receptor  Deficient Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROY E. WEISS; DOUGLAS FORREST; JOACHIM POHLENZ; KEVIN CUA; TOM CURRAN; SAMUEL REFETOFF

    1997-01-01

    Thyroid hormone responsive genes can be both positively and neg- atively regulated by thyroid hormone. TSH is down-regulated by thyroid hormone and rises during thyroid hormone deprivation. Be- cause both thyroid hormone receptor (TR) a and b genes are expressed in the pituitary gland, it is unclear what the relative roles of TRa and TRb are in TSH regulation. Experiments

  14. Sexual violence in Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lisanne; Thurman, Tonya; Bloem, Jeanette; Kendall, Carl

    2006-12-01

    The magnitude and characteristics of sexual violence in two urban areas of Lesotho are described based on a random household survey of 939 sexually active women aged 18-35. Sexual violence is defined as nonconsensual sex ranging from the use of threats and intimidation to unwanted touching and forced sex. Twenty-five percent of women surveyed reported ever being physically forced to have sex; 13 percent reported that forced sex was attempted; 31 percent said that they were touched against their will; and 11 percent reported being forced to touch a man's genitals. Boyfriends were the most common perpetrators of actual and attempted forced sex (66 percent and 44 percent, respectively); known community members were the most common perpetrators of touching the respondent against her will (52 percent). Currently married women and those with more education were less likely than others to report that sex was forced upon them by an intimate partner or by another type of perpetrator. Women living in areas where a program raising awareness about sexual violence was ongoing were more likely to report a history of sexual violence. Given the high prevalence of HIV in Lesotho, programs should address women's right to control their sexuality. PMID:17209284

  15. Sex Hormones and Immune Dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Aruna; Sekhon, Harmandeep Kaur; Kaur, Gurpreet

    2014-01-01

    The functioning of the immune system of the body is regulated by many factors. The abnormal regulation of the immune system may result in some pathological conditions. Sex hormones of reproductive system are one of the major factors that regulate immune system due to the presence of hormone receptors on immune cells. The interaction of sex hormones and immune cells through the receptors on these cells effect the release of cytokines which determines the proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of different types of immunocytes and as a result the outcome of inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. The different regulations of sex hormones in both sexes result in immune dimorphism. In this review article the mechanism of regulation of immune system in different sexes and its impact are discussed. PMID:25478584

  16. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 1):R6. [PubMed Abstract] Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group (EBCTCG). Relevance of breast cancer hormone receptors ... of the randomised trials. Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group. Lancet 1998; 351(9114):1451–1467. [PubMed ...

  17. EDU-Snippets: Hormonally Yours

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhD Richard Faircloth (Anne Arundel Community College Dept. of Biology)

    2008-04-01

    EDU-Snippets is a column designed to let the members of HAPS, share personal or institutional educational experiences. This issues focuses on the Endocrine System and the many different hormonal ideas being presented online and in various educational settings.

  18. Pediatric sexuality: promoting normal sexual development in children.

    PubMed

    Smith, M

    1993-08-01

    Since the sexual revolution of the 1960s there has been an openness regarding sexual exploration that has resulted in an increase of sexually transmitted diseases and teenage pregnancies. Clinicians can mitigate the unhealthy results of such exploration through a therapeutic relationship with their patients. This article provides practical ways to approach and educate the pediatric patient and parent regarding normal sexual growth and development and the promotion of healthy, responsible sexual behavior. Using developmental theories as a foundation, sexuality is examined from birth through the adolescent years. PMID:8233152

  19. Blue whale earplug reveals lifetime contaminant exposure and hormone profiles

    PubMed Central

    Trumble, Stephen J.; Robinson, Eleanor M.; Berman-Kowalewski, Michelle; Potter, Charles W.; Usenko, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Lifetime contaminant and hormonal profiles have been reconstructed for an individual male blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus, Linnaeus 1758) using the earplug as a natural aging matrix that is also capable of archiving and preserving lipophilic compounds. These unprecedented lifetime profiles (i.e., birth to death) were reconstructed with a 6-mo resolution for a wide range of analytes including cortisol (stress hormone), testosterone (developmental hormone), organic contaminants (e.g., pesticides and flame retardants), and mercury. Cortisol lifetime profiles revealed a doubling of cortisol levels over baseline. Testosterone profiles suggest this male blue whale reached sexual maturity at approximately 10 y of age, which corresponds well with and improves on previous estimates. Early periods of the reconstructed contaminant profiles for pesticides (such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes and chlordanes), polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers demonstrate significant maternal transfer occurred at 0–12 mo. The total lifetime organic contaminant burden measured between the earplug (sum of contaminants in laminae layers) and blubber samples from the same organism were similar. Total mercury profiles revealed reduced maternal transfer and two distinct pulse events compared with organic contaminants. The use of a whale earplug to reconstruct lifetime chemical profiles will allow for a more comprehensive examination of stress, development, and contaminant exposure, as well as improve the assessment of contaminant use/emission, environmental noise, ship traffic, and climate change on these important marine sentinels. PMID:24043814

  20. [Abortifacient effect of hormonal contraceptives: a review].

    PubMed

    Agulles Simó, Pau

    2015-01-01

    Most of the scientific community, as well as in a sector of international Law, when referring to the unborn embryo, pregnancy must be defined as the period extending from implantation to natural birth. This implies some novelty, such as the redefinition of abortion as the elimination of the embryo only within this period, and the extension of contraception to any means that impedes the union of the gametes as a consequence of a sexual intercourse, or also that which eliminates the product of conception prior to its implantation. Therefore, the pharmaceutical industry markets, under the name of contraceptives, products that act also by means of an anti-implantation mechanism. This fact has great ethical implications regarding the respect for the embryo which require a reflection on the moral valuation of the prescription, dispensation and use of these means. One may ask: which of the contraceptive means actually present in the market include an anti-implantation effect? What mechanisms contribute to their pharmacological action and in what measure do they do this? This is what we have studied in this article, based on the available scientific bibliography. We have basically fulfilled a double objective: updating and completing the studies -few, partial or distant in time- that had this same subject matter; and offering a moral valuation on the use of hormonal contraceptives that may have an anti-implantation effect, from the point of view of the respect due to the embryonic life. PMID:26030015

  1. Professional perspectives on sexual sadism.

    PubMed

    McLawsen, Julia E; Jackson, Rebecca L; Vannoy, Steven D; Gagliardi, Gregg J; Scalora, Mario J

    2008-09-01

    Significant controversy surrounds the diagnosis of sexual sadism. Research suggests that many characteristics attributed to sexual sadists fail to differentiate sexual offenders with and without this diagnosis. Furthermore, when there are differences between sadists and nonsadists, "sadistic" features are frequently associated with nonsadists. Finally, diagnosticians appear to use idiosyncratic methods to diagnose sexual sadism. These findings raise concerns about the reliability and validity of a diagnosis of sexual sadism, particularly with respect to how professionals conceptualize this diagnosis. This study examines how professionals understand the relative importance of behaviors associated with sadistic versus nonsadistic sexual offending. Professionals rated behaviors according to their "essentialness" for this diagnosis. Results show that professionals rated behaviors associated with three out of four conceptualizations of sexual sadism as significantly more essential to making a diagnosis of sexual sadism, compared to behaviors associated with nonsadistic sexual offending. Results suggest that professionals reliably discriminate between sadistic and nonsadistic offense behaviors. PMID:18775840

  2. Chromactivating hormones of Pandalus borealis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Fernlund

    1968-01-01

    Dose-response relationship in eyestalk-less Palaemon adspersus was studied with a reference standard preparation of red-pigment-concentrating hormone from eyestalks of Pandalus borealis. The response, which is an expression for the degree of concentration of pigment in the small red integumentary chromatophores during a 60 min period following injection of hormone, was recorded using the Hogben and Slome system for quantitating chromatophore

  3. Steroid hormones and BDNF.

    PubMed

    Pluchino, N; Russo, M; Santoro, A N; Litta, P; Cela, V; Genazzani, A R

    2013-06-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin abundantly expressed in several areas of the central nervous system (CNS) and is known to induce a lasting potentiation of synaptic efficacy, to enhance specific learning and memory processes. BDNF is one of the key molecules modulating brain plasticity and it affects cognitive deficit associated with aging and neurodegenerative disease. Several studies have shown an altered BDNF production and secretion in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases but also in mood disorders like depression, eating disorders and schizophrenia. Plasma BDNF is also a biomarker of impaired memory and general cognitive function in aging women. Gonadal steroids are involved in the regulation of several CNS processes, specifically mood, affective and cognitive functions during fertile life and reproductive aging. These observations lead many scientists to investigate a putative co-regulation between BDNF and gonadal and/or adrenal steroids and their relationship with gender difference in the incidence of mental diseases. This overview aims to summarize the current knowledge on the correlation between BDNF expression/function and both gonadal (progesterone, estrogens, and testosterone) and adrenal hormones (mainly cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)) with relevance in clinical application. PMID:23380505

  4. A Pilot Study on Tamoxifen Sexual Side Effects and Hand Preference in Male Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Motofei, Ion G; Rowland, David L; Popa, Florian; Bratucu, Eugen; Straja, Dan; Manea, Mirela; Georgescu, Simona R; Paunica, Stana; Bratucu, Mircea; Balalau, Cristian; Constantin, Vlad D

    2015-08-01

    Recent clinical and imaging studies suggest that sex hormones modulate sexuality according to a psychophysiologic process of lateralization of the brain, with androgens playing a greater role in sexual functioning of left hemibrain/right handedness and estrogens possibly for right hemibrain/left handedness. Based on this perspective, the current study attempted to specify the relationship between hand preference, estrogens, and sexual function in subjects with male breast cancer, taking into account the sexual side effects of tamoxifen as the agent for inhibiting estrogen action. Twenty-eight Romanian men-17 right-handed and 11 left-handed-undergoing treatment with tamoxifen for male breast cancer participated in this study. These men were assessed both prior to and during tamoxifen treatment using the International Index of Erectile Function, a standardized instrument used for the evaluation of various aspects of sexual functioning, including erectile function (EF), orgasmic function (OF), sexual desire (SD), and overall functioning (OF). A main effect for handedness was found on EF, OF, SD, and OS scales, with right-handed men showing higher functioning than left-handed men. Regarding interaction effects, the left-handed group of men showed greater decreased sexual functioning during tamoxifen (on three subscales: OF, SD, OS) compared to right-handed men. Further research should be conducted in order to support and refine this potential lateralized process of sexual neuromodulation within the brain. PMID:26108899

  5. The biological basis of human sexual orientation: is there a role for epigenetics?

    PubMed

    Ngun, Tuck C; Vilain, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Sexual orientation is one of the largest sex differences in humans. The vast majority of the population is heterosexual, that is, they are attracted to members of the opposite sex. However, a small but significant proportion of people are bisexual or homosexual and experience attraction to members of the same sex. The origins of the phenomenon have long been the subject of scientific study. In this chapter, we will review the evidence that sexual orientation has biological underpinnings and consider the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms. We will first discuss studies that show that sexual orientation has a genetic component. These studies show that sexual orientation is more concordant in monozygotic twins than in dizygotic ones and that male sexual orientation is linked to several regions of the genome. We will then highlight findings that suggest a link between sexual orientation and epigenetic mechanisms. In particular, we will consider the case of women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). These women were exposed to high levels of testosterone in utero and have much higher rates of nonheterosexual orientation compared to non-CAH women. Studies in animal models strongly suggest that the long-term effects of hormonal exposure (such as those experienced by CAH women) are mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. We conclude by describing a hypothetical framework that unifies genetic and epigenetic explanations of sexual orientation and the continued challenges facing sexual orientation research. PMID:25172350

  6. Lower sexual interest in postpartum women: relationship to amygdala activation and intranasal oxytocin

    PubMed Central

    RUPP, HEATHER A.; JAMES, THOMAS W.; KETTERSON, ELLEN D.; SENGELAUB, DALE R.; DITZEN, BEATE; HEIMAN, JULIA R.

    2012-01-01

    During the postpartum period, women experience significant changes in their neuroendocrine profiles and social behavior compared to before pregnancy. A common experience with motherhood is a decrease in sexual desire. Although the lifestyle and peripheral physiological changes associated with parturition might decrease a woman’s sexual interest, we hypothesized that there are also hormone-mediated changes in women’s neural response to sexual and infant stimuli with altered reproductive priorities. We predicted that amygdala activation to sexually arousing stimuli would be suppressed in postpartum versus nulliparous women, and altered with intranasal oxytocin administration. To test this, we measured amygdala activation using fMRI in response to sexually arousing pictures, infant pictures, and neutral pictures in 29 postpartum and 30 nulliparous women. Half of the women received a dose of exogenous oxytocin before scanning. As predicted, nulliparous women subjectively rated sexual pictures to be more arousing, and infant pictures to be less arousing, than did postpartum women. However, nulliparous women receiving the nasal oxytocin spray rated the infant photos as arousing as did postpartum women. Right amygdala activation was lower in postpartum versus nulliparous women in response to sexual, infant, and neutral images, suggesting a generalized decrease in right amygdala responsiveness to arousing images with parturition. There was no difference in right amygdala activation with nasal spray application. Postpartum women therefore appear to experience a decrease in sexual interest possibly as a feature of a more generalized decrease in amygdala responsiveness to arousing stimuli. PMID:23085496

  7. Sexual coercion and the misperception of sexual intent?

    PubMed Central

    Farris, Coreen; Treat, Teresa A.; Viken, Richard J.; McFall, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    Misperceiving a woman’s platonic interest as sexual interest has been implicated in a sexual bargaining process that leads to sexual coercion. This paper provides a comprehensive review of sexual misperception, including gender differences in perception of women’s sexual intent, the relationship between sexual coercion and misperception, and situational factors that increase the risk that sexual misperception will occur. Compared to women, men consistently perceive a greater degree of sexual intent in women’s behavior. However, there is evidence to suggest that this gender effect may be driven largely by a sub-group of men who are particularly prone to perceive sexual intent in women’s behavior, such as sexually coercive men and men who endorse sex-role stereotypes. Situational factors, such as alcohol use by the man or woman, provocative clothing, and dating behaviors (e.g., initiating the date or making eye contact), are all associated with increased estimates of women’s sexual interest. We also critique the current measurement strategies and introduce a model of perception that more closely maps on to important theoretical questions in this area. A clearer understanding of sexual perception errors and the etiology of these errors may serve to guide sexual-assault prevention programs toward more effective strategies. PMID:17462798

  8. SEXUAL HARASSMENT POLICY Office of Equal Opportunity

    E-print Network

    Dennett, Daniel

    SEXUAL HARASSMENT POLICY Office of Equal Opportunity Purpose: To establish uniform guidelines pertaining to sexual harassment. Revised: April 2014 Applicability: Sexual Harassment is a form and community members). This policy is summarized in the University's Sexual Misconduct/Assault Policy

  9. Sexual Assault Prevention Workshop Final Report

    E-print Network

    Marsh, David

    WGS 296A Sexual Assault Prevention Workshop Final Report Recommendations for Improving Sexual 14, 2009 #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS PART ONE: SEXUAL ASSAULT AT WASHINGTON AND LEE UNIVERSITY (W&L) ..............................1 CONTRIBUTING FACTORS FOR COLLEGE SEXUAL ASSAULT

  10. 49 CFR 1019.5 - Sexual harassment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    (a) Members and employees shall not engage in harassment on the basis of sex. Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature constitute sexual harassment...

  11. Perceptions of Sexuality as Related to Sexual Functioning and Sexual Risk in Women with Different Types of Childhood Abuse Histories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly A. Schloredt; Julia R. Heiman

    2003-01-01

    Perceptions of one's sexuality, self-reported sexual functioning, and sexual risk were examined in a community sample of 148 women with histories of either childhood sexual abuse (n = 26), both childhood sexual and physical abuse (n = 44), and neither form of abuse (n = 78). Controlling for depression and anxiety, the groups did not differ on sexual desire, arousal\\/orgasm,

  12. Sexual Narcissism and the Perpetration of Sexual Aggression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Widman; James K. McNulty

    2010-01-01

    Despite indirect evidence linking narcissism to sexual aggression, studies directly examining this relationship have yielded\\u000a inconsistent results. Likely contributing to such inconsistencies, prior research has used global measures of narcissism not\\u000a sensitive to whether the components of narcissism are activated in sexual versus non-sexual domains. The current research\\u000a avoided such problems by using a measure of sexual narcissism to predict

  13. [Sexuality in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Molina, R; Araa, S; Ibazeta, G; Jordan, P; Lagos, E

    1987-01-01

    A survey of knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding human reproduction and sexuality was undertaken in 2 groups of secondary school students in Chile to assess whether greater knowledge of reproduction and sexuality is associated with greater permissiveness and earlier initiation of sexual activity. Students in 2 public schools, 1 coeducational and 1 for female students only, were of lower middle class background, while students at the coeducational private school were of higher socioeconomic status. An anonymous, semiclosed questionnaire was administered to students in the 3 schools. The schools were selected because their directors agreed to permit the study. 14.8% of the 351 public school students were aged 14 or under and 77.8% were 15-18, while 99.5% of the 197 private school students were aged 15-18. The students' levels of knowledge of human reproduction and sexuality were measured through direct personal assessments by the students themselves and through 21 questions to confirm the assessments. At least 93% of students in all schools said their level of knowledge was medium or high, but the test indicated that only 64% of public school students and 75% of private school students actually had medium or high levels of knowledge. 45.9% of private and 27.9% of public school students felt the information they received from their schools about sexuality was adequate, while 41.9% of private and 60.9% of public school students felt it was insufficient. There were no significant differences in the opinions of the 2 groups of students concerning premarital sex, but the reasons given by the private school students to explain their attitudes expressed a greater sense of commitment to the partner, while those of the public school students tended to be more functional. Among public school students, 38.7% of males and 9.7% of females reported having had sexual relations, while among private school students, 17.7% of males and 4.4% of females reported having done so. No significant differences were reported in the age of initiating sexual activity in the 2 groups. Students in the school with the highest overall level of knowledge of human reproduction and sexuality had lower overall levels of sexual activity. PMID:12269033

  14. How Teen Sexual Behavior Responds to Sexually Transmitted Disease Risks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy Elizabeth Corman

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines how teen sexual behavior responds to associated disease infection risks using the biannual 1993-99 waves of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We estimate the effect of state level rates of AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases on sexual behavior with probit regressions for the decision to have sex during the previous three months along with ordinary least

  15. Sexual abstinence and the Sexual Abstinence Behavior Scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne E. Norris; Leslie F. Clark; Sondra Magnus

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: Nurses may choose to promote sexual abstinence, particularly when they are working with young adolescents. However, it is difficult to know how to intervene because sexual abstinence has not been well defined in the literature. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometrics of a four-item measure of sexual abstinence behavior (the SABS) that both registered nurses

  16. Association of Sexual Revictimization with Sexuality and Psychological Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Michael H.; Flitter, Jill M. Klotz; Robinson, Beatrice E.

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the associations of sexual revictimization (experiencing sexual abuse in childhood and adulthood) in a sample of 230 African American women who are low-income. Data indicate that women who experience sexual revictimization are more at risk for emotional stress and psychological pathology than women with no history of abuse. In…

  17. Sexual Coercion Content in 21 Sexuality Education Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Christine E.; Ogletree, Roberta J.

    1998-01-01

    Examined adolescent sexuality-education curricula for information on coercion (date rape, stranger rape, pressure, incest, sexual harassment, unwanted/inappropriate touch, and exploitation/victimization). Exploitation/victimization and pressure received the greatest attention. Sexual harassment was not covered in any of the curricula. Results…

  18. Motivations and sexual attitudes, experiences, and behavior of sexuality professionals.

    PubMed

    Luria, Mijal; Byers, E Sandra; Voyer, Susan D; Mock, Moshe

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the motivations for entering the field and sexual attitudes, experiences, and behavior of an international group of sexuality professionals. Participants were 252 individuals attending the XVII World Congress of Sexology who completed a questionnaire in English, Spanish or French. Most participants' reported professional rather than personal motivations for entering the field in addition to interest. On average, participants reported little sexual communication with their parents as children. About one-third had experienced unwanted sexual activity as a child. Participants were mostly accepting of a range of sexual activities, although they were less accepting of some behaviors than of others. Twelve of the participants who had engaged in sexual activity with a casual or anonymous partner in the previous 2 years had not used a condom consistently. Participants reported high sexual satisfaction and good sexual communication with their partner. Nevertheless, 45% of the women and 35% of the men reported regularly experiencing one or more sexual problems. Few participants reported that their profession affected their sexual functioning negatively; in contrast most reported that it had positive effects on their sexual functioning. These results suggest that there are few differences between sexuality professionals and the general public. PMID:23252637

  19. Sexual responding of “nonrapists” to aggressive sexual themes: Normative data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William D. Murphy; Mary R. Haynes; Emily M. Coleman; Barry Flanagan

    1985-01-01

    The present study presents data relevant to the sexual responding to aggressive cues of a large sample of nonrapist males recruited from the community. Two hundred three subjects received physiological assessment of sexual arousal to heterosexual and rape stimuli. Results indicated that under instructions not to interfere with sexual responding, approximately 80% of the nonrapists would be correctly classified, which

  20. Psychopathy and Deviant Sexual Arousal in Incarcerated Sexual Offenders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RALPH C. SERIN; P. BRUCE MALCOLM; ARUNIMA KHANNA; HOWARD E. BARBAREE

    1994-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between psychopathy and deviant sexual arousal in a sample of 65 sexual offenders, with approximately equal numbers of rapists and child molesters. Psychopathy, measured by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised and phallometric indexes of deviant sexual arousal were significantly correlated, r(63) =.28, p <. 02. Differentiating between rapists, extrafamilial pedophiles, and incest offenders revealed that this relationship,

  1. Were Adolescent Sexual Offenders Children with Sexual Behavior Problems?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Burton

    2000-01-01

    This article compares responses of three groups of incarcerated adolescents who admitted to sexual offending in an anonymous survey project on measures of trauma, sexual offending, the relationship between trauma and perpetration, and adjudication status. The first group admitted to sexual offending before the age of 12 only (n = 48), the second after the age of 12 only (n

  2. Sexual and emotional variables influencing sexual response to erotica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Koukounas; Marita McCabe

    1997-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the relative contribution of attention and emotional responses to the sexual response to erotica. Self reported levels of sexual arousal, attention, and emotional responses were measured after 20 men and 20 women viewed a series of erotic film segments. Men and women reported greater sexual arousal to erotica when they became absorbed in the

  3. Regulation of Male Sexual Behavior by Progesterone Receptor, Sexual

    E-print Network

    Crews, David

    of sexual behavior following castration. In a second experiment, we tested whether male mice heterozygous and experience. © 1998 Academic Press Key Words: progesterone receptor; male; sexual be- havior; castration of experienced males to exhibit sexual behaviors following castration, and variation in the sensitivity of males

  4. Sexual compulsion – Relationship with sex, attachment and sexual orientation

    PubMed Central

    KATZ, LICHEN; EBERHARDT, HILA; COHEN, KOBY; LEJOYEUX, MICHEL

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Sexual addiction, also known as hypersexual disorder, is associated with serious psychosocial problems for many people. Methods This study used questionnaires to investigate the effects of gender, sexual orientation and attachment (avoidance and anxiety) on sexual compulsion among 100 heterosexual and homosexual men and women. Results A positive correlation was found between anxious attachment and sexual compulsivity (r = 0.46; p < 0.01) and a positive correlation between avoidant attachment and sexual compulsivity (r = 0.39; p ? 0.01) in all participants. Secondly, an analysis of covariance showed a gender by sexual orientation interaction effect [F(1, 103) = 6.39, p < 0.01] but no attachment effect on sexual compulsivity. A follow-up comparison showed that lesbian women had higher rates of sexual compulsivity than heterosexual women [t (2, 50) = 5.08, p < 0.001] whereas there was non-significant difference in sexual compulsivity between homosexual and heterosexual men [t (2, 50) = 1.30, p = N.S.]. Discussion The results provide preliminary evidence for an association between attachment and sexual compulsivity and the effects of gender and sexual orientation on sexual compulsivity. PMID:25786496

  5. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide

    MedlinePLUS

    ... D. (2005). Adult perpetrator gender asymmetries in child sexual assault victim selection: Results from the 2000 National Incident- ... Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine. One third of sexual assault victims were under the age of 12.1 ...

  6. Sexual Harassment in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maypole, Donald E.; Skaine, Rosemarie

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the literature on sexual harassment to determine the issues the problem raises, its social contexts, and the resources available to working women. Examined the implications of sexual harassment for social work practice, policy, and research. (JAC)

  7. SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance System presents statistics and trends for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Data demonstrate details which provide information about STD morbidity in the United States, STD prevalence with subgroups and populations which are the f...

  8. Helping Teens Resist Sexual Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen > Dating & Sex > Helping Teens Resist Sexual Pressure Ages & Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Helping Teens Resist Sexual Pressure Article Body Teens are more ...

  9. The misperception of sexual interest.

    PubMed

    Perilloux, Carin; Easton, Judith A; Buss, David M

    2012-02-01

    In the current study (N = 199), we utilized a speed-meeting methodology to investigate misperceptions of sexual interest. This method allowed us to evaluate the magnitude of men's overperception of women's sexual interest, to examine whether and how women misperceive men's sexual interest, and to assess individual differences in susceptibility to sexual misperception. We found strong support for the prediction that women would underestimate men's sexual interest. Men who were more oriented toward short-term mating strategies or who rated themselves more attractive were more likely to overperceive women's sexual interest. The magnitude of men's overperception of women's sexual interest was predicted by the women's physical attractiveness. We discuss implications of gender differences and within-sex individual differences in susceptibility to sexual misperception. PMID:22261567

  10. Sexual assault in the military.

    PubMed

    Castro, Carl Andrew; Kintzle, Sara; Schuyler, Ashley C; Lucas, Carrie L; Warner, Christopher H

    2015-07-01

    Military sexual assault is a pervasive problem throughout the military services, despite numerous initiatives to end it. No doubt the military's lack of progress stems from the complexity of sexual assaults, yet in order to develop effective strategies and programs to end sexual assault, deep understanding and appreciation of these complexities are needed. In this paper, we describe the root causes and numerous myths surrounding sexual assault, the military cultural factors that may unintentionally contribute to sexual assault, and the uncomfortable issues surrounding sexual assault that are often ignored (such as the prevalence of male sexual assault within the military). We conclude by offering a broad, yet comprehensive set of recommendations that considers all of these factors for developing effective strategies and programs for ending sexual assault within in the military. PMID:25980511

  11. Associations between youth homelessness, sexual offenses, sexual victimization, and sexual risk behaviors: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Heerde, Jessica A; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A

    2015-01-01

    Homeless youth commonly report engaging in sexual risk behaviors. These vulnerable young people also frequently report being sexually victimized. This systematic review collates, summarizes, and appraises published studies of youth investigating relationships between homelessness, perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior. A systematic search of seventeen psychology, health, and social science electronic databases was conducted. Search terms included "homeless*," "youth," "offend*," "victimization," "crime," "rape," "victim*," and "sex crimes." Thirty-eight studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Findings showed homeless youth commonly report being raped and sexually assaulted, fear being sexually victimized, and engage in street prostitution and survival sex. Rates of victimization and sexual risk behavior were generally higher for females. Given the paucity of longitudinal studies and limitations of current studies, it is unclear whether homelessness is prospectively associated with sexual victimization or engagement in sexual risk behavior, and whether such associations vary cross nationally and as a function of time and place. Future prospective research examining the influence of the situational context of homelessness is necessary to develop a better understanding of how homelessness influences the perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior among homeless youth. PMID:25411128

  12. Beyond Sexual Orientation: Integrating Gender/Sex and Diverse Sexualities via Sexual Configurations Theory.

    PubMed

    van Anders, Sari M

    2015-07-01

    Sexual orientation typically describes people's sexual attractions or desires based on their sex relative to that of a target. Despite its utility, it has been critiqued in part because it fails to account for non-biological gender-related factors, partnered sexualities unrelated to gender or sex, or potential divergences between love and lust. In this article, I propose Sexual Configurations Theory (SCT) as a testable, empirically grounded framework for understanding diverse partnered sexualities, separate from solitary sexualities. I focus on and provide models of two parameters of partnered sexuality-gender/sex and partner number. SCT also delineates individual gender/sex. I discuss a sexual diversity lens as a way to study the particularities and generalities of diverse sexualities without privileging either. I also discuss how sexual identities, orientations, and statuses that are typically seen as misaligned or aligned are more meaningfully conceptualized as branched or co-incident. I map out some existing identities using SCT and detail its applied implications for health and counseling work. I highlight its importance for sexuality in terms of measurement and social neuroendocrinology, and the ways it may be useful for self-knowledge and feminist and queer empowerment and alliance building. I also make a case that SCT changes existing understandings and conceptualizations of sexuality in constructive and generative ways informed by both biology and culture, and that it is a potential starting point for sexual diversity studies and research. PMID:25772652

  13. Attachment insecurities and women's sexual function and satisfaction: the mediating roles of sexual self-esteem, sexual anxiety, and sexual assertiveness.

    PubMed

    Brassard, Audrey; Dupuy, Emmanuelle; Bergeron, Sophie; Shaver, Phillip R

    2015-01-01

    We examined the potential role of three mediators--sexual self-esteem, sexual anxiety, and sexual assertiveness--of the association between romantic attachment insecurities (anxiety and avoidance) and two aspects of women's sexual functioning: sexual function and sexual satisfaction. A sample of 556 women aged 18 to 30 agreed to complete an online series of validated questionnaires assessing attachment insecurities and several aspects of sexual functioning. Lower sexual self-esteem and higher sexual anxiety mediated the associations between attachment anxiety and lower sexual function and satisfaction. Lower sexual self-esteem and higher sexual anxiety also partially mediated the links between attachment-related avoidance and the two sexual functioning variables. Sexual assertiveness, however, did not mediate these associations. A significant interaction between attachment anxiety and avoidance was also found to predict sexual satisfaction, with women high in avoidance and low in anxiety being the least satisfied. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical and clinical implications. PMID:24350570

  14. Sexual Orientation Modulates Endocrine Stress Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Juster, Robert-Paul; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Mendrek, Adrianna; Pfaus, James G.; Smith, Nathan Grant; Johnson, Philip Jai; Lefebvre-Louis, Jean-Philippe; Raymond, Catherine; Marin, Marie-France; Sindi, Shireen; Lupien, Sonia J.; Pruessner, Jens C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Biological sex differences and sociocultural gender diversity influence endocrine stress reactivity. Although numerous studies have shown that men typically activate stronger stress responses than women when exposed to laboratory-based psychosocial stressors, it is unclear whether sexual orientation further modulates stress reactivity. Given that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals frequently report heightened distress secondary to stigma-related stressors, we investigated whether cortisol stress reactivity differs between LGB individuals and heterosexual individuals in response to a well-validated psychosocial stressor. METHODS The study population comprised 87 healthy adults (mean age, 25 years) who were grouped according to their biological sex and their gendered sexual orientation: lesbian/bisexual women (n = 20), heterosexual women (n = 21), gay/bisexual men (n = 26), and heterosexual men (n = 20). Investigators collected 10 salivary cortisol samples throughout a 2-hour afternoon visit involving exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test modified to maximize between-sex differences. RESULTS Relative to heterosexual women, lesbian/bisexual women showed higher cortisol stress reactivity 40 min after exposure to the stressor. In contrast, gay/bisexual men displayed lower overall cortisol concentrations throughout testing compared with heterosexual men. Main findings were significant while adjusting for sex hormones (estradiol-to-progesterone ratio in women and testosterone in men), age, self-esteem, and disclosure status (whether LGB participants had completed their “coming out”). CONCLUSIONS Our results provide novel evidence for gender-based modulation of cortisol stress reactivity based on sexual orientation that goes beyond well-established between-sex differences. This study raises several important avenues for future research related to the physiologic functioning of LGB populations and gender diversity more broadly. PMID:25444167

  15. Hormonal therapy of intrinsic aging.

    PubMed

    Zouboulis, C C; Makrantonaki, E

    2012-06-01

    Intrinsic skin aging represents the biological clock of the skin cells per se and reflects the reduction processes that are common in internal organs. The reduced secretion of the pituitary, adrenal glands, and the gonads contributes to characteristic aging-associated body and skin phenotypes as well as behavior patterns. Our knowledge of whether there is a direct or indirect connection between hormonal deficiency and skin aging still remains limited. In females, serum levels of 17?-estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone, progesterone, growth hormone (GH), and its downstream hormone insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) are significantly decreased with increasing age. In males, serum levels of GH and IGF-I decrease significantly, whereas it can decrease in late age in a part of the population. Hormones have been shown to influence skin morphology and functions, skin permeability, wound healing, sebaceous lipogenesis, and the metabolism of skin cells. Prevention of skin aging by estrogen/progesterone replacement therapy is effective if administered early after menopause and influences intrinsically aged skin only. Vitamin D substitution and antioxidant treatment may also be beneficial. Replacement therapy with androgens, GH, IGF-I, progesterone, melatonin, cortisol, and thyroid hormones still remains controversial. PMID:22533363

  16. [Child sexual abuse].

    PubMed

    Fegert, Jörg M

    2007-01-01

    The present paper gives an overview on the development of professional discourse on sexual abuse over the last 20 years in the field of child protection. After the introduction, definitions from different professional perspectives (civil law, criminal law, psychotherapy, counseling, etc.) are given. Based on these definitions an epidemiological range of prevalence figures is described. In the literature, rates ranging from 6 to 25 % in girls and 2 to 8 % in boy as victims of sexual abuse can be observed. Psychiatric consequences of sexual abuse are described based on an overview of the literature. Diagnostic approaches to posttraumatic problems are discussed and distinguished from obsolete measures. Some neurobiological findings are presented. Finally the foundations of counseling, psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy of behavioral of symptoms and PTSD are discussed on the bases of a literature review of controlled clinical trials. In conclusion, further developments in psychotherapy and research are discussed for the German practical child protection field. PMID:17177097

  17. Television and adolescent sexuality.

    PubMed

    Brown, J D; Childers, K W; Waszak, C S

    1990-01-01

    Existing studies of the sexual content of television programming and advertising and the effects of this content on adolescent viewers are reviewed. Content studies show that the frequency of sexual references have increased in the past decade and are increasingly explicit. Studies of the effects of this content, while scarce, suggest that adolescents who rely heavily on television for information about sexuality will have high standards of female beauty and will believe that premarital and extramarital intercourse with multiple partners is acceptable. They are unlikely to learn about the need for contraceptives as a form of protection against pregnancy or disease. Suggestions for future research and trends in television programming policies are explored. PMID:2307597

  18. ORIGINAL PAPER Predicting Sexual Problems in Women: The Relevance of Sexual

    E-print Network

    ORIGINAL PAPER Predicting Sexual Problems in Women: The Relevance of Sexual Excitation and Sexual-clinical sample of 540 hetero- sexual women were used to examine the relationships between scores on the Sexual Excitation/Sexual Inhibition Inventory for Women (SESII-W) and ratings of current sexual problems, lifetime

  19. Randomized study evaluating testosterone recovery using short-versus long-acting luteinizing hormone releasing hormone agonists

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Howard Huaihan; Pickles, Tom; Keyes, Mira; Jones, Stuart; McDonald, Rachel E.; Lesperance, Mary; Berthelet, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: We sought to compare the rate of return of testosterone levels and sexual function in men with prostate cancer receiving longer acting, 3-month preparation of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist (L-LHRH-A) versus shorter acting, 1-month preparation of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist (S-LHRH-A). Methods and Materials: Men with low to intermediate risk localized prostate cancer were randomized to either L-LHRH-A (2–3 month duration LHRH-A) or S-LHRH-A (6-1 month duration LHRH-A) of androgen suppression therapy (AST) and prostate brachytherapy using iodine-125 radioisotopes. Serum total testosterone levels and PSA were recorded every 2 months for 2 years. Results: A planned target sample size of 100 was not achieved due to insufficient accrual. A total of 55 patients were randomized and 46 were used for analysis. The median time to recovery of testosterone to baseline levels (calculated from end of AST) was 8 and 4 months in the L-LHRH-A and S-LHRH-A arms, respectively (p = 0.268). The median time to testosterone recovery to lower limit of reference range was 4 and 2 months respectively (p = 0.087). Interpretation: This randomized study, which failed to reach accrual target, showed a trend towards more rapid recovery of testosterone levels using shorter acting LHRH-A. Another randomized study would be required to validate these findings. Currently, there is insufficient evidence to recommend the use of shorter acting LHRH-A as a means of providing more rapid recovery of testosterone levels. PMID:21672478

  20. Buspirone and Paraphilic Sexual Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedoroff, J. Paul; Fedoroff, Ingrid C.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews literature concerning buspirone's effect on sexual functioning. Presents three hypotheses: that buspirone's facilitation of sexual functioning is not solely a result of its anxiolytic effects; that buspirone facilitates nonparaphilc arousal but inhibits paraphilic sexual arousal; and that buspirone's efficacy in reducing paraphilic arousal…

  1. Sexual Trauma, Spirituality, and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krejci, Mark J.; Thompson, Kevin M.; Simonich, Heather; Crosby, Ross D.; Donaldson, Mary Ann; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Mitchell, James E.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the association between spirituality and psychopathology in a group of sexual abuse victims and controls with a focus on whether spirituality moderated the association between sexual trauma and psychopathology. Seventy-one sexual trauma victims were compared to 25 control subjects on spiritual well-being, the Eating Disorder…

  2. Harvard University Sexual Harassment and

    E-print Network

    harassment may include statements made by telephone, email or other electronic form, whether directlyHarvard University Sexual Harassment and Drug-Free Workplace Distributed by Harvard Labor of sexual harassment. Sexual harassment in the workplace is discriminatory, unlawful, denies respect

  3. Sexuality Education as a Ministry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Melanie J.

    2011-01-01

    The author describes her development from being her religious congregation's sexuality educator to completing doctoral studies and finding her place in the professional sexuality education community. She equates sexuality education to a ministry that reaches out to those in need of knowledge.

  4. Sexual Health in Prime Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taverner, William J.

    2006-01-01

    The term "sexual health" is often used in sexuality education without any concrete, operational definition, and students are left to ascertain the meaning for themselves. In the absence of a clear definition, students may adopt diverse or narrow understandings of this vague term, without learning the full scope of everything that sexual health…

  5. The "Right" Sexuality for Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Feminist researchers in psychology and education have been theorizing about the kind of sexuality girls ought to have. They are not afraid to investigate morality and what makes a good life. While they explore the meaning and cultural context of girls' sexual development, the good sexual life they describe may be an elusive ideal that, in the end,…

  6. Sexually dimorphic expression of steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) in developing gonads of the American bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Loretta P. Mayer; Stefanie L. Overstreet; Cheryl A. Dyer; Catherine R. Propper

    2002-01-01

    Genetic sex determination leads to gonadal differentiation and ultimately the differences between the sexes in steroid hormone secretion. Gonadal steroidogenesis is critical for the development of a sexually dimorphic phenotype and adult reproductive function. Control of gonadal development and steroidogenesis is under the regulation, at least in part, of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1). We have begun to characterize SF-1 expression in

  7. [Sexuality in Ancient Egypt].

    PubMed

    Androutsos, G; Marketos, S

    1994-10-01

    The present article explores the sexuality in ancient Egypt. In particular in this article are presented the ways of concubinage (marriage, concubinage, adultery), the incest, loves of the pharaohs and of the common people, the freedom of choice in garments, the status of the hetairas and of the whores, the sexual perversions (male and female homosexuality, necrophilia, sodomism, bestiality, rape, masturbation, exhibitionism), the operations of the genitals (circumcision, excision, castration) and finally the level of knowledge in gynaecology, fertility, contraception and obstetrics that even today demands our admiration. PMID:7858632

  8. ORIGINAL PAPER Patterns of Sexual Arousal in Homosexual, Bisexual, and

    E-print Network

    , psycho- physiological studies, examining the association between sexual orientation and sexual arousal of sexual arousal. Keywords Sexual arousal Á Sexual orientation Á Bisexuality Á Psychophysiology, especially when sexual orientation is assessed in terms of fantasies, attraction, and behavior. In contrast

  9. Treating sexual dysfunction associated with prior sexual trauma.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, B W

    1990-01-01

    Negative, confusing, guilt-inducing, or traumatic sexual experiences are almost universal for both females and males. Guidelines are presented for assessing sexual trauma using the medium of the detailed sexual history. The cognitive-behavioral treatment strategy considers past trauma in the context of the present sexual dysfunction rather than an issue to be dealt with first or separately. The guiding principles are to teach the person to be a "survivor" rather than a "victim" and to help the couple develop a functional and satisfying sexual style because "living well is the best revenge." PMID:2246791

  10. The sexual habitus of transgender men: negotiating sexuality through gender.

    PubMed

    Schilt, Kristen; Windsor, Elroi

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors consider how trans men's decisions about physical body modifications impact their sense of themselves as gendered and sexual actors. Based on interviews with 74 trans men, the authors explore how their embodiment, gender identity, erotic ideation, lifetime of sexual practices, and domain of potential partners-what the authors term "sexual habitus"-can be affirmed, transformed, or challenged as their embodiment changes. These changes underscore the dynamic relationship between gender and sexuality and illustrate how bodies matter in sexual trajectories across the life course. PMID:24392744

  11. LIGHT AND THE SEXUAL CYCLE OF GAME BIRDS.

    PubMed

    Clark, L B; Leonard, S L; Bump, G

    1937-04-01

    The results of these experiments has led us to conclude that light is a primary factor in inducing sexual activity in pheasants, quail and grouse, through the mediation of the hypophysis. Once this hypophysealgonad reaction is started it can not continue indefinitely with adequate light but only until the hypophysis falters in the production of the gonad-stimulating hormone through causes unknown. The immature pheasant resembles the adult at the close of the breeding season in that the gonads are capable of responding to adequate hypophyseal stimulation. PMID:17815130

  12. Electrochemical biosensors for hormone analyses.

    PubMed

    Bahad?r, Elif Burcu; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal

    2015-06-15

    Electrochemical biosensors have a unique place in determination of hormones due to simplicity, sensitivity, portability and ease of operation. Unlike chromatographic techniques, electrochemical techniques used do not require pre-treatment. Electrochemical biosensors are based on amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric, and conductometric principle. Amperometric technique is a commonly used one. Although electrochemical biosensors offer a great selectivity and sensitivity for early clinical analysis, the poor reproducible results, difficult regeneration steps remain primary challenges to the commercialization of these biosensors. This review summarizes electrochemical (amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric and conductometric) biosensors for hormone detection for the first time in the literature. After a brief description of the hormones, the immobilization steps and analytical performance of these biosensors are summarized. Linear ranges, LODs, reproducibilities, regenerations of developed biosensors are compared. Future outlooks in this area are also discussed. PMID:25558874

  13. Sexual Coercion and Sexual Violence at First Intercourse Associated with Sexually Transmitted Infections

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Corrine M.; Clear, Emily R.; Coker, Ann L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Violence against women has been associated with subsequent risky sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted infections. We explored whether sexual coercion or violence at first intercourse was associated with self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Methods Using nationally representative data from the 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth, we analyzed female respondents ages 18–44 (n=9,466) who answered questions on coercion at first intercourse (wantedness, voluntariness and types of force used) and STIs using logistic regression analyses. We explored degrees of coercion, which we label as neither, sexual coercion (unwanted or nonphysical force), or sexual violence (involuntary or physical force). Results Eighteen percent of US women reported sexual coercion and 8.4% experienced sexual violence at first intercourse. Compared with women who experienced neither, the odds of reporting a STI was significantly greater for women who experienced sexual coercion (OR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.01–1.60), after controlling for all variables. The association between sexual violence at first intercourse and STIs (OR: 1.20, 95% CI: 0.91–1.57) appeared to be attenuated by subsequent sexual violence. Conclusions Understanding that women who reported a variety of coercive sexual experiences are more likely to have contracted an STI may indicate a need to focus on the broader continuum of sexual violence to fully understand the impact of even subtle forms of violence on women’s health. In addition, focusing on subsequent sexual behaviors and other negative consequences remains important in order to improve the sexual health of women who have experienced coercive sexual intercourse. PMID:24275726

  14. College students' sexual attitudes and behaviors: implications for sexuality education.

    PubMed

    Feigenbaum, R; Weinstein, E; Rosen, E

    1995-11-01

    This study of sexual attitudes and behaviors of students in a large northeastern community college was undertaken in partial response to an outspoken community group's claims that the sexuality education courses being taught at the school were undermining the morality of its young adults and encouraging early sexual activity. Findings from 1,825 pretest respondents in human sexuality and general health courses indicated that more than 80% of the students had experienced sexual intercourse before they took the courses. In a posttest comparison with 1,456 of the same students, the authors found no significant changes in the number of students who were sexually active or in their attitudes about such issues as abortion and premarital, casual, or oral sex. Statistically significant changes did occur in human sexuality students' attitudes and behaviors about safer sex, having fewer sex partners, and using condoms and spermicides. PMID:8543724

  15. Operationalizing the concept of sexuality comfort: applications for sexuality educators.

    PubMed

    Graham, C A; Smith, M M

    1984-12-01

    Thirty-two high school and college educators participated in a study designed to operationalize the concept of sexuality comfort. Research questions asked were: "What is the nature of sexuality comfort?" and "Can the concept, of sexuality comfort be defined operationally?" An interview guide developed with input from an expert panel of health/sexuality educators and semanticists facilitated data collection. Data were categorized and tabulated through a systematic process. This coding process, performed by independent coders, yielded 97.2% reliability. Based on the results, an operational definition of sexuality comfort was delineated. Because an operational definition is one which tells what to do to experience the thing defined, the operational definition of sexuality comfort has immediate practical applications to preparation programs for prospective sexuality educators as well as those currently working in the field. PMID:6569283

  16. Televised sexual content and parental mediation: Influences on adolescent sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Deborah A.; Hill, Douglas L.; Grube, Joel W.; Bersamin, Melina M.; Walker, Samantha; Gruber, Enid L.

    2011-01-01

    Little research has been conducted to examine the influence of exposure to televised sexual content on adolescent sexuality or how parental intervention may reduce negative effects of viewing such content. This study uses self-report data from 1,012 adolescents to investigate the relations among exposure to sexually suggestive programming, parental mediation strategies, and three types of adolescent sexuality outcomes: participation in oral sex and sexual intercourse, future intentions to engage in these behaviors, and sex expectancies. As predicted, exposure to sexual content was associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in sexual behaviors, increased intentions to do so in the future, and more positive sex expectancies. Often, parental mediation strategies were a significant factor in moderating these potential media influences. PMID:21546986

  17. Clinical and hormonal aspects of male hypogonadism in myotonic dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Mastrogiacomo, I; Bonanni, G; Menegazzo, E; Santarossa, C; Pagani, E; Gennarelli, M; Angelini, C

    1996-02-01

    In order to study male hypergonadotropic hypogonadism as completely as possible, and to evaluate its possible effects on muscle atrophy and sexuality, RIA or IRMA methods were used to measure the levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin, total (T) and free (FT) testosterone, estradiol (E), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), androstenedione (A) and 17-OH-progesterone (17-OH-P) in 29 patients with myotonic dystrophy (MD). The mean hormonal levels +/-SD were: LH 8.0 +/- 4.4 mIU/ml, FSH 17.4 +/- 11.5 mIU/ml, A 200 +/- 130 ng/dl (all higher than in controls); T 406 +/- 290 ng/dl, FT 22.7 +/- 7.0 pg/ml, DHT 55.5 +/- 29.7 ng/ml (all lower than in controls). The low FT and DHT levels (never previously studied in MD) confirm the androgenic deficiency. The high androstenedione levels and low testosterone concentrations suggest defective enzyme 17-dehydrogenase. The duration of the disease correlated with both testosterone (r = -0.56) and FT levels (r = -0.59), showing that hypogonadism tends to worsen progressively. When the patients were divided into three groups on the basis of the severity of muscle involvement (A, B and C), LH and FSH levels were higher in group C (more severe disease) than in group A, respectively 9.3 +/- 4.7 and 20.6 +/- 12.3 mIU/ml versus 4.8 +/- 0.9 and 8.4 +/- 3.8, p < 0.03; T levels were lower in group C than in group A, 337.3 +/- 263.4 ng/dl versus 649.7 +/- 320.3 (p < 0.03); however, there was no significant difference in the FT levels of the three groups, which may imply that hypogonadism is unlikely to have a direct effect on muscle atrophy. About 25% of our patients were impotent; these subjects had higher LH and FSH (p < 0.001) and lower FT levels than the patients who were not impotent (p < 0.03). However, hypogonadism may not be the only cause of impotence as all of the impotent patients belonged to group C and had a very high (CTG)n triplet expansion. We hypothesise that hypogonadism and sexual impairment could be partially due to a muscle cell alteration: i.e. a dysfunction of both the testicular peritubular myoid cells and of the corpus cavernosum smooth muscle. PMID:8742989

  18. Endocrine Disruption of Brain Sexual Differentiation by Developmental PCB Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Sarah M.; Cunningham, Stephanie L.; Patisaul, Heather B.; Woller, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    In mammals, sexual differentiation of the hypothalamus occurs during prenatal and early postnatal development due in large part to sex differences in hormones. These early organizational processes are critically important for the attainment and maintenance of adult reproductive functions. We tested the hypothesis that perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) that disrupt hormonal pathways would perturb reproductive maturation and the sexually dimorphic development of neuroendocrine systems in the preoptic area (POA). Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected on gestational d 16 and 18 with vehicle (dimethylsulfoxide), Aroclor 1221 (A1221, an estrogenic PCB mix), a reconstituted PCB mixture representing those highest in human body burden (PCBs 138, 153, 180), or estradiol benzoate, an estrogenic control. Male and female pups were monitored for somatic and reproductive development. In adulthood, some rats were perfused and used for immunohistochemistry of estrogen receptor ?, kisspeptin, and coexpression of Fos in GnRH neurons. Other rats were used to obtain fresh-frozen POA dissections for use in a PCR-based 48-gene expression array. Pubertal onset was advanced and estrous cyclicity irregular in endocrine-disrupted females. Furthermore, sexual differentiation of female neuroendocrine systems was masculinized/defeminized. Specifically, in the adult female anteroventral periventricular nucleus, estrogen receptor ?-cell numbers and kisspeptin fiber density were significantly decreased, as was GnRH-Fos coexpression. PCR analysis identified androgen receptor, IGF-I, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit NR2b, and TGF?1 mRNAs as significantly down-regulated in endocrine-disrupted female POAs. These data suggest that developmental PCBs profoundly impair the sexual differentiation of the female hypothalamus. PMID:21190954

  19. Advances in male hormonal contraception

    PubMed Central

    Antonietta, Costantino; Giulia, Gava; Marta, Berra; Cristina, Meriggiola Maria

    2014-01-01

    Contraception is a basic human right for its role on health, quality of life and wellbeing of the woman and of the society as a whole. Since the introduction of female hormonal contraception the responsibility of family planning has always been with women. Currently there are only a few contraceptive methods available for men, but recently, men have become more interested in supporting their partners actively. Over the last few decades different trials have been performed providing important advances in the development of a safe and effective hormonal contraceptive for men. This paper summarizes some of the most recent trials. PMID:25673544

  20. Discussion Guide for the Sexually Explicit Educational Video Sexuality Reborn: Sexuality Following Spinal Cord Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitchell S. Tepper

    1997-01-01

    The use of sexually explicit media in education is a sensitive teaching area because of the range of adverse reactions sexually graphic images may evoke. The person planning to use a sexually explicit video needs to create a safe environment with time for discussion and they must be prepared to facilitate discussion that will elicit reactions and help viewers deal

  1. Childhood Sexual Abuse Moderates the Association between Sexual Functioning and Sexual Distress in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Kyle R.; Hughan, Corey P.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the degree to which a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) moderates the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Method: Women with (n = 105, M age = 33.71, 66.1% Caucasian) and without (n = 71, M age = 32.63, 74.7% Caucasian) a history of CSA taking part in a larger clinical trial completed…

  2. Varieties of male-sexual-identity development in clinical practice: a neuropsychoanalytic model.

    PubMed

    Stortelder, Frans

    2014-01-01

    Variations of sexual identity development are present in all cultures, as well as in many animal species. Freud - founding father of psychoanalysis - believed that all men have an inherited, bisexual disposition, and that many varieties of love and desire are experienced as alternative pathways to intimacy. In the neuropsychoanalytic model, psychic development starts with the constitutional self. The constitutional self is comprised of the neurobiological factors which contribute to sexual identity development. These neurobiological factors are focused on biphasic sexual organization in the prenatal phase, based on variations in genes, sex hormones, and brain circuits. This psychosocial construction of sexual identity is determined through contingent mirroring by the parents and peers of the constitutional self. The development of the self-or personal identity-is linked with the development of sexual identity, gender-role identity, and procreative identity. Incongruent mirroring of the constitutional self causes alienation in the development of the self. Such alienation can be treated within the psychoanalytic relationship. This article presents a contemporary, neuropsychoanalytic, developmental theory of male-sexual identity relating to varieties in male-sexual-identity development, with implications for psychoanalytic treatment, and is illustrated with three vignettes from clinical practice. PMID:25566168

  3. Sexual onset and contraceptive use among adolescents from poor neighbourhoods in Managua, Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Decat, Peter; De Meyer, Sara; Jaruseviciene, Lina; Orozco, Miguel; Ibarra, Marcia; Segura, Zoyla; Medina, Joel; Vega, Bernardo; Michielsen, Kristien; Temmerman, Marleen; Degomme, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background and objectives The prevalence of teenage pregnancies in Nicaragua is the highest in Latin-America. This study aimed to gain insight into factors which determine the sexual behaviours concerned. Methods From July until August 2011, a door-to-door survey was conducted among adolescents living in randomly selected poor neighbourhoods of Managua. Logistic regression was used to analyse factors related to sexual onset and contraceptive use. Results Data from 2803 adolescents were analysed. Of the 475 and 299 sexually active boys and girls, 43% and 54%, respectively, reported contraceptive use. Sexual onset was positively related to increasing age, male sex, alcohol consumption and not living with the parents. Catholic boys and boys never feeling peer pressure to have sexual intercourse were more likely to report consistent condom use. Having a partner and feeling comfortable talking about sexuality with the partner were associated with hormonal contraception. Conclusions Our data identified associates of adolescents’ sexual behaviour related to personal characteristics (sex and alcohol use), to the interaction with significant others (parents, partners, peers) and to the environment (housing condition, religion). We interpreted those associates within the context of the rapidly changing society and the recently implemented health system reform in Nicaragua. Chinese Abstract ?? ????? ??????????????????????????????????????? ?? 2011?7??8???????????????????????????????????????Logistic???????????????????? ?? ?????2 803?????????475??299????????????????43%?54%????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????٦

  4. Varieties of male-sexual-identity development in clinical practice: a neuropsychoanalytic model

    PubMed Central

    Stortelder, Frans

    2014-01-01

    Variations of sexual identity development are present in all cultures, as well as in many animal species. Freud – founding father of psychoanalysis – believed that all men have an inherited, bisexual disposition, and that many varieties of love and desire are experienced as alternative pathways to intimacy. In the neuropsychoanalytic model, psychic development starts with the constitutional self. The constitutional self is comprised of the neurobiological factors which contribute to sexual identity development. These neurobiological factors are focused on biphasic sexual organization in the prenatal phase, based on variations in genes, sex hormones, and brain circuits. This psychosocial construction of sexual identity is determined through contingent mirroring by the parents and peers of the constitutional self. The development of the self—or personal identity—is linked with the development of sexual identity, gender-role identity, and procreative identity. Incongruent mirroring of the constitutional self causes alienation in the development of the self. Such alienation can be treated within the psychoanalytic relationship. This article presents a contemporary, neuropsychoanalytic, developmental theory of male-sexual identity relating to varieties in male-sexual-identity development, with implications for psychoanalytic treatment, and is illustrated with three vignettes from clinical practice. PMID:25566168

  5. Hypothalamic inhibition of socio-sexual behaviour by increasing neuroestrogen synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ubuka, Takayoshi; Haraguchi, Shogo; Tobari, Yasuko; Narihiro, Misato; Ishikawa, Kei; Hayashi, Takanori; Harada, Nobuhiro; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that inhibits gonadotropin secretion and socio-sexual behaviours. Oestrogen (neuroestrogen) synthesized in the brain from androgen by aromatase regulates male socio-sexual behaviours. Here we show that GnIH directly activates aromatase and increases neuroestrogen synthesis in the preoptic area (POA) and inhibits socio-sexual behaviours of male quail. Aromatase activity and neuroestrogen concentration in the POA are low in the morning when the birds are active, but neuroestrogen synthesis gradually increases until the evening when the birds become inactive. Centrally administered GnIH in the morning increases neuroestrogen synthesis in the POA and decreases socio-sexual behaviours. Centrally administered 17?-oestradiol at higher doses also inhibits socio-sexual behaviours in the morning. These results suggest that GnIH inhibits male socio-sexual behaviours by increasing neuroestrogen synthesis beyond its optimum concentration for the expression of socio-sexual behaviours. This is the first demonstration of any hypothalamic neuropeptide that directly regulates neuroestrogen synthesis. PMID:24430094

  6. Hormone Abuse Prevention and What You Need to Know

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Store Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health The Endocrine System What Do Hormones Do? Healthy Living Living Your ... Learn About Clinical Trials Hormones and Health The Endocrine System What Do Hormones Do? Healthy Living Living Your ...

  7. Membrane receptors for hormones and neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    Receptors for peptide hormones and neurotransmitters are integral components of the plasma membrane of cells which serve to couple the external milieu to the intracellular regulators of metabolism. These macromolecules are usually high molecular weight glycoproteins, and in many cases appear to have more than one subunit capable of binding the hormone. The interaction of the hormone or neurotransmitter with its receptor is rapid, reversible, and of high affinity and specificity. Many receptors exhibit cooperative properties in hormone binding or biological function. The concentration of receptors on the membrane is a function of continued synthesis and degradation, and may be altered by a variety of factors including the hormone itself. The fluid mosaic nature of the membrane may allow hormone receptors and effectors to exist in free floating states. Further investigations of the hormone- receptor interaction will no doubt yield new insights into both the mechanism of hormone action and membrane structure and function. PMID:7569

  8. Sorption of steroidal hormones by electrodialysis membranes 

    E-print Network

    Banasiak, Laura Joan; Schäfer, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms of sorption of four steroidal hormones – estradiol, estrone, progesterone and testosterone – to electrodialysis (ED) membranes were investigated as a function of solution pH and presence of humic acid (HA). Hormone-membrane partition...

  9. Theories of sexual orientation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael D. Storms

    1980-01-01

    Various theories assume that sexual orientation is related to sex role orientation or to erotic orientation. Hypotheses derived from these 2 assumptions were tested. Heterosexual, bisexual, and homosexual undergraduates (185 Ss) were administered measures of their masculine and feminine attributes (determined by the Personal Attributes Questionnaire) and their erotic fantasies (measured by the Erotic Response and Orientation Scale). Results generally

  10. Sexual isolation in bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacek Majewski

    2001-01-01

    Bacteria exchange genes rarely but are promiscuous in the choice of their genetic partners. Inter-specific recombination has the advantage of increasing genetic diversity and promoting dissemination of novel adaptations, but suffers from the negative effect of importing potentially harmful alleles from incompatible genomes. Bacterial species experience a degree of 'sexual isolation' from genetically divergent organisms ^ recombination occurs more frequently

  11. Fighting Campus Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Warren

    2014-01-01

    When President Obama points out, correctly, that young women stand a better chance of being sexually assaulted on a college campus than in the world outside, we have a problem that needs to be addressed not simply on campus, but at the highest levels of government. Author Warren Tolman strongly believes that the Massachusetts Office of Attorney…

  12. Dating and Sexual Feelings

    MedlinePLUS

    ... unsafe. Sex you don’t agree to is rape, whether it’s with a stranger or a date. Rape includes forcing a body part or object into ... vagina, rectum (bottom), or mouth. Learn more about rape and sexual assault . If someone forces you to ...

  13. Rock and Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frith, Simon; McRobbie, Angela

    1978-01-01

    Discusses rock as a form of both sexual expression and control. Describes rock's representations of masculinity and femininity and considers the contradictions involved in the representations. Relates the effects of rock to its form--as music, as commodity, as culture, and as entertainment. (JMF)

  14. Women and sexual problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... If: You are distressed by a problem with sex Worried about your relationship Have pain or other symptoms with sex Call ... exam An interview to ask you about your relationships, current sexual ... sex, other medical problems you might have, medicines you ...

  15. Sexual Dysfunction in Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to 70% of couples have a problem with sex at some time in their relationships. Most women will have sex that doesn't feel good at some point ... that my problems will cause tension in my relationship. What should I do? Is it safe for me to have sex? Can I get pregnant? Source Female Sexual Dysfunction: ...

  16. Sexual function after strokes.

    PubMed

    Boller, François; Agrawal, Kunal; Romano, Alissa

    2015-01-01

    Strokes are the second leading cause of death and the third leading cause of disability worldwide. Thanks in part to better and more available diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation, the vast majority of stroke patients tend to survive strokes, particularly in the industrialized world. Motor disability and cognitive changes such as aphasia and visuospatial disorders are most often considered among the major contributors to stroke burden. This chapter discusses disorders of sexual functions as another frequent sequel of strokes. Strokes generally induce hyposexuality, but in some instances they may be followed by hypersexuality. There is some evidence suggesting that lesions of either hemisphere affect sexual activities, but for different reasons: aphasia and depression after left-hemisphere lesions, a deficit in arousal and perhaps visuospatial disorders after right-hemisphere lesions. Psychologic, psychosocial, and physical factors, as well as medications, play an important role. A better understanding of the psychosocial and physiologic mechanisms underlying sexual functioning can provide insight into improving sexual activity and therefore quality of life in patients affected by strokes and other brain lesions. PMID:26003250

  17. [Can we treat sexual addiction ?].

    PubMed

    Inescu Cismaru, A; Andrianne, R; Triffaux, F; Triffaux, J-M

    2013-01-01

    Sexual addiction or sexual dependence is characterized by hypersexuality, impaired regulation of sexual desire and sexual compulsivity, including having sex with uncontrolled excessive frequency (5 to 15 sexual acts per day for more than 6 months, from 15 years old). Between 3% and 6% of the adult population (> or =18 years) would have the characteristics of sexual addiction, disorder prevalent in the male population. The addictive processes affect three behavioral domains : motivation-reward, affect regulation and behavioral inhibition. Sex addiction is usually accompanied by other addictions, such as abuse of drugs or alcohol or sex toys that enhance sexual performance. Psychiatric comorbidities can be found : anxiety disorders, mood disorders. Several forms of treatment have been tried, using medication, cognitive-behavioral therapy and psychotherapy sessions alternated with exposure therapy in virtual reality. In this article, we will discuss the multiple definitions of hypersexuality and the possibilities of therapeutic approaches. PMID:23888589

  18. Hormonal Changes During and After Cardiac Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcello Maggio; Chiara Cattabiani; Gian Paolo Ceda

    \\u000a Aging is associated with changes in serum concentrations of various hormones, including growth hormone, insulin-like growth\\u000a factor-1 (IGF-1), testosterone, estrogens, dehydroepiandrosterone, cortisol, and thyroid hormones. Studies suggest that these\\u000a hormonal alterations may be responsible for some of the physiologic changes seen with aging and also play a path physiological\\u000a role in many age-related medical conditions. The overall result of the

  19. Growth as affected by general hormonal factors and hormonal balances, and the limitations of such studies

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Growth as affected by general hormonal factors and hormonal balances, and the limitations France. Summary. Many elements are implicated in fetal and postnatal growth ; the hormonal factors are discussed in this review. In the first section, general hormonal effects on the growth of domestic animals

  20. Growth hormone secretory response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone in normal and dwarf chickens

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Growth hormone secretory response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone in normal and dwarf chickens L. Young, growing chickens of different ages (3, 5 and 7 weeks old) were used to determine whether in dwarf chickens. Introduction. Thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulates growth hormone (GH

  1. Production of male neonates in four cladoceran species exposed to a juvenile hormone analog, fenoxycarb.

    PubMed

    Oda, Shigeto; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Watanabe, Hajime; Morita, Masatoshi; Iguchi, Taisen

    2005-06-01

    Previous studies have found that exposure of a cyclic parthenogen, the water flea Daphnia magna (Cladocera, Crustacea), to juvenile hormones and their analogs results in the production of neonates of male sex at concentration-dependent rates. We conducted reproduction experiments in four different species (Moina macrocopa, M. micrura, Ceriodaphnia dubia and C. reticulata) of cladoceran to test for the first time whether the occurrence of this phenomenon after exposure of the parent to such hormones is a generalized phenomenon. In the presence of a juvenile hormone analog, fenoxycarb, all four species produced male neonates and showed reduced rates of reproduction. The estimated median effective concentration (EC50) for the production of male neonates varied with species, ranging from 0.60 x 10(3) to 9.3 x 10(3) ng/l. Although there was a wide range of sensitivity to fenoxycarb, the production of male neonates in all four species demonstrates that this phenomenon is a common response to juvenile hormone analogs and further suggests that these hormones are capable of initiating sexual reproduction in cladocerans, most of which exhibit cyclic parthenogenesis. PMID:15910904

  2. Sexual Identity as a Universal Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank R. Dillon; Roger L. Worthington; Bonnie Moradi

    \\u000a This chapter summarizes advances in current theoretical and empirical literature on sexual identity development. It proposes\\u000a a model of sexual identity that offers a more global (i.e., non-sexual identity group specific) perspective in comparison\\u000a to existing sexual identity group-specific sexual identity models. Attention to commonalities in sexual identity development\\u000a across sexual identity subgroups can offer a more global perspective that

  3. Hypersexuality: Psychopathology or normal variant of sexuality?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole J. Rinehart; Marita P. McCabe

    1997-01-01

    There is much controversy in the literature about what constitutes excessive sexual behavior and the extent to which the behavior can be considered a psychopathology. Historic and contemporary labels used to conceptualize excessive sexual behavior—e.g. nymphomania, satyriasis, sexual addiction, sexual dependency, sexual compulsivity and sexual impulsivity—are discussed. From the research literature is it not clear whether excessive sexual behavior is

  4. Bowels control brain: gut hormones and obesity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin C. T. Field; Owais B. Chaudhri; Stephen R. Bloom

    2010-01-01

    Food intake and energy expenditure are tightly regulated by the brain, in a homeostatic process that integrates diverse hormonal, neuronal and metabolic signals. The gastrointestinal tract is an important source of such signals, which include several hormones released by specialized enteroendocrine cells. These hormones exert powerful effects on appetite and energy expenditure. This Review addresses the physiological roles of peptide

  5. Research Article Open Access Steroids & Hormonal Science

    E-print Network

    Kawato, Suguru

    Research Article Open Access Steroids & Hormonal Science Hojo et al., J Steroids Hormon Sci 2014, S4 http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2157-7536.S4-002 J Steroids Hormon Sci Neurosteroids ISSN:2157-7536 JSHS-estradiol (E2), progesterone (PROG) and estrone [1], which is similar to hippocampus-synthesized steroids

  6. Growth Hormone Treatment: Cancer Risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles A. Sklar

    2004-01-01

    There have been concerns that growth hormone (GH) therapy may be associated with an increased risk of cancer. Although data are limited and conflicting, one recent report on cancer risk in individuals with no cancer history or risk factors for cancer who were treated with pituitary GH demonstrated a small increased risk of colon cancer and deaths from colon cancer

  7. Sex, Hormones, and Alzheimer's Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry W. Baum

    2005-01-01

    More women than men have Alzheimer's disease (AD). Retrospective studies suggested that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) might counteract this disparity by reducing the risk of developing dementia. However, a recent, large, prospective study revealed the puzzling result that HRT increased dementia risk. A review of the literature was conducted to generate hypotheses that might explain why more women than men

  8. Steroid and sterol hormone action

    SciTech Connect

    Spelsberg, T.C.; Kumar, R.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 21 selections. Some of the titles are: Estrogen control of vitellogenin gene transcription and mRNA stability; Inhibition of glucocorticoid receptor conversion to the DNA-binding state and inhibition of subunit dissociation; Steroid regulation of rRNA synthesis; Messenger RNA-S14 as a model of thyroid hormone action at the hepatocellular level; and The oxysterol receptor.

  9. Hormonal crosstalk in plant immunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. van der Does

    2012-01-01

    The plant hormones salicylic acid (SA), also known as plant aspirin, and jasmonic acid (JA) play major roles in the regulation of the plant immune system. In general, SA is important for defense against pathogens with a biotrophic lifestyle, whereas JA is essential for defense against insect herbivores and pathogens with a necrotrophic lifestyle. Antagonistic and synergistic interactions between the

  10. Assay for parathyroid hormone receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Nissenson, R.A.; Teitelbaum, A.P.; Arnaud, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    The paper presents methods used to identify and quantify parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptors in kidney and bone. Experimental details are provided for the preparation of radioiodinated PTH, purification of labeled PTH, and PTH binding assays using renal plasma membranes and cultured cells from embryonic chick bone cells.

  11. Plant Hormones and Water Stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Vaadia

    1976-01-01

    In recent years, the involvement of plant hormones has become a subject of interest in plant water relations. The interest was initially stimulated by research into leaf ageing and plant senescence and the role of cytokinins in these processes. Plant water stress and some other stresses enhance senescence. They also bring about reduction in the levels of endogenous cytokinins. Exogenous

  12. The roots of sexual arousal and sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Salu, Yehuda

    2011-03-01

    Unlike members of other species that are genetically wired to be attracted to their sexual partners, humans learn the cues that guide them in choosing their sexual partners and that trigger sexual arousal. Genetically wired mechanisms must be directing the acquisition of those cues and organizing them in information structures that underlie human sexual behavior. Individual sexuality is a combination of the genetic mechanisms and information learned through personal experiences. This article focuses on the roots of human sexuality - on genetically embedded mechanisms, common to all humans, around which the wide variety of sexual behaviors is built. It proposes a model that defines the basic mechanisms and their role in developing individual sexuality. It is suggested that three brain areas host the roots of human sexuality: the auditory area, which provides stimuli that serve as cues for the identification of a mate; an emotional area, which provides cues for emotional arousal; and a corporal area, which controls the physiological expressions of arousal. The amygdala is a main candidate for the emotional area, and the hypothalamus for the corporal area, but other areas may also provide those inputs. Experimental observations that support this model are discussed, and an outline of additional experiments for validating the model is proposed. If validated, the model would provide knowledge that fills a gap in the understanding of human sexuality - knowledge that would benefit individuals, the medical profession, and society as a whole. PMID:21095066

  13. High-risk sexual offenders: an examination of sexual fantasy, sexual paraphilia, psychopathy, and offence characteristics.

    PubMed

    Woodworth, Michael; Freimuth, Tabatha; Hutton, Erin L; Carpenter, Tara; Agar, Ava D; Logan, Matt

    2013-01-01

    High-risk sexual offenders are a complex and heterogeneous group of offenders about whom researchers, clinicians, and law enforcement agencies still know relatively little. In response to the paucity of information that is specifically applicable to high-risk offenders, the present study investigated the potential influence of sexual fantasy, sexual paraphilia, and psychopathy on the offending behaviour of 139 of the highest risk sexual offenders in one province of Canada. The sample included 41 child molesters, 42 rapists, 18 rapist/molesters, 30 mixed offenders, and 6 "other" sexual offenders. Two offenders could not be categorized by type due to insufficient file information. Data analyses revealed significant differences between offender types for a number of criminal history variables including past sexual and nonsexual convictions, number of victims, weapon use, and age of offending onset. Further, there were significant differences between offender types for sexual fantasy themes, paraphilia diagnoses, and levels of psychopathy. For example, results revealed that offenders' sexual fantasies were significantly more likely to correspond with the specific type of index sexual offence that they had committed. Further, offenders scoring high in psychopathy were significantly more likely to have a sadistic paraphilia than offenders with either low or moderate psychopathy scores. Results from the current study provide a refined and informed understanding of sexual offending behaviour with important implications for future research, assessment, and treatment, as well as law enforcement practices when working with high-risk sexual offenders. PMID:23395507

  14. Policy on Gender-Based and Sexual Misconduct (50.4/70.2.4) Including Discrimination, Sexual Violence, Sexual Harassment,

    E-print Network

    Yang, Eui-Hyeok

    or expression, or affectional or sexual orientation. Stevens is further committed to maintaining a safe learning1 Policy on Gender-Based and Sexual Misconduct (50.4/70.2.4) Including Discrimination, Sexual Violence, Sexual Harassment, Relationship Violence, Stalking, and other forms of Gender-Based or Sexual

  15. Sexual Harassment Sexual harassment is the most common type of sexual violence. Surveys show that roughly 70% of

    E-print Network

    Machel, Hans

    Sexual Harassment Sexual harassment is the most common type of sexual violence. Surveys show that roughly 70% of women and 15% of men have experienced sexual harassment in the workplace.1 This number does not include sexual harassment that occurs in other environments such as learning institutions or social

  16. Sexual Desire and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI): A Sexual Desire Cutpoint for Clinical Interpretation of the FSFI

    E-print Network

    Meston, Cindy

    Sexual Desire and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI): A Sexual Desire Cutpoint for Clinical Interpretation of the FSFI in Women with and without Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorderjsm_1871 3096..3103 Eric P T Introduction. A validated cutpoint for the total Female Sexual Function Index scale score exists to classify

  17. A Revised Sexual Knowledge Assessment Tool for People with Intellectual Disabilities: Is Sexual Knowledge Related to Sexual Offending Behaviour?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, T. J.; Langdon, Peter E.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The aim of the current study was to update an existing short measure of sexual knowledge and generate some initial reliability and normative data. Comparisons of sexual knowledge across several groups were made to examine whether or not a lack of sexual knowledge is related to sexual offending. Methods: The Bender Sexual Knowledge…

  18. Child Sexual Abuse, Peer Sexual Abuse, and Sexual Assault in Adulthood: A Multi-Risk Model of Revictimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Azmaira Hamid Maker; Markus Kemmelmeier; Christopher Peterson

    2001-01-01

    This study explored the predictors and consequences of sexual assault occurring after the age of 16 years in a nonclinical sample of women. Child sexual abuse occurring before the age of 16 years was the only predictor of later sexual assault among comorbid risk factors. Peer sexual abuse, number of perpetrators, age at time of sexual abuse, and severity of

  19. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: One Polypeptide Regulates Secretion of Luteinizing and Follicle-Stimulating Hormones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Schally; A. Arimura; A. J. Kastin; H. Matsuo; Y. Baba; T. W. Redding; R. M. G. Nair; L. Debeljuk; W. F. White

    1971-01-01

    A polypeptide isolated from porcine hypothalami stimulates the release of both luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone from the pituitaries of several species. This polypeptide has been structurally identified as (pyro)Glu-His-Trp-Ser-Tyr-Gly-Leu-Arg-Pro-Gly-NH2 and synthesized. The natural and synthetic materials share biological properties. It appears that this peptide represents the hypothalamic hormone regulating the secretion of both luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone.

  20. 79 FR 77767 - Standards To Prevent, Detect, and Respond to Sexual Abuse and Sexual Harassment Involving...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2014-12-24

    ...to sexual abuse and sexual harassment, including notification, orientation, and instruction not...specifically about their sexual orientation or gender identity...information about their sexual orientation or gender...

  1. Dance and sexuality: many moves.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Judith Lynne

    2010-03-01

    This literature review of dance and sexual expression considers dance and religion, dance and sexuality as a source of power, manifestations of sexuality in Western theater art and social dance, plus ritual and non-Western social dance. Expressions of gender, sexual orientation, asexuality, ambiguity, and adult entertainment exotic dance are presented. Prominent concerns in the literature are the awareness, closeting, and denial of sexuality in dance; conflation of sexual expression and promiscuity of gender and sexuality, of nudity and sexuality, and of dancer intention and observer interpretation; and inspiration for infusing sexuality into dance. Numerous disciplines (American studies, anthropology, art history, comparative literature, criminology, cultural studies, communication, dance, drama, English, history, history of consciousness, journalism, law, performance studies, philosophy, planning, retail geography, psychology, social work, sociology, and theater arts) have explored dance and sexual expression, drawing upon the following concepts, which are not mutually exclusive: critical cultural theory, feminism, colonialism, Orientalism, postmodernism, poststructuralism, queer theory, and semiotics. Methods of inquiry include movement analysis, historical investigation, anthropological fieldwork, autoethnography, focus groups, surveys, and self-reflection or autobiographical narrative. Directions for future exploration are addressed. PMID:20358462

  2. Sexual assault in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Linda H

    2011-01-01

    Women are sexually assaulted at an alarming rate, and the workplace is a frequent arena for assault. However, in recent decades, attention has been given to improving responses to sexual assault. Sexual assault is a frequent cause of injury and death for women in the United States. One in five American women admit they have experienced a completed rape during their lifetime. These estimates are conservative because sexual assault and sexual violence are both underreported and underprosecuted. Fear of job loss and discrimination are frequent reasons women do not report sexual assault in the workplace. Women are entering the workplace in greater numbers due in part to more single parent families and the depressed economy. Also, women are entering work environments that have traditionally been the domain of male workers: corporate headquarters, semi trucks, health care providers' offices, rural farms, and rural factories. Employers must have a plan to protect female employees and effectively address any incidents of sexual assault or violence. Occupational health nurses and nurse practitioners can assist both employees and employers to prevent sexual assault and resolve the aftermath of sexual assault. However, to accomplish this goal, occupational health nurses and nurse practitioners must be trained in sexual assault and violence response as well as preventive interventions. PMID:21175106

  3. THE SEXUAL PSYCHOPATH IN CALIFORNIA

    PubMed Central

    Rapaport, Walter; Lieberman, Daniel

    1956-01-01

    In California sexual offenders apprehended by the law are examined by court-appointed psychiatrists to determine whether they are “sexual psychopaths” as defined by California law and need treatment in a mental hospital. This paper outlines the criteria to be used as guides in properly selecting the persons for treatment. In general, sexual offenders fall into four categories. The first group consists of persons who cannot maintain proper control over their sexual impulses but whose acts do not constitute them a menace to the health and safety of others. They are not “sexual psychopaths” and their cases should be handled on their legal merits. The second group embraces persons who have committed a sexual offense on only one occasion and while under the influence of abnormal or unusual environmental stress. They are not considered “sexual psychopaths.” The third is made up of persons completely out of step with the social culture. They often have long criminal histories or long histories of social maladjustment. They are impulsive in their behavior and not remorseful of their misdeeds. Sexually deviant acts committed by such individuals are often incidental to their general asocial and amoral behavior. They do not suffer from inability to control sexual impulses. Their offenses should be judged according to the legal merits of the case. True “sexual psychopaths” have deviant menaceful sexual impulses and are not able to control them. The vast majority of these persons are those who have committed sexual offenses against children. The California State Department of Mental Hygiene has a maximum security hospital which is charged with the care and treatment of “sexual psychopaths.” PMID:13364662

  4. SEXUAL HARASSMENT UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS AMHERST

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    SEXUAL HARASSMENT POLICY AND PROCEDURES UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS AMHERST EQUAL OPPORTUNITY or studies without being sexually harassed. Sexual harassment of or by any member of the University community. For the purposes of this policy, it is defined as follows: Unwelcomed sexual advances, requests for sexual favors

  5. Sexual Arousal in Women with Superficial Dyspareunia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marieke Brauer; Ellen Laan; Moniek M. ter Kuile

    2006-01-01

    The role of sexual arousal in the etiology and\\/or maintenance of superficial dyspareunia is still unclear. Lack of sexual arousal may be both the cause and the result of anticipated pain. This study compared genital and subjective sexual responses to visual sexual stimuli of women with dyspareunia and women without sexual complaints. We investigated whether women with dyspareunia were less

  6. Sexual Information Seeking on Web Search Engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda Spink; Andrew Koricich; B. J. Jansen; Charles Cole

    2004-01-01

    Sexual information seeking is an important element within human information behavior. Seeking sexually related information on the Internet takes many forms and channels, includ- ing chat rooms discussions, accessing Websites or searching Web search engines for sexual materials. The study of sexual Web queries provides insight into sexually-related information- seeking behavior, of value to Web users and providers alike. We

  7. Urban Heterosexual Couples’ Sexual Scripts for Three Shared Sexual Experiences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Wyatt Seal; Michael Smith; Brenda Coley; June Perry; Maria Gamez

    2008-01-01

    A heterogeneous sample of 38 young adult heterosexual couples living in a US city (N?=?76) provided narratives about their first, most physically arousing, and most emotionally intimate sexual experiences.\\u000a Physical arousal and passion and emotional intimacy intrapsychic scripts were evident across all three sexual experiences,\\u000a although both discourses encompassed multiple sub-themes. First sexual occasions generally adhered to more traditional interpersonal

  8. Highly potent metallopeptide analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Bajusz, S.; Janaky, T.; Csernus, V.J.; Bokser, L.; Fekete, M.; Srkalovic, G.; Redding, T.W.; Schally, A.V. (Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (USA))

    1989-08-01

    Metal complexes related to the cytotoxic complexes cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)) and transbis(salicylaldoximato)copper(II) were incorporated into suitably modified luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogues containing D-lysine at position 6. Some of the metallopeptides thus obtained proved to be highly active LH-RH agonists or antagonists. Most metallopeptide analogues of LH-RH showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of rat pituitary and human breast cancer cells. Some of these metallopeptides had cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer and prostate cancer and prostate cancer cell lines in vitro. Such cytostatic metallopeptides could be envisioned as targeted chemotherapeutic agents in cancers that contain receptors for LH-RH-like peptides.

  9. Male sexual signaling is defective in mutants of the apterous gene of Drosophila melanogaster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Ringo; Ruth Werczberger; Daniel Segal

    1992-01-01

    Theapterous (ap) gene ofDrosophila melanogaster exhibits extreme pleiotrophy: its functioning is essential for life, normal wing structure, juvenile hormone production, female fertility, and normal development of female sexual receptivity. Four mutantap alleles (ap4,ap56f,apc, andapblt) were characterized for three additional phenotypes: male mating success, courtship behavior, and immature male sex appeal (the ability of males to stimulate homosexual cortship). Mating success

  10. Sexually disrupting effects of nonylphenol and diethylstilbestrol on male silver carp ( Carassius auratus) in aquatic microcosms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lihua Yang; Li Lina; Shaoping Weng; Zhiqin Feng; Tiangang Luan

    2008-01-01

    Based on detected nonylphenol (NP) levels in aquaculture water, this study investigated sexually disrupting effects in mature male silver carp (Carassius auratus) exposed to NP and a positive control diethylstilbestrol (DES). The combined evidences of steroid hormone (17?-estradiol, estrone and testosterone) levels and hispathological pictures showed that NP (?10?g\\/L) and DES could exert estrogenic effects through indirect mechanisms [i.e. increased

  11. The Relationship Between Exposure to Sexual Music Videos and Young Adults' Sexual Attitudes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuanyuan Zhang; Laura E. Miller; Kristen Harrison

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between exposure to sexual music videos and young people's sexual attitudes (i.e., premarital sexual permissiveness and endorsement of the sexual double standard). Items gauging exposure to 75 music videos ranging in sexual explicitness were used to measure sexual video viewing among a sample of 266 undergraduate students. As expected, exposure

  12. What is sexual harassment? Harvard University has adopted the following definition of sexual

    E-print Network

    Chou, James

    What is sexual harassment? Harvard University has adopted the following definition of sexual harassment: Sexual harassment is any unwelcome conduct of a sexual nature, including unwelcome sexual advances, requests for favors, and other verbal, nonverbal, graphic, or physical conduct of a sexual nature

  13. Program in Human Sexuality Annual Report 2013 Program in Human Sexuality Annual Report 2013 3

    E-print Network

    Ciocan-Fontanine, Ionut

    Program in Human Sexuality Annual Report 2013 ADVANCING SEXUAL HEALTH #12;Program in Human Sexuality Annual Report 2013 3 At the Program in Human Sexuality, our mission is to advance the sexual service, and advocacy. Our vision is to revolutionize the sexual climate by eliminating barriers

  14. The Role of Attention in Sexual Arousal: Implications for Treatment of Sexual Dysfunction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David C. de Jong

    2009-01-01

    The literature on the role of attention in sexual arousal is reviewed, especially that which has implications for noninvasive treatment of sexual dysfunction. Findings suggest that voluntary control of sexual arousal can be achieved through attentional focus on nonsexual cognitions or sexual fantasy. Cognitive biases may direct attention and thus facilitate or impede sexual arousal. Sexual arousal may be influenced

  15. Copulation in C. elegans males requires a nuclear hormone receptor.

    PubMed

    Shan, Ge; Walthall, W W

    2008-10-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, uncoordinated (unc)-55 encodes a nuclear hormone receptor that is necessary for coordinated movement and male mating. An unc-55 reporter gene revealed a sexually dimorphic pattern: early in post-embryonic motor neurons in both sexes; and later in a subset of male-specific cells that included an interneuron and eight muscle cells. A behavioral analysis coupled with RNA interference (RNAi) revealed that males require UNC-55 to execute copulatory motor programs. Two mRNA isoforms (unc-55a and unc-55b) were detected throughout post-embryonic development in males, whereas only one, unc-55a, was detected in hermaphrodites. In unc-55 mutant males isoform a rescued the locomotion and mating defect, whereas isoform b rescued the mating defect only. Isoform b represents the first report of male-specific splicing in C. elegans. In addition, isoform b extended the number of days that transgenic unc-55 mutant males mated when compared to males rescued with isoform a, suggesting an anabolic role for the nuclear hormone receptor. The male-specific expression and splicing is part of a regulatory hierarchy that includes two key genes, male abnormal (mab)-5 and mab-9, required for the generation and differentiation of male-specific cells. We suggest that UNC-55 acts as an interface between genes involved in male tail pattern formation and those responsible for function. PMID:18652814

  16. [Public health and sexuality].

    PubMed

    Papart, Jean-pierre

    2014-03-19

    The paper questions the legitimacy and relevance of a potential emergence of any public health policies relating to sexology, as they exist for most of the major medical issues. It discusses the two major areas of intervention of sexology namely problems related to access to pleasure on the one hand, violence, abuse and other sexual perversions on the other hand. The legitimacy and relevance of public health policy to prevent the latter, i.e. sexual violence cannot be questioned. However, interventions to promote erotic skills are beyond the role and responsibility of the State but can be assigned to the civil society, especially community associations engaged in culture, solidarity and the promotion of social links in general. PMID:24734361

  17. Evidence that Sex Chromosome Genes Affect Sexual Differentiation of Female Sexual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Grgurevic, Neza; Büdefeld, Tomaz; Spanic, Tanja; Tobet, Stuart; Majdic, Gregor

    2012-01-01

    Female receptivity including the immobile hormone-dependent lordosis posture is essential for successful reproduction in rodents. It is well documented that lordosis is organized during the perinatal period when the actions of androgens decrease the males’ ability to display this behavior in adulthood. Conversely the absence of androgens, and the presence of low levels of prepubertal estrogens, preserves circuitry that regulates this behavior in females. The current study set out to determine whether sex chromosomal genes are involved in the differentiation of this behavior. An agonadal mouse model was used to test this hypothesis. The SF-1 gene (Nr5a1) is required for development of gonads and adrenal glands, and knockout mice are consequently not exposed to endogenous gonadal steroids. Thus contributions of sex chromosome genes can be disassociated from the actions of estrogens. Use of this model reveals a direct genetic contribution from sex chromosomes in the display of lordosis and other female-typical sexual behavior patterns. It is likely that the concentrations of gonadal steroids present during normal male development modify the actions of sex chromosome genes on the potential to display female sexual behavior. PMID:22483977

  18. Sexual aberration or instinctual vicissitude? Revisiting freud's "the sexual aberrations".

    PubMed

    Phillips, Sidney H

    2014-04-01

    The author reconsiders Freud's "The Sexual Aberrations," the first of his Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality (1905), in light of contemporary psychoanalytic theory. Are the concepts of sexual aberration and norm still viable? The author argues that they are necessary but insufficient elements in current theory. He then presents a competing model in which sexuality can be reduced to a more elemental level of disturbance and wish, where it is an expression of a nonsexual wish--for example, to possess or control the object to eliminate separateness. The author presents clinical material to demonstrate this alternative model. PMID:24777366

  19. Treatment of sexually compulsive adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gerber, James

    2008-12-01

    We clarified the nature of sexual compulsivity in adolescence, addressed who is labeled as "sexually compulsive youth," conceptualized the underlying factors of sexual compulsivity, and outlined a treatment format. We focused on trauma, dissociation, attachment, and self-concept. We questioned the conventional perceptions of who is included in this group. We reiterated that the belief that sexually compulsive adolescents are abusive males is no longer considered accurate. The evolution and accessibility of the Internet only raises greater concerns about compulsive sexual behavior, as more adolescents are brought into therapy because of Internet use to seek sexual interaction or stimulation. The sexually compulsive youth is as likely to be the clean-cut, high-achieving, intelligent student as is the economically deprived, juvenile delinquent on the street. This article began with the observation that adolescents rarely receive any direct, accurate information about sexuality and intimacy. The messages taken in through music, television, movies, politicians, popular press, clergy, and school are polarizing and contradictory. Beyond this are the implications as to how we, as a society, treat the youths that do present with sexual behavior problems. We have tended to treat these youth (as well as adults) with disdain and to designate sexually abusive youth the same as adult offenders with harsher, more punitive treatment interventions. Research and clinical experience now strongly question this type of response. This article is consistent with this leaning. Early psychological injury, from sexual abuse, physical abuse, exposure to violence, attachment trauma, or early sexualization, is at the root of sexually compulsive behavior. While it is necessary to reign in out-of-control and destructive behaviors, if we acknowledge that the source of the behavior is psychological injury, then it is cruel and inconsistent to treat the individual with disdain or as a pariah. The same dilemma is present with adult sexual addicts and offenders. Our society must develop a response to sexually compulsive or offensive behavior that can protect those who need protection, while implementing a rational legal response and providing treatment options for the underlying injury. Perhaps even more importantly, our society must learn how to educate adolescents about sexuality with clear, accurate information that includes not only reproduction but sexual response and intimacy as well. PMID:18996305

  20. Sexual assault in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Satin, A J; Hemsell, D L; Stone, I C; Theriot, S; Wendel, G D

    1991-05-01

    Little is known about the acute effects of sexual assault on pregnant victims and the outcome of their gestations. A retrospective review of sexual assault victims in Dallas County from 1983-1988 revealed that 114 of 5734 (2%) were pregnant. There were 0.55 and 0.75 gravid sexual assault victims per 1000 deliveries for Dallas County and Parkland Memorial Hospital, respectively. The purposes of this study were to examine patient demographics, forensic evidence and patterns of injury in pregnant victims compared with 114 matched nonpregnant sexual assault victims, and to compare pregnancy outcome with that of the Parkland Memorial Hospital obstetric population. The typical victim was a black, parous gravida in her twenties at a mean gestational age of 15 weeks, without previous prenatal care. Vulvar (95%), oral (27%), and anal (6%) penetration were reported with similar frequency in both groups. The detection of whole and motile sperm from the vaginal specimens was similar in pregnant and nonpregnant women. Physical trauma was more common in nonpregnant victims (63 versus 43%; P less than .004), especially genital trauma (21 versus 5%; P less than .001). Injury was more common to the head and neck or extremities than to the abdomen, chest, or back in both groups. There was no difference in the pattern of trauma by gestational age, but there were no truncal injuries in women at 20 weeks' gestation or greater. There were no spontaneous abortions or deliveries within 4 weeks of the assault, but low birth weight delivery (24%) and preterm delivery (16%) were common.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2014084

  1. Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alice C. Thornton; Bojana Stevich; Janet N. Arno; Barbara Van Der Pol

    \\u000a Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) affect an estimated 19 million people a year in the United States. Clinicians who may\\u000a encounter patients with STDs need to be aware of treatment guidelines and recent changes in treatment recommendations. For\\u000a example, due to increased resistance, fluoroquinolones are no longer recommended for the treatment of infections due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Recent new approaches also

  2. SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Schultz

    2010-10-27

    Find links to various topics below: CDC = Center for Disease Control and Prevention CDC- A-Z Index CDC- Diesease and Conditions writeInsertLink('projectBody','CDC- Diesease and Conditions'); CDC - HIV/AIDS STDs CDC - HIV Basic Information CDC - HIV - LInks to other resources CDC - STD Picture Cards Herpes-Coldsores Kids Health MedlinePlus - Sexually Transmitted Diseases Teen Health Wellness real life real answers ...

  3. Sexuality education in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Suplicy, M

    1994-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive program of sex education in Brazilian schools is described in the context of Brazil's culture and traditions such as the Carnival. The influence of Catholicism is explored as is the effect of the behavioral restrictions called for by scientists concerned about sexually transmitted diseases. The Brazilian response to homosexuality is described, and the emergence of a public discussion of sexuality in the media is traced. It is noted that improvements in the status of women have been held in check by a public ridicule of feminism and by the strength of the traditional patriarchal structures which dominate the culture. With this picture given of how the issue of sexuality fits into Brazilian life, the 1980s initiative on the part of the Work and Research Group for Sex Education is described. Opposition to this effort has largely taken the form of passive resistance; even the Catholic Church has not officially protested the sex education program. Details are provided about 1) the selection of teachers, teacher training, and weekly supervisory teacher meetings; 2) the way in which parental permission for student participation was gained; 3) the implementation of the program; 4) the successes achieved; and 5) the difficulties encountered. Finally, it is noted that plans were made to expand the sex education project from the Sao Paulo area to 6 additional large cities in 1994. Also planned is the publication of the Brazilian Guidelines for Comprehensive Sexuality which will explain the sex education methodology and be extremely valuable in the establishment of new projects. PMID:12287356

  4. Greater exposure to sexual content in popular movies predicts earlier sexual debut and increased sexual risk taking.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Ross E; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D

    2012-09-01

    Early sexual debut is associated with risky sexual behavior and an increased risk of unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections later in life. The relations among early movie sexual exposure (MSE), sexual debut, and risky sexual behavior in adulthood (i.e., multiple sexual partners and inconsistent condom use) were examined in a longitudinal study of U.S. adolescents. MSE was measured using the Beach method, a comprehensive procedure for media content coding. Controlling for characteristics of adolescents and their families, analyses showed that MSE predicted age of sexual debut, both directly and indirectly through changes in sensation seeking. MSE also predicted engagement in risky sexual behaviors both directly and indirectly via early sexual debut. These results suggest that MSE may promote sexual risk taking both by modifying sexual behavior and by accelerating the normal rise in sensation seeking during adolescence. PMID:22810165

  5. Neural Growth Hormone Implicated in Body Weight Sex Differences

    PubMed Central

    Bonthuis, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    As for many human diseases, the incidence of obesity and its associated health risks are sexually dimorphic: worldwide the rate of obesity is higher in women. Sex differences in metabolism, appetite, body composition, and fat deposition are contributing biological factors. Gonadal hormones regulate the development of many sexually dimorphic traits in humans and animals, and, in addition, studies in mice indicate a role for direct genetic effects of sex chromosome dosage on body weight, deposition of fat, and circadian timing of feeding behavior. Specifically, mice of either sex with 2 X chromosomes, typical of normal females, have heavier body weights, gain more weight, and eat more food during the light portion of the day than mice of either sex with a single X chromosome. Here we test the effects of X chromosome dosage on body weight and report that gonadal females with 2 X chromosomes express higher levels of GH gene (Gh) mRNA in the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus than females with 1 X chromosome and males. Furthermore, Gh expression in the POA of the hypothalamus of mice with 2 X chromosomes correlated with body weight; GH is known to have orexigenic properties. Acute infusion of GH into the POA increased immediate food intake in normal (XY) males. We propose that X inactivation–escaping genes modulate Gh expression and food intake, and this is part of the mechanism by which individuals with 2 X chromosomes are heavier than individuals with a single X chromosome. PMID:23861378

  6. The effects of autobiographic sexual memory recall on the sexual response of sexually functional men.

    PubMed

    van Lankveld, Jacques; Martin, Alec; Hubben, Dave; Creutz, Nikky; Verboon, Peter

    2013-08-01

    In this experimental study, we investigated how recalling positive, negative, and affectively neutral autobiographic sexual experiences in their personal history affected the current sexual response of sexually functional male volunteers. Based on an attentional-capacity account of sexual arousal, we predicted that affectively charged autobiographic sexual memory recall, both with negative and positive valence, would negatively impact genital arousal, compared to recalling affectively neutral sexual experiences. We expected that subjective sexual arousal would not be differentially affected by emotional memory valence. We measured subjective and genital response to erotic video fragments in sexually functional volunteers (N = 24) in a within-subjects, repeated-measures design. For the memory manipulation, participants received instructions to visualize and mentally re-experience positive, negative, and neutral sexual episodes from autobiographic memory. Memory instructions were found to result in the expected affective states. As predicted, compared to recalling neutral memory, mean genital response was significantly lower during recalling positive and negative memory. However, contrary to prediction, subjective sexual arousal was affected, when multilevel analysis was performed, including a time effect. The implications of the findings were discussed with respect to the advancement of theory and therapeutic intervention. PMID:23519590

  7. Childhood Sexual Abuse Moderates the Association between Sexual Functioning and Sexual Distress in Women

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Kyle R.; Hughan, Corey P.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the degree to which a history of CSA moderates the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Method Women with (n = 105, M age = 33.71, 66.1% Caucasian) and without (n = 71, M age = 32.63, 74.7% Caucasian) a history of CSA taking part in a larger clinical trial completed self-report questionnaires at intake including the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women (SSS-W), the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), and the Trauma History Questionnaire (THQ). Results Desire, arousal, lubrication, and orgasm interacted with sexual abuse status in predicting sexual distress such that sexual functioning was more weakly associated with distress for women with a history of CSA. This disconnect was more pronounced for women who were abused by a family member. Conclusion CSA status serves as an important moderator of the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Specifically, women with a history of CSA show higher levels of distress in the context of good sexual functioning as compared to women without a history of CSA. Possible explanations and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:22391416

  8. Development of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Secretion and Pituitary Response

    PubMed Central

    Glanowska, Katarzyna M.; Burger, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    Acquisition of a mature pattern of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the CNS is a hallmark of the pubertal process. Little is known about GnRH release during sexual maturation, but it is assumed to be minimal before later stages of puberty. We studied spontaneous GnRH secretion in brain slices from male mice during perinatal and postnatal development using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) to detect directly the oxidation of secreted GnRH. There was good correspondence between the frequency of GnRH release detected by FSCV in the median eminence of slices from adults with previous reports of in vivo luteinizing hormone (LH) pulse frequency. The frequency of GnRH release in the late embryonic stage was surprisingly high, reaching a maximum in newborns and remaining elevated in 1-week-old animals despite low LH levels. Early high-frequency GnRH release was similar in wild-type and kisspeptin knock-out mice indicating that this release is independent of kisspeptin-mediated excitation. In vivo treatment with testosterone or in vitro treatment with gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) reduced GnRH release frequency in slices from 1-week-old mice. RF9, a putative GnIH antagonist, restored GnRH release in slices from testosterone-treated mice, suggesting that testosterone inhibition may be GnIH-dependent. At 2–3 weeks, GnRH release is suppressed before attaining adult patterns. Reduction in early life spontaneous GnRH release frequency coincides with the onset of the ability of exogenous GnRH to induce pituitary LH secretion. These findings suggest that lack of pituitary secretory response, not lack of GnRH release, initially blocks downstream activation of the reproductive system. PMID:25378170

  9. Sex-dimorphic behaviour development in the human: prenatal hormone administration and postnatal socialization.

    PubMed

    Green, R

    An interdisciplinary integrative approach must be utilized in the study of psychosexual differentiation. The approach must capitalize on data derived from non-human models, from experiments of nature, and from experiments of nurture. Studies from non-human primates strongly suggest the influence of prenatal sex hormone levels on postnatal sexually dimorphic behaviours. Starting from this basis we have studied sixty young adult men whose mothers received, during pregnancy, diethylstilboestrol, diethylstilboestrol and natural progesterone, natural progesterone, or synthetic progesterone. They have been compared with matched controls not exposed in utero to exogenous hormones. Studies of socialization patterns must document the differential developmental experiences, if any, of children with atypical and typical sex-typed behaviours. To this end, we are studying 60 boys whose behaviour before puberty was decidedly feminine, and their parents, and contrasting them with masculine boys and their parents. We are also studying 50 girls whose behaviour before puberty was 'masculine', and contrasting them with 'feminine' girls. Additionally, we are studying the sexually dimorphic behaviour of children of sexually atypical parents. The parents have either undergone sex-change surgery (male-to-female or female-to-male) or are homosexual. Data from the three studies are presented. A call is made to researchers working with non-human primates to test and extend these findings. PMID:256835

  10. [Sexual dysfunctions in selected endocrinopathies].

    PubMed

    Skrzypulec, Violetta; Nowosielski, Krzysztof; Drosdzol, Agnieszka; Kowalaczyk, Robert

    2005-01-01

    According to the socio-sexological reports approximately 40-45% of women and up to 30% of males may suffer from different sexual dysfunctions. The prevalence of those disorders is gradually increasing with age. Multiply numbers of endocrinopathies may influence the human sexual life. In diabetic patients all phases of the sexual responses cycle, especially orgasm, might be affected. Women diagnosed with PCOS have decreased adaptation to the sexual life, low self-esteem and perception of self sexual attractiveness. The intimacy of infertile couples has not been well described and the characteristic of particular dysfunction in sex life has not been established yet. Interdisciplinary approach, understood as treatment of the endocrinopathy accompanied with psychological and sexological counseling, seems to be the fundamental issue in the therapy of sexual dysfunctions in patients with endocrinological disorders. PMID:16821220

  11. Sexual victimization, alcohol intoxication, sexual-emotional responding, and sexual risk in heavy episodic drinking women.

    PubMed

    George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Masters, N Tatiana; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Heiman, Julia R; Norris, Jeanette; Gilmore, Amanda K; Nguyen, Hong V; Kajumulo, Kelly F; Otto, Jacqueline M; Andrasik, Michele P

    2014-05-01

    This study used an experimental paradigm to investigate the roles of sexual victimization history and alcohol intoxication in young women's sexual-emotional responding and sexual risk taking. A nonclinical community sample of 436 young women, with both an instance of heavy episodic drinking and some HIV/STI risk exposure in the past year, completed childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA) measures. A majority of them reported CSA and/or ASA, including rape and attempted rape. After random assignment to a high alcohol dose (.10 %) or control condition, participants read and projected themselves into an eroticized scenario of a sexual encounter involving a new partner. As the story protagonist, each participant rated her positive mood and her sexual arousal, sensation, and desire, and then indicated her likelihood of engaging in unprotected sex. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that ASA and alcohol were directly associated with heightened risk taking, and alcohol's effects were partially mediated by positive mood and sexual desire. ASA was associated with attenuated sexual-emotional responding and resulted in diminished risk taking via this suppression. These are the first findings indicating that, compared to non-victimized counterparts, sexually victimized women respond differently in alcohol-involved sexual encounters in terms of sexual-emotional responding and risk-taking intentions. Implications include assessing victimization history and drinking among women seeking treatment for either concern, particularly women at risk for HIV, and alerting them to ways their histories and behavior may combine to exacerbate their sexual risks. PMID:23857517

  12. Sexual Victimization, Alcohol Intoxication, Sexual-Emotional Responding, and Sexual Risk in Heavy Episodic Drinking Women

    PubMed Central

    George, William H.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Masters, N. Tatiana; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.; Heiman, Julia R.; Norris, Jeanette; Gilmore, Amanda K.; Nguyen, Hong V.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.; Otto, Jacqueline M.; Andrasik, Michele P.

    2013-01-01

    This study used an experimental paradigm to investigate the roles of sexual victimization history and alcohol intoxication in young women’s sexual-emotional responding and sexual risk taking. A nonclinical community sample of 436 young women, with both an instance of heavy episodic drinking and some HIV/STI risk exposure in the past year, completed childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA) measures. A majority of them reported CSA and/or ASA, including rape and attempted rape. After random assignment to a high alcohol dose (.10%) or control condition, participants read and projected themselves into an eroticized scenario of a sexual encounter involving a new partner. As the story protagonist, each participant rated her positive mood and her sexual arousal, sensation, and desire, and then indicated her likelihood of engaging in unprotected sex. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that ASA and alcohol were directly associated with heightened risk taking, and alcohol’s effects were partially mediated by positive mood and sexual desire. ASA was associated with attenuated sexual-emotional responding and resulted in diminished risk taking via this suppression. These are the first findings indicating that, compared to non-victimized counterparts, sexually victimized women respond differently in alcohol-involved sexual encounters in terms of sexual-emotional responding and risk-taking intentions. Implications include assessing victimization history and drinking among women seeking treatment for either concern, particularly women at risk for HIV, and alerting them to ways their histories and behavior may combine to exacerbate their sexual risks. PMID:23857517

  13. Sexual Function and the Use of Medical Devices or Drugs to Optimize Potency After Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Whaley, J. Taylor; Levy, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Swanson, David A. [Department of Urology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Pugh, Thomas J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Bruno, Teresa L. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Frank, Steven J., E-mail: sjfrank@mdnaderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: Prospective evaluation of sexual outcomes after prostate brachytherapy with iodine-125 seeds as monotherapy at a tertiary cancer care center. Methods and Materials: Subjects were 129 men with prostate cancer with I-125 seed implants (prescribed dose, 145 Gy) without supplemental hormonal or external beam radiation therapy. Sexual function, potency, and bother were prospectively assessed at baseline and at 1, 4, 8, and 12 months using validated quality-of-life self-assessment surveys. Postimplant dosimetry values, including dose to 10% of the penile bulb (D10), D20, D33, D50, D75, D90, and penile volume receiving 100% of the prescribed dose (V100) were calculated. Results: At baseline, 56% of patients recorded having optimal erections; at 1 year, 62% of patients with baseline erectile function maintained optimal potency, 58% of whom with medically prescribed sexual aids or drugs. Variables associated with pretreatment-to-posttreatment decline in potency were time after implant (p = 0.04) and age (p = 0.01). Decline in urinary function may have been related to decline in potency. At 1 year, 69% of potent patients younger than 70 years maintained optimal potency, whereas 31% of patients older than 70 maintained optimal potency (p = 0.02). Diabetes was related to a decline in potency (p = 0.05), but neither smoking nor hypertension were. For patients with optimal potency at baseline, mean sexual bother scores had declined significantly at 1 year (p < 0.01). Sexual potency, sexual function, and sexual bother scores failed to correlate with any dosimetric variable tested. Conclusions: Erections firm enough for intercourse can be achieved at 1 year after treatment, but most men will require medical aids to optimize potency. Although younger men were better able to maintain erections firm enough for intercourse than older men, there was no correlation between potency, sexual function, or sexual bother and penile bulb dosimetry.

  14. Sex-Specific Content Preferences for Visual Sexual Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Rupp, Heather A.; Wallen, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Although experimental studies support that men generally respond more to visual sexual stimuli than do women, there is substantial variability in this effect. One potential source of variability is the type of stimuli used that may not be of equal interest to both men and women whose preferences may be dependent upon the activities and situations depicted. The current study investigated whether men and women had preferences for certain types of stimuli. We measured the subjective evaluations and viewing times of 15 men and 30 women (15 using hormonal contraception) to sexually explicit photos. Heterosexual participants viewed 216 pictures that were controlled for the sexual activity depicted, gaze of the female actor, and the proportion of the image that the genital region occupied. Men and women did not differ in their overall interest in the stimuli, indicated by equal subjective ratings and viewing times, although there were preferences for specific types of pictures. Pictures of the opposite sex receiving oral sex were rated as least sexually attractive by all participants and they looked longer at pictures showing the female actor’s body. Women rated pictures in which the female actor was looking indirectly at the camera as more attractive, while men did not discriminate by female gaze. Participants did not look as long at close-ups of genitals, and men and women on oral contraceptives rated genital images as less sexually attractive. Together, these data demonstrate sex-specific preferences for specific types of stimuli even when, across stimuli, overall interest was comparable. PMID:18719987

  15. Men's sexual self-schema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara L. Andersen; Jill M. Cyranowski; Derek Espindle

    1999-01-01

    Sexual self-schemas are cognitive generalizations about sexual aspects of oneself. In Part 1, a measure of men's sexual self-schema is developed. Studies of test—retest and internal consistency reliability and validity studies of factor analysis, internal structure, convergent and discriminant validity, process, group difference, and change are provided. The construct consists of 3 dimensions: passionate—loving, powerful-aggressive, and open-minded-liberal traits. In Part

  16. Mental illness and sexual offending.

    PubMed

    Booth, Brad D; Gulati, Sanjiv

    2014-06-01

    Transinstitutionalization (ie, the criminalization of those with mental illness) is relevant to individuals committing sexual offenses. Mental illness can affect the treatment and risk management of individuals committing sexual offenses. In this article the current literature on mentally disordered sexual offenders is described, including how psychosis, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and dementing disorders may affect treatment and management. PMID:24877705

  17. Modelling hormonal response and development?

    PubMed Central

    Voß, Ute; Bishopp, Anthony; Farcot, Etienne; Bennett, Malcolm J.

    2014-01-01

    As our knowledge of the complexity of hormone homeostasis, transport, perception, and response increases, and their outputs become less intuitive, modelling is set to become more important. Initial modelling efforts have focused on hormone transport and response pathways. However, we now need to move beyond the network scales and use multicellular and multiscale modelling approaches to predict emergent properties at different scales. Here we review some examples where such approaches have been successful, for example, auxin–cytokinin crosstalk regulating root vascular development or a study of lateral root emergence where an iterative cycle of modelling and experiments lead to the identification of an overlooked role for PIN3. Finally, we discuss some of the remaining biological and technical challenges. PMID:24630843

  18. Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jennifer A; Burke, Anne E

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating altered pharmacokinetic parameters and increased failure rates with combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch and emergency contraceptive pills suggest decreased efficacy of these methods. It is unclear whether bariatric surgery affects hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Obese women should be offered the full range of contraceptive options, with counseling that balances the risks and benefits of each method, including the risk of unintended pregnancy. PMID:24007251

  19. A Simulated Growth Hormone Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Mary

    1996-08-01

    Growth hormone is a drug that is sometimes abused by amateur or professional athletes for performance-enhancement. This laboratory is a semimicroscale simulation analysis of a sample of "urine" to detect proteins of two very different molecular weights. Gel filtration uses a 10 mL disposable pipette packed with Sephadex. Students analyze the fractions from the filtration by comparing colors of the Brilliant Blue Coomassie Dye as it interacts with the proteins in the sample to a standard set of known concentration of protein with the dye. The simulated analysis of growth hormone is intended to be included in a unit on organic chemistry or in the second year of high school chemistry.

  20. Ovarian hormones and drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Moran-Santa Maria, Megan M; Flanagan, Julianne; Brady, Kathleen

    2014-11-01

    There are significant gender differences in course, symptomology, and treatment of substance use disorders. In general data from clinical and preclinical studies of substance use disorders suggest that women are more vulnerable than men to the deleterious consequences of drug use at every phase of the addiction process. In addition data from epidemiologic studies suggest that the gender gap in the prevalence of substance use is narrowing particularly among adolescence. Therefore, understanding the role of estrogen and progesterone in mediating responses to drugs of abuse is of critical importance to women's health. In this review we will discuss findings from clinical and preclinical studies of (1) reproductive cycle phase; (2) endogenous ovarian hormones; and (3) hormone replacement on responses to stimulants, nicotine, alcohol, opioids, and marijuana. In addition, we discuss data from recent studies that have advanced our understanding of the neurobiologic mechanisms that interact with estrogen and progesterone to mediate drug-seeking behavior. PMID:25224609

  1. Male sexual dysfunction in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Christopher CK; Singam, Praveen; Hong, Goh Eng; Zainuddin, Zulkifli Md

    2011-01-01

    Sex has always been a taboo subject in Asian society. However, over the past few years, awareness in the field of men's sexual health has improved, and interest in sexual health research has recently increased. The epidemiology and prevalence of erectile dysfunction, hypogonadism and premature ejaculation in Asia are similar in the West. However, several issues are specific to Asian males, including culture and beliefs, awareness, compliance and the availability of traditional/complementary medicine. In Asia, sexual medicine is still in its infancy, and a concerted effort from the government, relevant societies, physicians and the media is required to propel sexual medicine to the forefront of health care. PMID:21643001

  2. Thyroid hormone and heart failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ursula Maria Schmidt-Ott; Deborah Davis Ascheim

    2006-01-01

    Thyroid hormone metabolic disarray has been identified as a risk factor for the progression of heart disease and the development\\u000a of heart failure (HF). Both hyper-and hypothyroidism have been associated with a failing myocardium. Poor cardiac contractility\\u000a and low cardiac output due to hyperthyroidism is a rare occurrence and is mostly seen in patients with preexisting heart disease.\\u000a Referred to

  3. Hormone interactions during vascular development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Dettmer; Annakaisa Elo; Ykä Helariutta

    2009-01-01

    Vascular tissue in plants is unique due to its diverse and dynamic cellular patterns. Signals controlling vascular development\\u000a have only recently started to emerge through biochemical, genetic, and genomic approaches in several organisms, such as Arabidopsis, Populus, and Zinnia. These signals include hormones (auxin, brassinosteroids, and cytokinins, in particular), other small regulatory molecules,\\u000a their transporters, receptors, and various transcriptional regulators.

  4. Parathyroid hormone and bone biomechanics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew R. Allen; David B. Burr

    2006-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) treatment, either in the form of teriparatide or recombinant human PTH(1–34), reduces the fracture\\u000a risk of osteoporotic women by enhancing both structural and material biomechanical properties. Cortical bone thickness and\\u000a cross-sectional moment of inertia increase because of new bone formation on periosteal and endocortical surfaces. Intracortical\\u000a porosity is increased yet preferential localization near the endocortical surface limits

  5. Carbohydrate Analysis of Glycoprotein Hormones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George R. Bousfield; Vanda L. Baker; R. Russell Gotschall; Viktor Y. Butnev; Vladimir Y. Butnev

    2000-01-01

    Complete carbohydrate composition analysis of glycoprotein hormones, their subunits, and oligosaccharides isolated from individual glycosylation sites can be accomplished using high-pH anion-exchange chromatography combined with pulsed amperometric detection. Neutral and amino sugars are analyzed from the same hydrolyzate by isocratic chromatography on a Dionex CarboPAC PA1 column in 16 mM NaOH. Sialic acid is quantified following mild hydrolysis conditions on

  6. Growth Hormone Receptor in Growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vivian Hwa

    \\u000a It has been approximately 20 years since the cloning and characterization of the human growth hormone (GH) receptor, GHR, gene. Cell-surface GHR binds circulating GH, which promotes postnatal growth by regulating the expression of insulin-like\\u000a growth factor (IGF)-I. Mutations in the GHR gene cause GH insensitivity (GHI) syndrome, also known as Laron syndrome, a syndrome characterized by severe postnatal growth

  7. Vitamin D: a pleiotropic hormone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annemieke Verstuyf; Geert Carmeliet; Roger Bouillon; Chantal Mathieu

    2010-01-01

    The secosteroid hormone 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) is the natural ligand for the vitamin D receptor, a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Upon binding of the ligand, the vitamin D receptor heterodimerizes with the retinoid X receptor and binds to vitamin D response elements in the promoter region of target genes to induce\\/repress their expression. The target genes that have

  8. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, p<.01). There was no significant group difference in ionized calcium levels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  9. Exposure to Sexual Lyrics and Sexual Experience Among Urban Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Douglas, Erika L.; Fine, Michael J.; Dalton, Madeline A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Two thirds of all sexual references in music are degrading in nature, yet it remains uncertain whether these references promote earlier sexual activity. The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex in popular music is independently associated with sexual behavior in a cohort of urban adolescents. Methods All ninth-grade health students at three large urban high schools completed in-school surveys in 2006 and 2007. Participants’ exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex was computed with overall music exposure and content analyses of their favorite artists’ songs. Outcomes included sexual intercourse and progression along a noncoital sexual continuum. Multivariable regression was used to assess independent associations between exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex and outcomes. Results The 711 participants were exposed to 14.7 hours each week of songs with lyrics describing degrading sex (SD=17.0). Almost one third of participants (n=216) had previously been sexually active. Compared to those with the least exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex, those with the most exposure were more than twice as likely to have had sexual intercourse (OR=2.07; 95% CI=1.26, 3.41), even after adjusting for all covariates. Similarly, among those who had not had sexual intercourse, those in the highest tertile of exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex were nearly twice as likely to have progressed along a noncoital sexual continuum (OR=1.88; 95% CI=1.23, 2.88) compared to those in the lowest tertile. Finally, the relationships between exposure to lyrics describing nondegrading sex and sexual outcomes were not significant. Conclusions This study supports an association between exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex in popular music and early sexual experience among adolescents. PMID:19285196

  10. Sexuality for the Woman with Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Topic How the female body works sexually Cancer, sex, and sexuality When you first learned you had ... affect your sexual function. What is a normal sex life? People vary a great deal in their ...

  11. Sexual Assault Awareness Month April 4, 2014

    E-print Network

    Hill, Wendell T.

    Sexual Assault Awareness Month April 4, 2014 Dear University of Maryland community: I would like to thank the Sexual Harassment Policies of the Office on Sexual Misconduct and Title IX Compliance. Please join me

  12. 18 CFR 1300.104 - Sexual harassment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    It is TVA policy that all TVA employees are responsible for assuring that the workplace is free from sexual harassment. Accordingly, all employees must avoid any action or conduct which could be viewed as sexual harassment including: (a) Unwelcome sexual...

  13. Premarital Sexual Behavior, Attitudes, and Emotional Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamant, Louis

    1970-01-01

    No relationship was found between adjustment and premarital sexual intercourse for either male or female subjects. Low permissiveness scores (Attitude Scales on Sexual Permissiveness and Sexual Behavior Questionnaires) were related to maladjustment in males. (DB)

  14. Extramarital Sexual Permissiveness: Conditions and Contingencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, B. Krishna; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship of some social factors with extramarital sexual permissiveness. Findings indicate that the best variable to explain extramarital sexual permissiveness is premarital sexual permissiveness. (Author)

  15. Sex differences in the neural circuit that mediates female sexual receptivity

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan-Cato, Loretta M.

    2011-01-01

    Female sexual behavior in rodents, typified by the lordosis posture, is hormone-dependent and sex-specific. Ovarian hormones control this behavior via receptors in the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus (VMH). This review considers the sex differences in the morphology, neurochemistry and neural circuitry of the VMH to gain insights into the mechanisms that control lordosis. The VMH is larger in males compared with females, due to more synaptic connections. Another sex difference is the responsiveness to estradiol, with males exhibiting muted, and in some cases reverse, effects compared with females. The lack of lordosis in males may be explained by differences in synaptic organization or estrogen responsiveness, or both, in the VMH. However, given that damage to other brain regions unmasks lordosis behavior in males, a male-typical VMH is unlikely the main factor that prevents lordosis. In females, key questions remain regarding the mechanisms whereby ovarian hormones modulate VMH function to promote lordosis. PMID:21338620

  16. Sexual Well-Being in Adult Male Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Dudzi?ska, Bogna; Leubner, Jonas; Ventz, Manfred; Quinkler, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Men with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency show impaired fecundity due to testicular adrenal rest tumors and/or suppression of the gonadal axis. Sexual well-being might be an additional factor; however, no data exists. Patients and Methods. Prospective longitudinal monocentric study included 20 male CAH patients (14 salt wasting, 6 simple virilizing; age 18–49?yr). Clinical assessment, testicular ultrasound, biochemical and hormonal parameters, three validated self-assessment questionnaires (SF-36, GBB-24, and HADS), and male Brief Sexual Function Inventory (BSFI) were analyzed at baseline and after two years. Results. Basal LH and testosterone levels suggested normal testicular function. LH and FSH responses to GnRH were more pronounced in patients with a good therapy control according to androstenedione/testosterone ratio < 0.2. This group had significant higher percentage of patients on dexamethasone medication. GBB-24, HADS, and SF-36 showed impaired z-scores and no changes at follow-up. BSFI revealed impairments in dimensions “sexual drive,” “erections,” and “ejaculations,” whereas “problem assessment” and “overall satisfaction” revealed normal z-scores. Androstenedione levels correlated (P = 0.036) inversely with z-scores for “sexual drive” with higher levels associated with impaired “sexual drive.” Conclusion. Male CAH patients showed a partly impaired sexual well-being which might be an additional factor for reduced fecundity. PMID:24672547

  17. Sexual factors and prostatic cancer: results from a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Mandel, J S; Schuman, L M

    1987-05-01

    A case-control study of a number of factors of possible etiologic significance for prostatic cancer was conducted in the Minneapolis-St. Paul area. The focus was primarily on sexual factors. Two hundred and fifty incident cases of prostatic cancer, 238 hospital controls, and 240 neighborhood controls were included. Controls were matched to cases on age, sex, and race. Cases were somewhat more educated than controls. An association was found between prostatic cancer and a history of venereal disease in their sexual partners: odds ratio (OR) = 2.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.14 to 6.46 and OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.02 to 4.29 for hospital and neighborhood controls, respectively. Cases had more sexual experiences with prostitutes, although their overall lifetime frequency of sexual intercourse with all partners was somewhat lower. Cases also reported more homosexual partners than controls. The results from the study lend some support to an infectious hypothesis for prostatic cancer. The lower frequency of sexual intercourse (OR = .54, 95% CI = .34 to .83 and OR = .68, 95% CI = .47 to 1.01 for hospital and neighborhood controls, respectively) is also noteworthy and may be indicative of a hormonal difference related to sexual interest or drive. PMID:3553301

  18. Environmentally Realistic Exposure to the Herbicide Atrazine Alters Some Sexually Selected Traits in Male Guppies

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Kausalya

    2012-01-01

    Male mating signals, including ornaments and courtship displays, and other sexually selected traits, like male-male aggression, are largely controlled by sex hormones. Environmental pollutants, notably endocrine disrupting compounds, can interfere with the proper functioning of hormones, thereby impacting the expression of hormonally regulated traits. Atrazine, one of the most widely used herbicides, can alter sex hormone levels in exposed animals. I tested the effects of environmentally relevant atrazine exposures on mating signals and behaviors in male guppies, a sexually dimorphic freshwater fish. Prolonged atrazine exposure reduced the expression of two honest signals: the area of orange spots (ornaments) and the number of courtship displays performed. Atrazine exposure also reduced aggression towards competing males in the context of mate competition. In the wild, exposure levels vary among individuals because of differential distribution of the pollutants across habitats; hence, differently impacted males often compete for the same mates. Disrupted mating signals can reduce reproductive success as females avoid mating with perceptibly suboptimal males. Less aggressive males are at a competitive disadvantage and lose access to females. This study highlights the effects of atrazine on ecologically relevant mating signals and behaviors in exposed wildlife. Altered reproductive traits have important implications for population dynamics, evolutionary patterns, and conservation of wildlife species. PMID:22312428

  19. Gastrointestinal hormone research - with a Scandinavian annotation.

    PubMed

    Rehfeld, Jens F

    2015-06-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from neuroendocrine cells in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gut, which makes it the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasible to conceive the hormones under five headings: The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization or differentiated posttranslational maturation of the prohormone. By a combination of these mechanisms, more than 100 different hormonally active peptides are released from the gut. Gut hormone genes are also widely expressed outside the gut, some only in extraintestinal endocrine cells and cerebral or peripheral neurons but others also in other cell types. The extraintestinal cells may release different bioactive fragments of the same prohormone due to cell-specific processing pathways. Moreover, endocrine cells, neurons, cancer cells and, for instance, spermatozoa secrete gut peptides in different ways, so the same peptide may act as a blood-borne hormone, a neurotransmitter, a local growth factor or a fertility factor. The targets of gastrointestinal hormones are specific G-protein-coupled receptors that are expressed in the cell membranes also outside the digestive tract. Thus, gut hormones not only regulate digestive functions, but also constitute regulatory systems operating in the whole organism. This overview of gut hormone biology is supplemented with an annotation on some Scandinavian contributions to gastrointestinal hormone research. PMID:25786560

  20. Sexually Transmitted Infections and Sexual Dysfunctions among Newly Returned Veterans with and without Military Sexual Trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica A. Turchik; Joanne Pavao; Deborah Nazarian; Samina Iqbal; Caitlin McLean; Rachel E. Kimerling

    2012-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the odds of being diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection (STI) or a sexual dysfunction disorder (SDD) among Operation Enduring Freedom\\/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF\\/OIF) American veterans receiving care in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) in relation to whether or not they have experienced military sexual trauma (MST). Among those veterans who experienced MST, the influence of

  1. Sexual Learning, Sexual Experience, and Healthy Adolescent Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2014-01-01

    This chapter is organized around the question "How do adolescents learn to have healthy sex?" The chapter assumes that sexual learning derives from a broad range of both informal and formal sources that contribute to learning within the context of neurocognitive brain systems that modulate sexual motivations and self-regulation. The…

  2. Adolescent Sexuality Related Beliefs and Differences by Sexual Experience Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolma, Eleni L.; Oman, Roy F.; Vesely, Sara K.; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To examine if attitudes toward premarital sex, beliefs about peer influence, and family communication about sexual relationships differ by sexual experience status. Methods: Data were collected from a randomly selected ethnically diverse youth sample (N = 1,318) residing in two Midwestern cities. The primary method used in data analysis…

  3. Discourses of Exclusion: Sexuality Education's Silencing of Sexual Others

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John P. Elia; Mickey Eliason

    2010-01-01

    This article begins with a broad historical overview detailing how school-based sexuality education has been taught from a specific kind of heterosexual perspective that has excluded lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer-identified (LGBTQ) students as well as heterosexual students who do not fall along culturally dominant heterosexual lines. To illustrate such exclusionary sexuality education, we examine the discourses of exclusion

  4. Male Sexuality and Couple Sexual Health: A Case Illustration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael E. Metz; Barry W. McCarthy

    2010-01-01

    Male sexual problems are common and offer exceptional opportunities for clinicians to not only relieve distress but enhance individual and relationship satisfaction. However, limited clinical focus on sex behaviors alone often overlook this opportunity. With more comprehensive approaches, clinicians are able to both facilitate improved sexual function and to promote positive, realistic principles for healthy and satisfying male and couple

  5. Self-Reported Sexual Identity, Sexual Behaviors and Health Risks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Scheer; Cheryl A. Parks; Willi McFarland; Kimberly Page-Shafer; Viva Delgado; Juan D. Ruiz; Fred Molitor; Jeffrey D. Klausner

    2002-01-01

    Data from a population-based survey of low-income young women (n = 2,438) was used to examine substance use patterns and exposure to coerced sexual activity among women who self-identify as lesbian (n = 34) or bisexual (n = 91), or who report sexual behavior exclusively with other women (n = 17) or with both women and men (n = 189).

  6. The Transmissibility of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Sexually Abused Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammerschlag, Margaret R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes what is known about, and research needs on, the transmissibility to sexually abused children of the following sexually transmitted diseases: gonorrhea, chlamydia trachomatis, human papillomavirus genital warts, condylomata acuminata, syphilis, bacterial vaginosis, trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex, and human…

  7. Elevated sexual activity in violent marriages: Hypersexuality or sexual extortion?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfred DeMaris

    1997-01-01

    Couples have been observed to be more sexually active in marriages characterized by violence. Two alternative hypotheses are posed to account for this. The hypersexuality hypothesis is that a pre?existing propensity for both aggression and violence characterizes both partners in selected marriages. The sexual extortion hypothesis is that male violence creates a climate of fear in which women are coerced

  8. Sexual Assault Prevention Programs and Survivor Support Services

    E-print Network

    Escher, Christine

    Sexual Assault Prevention Programs and Survivor Support Services The Sexual Violence Prevention education on a wide range of sexual violence related issues, such as bystander behavior, stalking, interpersonal violence and sexual assault. The Sexual Violence Prevention and Education Coordinator serves

  9. Fasting-induced suppression of circulating luteinizing hormone is caused by altered luteinizing hormone releasing-hormone secretion 

    E-print Network

    Farr, Jaime Alan

    1992-01-01

    of Circulating Luteinizing Hormone is Caused by Altered Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone Secretion. (December 1992) Jaime Alan Farr, B. S. , University of Nebraska-Omaha Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Paul G. Harms Intact and castrate male rats were.... 1) hypothalamic content or concentration of LHRH and did not alter hypothalamic LHRH immunolocalization compared to fed controls. Fasting castrate rats for 96h decreased (p&0. 05) serum and pituitary LH and increased (p&0. 05) hypothalamic LHRH...

  10. Changes in luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-induced luteinizing hormone release during the estrous cycle using anesthetized cattle

    E-print Network

    Keech, Cheryl Ann

    1984-01-01

    was undertaken to quantitate the feedback effects of ovarian steroids on endogenous and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) induced luteinizing hormone (LH) release. Anesthesia was utilized to suppress endogenous LHRH release during exogenous LHRH... - for their assistance and friendship during my program. TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION LITERATURE REVIEW Estrual/Menstrual Cycle Regulation Ovarian Steroid Feedback Action in Livestock Ovarian Steroid Feedback Action in Rats Ovarian Steroid Feedback Action...

  11. Sexual narcissism and infidelity in early marriage.

    PubMed

    McNulty, James K; Widman, Laura

    2014-10-01

    There is theoretical reason to believe that narcissism is associated with infidelity. Yet, studies that have examined this association have yielded inconsistent results. Given that these inconsistencies may have emerged because prior studies used global assessments of narcissism that do not capture the extent to which the components of narcissism are activated in the sexual domain, the current research drew from two longitudinal studies of 123 married couples to examine the extent to which sexual narcissism predicted marital infidelity. Consistent with the idea that narcissism predicts sexual behavior when activated in the sexual domain, own sexual narcissism was positively associated with infidelity, controlling for own marital and sexual satisfaction, own globally-assessed narcissism, partner globally-assessed narcissism, and partner sexual narcissism. Helping to explain why this association emerged, further analyses demonstrated that it was driven by all four facets of sexual narcissism-sexual exploitation, grandiose sense of sexual skill, sexual entitlement (Study 1 only), and lack of sexual empathy (husbands only). Additionally, although partner sexual narcissism was unrelated to infidelity on average, partners' grandiose sense of sexual skill and partners' sexual entitlement (Study 2 only) were positively associated with infidelity, and partners' lack of sexual empathy was negatively associated with infidelity (Study 2 only). These findings highlight the benefits of using domain-specific measures of sexual narcissism in research on sexual behavior and the benefits of using domain-specific measures of personality more generally. PMID:24696386

  12. Predictors of sexual assertiveness: the role of sexual desire, arousal, attitudes, and partner abuse.

    PubMed

    Santos-Iglesias, Pablo; Sierra, Juan Carlos; Vallejo-Medina, Pablo

    2013-08-01

    This study was conducted to test interpersonal, attitudinal, and sexual predictors of sexual assertiveness in a Spanish sample of 1,619 men and 1,755 women aged 18-87 years. Participants completed measures of sexual assertiveness, solitary and dyadic sexual desire, sexual arousal, erectile function, sexual attitudes, and frequency of partner abuse. In men, higher sexual assertiveness was predicted by less non-physical abuse, more positive attitudes toward sexual fantasies and erotophilia, higher dyadic desire, and higher sexual arousal. In women, higher sexual assertiveness was predicted by less non-physical abuse, less solitary sexual desire and higher dyadic sexual desire, arousal, erotophilia, and positive attitudes towards sexual fantasies. Results were discussed in the light of prevention and educational programs that include training in sexual assertiveness skills. PMID:22875718

  13. Cortisol, Sexual Arousal, and Affect in Response to Sexual Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Theoretically, the physiological response to stress should inhibit the sexual response. This has been demonstrated experimentally in animal models, and correlationally in studies of human reproduction. It is reasonable to expect, then, that the stress response would be blunted during sexual arousal, and several researchers have found a pattern of decreasing cortisol during sexual arousal. Aim In the present study, we explored individual differences in women’s cortisol response to sexual arousal in a laboratory setting. We also examined how cortisol response in the laboratory related to a validated measure of sexual arousal functioning in real life. Main Outcome Measures Cortisol levels were measured in saliva via enzyme immunoassay. Subjective arousal was measured by a self-report questionnaire, and genital arousal was measured by a vaginal photoplethysmograph. Methods Subjective and physiological responses to an erotic film were assessed in 30 women. Saliva samples were taken at baseline and following the film. Results The majority of women (N = 20) showed a decrease in cortisol; nine women showed an increase in response to an erotic film. The women who showed an increase in cortisol had lower scores on the Arousal, Desire, and Satisfaction domains of the Female Sexual Function Index. Genital arousal in the laboratory was not related to cortisol change. Conclusions Women who show an increase in cortisol in response to sexual stimuli in the laboratory have lower levels of functioning in certain areas of their sexual life compared with women who show a decrease in cortisol. Stress related to sexual performance may interfere with sexual arousal. PMID:18624961

  14. Menopause, depression, and loss of sexual desire: a psychodynamic contribution.

    PubMed

    Katz-Bearnot, Sherry

    2010-01-01

    Menopause is a phase of life during which physiological and psychological symptoms may occur. Most women traverse the menopausal transition without significant morbidity. The descriptive literature on menopause indicates that the nature of psychological and physical morbidity is a function of a variety of bio-psychosocial influences. There are distinct subgroups of women who are more likely to become symptomatic during this phase. Rosemary Basson has reconceptualized the female sexual response cycle. Her model allows the clinician to better understand and treat the reciprocal, interacting influences of depression, menopausal changes, and decreases in sexual desire on sexual functioning. Psychodynamic theories about menopause have moved away from the early models which predicted a universally negative experience. It is now believed that past psychological and medical problems, trauma, and the quality of interpersonal relationships are important predictors for the development of symptoms. Psychodynamic psychotherapy, in conjunction with psychoeducation, pharmacotherapy and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may all be helpful in the treatment of symptoms. PMID:20297892

  15. Race-Ethnic Differences in Sexual Health Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Guzzo, Karen Benjamin; Hayford, Sarah R

    2012-12-01

    Despite extensive research examining the correlates of unintended fertility, it remains a puzzle as to why racial and ethnic minorities are more likely to experience an unintended birth than non-Hispanic whites. This paper focuses on sexual literacy, a potential precursor of unintended fertility. Analyses use a unique dataset of unmarried young adults aged 18-29, the 2009 Survey of Unmarried Young Adults' Contraceptive Knowledge and Practices, to examine beliefs regarding pregnancy risks, pregnancy fatalism, and contraceptive side effects. At the bivariate level, foreign-born Hispanics hold more erroneous beliefs about the risk of pregnancy than other groups, and non-Hispanic blacks are more likely to believe in contraceptive side effects than non-Hispanic whites. Both foreign-born Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks are more likely than non-Hispanic whites to hold a fatalistic view towards pregnancy. Race-ethnic differences are attenuated for pregnancy misperceptions and fatalism in multivariate models controlling for sources of health information, sexual and fertility experiences, and sociodemographic characteristics. However, non-Hispanic blacks remain more likely than non-Hispanic whites to believe there is a high chance of reduced sexual desire and serious health consequences when using hormonal contraceptives. These differences may contribute to race-ethnic variation in contraceptive use and, ultimately, unintended fertility. PMID:23565127

  16. Hormonal development therapy (HDT) in hypogonadism in long-term view.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Marlene

    2010-04-01

    Since the 1960s, oestrogen deficiency in hypogonadism in girls has been successfully treated by a sort of analogous application of the menopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) scheme, here however, to induce and support sexual development in puberty and adolescence. The essential distinction between goals, ways and means of the two distinct hormonal treatments caused by menopause and by hypogonadism in puberty also suggests that the latter treatment is more characteristic of defining hormonal development therapy (HDT). Moreover, specific HDT in hypogonadism is essential for longitudinal growth of girls, functions of female reproductive system, bone and lipid metabolism and the immune, central nervous and cardiovascular systems. By contrast, the aim of menopausal replacement therapy in elderly women is treating negative effects of physiological loss of oestrogens as hot flush, lacks of female well-being and osteoporosis, while in hypogonadal girls there is of course nothing that might be replaced eventually. Especially in cases of absolute oestrogen deficiency, as in Turner syndrome and in other cases of premature ovarian failure, HDT has to be started at the age of expected puberty. An international consensus suggests possibly lifelong HDT for the lasting support of female development and functions. However, neither reliable studies about possible risks and side effects of continuous hormonal therapy in adult women with hypogonadismus nor a more precise consensus have emerged yet. Emphasising the term HDT particularly aims at putting more effort in getting over these paucities simultaneously. Indications, hormonal therapy, dosage, application and timing in puberty are described in this article. Aspects of long-term hormonal treatment are critically discussed. PMID:20075007

  17. Cell swelling-induced peptide hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Strbák, Vladimir; Benicky, Julius; Greer, Susan E; Bacova, Zuzana; Najvirtova, Miroslava; Greer, Monte A

    2004-01-01

    Cell volume changes induced in various ways (anisosmotic environment, hormones, oxidative stress, substrate uptake) are an integral part of a signal transduction network regulating cell function. Cell swelling has received increasing attention as a stimulus for a variety of intracellular phenomena. One of the most remarkable effects of cell swelling is its powerful effect in inducing exocytosis of material in intracellular secretory vesicles. Secretion of essentially all so-packaged hormones including those from hypothalamus (thyrotropin-releasing hormone, TRH; gonadotropin-releasing hormone, GnRH), pituitary (LH, FSH, ACTH, MSH, TSH, prolactin, beta endorphin), pancreas (insulin, somatostatin, glucagon), heart (atrial natriuretic hormone) and kidney (renin) are stimulated in a concentration-related manner by medium hyposmolarity or isosmolar medium containing permeant molecules such as ethanol or urea (reviewed in Ref. 21). Cell swelling-induced exocytosis is not restricted to endocrine cells and hormones; medium hyposmolarity also induces secretion of exocrine pancreatic enzymes and myeloperoxidase from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. PMID:18727251

  18. Influence of ovarian hormones on urogenital infection

    PubMed Central

    Sonnex, C.

    1998-01-01

    Numerous studies have examined the influence of hormones on infectious diseases and there is now a wealth of data relating to the more specific effect of the sex hormones, oestrogen and progesterone, on urogenital infections. The interaction between these hormones and the immune system is complex and the variation of hormonal effect between species further complicates the true picture as related to humans. Although it is difficult therefore to draw general conclusions regarding predominant effects of specific hormones, there is the suggestion that oestrogen enhances the pathogenicity of many urogenital micro-organisms. Our understanding of the influential role played by sex hormones in disease pathogenesis is at an early stage and illustrates well the importance of drawing together and interpreting as a whole both epidemiological and molecular studies. ??? PMID:9634294

  19. The role of sexual self-schema in a diathesis—stress model of sexual dysfunction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan L. Aarestad; Barbara L. Andersen

    1999-01-01

    Sexual self-schemas are cognitive generalizations regarding sexual aspects of the self that represent a core component of one's sexuality. We contend that individual differences in the sexual self-view represent an important cognitive diathesis for predicting sexual difficulty or dysfunction. We illustrate the role of sexual self-schemas on sexual behavior and responsiveness in healthy female and male samples. Next, we describe

  20. Sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Bechtel, Mark A; Trout, Wayne

    2015-03-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) continue to be a global epidemic with significant risk of morbidity/mortality for the fetus. STDs with prominent cutaneous findings including condylomata acuminata, genital herpes infections, and syphilis are reviewed. Important clinical cutaneous findings help aid early diagnosis and facilitate treatment. Condylomata acuminata have the potential of causing cervical cancer, anogenital cancer, and oropharyngeal cancer. Significant advances have been made in human papilloma virus vaccinations and treatment. Genital herpes infection can produce significant physical and emotional distress to the patient and significant potential harm to the fetus. Early clinical recognition of STDs and their appropriate management is critical. PMID:25565081