The role of sex hormones in the sexuality of men is now becoming clearer. Androgens are necessary for normal sexual appetite and for ejaculation. Erectile mechanisms, providing that appropriate erotic stimuli are available, are probably not androgen dependent. How much testosterone is required to obtain maximum sexual effect is not yet clear but it probably varies from individual to individual
The formation of the testis or ovary is a critical step in development. The pioneering studies of Professor Alfred Jost showed that the hormones produced by the embryonic rabbit testis are essential for development of the male phenotype. Sexually dimorphic hormones play a key role in the transition from an undifferentiated gonad into the mature testis and ovary. Marsupials, with their altricial young, provide an accessible model for the study of sexual differentiation because most of these events occur postnatally, while the young are attached to teats within their mothers' pouches. The relatively long time-course for the marsupial sexual differentiation has provided an excellent opportunity to correlate morphological changes with the genes and hormones that control them. Using this model species we have demonstrated that not all sexual dimorphisms are controlled by hormones. Virilization of the prostate and phallus is androgen dependent but appears to rely on circulating 5alpha-androstane-3alpha, 17beta-diol which is converted to dihydrotestosterone in these target tissues. Collectively these studies have led to the development of new paradigms to explain the hormonal mechanisms mediating sexual differentiation. PMID:11990788
Renfree, Marilyn B; Wilson, Jean D; Shaw, Geoffrey
Many people believe that sexual orientation (homosexuality vs. heterosexuality) is determined by education and social constraints. There are, however, a large number of studies indicating that prenatal factors have an important influence on this critical feature of human sexuality. Sexual orientation is a sexually differentiated trait (over 90% of men are attracted to women and vice versa). In animals and men, many sexually differentiated characteristics are organized during early life by sex steroids, and one can wonder whether the same mechanism also affects human sexual orientation. Two types of evidence support this notion. First, multiple sexually differentiated behavioral, physiological, or even morphological traits are significantly different in homosexual and heterosexual populations. Because some of these traits are known to be organized by prenatal steroids, including testosterone, these differences suggest that homosexual subjects were, on average, exposed to atypical endocrine conditions during development. Second, clinical conditions associated with significant endocrine changes during embryonic life often result in an increased incidence of homosexuality. It seems therefore that the prenatal endocrine environment has a significant influence on human sexual orientation but a large fraction of the variance in this behavioral characteristic remains unexplained to date. Genetic differences affecting behavior either in a direct manner or by changing embryonic hormone secretion or action may also be involved. How these biological prenatal factors interact with postnatal social factors to determine life-long sexual orientation remains to be determined.
The role of thyroid hormones in the control of erectile functioning has been only superficially investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between thyroid and erectile function in two different cohorts of subjects. The first one derives from the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS study), a multicentre survey performed on a sample of 3369 community-dwelling men aged 40-79 years (mean 60 ± 11 years). The second cohort is a consecutive series of 3203 heterosexual male patients (mean age 51.8 ± 13.0 years) attending our Andrology and Sexual Medicine Outpatient Clinic for sexual dysfunction at the University of Florence (UNIFI study). In the EMAS study all subjects were tested for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4). Similarly, TSH levels were checked in all patients in the UNIFI study, while FT4 only when TSH resulted outside the reference range. Overt primary hyperthyroidism (reduced TSH and elevated FT4, according to the reference range) was found in 0.3 and 0.2% of EMAS and UNIFI study respectively. In both study cohorts, suppressed TSH levels were associated with erectile dysfunction (ED). Overt hyperthyroidism was associated with an increased risk of severe erectile dysfunction (ED, hazard ratio = 14 and 16 in the EMAS and UNIFI study, respectively; both p < 0.05), after adjusting for confounding factors. These associations were confirmed in nested case-control analyses, comparing subjects with overt hyperthyroidism to age, BMI, smoking status and testosterone-matched controls. Conversely, no association between primary hypothyroidism and ED was observed. In conclusion, erectile function should be evaluated in all individuals with hyperthyroidism. Conversely, assessment of thyroid function cannot be recommended as routine practice in all ED patients. PMID:22834774
Corona, G; Wu, F C W; Forti, G; Lee, D M; O'Connor, D B; O'Neill, T W; Pendleton, N; Bartfai, G; Boonen, S; Casanueva, F F; Finn, J D; Giwercman, A; Han, T S; Huhtaniemi, I T; Kula, K; Lean, M E J; Punab, M; Vanderschueren, D; Jannini, E A; Mannucci, E; Maggi, M
Sexually dimorphic growth hormone (GH) secretory pattern is important in the determination of gender-specific patterns of growth and metabolism in rats. Whether GH secretion in humans is also sexually dimorphic and the neuroendocrine mechanisms governing this potential difference are not fully established. We have compared pulsatile GH secretion profiles in young men and women in the baseline state and during a continuous intravenous infusion of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I (rhIGF-I). During the baseline study, men had large nocturnal GH pulses and relatively small pulses during the rest of the day. In contrast, women had more continuous GH secretion and more frequent GH pulses that were of more uniform size. The infusion of rhIGF-I (10 microg/kg/h) potently suppressed both spontaneous and growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)-induced GH secretion in men. In women, however, rhIGF-I had less effect on pulsatile GH secretion and did not suppress the GH response to GHRH. These data demonstrate the existence of sexual dimorphism in the regulatory mechanisms involved in GH secretion in humans. The persistence of GH responses to GHRH in women suggests that negative feedback by IGF-I might be expressed, in part, through suppression of hypothalamic GHRH.
Jaffe, C A; Ocampo-Lim, B; Guo, W; Krueger, K; Sugahara, I; DeMott-Friberg, R; Bermann, M; Barkan, A L
The theoretical debate over the relative contributions of nature and nurture to sexual differentiation of behavior has increasingly moved towards an interactionist explanation requiring both influences. In practice, however, nature and nurture have often been seen as separable, influencing human clinical sex assignment decisions, sometimes with disastrous consequences. Decisions about sex assignment of children born with intersex conditions have been based almost exclusively on the appearance of the genitals and how other’s reactions to the gender role of the assigned sex affects individual gender socialization. Effects of the social environment and gender expectations in human cultures are ubiquitous, overshadowing potential underlying biological contributions in favor of the more observable social influences. Recent work in nonhuman primates showing behavioral sex differences paralleling human sex differences, including toy preferences, suggests that less easily observed biological factors also influence behavioral sexual differentiation in both monkeys and humans. We review research, including Robert W. Goy’s pioneering work with rhesus monkeys which manipulated prenatal hormones at different gestation times and demonstrated that genital anatomy and specific behaviors are independently sexually differentiated. Such studies demonstrate that for a variety of behaviors, including juvenile mounting and rough play, individuals can have the genitals of one sex but show the behavior more typical of the other sex. We describe another case, infant distress vocalizations, where maternal responsiveness is best accounted for by the mother’s response to the genital appearance of her offspring. Together these studies demonstrate that sexual differentiation arises from complex interactions where anatomical and behavioral biases, produced by hormonal and other biological processes, are shaped by social experience into the behavioral sex differences that distinguish males from females.
Wallen, Kim; Hassett, Janice M.
The influence of in vivo melatonin administration on in vitro pituitary follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), growth hormone (GH) and prolactin secretion, as well as the possible influence of dopamine (DA) were evaluated in prepubertal (31-day-old), pubertal (33-day-old) and adult female rats at diestrus phase of the sexual cycle. The in vitro pituitary hormone secretions were evaluated at basal rate for
Elena Díaz Rodríguez; Carmen Fernández Alvarez; Patricia O. Castrillón; Ana I. Esquifino Parras; Beatriz Díaz
Eight men with hypoxia associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis were studied. Serum testosterone concentrations were low in two subjects and fell to subnormal levels in two others as the clinical condition and arterial oxygen tension deteriorated. There was a significant correlation between serum testosterone concentrations and arterial oxygen tensions (p less than 0.05). Three patients showed evidence of suppression of luteinising hormone secretion at the pituitary level. Only occasional abnormalities of thyroid and prolactin concentrations were noted. Most of the men suffered from organic sexual impotence, which is considered to be due at least in part to endocrine disturbance. These findings are similar to observations in patients with hypoxic chronic obstructive airways disease and support the hypothesis that hypoxia of lung disease suppresses the hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular axis.
Semple, P D; Beastall, G H; Brown, T M; Stirling, K W; Mills, R J; Watson, W S
Seventy-nine consecutive inpatients of an epilepsy center (34 women, 45 men) who had either general- ized epilepsy, temporal lobe epilepsy, focal epilepsy of other origin, or no epilepsy completed the Dero- gatis Interview for Sexual Function—Self-Report Inventory. Quantitative assessments of blood levels were performed for prolactin, total testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, estradiol, dehydroepiandros- terone sulfate, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone.
Daniela Mölleken; Hertha Richter-Appelt; Stefan Stodieck; Thomas Bengner
Young mated male Caribbean fruit flies [Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)] have greater sexual prowess than their virgin counterparts. After mating for the first time, 6- to 7-day-old males released twice as much sex pheromone and acquired another mate in less than half the time required by virgin males of the same age. Mass spectroscopic analysis of extracts of hemolymph from mated and virgin 7-day-old males resulted in identification of juvenile hormone III bisepoxide and juvenile hormone III in a ratio of 2.5:1. Extracts from mated males contained 3-fold more juvenile hormone than did extracts from virgins. Enhancement of sexual signaling, pheromone release, and mating was induced by topical application of juvenile hormone, methoprene, or fenoxycarb. Newly eclosed adult males treated with juvenoids engaged in sexual signaling, released pheromone, and mated at significantly earlier ages than control males. We conclude that juvenile hormone mediated a positive feedback system that imparted a competitive advantage, guaranteeing that males who mated at an early age would out-compete virgins of the same age for mating opportunities. Additionally, the results support the hypothesis that juvenile hormone is a pivotal hormone coordinating the development of sexual signaling and reproductive maturity in these flies.
Teal, P. E. A.; Gomez-Simuta, Y.; Proveaux, A. T.
Young mated male Caribbean fruit flies [Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)] have greater sexual prowess than their virgin counterparts. After mating for the first time, 6- to 7-day-old males released twice as much sex pheromone and acquired another mate in less than half the time required by virgin males of the same age. Mass spectroscopic analysis of extracts of hemolymph from mated and virgin 7-day-old males resulted in identification of juvenile hormone III bisepoxide and juvenile hormone III in a ratio of 2.5:1. Extracts from mated males contained 3-fold more juvenile hormone than did extracts from virgins. Enhancement of sexual signaling, pheromone release, and mating was induced by topical application of juvenile hormone, methoprene, or fenoxycarb. Newly eclosed adult males treated with juvenoids engaged in sexual signaling, released pheromone, and mated at significantly earlier ages than control males. We conclude that juvenile hormone mediated a positive feedback system that imparted a competitive advantage, guaranteeing that males who mated at an early age would out-compete virgins of the same age for mating opportunities. Additionally, the results support the hypothesis that juvenile hormone is a pivotal hormone coordinating the development of sexual signaling and reproductive maturity in these flies. PMID:10706642
Teal, P E; Gomez-Simuta, Y; Proveaux, A T
Previous studies have demonstrated variable influences of sexual hormonal states on female brain activation and the necessity to control for these in neuroimaging studies. However, systematic investigations of these influences, particularly those of hormonal contraceptives as compared to the physiological menstrual cycle are scarce. In the present study, we investigated the hormonal modulation of neural correlates of erotic processing in a group of females under hormonal contraceptives (C group; N?=?12), and a different group of females (nC group; N?=?12) not taking contraceptives during their mid-follicular and mid-luteal phases of the cycle. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure hemodynamic responses as an estimate of brain activation during three different experimental conditions of visual erotic stimulation: dynamic videos, static erotic pictures, and expectation of erotic pictures. Plasma estrogen and progesterone levels were assessed in all subjects. No strong hormonally modulating effect was detected upon more direct and explicit stimulation (viewing of videos or pictures) with significant activations in cortical and subcortical brain regions previously linked to erotic stimulation consistent across hormonal levels and stimulation type. Upon less direct and less explicit stimulation (expectation), activation patterns varied between the different hormonal conditions with various, predominantly frontal brain regions showing significant within- or between-group differences. Activation in the precentral gyrus during the follicular phase in the nC group was found elevated compared to the C group and positively correlated with estrogen levels. From the results we conclude that effects of hormonal influences on brain activation during erotic stimulation are weak if stimulation is direct and explicit but that female sexual hormones may modulate more subtle aspects of sexual arousal and behaviour as involved in sexual expectation. Results may provide a basis for future imaging studies on sexual processing in females, especially in the context of less explicit erotic stimulation. PMID:23418428
Abler, Birgit; Kumpfmüller, Daniela; Grön, Georg; Walter, Martin; Stingl, Julia; Seeringer, Angela
Previous studies have demonstrated variable influences of sexual hormonal states on female brain activation and the necessity to control for these in neuroimaging studies. However, systematic investigations of these influences, particularly those of hormonal contraceptives as compared to the physiological menstrual cycle are scarce. In the present study, we investigated the hormonal modulation of neural correlates of erotic processing in a group of females under hormonal contraceptives (C group; N?=?12), and a different group of females (nC group; N?=?12) not taking contraceptives during their mid-follicular and mid-luteal phases of the cycle. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure hemodynamic responses as an estimate of brain activation during three different experimental conditions of visual erotic stimulation: dynamic videos, static erotic pictures, and expectation of erotic pictures. Plasma estrogen and progesterone levels were assessed in all subjects. No strong hormonally modulating effect was detected upon more direct and explicit stimulation (viewing of videos or pictures) with significant activations in cortical and subcortical brain regions previously linked to erotic stimulation consistent across hormonal levels and stimulation type. Upon less direct and less explicit stimulation (expectation), activation patterns varied between the different hormonal conditions with various, predominantly frontal brain regions showing significant within- or between-group differences. Activation in the precentral gyrus during the follicular phase in the nC group was found elevated compared to the C group and positively correlated with estrogen levels. From the results we conclude that effects of hormonal influences on brain activation during erotic stimulation are weak if stimulation is direct and explicit but that female sexual hormones may modulate more subtle aspects of sexual arousal and behaviour as involved in sexual expectation. Results may provide a basis for future imaging studies on sexual processing in females, especially in the context of less explicit erotic stimulation.
Abler, Birgit; Kumpfmuller, Daniela; Gron, Georg; Walter, Martin; Stingl, Julia; Seeringer, Angela
Research links explicit sexuality (e.g., physical attraction and pleasure) to high testosterone (T) and nurturance (loving contact) to low T. Engaging in sexual fantasy, which can include explicit sexual and nurturant elements, increases T in women but not in men. We examined whether individual differences in the explicit sexual and nurturant content of fantasy were linked with T or with estradiol (E2). In addition, we explored whether fantasy content differed or overlapped by gender/sex. Participants (26 women, 23 men) provided saliva samples for hormones before and after imagining a self-defined positive sexual encounter and responding to open-ended questions about the situation they imagined. We systematically content-coded responses for explicit sexual and nurturant content. In men, lower inclusion of nurturant content predicted larger T responses to fantasy. Fantasy content was not linked with T in women or with E2 in women or men. Women and men did not differ significantly in explicit sexual and nurturant content. Our findings suggest that individual experiences of fantasy as more or less nurturant affect T in men, provide support for the Steroid/Peptide Theory of Social Bonds, and highlight the value of integrating hormones and content analysis to investigate research questions relevant to sexuality and gender/sex. PMID:23998565
Goldey, Katherine L; Avery, Lanice R; van Anders, Sari M
Hormones exert a pervasive influence on sexual activity. Androgens are involved in the initiation and maintenance of libido\\u000a and spontaneous arousal. In recent years, the clinical use of exogenous androgens for treatment of sexual dysfunction has\\u000a received a great deal of attention. Good evidence exists that such treatment is effective for arousal difficulties in men\\u000a and women in the setting
Stuart N. Seidman
The masculinization of the brain, reproductive tract and many other structures is critically dependent on the testicular hormone, testosterone (T). In many species, T circulates bound with high affinity to sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). This protein has a wide phylogenetic distribution and SHBG or SHBG-like proteins are produced by the liver, testes, placenta, brain and other tissues. SHBG activity is
D. A. Damassa; J. M. Cates
Hormonal factors are important in multifactorial theories of sexual offending. The relationship between hormones and aggression in nonhumans is well established, but the putative effect in humans is more complex, and the direction of the effect is usually unclear. In this study, a large sample (N = 771) of adult male sex offenders was assessed between 1982 and 1996. Gonadotrophic (follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone) and androgen hormone (total and free testosterone; T) levels were assessed at Time 1, along with indicators of sex drive and hostility. Individuals were observed up to 20 years in the community, with an average time at risk of 10.9 years (SD 4.6). Gonadotrophic hormones correlated positively with self-reported hostility and were better predictors of recidivism than was T (area under the curve (AUC), 0.58-0.63). Self-reported hostility emerged as a partial mediator of this relationship between gonadotrophic hormones and recidivism. These results point to a potentially new area of investigation for hormones and sexual aggression. PMID:23233468
Kingston, Drew A; Seto, Michael C; Ahmed, Adekunle G; Fedoroff, Paul; Firestone, Philip; Bradford, John M
The nervous system (both central and peripheral) is anatomically and physiologically differentiated between the sexes, ranging from gender-based differences in the cerebral cortex to motoneuron number in the spinal cord. Although genetic factors may play a role in the development of some sexually differentiated traits, most identified sex differences in the brain and behavior are produced under the influence of perinatal sex steroid signaling. In many species, the ability to display an estrogen-induced luteinizing hormone (LH) surge is sexually differentiated, yet the specific neural population(s) that allows females but not males to display such estrogen-mediated “positive feedback” has remained elusive. Recently, the Kiss1/kisspeptin system has been implicated in generating the sexually-dimorphic circuitry underlying the LH surge. Specifically, Kiss1 gene expression and kisspeptin protein levels in the anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) nucleus of the hypothalamus are sexually differentiated, with females displaying higher levels than males, even under identical hormonal conditions as adults. These findings, in conjunction with accumulating evidence implicating kisspeptins as potent secretagogues of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), suggest that the sex-specific display of the LH surge (positive feedback) reflects sexual differentiation of AVPV Kiss1 neurons. In addition, developmental kisspeptin signaling via its receptor GPR54 appears to be critical in males for the proper sexual differentiation of a variety of sexually dimorphic traits, ranging from complex social behavior to specific forebrain and spinal cord neuronal populations. This review discusses the recent data, and their implications, regarding the bidirectional relationship between the Kiss1 system and the process of sexual differentiation.
Kauffman, Alexander S.
Objective: To explore the relationships between psychological symptoms and thyroid hormone levels in adolescent girls who had experienced the traumatic stress of sexual abuse. Method: The study design was cross-sectional/correlational. Subjects ("N"=22; age range=12-18 years) had their blood drawn, and they completed 2 psychological tests…
Haviland, Mark G.; Sonne, Janet L.; Anderson, Donald L.; Nelson, Jerald C.; Sheridan-Matney, Clare; Nichols, Joy G.; Carlton, Esther I.; Murdoch, William G. C.
Exposure to stress during gestation results in physiological and behavioral alterations that persist into adulthood. This study examined the effects of prenatal stress on the postnatal expression of sexually differentiated cognitive, hormonal, and neurochemical profiles in male and female rats. Pregnant dams were subjected to restraint stress three times daily for 45 min during d 14 -21 of pregnancy. The
RACHEL E. BOWMAN; NEIL J. MACLUSKY; YESSENIA SARMIENTO; MAYA FRANKFURT; MARISA GORDON; VICTORIA N. LUINE
Background Although research suggests that socio-sexual behavior changes in conjunction with the menstrual cycle, several potential factors are rarely taken into consideration. We investigated the role of changing hormone concentrations on self-reported physical discomfort, sleep, exercise and socio-sexual interest in young, healthy women. Methods Salivary hormones (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate-DHEAS, progesterone, cortisol, testosterone, estradiol and estriol) and socio-sexual variables were measured in 20 women taking oral contraceptives (OC group) and 20 not using OCs (control group). Outcome measures were adapted from questionnaires of menstrual cycle-related symptoms, physical activity, and interpersonal relations. Testing occurred during menstruation (T1), mid-cycle (T2), and during the luteal phase (T3). Changes in behavior were assessed across time points and between groups. Additionally, correlations between hormones and socio-behavioral characteristics were determined. Results Physical discomfort and sleep disturbances peaked at T1 for both groups. Exercise levels and overall socio-sexual interest did not change across the menstrual cycle for both groups combined. However, slight mid-cycle increases in general and physical attraction were noted among the control group, whereas the OC group experienced significantly greater socio-sexual interest across all phases compared to the control group. Associations with hormones differed by group and cycle phase. The estrogens were correlated with socio-sexual and physical variables at T1 and T3 in the control group; whereas progesterone, cortisol, and DHEAS were more closely associated with these variables in the OC group across test times. The direction of influence further varies by behavior, group, and time point. Among naturally cycling women, higher concentrations of estradiol and estriol are associated with lower attraction scores at T1 but higher scores at T3. Among OC users, DHEAS and progesterone exhibit opposing relationships with attraction scores at T1 and invert at T3. Conclusions Data from this study show no change across the cycle in socio-sexual interest among healthy, reproductive age women but higher social and physical attraction among OC users. Furthermore, a broader range of hormones may be associated with attraction than previously thought. Such relationships differ by use of oral contraceptives, and may either reflect endogenous hormone modulation by OCs and/or self-selection of sexually active women to practice contraceptive techniques.
Sexual dysfunction is a common problem for women of all ages and remains an important aspect of women's health following menopause. For postmenopausal women, the evaluation and management of sexual dysfunction differs from that of younger women because the etiology is often linked to the diminished levels of sex hormones. Female sexual function is highly complex and deeply influenced by nonhormonal factors such as emotional intimacy and culture. Our understanding of this important area of women's health remains inadequate, and much more research needs to be performed before definitive conclusions can be made. Existing data allow for some preliminary observations. It appears that lack of estrogen may lead to sexual dysfunction primarily by causing vaginal atrophy and dyspareunia. These symptoms may be treated by systemic or local estrogen therapy. Conversely, androgen deficiency appears to be most strongly linked to diminished sexual desire. Growing evidence indicates that administration of androgens may be beneficial in such situations. Other agents that use sex hormone receptors, such as selective estrogen receptor modulators and tibolone, also may affect sexual function. PMID:15852204
Women are more likely than men to develop rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and recent data suggest that they also suffer greater disability than men with this disease. The reasons for these sexually dimorphic patterns of disease incidence and progression are unknown, but investigations into the underlying mechanisms could provide useful insights into RA pathogenesis and may also suggest new treatment approaches.
William J. Kovacs; Nancy J. Olsen
Seeds of flowering plants can be formed sexually or asexually through apomixis. Apomixis occurs in about 400 species and is of great interest for agriculture as it produces clonal offspring. It differs from sexual reproduction in three major aspects: (1) While the sexual megaspore mother cell (MMC) undergoes meiosis, the apomictic initial cell (AIC) omits or aborts meiosis (apomeiosis); (2) the unreduced egg cell of apomicts forms an embryo without fertilization (parthenogenesis); and (3) the formation of functional endosperm requires specific developmental adaptations. Currently, our knowledge about the gene regulatory programs underlying apomixis is scarce. We used the apomict Boechera gunnisoniana, a close relative of Arabidopsis thaliana, to investigate the transcriptional basis underlying apomeiosis and parthenogenesis. Here, we present the first comprehensive reference transcriptome for reproductive development in an apomict. To compare sexual and apomictic development at the cellular level, we used laser-assisted microdissection combined with microarray and RNA-Seq analyses. Conservation of enriched gene ontologies between the AIC and the MMC likely reflects functions of importance to germline initiation, illustrating the close developmental relationship of sexuality and apomixis. However, several regulatory pathways differ between sexual and apomictic germlines, including cell cycle control, hormonal pathways, epigenetic and transcriptional regulation. Enrichment of specific signal transduction pathways are a feature of the apomictic germline, as is spermidine metabolism, which is associated with somatic embryogenesis in various plants. Our study provides a comprehensive reference dataset for apomictic development and yields important new insights into the transcriptional basis underlying apomixis in relation to sexual reproduction.
Schmidt, Anja; Schmid, Marc W.; Klostermeier, Ulrich C.; Qi, Weihong; Guthorl, Daniela; Sailer, Christian; Waller, Manuel; Rosenstiel, Philip; Grossniklaus, Ueli
In this controlled study, we aimed to evaluate the sexual dysfunction of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in comparison to healthy controls. We enrolled 64 sexually active women in our study. The PCOS group consisted of 32 women who met the Rotterdam diagnostic criteria, and the control group was composed of 32 age-matched, healthy females. In addition to the demographic and clinical characteristics of the participants, the hormonal and biochemical parameters were also studied. All patients were invited to fill out the female sexual function index (FSFI) and Beck's Depression Inventory questionnaires. The prevalence of sexual dysfunction in the PCOS group was similar to controls (25% vs 19%; P=0.54). No significant difference was found according to each domain score of FSFI. Significant negative correlations were found between the total FSFI scores of the PCOS group and the total (r=-0.278) and free testosterone (r=-0.493) levels. Although depressive scores of PCOS patients were higher, they did not show greater impaired sexual functions than age-matched controls according to their FSFI scores. Considering the multifactorial state of female sexual dysfunction, further studies are needed to clarify the impact of PCOS upon sexuality. PMID:23407282
Ercan, C M; Coksuer, H; Aydogan, U; Alanbay, I; Keskin, U; Karasahin, K E; Baser, I
Seeds of flowering plants can be formed sexually or asexually through apomixis. Apomixis occurs in about 400 species and is of great interest for agriculture as it produces clonal offspring. It differs from sexual reproduction in three major aspects: (1) While the sexual megaspore mother cell (MMC) undergoes meiosis, the apomictic initial cell (AIC) omits or aborts meiosis (apomeiosis); (2) the unreduced egg cell of apomicts forms an embryo without fertilization (parthenogenesis); and (3) the formation of functional endosperm requires specific developmental adaptations. Currently, our knowledge about the gene regulatory programs underlying apomixis is scarce. We used the apomict Boechera gunnisoniana, a close relative of Arabidopsis thaliana, to investigate the transcriptional basis underlying apomeiosis and parthenogenesis. Here, we present the first comprehensive reference transcriptome for reproductive development in an apomict. To compare sexual and apomictic development at the cellular level, we used laser-assisted microdissection combined with microarray and RNA-Seq analyses. Conservation of enriched gene ontologies between the AIC and the MMC likely reflects functions of importance to germline initiation, illustrating the close developmental relationship of sexuality and apomixis. However, several regulatory pathways differ between sexual and apomictic germlines, including cell cycle control, hormonal pathways, epigenetic and transcriptional regulation. Enrichment of specific signal transduction pathways are a feature of the apomictic germline, as is spermidine metabolism, which is associated with somatic embryogenesis in various plants. Our study provides a comprehensive reference dataset for apomictic development and yields important new insights into the transcriptional basis underlying apomixis in relation to sexual reproduction. PMID:25010342
Schmidt, Anja; Schmid, Marc W; Klostermeier, Ulrich C; Qi, Weihong; Guthörl, Daniela; Sailer, Christian; Waller, Manuel; Rosenstiel, Philip; Grossniklaus, Ueli
This review higlghts key aspects of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) biology of potential relevance to the sexual dimorphism of the stress response and immune/inflammatory reaction, and introduces two important new concepts based on the regulatory potential of the human (h) CRH gene: (1) a proposed mechanism to account for the tissue-specific antithetical responses of hCRH gene expression to glucocorticolds, that may also explain the frequently observed antithetical effects of chronic glucocorticoid administration in clinical practice and (2) a heuristic diagram to illustrate the proposed modulation of the stress response and immune/ inflammatory reaction by steroid hormones, from the perspective of the CRH system.
Vamvakopoulos, Nicholas V.
Plasma growth hormone concentrations were determined in diploid and triploid rainbow trout of both sexes during sexual maturation. Diploid females grow large ovaries, whereas triploid female trout show no ovarian development. The plasma growth hormone concentration in triploid female trout remained low and unchanged throughout the study, whereas it rose slightly, but significantly, in the diploid females that matured, but not in those that remained immature. On the other hand, triploid males do develop tests like their diploid counterparts. In both groups spermiation was accompanied by a steady rise in the plasma growth hormone concentration. The results suggest that the elevated growth hormone concentration in mature male trout was a consequence not of reproduction per se, but of the loss of condition that accompanied spawning. This hypothesis was supported by the results from the females. Apart from a temporary loss in the mature diploids caused by stripping of the eggs, female trout did not lose condition, neither did they show any change in the plasma growth hormone concentration during the period when they ovulated. These results suggest that it was the nutritional insufficiency accompanying reproduction in male fish that caused the elevation in growth hormone concentration. In fact, a strong negative correlation between the plasma growth hormone concentration and the condition factor of the fish was observed. PMID:1879663
Sumpter, J P; Lincoln, R F; Bye, V J; Carragher, J F; Le Bail, P Y
There has been increasing concern that low-dose exposure to hormonally active chemicals disrupts sexual differentiation of the brain and peripheral nervous system. There also has been active drug development research on the therapeutic potential of hormone therapy on behaviors. T...
Mood and sexual interest changes are commonly cited reasons for discontinuing hormonal contraceptives. Data, however, are inconsistent and limited to adult users. We examined associations of hormonal contraceptive use with mood and sexual interest among adolescents. We recruited 14-17 year old women primary care clinics and followed them longitudinally for up to 41 months. Participants completed face-to-face interviews quarterly and two 12 week periods of daily diary collection per year. On daily diaries, participants recorded positive mood, negative mood, and sexual interest. We classified 12 week diary periods as “stable OCP use,” “non-use,” “initiated use,” “stopped use,” and “DMPA use” based on self-report of oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) use from medical charts. Diary periods were the unit of analysis. Participants could contribute more than one diary period. We analyzed data using linear models with a random intercept and slope across weeks in a diary period, an effect for contraceptive group, and an adjustment for age at the start of a diary period. Mean weekly positive mood was higher in diary periods characterized by stable OCP use, compared to other groups. Mean weekly negative mood was lower in diary periods characterized by stable OCP use and higher in periods characterized by DMPA use. Periods characterized by stable OCP use additionally showed less mood variation than other groups. Changes in mood among adolescent hormonal contraceptive users differed from those anticipated for adult users. Attention to adolescent-specific changes in mood and sexual interest may improve contraceptive adherence.
Ott, Mary A.; Shew, Marcia L.; Ofner, Susan; Tu, Wanzhu; Fortenberry, J. Dennis
It is widely assumed that the development of male secondary sexual traits in birds and mammals is testosterone-dependent. In birds, however, masculinity has dual origins. Male-type behaviour and morphology, such as spurs and wattles, are usually testosterone-dependent. However, showy male-type plumage is, generally, the neutral state of development. For example, castrating a peacock has no effect on his elaborate plumage
Ian P. F. Owens; Roger V. Short
The effect of sleep apnea on the reproductive function of obese men is not entirely elucidated. The objective of this study was to define the effect of sleep apnea on the reproductive hormones and sexual function in obese men. This study included 89 severely obese men with BMI ?35 kg/m2 considering gastric bypass surgery. Anthropometrics (weight, and BMI), reproductive hormones, and sleep studies were measured. The sexual quality of life was assessed using the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite questionnaire (IWQOL-Lite). The mean age of our patients was 46.9 ± 11.0 years, the mean BMI was 47.8 ± 8.7 kg/m2 and the mean weight was 337.7 ± 62.4 lb. After correction for age and BMI, means of free testosterone per severity group of sleep apnea were as follows: no or mild sleep apnea 74.4 ± 3.8 pg/ml, moderate sleep apnea 68.6 ± 4.2 pg/ml, and severe sleep apnea 60.2 ± 2.92 pg/ml, P = 0.014. All other parameters of sleep apnea including hypopnea index, percent time below a SpO2 of 90%, and percent time below a SpO2 of 80% were also negatively correlated with testosterone levels after correction for age and BMI. BMI and presence of coronary artery disease decreased the sexual quality of life. Sleep apnea was associated with reduced sexual quality of life. In summary, sleep apnea negatively affects testosterone levels independent of BMI. Severely obese men had decreased sexual quality of life.
Hammoud, Ahmad O.; Walker, James M.; Gibson, Mark; Cloward, Tom V.; Hunt, Steven C.; Kolotkin, Ronette L.; Adams, Ted D.; Meikle, A. Wayne
Two studies address the role of hormonal shift across menstrual cycle in female dehumanization of other women. In Study 1, normally ovulating women (NOW) and women who use hormonal contraceptives (HCW) are compared in terms of how much they dehumanize other women and two other control targets (men and elderly people). In NOW, the level of dehumanization of other women, but not of men and elderly people, increases as the conception risk is enhanced. HCW do not show this pattern of results. In Study 2, we investigate the level of dehumanization of other women and of intra-sexual competition. Findings concerning dehumanization replicate those of Study 1. Intra-sexual competition increases with the rise of conception risk only in NOW. In addition, dehumanization is significantly associated with intra-sexual competition in NOW but not in HCW. Together, these studies demonstrate that dehumanization of women is elicited by menstrual cycle-related processes and associated with women's mate-attraction goals. PMID:23928396
Piccoli, Valentina; Foroni, Francesco; Carnaghi, Andrea
To evaluate whether observed cycles in proceptive behavior in aging lowland gorilla females (age 40+) at Brookfield Zoo were driven by ovarian activity, we compared monthly behavioral data to estradiol and progestogen cycles based on fecal hormone assessments. Progestogen peaks showed regularity and close coincidence with monthly sexual behaviors. Estradiol was more variable. Progestogen peaks varied between 22+/-5 days for the control female (29 years old), to 24+/-2.5 and 29+/-8 for the two aged subjects. In the first aged female, which was housed with other females and a silverback, the high degree of cyclicity in sexual behavior, regularity of progestogen cycles, and close concordance between hormonal cycling and sexual behavior strongly compared to patterns found (in this and other studies) in gorilla females <35 years old. Cyclical progestogen peaks were longer and more variable in the second aged female-perhaps because she lacked the social mediation of other females or a male. For husbandry reasons she is not housed with the gorilla group, behavioral data were not collected from her. The value of our longitudinal study is in obtaining reproductive profiles of primate females that are approaching maximum lifespan. This pilot study is part of a larger research project on reproductive senescence that will include other captive females >35 years old, a population that is rapidly increasing in North American zoos as gorillas continue to age. PMID:14983470
Atsalis, Sylvia; Margulis, Susan W; Bellem, Astrid; Wielebnowski, Nadja
N-Acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated quorum-sensing (QS) regulates virulence functions in plant and animal pathogens such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A chemolibrary of more than 3500 compounds was screened using two bacterial AHL-biosensors to identify QS-inhibitors (QSIs). The purity and structure of 15 QSIs selected through this screening were verified using HPLC MS/MS tools and their activity tested on the A. tumefaciens and P. aeruginosa bacterial models. The IC50 value of the identified QSIs ranged from 2.5 to 90 µg/ml, values that are in the same range as those reported for the previously identified QSI 4-nitropyridine-N-oxide (IC50 24 µg/ml). Under the tested culture conditions, most of the identified QSIs did not exhibit bacteriostatic or bactericidal activities. One third of the tested QSIs, including the plant compound hordenine and the human sexual hormone estrone, decreased the frequency of the QS-regulated horizontal transfer of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid in A. tumefaciens. Hordenine, estrone as well as its structural relatives estriol and estradiol, also decreased AHL accumulation and the expression of six QS-regulated genes (lasI, lasR, lasB, rhlI, rhlR, and rhlA) in cultures of the opportunist pathogen P. aeruginosa. Moreover, the ectopic expression of the AHL-receptors RhlR and LasR of P. aeruginosa in E. coli showed that their gene-regulatory activity was affected by the QSIs. Finally, modeling of the structural interactions between the human hormones and AHL-receptors LasR of P. aeruginosa and TraR of A. tumefaciens confirmed the competitive binding capability of the human sexual hormones. This work indicates potential interferences between bacterial and eukaryotic hormonal communications.
Beury-Cirou, Amelie; Tannieres, Melanie; Minard, Corinne; Soulere, Laurent; Rasamiravaka, Tsiry; Dodd, Robert H.; Queneau, Yves; Dessaux, Yves; Guillou, Catherine; Vandeputte, Olivier M.; Faure, Denis
The toxic effect of cadmium varies with sex in experimental animals. Previous studies have demonstrated that pretreatment of male Fischer 344 (F344) rats with the female sex hormone progesterone markedly enhances the susceptibility to cadmium, suggesting a role for progesterone in the sexual dimorphism of cadmium toxicity. In the present study, we attempted to further elucidate the mechanism for sex differences in cadmium-induced toxicity in F344 rats. A single exposure to cadmium (5.0 mg Cd/kg, sc) was lethal in 10/10 (100 %) female compared with 6/10 (60 %) male rats. Using a lower dose of cadmium (3.0 mg Cd/kg), circulating alanine aminotransferase activity, indicative of hepatotoxicity, was highly elevated in the cadmium treated females but not in males. However, no gender-based differences occurred in the hepatic cadmium accumulation, metallothionein or glutathione levels. When cadmium (5.0 mg Cd/kg) was administered to young rats at 5 weeks of age, the sex-related difference in lethality was minimal. Furthermore, although ovariectomy blocked cadmium-induced lethality, the lethal effects of the metal were restored by pretreatment with progesterone (40 mg/kg, sc, 7 consecutive days) or ?-estradiol (200 ?g/kg, sc, 7 consecutive days) to ovariectomized rats. These results provide further evidence that female sex hormones such as progesterone and ?-estradiol are involved in the sexual dimorphism of cadmium toxicity in rats. PMID:22466070
Shimada, Hideaki; Hashiguchi, Takashi; Yasutake, Akira; Waalkes, Michael P; Imamura, Yorishige
SUMMARY Postweaning growth and pubertal traits were studied in Hereford, Angus, Red Poll, Brown Swiss, Hereford-Angus crossbred (HXA) and Angus-Hereford crossbred (AX H) bulls from 7 through 13 months of age. Pubertal factors characterized included body weight, testicular size, hormone concentrations, sexual aggressive- ness and sperm production. Puberty was de- fined as the age at which a bull first produced
D. D. Lunstra; J. J. Ford; S. E. Echternkamp
The liver is one of the most sex-dimorphic organs in both oviparous and viviparous animals. In order to understand the molecular basis of the difference between male and female livers, high-throughput RNA-SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression) sequencing was performed for zebrafish livers of both sexes and their transcriptomes were compared. Both sexes had abundantly expressed genes involved in translation, coagulation and lipid metabolism, consistent with the general function of the liver. For sex-biased transcripts, from in addition to the high enrichment of vitellogenin transcripts in spawning female livers, which constituted nearly 80% of total mRNA, it is apparent that the female-biased genes were mostly involved in ribosome/translation, estrogen pathway, lipid transport, etc, while the male-biased genes were enriched for oxidation reduction, carbohydrate metabolism, coagulation, protein transport and localization, etc. Sexual dimorphism on xenobiotic metabolism and anti-oxidation was also noted and it is likely that retinol x receptor (RXR) and liver x receptor (LXR) play central roles in regulating the sexual differences of lipid and cholesterol metabolisms. Consistent with high ribosomal/translational activities in the female liver, female-biased genes were significantly regulated by two important transcription factors, Myc and Mycn. In contrast, Male livers showed activation of transcription factors Ppargc1b, Hnf4a, and Stat4, which regulate lipid and glucose metabolisms and various cellular activities. The transcriptomic responses to sex hormones, 17?-estradiol (E2) or 11-keto testosterone (KT11), were also investigated in both male and female livers and we found that female livers were relatively insensitive to sex hormone disturbance, while the male livers were readily affected. E2 feminized male liver by up-regulating female-biased transcripts and down-regulating male-biased transcripts. The information obtained in this study provides comprehensive insights into the sexual dimorphism of zebrafish liver transcriptome and will facilitate further development of the zebrafish as a human liver disease model.
Zheng, Weiling; Xu, Hongyan; Lam, Siew Hong; Luo, Huaien; Karuturi, R. Krishna Murthy; Gong, Zhiyuan
This study compared the brain activation patterns associated with visual sexual arousal in connection with sexual hormone levels in postoperative male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals and normal premenopausal and menopausal women using 3.0 T functional MRI. A total of 30 volunteers including 10 premenopausal women, 10 menopausal women, and 10 postoperative MTF transsexuals who had undergone sex reassignment surgery participated in this study. Brain activity was measured while viewing erotic male and female nude pictures. The free testosterone and estradiol levels of the postoperative MTF transsexuals were not in the normal range seen in normal premenopausal women, but were in range seen in menopausal women. The postoperative MTF transsexuals showed significantly higher activities in the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdala, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, and head of caudate nucleus in response to erotic male nude pictures in contrast to female pictures (P<0.005). The predominant activation areas observed in the postoperative MTF transsexuals in contrast to the menopausal women when viewing male nude pictures included the insula, hippocampus, thalamus, and putamen (P<0.005). Similar to the postoperative MTF transsexuals, the premenopausal women showed significantly higher activities than menopausal women in the insula, hippocampus, thalamus, and parahippocampal gyrus (P<0.005). This study revealed that the brain activation patterns associated with visual sexual arousal in postoperative MTF transsexuals are similar to those in premenopausal women, although the sexual hormone levels in the postoperative MTF transsexuals are in the average range of those in menopausal women. PMID:24800986
Kim, Gwang-Won; Jeong, Gwang-Woo
Analysis of extracts of hemolymph obtained from sexually mature alate females of Solenopsis invicta from monogyne colonies resulted in identification of juvenile hormone III (JH III). The average amount of JH III was 0.32±0.04 pmol\\/?molof hemolymph. Topical application of 0.038 pmol of JH III was sufficient to stimulate alates to shed their wings in the presence of the queen. The
S. N. Burns; P. E. A. Teal; R. K. Vander Meer; J. L. Nation; J. T. Vogt
Because testosterone (T) often mediates the expression of attractive displays and ornaments, in the absence of constraints sexual selection should lead to an evolutionary increase in male T levels. One candidate constraint would be a genetic correlation between the sexes that leads to a correlated response in females. If increased T in females were to have deleterious effects on mate choice, the effect of sexual selection on male T would be weakened. Using female dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), we tested whether experimentally enhancing female T would lead to a decrease in discrimination between two classes of males, one treated with T (T-males) and one control (C-males). The two female treatments (T-implanted and C-females) spent equal amounts of time with both classes of males, but T-treated females failed to show a preference for either male treatment, whereas C-females showed a significant preference, albeit in an unexpected direction (for C-males). T-females were less discriminating than C-females, irrespective of the direction of their preference. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that circulating hormones can alter female choosiness without reducing sexual motivation. Our results suggest that hormonal correlations between the sexes have the potential to constrain sexual selection on males.
McGlothlin, Joel W.; Neudorf, Diane L. H.; Casto, Joseph M.; Nolan, Val; Ketterson, Ellen D.
The XX male syndrome - Testicular Disorder of Sexual Differentiation (DSD) is a rare condition characterized by a spectrum of clinical presentations, ranging from ambiguous to normal male genitalia. We report hormonal, molecular and cytogenetic evaluations of a boy presenting with this syndrome. Examination of the genitalia at age of 16 months, showed: penis of 3.5 cm, proximal hypospadia and scrotal testes. Pelvic ultrasound did not demonstrate Mullerian duct structures. Karyotype was 46,XX. Gonadotrophin stimulation test yielded insufficient testosterone production. Gonadal biopsy showed seminiferous tubules without evidence of Leydig cells. Molecular studies revealed that SRY and TSPY genes and also DYZ3 sequences were absent. In addition, the lack of deletions or duplications of SOX9, NR5A1, WNT4 and NROB1 regions was verified. The infant was heterozygous for all microsatellites at the 9p region, including DMRT1 gene, investigated. Only 10% of the patients are SRY-negative and usually they have ambiguous genitalia, as the aforementioned patient. The incomplete masculinization suggests gain of function mutation in one or more genes downstream to SRY gene. PMID:21340153
Alves, Cresio; Braid, Zilda; Coeli, Fernanda Borchers; Mello, Maricilda Palandi de
Despite the well-documented importance of paternal caregiving for positive child development, little is known about the neural changes that accompany the transition to fatherhood in humans, or about how changes in hormone levels affect paternal brain function. We compared fathers of children aged 1-2 with non-fathers in terms of hormone levels (oxytocin and testosterone), neural responses to child picture stimuli, and neural responses to visual sexual stimuli. Compared to non-fathers, fathers had significantly higher levels of plasma oxytocin and lower levels of plasma testosterone. In response to child picture stimuli, fathers showed stronger activation than non-fathers within regions important for face emotion processing (caudal middle frontal gyrus [MFG]), mentalizing (temporo-parietal junction [TPJ]) and reward processing (medial orbitofrontal cortex [mOFC]). On the other hand, non-fathers had significantly stronger neural responses to sexually provocative images in regions important for reward and approach-related motivation (dorsal caudate and nucleus accumbens). Testosterone levels were negatively correlated with responses to child stimuli in the MFG. Surprisingly, neither testosterone nor oxytocin levels predicted neural responses to sexual stimuli. Our results suggest that the decline in testosterone that accompanies the transition to fatherhood may be important for augmenting empathy toward children. PMID:24882167
Mascaro, Jennifer S; Hackett, Patrick D; Rilling, James K
Proximate and ultimate biological theories for understanding sexual behavior predict that sexual dimorphism in sexual partner preference should be ubiquitous in the animal kingdom. A review of the literature found evidence for same-sex sexual partner preference in a small number of species (female pukekos, cows, domestic rams, female Uganda kobs, female Japanese macaques). Thus, theoretical predictions concerning the development and evolution of sexual partner preference appear to hold true except for a handful of exceptional species. Why individuals in some animal species exhibit same-sex sexual partner preference remains the object of debate. At a proximate level, domestic rams that exhibit same-sex sexual partner preference have been shown to differ in certain aspects of their neurobiology and physiology from rams that do not exhibit such a preference. It remains unclear, however, as to whether these differences are produced by sex-atypical perinatal exposure to androgens and their estrogenic metabolites. At an ultimate level, numerous functional hypotheses for same-sex sexual partner preference have been tested in female Japanese macaques but have failed to receive support. Understanding why same-sex sexual partner preference evolves in some species may involve abandoning a strictly functional perspective and, instead, approaching the issue from the perspective of each species' unique evolutionary history. PMID:12836731
Vasey, Paul L
Background With the exception of sexual functioning and weight, social and behavioural effects of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) have not been reported from trials. This paper reports such results from the EPHT-trial in Estonia. Methods A randomized trial, with a blind and non-blind sub-trial in Estonia. From 1999–2001, 1778 women were recruited. The mean follow-up was 3.6 years. Women's experiences were asked in the first and final study year by mailed questionnaires (74 and 81% response rates). Comparisons of the groups were made by cross-tabulation and logistic regression, adjusting for age. Results There were no differences between the HT and non-HT groups in regard to being employed, the extent of social involvement or marital status or opinions on aging. There was no difference in the frequency of free-time exercise, or overweight. Some of the indicators suggested less sexual inactivity, but the differences were small. Conclusion In a trial setting, postmenopausal hormone therapy did not influence work or social involvement or health behaviour. Trial registration ISRCTN35338757
Hemminki, Elina; Veerus, Piret; Pisarev, Heti; Hovi, Sirpa-Liisa; Topo, Paivi; Karro, Helle
This experiment was designed to determine the effects of sexual stimulation on plasma concentrations of oxytocin (OT), vasopressin (VP), 15-ketodihydro-PGF(2alpha) (PG-metabolite), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T), estrone sulfate (ES), and cortisol (C) in stallions. Semen samples were collected from 14 light horse stallions (Equus caballus) of proven fertility using a Missouri model artificial vagina. Blood samples were collected at 15, 12, 9, 6, and 3 min before estrous mare exposure, at erection, at ejaculation, and at 3, 6, and 9 min after ejaculation. Afterwards, blood sampling was performed every 10 min for the following 60 min. Sexual activity determined an increase in plasma concentrations of OT, VP, C, PG-metabolite, and ES and caused no changes in LH and T concentrations. The finding of a negative correlation between C and VP at erection, and between C and T before erection and at the time of erection, could be explained by a possible inhibitory role exerted by C in the mechanism of sexual arousal described for men. PMID:20022362
Veronesi, M C; Tosi, U; Villani, M; Govoni, N; Faustini, M; Kindahl, H; Madej, A; Carluccio, A
In Northern Ireland 1 in every 454 women of 13 years and over during 2008\\/09 reported to police that they had suffered a sexual assault.1,2 This study considered the possibility that women may be more likely to be victims of sexual assault during the fertile phase of their reproductive cycle. Evolutionary psychology suggests that women would have suffered more negative
Patricia Beirne; Janet Hall; Claire Grills; Tara Moore
Despite sharing much of their genomes, males and females are often highly dimorphic, reflecting at least in part the resolution of sexual conflict in response to sexually antagonistic selection. Sexual dimorphism arises owing to sex differences in gene expression, and steroid hormones are often invoked as a proximate cause of sexual dimorphism. Experimental elevation of androgens can modify behavior, physiology, and gene expression, but knowledge of the role of hormones remains incomplete, including how the sexes differ in gene expression in response to hormones. We addressed these questions in a bird species with a long history of behavioral endocrinological and ecological study, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), using a custom microarray. Focusing on two brain regions involved in sexually dimorphic behavior and regulation of hormone secretion, we identified 651 genes that differed in expression by sex in medial amygdala and 611 in hypothalamus. Additionally, we treated individuals of each sex with testosterone implants and identified many genes that may be related to previously identified phenotypic effects of testosterone treatment. Some of these genes relate to previously identified effects of testosterone-treatment and suggest that the multiple effects of testosterone may be mediated by modifying the expression of a small number of genes. Notably, testosterone-treatment tended to alter expression of different genes in each sex: only 4 of the 527 genes identified as significant in one sex or the other were significantly differentially expressed in both sexes. Hormonally regulated gene expression is a key mechanism underlying sexual dimorphism, and our study identifies specific genes that may mediate some of these processes.
Peterson, Mark P.; Rosvall, Kimberly A.; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Ziegenfus, Charles; Tang, Haixu; Colbourne, John K.; Ketterson, Ellen D.
We hypothesized that putative anorectic and orexigenic peptides control the motivation to engage in either ingestive or sex behaviors, and these peptides function to optimize reproductive success in environments where energy fluctuates. Here, the putative orexigenic peptide, gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone (GnIH, also known as RFamide-related peptide-3), and the putative anorectic hormones leptin, insulin, and estradiol were examined during the course of food restriction. Groups of female Syrian hamsters were restricted to 75% of their ad libitum food intake or fed ad libitum for 4, 8, or 12?days. Two other groups were food-restricted for 12?days and then re-fed ad libitum for 4 or 8?days. After testing for sex and ingestive behavior, blood was sampled and assayed for peripheral hormones. Brains were immunohistochemically double-labeled for GnIH and the protein product of the immediate early gene, c-fos, a marker of cellular activation. Food hoarding, the number of double-labeled cells, and the percent of GnIH-Ir cells labeled with Fos-Ir were significantly increased at 8 and 12?days after the start of food restriction. Vaginal scent marking and GnIH-Ir cell number significantly decreased after the same duration of restriction. Food hoarding, but not food intake, was significantly positively correlated with cellular activation in GnIH-Ir cells. Vaginal scent marking was significantly negatively correlated with cellular activation in GnIH-Ir cells. There were no significant effects of food restriction on plasma insulin, leptin, estradiol, or progesterone concentrations. In the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) of energetically challenged females, strong projections from NPY-Ir cells were found in close apposition to GnIH-Ir cells. Together these results are consistent with the idea that metabolic signals influence sexual and ingestive motivation via NPY fibers that project to GnIH cells in the DMH.
Klingerman, Candice M.; Williams, Wilbur P.; Simberlund, Jessica; Brahme, Nina; Prasad, Ankita; Schneider, Jill E.; Kriegsfeld, Lance J.
Our previous studies have shown that treatment of pregnant rats with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; 1 ?g/kg) at gestational day (GD) 15 reduces the pituitary synthesis of luteinizing hormone (LH) during the late fetal and early postnatal period, leading to the imprinting of defects in sexual behaviors at adulthood. However, it remains unclear how the attenuation of pituitary LH is linked to sexual immaturity. To address this issue, we performed a DNA microarray analysis to identify the gene(s) responsible for dioxin-induced sexual immaturity on the pituitary and hypothalamus of male pups, born of TCDD-treated dams, at the age of postnatal day (PND) 70. Among the reduced genes, we focused on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in the hypothalamus because of published evidence that it has a role in sexual behaviors. An attenuation by TCDD of GnRH expression emerged at PND4, and no subsequent return to the control level was seen. A change in neither DNA methylation nor histone acetylation accounted for the reduced expression of GnRH. Intracerebroventricular infusion of GnRH to the TCDD-exposed pups after reaching maturity restored the impairment of sexual behaviors. Supplying equine chorionic gonadotropin, an LH-mimicking hormone, to the TCDD-exposed fetuses at GD15 resulted in a recovery from the reduced expression of GnRH, as well as from the defects in sexual behavior. These results strongly suggest that maternal exposure to TCDD fixes the status of the lowered expression of GnRH in the offspring by reducing the LH-assisted steroidogenesis at the perinatal stage, and this mechanism imprints defects in sexual behaviors at adulthood. PMID:24132183
Takeda, Tomoki; Fujii, Misaki; Hattori, Yukiko; Yamamoto, Midori; Shimazoe, Takao; Ishii, Yuji; Himeno, Masaru; Yamada, Hideyuki
Emotional upsets related to changes in ovarian hormones are highly prevalent and are responsible for psychiatric morbidity and mortality. Significant increases in acute psychiatric hospitalizations, suicidal activity, and other psychopathology occur during the premenstruum and during menstruation. This paper reviews evidence indicating that menstrual cycle psychopathology may be mediated by the effects of estrogen, progesterone, and possibly the renin—angiotensin—aldosterone system
David S. Janowsky; William E. Fann; John M. Davis
In rodents, the sexually dimorphic pattern of pulsatile GH secre- tion is an important determinant of growth, liver enzyme function and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) expression. Whether this differ- ence is present in humans at different ages is unclear. We studied GH secretory patterns in the elderly by constructing 24-h serum GH profiles in 45 male and 38 female
P. C. HINDMARSH; E. DENNISON; S. M. PINCUS; C. COOPER; C. H. D. FALL; D. R. MATTHEWS; P. J. PRINGLE; C. G. D. BROOK
The copulatory neuromuscular system of green anoles is sexually dimorphic and differentiates during embryonic development, although details of the process were unknown. In Experiment 1, we determined the time course of normal ontogeny. Both male and female embryos possessed bilateral copulatory organs (hemipenes) and associated muscles until incubation day 13; the structures completely regressed in female embryos by incubation day 19 (total incubation 34 days). In Experiment 2, we treated eggs with testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estradiol, or vehicle on both incubation days 10 and 13 to determine whether these steroid hormones mediate sexual differentiation. These time points fall between gonadal differentiation, which was determined in Experiment 1 to complete before day 10, and regression of the peripheral copulatory system in females. Tissue was collected on the day of hatching. Gonads were classified as testes or ovaries; presence versus absence of hemipenes and muscles, and the number and size of copulatory motoneurons were determined. Copulatory system morphology of vehicle-treated animals matched their gonadal sex. Hemipenes and muscles were absent in estradiol-treated animals, and androgens rescued the hemipenes and muscles in most females. Both testosterone and dihydrotestosterone treatment also caused hypertrophy of the hemipenes, which were everted in animals treated with these steroids. Copulatory motoneurons, assessed on the day of hatching in both experiments, were not dimorphic in size or number. Steroid treatment significantly increased motoneuron size and number overall, but no significant differences were detected in pairwise comparisons. These data demonstrate that differentiation of peripheral copulatory neuromuscular structures occurs during embryonic development and is influenced by gonadal steroids (regression by estradiol and enhancement by androgens), but associated motoneurons do not differentiate until later in life. PMID:16025462
Holmes, Melissa M; Wade, Juli
Early life events induce alterations in neural function in adulthood. Although rearing in an enriched environment (EE) has a great impact on behavioral development, the effects of enriched rearing on sociosexual behavior remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of rearing in an EE on male copulatory behavior and its underlying neurobiological mechanisms in Wistar-Imamichi rats. Three-week-old, recently weaned rats were continuously subjected to a standard environment (SE) or an EE comprised of a large cage with several objects, such as toys, tunnels, ladders, and a running wheel. After 6 weeks, rats reared in an EE (EE rats) showed decreased sexual activity compared with rats reared in a SE (SE rats). This included a lower number of ejaculations and longer latencies in three consecutive copulatory tests. In addition, EE rats showed decreased emotional responsiveness and less locomotor behavior in an open field. In a runway test, on the other hand, sexual motivation toward receptive females in EE males was comparable to that of SE males. Furthermore, following exposure to a female, increases in serotonin levels in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum were significantly suppressed in EE males, whereas dopaminergic responses were similar between the groups. Female-exposure-induced increases in the levels of plasma corticosterone and testosterone were also suppressed in EE rats compared to SE rats. These data suggest that rearing in an EE decreases male copulatory behavior, and serotonin and hormonal regulating systems may regulate the differences in sociosexual interactions that result from distinct rearing environments.
Urakawa, Susumu; Mitsushima, Dai; Shimozuru, Michito; Sakuma, Yasuo; Kondo, Yasuhiko
Early life events induce alterations in neural function in adulthood. Although rearing in an enriched environment (EE) has a great impact on behavioral development, the effects of enriched rearing on sociosexual behavior remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of rearing in an EE on male copulatory behavior and its underlying neurobiological mechanisms in Wistar-Imamichi rats. Three-week-old, recently weaned rats were continuously subjected to a standard environment (SE) or an EE comprised of a large cage with several objects, such as toys, tunnels, ladders, and a running wheel. After 6 weeks, rats reared in an EE (EE rats) showed decreased sexual activity compared with rats reared in a SE (SE rats). This included a lower number of ejaculations and longer latencies in three consecutive copulatory tests. In addition, EE rats showed decreased emotional responsiveness and less locomotor behavior in an open field. In a runway test, on the other hand, sexual motivation toward receptive females in EE males was comparable to that of SE males. Furthermore, following exposure to a female, increases in serotonin levels in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum were significantly suppressed in EE males, whereas dopaminergic responses were similar between the groups. Female-exposure-induced increases in the levels of plasma corticosterone and testosterone were also suppressed in EE rats compared to SE rats. These data suggest that rearing in an EE decreases male copulatory behavior, and serotonin and hormonal regulating systems may regulate the differences in sociosexual interactions that result from distinct rearing environments. PMID:24505330
Urakawa, Susumu; Mitsushima, Dai; Shimozuru, Michito; Sakuma, Yasuo; Kondo, Yasuhiko
... healthy aging. As we age, our bodies undergo changes that may hinder the rewarding sex life enjoyed until this time. For example, hormone levels decrease, medical conditions may affect sexual performance, chronic pain may get in the way, and surgery can have a severe impact on sexual response. ...
In consultations with older women, doctors should ask about sexual problems. A holistic approach is needed to examine the many different factors that can affect sexuality. Hormonal changes associated with ageing have an impact on women's sexuality. Doctors need to have a clear idea of the place of hormonal treatment for different sexual problems. Physical changes associated with ageing, including illness and disability, may interfere with sexual expression. Diseases of the endocrine, vascular and nervous systems will most commonly affect sexual function. A broad range of psychosocial factors associated with ageing may influence sexuality. PMID:12797854
Yee, Lesley A; Sundquist, Kendra J
Beneficial effects of sexual activity and mating on the responsiveness to environmental stress can be observed in humans and other mammalian species alike, but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are largely unknown. Sexual activity and mating with a receptive female has recently been shown to reduce the subsequent emotional stress response via activation of the brain oxytocin system. Therefore, we investigated
Martin Waldherr; Kewir Nyuyki; Rodrigue Maloumby; Oliver J. Bosch; Inga D. Neumann
Discusses issues of men's sexuality in the context of school sex education, and analyzes units on human reproduction in secondary biology textbooks. Compares official school knowledge about men's sexuality with alternative sources, including progressive books and the films of John Hughes, to explore the overlapping and contradictory discourses…
Whatley, Mariamne H.
The immune system in the female reproductive tract (FRT) does not mount an attack against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or other sexually transmitted infections (STI) with a single endogenously produced microbicide or with a single arm of the immune system. Instead, the body deploys dozens of innate antimicrobials to the secretions of the FRT. Working together, these antimicrobials along with mucosal antibodies attack viral, bacterial, and fungal targets. Within the FRT, the unique challenges of protection against sexually transmitted pathogens coupled with the need to sustain the development of an allogeneic fetus, has evolved in such a way that sex hormones precisely regulate immune function to accomplish both tasks. The studies presented in this review demonstrate that estradiol (E2 ) and progesterone secreted during the menstrual cycle act both directly and indirectly on epithelial cells, fibroblasts and immune cells in the reproductive tract to modify immune function in a way that is unique to specific sites throughout the FRT. As presented in this review, studies from our laboratory and others demonstrate that the innate and adaptive immune systems are under hormonal control, that protection varies with the stage of the menstrual cycle and as such, is dampened during the secretory stage of the cycle to optimize conditions for fertilization and pregnancy. In doing so, a window of STI vulnerability is created during which potential pathogens including HIV enter the reproductive tract to infect host targets. PMID:24734774
Wira, Charles R; Fahey, John V; Rodriguez-Garcia, Marta; Shen, Zheng; Patel, Mickey V
Summary Background Since in clinical practice long-term estrogen (E) treatment is frequently applied, our aim was to study the effect of concomitant progesterone (P) administration on changes caused by long-term estrogen treatment in the secretion of LH, FSH, PRL and GH. Material/Methods Diethylstilbestrol (DES), P or both in silastic capsules were implanted under the skin of prepubertal Sprague-Dawley male and female rats. Animals survived for two or five months. We have also studied whether the changed hormone secretion caused by DES can return to normal level 1 or 2 months after removing DES capsule. Results 1.) The males more rapidly responded than females with decreasing basal LH release upon treatments. The basal FSH release was decreased only in males. The effect of DES persisted in males; however, in females basal LH and FSH levels were upregulated after removal of DES capsule. 2.) The basal GH levels were low in each group. The body weight and length were depressed by DES in both genders and P little blunted this effect. The body weight and length in males remained low after removal of DES capsule, in females it was nearly similar to intact rats. 3.) There was no sexual dimorphism in the effect of steroids on PRL secretion. In both genders DES extremly enhanced the PRL levels, P prevented the effect of DES. PRL levels returned to intact value after removal of DES influence. 4.) Removal of DES capsule reversed the changes in the immunohisto-chemical appearance of hormone immunoreactivities. Conclusions There was sexual dimorphism in the change of basal gonadotropic hormone and GH secretion but not of PRL upon DES and DES+P treatments. P was basically protective and this role may be mediated by P receptors locally in the pituitary gland.
Heinzlmann, Andrea; Koves, Katalin; Kovacs, Magdolna; Csernus, Valer
This study was designed to characterize potential sexually dimorphic stress and immunological responses following a corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) challenge in beef cattle. Six female (heifers) and six male (bulls) Brahman calves (264?±?12?d of age) were administered CRH intravenously (0.5?µg of CRH/kg body mass) after which serum concentrations of cortisol increased from 0.5?h to 4?h. From 1?h to 4?h after CRH administration, serum cortisol concentrations were greater in heifers than in bulls. In all cattle, increased serum concentrations of TNF-?, IL-6 and IFN-? were observed from 2.5?h to 3?h after CRH, with greater concentrations of IFN-? and IL-6 in heifers than bulls. Heifer total leukocyte counts decreased 1?h after CRH administration, while bull leukocyte counts and percent neutrophils decreased 2?h after CRH administration. Heifers had greater rectal temperatures than bulls, yet rectal temperatures did not change following administration of CRH. There was no effect of CRH administration on heart rate. However, bulls tended to have increased heart rate 2?h after CRH administration than before CRH. Heifer heart rate was greater than bulls throughout the study. These data demonstrate that acute CRH administration can elicit a pro-inflammatory response, and cattle exhibit a sexually dimorphic pro-inflammatory cytokine and cortisol response to acute CRH administration. PMID:23112011
Hulbert, Lindsey E; Carroll, Jeffery A; Ballou, Michael A; Burdick, Nicole C; Dailey, Jeffery W; Caldwell, Lisa C; Loyd, Andrea N; Vann, Rhonda C; Welsh, Thomas H; Randel, Ronald D
Examined hormonal influences on activity and playmate preferences in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) age 2.5 to 12 years and their relatives. Found that girls with CAH preferred boys' toys and activities, whereas boys with CAH did not differ significantly from controls. Activity and playmate preferences were not related. (MDM)
Berenbaum, Sheri A.; Snyder, Elizabeth
The capacity of the anterior pituitary gland and testes in mature bulls (705 +/- 9 (S.E.M.) kg body wt, n = 4) to respond to graded doses of LH-releasing hormone (LHRH) was assessed relative to endogenous profiles of LH and testosterone secretion. Endogenous hormone profiles were determined by bleeding bulls at 20-min intervals for 12 h. Responses to LHRH were assessed on successive days after single intravenous injections of 1, 5, 10, 50 or 100 ng LHRH/kg body wt. Blood samples were taken at -40, -20, 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60 and 120 min relative to LHRH injection. During a 12-h bleed bulls showed spontaneous pulses of LH and testosterone which had peak amplitudes of 2.6 +/- 0.5 micrograms/l and 44.5 +/- 7.1 nmol/l respectively. Respective peak LH (micrograms/l) and testosterone (nmol/l) responses to LHRH were as follows: 1 ng LHRH (3.0 +/- 0.7; 47.3 +/- 4.1); 5 ng LHRH (8.0 +/- 1.2; 52.8 +/- 6.2); 10 ng LHRH (11.1 +/- 2.3; 57.7 +/- 9.1); 50 ng LHRH (19.2 +/- 2.8; 47.9 +/- 8.6); 100 ng LHRH (19.1 +/- 4.7; 43.9 +/- 6.4). A dose of 1 ng LHRH/kg produced LH and testosterone responses which were comparable in amplitude to spontaneous peaks in the respective hormone. There was a linear (y = 0.28 X + 5.72; r = 0.81) increase in the LH response to doses of LHRH between 1 and 50 ng/kg; corresponding testosterone responses showed no relationship with the dose of LHRH. The capacity of the anterior pituitary gland to release amounts of LH eight to ten times in excess of those secreted during spontaneous peaks suggests that (1) there exists a large releasable store of LH in the anterior pituitary gland and (2) hypothalamic LHRH is a limiting factor in gonadotrophin secretion. In contrast to LH release, the androgenic response of the testes to acute gonadotrophic stimulation is determined largely by prevailing steroidogenic activity. PMID:6389747
D'Occhio, M J; Setchell, B P
We examined the expression profiles of tDMRT1 and Sox9a during gonadal sex differentiation and hormone-induced sex reversal. tDMRT1 was detected in the gonial germ-cell-surrounding cells in XY fry specifically before the appearance of any signs of morphological sex differentiation, that is, sex differences in germ cell number and histogenesis, such as differentiation into intratesticular efferent duct or ovarian cavity. The signals became localized in the Sertoli and epithelial cells comprising the efferent duct during gonadal differentiation. After the induction of XY sex reversal with estrogen, tDMRT1 decreased and then disappeared completely. In contrast, tDMRT1 was expressed in the germ-cell-surrounding cells in XX sex reversal with androgen. On the other hand, Sox9a did not show sexual dimorphism before the appearance of sex differences in histogenesis and was not expressed in the efferent duct in the testis. These results suggest that tDMRT1 is a superior testicular differentiation marker in tilapia. PMID:18095345
Kobayashi, Tohru; Kajiura-Kobayashi, Hiroko; Guan, Guijun; Nagahama, Yoshitaka
The purpose of this chapter is to provide clinicians with an overview of current knowledge pertaining to the biology of sexual\\u000a minority status. Under the umbrella of sexual minority are included homosexuals, bisexuals, transgenders and intersexes. The\\u000a most developed biologic theory pertaining to sexual minority status is the prenatal hormonal\\u000a hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, prenatal hormones act (primarily during
Molecular interactions between male and female factors during mating profoundly affect the reproductive behavior and physiology of female insects. In natural populations of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae, blood-fed females direct nutritional resources towards oogenesis only when inseminated. Here we show that the mating-dependent pathway of egg development in these mosquitoes is regulated by the interaction between the steroid hormone 20-hydroxy-ecdysone (20E) transferred by males during copulation and a female Mating-Induced Stimulator of Oogenesis (MISO) protein. RNAi silencing of MISO abolishes the increase in oogenesis caused by mating in blood-fed females, causes a delay in oocyte development, and impairs the function of male-transferred 20E. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments show that MISO and 20E interact in the female reproductive tract. Moreover MISO expression after mating is induced by 20E via the Ecdysone Receptor, demonstrating a close cooperation between the two factors. Male-transferred 20E therefore acts as a mating signal that females translate into an increased investment in egg development via a MISO-dependent pathway. The identification of this male–female reproductive interaction offers novel opportunities for the control of mosquito populations that transmit malaria.
Baldini, Francesco; Gabrieli, Paolo; South, Adam; Valim, Clarissa; Mancini, Francesca; Catteruccia, Flaminia
Introduction Weight gain and fat accumulation are predisposing factors of PCOS. Life-style modification, including increasing physical activity, is the first line approach in managing PCOS. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of exercise intensity on weight changes, androstenedione and free testosterone level in female rats with estradiol valerate induced PCOS. Method and materials 40 female Wistar rats were selected (180?±?20 g). They had every 2 to 3 consecutive estrous cycles during 12 to 14 days. The study was approved by ethical committee of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences. The first two groups were divided into control (n?=?10) and polycystic (n?=?30) that were induced PCOS by estradiol valerate injection after 60 days. The polycystic groups were divided into three groups of sham (n?=?10), experiment group with low-intensity exercise (pco?+?l.exe) (n = 10) and experiment group with moderate intensity exercise (pco?+?m.exe) (n = 10). Exercises were performed during 6 sessions of 60 minutes per week for 8 weeks. (Moderate intensity: 28 m/min-70%–75%VO2Max. Low intensity (20 m/min-50%–55%VO2Max) running at 0 slope, 1 h/day, 6 days/week). ANOVA and LSD test were used for data analysis. Results In the present study, no significant differences were found in the decrease of total weights of rats. And also androstenedione level changes in experiment groups were higher compared to control group but no significant differences were found, also free testosterone level was significantly higher than the observer group. Conclusion According to weight changes and sexual hormones (Free testosterone and androstenedione) exercise training especially with low intensity may improve symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome.
Synopsis The interactions between hormones, epilepsy, and the medications used to treat epilepsy are complex, with tridirectional interactions which affect both men and women in various ways. Abnormalities of baseline endocrine status occur more commonly in people with epilepsy, and are most often described for the sex steroid hormone axis. Common symptoms include sexual dysfunction, decreased fertility, premature menopause, and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Antiepileptic drugs and hormones have a bidirectional interaction, with a decrease in the efficacy of hormonal contraceptive agents with some AEDs and a decrease in the concentration and efficacy of other AEDs with hormonal contraceptives. Endogenous hormones can influence seizure severity and frequency, resulting in catamenial patterns of epilepsy. However, this knowledge can be used to develop hormonal strategies to improve seizure control in people with epilepsy.
Pennell, Page B.
The juvenile hormone (JH) analog methoprene reduces the amount of time it takes laboratory-reared Anastrepha suspensa (Caribbean fruit fly) males to reach sexual maturity by almost half. Here, we examined if methoprene exerted a similar effect on four other tropical Anastrepha species (Anastrepha ludens, Anastrepha obliqua, Anastrepha serpentina and Anastrepha striata) reared on natural hosts and exhibiting contrasting life histories. In the case of A. ludens, we worked with two populations that derived from Casimiroa greggii (ancestral host, larvae feed on seeds) and Citrus paradisi (exotic host, larvae feed on pulp). We found that the effects of methoprene, when they occurred, varied according to species and, in the case of A. ludens, according to larval host. For example, in the case of the two A. ludens populations the effect of methoprene on first appearance of male calling behavior and number of copulations was only apparent in flies derived from C. greggii. In contrast, males derived from C. paradisi called and mated almost twice as often and females started to lay eggs almost 1 day earlier than individuals derived from C. greggii, but in this case there was no significant effect of treatment (methoprene) only a significant host effect. There were also significant host and host by treatment interactions with respect to egg clutch size. A. ludens females derived from C. paradisi laid significantly more eggs per clutch and total number of eggs than females derived from C. greggii. With respect to the multiple species comparisons, the treatment effect was consistent for A. ludens, occasional in A. serpentina (e.g., calling by males, clutch size), and not apparent in the cases of A. obliqua and A. striata. Interestingly, with respect to clutch size, in the cases of A. ludens and A. serpentina, the treatment effect followed opposite directions: positive in the case of A. ludens and negative in the case of A. serpentina. We center our discussion on two hypotheses (differential physiology and larval-food), and also interpret our results in light of the life history differences exhibited by the different species we compared. PMID:19101560
Aluja, Martín; Ordano, Mariano; Teal, Peter E A; Sivinski, John; García-Medel, Darío; Anzures-Dadda, Alberto
The aim of this article is to review the available literature on the effect of weight loss after bariatric surgery on sex hormone levels and sexual quality of life in obese men, discuss the underlying physiology, and compare the effects of surgical and nonsurgical weight loss on sex hormone levels. Clinical trials investigating sex hormone levels in obese men after
S. Raghavendra Rao; Subhash Kini; Ronald Tamler
Background: Not only the most frequent causes of endocrine sexual dysfunction, such as hypogonadism and hyperprolactinemia, but almost all extragonadal endocrinopathies (hyper- and hypothyroidism, hyper- and hypocortisolism, steroidal secreting tumors, etc.) may have a greater or lesser effect on sexual function. Methods: We analyzed scientific literature on the correlations between hormones and sexual behavior, analyzing the most important issue from
Giancarlo Balercia; Marco Boscaro; Francesco Lombardo; Eleonora Carosa; Andrea Lenzi; Emmanuele A. Jannini
The proper development of fruits is important for the sexual reproduction and propagation of many plant species. The fruit of Arabidopsis derives from the fertilized gynoecium, which initiates at the center of the flower and obtains its final shape, size, and functional tissues through progressive stages of development. Hormones, specially auxins, play important roles in gynoecium and fruit patterning. Cytokinins, which act as counterparts to auxins in other plant tissues, have been studied more in the context of ovule formation and parthenocarpy. We recently studied the role of cytokinins in gynoecium and fruit patterning and found that they have more than one role during gynoecium and fruit patterning. We also compared the cytokinin response localization to the auxin response localization in these organs, and studied the effects of spraying cytokinins in young flowers of an auxin response line. In this addendum, we discuss further the implications of the observed results in the knowledge about the relationship between cytokinins and auxins at the gynoecium.
Marsch-Martinez, Nayelli; Reyes-Olalde, J. Irepan; Ramos-Cruz, Daniela; Lozano-Sotomayor, Paulina; Zuniga-Mayo, Victor M.; de Folter, Stefan
A large number of biological, psycho-relational and socio-cultural factors are related to women's sexual health and they may negatively affect the entire sexual response cycle inducing significant changes in sexual desire, arousal, orgasm and satisfaction during the entire reproductive life span. In spite of the high prevalence of sexual problems with increasing age, sexual retirement is not an inevitable consequence of the passage of time and a high proportion of men and women remains sexually active well into later life, a result of changing attitudes toward sexuality and the availability of effective treatments for sexual dysfunction. Population-based studies reported an age-related decline of sexual functioning and an additional adverse effect of menopausal status. Ageing per se interferes with the level of sexual performance, but sexual behaviour of midlife and older women is highly dependent on several factors such as general physical and mental well-being, quality of relationship and life situation. Sex hormones, mainly low levels of estradiol, are relevant for the lack of sexual awareness and vaginal receptivity in naturally menopausal women. Even diminished levels of androgens, as it more frequently occurs in surgically menopausal women, has a negative impact on desire and sexual responsiveness. Several hormonal treatments have been used locally or systemically to alleviate sexual symptoms, especially by using estrogen plus androgen preparations and tibolone, with noticeable results on drive, enjoyment, lubrication, ability to reach orgasm and initiation of sex. However, sexual counseling and individualized management is mandatory to obtain meaningful and long-lasting results in clinical practice. PMID:17576405
Nappi, R E; Albani, F; Valentino, V; Polatti, F; Chiovato, L; Genazzani, A R
Background: Sexual stimulation of the clitoris is well established as a trigger for orgasm for most women. Vaginal stimulation also has been reported to trigger orgasmic inevitability if the rhythm and pressure are individualized. Work in rats has established a significant role of cervical stimulation in triggering hypothalamic pituitary neural pathways that trigger the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Work in
Winnifred B. Cutler; Millicent Zacker; Norma McCoy; Elizabeth Genovese-Stone; Erika Friedman
... experiences, free of coercion, discrimination and violence.  Sexual Health News & Information HHS Statement on LGBT Health Awareness ... infectious diseases, reproductive health and sexual violence prevention. Sexual Health Topics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Up-to-date information ...
Phthalate ester-induced gubernacular ligament lesions are associated with reduced Insl3 gene expression in the fetal rat testis during sexual differentiation. Vickie S Wilson, Christy Lambright, Johnathan Furr, Joseph Ostby, Carmen Wood, Gary Held, L.Earl Gray Jr. U.S. EPA,...
This article reviews the research literature on sexual fantasy, a central aspect of human sexual behavior. Topics include (a) gender similarities and differences in the incidence, frequency, and content of sexual fantasies and how they relate to sociocultural and sociobiological theories of sexual behavior; (b) the association between frequency or content of sexual fantasies and variables such as age, sexual
Harold Leitenberg; Kris Henning
Sexuality and its resultant consequences continue to be major issues for adolescents and for those who provide their health care. This article discusses current sexual behavior in adolescents and describes the various forms of hormonal contraception that sexually active adolescents should use. PMID:9400578
Brown, R T; Cromer, B A
Sexual behavior is mainly controlled by cognitive functions in men, though hormones, particularly sex steroids, may modulate some aspects of male sexuality. This review focuses on the role of both estrogens and androgens on male sexual desire, starting from both animal and human studies. Estrogens could play a role in human male sexual activity, similarly to what happens in animals, but even though physiological levels of estrogens could be probably required for a completely normal male sexual behavior, testosterone remains the major determinant of human male sexual behavior. PMID:12834018
Rochira, V; Zirilli, L; Madeo, B; Balestrieri, A; Granata, A R M; Carani, C
The thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is a pituitary glycoprotein hormone that controls the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones. TSH secretion is primarily regulated by the negative feedback mechanism of circulating thyroid hormones and by the stimulatory activity of a hypothalamic factor, the thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). Recent advances consist mainly of a better understanding of the TSH receptor which is involved
P. Beck-Peccoz; M. Bonomi; L. Persani
The Sexuality Research Information Service (SRIS), recently launched by The Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction, centralizes and disseminates current research findings related to four sexual well-being issues: Adolescent Sexual Behavior, High Risk Sexual Behavior, Male Sexual Response, and Reproductive Hormones and Women's Sexuality and Emotional Well-Being. For each of the four topics, SRIS provides researchers, policymakers, and health care professionals with a fully searchable bibliographic database of selected, current research citations. Many of the detailed citations also include abstracts and commentaries written by specialists at The Kinsey Institute. The databases support a complex search mode that allows users to tag citations and export them to a bibliographic management tool such as ProCite or EndNote (requires a free plug-in, RIS, available at the site).
... therapy, they may increase the risks of serious medical conditions. There also is a risk of drug interactions and side effects. Bioidentical Hormones Bioidentical hormones are hormones manufactured from plants that are combined together (compounded) by a pharmacist ...
Sexual hormone is an important group of human hormones which regulate sexual function. The well-known sex hormones in females\\u000a and males are estrogen and testosterone, respectively. Determination of sex hormone has significant clinical value. The technique\\u000a for sex hormone in the present day is mainly based on ELISA. However, the ELISA still poses the problem for use in determination\\u000a of
The importance of brain pathology, sex hormones, sadism, alcohol/drug abuse and history of aggression in predicting dangerousness in sexually aggressive offenders was studied. Subjects included 16 patients charged with rape and 16 normal controls. It was ...
Visceral, hormonal and neuroendocrine changes after the sixth decade of life result from slowing down and alteration in metabolic, hormonal, protein, lipid and glucose turnover, progressive receptor insensitivity, degenerative processes--primarily arteriosclerosis--of the endocrine and non endocrine tissues. Unlike menopause, andropause has no biological speed; it is neither rapid nor marked by macroscopically evident psychobehavioral change, as occurs in women. Because of its indistinct and widely variable nosographic contours, the male climacterium is more complex. The challenge to the clinical sexologist, therefore, is to identify appropriate treatment approaches for an ageing population with an increasingly longer life expectancy and the right to a sexually satisfying life. PMID:17353872
Jannini, E A; Carosa, E; Rossi, S; Di Sante, S; Sebastiani, G; Lenzi, A
SUMMARY Sex hormones such as estrogen and testosterone are essential for sexually dimorphic behaviors in vertebrates. However, the hormone-activated molecular mechanisms that control the development and function of the underlying neural circuits remain poorly defined. We have identified numerous sexually dimorphic gene expression patterns in the adult mouse hypothalamus and amygdala. We find that adult sex hormones regulate these expression patterns in a sex-specific, regionally-restricted manner, suggesting that these genes regulate sex typical behaviors. Indeed, we find that mice with targeted disruptions of each of four of these genes (Brs3, Cckar, Irs4, Sytl4) exhibit extremely specific deficits in sex specific behaviors, with single genes controlling the pattern or extent of male sexual behavior, male aggression, maternal behavior, or female sexual behavior. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that various components of sexually dimorphic behaviors are governed by separable genetic programs.
Xu, Xiaohong; Coats, Jennifer K.; Yang, Cindy F.; Wang, Amy; Ahmed, Osama M.; Alvarado, Maricruz; Izumi, Tetsuro; Shah, Nirao M.
Based on the relevance of the renin-angiotensin system and the ongoing controversy regarding the role of the sympathetic nervous system in thyroid hormone-induced cardiac hypertrophy, the aim of the present study was to establish whether the putative difference in the degree of cardiac hypertrophy exhibited by males and females might be related to differences in the sympathetic-vagal balance and/or in the cardiac renin-angiotensin system in mice of different genders. Male and female mice (n = 117) were given 0.1 mg kg(-1) of triiodothyronine or normal saline each day for 10 days consecutively. At the end of that period, study of the heart rate variability, spectral analysis and histopathological examination were performed to assess the sympathetic-vagal balance and the diameter of cardiomyocytes. The cardiac levels of angiotensin I and II were also measured. Treatment with triiodothyronine induced a greater degree of cardiac hypertrophy in male (?73%) than in female mice (?42%). This difference was attributed to greater modulation of the sympathetic nervous system and higher levels of angiotensin I and II in male than in female mice. Our data indicate that thyroid hormone-induced cardiac hypertrophy was more intense in male mice due to the synergic effect of the sympathetic nervous system and the cardiac renin-angiotensin system. PMID:24659612
Bezerra da Silveira, Anderson Luiz; de Souza Miranda, Manuela França; Mecawi, André Souza; Melo, Roberto Laureano; Marassi, Michelle Porto; Matos da Silva, Alba Cenélia; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Olivares, Emerson Lopes
Neonatal treatment of female mice with diethystilbestrol (DES) is known to induce ovary-independent persistent proliferation and cornification of vaginal epithelium. This irreversibly changed vaginal epithelium persistently expressed higher levels of c-jun and c-fos mRNAs, which was not altered by postpubertal estrogen. Sexual dimorphism was encountered in mouse pelvis and anococcygeus muscle. Postpubertal estrogen changed the shape of the pelvis to the female type and postpubertal androgen changed it to the male type. Neonatal exposure to DES and to the antiestrogen tamoxifen altered the developmental pattern of the pelvis, which contained lower concentrations of calcium and phosphorus than controls. The size of anococcygeus muscle was increased by postpubertal androgen but decreased by postpubertal estrogen. However, neonatal estrogen (DES) exposure permanently enlarged the anococcygeus muscle. Thus, neonatal treatment of mice with estrogen and antiestrogen results in irreversible changes in nonreproductive as well as reproductive structures.
Iguchi, T; Fukazawa, Y; Bern, H A
This paper sets out the legal grounds for sexual harassment claims in education settings, and notes a number of pertinent cases that are illustrative of common legal and factual issues. Sexual harassment, including sexual abuse, is prohibited by federal and state statutes. Sexual harassment in the context of employment constitutes employment…
Uerling, Donald F.
Purpose Sexual health refers a state of lifespan well-being related to sexuality. Among young people, sexual health has multiple dimensions, including the positive developmental contributions of sexuality, as well as the acquisition of skills pertinent to avoiding adverse sexual outcomes such as unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Existing efforts to understand sexual health, however, have yet to empirically operationalize a multi-dimensional model of sexual health and to evaluate its association to different sexual/prevention behaviors. Methods Sexual health dimensions and sexual/prevention behaviors were drawn from a larger longitudinal cohort study of sexual relationships among adolescent women (N =387, 14–17 years). Second order latent variable modeling (AMOS/19.0) evaluated the relationship between sexual health and dimensions and analyzed the effect of sexual health to sexual/prevention outcomes. Results All first order latent variables were significant indicators of sexual health (?: 0.192 – 0.874, all p < .001). Greater sexual health was significantly associated with sexual abstinence, as well as with more frequent non-coital and vaginal sex, condom use at last sex, a higher proportion of condom-protected events, use of hormonal or other methods of pregnancy control and absence of STI. All models showed good fit. Conclusions Sexual health is an empirically coherent structure, in which the totality of its dimensions is significantly linked to a wide range of outcomes, including sexual abstinence, condom use and absence of STI. This means that, regardless of a young person’s experiences, sexual health is an important construct for promoting positive sexual development and for primary prevention.
Hensel, Devon J.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis
Sexual problems are widespread among female cancer patients and survivors. Dysfunction may result from various oncologic therapies such as surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormonal manipulation, and cytostatic medication. Additionally, psychologic distress that the patient or her partner experiences during diagnosis and treatment of malignancy can impair a healthy female sexual response cycle. A sexual rehabilitation program in an oncology setting is necessary to provide comprehensive care to the cancer patient and her partner. A multidisciplinary treatment approach to sexual dysfunction includes psychological and psychiatric intervention, medical intervention, cognitive behavioral therapy, and recommended lifestyle adjustments. A holistic approach to assessing and treating sexual concerns should be individually tailored to the female patient in light of her disease stage and prognosis, age, marital status, fertility concerns, and social and professional environment. PMID:17347586
Krychman, Michael L; Pereira, Leanne; Carter, Jeanne; Amsterdam, Alison
Testosterone-dependent secondary sexual characteristics in males may signal immunological competence and are sexually selected for in several species,. In humans, oestrogen-dependent characteristics of the female body correlate with health and reproductive fitness and are found attractive. Enhancing the sexual dimorphism of human faces should raise attractiveness by enhancing sex-hormone-related cues to youth and fertility in females,, and to dominance and
D. I. Perrett; K. J. Lee; I. Penton-Voak; D. Rowland; S. Yoshikawa; D. M. Burt; S. P. Henzi; D. L. Castles; S. Akamatsu
... Home » Resources » Wellness » Sexuality » Sexuality & Down Syndrome Sexuality & Down Syndrome Human sexuality encompasses an individual's self-esteem, ... problems related to sexual function. Do Individuals with Down Syndrome Have Sexual Feelings? In the past, sexuality ...
Stressors that are chronic have clear suppressive effects on reproductive behaviors in both males and females. Stressors that are acute have effects on reproductive behavior that are less clear. We measured the effects of an acute bout of handling in laboratory-housed male and female Ocoee salamanders (Desmognathus ocoee), a species with a prolonged mating season. Handling resulted in decreased locomotory activity and elevated plasma corticosterone, a hallmark of the vertebrate stress response. Handling also decreased plasma testosterone in males and elevated plasma estradiol in females. Despite the handling-induced changes in hormone levels, handling had minimal impact on courtship and mating. Other species in which reproduction is insensitive to acute stressors may live in extreme environments with limited reproductive opportunities, whereas Ocoee salamanders live in a relatively temperate environment with multiple reproductive opportunities. Together, these data indicate that an allostatic response to a stressor can alter locomotory activity and elevate corticosterone without suppressing nonessential behaviors like courtship and mating in a species in which reproductive opportunities can occur over a period of multiple months. The lack of reproductive suppression in Ocoee salamanders might be due to the low energetic cost of courtship and mating in this species combined with potentially elevated energetic stores, highlighting the importance of considering energy budgets when making predictions about behavioral effects of acute stressors. PMID:20580723
Woodley, Sarah K; Lacy, Eva L
Cancer treatment, especially hormonal therapy and therapy directed toward the pelvis, can contribute to sexual problems, as can depression and anxiety, which are common in cancer survivors. Thus, sexual dysfunction is common in survivors and can cause increased distress and have a significant negative impact on quality of life. This section of the NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship provides screening, evaluation, and treatment recommendations for female sexual problems, including those related to sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain. PMID:24586080
Denlinger, Crystal S; Carlson, Robert W; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K Scott; Davis, Elizabeth; Edge, Stephen B; Friedman, Debra L; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S; Ligibel, Jennifer A; McCabe, Mary S; McVary, Kevin T; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; O'Connor, Tracey; Paskett, Electra D; Raza, Muhammad; Syrjala, Karen L; Urba, Susan G; Wakabayashi, Mark T; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole; Freedman-Cass, Deborah
Explores the state of sexuality education in the United States. After concerted efforts in the 1960s to stop sex education, interest in sexuality education resurged in the 1980s, largely as a result of AIDS fears. There is now a broad-based consensus on the necessity of sexuality education, but there are still few effective programs. (SLD)
Haffner, Debra W.
Hormones influence countless biological processes across the lifespan, and during developmental sensitive periods hormones have the potential to cause permanent tissue-specific alterations in anatomy and physiology. There are numerous critical periods in development wherein different targets are affected. This review outlines the proceedings of the Hormonal Programming in Development session at the US-South American Workshop in Neuroendocrinology in August 2011. Here we discuss how gonadal hormones impact various biological processes within the brain and gonads during early development and describe the changes that take place in the aging female ovary. At the cellular level, hormonal targets in the brain include neurons, glia, or vasculature. On a genomic/epigenomic level, transcription factor signaling and epigenetic changes alter the expression of hormone receptor genes across development and following ischemic brain insult. In addition, organizational hormone exposure alters epigenetic processes in specific brain nuclei and may be a mediator of sexual differentiation of the neonatal brain. During development of the ovary, exposure to excess gonadal hormones leads to polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Exposure to excess androgens during fetal development also has a profound effect on the development of the male reproductive system. In addition, increased sympathetic nerve activity and stress during early life have been linked to PCOS symptomology in adulthood. Finally, we describe how age-related decreases in fertility are linked to high levels of nerve growth factor (NGF), which enhances sympathetic nerve activity and alters ovarian function.
Tobet, Stuart A; Lara, Hernan E; Lucion, Aldo B; Wilson, Melinda E; Recabarren, Sergio E; Paredes, Alfonso H
The present review considers the various conceptual and operational definitions of sexual sadism as this has been diagnosed among sexual offenders. The most persistent problem this review identified concerns the criteria of the fusion of sexual arousal with one or more of the various features of the offenders' actions or of the victims' responses. Not only do the definitions of
W. L Marshall; Pamela Kennedy
One of the most enduring and controversial questions in the neuroscience of sexual behaviour surrounds the mechanisms which produce sexual attraction to either males or females. Here, evidence is reviewed which supports the proposal that sexual orientation in humans may be laid down in neural circuitry during early foetal development. Behaviour genetic investigations provide strong evidence for a heritable component to male and female sexual orientation. Linkage studies are partly suggestive of X-linked loci although candidate gene studies have produced null findings. Further evidence demonstrates a role for prenatal sex hormones which may influence the development of a putative network of sexual-orientation-related neural substrates. However, hormonal effects are often inconsistent and investigations rely heavily on 'proxy markers'. A consistent fraternal birth order effect in male sexual orientation also provides support for a model of maternal immunization processes affecting prenatal sexual differentiation. The notion that non-heterosexual preferences may reflect generalized neurodevelopmental perturbations is not supported by available data. These current theories have left little room for learning models of sexual orientation. Future investigations, across the neurosciences, should focus to elucidate the fundamental neural architecture underlying the target-specific direction of human sexual orientation, and their antecedents in developmental neurobiology. PMID:16143171
Sexual health is not merely the absence of disease, but the ability to have informed, consensual, safe, respectful, and pleasurable sexual relationships. The majority of the population are sexually active, most with someone of the opposite sex. The frequency and range of sexual practices that people engage in declines with age, but for many, sexual activity continues well into later life. Different aspects of sexual health affect people at different times throughout their lives. As people in the UK tend to first have sex around the age of 16, but do not start living with a partner until much later, the avoidance of sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancy is necessary for many for a number of years. As people get older, their sexual health needs change and they become more concerned with the impact of their general health on their ability to have sex. Some people experience non-volitional sex (sex against their will); although this occurs typically in late teenage it may affect women and men at any age and so requires consideration throughout life. As many people find it difficult to talk about sex and sexual health matters, health professionals should make sexual health enquiry a component of their holistic healthcare.
Mercer, Catherine H.
Sex steroids play major roles in vertebrate sexual differentiation. Unexpectedly, we now find that exposure to elevated levels of the naturally occurring stress hormone cortisol can also masculinize sexually dimorphic morphological characters and behaviour in adult female mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) in a dose-dependent manner. Females masculinized by cortisol developed elongated anal fins with distal tip features similar to those of mature males. Most masculinized females also attempted to copulate when placed with normal females. Although the mechanism of masculinization is currently unknown, we propose a role for an enzyme that both inactivates cortisol and catalyzes the final step in synthesis of a major teleost androgen. This mechanism may also help explain some previously reported effects of stress on sexual development across vertebrate taxa. Our findings underscore the need to understand the full range of chemicals, both naturally occurring hormones and human-produced endocrine disruptors, that can influence sexual differentiation and reproductive function. PMID:20659923
Knapp, Rosemary; Marsh-Matthews, Edie; Vo, Luanne; Rosencrans, Sarah
Hormones influence countless biological processes across an animal's lifespan. Many hormone-mediated events occur within developmental sensitive periods, during which hormones have the potential to cause permanent tissue-specific alterations in anatomy and physiology. There are numerous selective critical periods in development with different targets being affected during different periods. This review outlines the proceedings of the Hormonal Programming in Development session at the US-South American Workshop in Neuroendocrinology in August 2011. Here we discuss how gonadal steroid hormones impact various biological processes within the brain and gonads during early development and describe the changes that take place in the aging female ovary. At the cellular level, hormonal targets in the brain include neurons, glia, or vasculature. On a genomic/epigenomic level, transcription factor signaling and epigenetic changes alter the expression of critical hormone receptor genes across development and following ischemic brain insult. In addition, organizational hormone exposure alters epigenetic processes in specific brain nuclei and may be an important mediator of sexual differentiation of the neonatal brain. Brain targets of hormonal programming, such as the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, may be critical in influencing the development of peripheral targets, such as the ovary. Exposure to excess hormones can cause abnormalities in the ovary during development leading to polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Exposure to excess androgens during fetal development also has a profound effect on the development of the male reproductive system. In addition, increased activity of the sympathetic nerve and stress during early life have been linked to PCOS symptomology in adulthood. Finally, we describe how age-related decreases in fertility are linked to high levels of nerve growth factor (NGF), which enhances sympathetic nerve activity and alters ovarian function. PMID:22700441
Nugent, B M; Tobet, S A; Lara, H E; Lucion, A B; Wilson, M E; Recabarren, S E; Paredes, A H
Sexual pain is an underrecognized and poorly treated constellation of disorders that significantly impact affected women and their partners. Recognized as a form of chronic pain, sexual pain disorders are heterogeneous and include dyspareunia (superficial and deep), vaginismus, vulvodynia, vestibulitis, and noncoital sexual pain disorder. Women too often tolerate pain in the belief that this will meet their partners' needs. This article provides a review of the terminology and definition of the condition, theories on the pathophysiology, diagnostic considerations, and recommendations on the management of female sexual pain. PMID:20393420
Boardman, Lori A; Stockdale, Colleen K
Definitions of sexual sadism in ICD-10 and DSM-IV will be presented as well as the historical routes of the concept. Today studies on differently selected clinical samples reveal a different distribution of sexual sadism versus masochism with masochism prevailing in general especially outpatient psychiatric facilities, and sadism prevailing in forensic settings, thus corroborating the concept of two separated diagnoses sadism
Wolfgang Berner; Peter Berger; Andreas Hill
Medical prevention of recidivism by sexual delinquents is controversial, yet the abundant scientific literature on this issue is often ignored. Many publications show how difficult it is to estimate the danger represented by convicted sexual criminals but underline the value of so-called actuarial approaches. Hormonal treatments and psychotherapy have limited effectiveness in the medium and long term. As a result, anti-recidivism policies cannot currently be based mainly on medical prevention. PMID:21513136
Milgrom, Edwin; Bouchard, Philippe; Olié, Jean-Pierre
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists are underutilized in patients seeking diminution of problematic sexual drives. This chapter reviews the literature on surgical castration of sex offenders, anti-androgen use and the rationale for providing androgen deprivation therapy, rather than selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or more conservative interventions, for patients with paraphilias and excessive sexual drive. Discussions of informed consent, side effects, contraindications and case examples are provided. PMID:22005210
Houts, Frederick W; Taller, Inna; Tucker, Douglas E; Berlin, Fred S
Recent studies from our laboratory have investigated the hormonal response to various forms of sexual stimulation, including film, masturbation, and coitus in both men and women. This series of studies clearly demonstrated that plasma prolactin (PRL) concentrations are substantially increased for over 1h following orgasm (masturbation and coitus conditions) in both men and women, but unchanged following sexual arousal without
Tillmann H. C Krüger; Philip Haake; Uwe Hartmann; Manfred Schedlowski; Michael S Exton
Sexual interest and coital frequency reportedly fluctuate according to phases of the menstrual cycle, but attention has not been paid to factors such as wishes or fears regarding pregnancy or to the daily schedule of work vs. leisure time. With a view to simultaneous evaluation of the effects both of hormonal and social factors on sexual interest and activity, a
... sensate focus, which are types of specific sexual exercises. Sex therapists and counselors are mental health providers ... one’s thinking influences feelings and behavior. Sensate focus exercises are structured “touching” activities that are designed to ...
Conventional wisdom holds that gonadal steroid hormones organize and sexually differentiate neural circuits perinatally, and at puberty they activate these circuits to facilitate expression of social behaviors. Using the Syrian hamster to study the role of pubertal hormones in behavioral maturation, we have found that pubertal hormones also organize the adolescent brain. Initial studies revealed that male reproductive behavior cannot
Kalynn M. Schulz; Cheryl L. Sisk
This article gives a clinically oriented overview of forensically relevant forms of sexual sadism disorder and its specific relationship to sexual homicide. In sexual homicide perpetrators, peculiar patterns of sexual sadism may be a motivational pathway to kill. Sexual sadism increases the risk for reoffending in sexual offenders. Through psychotherapy and pharmacological interventions, treatment of sadistic sex offenders has to consider special characteristics that may be different from those of nonsadistic sex offenders. Many of these offenders share a combination of sexual sadistic motives and an intact self-regulation, sometimes combined with a high level of sexual preoccupation. PMID:24877708
Briken, Peer; Bourget, Dominique; Dufour, Mathieu
The history of the studies on stress and hormones is briefly reviewed. The two main stress transmission systems are the endocrine (CRH-ACTH-Cortisol) and the neural (Sympatho-adreno-medullary) systems. The junction of the two systems resides in the hypothalamus. It has been clarified that CRH has central suppressive effects on eating, sleeping and sexual behavior. The relationships between emotions such as fear, anger and neurotransmitters (noradrenaline or serotonin) are discussed. Recent studies have revealed that various kinds of cytokines secreted from leukocytes stimulate the secretions of CRH and ACTH. Thus the cooperative mechanisms and actions of the endocrine, neural and immune systems against stress to keep homeostasis are elucidated. PMID:7958098
Male sexual dysfunction (MSD) is a common disorder associated with a wide range of physical and psychological conditions. Erectile dysfunction, the most commonly studied aspect of MSD, is common and increases with age and with certain comorbid conditions. The pathophysiology of ED and other forms of MSD can be traced to a variety of etiologies, including vascular, hormonal, psychiatric, iatrogenic
\\u000a Human growth hormone (hGH) is a proteohormone secreted by the pituitary gland. It acts through binding to the hGH receptor,\\u000a inducing either direct effects or initiating the production of insulin-like growth-factor I (IGF-I), the most important mediator\\u000a of hGH effects. Growth hormone is primarily known to promote longitudinal growth in children and adolescents, but has also\\u000a various important metabolic functions
Martin Bidlingmaier; Christian J. Strasburger
... Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) Sexual health More information on sexual health Many older women ... Protecting yourself Return to top More information on Sexual health Read more from womenshealth.gov Sexually Transmitted Infections ...
This study describes sexual activity, nocturnal pe- nile erections, and mood states as a function of serum levels of androgens in previously untreated hypogonadal men before and during hormone replacement, selected infertile men (elevated serum follicle-stimulating hormone levels), and normal men. Nocturnal penile tumescence and rigidity were measured with a portable monitor, and sexual activity and mood were assessed by
ALLEN S. BURRIS; STEVEN M. BANKS; C. SUE CARTER; JULIAN M. DAVIDSON; RICHARD J. SHERINS
Both sexual orientation and sex-typical childhood behaviors, such as toy, playmate and activity preferences, show substantial sex differences, as well as substantial variability within each sex. In other species, behaviors that show sex differences are typically influenced by exposure to gonadal steroids, particularly testosterone and its metabolites, during early development (prenatally or neonatally). This article reviews the evidence regarding prenatal influences of gonadal steroids on human sexual orientation, as well as sex-typed childhood behaviors that predict subsequent sexual orientation. The evidence supports a role for prenatal testosterone exposure in the development of sex-typed interests in childhood, as well as in sexual orientation in later life, at least for some individuals. It appears, however, that other factors, in addition to hormones, play an important role in determining sexual orientation. These factors have not been well-characterized, but possibilities include direct genetic effects, and effects of maternal factors during pregnancy. Although a role for hormones during early development has been established, it also appears that there may be multiple pathways to a given sexual orientation outcome and some of these pathways may not involve hormones.
Sex education is almost mandated in the United States. The data reviewing sexual activity in the adolescent population indicates that large numbers of women under the age of 19 who have unintended pregnancies are at risk for an increased frequency of sexually transmitted diseases which will affect their future. It is essential that good educational programs and preventive service programs be developed and mandated for the adolescent population. Experience in Western Europe demonstrates that the adolescent who has a proper education concerning sexual activity, sexually transmitted disease, and contraception is at lower risk for the many problems that we see in the United States. There must be cross-cultural data that can be translated for use in the entire world. As the population of this world ages, we must protect those who are entering adulthood from being exposed to the STDs and undertaking the responsibility of parenting without having reached full maturity. The cost in dollars of the sequelae of adolescent pregnancies are great. These costs are not only financial, but also emotional and social, and they have a negative impact on the country in which the adolescent lives. We have a heavy responsibility as physicians and health care professionals to see that the adolescents of the world are given the knowledge and models to use to reduce the risk for pregnancy and the acquisition of a sexually transmitted disease. PMID:9238294
Goldfarb, A F
This article discusses the accumulating evidence that some synthetic chemicals disrupt hormones in one way or another. Some mimic estrogen and others interfere with other parts of the body`s control or endocrine system such as testosterone and thyroid metabolism. Included are PCBs, dioxins, furans, atrazine, DDT. Several short sidebars highlight areas where there are or have been particular problems.
Colborn, T.; Dumanoski, D.; Myers, J.P.
Abstract Background: The phytochemical constituents of the aqueous root extract of Lecaniodiscus cupanioides Planch. Ex Bth. and its aphrodisiac activity on male rat sexual behavior and reproductive hormones in paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction were evaluated. Methods: The extract was screened for the presence of phytochemicals. The extract (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight) and the reference herbal drug PowmaxM (7.14 mg/kg body weight) were administered orally to paroxetine-induced sexually impaired male rats, once daily for 5 days, and their sexual behavior parameters were monitored and computed. The serum hormones (testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone) were determined at the end of treatment period. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, phenolics, saponins, and tannins. Mount frequency (MF), intromission frequency (IF), ejaculatory frequency (EF), and testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone concentrations were reduced significantly (p<0.05) in paroxetine-treated rats. Administration of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous root extract of L. cupanioides significantly (p<0.05) reversed the paroxetine-mediated alterations in MF, IF, EF, mount latency (ML), intromission latency (IL), ejaculatory latency (EL), postejaculatory interval (PEI), and testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone concentrations dose-dependently. The reversal of the male sexual behavior parameters by the extract compared well (p<0.05) with the PowmaxM-treated animals. Conclusions: Data obtained from this study revealed that the aqueous root extract of L. cupanioides restored sexual competence in sexually impaired rats possibly by increasing sexual drive through enhanced reproductive hormones concentration, particularly testosterone, thus supporting the folkloric claim of the plant for the management of sexual disorder in males. PMID:24353139
Ajiboye, Taofeek O; Nurudeen, Quadri O; Yakubu, Musa T
This pilot study explores the specificity of 12 Dutch trans people's experience of sexuality in order to provide new hypotheses and perspectives for future research. Emerging themes include the interconnection of sexual development with coming out and transition processes, the way incongruence between gender identity, gendered embodiment, and social perception of gender affected participants' experience of sexuality, and changes in physical sexual functioning after hormone therapy and/or various types of surgery. Our research design allowed for subjective accounts of trans people's experience of sexuality and detailed descriptions of changes in sexuality that occurred over time and throughout the coming out and transitioning processes. PMID:24295055
Doorduin, Tamar; van Berlo, Willy
Phytohormones are low molecular weight compounds that are produced by plants to regulate growth and development and also in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. The quantitative analysis of these molecules, which is essential for a better understanding of their physiological functions, is still particularly challenging due to their very low abundance in plant tissues. In this chapter, a rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for the quantification of acidic plant hormones is described. A fast and simple extraction procedure without purification or derivatization was devised, followed by optimized ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis. The analytical procedure was validated in terms of selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, precision, recovery, and matrix effects. This protocol facilitates the high-throughput analysis of the main plant hormones and is applicable as a routine tool for a wide range of research fields such as plant-pathogen interactions, mutant screening, or plant development. PMID:24057388
Glauser, Gaetan; Vallat, Armelle; Balmer, Dirk
OBJECTIVETo establish the prevalence of sexually transmitted organisms and other genital organisms in potentially sexually abused children.DESIGNProspective study of children attending an inner London department of community paediatrics for evaluation of possible sexual abuse.SUBJECTSChildren under 16 referred for evaluation of possible sexual abuse.OUTCOME MEASURESPrevalence of sexually transmitted organisms in relation to age, symptoms, and type of abuse.RESULTSSwabs were taken from
A J Robinson; J E M Watkeys; G L Ridgway
This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Sexuality emerges as a major developmental element of puberty and the adolescent years that follow. However, connecting the sexuality that emerges with puberty and elements of adult sexuality is difficult because much adolescent sexuality research addresses the transition to partnered sexual behaviors (primarily coitus) and consequences such as unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This review proposes a framework of an expanded understanding of puberty and adolescent sexuality from the perspective of four hallmarks of adult sexuality: sexual desire; sexual arousal; sexual behaviors; and, sexual function. This approach thus addresses important gaps in understanding of the ontogeny of sex and the continuum of sexuality development from adolescence through the adult lifespan. PMID:23998672
Fortenberry, J Dennis
The sexual problems of women have been organized into four categories, arranged in a hierarchy, each group above including new and broader elements. They range from sexual dysfunction, including psychosomatic problems, to distortions of sexual activity, then to the immediate sexual-interpersonal sphere, and finally, the social-sexual sphere. Illustrations and brief dynamics are given, and a neuroanatomical basis is presented for
The hormonal factors and neural circuitry that control copulation are similar across rodent species, although there are differences in specific behavior patterns. Both estradiol (E) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) contribute to the activation of mating, although E is more important for copulation and DHT, for genital reflexes. Hormonal activation of the medial preoptic area (MPOA) is most effective, although implants in the medial amygdala (MeA) can also stimulate mounting in castrates. Chemosensory inputs from the main and accessory olfactory systems are the most important stimuli for mating in rodents, especially in hamsters, although genitosensory input also contributes. Dopamine agonists facilitate sexual behavior, and serotonin (5-HT) is generally inhibitory, though certain 5-HT receptor subtypes facilitate erection or ejaculation. Norepinephrine agonists and opiates have dose-dependent effects, with low doses facilitating and high doses inhibiting behavior.
Hull, Elaine M.; Dominguez, Juan M.
In this book, the authors discuss the latest advances in molecular endocrinology: - steroid receptor binding to DNA sequences of hormonally controlled genes, - structure of genes controlled by steroid hormones, - heterogeneity of steroid receptors, - immunochemical approaches to receptor studies, and - the most recent approaches to steroid hormone action and biological response. The Contents discussed are: Biochemical Evidence for the Exclusive Nuclear Localization of the Estrogen Receptor. - Structure, Dynamics, and Cloning of the Estrogen Receptor. - Structure, Dynamics, and Cloning of the Estrogen Receptor - Physical and Functional Parameters of Isolated Estrogen Receptor - Type II Binding Sites: Cellular Origin and an Endogeneous Ligand. - The Two Phosphorylation Reactions of the Progesterone Receptor. - Receptor Mediated Action of the Vitamin D Hormone. - Characterization of the Nuclear Binding Sites (Acceptor Sites) for a Steroid Receptor. Antibodies in Estrogen, Progesterone, Glucocorticoid, Vitamin D Receptors and Autoantibodies to Antrogene Receptor. - Isolation and Characterization of cDNA probes for Human CBG and Rat ABP. Ornithine Decarboxy lase mRNAs in Murine Kidney: Structure and Regulation by Androgens - Glucocorticoid Receptors and the Control of Gene Expression. - Activation and Regulation of the Vitellogenin Gene Family. - Intra- and Intercellular Aspects of the Hormonal Regulation of the ..cap alpha..2..mu.. Globulin Gene Expression. - Hormonal Regulation of Sexually Differentiated Isozymes of Cytochrome P-450 in Rat Liver. - Interaction of Thyroid Hormone and Carbohydrates on Hepatic Gene Expression.
Roy, A.K.; Clark, J.H.
The social Adolescent features are insecurity, narcissism, eroticism, more impetuosity than reason. 1/3 of adolescents have risk behaviour for health. The pregnancy rate in adolescent are 9/1,000 (11,720, the abort about 50 %). The total abort (2009) were 114,480. Increase the rate of 8,4 (1990) to 14,6/ 1,000 (2009). The sexual education fails. The consulting about contraceptives get pregnancy of the OR 3,2, condom OR 2,7. The adolescent are influenced in his matter: oeer have 70-75 % of influence, mother 30-40 %, father 15 %, for yhe environment and education Cyberspace access to information: 33 % exposed to unwanted sexual materials, 1 in 7 solicited sexual online. The argument have 4 central topic: Morality and Responsibility, Desire (responsibility vs gratification), Danger (fear related to pregnancy and STD/VIH), and Victimization. The prevention of STD: so called safe sex, delayed, and abstinence, Prevention HPV vaccine. The information is not enough, are necessary personal integral formation in values as self control, abstinence, mutual respect, responsibility, reasonable decisions. PMID:21877398
Calero, Juan del Rey
Ivermectin (IVM) is an antiparasitic drug that is widely used in domestic animals. In mammals, IVM acts as a ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor agonist. This neurotransmitter plays an important role in the regulation of female sexual behavior. The present study investigated the effects of therapeutic (0.2 mg/kg) and high (1.0 mg/kg) IVM doses on female sexual behavior in physiological and pharmacological conditions. Female rats in estrus or treated with estradiol valerate to induce sexual behavior 24 h before the experiments were used. Ivermectin was administered 15 min before the sexual observations. The number of lordosis events in 10 mounts was recorded to calculate the lordosis quotient. The intensity of lordosis (0 [no lordosis], 1 [low lordosis], 2 [normal lordosis] and 3 [exaggerated lordosis]) was scored. In estrus and hormonal treated female rats, both IVM doses decreased the intensity of the lordosis reflex and the percentage of females that presented high levels of lordosis (exaggerated lordosis). However, the number of females that presented lordosis was unaltered. We conclude that in both hormonal conditions, 0.2mg/kg IVM treatment reduced female sexual behavior and the execution of the lordosis reflex. The present results may be useful for avoiding the side effects of this drug in veterinary practice. PMID:24681284
Moreira, N; Bernardi, M M; Spinosa, H S
Sexuality and sexual functioning is a cardinal domain of health-related quality of life in breast cancer patients, namely in the younger population. Young women below 40 years of age go through a time in their lives where sexual self-identity has recently matured, their professional obligations are demanding and they bear interpersonal and childbearing expectations, all of which can suffer a devastating turnaround with cancer diagnosis and its physical and psychological aftermath. Although these women’s sexuality and directed interventions have remained largely unaddressed so far, concepts are evolving and treatment options are becoming diversified, chiefly on the field of non-hormonal pharmacological therapy of sexual dysfunction. This review will examine the definitions of female sexual dysfunction, the etiology of the disorders in young breast cancer patients, the assessment methods, the non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options and the challenges that lie ahead.
Sexual dysfunction affects both men and women, involving organic disorders, psychological problems, or both. Overall, the state of our knowledge is less advanced regarding female sexual physiology in comparison with male sexual function. Female sexual dysfunction has received little clinical and basic research attention and remains a largely untapped field in medicine. The epidemiology of female sexual dysfunction is poorly understood because relatively few studies have been done in community settings. In the United States, female sexual dysfunction has been estimated to affect 40% of women in the general population. Among the elderly, however, it has been reported that up to 87% of women complain of sexual dissatisfaction. Several studies have shown that the prevalence of female sexual arousal disorders correlates significantly with increasing age. These studies have shown that sexual arousal and frequency of coitus in the female decreases with increasing age. The pathophysiology of female sexual dysfunction appears more complex than that of males, involving multidimensional hormonal, neurological, vascular, psychological, and interpersonal aspects. Organic female sexual disorders may include a wide variety of vascular, neural, or neurovascular factors that lead to problems with libido, lubrication, and orgasm. However, the precise etiology and mechanistic pathways of age-related female sexual arousal disorders are yet to be determined. In the past two decades, some advances have been made in exploring the basic hemodynamics and neuroregulation of female sexual function and dysfunction in both animal models and in human studies. In this review, we summarize neural regulation of sexual function and neurological causes of sexual dysfunction in women.
Siroky, Mike B.
Objective: The aims of this study were to examine the extent to which exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was associated with increased rates of sexual risk taking behaviors and sexual revictimization during adolescence.Method: A birth cohort of 520 New Zealand born young women was studied at regular intervals from birth to the age of 18. At age 18 retrospective
David M. Fergusson; L. John Horwood; Michael T. Lynskey
Hormone replacement after menopause has in recent years been the subject of intense scientific debate and public interest and has sparked intense research efforts into the biological effects of estrogens and progestagens. However, there are reasons to believe that the doses used and plasma concentrations produced in a large number of studies casts doubt on important aspects of their validity. The concept of hormesis states that a substance can have diametrically different effects depending on the concentration. Even though estrogens and progestagens have proven prone to this kind of dose-response relation in a multitude of studies, the phenomenon remains clearly underappreciated as exemplified by the fact that it is common practice to only use one hormone dose in animal experiments. If care is not taken to adjust the concentrations of estrogens and progestagens to relevant biological conditions, the significance of the results may be questionable. Our aim is to review examples of female sexual steroids demonstrating bidirectional dose-response relations and to discuss this in the perspective of hormesis. Some examples are highlighted in detail, including the effects on cerebral ischemia, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and anxiety. Hopefully, better understanding of the hormesis phenomenon may result in improved future designs of studies of female sexual steroids.
Strom, Jakob O.; Theodorsson, Annette; Theodorsson, Elvar
Sexuality remained for a long time in the intimacy domain, judged worthy of a consultation reason only and yet as an illness cause or a male failure. Besides, dyspareunia and various women's illnesses took more time to be worthy of interest and care. And now it seems almost as if a turnaround were taking place. This mutation will probably induce some cultural changes. This paper focuses on the fifty-year-old man, in a world in which sexuality, from a universal right, becomes an obligation with the need for means and results, a requirement for performance. In order to discover how to approach these old problems with nowadays tools, we carried out a Medline review on sexuality and impotence, or erectile dysfunction (ED), which is a real problem in public health policy concerning more than 150 million men all over the world and more than 2 million in France. The analysis of the main papers associated with our own experience, allows us to better understand the changes in men/women relationship and the disclosure of male fragility, visible in the management of their well-being, their state of anxiety fowards this new women's control which probably influences their attitude in front of ageing and its consequences. PMID:15908256
Lachowsky, M; Grivel, T; Lemaire, A; Elia, D
Growth hormone release inhibiting hormone (GHRIH) was administered by constant infusion over 75 minutes to eight acromegalic patients at different doses. 100 to 1,000 ?g were equally effective in reducing circulating growth hormone (GH) levels; 25 ?g lowered GH levels in only five patients, and at this dose the extent of the fall was smaller than from doses of 100
G. M. Besser; C. H. Mortimer; D. Carr; A. V. Schally; D. H. Coy; D. Evered; A. J. Kastin; W. M. G. Tunbridge; M. O. Thorner; R. Hall
Six patients with severe paraphilia were treated with a long-acting gonadotrophin hormone releasing hormone analogue (GnRH-a). In five cases, the antiandrogen treatment ended their deviant sexual behaviour and markedly decreased their sexual fantasies and activities without significant side-effects. The beneficial effects of this treatment were maintained for 7 years in the patient where there was the longest follow-up. Two patients abruptly withdrew front their antiandrogen treatment at the end of the first and third year, respectively. Both relapsed within 8-10 weeks. One of them asked for resumption of antiandrogen treatment. In another case, in order to phase out antiandrogen treatment, testosterone (T) was added to the GnRH-a. In spite of normal T levels, and of resumption of normal sexual activities and deviant fantasies, deviant sexual behaviour did not return. A smoother phasing out of GnRH-a treatment is thought to be better than an abrupt withdrawal. However, the duration of antiandrogen treatment necessary to ensure a complete disappearance of deviant sexual behaviour remains uncertain, but is at least 4 years. PMID:8844879
Thibaut, F; Cordier, B; Kuhn, J M
Perfectionism is a multidimensional personality characteristic that can affect all areas of life. This article presents the first systematic investigation of multidimensional perfectionism in the domain of sexuality exploring the unique relationships that different forms of sexual perfectionism show with positive and negative aspects of sexuality. A sample of 272 university students (52 male, 220 female) completed measures of four forms of sexual perfectionism: self-oriented, partner-oriented, partner-prescribed, and socially prescribed. In addition, they completed measures of sexual esteem, sexual self-efficacy, sexual optimism, sex life satisfaction (capturing positive aspects of sexuality) and sexual problem self-blame, sexual anxiety, sexual depression, and negative sexual perfectionism cognitions during sex (capturing negative aspects). Results showed unique patterns of relationships for the four forms of sexual perfectionism, suggesting that partner-prescribed and socially prescribed sexual perfectionism are maladaptive forms of sexual perfectionism associated with negative aspects of sexuality whereas self-oriented and partner-oriented sexual perfectionism emerged as ambivalent forms associated with positive and negative aspects. PMID:23842783
Stoeber, Joachim; Harvey, Laura N; Almeida, Isabel; Lyons, Emma
Male hypogonadism, or testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS), results from a failure of the testes to produce adequate androgen. Patients have low circulating testosterone in combination with clinical symptoms such as fatigue, erectile dysfunction, and body composition changes. The cause may be primary (genetic anomaly, Klinefelter’s syndrome) or secondary (defect in hypothalamus or pituitary), but often presents with the same symptomatology. In the older patient, androgen deficiency of the aging male (ADAM) is an important cause of secondary hypogonadism because testosterone levels decline progressively after age 40. Hypogonadal patients have alterations not only in sexual function and body composition, but also in cognition and metabolism. Regardless of etiology, hypogonadal patients who are both symptomatic and who have clinically significant alterations in laboratory values are candidates for treatment. The goal of hormone replacement therapy in these men is to restore hormone levels to the normal range and to alleviate symptoms suggestive of hormone deficiency. This can be accomplished in a variety of ways, although most commonly testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is employed.
Pinsky, Michael R.; Hellstrom, Wayne J. G.
As patients live longer after cancer diagnosis and treatment, attention to symptoms and quality of life (QoL) are of increasing importance both during treatment and throughout survivorship. Two complications of multi-modal cancer treatment that can profoundly affect both men and women are sexual dysfunction and infertility. Survivors at highest risk for treatment-related sexual dysfunction are those with tumors that involve the sexual or pelvic organs and those whose treatment affects the hormonal systems mediating sexual function. Sexual dysfunction may not abate without appropriate intervention. Therefore, early identification and treatment strategies are essential. Likewise, multiple factors contribute to the risk of infertility from cancer treatment and many cancer patients of reproductive age would prefer to maintain their fertility, if possible. Fortunately, advances in reproductive technology have created options for young newly diagnosed patients to preserve their ability to have a biologic child. This paper will focus on the sexual and reproductive problems encountered by cancer survivors and discuss some treatment options. PMID:24331193
Goldfarb, Shari; Mulhall, John; Nelson, Christian; Kelvin, Joanne; Dickler, Maura; Carter, Jeanne
Relationship and sexual satisfaction, sexual functioning, and sexual desire were examined in an Internet sample of 32 individuals reporting engagement of sexual behavior during sleep (i.e., sexsomnia). Individuals with sexsomnia reported lower levels of sexual satisfaction, lower levels of relationship satisfaction, and similar levels of sexual desire compared with controls. More frequent incidence of sexsomnia resulted in lower sexual satisfaction;
Liesa A. Klein; Daniel Houlihan
TRIMETHYLAMINE is known to accumulate in the sexual organs of many plants and animals1. Its action as an aphrodisiac has also been observed. Some connexion of trimethylamine with sex hormones appeared therefore possible. On the other hand, the effects of animal sex hormones on flowering2 and on the development of `phytocarcinomata'3 having been demonstrated, a further association of ideas concerning
This article reviews the use of hormones and related molecules in pharmacology. Examples of hormones in the treatment of specific diseases is presented, including those where normal physiologic levels of hormones are restored, and others where supraphysiologic levels are used to achieve a therapeutic effect. Examples of the abuse of hormones are also described. PMID:17270586
Hyman, Paul; Kelner, Paul
Approximately 50% of American marriages have some sexual dysfunction. Because sexuality is an important part of a person's life, counselors should be sensitive to sexual concerns of their clients. Taking an adequate sex history and highlighting problem areas may increase counseling efficiency. When counselors teach courses on human sexuality, they…
Heritage, Jeannette G.; West, W. Beryl
Conservative estimates of sexual assault prevalence suggest that 25 percent of American women have experienced sexual assault, including rape. Approximately one-half of those cases involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, victim, or both. Alcohol contributes to sexual assault through multiple pathways, often exacerbating existing risk factors. Beliefs about alcohol's effects on sexual and aggressive behavior, stereotypes about drinking women, and
Antonia Abbey; Tina Zawacki; Philip O. Buck; A. Monique Clinton; Pam McAuslan
Data regarding the neuroendocrine response pattern to sexual arousal and orgasm in man are inconsistent. In this study, ten healthy male volunteers were continuously monitored for their cardiovascular and neuroendocrine response to sexual arousal and orgasm. Blood was continuously drawn before, during and after masturbation-induced orgasm and analyzed for plasma concentrations of adrenaline, noradrenaline, cortisol, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating
Tillmann Krüger; Michael S Exton; Cornelius Pawlak; Alexander von zur Mühlen; Uwe Hartmann; Manfred Schedlowski
The study of sex differences has produced major insights into the organization of animal phenotypes and the regulatory mechanisms generating phenotypic variation from similar genetic templates. Teleost fishes display the greatest diversity of sexual expression among vertebrate animals. This diversity appears to arise from diversity in the timing of sex determination and less functional interdependence among the components of sexuality relative to tetrapod vertebrates. Teleost model systems therefore provide powerful models for understanding gonadal and non-gonadal influences on behavioral and physiological variation. This review addresses socially controlled sex change and alternate male phenotypes in fishes. These sexual patterns are informative natural experiments that illustrate how variation in conserved neuroendocrine pathways can give rise to a wide range of reproductive adaptations. Key regulatory factors underlying sex change and alternative male phenotypes that have been identified to date include steroid hormones and the neuropeptides GnRH and arginine vasotocin, but genomic approaches are now implicating a diversity of other influences as well.
The association among sexual daydreaming and sexual attitudes and activity was examined in a cross-sectional life-span sample of women (N = 117, 26 to 78 years). Sexual daydreaming was measured using the Imaginal Processes Inventory (IPI) while sexual history measures of sexual activity, sexual drive, and sexual attitudes were derived from a comprehensive personal interview. A factor analysis and varimax
Frances E. Purifoy; Alicia Grodsky; Leonard M. Giambra
Familial male precocious puberty is a form of precocious puberty resulting from an activating mutation of the luteinizing hormone receptor. Behavior problems are associated with the early onset of puberty. In this case, sexual hyperactivity was treated with psychostimulants. Implications for the effectiveness of methylphenidate in reducing sexual hyperactivity with and without familial male precocious puberty are discussed, and testable hypotheses are proposed for the effects of stimulants on sexual behavior in adolescents. PMID:11288780
Weissenberger, A A; Leschek, E W; Zametkin, A J
Hormones play an important role in insect behaviour. These hormones are mainly the neurohormones of the brain and of the corpus\\u000a cardiacum, the juvenile hormone of the corpus allatum and the ecdysone of the prothoracic glands. These produce either releaser\\u000a effects or modifier effects. Hormonal modulation of neurophysiological activity controlling various aspects of behaviour,\\u000a hormonal influence of reproductive behaviour in
V K K Prabhu
Underlying hormone imbalances may render acne unresponsive to conventional therapy. Relevant investigations followed by initiation of hormonal therapy in combination with regular anti-acne therapy may be necessary if signs of hyperandrogenism are present. In addition to other factors, androgen-stimulated sebum production plays an important role in the pathophysiology of acne in women. Sebum production is also regulated by other hormones, including estrogens, growth hormone, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, glucocorticoids, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and melanocortins. Hormonal therapy may also be beneficial in female acne patients with normal serum androgen levels. An understanding of the sebaceous gland and the hormonal influences in the pathogenesis of acne would be essential for optimizing hormonal therapy. Sebocytes form the sebaceous gland. Human sebocytes express a multitude of receptors, including receptors for peptide hormones, neurotransmitters and the receptors for steroid and thyroid hormones. Various hormones and mediators acting through the sebocyte receptors play a role in the orchestration of pathogenetic lesions of acne. Thus, the goal of hormonal treatment is a reduction in sebum production. This review shall focus on hormonal influences in the elicitation of acne via the sebocyte receptors, pathways of cutaneous androgen metabolism, various clinical scenarios and syndromes associated with acne, and the available therapeutic armamentarium of hormones and drugs having hormone-like actions in the treatment of acne. PMID:23619437
This paper deals with three major questions: (1) What are the sexual norms defined by the sacred texts (Koran and Sunna)? (2) What are the sexual practices currently observed among Moslems? (3) To which extent are current sexual practices of Moslems dissociated from Islamic sexual norms? Sexual standards in Islam are paradoxical: on the one hand, they allow and actually are an enticement to the exercise of sexuality but, on the other hand, they discriminate between male and female sexuality, between marital and pre- or extramarital sexuality, and between heterosexuality and homosexuality. Men are given more rights with regard to the expression of their sexuality; women are forbidden to have extramarital sex (with their slaves) and both genders to have homosexual relationships. The combination of these paradoxical standards with modernisation leads to the current back and forth swing of sexual practices between repression and openness. Partial modernisation leads to greater sexual tolerance. But restrictive sexual standards have gathered strength and have become idealised as a result of the current radicalisation of Islam. This swing of the pendulum between repression and openness is illustrated by phenomena such as public harassment, premarital sexuality, female pleasure, prostitution, and homosexuality. Currently, Islam is not any more the only reference which provides guidance concerning sexual practices but secularisation of sexual laws is still politically unthinkable today. So the only solution is to achieve reform in the name of Islam, through the reinterpretation of repressive holy texts. PMID:20441406
Activities of drug metabolizing enzymes (DME) are known to change throughout the course of physical and sexual maturation with the greatest variability noted during infancy and adolescence. The mechanisms responsible for developmental regulation of DME are currently unknown. However, the hormonal changes of puberty/adolescence provide a theoretical framework for understanding biochemical regulation of DME activity during growth and maturation. Important information regarding potential influences of growth and sex hormones can also be extrapolated from studies evaluating changes in activities of DMEs occurring as a consequence of physiologic, pathologic and/or pharmacologic hormonal fluctuations. Collectively, current data support the hypothesis that isoform-specific alterations in DME activity during adolescence are mediated via sex and/or growth hormones. Characterization of the underlying biochemical alterations responsible for developmental changes in DME activity will require additional studies in which relationships between DME and important hormonal axes are evaluated during the course of pubertal development.
The course of sexual socialization of 50 women suffering from the Stein-Leventhal Syndrome (SLS), on which the wedge resection of the ovaries was carried out, as examined using the HTDW (heterosexual development of women) questionnaire, did not differ from that of 50 normal women of the same age. Sexual life of SLS patients was examined using an interview and the SAW (sexual activity of women), SFW (sexual function of women), and SAI (sexual arousability inventory) questionnaires. Comparison with the findings in the control group showed that the average score in all the three questionnaires was within normal limits for both groups; the differences between the groups were not statistically significant. Among 45 SLS patients who had sexual experience before the surgery, 42 stated that no pronounced changes occurred in their sexual lives after resection of the ovaries. The average value of testosterone in the whole group (0.52 ng/ml plasma) was within normal limits. The level of the male sexual hormone tended to be higher in the subgroup of 19 patients with low orgastic capacity than in the subgroup of 31 orgastic SLS patients. The differences in the average scores of neurotic symptoms in the N5 questionnaire between the SLS patients and the control group were not significant. On the basis of the above findings, it is concluded that SLS patients, after wedge resection of the ovaries, are not more sexually arousable, more active, or more orgastic than medically healthy women. PMID:3924004
Raboch, J; Kobilková, J; Raboch, J; Stárka, L
This study investigated whether women's interest in visual sexual stimuli varied with their hormonal state. Viewing times of 30 women, 15 normal cycling (NC) and 15 oral contracepting (OC), to sexually explicit photos were measured at three different times. NC women were tested during their menstrual, periovulatory, and luteal phases, and OC women were tested at equivalent temporal intervals. Subjects viewed stimuli as long as desired, thus viewing time measured subject interest. Subjective ratings of stimulus sexual attractiveness were obtained on each test. There was no overall relationship between menstrual cycle phase and viewing time. However the participant's menstrual cycle phase during first exposure to sexual stimuli predicted subsequent interest in sexual stimuli during the next two tests. NC women who first viewed stimuli during their periovulatory phase looked longer at the sexual stimuli across all sessions than did women first tested in their luteal phase. OC women first exposed to the sexual stimuli during menstruation looked longer at the stimuli across all sessions than did OC women first exposed at other test phases. Neither current test phase nor initial cycle phase influenced subjective ratings. Women had increased interest in sexual stimuli across all sessions if first exposed to sexual stimuli when endogenous estrogens were most likely highest. These data suggest that women's interest in visual sexual stimuli is modulated by hormones such that the hormonal condition at first exposure possibly determines the stimuli's emotional valence, markedly affecting subsequent interest in sexual stimuli. PMID:20034495
Wallen, Kim; Rupp, Heather A
Despite indirect evidence linking narcissism to sexual aggression, studies directly examining this relationship have yielded inconsistent results. Likely contributing to such inconsistencies, prior research has used global measures of narcissism not sensitive to whether the components of narcissism are activated in sexual versus non-sexual domains. The current research avoided such problems by using a measure of sexual narcissism to predict sexual aggression. In a sample of 299 men and women, Study 1 validated the Sexual Narcissism Scale, a new sexuality research instrument with four subscales—Sexual Exploitation, Sexual Entitlement, Low Sexual Empathy, and Sexual Skill. Then, in a sample of 378 men, Study 2 demonstrated that sexual narcissism was associated with reports of the frequency of sexual aggression, three specific types of sexual aggression (unwanted sexual contact, sexual coercion, and attempted/completed rape), and the likelihood of future sexual aggression. Notably, global narcissism was unrelated to all indices of sexual aggression when sexual narcissism was controlled. That sexual narcissism outperformed global assessments of narcissism to account for variance in sexual aggression suggests that future research may benefit by examining whether sexual narcissism and other sexual-situation-specific measurements of personality can similarly provide a more valid test of the association between personality and other sexual behaviors and outcomes (e.g., contraceptive use, infidelity, sexual satisfaction).
McNulty, James K.
Despite indirect evidence linking narcissism to sexual aggression, studies directly examining this relationship have yielded inconsistent results. Likely contributing to such inconsistencies, prior research has used global measures of narcissism not sensitive to whether the components of narcissism are activated in sexual versus non-sexual domains. The current research avoided such problems by using a measure of sexual narcissism to predict sexual aggression. In a sample of 299 men and women, Study 1 validated the Sexual Narcissism Scale, a new sexuality research instrument with four subscales-Sexual Exploitation, Sexual Entitlement, Low Sexual Empathy, and Sexual Skill. Then, in a sample of 378 men, Study 2 demonstrated that sexual narcissism was associated with reports of the frequency of sexual aggression, three specific types of sexual aggression (unwanted sexual contact, sexual coercion, and attempted/completed rape), and the likelihood of future sexual aggression. Notably, global narcissism was unrelated to all indices of sexual aggression when sexual narcissism was controlled. That sexual narcissism outperformed global assessments of narcissism to account for variance in sexual aggression suggests that future research may benefit by examining whether sexual narcissism and other sexual-situation-specific measurements of personality can similarly provide a more valid test of the association between personality and other sexual behaviors and outcomes (e.g., contraceptive use, infidelity, sexual satisfaction). PMID:19130204
Widman, Laura; McNulty, James K
Gonadal differentiation in amniote vertebrates is controlled by one of two mechanisms: genotypic sex determination (GSD) or environmental sex determination (ESD)1. After differentiation the fetal gonad produces sex steroid hormones which govern the development of other components of sexuality2,3. Thus, the primary sex determiner is thought to operate solely as a trigger that initiates a cascade of events culminating in
W. H. N. Gutzke; David Crews
India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality.
Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha
Coevolutionary arms races between males and females have equipped both sexes with mutually manipulative and defensive adaptations. These adaptations function to benefit individual reproductive interests at the cost of the reproductive interests of opposite-sex mates, and arise from evolutionary dynamics such as parental investment (unequal reproductive costs between the sexes) and sexual selection (unequal access to opposite-sex mates). Individuals use these adaptations to hijack others' reproductive systems, psychological states, and behaviors--essentially using other individuals as extended phenotypes of themselves. Such extended phenotypic manipulation of sexual rivals and opposite-sex mates is enacted by humans with the aid of hormones, pheromones, neurotransmitters, emotions, language, mind-altering substances, social institutions, technologies, and ideologies. Furthermore, sexual conflict may be experienced at an individual level when maternal genes and paternal genes are in conflict within an organism. Sexual conflict may be physically and emotionally destructive, but may also be exciting and constructive for relationships. By extending the biological concept of sexual conflict into social and cultural domains, scholars may successfully bridge many of the interdisciplinary gaps that separate the sciences from the humanities. PMID:22947995
Gorelik, Gregory; Shackelford, Todd K
In mammals, genomic imprinting has evolved as a dosage-controlling mechanism for a subset of genes that play critical roles in their unusual reproduction scheme involving viviparity and placentation. As such, many imprinted genes are highly expressed in sex-specific reproductive organs. In the current study, we sought to test whether imprinted genes are differentially expressed between the two sexes. According to the results, the expression levels of the following genes differ between the two sexes of mice: Peg3, Zim1, Igf2, H19 and Zac1. The expression levels of these imprinted genes are usually greater in males than in females. This bias is most obvious in the developing brains of 14.5-dpc embryos, but also detected in the brains of postnatal-stage mice. However, this sexual bias is not obvious in 10.5-dpc embryos, a developmental stage before the sexual differentiation. Thus, the sexual bias observed in the imprinted genes is most likely attributable by gonadal hormones rather than by sex chromosome complement. Overall, the results indicate that several imprinted genes are sexually different in terms of their expression levels, and further suggest that the transcriptional regulation of these imprinted genes may be influenced by unknown mechanisms associated with sexual differentiation. PMID:24125951
Faisal, Mohammad; Kim, Hana; Kim, Joomyeong
In a meta-analysis on controlled outcomes evaluations of 22,000 sex offenders, Losel and Schmucker found 80 comparisons between treatment and control groups. The recidivism rate averaged 19% in treated groups, and 27% in controls. Most other reviews reported a lower rate of sexual recidivism in treated sexual offenders. Of 2039 citations in this study (including literature in five languages), 60 studies held independent comparisons. Problematic issues included the control groups; various hormonal, surgical, cognitive behavioral, and psychotherapeutic treatments; and sample sizes. In the 80 studies compared after the year 2000, 32% were reported after 2000, 45% originated in the United States, 45% were reported in journals, and 36% were unpublished. Treatment characteristics showed a significant lack of pharmacologic treatment (7.5%), whereas use cognitive and classical behavioral therapy was 64%. In 68% of the studies, no information was available on the integrity of the treatment implementation; 36% of the treatment settings were outpatient only, 31% were prison settings, and 12% were mixed settings (prison, hospital, and outpatient). Integrating research interpretations is complicated by the heterogeneity of sex offenders, with only 56% being adult men and 17.5% adolescents. Offense types reported included 74% child molestation, 48% incest, and 30% exhibitionism. Pedophilia was not singled out. Follow-up periods varied from 12 months to greater than 84 months. The definition of recidivism ran the gamut from arrest (24%), conviction (30%), charges (19%), and no indication (16%). Results were difficult to interpret because of the methodological problems with this type of study. Overall, a positive outcome was noted with sex offender treatment. Cognitive-behavioral and hormonal treatment were the most promising. Voluntary treatment led to a slightly better outcome than mandatory participation. When accounting for a low base rate of sexual recidivism, the reduction was 37%, which included psychological and medical modes of treatment. Which treatments will reduce recidivism rates in sex offenders is extremely difficult to conclude. Some treatment effects are determined from small studies; however, recidivism rates may be based on different criteria. Larger studies tend to be published more frequently than small studies, negative results may be less likely to be reported in published studies, and differences in mandatory versus voluntary treatment may occur. Clearly more high-quality outcome studies are needed to determine which treatments work best for which individuals. One size is unlikely to fit all. However, pharmacologic intervention, although not always the perfect choice, has improved and will continue to advance the treatment of paraphilic, nonparaphilic, and compulsive sexual behaviors. PMID:18996306
Codispoti, Victoria L
There is a well-established relationship between alterations of various hormonal systems and psychiatric disorders, both in endocrine and psychiatric patients. This has led to clinical and research studies examining the efficacy of the different hormones for treatment of depression. These data will be reviewed with particular regard to the thyroid, gonadal, pineal, and adrenal cortex hormones. The data generally provide limited, but varying evidence for the antidepressant efficacy of these hormones.
Joffe, Russell T.
This article presents a new paradigm for understanding the complexity of human sexual, affectional, and erotic attractions--commonly known as sexual orientation. This new paradigm recognizes that there is great diversity among sexual orientations, erotic and emotional attractions, behaviors, and identities and that there are complex interrelations among these dimensions. Sexual orientation is determined by multiple influences, including a wide range of sociocultural factors. The development of sexual orientation is arrived at through multiple pathways. Individuals with the same sexual orientation may have little else in common. Thus, a model of sexual orientation is presented that is based on multiplicity, not sameness, and that examines the overlapping identities and statuses of culture, gender, age, race, ethnicity, class, disability, and sexuality. PMID:11987589
Garnets, Linda D
... via sexual activities, such as vaginal intercourse, oral sex, or anal sex. Sexually transmitted diseases are caused by one of ... mouth or rectum, especially when oral and anal sex are practiced. Swabs from open sores or discharges ...
Empirical research by scholars from several disciplines provides the basis for an outline of the process of sexual development. The process of achieving sexual maturity begins at conception and ends at death. It is influenced by biological maturation/aging, by progression through the socially-defined stages of childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and later life, and by the person s relationships with others, including family members, intimate partners, and friends. These forces shape the person's gender and sexual identities, sexual attitudes and sexual behavior. Adults display their sexuality in a variety of lifestyles, with heterosexual marriage being the most common. This diversity contributes to the vitality of society. Although changes in sexual functioning in later life are common, sexual interest and desire may continue until death. PMID:12476250
DeLamater, John; Friedrich, William N
Short stature in children is a common cause for referral to pediatric endocrinologists, corresponding most times to normal variants of growth. Initially growth hormone therapy was circumscribed to children presenting growth hormone deficiency. Since the production of recombinant human hormone its use had spread to other pathologies. PMID:24566789
Although there are an ever-growing number of sexual minority therapists, many are supervised by heterosexual supervisors who are not knowledgeable about sexual minority issues, which impact the sexual minority therapist and her\\/his interactions with their clients (Halpert & Pfaller, 2001; Pfohl, 2004). In light of this, the authors designed a qualitative inquiry based in a one-semester sexual minority supervision group.
Brent A. Satterly; Donald Dyson
Pedophilia is characterized by a persistent sexual attraction to prepubescent children. Treatment with anti-androgen agents, such as luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonists, reduces testosterone levels and thereby sexual drive and arousal. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare visual erotic stimulation pre- and on-treatment with the LH-RH agonist leuprolide acetate in the case of homosexual pedophilia. The pre-treatment
Benedikt Habermeyer; Nadja Händel; Patrick Lemoine; Markus Klarhöfer; Erich Seifritz; Volker Dittmann; Marc Graf
The purpose of this study was to determine whether religiosity, spirituality, and sexual attitudes accounted for differences in sexual behaviors among college students. The sample included 960 college students enrolled at four northeastern colleges. Results indicated differences in sexual attitudes, religiosity, and spirituality by gender. Moreover, sexual attitudes, religiosity, and spirituality were associated with sexual behaviors among college students. Sexual behaviors among males were influenced by their sexual attitudes, religiosity, and spirituality, while for females, their sexual behaviors were mostly influenced by their sexual attitudes. College health professionals can use these findings when discussing sexual practices with students. PMID:21822743
Luquis, Raffy R; Brelsford, Gina M; Rojas-Guyler, Liliana
This article will profile two programs using a healthy sexuality approach, and will also report on key policy and practice developments that have come to light since the original healthy sexuality articles were published. The two programs, the Canadian-based \\
Gonadal steroid hormones influence an animal's sexual behavior through two primary means. During development they affect differentiation of the brain (primarily in males), and after puberty, circulating concentrations of steroids influence expression of sexual behaviors. In mammals, sexual behaviors of females are regarded as inherent (independent of steroids secreted by the developing ovary). Males, on the other hand, must undergo active differentiation that is brought about by actions of testicular steroids on the brain during discrete sensitive periods of early development. Sexual differentiation in mammals is referred to as processes of defeminization and masculinization. Defeminization is loss of behavioral traits inherent to females and occurs prenatally in sheep but postnatally in swine. Comparative data are lacking for cattle, but preliminary evidence indicates prenatal defeminization of sexual behaviors. Masculinization is acquisition of behavioral traits characteristic of males. Adult females of all three species show mounting behavior after prolonged treatment with testosterone, and in cattle and swine, there is, as yet, no strong evidence that males undergo masculinization of sexual behaviors. In sheep, limited observations are suggestive of two sensitive periods for masculinization; one prenatally and one postnatally. The earlier concept that differentiation of sexual behaviors in mammals occurs prenatally in species with a long gestation and postnatally in species with a short gestation must now be modified in view of recent findings in swine, in which defeminization occurs postnatally. Further studies will likely identify additional species differences with respect to differentiation of sexual behaviors. PMID:2670872
Ford, J J; D'Occhio, M J
Al though we have legislation that, at least in theory, protects employees from discrimination, discrimination still occurs. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits discrimination in all areas of employment on the basis of race, colour, religion, sex or national origin. This includes sexual harassment, a form of discrimination which involves “unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual
Gail A. Dawson
Current problems facing the primary prevention of sexual assault are reviewed. Effective sexual assault prevention programs for both males and females have been slow to develop due to the fact that the etiologies of sexual assault have not been identified. Although dissemination of prevention programs has become increasingly popular in recent years, few programs have evaluated the extent to which
Elizabeth A. Yeater; William O'Donohue
Discuess how sexuality is determined by multiple influences, including sociocutural factors. Presents a new paradigm that analyzes categories of human sexual behavior. A model of sexual orientation is presented that is based on multiplicity and examines overlapping identities and statuses of culture, age, race, ethnicity, class, and disability.…
Garnets, Linda D.
Sexual homicide is a crime that receives much media attention, but one that still has a relatively small research base compared to other crimes. Although the idea of someone deriving sexual gratification from or during the killing of another is an anathema to many, forensic professionals need to understand sexual homicide and the range of circumstances and motivations that lie
Paul V. Greenall
Sexually transmitted infections such as chlamydia, gonorrhoea, herpes simplex virus and syphilis commonly present with rectal symptoms. Recent outbreaks of lymphogranuloma venereum among homosexual men throughout Europe highlight the need to consider sexually transmitted infections in the differential diagnosis of proctitis. This article examines the causative organisms, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted proctitis.
Hamlyn, E; Taylor, C
Young people are particularly vulnerable to poor sexual health outcomes of high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancy. They partake in riskier sexual behaviors with higher rates of sexual partner change and poor levels of contraception, including condom use. Access to services may be limited either through lack of appropriate services or disinclination to seek out services. We review the biological, cognitive, behavioral, and socioeconomic risk factors that contribute to their poor sexual health outcomes. Details include the epidemiology, presentation and complications of STIs and pregnancy in adolescents, the clinical assessment of adolescents, contraception options, confidentiality, consent and safeguarding, and key characteristics of successful adolescent services. PMID:24559553
Slater, Ceri; Robinson, Angela J
Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) and sexual aversion disorder (SAD) are an under-diagnosed group of disorders that affect men and women. Despite their prevalence, these two disorders are often not addressed by healthcare providers and patients due their private and awkward nature. As physicians, we need to move beyond our own unease in order to adequately address our patients’ sexual problems and implement appropriate treatment. Using the Sexual Response Cycle as the model of the physiological changes of humans during sexual stimulation and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition this article will review the current literature on the desire disorders focusing on prevalence, etiology, and treatment.
Montgomery, Keith A.
Prostate cancer is now ranked fifth in incidence among cancers in Korean adult males. This is attributable to the more Westernized dietary style which increases the morbidity of prostate cancer and the development of cancer diagnostic technologies, such as prostate-specific antigen and advanced medical systems, increasing the rate of prostate cancer diagnosis. Prostate cancer effects include not only erectile dysfunction caused by the disease itself, but also by psychiatric disorders caused by prostate cancer or its treatments. Prostate cancer by itself reduces sexual desire and the frequency of sexual intercourse. Additionally, surgery or hormonal therapy to block testosterone further increases the frequency of erectile dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction following radical prostatectomy is primarily attributable to nerve injury caused by intraoperative nerve traction, thermal injury, ischemic injury, and local inflammatory reactions. Additionally, the absence of nocturnal penile tumescence causes persistent hypoxia of the corpus cavernosum, which, secondarily, causes anatomical and functional changes in the corpus cavernosum. Preservation of erectile function is one of the most significant issues for patients with local prostate cancer. Erectile dysfunction following radical prostatectomy is known to have various prognoses, depending on preservation of the neurovascular bundle, patient age, and preoperative erectile status. Intracavernosal injections, PDE5 inhibitors, and penile rehabilitation therapy using a vacuum constriction device after radical prostatectomy are known to improve the recovery of erectile function. Recently, testosterone replacement therapy has also drawn attention as a treatment method.
Examined the relationship between young Hispanic and African American womens' hormonal contraceptive use and condom use. Surveys of women at an inner-city health clinic investigated demographics, contraceptive practices, sexual behavior, condom use, and communication skills. Hormonal contraceptive use related to decreased condom use. Discussion…
Roye, Carol F.
There is growing evidence that hormones, when released from an animal into the environment, act as chemical signals to other organisms. There is also evidence to suggest that hormones are released by lobsters during sexual and agonistic encounters to signal conspecifics. The go...
Recent discussions highlighted adolescents' sexual behaviour, but published studies concentrate on specific problems or subgroups of patients without addressing factors related to sexuality. To obtain a broad picture we studied two groups of adolescents attending genito-urinary medicine/sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in contrasting areas of Britain, inner London and Swansea. These were evaluated for referral pattern, sexual partner, contraception, obstetric history, sexually transmitted disease, and cervical cytology findings. Over half the adolescents referred themselves but few doctors other than general practitioners referred patients. Sexual partners were regarded by males as casual but by females as regular. Only 66% (81) of females practised contraception. Adolescents had more STD's than the total clinic population except for genital herpes simplex infection, and a high prevalence of genital warts in females has important future implications. The main conclusions were that there is a need for sexually related education targetted at adolescents and their health care providers, especially doctors.
Whatley, J; Thin, N; Reynolds, B; Blackwell, A
Sexual perversion is a very controversial matter and difficult to define because, instead of being analyzed as a clinical phenomenon, is seen as a social one: society establishes what is perverse and what is not. If we analyzed the evolution of sexuality we would find many sexual practices considered nowadays forbidden. For example, we consider perverse sexual acts replacing the coitus but we accept as normal what were previously considered deviant forms of sexual intercourse that simply accompany the coitus. In reality there is not a definite boundary between "normality" and "perversion" as each one of us shows a certain grade of perversion that can be disclosed sometimes in imperceptible or harmless ways. Contemporary sexology believes that the worst perversions do not have to implicate genitalia but can also consist of behaviors hiding their own sexual nature and acting as sexual surrogates, such as kleptomania and pyromania that only apparently seem to have nothing to do with sex. PMID:12834034
This study investigated the association between drugs and sexual behavior in a sample of polydrug substance abusers recruited from several Italian therapeutic communities; participants were 90 polydrug substance abusers (opiates, cocaine, amphetamine, inhalants, marijuana/sedatives or hallucinogens abusers) who were compared with 90 nonsubstance-abusing individuals. Sexual behavior was measured by the Italian version of the Sex and the Average Woman (or Man; SAWM), a questionnaire that assesses different kind of sexual attitudes. Results showed that drug-abusing individuals are particularly inclined to search for sexual intercourse and are open to different kinds of sexual experiences; however, they have difficulties in establishing committed and deep relationships with their partners, showing signs of inhibition, affective detachment or anger. Their sexual lives are also surrounded by negative emotions, disturbing thoughts and maladjusted behaviors. The importance of integrating sexual problems into therapeutic strategies is discussed. PMID:23457886
Bruno, Antonio; Scimeca, Giuseppe; Marino, Antonio G; Mento, Carmela; Micò, Umberto; Romeo, Vincenzo M; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Zoccali, Rocco; Muscatello, Maria R A
A host of biological and psychosocial factors play an important role in age-related changes of female sexuality. The most important of these are the availability of a sexually active partner and presence of concurrent illnesses. Some of the age-related changes in physiological indicators of sexual function, such as vaginal blood flow, are the result of estrogen deficiency, and as such are essentially reversible. Despite the inherent limitations of many studies in female sexuality, a significant degree of objective measurements has been reported in the literature. Future research should focus on developing appropriate techniques for quantitative estimation of sexual response in women. The need for love and sexual intimacy does not diminish with age, and sexual history should be part of the clinical evaluation of older patients. PMID:2331184
Mooradian, A D; Greiff, V
Sexual violence is multi-faceted. Three (overlapping) categories can be distinguished: violence that is sexual in nature, gender-based violence, and sexuality-based violence. The latter refers to violence against persons because of their sexuality and\\/or their (presumed) sexual behavior. Being female, young, poor, and living in a sexually conservative culture and\\/or in conflict areas appear to be important risk factors for sexual
This study presented and tested a model of sexual satisfaction for late adolescent girls. In this model, sexual self-concept and approach sexual motives were tested as predictors of adolescent girls' sexual satisfaction with their most recent experience of sexual intercourse. A total of 116 girls in 12th grade (ages 16-19) completed measures of…
Impett, Emily A.; Tolman, Deborah L.
The present study investigated sexual at-risk behaviors of sexually abused adolescent girls. Variables of interest were presence of consensual sexual activity, age at first consensual intercourse, number of sexual partners, condom use, and pregnancies. Participants were 125 sexually abused adolescent girls aged 12 to 17 years. Results showed that…
Cinq-Mars, Caroline; Wright, John; Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre
In our laboratory the domestic ram is used as an experimental model to study the early programming of neural mechanisms underlying same-sex partner preference. This interest developed from the observation that ?8% of domestic rams are sexually attracted to other rams (male-oriented) in contrast to the majority of rams that are attracted to oestrous ewes (female-oriented). One prominent feature of sexual differentiation in many species is the presence of a sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN) in the preoptic/anterior hypothalamus that is larger in males than in females. Lesion studies in rats and ferrets implicate the SDN in the expression of sexual preferences. We discovered an ovine SDN (oSDN) in the preoptic/anterior hypothalamus that is smaller in male- than in female-oriented rams and similar in size to the oSDN of ewes. Neurons of the oSDN show abundant aromatase expression that is also reduced in male-oriented compared to female-oriented rams. This observation suggests that sexual partner preferences are neurologically hard-wired and could be influenced by hormones. Aromatase-containing neurons constitute a nascent oSDN as early as d 60 of gestation, which becomes sexually dimorphic by d 135 of gestation when it is 2 times larger in males than in females. Exposure of fetal female lambs to exogenous testosterone from d 30 to 90 of gestation resulted in a masculinised oSDN. These data demonstrate that the oSDN develops prenatally and may influence adult sexual preferences. Surprisingly, inhibition of aromatase activity in the brain of ram fetuses during the critical period did not interfere with defeminisation of adult sexual partner preference or oSDN volume. These results fail to support an essential role for neural aromatase in the sexual differentiation of sheep brain and behaviour. Thus, we propose that oSDN morphology and male-typical partner preferences may instead be programmed through an androgen receptor mechanism not involving aromatisation.
Roselli, C.E.; Stormshak, F.
Sexual violence affects up to one third of women during their lifetime. Sexual assault is underreported, and more than one half of assaults are committed by someone known to the survivor. Although both men and women can be sexually assaulted, women are at greatest risk. Some groups are more vulnerable, including adolescents; survivors of childhood sexual or physical abuse; persons who are disabled; persons with substance abuse problems; sex workers; persons who are poor or homeless; and persons living in prisons, institutions, or areas of military conflict. Family physicians care for sexual assault survivors immediately and years after the assault. Immediate care includes the treatment of injuries, prophylaxis for sexually transmitted infections, administration of emergency contraception to prevent pregnancy, and the sensitive management of psychological issues. Family physicians should collect evidence for a "rape kit" only if they are experienced in treating persons who have been sexually assaulted because of the legal ramifications of improper collection and storage of evidence. Sexual assault may result in long-term mental and physical health problems. Presentations to the family physician may include self-destructive behaviors, chronic pelvic pain, and difficulty with pelvic examinations. Prevention of sexual assault is societal and should focus on public health education. Safety and support programs have been shown to reduce sexual assaults. PMID:20148503
Luce, Helen; Schrager, Sarina; Gilchrist, Valerie
Nonvolitional sex is sexual behavior that violates a person's right to choose when and with whom to have sex and what sexual behaviors to engage in. The more extreme forms of this behavior include rape, forced sex, childhood sexual abuse, sex trafficking, and violence against people with nonconventional sexual identities. More nuanced forms of nonvolitional sex include engaging in sexual
In several anonymous questionnaire studies of college students, marijuana use has been reported to affect sexual behavior. In general, these studies show that marijuana smoking enhances sexual pleasure and increases sexual desire. Marijuana use has also been associated with more frequent sexual activity and an increased number of sexual partners. The purpose of this study was to determine the perceived
Ronald A. Weller; James A. Halikas
Somnambulism or sleepwalking is a viable defence on the basis of automatism. The behaviours that occur during sleepwalking can be highly complex and include sexual behaviour of all types. Somnambulistic sexual behaviour (also called sexsomnia, sleep sex) is considered a variant of sleepwalking disorder as the overwhelming majority of people with Sexsomnia have a history of parasomnia and a family history of sleepwalking. Sexual behaviour during a sleep automatism can vary from explicit sexual vocalisations, to violent masturbation, to complex sexual acts including anal, oral and vaginal penetration. A recent case in England is reported where the defendant was acquitted on 3 charges of rape on the basis of automatism due to somnambulistic sexual behaviour. PMID:16564199
Ebrahim, Irshaad Osman
The aim of this review is to put core features of human sexuality in an evolutionary light. Toward that end, I address five topics concerning the evolution of human sexuality. First, I address theoretical foundations, including recent critiques and developments. While much traces back to Darwin and his view of sexual selection, more recent work helps refine the theoretical bases to sex differences and life history allocations to mating effort. Second, I consider central models attempting to specify the phylogenetic details regarding how hominin sexuality might have changed, with most of those models honing in on transitions from a possible chimpanzee-like ancestor to the slightly polygynous and long-term bonded sociosexual partnerships observed among most recently studied hunter-gatherers. Third, I address recent genetic and physiological data contributing to a refined understanding of human sexuality. As examples, the availability of rapidly increasing genomic information aids comparative approaches to discern signals of selection in sexuality-related phenotypes, and neuroendocrine studies of human responses to sexual stimuli provide insight into homologous and derived mechanisms. Fourth, I consider some of the most recent, large, and rigorous studies of human sexuality. These provide insights into sexual behavior across other national samples and on the Internet. Fifth, I discuss the relevance of a life course perspective to understanding the evolution of human sexuality. Most research on the evolution of human sexuality focuses on young adults. Yet humans are sexual beings from gestation to death, albeit in different ways across the life course, and in ways that can be theoretically couched within life history theory. PMID:24151100
Gray, Peter B
When viewed through a popular cultural lens, male-to-female transsexuals' sexual biographies can appear to indicate male transvestitism,\\u000a heterosexuality, or homosexuality rather than transsexuality. How do transsexuals subvert such implications and construct\\u000a transsexual identities? Drawing on K. Plummer's (1995) approach to sexual stories, we examine how nine male-to-female transsexuals\\u000a construct their sexual pasts to accomplish what sociologists call “identity work.” Interviewees
Douglas P. Schrock; Lori L. Reid
The focus of this book is men and their sexual function and dysfunction, however, many women will also develop some degree\\u000a of sexual health problems concerned with sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and\\/or pain. The goal is to make relevant evidence-based\\u000a clinical information to help identify and treat specific biologically based pathophysiologies available to the motivated health\\u000a care professional. The prevalence
Sexual assaults create significant health and legislative problems for every society. All health professionals who have the\\u000a potential to encounter victims of sexual assaults should have some understanding of the acute and chronic health problems\\u000a that may ensue from an assault. However, the primary clinical forensic assessment of complainants and suspects of sexual assault\\u000a should only be conducted by doctors
Deborah Rogers; Mary Newton
Hormonal imprinting is an epigenetic process which is taking place perinatally at the first encounter between the developing hormone receptors and their target hormones. The hormonal imprinting influences the binding capacity of receptors, the hormone synthesis of the cells, and other hormonally regulated functions, as sexual behavior, aggressivity, empathy, etc. However, during the critical period, when the window for imprinting is open, molecules similar to the physiological imprinters as synthetic hormone analogs, other members of the hormone families, environmental pollutants, etc. can cause faulty imprinting with life-long consequences. The developing immune system, the cells of which also have receptors for hormones, is very sensitive to faulty imprinting, which causes alterations in the antibody and cytokine production, in the ratio of immune cells, in the defense against bacterial and viral infections as well as against malginant tumors. Immune cells (lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes and mast cells) are also producing hormones which are secreted into the blood circulation as well as are transported locally (packed transport). This process is also disturbed by faulty imprinting. As immune cells are differentiating during the whole life, faulty imprinting could develop any time, however, the most decisive is the perinatal imprinting. The faulty imprinting is inherited to the progenies in general and especially in the case of immune system. In our modern world the number and amount of arteficial imprinters (e.g. endocrine disruptors and drugs) are enormously increasing. The effects of the faulty imprinters most dangerous to the immune system are shown in the paper. The present and future consequences of the flood of faulty imprintings are unpredictable however, it is discussed. PMID:24939679
This list on the subject of academic sexual correctness(ASC-L). ASC-L was an outgrowth of CASE (Consenting Academics for Sexual Equity), founded in early 1994 by both professors and students to combat a concerted "feminist" campaign against students and professors who had become involved in an intimate(romantic) relationship. CASE dealt with only one small area of the current emphasis on sexual correctness in academia. Consequently, the need for a network that focused on all aspects of academic sexual correctness became apparent; the ASC-L was a response to that need. ASC-L encompasses all aspects of campus sexual control issues -- irrespective of their ideological origins, such as sexual consent issues, sexual discrimination issues (irrespective of the subjects of the discrimination) and attempts to regulate sexual content of speech on campus or sexual content of course materials. The principles of consent, privacy and academic freedom are the core principles which have motivated the founding of ASC-L.
Sexual offenses with or without aggression attract attention from the popular media and the scientific community. Empirical research suggests a relationship between anger and sexual violence. This article describes the key themes of dysfunctional anger and sexual violence, and how dysfunctional anger relates to sexual fantasies, sexual offending, and sexual recidivism. The implications of the findings for clinical practice and future research are discussed. PMID:24877709
Ahmed, A G
Hormonal changes during decompression sickness. Changes in plasma hormone levels were studied in anesthetized eogs during decompression sickness. Hormone levels were measured in 4 groups: control (no dive, n = 9); air group (air dive, ventilated with air ...
P. W. Catron L. B. Thomas J. J. McDermott R. C. Smallridge C. R. Lake
A role for serotonin in male sexual preference was recently uncovered by our finding that male mutant mice lacking serotonin have lost sexual preference. Here we show that female mouse mutants lacking either central serotonergic neurons or serotonin prefer female over male genital odors when given a choice, and displayed increased female–female mounting when presented either with a choice of a male and a female target or only with a female target. Pharmacological manipulations and genetic rescue experiments showed that serotonin is required in adults. Behavioral changes caused by deficient serotonergic signaling were not due to changes in plasma concentrations of sex hormones. We demonstrate that a genetic manipulation reverses sexual preference without involving sex hormones. Our results indicate that serotonin controls sexual preference.
Zhang, Shasha; Liu, Yan; Rao, Yi
In contrast to studies of abstinence-only programs, studies of abstinence-plus curricula indicate that students do not increase sexual activity. Parents, teachers, and administrators should evaluate all sexuality education programs according to three important criteria: credibility of training materials, curriculum content, and curriculum…
Wiley, David C.; Terlosky, Beverly
In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the radical ideologies of the 1960s
In response to broad enquiry from sexual assault services around Australia, this paper looks at the range of formal health sector protocols that currently exist to guide service responses to victim\\/survivors of sexual assault, throughout Australia's different states and territories. The specific protocols reviewed here tend to be those that guide interaction between medical, counselling and police services who respond
The source of contemporary attitudes toward sexuality, power, and politics is found in the literature of the ancient Greeks, specifically, Plato's "Republic" and "Symposium," Aristotle's "Politics," and the plays of Aeschylus and Aristophanes. The "Symposium" can be read as an account of how sexuality can be incorporated into the public life of…
Hartsock, Nancy C. M.
Somnambulism or sleepwalking is a viable defence on the basis of automatism. The behaviours that occur during sleepwalking can be highly complex and include sexual behaviour of all types. Somnambulistic sexual behaviour (also called sexsomnia, sleep sex) is considered a variant of sleepwalking disorder as the overwhelming majority of people with Sexsomnia have a history of parasomnia and a family
Irshaad Osman Ebrahim
This article makes a brief overview of the most frequent female sexual disorders seen in our clinical practice. It highlights the increasing number of women presenting with hypoactive sexual desire and the efforts practitioners put on helping these female patients. The article also shows the pharmacological strategies that are investigated to solve these dysfuntions. PMID:24260752
The video features a discussion of sexual abuse in children by a physician, social worker, and a psychologist. The program involves a role play by professionals of interviewing a child sexual victim and her family in an emergency room setting. The primary...
Interviews with 28 sexual murderers were subjected to grounded theory analysis. Five implicit theories (ITs) were identified: dangerous world, male sex drive is uncontrollable, entitlement, women as sexual objects, and women as unknowable. These ITs were found to be identical to those identified in the literature as being present in rapists. The…
Beech, Anthony; Fisher, Dawn; Ward, Tony
The perimenopause, with its attendant physiological and psychological changes, has inè uences on a woman's sexuality. These may be positive, e.g. bringing a release from fears of pregnancy leading to an increased sexual enjoyment. More often though the perimenopause brings negative physical effects, such as erratic heavy periods, hot è ushes and vaginal dryness and also negative psychological effects such
Understanding the mental health needs of lesbian and bisexual (sexual minority) women is an integral part of designing and providing appropriate mental health services and treatment for them. In an effort to understand the mental health needs of sexual minority women who seek community treatment, a chart review was conducted of the 223 lesbian and bisexual women who presented for
Tracey L. Rogers; Kristen Emanuel; Judith Bradford
From costly lawsuits on behalf of victims to negative media coverage, districts can face potentially devastating consequences as a result of sexual abuse of their students by district employees. This article offers a few tips on how to battle sexual abuse particularly in school districts. The author stresses that by adopting strong policies that…
In recent years clinicians report a great deal of concern about definition, diagnostic assessment, and treatment modalities when dealing with what might be called out-of-control sexual behavior. Many terms have been used to describe the phenomenon of problematic sexual behavior. Many of these concepts overlap, some are no longer popular, and some…
Giugliano, John R.
Different forms of violence against women and girls reflect existing inequalities between men and women and between adults and children, as well as concepts of masculinity based on aggressiveness and exercise of force as means of affirming virility. Such forms of masculinity manifest themselves through sexual violence. Women who remain in violent relationships are paralyzed by the lack of a self-defense mechanism, by economic and psychic dependence, and by low self-esteem resulting from a long history of submission. Violence against women and girls consists in a series of behaviors, beliefs, and practices aimed at compromising the full exercise of their rights, often with societal tolerance. Sexual violence represents an assault on basic human rights and on the victims' personality, body, and conscience, and on the conscience of their families and even their communities. A number of measures should be taken to eliminate sexual violence, including sex education within the family, school, and elsewhere. PMID:12348803
Londono Velez, A
\\u000a Once the differentiation of our sexual organs into male or female is settled, the next thing to be differentiated is the brain.\\u000a The difference in brain structures resulting from the interaction of sex hormones and developing brain cells, is thought to\\u000a be the basis of sex differences in behaviour, in gender identity, in gender roles, in our sexual orientation (hetero-,
Dick F. Swaab
WINKLER, S. AND J. WADE. Aromatase activity and the regulation of sexual behaviors in the green anole lizard. PHYSIOL BEHAV 64(5) 723–731, 1998.—Sexual behaviors in green anoles are regulated by steroid hormones. Androgens activate the display of masculine courtship and copulatory behaviors, and estradiol activates feminine receptivity. Testosterone can also facilitate receptivity in females. The present study was conducted to
Sara M Winkler; Juli Wade
Diabetic female rats have decreased ovulation, sexual behavior, and luteinizing hormone (LH) surges. Peripheral insulin treatment restores the phenotype to normal. We administered central insulin and analyzed serum LH during the time of the LH surge in diabetic and non-diabetic animals to determine if central insulin was sufficient to normalize the phenotype. We assessed the activity and number of hypothalamic
Peter Kovacs; Albert F. Parlow; George B. Karkanias
Hypogonadism, infertility, and sexual dysfunction occur in some men with coeliac disease. We have measured plasma testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, sex-hormone binding globulin, oestradiol, and serum luteinising hormone in 41 men with coeliac disease and have related these findings to jejunal morphology, fertility, semen quality, and sexual function. To determine the specificity of these observations in coeliacs we also studied 19 nutritionally-matched men with Crohn's disease, and men with chronic ill-health due to rheumatoid arthritis and Hodgkin's disease. The most striking endocrine findings in untreated coeliacs were increased plasma testosterone and free testosterone index, reduced dihydrotestosterone (testosterone's potent peripheral metabolite), and raised serum luteinising hormone, a pattern of abnormalities indicative of androgen resistance. As jejunal morphology improved hormone levels appeared to return to normal. This specific combination of abnormalities was not present in any of the disease control groups and, to our knowledge, androgen resistance has not been described previously in any other non-endocrine disorder. Plasma oestradiol concentration was modestly raised in 10% of coeliacs and 11% of patients with Crohn's disease. Unlike plasma androgens and serum luteinising hormone in coeliacs, plasma oestradiol was not clearly related to jejunal morphology. Androgen resistance and associated hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction appear to be relatively specific to coeliac disease and cannot be explained merely in terms of malnutrition or chronic ill-health. In addition, our findings suggest that this endocrine disturbance may be related to sexual dysfunction in coeliac disease but its relationship to disordered spermatogenesis in this condition has not been clearly established.
Farthing, M J; Rees, L H; Edwards, C R; Dawson, A M
On average, rapists show greater relative genital responses to rape stories than do nonrapists in the laboratory. It has been suggested that this robust group difference is explained by the fact that many rapists are sexually sadistic. It is not clear, however, what the critical cues underlying rapists' genital responses are, because rape stories used in previous research include a mix of sadistic cues of violence and victim injury as well as cues of victim resistance and nonconsent. The present study was conducted to identify the critical cues producing self-identified sadists' sexual responses, and thereby to test sexual sadism as an explanation of rapists' arousal pattern. The present study was also conducted to develop a new phallometric test for sexual sadism for research and clinical applications, given evidence of poor diagnostic reliability and validity. Eighteen self-identified male sadists, 22 men with some sadistic interests who did not meet all of our sadist criteria, and 23 nonsadists (all recruited from the community) were compared in their genital and subjective responses to a new set of stories that disentangle violence/injury cues from resistance/nonconsent cues. The three groups differed in both their genital and subjective responses: using indices of relative responding, sadists responded significantly more to cues of violence/injury than nonsadists and men with some sadistic interests. The group difference for cues of nonconsent was not significant. The results suggest that sexual sadism primarily involves arousal to violence/injury in a sexual context rather than resistance/nonconsent. PMID:22708887
Seto, Michael C; Lalumière, Martin L; Harris, Grant T; Chivers, Meredith L
Psychopathic personality disorder and sexual sadism share several common characteristics, such as emotional detachment from the suffering of others or the preparedness to inflict pain or injuries. Based on a sample of 100 male forensic patients (all of them sex offenders, half of them sadistic), the concept of psychopathy and sexual sadism as a unified construct was tested empirically. Pooling indicator variables for psychopathic and sexually sadistic disorders showed that a two-factorial solution yielded a better fit than a single-factor model. The two factors identified psychopathy and sexual sadism as separate latent variables. More specifically, the data were compatible with a path model in which affective deficits and behavioral disinhibition of the psychopathy domain are precursors to sexually sadistic conduct. PMID:20393872
Mokros, Andreas; Osterheider, Michael; Hucker, Stephen J; Nitschke, Joachim
Objectives: To assess current knowledge of sexually transmitted viral hepatitis in relation to epidemiology, clinical presentation, management, and diagnosis with particular reference to resource-poor settings. Method: A search of published literature identified through Medline from 1966 to October 2001, the Cochrane Library, and reference lists taken from each article obtained. Textword and MeSH searches for hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, G, delta, GB virus, GBV-C, and TT virus were linked to searches under the textword terms sex$, prevent$, and MeSH subheadings, microbiology, complications, drug therapy, therapy, diagnosis, epidemiology, transmission, and prevention and control. Conclusions: In heterosexual relationships, hepatitis B is readily transmitted sexually and hepatitis C and D less so, with no evidence for sexual transmission of hepatitis A. Hepatitis types A‘D are all transmissible sexually in male homosexual relationships under certain conditions. In resource-poor countries sexual transmission is generally only a significant route of transmission for hepatitis B.
Background Invasive cervical cancer is the commonest cause of cancer morbidity and mortality in South African women. This study provides information on adult women's sexual activity and cervical cancer risk in South Africa. Methods The data were derived from a case-control study of hormonal contraceptives and cervical cancer risk. Information on age of sexual debut and number of lifetime sexual partners was collected from 524 incident cases and 1541 hospital controls. Prevalence ratios and adjusted prevalence ratios were utilised to estimate risk in exposures considered common. Crude and adjusted relative risks were estimated where the outcome was uncommon, using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results The median age of sexual debut and number of sexual partners was 17 years and 2 respectively. Early sexual debut was associated with lower education, increased number of life time partners and alcohol use. Having a greater number of sexual partners was associated with younger sexual debut, being black, single, higher educational levels and alcohol use. The adjusted odds ratio for sexual debut < 16 years and ? 4 life-time sexual partners and cervical cancer risk were 1.6 (95% CI 1.2 – 2.2) and 1.7 (95% CI 1.2 – 2.2), respectively. Conclusion Lower socio-economic status, alcohol intake, and being single or black, appear to be determinants of increased sexual activity in South African women. Education had an ambiguous effect. As expected, cervical cancer risk is associated with increased sexual activity. Initiatives to encourage later commencement of sex, and limiting the number of sexual partners would have a favourable impact on risk of cancer of the cervix and other sexually transmitted infections
Cooper, Diane; Hoffman, Margaret; Carrara, Henri; Rosenberg, Lynn; Kelly, Judy; Stander, Ilse; Denny, Lynnette; Williamson, Anna-Lise; Shapiro, Samuel
Sexual differentiation of the mammalian nervous system has been studied intensively for over 25 years. Most of what we know, however, comes from work on relatively non-social species in which direct reproduction (i.e., production of offspring) is virtually the only route to reproductive success. In social species, an individual’s inclusive fitness may include contributions to the gene pool that are achieved by supporting the reproductive efforts of close relatives; this feature is most evident in eusocial organisms. Here, we review what is known about neuroendocrine mechanisms, sexual differentiation, and effects of social status on the brain and spinal cord in two eusocial mammals: the naked mole-rat and Damaraland mole-rat. These small rodents exhibit the most rigidly organized reproductive hierarchy among mammals, with reproduction suppressed in a majority of individuals. Our findings suggest that eusociality may be associated with a relative lack of sex differences and a reduced influence of gonadal hormones on some functions to which these hormones are usually tightly linked. We also identify neural changes accompanying a change in social and reproductive status, and discuss the implications of our findings for understanding the evolution of sex differences and the neuroendocrinology of reproductive suppression.
Holmes, Melissa M.; Goldman, Bruce D.; Goldman, Sharry L.; Seney, Marianne L.; Forger, Nancy G.
Sexual differentiation of the mammalian nervous system has been studied intensively for over 25 years. Most of what we know, however, comes from work on relatively non-social species in which direct reproduction (i.e., production of offspring) is virtually the only route to reproductive success. In social species, an individual's inclusive fitness may include contributions to the gene pool that are achieved by supporting the reproductive efforts of close relatives; this feature is most evident in eusocial organisms. Here, we review what is known about neuroendocrine mechanisms, sexual differentiation, and effects of social status on the brain and spinal cord in two eusocial mammals: the naked mole-rat and Damaraland mole-rat. These small rodents exhibit the most rigidly organized reproductive hierarchy among mammals, with reproduction suppressed in a majority of individuals. Our findings suggest that eusociality may be associated with a relative lack of sex differences and a reduced influence of gonadal hormones on some functions to which these hormones are usually tightly linked. We also identify neural changes accompanying a change in social and reproductive status, and discuss the implications of our findings for understanding the evolution of sex differences and the neuroendocrinology of reproductive suppression. PMID:19416733
Holmes, Melissa M; Goldman, Bruce D; Goldman, Sharry L; Seney, Marianne L; Forger, Nancy G
The semaphorin proteins are among the best-studied families of guidance cues, contributing to morphogenesis and homeostasis in a wide range of tissue types. The major semaphorin receptors are plexins and neuropilins, however other receptors and co-receptors are capable to mediate signaling by semaphorins. These guidance proteins were originally identified as growth cone “collapsing factors” or as inhibitory signals, crucial for nervous system development. Since those seminal discoveries, the list of functions of semaphorins has rapidly grown. Over the past few years, a growing body of data indicates that semaphorins are involved in the regulation of the immune and vascular systems, in tumor growth/cancer cell metastasis and in neural circuit formation. Recently there has been increasing emphasis on research to determine the potential influence of semaphorins on the development and homeostasis of hormone systems and how circulating reproductive hormones regulate their expression and functions. Here, we focus on the emerging role of semaphorins in the development, differentiation and plasticity of unique neurons that secrete gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which are essential for the acquisition and maintenance of reproductive competence in all vertebrates. Genetic evidence is also provided showing that insufficient semaphorin signaling contributes to some forms of reproductive disorders in humans, characterized by the reduction or failure of sexual competence. Finally, we will review some studies with the goal of highlighting how the expression of semaphorins and their receptors might be regulated by gonadal hormones in physiological and pathological conditions.
Messina, Andrea; Giacobini, Paolo
The present study examines changes in women's sexual activity and behavior following sexual assault and the relationship between alcohol abuse and postassault promiscuity. Although many researchers have focused on avoidance of sexual activity following an assault, some have suggested that women may exhibit an increase in sexual activity…
Deliramich, Aimee N.; Gray, Matt J.
BackgroundSexual conflict theory predicts sexually antagonistic coevolution of reproductive traits driven by conflicting evolutionary interests of two reproducing individuals. Most studies of the evolutionary consequences of sexual conflicts have, however, to date collectively investigated only a few species. In this study we used the annual herb Collinsia heterophylla to experimentally test the existence and evolutionary consequences of a potential sexual
Josefin A. Madjidian; Åsa Lankinen; Simon Joly
Aim: This study was planned to determine the effect of urinary leakage on sexual function during sexual intercourse. Methods: The study group included 32 incontinent women who had urinary leakage during sexual intercourse and the control group consisted of 60 women with no such problem. The Sexual History Form of Schover and Jensen was completed in face-to-face interviews in a
Nezihe Kizilkaya Beji; Habibe Ayyildiz Erkan; Arsaluys Kayir
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanolic extract of Pueraria tuberosa (PT) on sexual behaviour and androgenic activity. Male albino rats were divided into four groups of six animals each: control group 1 (2% acacia solution), PT-treated group 2 (50 mg/Kg), PT-treated group 3 (100?mg/Kg), and PT-treated group 4 (150?mg/Kg). Sexual behavior of male rats in the presence of a female rat was recorded. The treated groups were evaluated for sexual parameters. The extract was characterized using LC-MS. The effect of treatment on anabolic and weight of secondary sexual organs was determined. The histological changes in section of testis and epididymis after treatment were observed. Sperm count in epididymis and fructose content in seminal vesicles were also measured. Levels of hormones like FSH, LH, and T were determined. A dose-dependent increase in sexual behaviors was evidenced in the animals of extract treated groups. Increase in testis weight was recorded in PT. At the highest dose PT also affects the hormones level. The four compounds namely puerarin, daidzein, biochanin-A and formononetin were identified in ethanolic extract using LC-MS. It concluded that PT extract possesses androgenic effect and it significantly increased the sexual behaviour and hormones level. PMID:24489512
Chauhan, Nagendra Singh; Sharma, Vikas; Thakur, Mayank; Christine Helena Frankland Sawaya, Alexandra; Dixit, V K
The sexual consequences of breast cancer and its treatments are well known and previously reviewed. Alterations in body image, with or without breast reconstruction, changes in sexual self-esteem and self-efficacy, vulvovaginal atrophy as a result of chemotherapy and/or adjuvant hormone therapy, and loss of libido secondary to dyspareunia and body image issues are common in survivors of breast cancer. Medications that are prescribed for long-term use including those in the class of aromatase inhibitors can have far-reaching implications on quality of life by contributing to vulvar and vaginal atrophic changes. While this is an important issue, there are few widely accepted treatments that have been evaluated for efficacy and safety for these sexual challenges in the breast cancer population. However, progress is being made in finding new and innovative solutions for many of the sexual problems faced by breast cancer survivors and their partners. Many institutions are now compelled to address survivorship concerns and addressing sexuality and intimacy are paramount issues in survivorship care. In this article, we present the evidence for the multimodal approach to the management of sexuality concerns in the breast cancer survivor. Pharmacologic, nonpharmacologic, and psychosocial interventions will be reviewed. PMID:22151953
Krychman, Michael L; Katz, Anne
Of the numerous neuropeptides identified in the central nervous system, only a few are involved in the control of sexual behaviour. Among these, the most studied are oxytocin, adrenocorticotropin, ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone and opioid peptides. While opioid peptides inhibit sexual performance, the others facilitate sexual behaviour in most of the species studied so far (rats, mice, monkeys and humans). However, evidence for a sexual role of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y, galanin and galanin-like peptide, cholecystokinin, substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide, vasopressin, angiotensin II, hypocretins/orexins and VGF-derived peptides are also available. Corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y, cholecystokinin, vasopressin and angiotensin II inhibit, while substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide, hypocretins/orexins and some VGF-derived peptide facilitate sexual behaviour. Neuropeptides influence sexual behaviour by acting mainly in the hypothalamic nuclei (i.e., lateral hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus, ventromedial nucleus, arcuate nucleus), in the medial preoptic area and in the spinal cord. However, it is often unclear whether neuropeptides influence the anticipatory phase (sexual arousal and/or motivation) or the consummatory phase (performance) of sexual behaviour, except in a few cases (e.g., opioid peptides and oxytocin). Unfortunately, scarce information has been added in the last 15 years on the neural mechanisms by which neuropeptides influence sexual behaviour, most studied neuropeptides apart. This may be due to a decreased interest of researchers on neuropeptides and sexual behaviour or on sexual behaviour in general. Such a decrease may be related to the discovery of orally effective, locally acting type V phosphodiesterase inhibitors for the therapy of erectile dysfunction. PMID:23851261
Argiolas, Antonio; Melis, Maria Rosaria
We briefly survey the concept of autoimmunity and nominate the range of autoimmune diseases that include multisystemic and organ-specific disorders, and cite prevalences of autoimmune diseases in males and females, in humans and in experimental animals. Most human autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), multiple sclerosis (MS) and autoimmune thyroid disease, have an increased incidence and prevalence in females, but a few others such as autoimmune diabetes, the Guillain Barré syndrome (GBS) and psoriasis are increased in males. Animal models of autoimmunity show an equivalent sexual dimorphism. The possible reasons for the differing incidence and prevalence of autoimmune diseases in females and males engage our attention. Environmental exposures may differ for females and males. There are innate differences in the function of the female and male immune systems, and there is some evidence for differences between females and males in the ability of a target organ for autoimmunity to withstand damage. In seeking reasons for these differences, we review the role of sex hormones in immunity and include results of trials of hormone therapy in autoimmune diseases. The association of autoimmunity and pregnancy, a female-specific condition, is discussed, and the claimed effects of lymphoid cell microchimerism on provocation of autoimmunity are reviewed. Genetic predisposition is an important factor in autoimmune disease and we particularly focus on genes on the X and Y chromosomes, the role of X chromosome inactivation, and the interaction of the sex of the patient with other genetic factors. The possible role of epigenetic mechanisms, including environmental influences, is then surveyed. We assert that sex is a vital variable that must be considered in all immunological studies, as it should be at all levels of biological research. PMID:19747114
McCombe, P A; Greer, J M; Mackay, I R
Controversies exist about the diagnostic validity of sexual sadism and its relation to sadistic personality disorder in sex offenders. The aim of this study was to investigate which diagnostic, developmental, and criminal characteristics differentiate sexual sadistic from non-sadistic sexual homicide perpetrators. Psychiatric court reports on 166 men who had committed a sexual homicide were evaluated regarding psychiatric, sexual and criminal history. Sixty-one offenders (36.7%) with sexual sadism (SeSd) were compared with 105 (63.3%) offenders without this diagnosis (NSeSd). Besides the sexual sadistic symptoms, there were seven factors that discriminated best between the two groups (sexual masochism, sadistic personality disorder, isolation in childhood, multiple sexual homicide, previous rape, previous tendencies for similar behavior, and long duration of the homicidal act). Sexual sadism is connected with circumscribed other characteristics and has to be considered in risk assessment and treatment of sex offenders. PMID:17192143
Hill, Andreas; Habermann, Niels; Berner, Wolfgang; Briken, Peer
Sexual maturation and somatic growth cessation are associated with adolescent development, which is precisely controlled by interconnected neuroendocrine regulatory pathways in the endogenous endocrine system. The pituitary gland is one of the key regulators of the endocrine system. By analyzing the RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) transcriptome before and after sexual maturation, in this study, we characterized the global gene expression patterns in zebrafish pituitaries at 45 and 90 days post-fertilization (dpf). A total of 15?043 annotated genes were expressed in the pituitary tissue, 3072 of which were differentially expressed with a greater than or equal to twofold change between pituitaries at 45 and 90 dpf. In the pituitary transcriptome, the most abundant transcript was gh. The expression levels of gh remained high even after sexual maturation at 90 dpf. Among the eight major pituitary hormone genes, lhb was the only gene that exhibited a significant change in its expression levels between 45 and 90 dpf. Significant changes in the pituitary transcripts included genes involved in the regulation of immune responses, bone metabolism, and hormone secretion processes during the juvenile-sexual maturity transition. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis was carried out to verify the RNA-seq transcriptome results and demonstrated that the expression patterns of the eight major pituitary hormone genes did not exhibit a significant gender difference at 90 dpf. For the first time, we report the quantitative global gene expression patterns at the juvenile and sexual maturity stages. These expression patterns may account for the dynamic neuroendocrine regulation observed in body metabolism. PMID:24709578
He, Wenxia; Dai, Xiangyan; Chen, Xiaowen; He, Jiangyan; Yin, Zhan
e.hormone serves as a "a hub of scientific and media information about environmental signaling." Hosted by the Center for Biomedical Research at Tulane and Xavier Universities, e.hormone is an excellent resource for keeping up with environmental hormone news and research from estrogen-mimicking compounds to mercury contamination and more. e.hormone offers research summaries, links to related news stories, an events calendar, and even an introductory educational section about environmental hormones and the endocrine system in general. e.hormone has recently subsumed Environmental Estrogens and Other Hormones, its former sister site also from Tulane University.
In some traditional therapies, it has been claimed that camphor (a crystalline ketone obtained from cinnamomum camphora) would be a suppressor of sexual behaviors and sex hormones. This study evaluated the effects of camphor on sex hormones, like luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone. In this experimental study, 56 male rats were divided into 5 groups, including control (n=12), sham (n=11) and three treatment groups (n=11) in three different doses. The sham groups received daily intra peritoneal (IP) injections of the vehicle (ethanol 10%) for 30 days. Three treatment groups received different daily IP injections of the camphor (1, 2 and 5 mg/Kg) for 30 days and the control groups didn’t received anything. Serums were used for assaying LH, FSH and testosterone. The level of LH significantly increased in all doses of camphor among the treatment groups as compared to the control (p<0.05), but camphor in doses 2 and 5 mg/Kg significantly reduced the FSH level as compared to control group (p<0.05). No significant changes were seen in testosterone levels. Camphor increased level of LH, decreased level of FSH, whereas it failed to change level of testosterone. The claim of inhibitory effect of camphor on sexual activity could not be confirmed by this study. More investigations in this field are suggested.
Shahabi, Sima; Jorsaraei, Seyed Gholam Ali; Akbar Moghadamnia, Ali; Barghi, Effat; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Golsorkhtabar Amiri, Masoumeh; Maliji, Ghorban; Sohan Faraji, Alieh; Abdi Boora, Maryam; Ghazinejad, Neda; Shamsai, Hajar
On average, rapists show greater relative genital responses to rape stories than do nonrapists in the laboratory. It has been suggested that this robust group difference is explained by the fact that many rapists are sexually sadistic. It is not clear, however, what the critical cues underlying rapists' genital responses are, because rape stories used in previous research include a
Michael C. Seto; Martin L. Lalumière; Grant T. Harris; Meredith L. Chivers
Medical students' attitudes towards concepts in sexuality before and after a five-day sexuality course were tested at the University of Miami School of Medicine and evaluated with Osgood's Semantic Differential. Concepts rated were "my sexuality,""masturbation,""homosexuality," and "my role in understanding sexual problems." (LBH)
Carmichael, Joan; And Others
The National Commission on Adolescent Sexual Health developed a professional consensus statement about adolescent sexual health. Its report for policymakers recommends that adults face the facts about adolescent sexuality and that public policies on adolescent sexual health be based on appropriate knowledge, accurate data, current theory, ongoing…
Haffner, Debra W.
Sexual assault is a crime of violence affecting modern American society. Victims of sexual assault tend to be women from a broad cross-section of social, economic, ethnic, and age groups. The postmenopausal woman is not immune from sexual assault and is increasingly a victim. The author presents the topic of sexual assault within the general framework of the physician's role
Susan M. Ramin
This book provides a complete course in human sexuality. It can also be used to supplement a family living course. Text content provides current information for teaching high school students about sexuality issues. The text offers basic information on growth and development, sexual development, pregnancy, and birth. It explains the sexual decision…
Ryder, Verdene; Smith, Peggy B.
Married men labeled as sexual addicts seek help after being discovered to have had broken monogamy rules for sexual behavior through their use of masturbation, pornography, cybersex, commercial sex involvement, paraphilic pursuits, or affairs. This study analyzed the sexual patterns and dynamics of 30 men who presented to 1 clinician between 2005 and 2009. Their important differences were captured by a 6-category spectrum: (a) no sexual excess beyond breaking the spouse's restrictive rules (n = 2), (b) discovery of husband's longstanding sexual secrets (n = 5), (c) new discovery of the joys of commercial sex (n = 4), (d) the bizarre or paraphilic (n = 7), (e) alternate concept of normal masculinity (n = 5), and (f) spiraling psychological deterioration (n = 7). Only the men with a spiraling psychological deterioration-about 25% of the sample with sexual issues-could reasonably be described as having a sexual addiction. This group experienced significant psychological failures before the onset of their deterioration. Another 25% were adequately defined as paraphilic. Half of the sample was not adequately described using addiction, compulsivity, impulsivity, and relationship incapacity models. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for DSM-5 and treatment. PMID:20432125
Levine, Stephen B
Sexual health is an evolving paradigm that integrates a positive approach to sexuality with existing public health policy and practice for reducing the burdens of sexually transmitted infections, including those due to HIV. The sexual health paradigm rests in commitment to sexual rights, sexual knowledge, sexual choice, and sexual pleasure, as well as key elements of sexuality addressed by sexual desire, sexual arousal, and sexual function, and sexual behaviors. The sexual health paradigm offers new approaches to supporting general health and well being while reducing the burdens of sexual diseases and their consequences. PMID:24088679
Fortenberry, J Dennis
The existence of a variety of disturbing symptoms, sometimes loosely described as 'the male menopause', has received wide confirmation in both professional and lay literature over the last few years. Whilst there is no conclusive empirical evidence that the majority of men undergo a hormonal 'change of life' equivalent to that found in women, it has become clear that a significant number do experience psychological and social difficulties at some point in middle age. It has also become clear that in certain respects, these negative experiences resemble those typically associated with a traumatic menopause in middle-aged women. Amongst the various symptoms reported, one is of particular interest: the recurring expression of male sexual anxiety and/or dissatisfaction with sex-life. This paper draws upon a comparative analysis of professional and lay publications concerning the male menopause and menopause, which appeared in the U.K. and U.S.A. between approx. 1930-1983, to locate this expression of sexual anxiety in the context of a changing conception of middle age in the western world. The main focus is on the influence of contemporary models of sexualised lifestyle on sexual expectations and relations between the sexes during mid-life. Attention is also paid to the possible future implications of changing images of middle age for the diagnosis and treatment of the male menopause/climacteric or mid-life crisis. PMID:4079823
Featherstone, M; Hepworth, M
This grant consisted of 4 separate projects; Projects 1 and 4 aimed at assessing the association between lifestyle factors (exogenous hormone use) and breast cancer. The other two projects aimed at elucidating the role of estrogen metabolism in breast can...
Grant consists of separate projects; The first aims at assessing the association between lifestyle factors (hormone use) and breast cancer; the second aims at elucidating the role of estrogen metabolism in the development of breast cancer; the third aims ...
... Citation Help Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Endocrine System » Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life ...
The patent application relates to the isolation and purification of human parathyroid hormone from human parathyroid adenomas. The primary sequence of the amino terminal 34 residues was determined and the peptide of the first 34 residues synthesized.
H. B. Brewer
\\u000a The principle of hormonal male contraception based on suppression of gonadotropins and spermatogenesis has been established\\u000a over the last three decades. All hormonal male contraceptives use testosterone, but only in East Asian men can testosterone\\u000a alone suppress spermatogenesis to a level compatible with contraceptive protection. In Caucasians, additional agents are required\\u000a of which progestins are favored. Current clinical trials concentrate
\\u000a Apart from digesting and absorbing nutrients, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract also possesses important sensing and signaling\\u000a functions. It is estimated that more than 50 hormones and regulatory peptides are synthesized in the GI, primarily in response\\u000a to food entering the digestive system [1, 2]. The majority of the bioactive peptides are generated from a larger precursor\\u000a (pro-hormone) by proteolytic cleavage
Yan Wang; Efi Kokkotou
In this investigation 25 female patients were included with the Turner syndrome (TS). From the 25 patients 6 had spontaneous menstruations, 19 had menstruations only after a hormonal stimulation. In a semi-structured interview the patients were questioned about their sexual activities, behavior and orgastic capacity. The findings were related to a matched normal female population. Moreover an analysis of personality traits by means of the Freiburger Persönlichkeitsinventar [FPI], the Giessen Test [GT], and a questionnaire on education styles of parents [EMBU] has been undertaken. The endocrine profile of the patients with induced menarche showed an elevated value of LH and FSH in serum, and a low level of estradiol. The sexual development of all patients was normal during the prepubertal phase. However the biological puberty was delayed by three years in the study patients, in relation to a normal population. Each of these women had a normal female identity and was heterosexual oriented. In concordance with the literature, patients who were substituted too late, showed defined deficits in their psychic well being, as well as in their social and psychosexual functioning. These deficits only were significant in relation to delayed menarche, but not to chronological age, gynecological age, karyotype, body height or parental education style. Therefore, an early and adequately dosed hormonal intervention and a consequently and regularly performed substitution therapy with sexual steroids has to be undertaken beside the well known intervention with growth hormone. PMID:7892677
Hettmer, E; Hoepffner, W; Keller, E; Brähler, E
While people engage in sexual activities for a variety of reasons, one primary motivation is pleasure. Rather than disentangle\\u000a the various complications of human sexuality, this paper will focus on sexual pleasure. We begin with definitions of sex and\\u000a sexuality, and a consideration of the nature of sexual pleasure. To this end, we will discuss a wide variety of activities
B. J. Rye; Glenn J. Meaney
Throughout the ages, humans have searched for new ways of enhancing sexuality and sexual performance. We review some of the\\u000a more popular products, such as herbs, botanicals, combination products, and topical formulations that have been heralded as\\u000a sexual enhancers or have mythological roots suggesting they can be used for the treatment of sexual dysfunction. Lastly, we\\u000a discuss sexual touch (Tantra),
Michael L. Krychman; Jyothirmai Gubili; Leanne Pereira; Lana Holstein; Barrie Cassileth
Thyroid hormone is essential for the development of the brain and the nervous system. Cellular entry is required for conversion of thyroid hormones by the intracellular deiodinases and for binding of T(3) to its nuclear receptors. Several transporters capable of thyroid hormone transport have been identified. Functional expression studies using Xenopus laevis oocytes have so far identified two categories of transporters involved in thyroid hormone uptake (i.e., organic anion transporters and amino acid transporters). Among the organic anion transporters, both Na(+) taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) and various members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) family mediate transport of iodothyronines. Because iodothyronines are a particular class of amino acids derived from tyrosine residues, it is no surprise that some amino acid transporters have been shown to be involved in thyroid hormone transport. We have characterized monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) as a very active and specific thyroid hormone transporter, the gene of which is located on the X chromosome. MCT8 is highly expressed in liver and brain but is also widely distributed in other tissues. MCT8 shows 50% amino acid identity with a system T amino acid transporter 1 (TAT1). TAT1, also called MCT10, has been characterized to transport aromatic amino acids but no iodothyronines. We have also found that mutations in MCT8 are associated with severe X-linked psychomotor retardation and strongly elevated serum T(3) levels in young boys. PMID:15727804
Friesema, Edith C H; Jansen, Jurgen; Milici, Carmelina; Visser, Theo J
Ten years of research that has provided data regarding the prevalence of sexual dysfunctions is reviewed. A thorough review of the literature identified 52 studies that have been published in the 10 years since an earlier review by Spector and Carey (1990). Community samples indicate a current prevalence of 0 - 3% for male orgasmic disorder, 0 - 5% for erectile disorder, and 0 - 3% for male hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Pooling current and 1-year figures provides community prevalence estimates of 7 - 10% for female orgasmic disorder and 4 - 5% for premature ejaculation. Stable community estimates of the current prevalence for the other sexual dysfunctions remain unavailable. Prevalence estimates obtained from primary care and sexuality clinic samples are characteristically higher. Although a relatively large number of studies have been conducted since Spector and Carey’s (1990) review, the lack of methodological rigor of many studies limits the confidence that can be placed in these findings.
Simons, Jeffrey; Carey, Michael P.
Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)
It is intented to show two apparently antithetic poles: Sexuality and Death, in fact interpenetrate themselves, disguising the fear of death, or the desire to die, Eros' world. Different expressions of culture are analyzed, especially the one known as The Profane Time, the time for work, which is characterized by the submission to interdicts (prohibitions) and, on the other hand, the Time for Joy or The Sacred Time, characterized by the transgression of such prohibitions. Its relationship with the interdicts'violations in the sexual as well as in the death arena is analyzed in order to connect the human being's fear in the presence of the unrestraint, the overflow and the abandonment of the time established for work that would imply free sexuality. The latter is connected with some conclusions that could be considered useful in the field of Sexual Therapies, with a certain critical look at the mechanist settlement applied to those treatments. PMID:16645674
This activity provides questions and Web sites to guide student investigation of birth control methods, fetal development, risks of alcohol and smoking during pregnancy, changes during puberty, and HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases.
Given the epidemic levels of sexual violence and the widespread availability of increasingly graphic pornography in the United States, it is not surprising that researchers and activists have tried to answer the question of whether there is a connection b...
The Ob/Gyn Department of Rambam University, Haifa, Israel, recently established a Center for Sexual Counseling, Therapy and Education. The Center's concept and format of therapy, and some preliminary observations, are presented. (Author)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) affects three times more women than men and this ratio appears to be increasing. However male patients experience increased disease progression, brain atrophy, and cognitive impairment. Gonadal hormones may modulate these sex differences. For example, female puberty heralds an increased risk of MS, and during pregnancy disease activity is milder, with an increased risk of postpartum relapses. Gonadal hormones likely have complex and inflammatory and neuroprotective effects, and may interact with other disease modulators, such as vitamin D. Sex differences in the heritability of disease susceptibility genes implicate a role for epigenetic modification. Many questions remain, including the impact of sex on treatment response and epigenetic changes, and the modulatory potential of hormonal treatments. This article summarizes what is known about sexual dimorphism in MS onset and course, as well as potential interactions between sex and other factors influencing MS pathogenesis, incidence and severity. PMID:23608496
Bove, Riley; Chitnis, Tanuja
There is theoretical reason to believe narcissism is associated with a number of sexual behaviors and outcomes that affect both sexual and relationship satisfaction. Nevertheless, research on the association between personality and behavior demonstrates that personality traits, such as narcissism, only predict behavior in domains that activate the components of the personality system. Given that global assessments of narcissism do not capture the extent to which the components of narcissism are activated in the sexual domain, we examined the extent to which the facets of a domain-specific measure of sexual narcissism accounted for the trajectories of own and partner sexual and marital satisfaction over the first five years of 120 new marriages. Three of the four facets of sexual narcissism (sexual exploitation, sexual entitlement, and low sexual empathy) were negatively associated with both trajectories. The fourth facet (sexual skill) was positively associated with both trajectories. Notably, sexual satisfaction mediated the effect of every facet of sexual narcissism on marital satisfaction. A global assessment of narcissism was not associated with either trajectory of satisfaction. These findings highlight (1) the importance of narcissistic tendencies for sexual processes, (2) the benefits of using domain-specific measures of personality in research on sexual behavior, and (3) the importance of examining the implications of the specific facets of personality constructs. PMID:23297145
McNulty, James K; Widman, Laura
Research on sexual difficulties after cancer has neglected sexual minority women (SMW); for example, lesbian and bisexual women. Clinicians treating these women are therefore at a disadvantage as they lack information about sexual problems in this population. This study tested the hypothesis that SMW with breast cancer have poorer sexual function than SMW without breast cancer, distinguishing partnered from unpartnered women. Using convenience sample recruitment, we conducted a case-control study to compare survivors of breast cancers who are SMW, in other words, cases to controls, that is, SMW without cancer. Anonymous survey data were collected from 85 cases after they had completed active cancer treatment and 85 age- and partner-status matched controls with no history of any cancer. Participants' self-reported sexual frequency and sexual function measured by the Female Sexual Function Index were evaluated. Cases and controls did not differ in risk of sexual dysfunction or the level of overall sexual functioning; however, cases had lower sexual frequency and scored lower on desire and ability to reach orgasm, and higher on pain compared to controls. Results inform clinicians about sexual minority survivors' sexual domains affected by cancer. When discussing sexual problems and therapeutic options, sexual orientation should be ascertained. PMID:23730713
Boehmer, Ulrike; Ozonoff, Al; Timm, Alison; Winter, Michael; Potter, Jennifer
Steroid hormones, including those produced by the gonads and the adrenal glands, are known to influence brain development during sensitive periods of life. Until recently, most brain organisation was assumed to take place during early stages of development, with relatively little neurogenesis or brain re-organisation during later stages. However, an increasing body of research has shown that the developing brain is also sensitive to steroid hormone exposure during adolescence (broadly defined as the period from nutritional independence to sexual maturity). In this review, we examine how steroid hormones that are produced by the gonads and adrenal glands vary across the lifespan in a range of mammalian and bird species, and we summarise the evidence that steroid hormone exposure influences behavioural and brain development during early stages of life and during adolescence in these two taxonomic groups. Taking a cross-species, comparative perspective reveals that the effects of early exposure to steroid hormones depend upon the stage of development at birth or hatching, as measured along the altricial-precocial dimension. We then review the evidence that exposure to stress during adolescence impacts upon the developing neuroendocrine systems, the brain and behaviour. Current research suggests that the effects of adolescent stress vary depending upon the sex of the individual and type of stressor, and the effects of stress could involve several neural systems, including the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems. Experience of stressors during adolescence could also influence brain development via the close interactions between the stress hormone and gonadal hormone axes. While sensitivity of the brain to steroid hormones during early life and adolescence potentially leaves the developing organism vulnerable to external adversities, developmental plasticity also provides an opportunity for the developing organism to respond to current circumstances and for behavioural responses to influence the future life history of the individual. PMID:23262238
Brown, G R; Spencer, K A
Psychopathic personality disorder and sexual sadism share several common characteristics, such as emotional detachment from\\u000a the suffering of others or the preparedness to inflict pain or injuries. Based on a sample of 100 male forensic patients (all\\u000a of them sex offenders, half of them sadistic), the concept of psychopathy and sexual sadism as a unified construct was tested\\u000a empirically. Pooling
Andreas Mokros; Michael Osterheider; Stephen J. Hucker; Joachim Nitschke
This article begins by defining sexual abuse, and reviews the literature on the epidemiology of child sexual abuse (CSA). Clinical outcomes of CSA are described, including health and mental health. An outline is given of all the services often involved after an incident of CSA, and the need for coordination among them. Treatment strategies and evidence-based recommendations are reviewed. Challenges around dissemination and implementation, cultural considerations, and familial dynamics are described. Possible future directions are discussed. PMID:24656583
Murray, Laura K; Nguyen, Amanda; Cohen, Judith A
Sexual identity has been substantially underinvestigated relative to other aspects of identity. The purpose of this study was to document the relationship between sexual psychosocial maturity, positive sexual self-concepts, and effective sexual decision-making\\/coping styles with the identity processes that college students choose to use in defining their sexual self. Participants in the study were 275 undergraduate male and female students
Sally L. Archer; Jeremy A. Grey
Field studies have demonstrated that several species of mormyrid fish from Gabon, West Africa have a sex difference in the pulse-like waveform of their Electric Organ Discharge (EOD). Administration of androgen hormones (testosterone or dihydrotestosterone) to a female or juvenile can induce the EOD typical of a sexually mature male. Data for two such species —Brienomyrus brachyistius (triphasic) andStomatorhinus corneti
Andrew H. Bass; Carl D. Hopkins
Weakly-electric fish (Apteronotidae) produce highly diverse electrocommunication signals. Electric organ discharges (EODs) vary across species, sexes, and in the magnitude and direction of their sexual dimorphism. Gonadal steroid hormones can modulate EODs, and differences in androgen sensitivity are hypothesized to underlie variation in the degree of sexual dimorphism across species. In this study, we asked whether variation in androgen sensitivity explained variation in sexual dimorphism of EODs within species, at the population level. We examined two populations of black ghost knifefish (Apteronotus albifrons), one from the Orinoco and the other from the Amazon River Basin. EOD frequency (EODf) and chirp rates were measured to characterize diversity in sexual dimorphism across populations. The magnitude of sexual dimorphism in EODf differed significantly across populations, and was more pronounced in the Orinoco population than in the Amazon population. Chirp rates were sexually monomorphic in both populations. 11-Ketotestosterone (11-kT) was administered over a two-week period to assess population differences in sensitivity to androgens. 11-kT masculinized EODf significantly more in the population with the greater degree of sexual dimorphism. 11-kT had no effect on the sexually monomorphic chirping rates. We conclude that population divergence in androgen sensitivity contributes to variation in sexual dimorphism of EODf in A. albifrons. PMID:23142327
Ho, Winnie W; Rack, Jessie M; Smith, G Troy
The magnitude and characteristics of sexual violence in two urban areas of Lesotho are described based on a random household survey of 939 sexually active women aged 18-35. Sexual violence is defined as nonconsensual sex ranging from the use of threats and intimidation to unwanted touching and forced sex. Twenty-five percent of women surveyed reported ever being physically forced to have sex; 13 percent reported that forced sex was attempted; 31 percent said that they were touched against their will; and 11 percent reported being forced to touch a man's genitals. Boyfriends were the most common perpetrators of actual and attempted forced sex (66 percent and 44 percent, respectively); known community members were the most common perpetrators of touching the respondent against her will (52 percent). Currently married women and those with more education were less likely than others to report that sex was forced upon them by an intimate partner or by another type of perpetrator. Women living in areas where a program raising awareness about sexual violence was ongoing were more likely to report a history of sexual violence. Given the high prevalence of HIV in Lesotho, programs should address women's right to control their sexuality. PMID:17209284
Brown, Lisanne; Thurman, Tonya; Bloem, Jeanette; Kendall, Carl
Significant controversy surrounds the diagnosis of sexual sadism. Research suggests that many characteristics attributed to sexual sadists fail to differentiate sexual offenders with and without this diagnosis. Furthermore, when there are differences between sadists and nonsadists, "sadistic" features are frequently associated with nonsadists. Finally, diagnosticians appear to use idiosyncratic methods to diagnose sexual sadism. These findings raise concerns about the reliability and validity of a diagnosis of sexual sadism, particularly with respect to how professionals conceptualize this diagnosis. This study examines how professionals understand the relative importance of behaviors associated with sadistic versus nonsadistic sexual offending. Professionals rated behaviors according to their "essentialness" for this diagnosis. Results show that professionals rated behaviors associated with three out of four conceptualizations of sexual sadism as significantly more essential to making a diagnosis of sexual sadism, compared to behaviors associated with nonsadistic sexual offending. Results suggest that professionals reliably discriminate between sadistic and nonsadistic offense behaviors. PMID:18775840
McLawsen, Julia E; Jackson, Rebecca L; Vannoy, Steven D; Gagliardi, Gregg J; Scalora, Mario J
The role of gastrointestinal hormones in the regulation of appetite is reviewed. The gastrointestinal tract is the largest endocrine organ in the body. Gut hormones function to optimize the process of digestion and absorption of nutrients by the gut. In this capacity, their local effects on gastrointestinal motility and secretion have been well characterized. By altering the rate at which nutrients are delivered to compartments of the alimentary canal, the control of food intake arguably constitutes another point at which intervention may promote efficient digestion and nutrient uptake. In recent decades, gut hormones have come to occupy a central place in the complex neuroendocrine interactions that underlie the regulation of energy balance. Many gut peptides have been shown to influence energy intake. The most well studied in this regard are cholecystokinin (CCK), pancreatic polypeptide, peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin and ghrelin. With the exception of ghrelin, these hormones act to increase satiety and decrease food intake. The mechanisms by which gut hormones modify feeding are the subject of ongoing investigation. Local effects such as the inhibition of gastric emptying might contribute to the decrease in energy intake. Activation of mechanoreceptors as a result of gastric distension may inhibit further food intake via neural reflex arcs. Circulating gut hormones have also been shown to act directly on neurons in hypothalamic and brainstem centres of appetite control. The median eminence and area postrema are characterized by a deficiency of the blood–brain barrier. Some investigators argue that this renders neighbouring structures, such as the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius in the brainstem, susceptible to influence by circulating factors. Extensive reciprocal connections exist between these areas and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and other energy-regulating centres of the central nervous system. In this way, hormonal signals from the gut may be translated into the subjective sensation of satiety. Moreover, the importance of the brain–gut axis in the control of food intake is reflected in the dual role exhibited by many gut peptides as both hormones and neurotransmitters. Peptides such as CCK and GLP-1 are expressed in neurons projecting both into and out of areas of the central nervous system critical to energy balance. The global increase in the incidence of obesity and the associated burden of morbidity has imparted greater urgency to understanding the processes of appetite control. Appetite regulation offers an integrated model of a brain–gut axis comprising both endocrine and neurological systems. As physiological mediators of satiety, gut hormones offer an attractive therapeutic target in the treatment of obesity.
Chaudhri, Owais; Small, Caroline; Bloom, Steve
Oxytocin (OT), a nonapeptide, was the first hormone to have its biological activities established and chemical structure determined. It was believed that OT is released from hypothalamic nerve terminals of the posterior hypophysis into the circulation where it stimulates uterine contractions during parturition, and milk ejection during lactation. However, equivalent concentrations of OT were found in the male hypophysis, and similar stimuli of OT release were determined for both sexes, suggesting other physiological functions. Indeed, recent studies indicate that OT is involved in cognition, tolerance, adaptation and complex sexual and maternal behaviour, as well as in the regulation of cardiovascular functions. It has long been known that OT induces natriuresis and causes a fall in mean arterial pressure, both after acute and chronic treatment, but the mechanism was not clear. The discovery of the natriuretic family shed new light on this matter. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a potent natriuretic and vasorelaxant hormone, originally isolated from rat atria, has been found at other sites, including the brain. Blood volume expansion causes ANP release that is believed to be important in the induction of natriuresis and diuresis, which in turn act to reduce the increase in blood volume. Neurohypophysectomy totally abolishes the ANP response to volume expansion. This indicates that one of the major hypophyseal peptides is responsible for ANP release. The role of ANP in OT-induced natriuresis was evaluated, and we hypothesized that the cardio-renal effects of OT are mediated by the release of ANP from the heart. To support this hypothesis, we have demonstrated the presence and synthesis of OT receptors in all heart compartments and the vasculature. The functionality of these receptors has been established by the ability of OT to induce ANP release from perfused heart or atrial slices. Furthermore, we have shown that the heart and large vessels like the aorta and vena cava are sites of OT synthesis. Therefore, locally produced OT may have important regulatory functions within the heart and vascular beds. Such functions may include slowing down of the heart or the regulation of local vascular tone. PMID:10829090
Gutkowska, J; Jankowski, M; Mukaddam-Daher, S; McCann, S M
For nearly two decades the term sexual rights has been increasingly used in multiple disciplines, including family planning, public health, and sexology, as well as in advocacy campaigns for groups working to expand sexual health services and to promote nondiscrimination policies for those with nonnormative sexual or gender identities. International organizations such as the World Health Organization, the World Association of Sexual Health, and the International Planned Parenthood Federation have all presented lists of sexual rights and given arguments for why sexual rights are human rights. Nevertheless, I argue that a comprehensive understanding of human/sexual rights is lacking not only by many in sexuality fields but also by the vast majority of the general public. I agree with those who stress that applications of sexual rights are often not straightforward; rather they involve complexities and critical analyses of multiple areas. In this article, I discuss principles of human rights and rights-based approaches to sexual health policies, describe conceptualizations of sexual rights, and present views about controversies and advantages of using sexual rights frameworks. My aim is to promote an understanding of discourses about and applications of sexual rights. Such understanding can be a starting point for those who want to integrate rights principles into their work. PMID:23480078
Lottes, Ilsa L
Moderate support was obtained in a sample of 101 gay, bisexual, and heterosexual males for the perinatal hormone theory, which hypothesizes that attenuated levels of androgens during critical periods of male fetal development fail to masculinize and defeminize the brain. Affected individuals develop female-typical sexual orientation (assessed here by a pie chart) and cerebral organization, reflected in visual-spatial abilities and
Kenneth M. Cohen
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that some sex differences in brain and behavior might result from direct genetic effects, and not solely the result of the organizational effects of steroid hormones. The present study examined the potential role for sex-biased gene expression during development of sexually dimorphic singing behavior and associated song nuclei in juvenile zebra finches. RESULTS: A microarray screen
Michelle L Tomaszycki; Camilla Peabody; Kirstin Replogle; David F Clayton; Robert J Tempelman; Juli Wade
To determine the psychophysiological correlates of hormonal response during sexual activity, systolic blood pressure (SBP), anal electromyography (EMG), and anal photoplethysmography (APG) were monitored continuously throughout testing in 13 women and 10 men. Each subject completed two or more tests of self-stimulation to 5 min beyond orgasm. Blood samples were obtained continuously for measurement of oxytocin (OT) levels. In both
Marie S. Carmichael; Valerie L. Warburton; Jean Dixen; Julian M. Davidson
Male rats exposed to phthalate esters during sexual differentiation (GDI4-GDI8) display various reproductive developmental abnormalities later in adult life which are associated with declines in fetal testicular testosterone (T) production and insulin-like three hormone (lnsl-3...
In this article, I address the question of whether pedophilia in men can be construed as a male sexual orientation, and the implications for thinking of it in this way for scientific research, clinical practice, and public policy. I begin by defining pedophilia and sexual orientation, and then compare pedophilia (as a potential sexual orientation with regard to age) to sexual orientations with regard to gender (heterosexuality, bisexuality, and homosexuality), on the bases of age of onset, correlations with sexual and romantic behavior, and stability over time. I conclude with comments about the potential social and legal implications of conceptualizing pedophilia as a type of sexual orientation in males. PMID:22218786
Seto, Michael C
The relationship between gender role identity, sexual self-esteem and sexual coercion was examined through a questionnaire. Participants were 84 undergraduate students from a university in Washington, DC. Contrary to what has been found in the literature, there were weak relationships between sexual coercion and masculinity, and sexual coercion and sexual self-esteem. Participants were not sexually aggressive and experienced little victimization.
Theresa C. Kelly; Chris D. Erickson
Thyroid hormone deficiency can have important repercussions. Treatment with thyroid hormone in replacement doses is essential in patients with hypothyroidism. In this review, we critically discuss the thyroid hormone formulations that are available and approaches to correct replacement therapy with thyroid hormone in primary and central hypothyroidism in different periods of life such as pregnancy, birth, infancy, childhood, and adolescence as well as in adult patients, the elderly, and in patients with comorbidities. Despite the frequent and long term use of l-T4, several studies have documented frequent under- and overtreatment during replacement therapy in hypothyroid patients. We assess the factors determining l-T4 requirements (sex, age, gender, menstrual status, body weight, and lean body mass), the major causes of failure to achieve optimal serum TSH levels in undertreated patients (poor patient compliance, timing of l-T4 administration, interferences with absorption, gastrointestinal diseases, and drugs), and the adverse consequences of unintentional TSH suppression in overtreated patients. Opinions differ regarding the treatment of mild thyroid hormone deficiency, and we examine the recent evidence favoring treatment of this condition. New data suggesting that combined therapy with T3 and T4 could be indicated in some patients with hypothyroidism are assessed, and the indications for TSH suppression with l-T4 in patients with euthyroid multinodular goiter and in those with differentiated thyroid cancer are reviewed. Lastly, we address the potential use of thyroid hormones or their analogs in obese patients and in severe cardiac diseases, dyslipidemia, and nonthyroidal illnesses. PMID:24433025
Biondi, Bernadette; Wartofsky, Leonard
Introduction There has been limited investigation of the sexuality and sexual dysfunction in non-heterosexual subjects by the sexual medicine community. Additional research in these populations is needed. Aims To investigate and compare sexuality and sexual function in students of varying sexual orientations. Methods An internet-based survey on sexuality was administered to medical students in North American between the months of February and July of 2008. Main Outcome Measures All subjects provided information on their ethnodemographic characteristics, sexual orientation, and sexual history. Subjects also completed a series of widely-utilized instruments for the assessment of human sexuality (International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF], Female Sexual Function Index [FSFI], Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool [PEDT], Index of Sex Life [ISL]). Results There were 2,276 completed responses to the question on sexual orientation. 13.2% of male respondents and 4.7% of female respondents reported a homosexual orientation; 2.5% of male and 5.7% of female respondents reported a bisexual orientation. Many heterosexual males and females reported same-sex sexual experiences (4% and 10%, respectively). Opposite-sex experiences were very common in the male and female homosexual population (37% and 44%, respectively). The prevalence of premature ejaculation (PEDT > 8) was similar among heterosexual and homosexual men (16% and 17%, P = 0.7, respectively). Erectile dysfunction (IIEF-EF < 26) was more common in homosexual men relative to heterosexual men (24% vs. 12%, P = 0.02). High risk for female sexual dysfunction (FSFI < 26.55) was more common in heterosexual and bisexual women compared with lesbians (51%, 45%, and 29%, respectively, P = 0.005). Conclusion In this survey of highly educated young professionals, numerous similarities and some important differences in sexuality and sexual function were noted based on sexual orientation. It is unclear whether the dissimilarities represent differing relative prevalence of sexual problems or discrepancies in patterns of sex behavior and interpretation of the survey questions.
Breyer, Benjamin N.; Smith, James F.; Eisenberg, Michael L.; Ando, Kathryn A.; Rowen, Tami S.; Shindel, Alan W.
For investigating the possibility that the neuropeptide luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) is involved in the process of sexual differentiation, male rat pups were injected on Days 1 and 3 of life with specific antibodies to LHRH (AB-LHRH); control rats were treated with normal rabbit serum (NRS). At maturity, males treated with AB-LHRH were as fertile as controls, and their amount and intromission latencies and the postejaculatory interval were extended only slightly. However, they showed high levels of lordotic behavior, including ear wiggling, when castrated and primed with estrogen or with estrogen plus progesterone. Testosterone propionate, administered neonatally together with AB-LHRH, did not reverse these effects. There was no evidence that neonatal treatment with antiserum to LHRH affected testosterone levels, as measured by radioimmunoassay. Males treated with AB-LHRH and castrated as adults did not respond to estrogen priming by releasing a surge of luteinizing hormone, a result indicating that they did not possess the female type of gonadotropin regulation. These findings indicate that neutralization of endogenous LHRH during neonatal life selectively blocks defeminization of behavior without affecting the process of masculinization. PMID:7012206
Kalcheim, C; Szechtman, H; Koch, Y
The study investigated the impact of victim sexual orientation, perpetrator gender, and participant gender on judgements toward a 15-year-old male victim of a depicted sexual assault. One hundred and eight-eight participants (97 male, 91 female) read a hypothetical scenario depicting the sexual assault of a 15-year-old male victim where the victim's sexual orientation and the perpetrator's gender were varied between
Michelle Davies; Kerry Austen; Paul Rogers
The discovery of hypothalamic hypophysiotropic factors confirmed the hypothesis of Green and Harris in the late 1940s. These hormones were isolated from their eutopic site of production (the hypothalamus) with the exception of growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone (GHRH), which was isolated from an ectopic, tumoral site of production and found to be responsible for acromegaly. Following the isolation, characterization and
On the basis of detailed accounts of offences committed by 12 dangerous sexual offenders and of descriptions of their life histories, their responses to various tests, self-reports of offenders’sexual interests and activities, and results of phallometric evaluations, 15 expert forensic psychiatrists diagnosed whether each offender met the criteria for sexual sadism. The psychiatrists also indicated their confidence in the diagnoses
W. L. Marshall; Pamela Kennedy; Pamela Yates; Geris Serran
This study explores the associations of sexual revictimization (experiencing sexual abuse in childhood and adulthood) in a sample of 230 African American women who are low-income. Data indicate that women who experience sexual revictimization are more at risk for emotional stress and psychological pathology than women with no history of abuse. In…
Miner, Michael H.; Flitter, Jill M. Klotz; Robinson, Beatrice E.
A normative sample of 1,114 children was contrasted with a sample of 620 sexually abused children and 577 psychiatric outpatients on the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI), a 38-item behavior checklist assessing sexual behavior in children 2 to 12 years old. The CSBI total score and each individual item differed significantly between the three groups after controlling for age, sex,
William N. Friedrich; Jennifer L. Fisher; Carrie Anne Dittner; Robert Acton; Lucy Berliner; Judy Butler; Linda Damon; W. Hobart Davies; Alison Gray; John Wright
This study explored how ethnicity influenced sexual identity development in 139 sexual-minority males. Findings demonstrated that participants, regardless of ethnicity, experienced most identity milestones at developmentally appropriate ages, had moderately low internalized homophobia, and became romantically and sexually involved with other males…
Dube, Eric M.; Savin-Williams, Ritch C.
Experiences of verbal sexual coercion are common and have potential for negative consequences, yet are not well understood. This study used qualitative and descriptive statistics to examine verbal sexual coercion experiences among a community sample of 114 women and explored the role of sexual precedence in these experiences. Analyses revealed…
Livingston, Jennifer A.; Buddie, Amy M.; Testa, Maria; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol
Reports on a 33-item questionnaire based on Alexander G. Zaphiris's conceptualization of the terminology of sexual mistreatment. Results indicate that mental health counselors (N=300) who encountered sexual abuse, incest, and sexual exploitation agreed with Zaphiris's conceptualization but did not use this system of classification in actual…
Freet, Mary A.; Scalise, Joseph J.; Ginter, Earl J.
Examined adolescent sexuality-education curricula for information on coercion (date rape, stranger rape, pressure, incest, sexual harassment, unwanted/inappropriate touch, and exploitation/victimization). Exploitation/victimization and pressure received the greatest attention. Sexual harassment was not covered in any of the curricula. Results…
Beyer, Christine E.; Ogletree, Roberta J.
... as: Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin; TeBG Formal name: Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Related tests: Testosterone , Free Testosterone, ... Get Tested? To evaluate whether the concentration of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is affecting the amount ...
... STDs) Share Compartir Prevention How You Can Prevent Sexually Transmitted Diseases This page includes information about STD prevention, testing, ... 4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348 Contact CDC-INFO Sexually Transmitted Diseases Diseases & Related Conditions STDs & Infertility Other STDs Archive ...
Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance, 2004 presents statistics and trends for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the United States through 2004. This annual publication is intended as a reference document for policy makers, programmanagers, heal...
The Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance System presents statistics and trends for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Data demonstrate details which provide information about STD morbidity in the United States, STD prevalence with subgroups and populations which are the f...
Over the past 25 years, the problem of child sexual victimization has received significant attention from researchers, clinicians, and policymakers. Yet underreporting of sexual offenses against children has made it impossible to gauge either the frequenc...
R. A. Prentky R. A. Knight A. F. S. Lee
Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2011 presents statistics and trends for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the United States through 2011. This annual publication is intended as a reference document for policy makers, program managers, heal...
Reproductive functions in adult organism are known to be affected by different factors. Effects of social environment at the postnatal ontogenesis attract particular attention since it has deep impact on the development of physiological and emotional state of an individual. Effects of chronic social isolation at different ages on male sexual motivation, testosterone and corticosterone response under conditions of sexual arousal were studied in Wistar rats. After weaning at the 21st [corrected] day of age, rats of one group were isolated for six weeks and after that they were housed in groups of five per cage for ten weeks (Iso3-9). Rats of the second group were housed in groups of five animals per cage till 13 weeks of age, and then they were isolated for six weeks (Iso13-19). Rats of the control group were housed in groups during the experiment. Adult 19 week- old male rats were tested under conditions of sexual arousal. The expression of sexual motivation was estimated as the behavioral activity of a male at the transparent perforated partition separating a receptive female. Isolation of adult male rats reduced the number of approaches to the partition, while the period of time a male spent at the partition was not changed and testosterone response was enhanced as compared to control rats. Chronic social isolation during peri-adolescence reduced sexual motivation and prevented arousal-induced elevation of testosterone. Plasma corticosterone increases at sexual arousal in the two groups of isolated rats did not differ from that in controls. Our results are evidence that social isolation during the post-maturity stage (Iso13-19) did not diminish the manifestation of sexual motivation and hormonal response to a receptive female, while isolation during peri-adolescence attenuated behavioral and hormonal expression of sexual arousal in adult males. PMID:23347014
Amstislavskaya, Tamara G; Bulygina, Veta V; Tikhonova, Maria A; Maslova, Larissa N
Interviews with 28 sexual murderers were subjected to grounded theory analysis. Five implicit theories (ITs) were identified: dangerous world, male sex drive is uncontrollable, entitlement, women as sexual objects, and women as unknowable. These ITs were found to be identical to those identified in the literature as being present in rapists. The presence of dangerous world and male sex drive is uncontrollable were present, or absent, such that three groups could be identified: (a) dangerous world plus male sex drive is uncontrollable; (b) dangerous world, in the absence of male sex drive is uncontrollable; (c) male sex drive is uncontrollable in the absence of dangerous world. These three groups were found to differ in motivation: (a) were motivated by urges to rape and murder; (b) were motivated by grievance, resentment and/or anger toward women; (c) were motivated to sexually offend but were prepared to kill to avoid detection, or secure compliance. PMID:16210731
Beech, Anthony; Fisher, Dawn; Ward, Tony
Prenatal exposure of rodents to glucocorticoids (Gc) affects the sexual development of the offspring, possibly interfering with the differentiation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Glucocorticoid receptors (GR) are present on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in the rat hypothalamus, suggesting a direct effect of Gc in the control of the synthesis and\\/or release of the hormone. In this study, we demonstrate the
Donatella Dondi; Margherita Piccolella; Elio Messi; Marek Demissie; Anna Cariboni; Silvia Selleri; Flavio Piva; Athina Samara; G. Giacomo Consalez; Roberto Maggi
Self-report instruments for assessing sexual well-being in women with sexual difficulties have not to date been explicitly validated among women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Given an extensive literature suggesting psychological differences between women with and without a history of CSA, it is possible that sexual well-being has a different meaning for these groups. Without validated scales, it is difficult to evaluate the impact of early sexual trauma on adult sexuality. The present study assessed whether the factor structure of widely used measures of sexual well-being were consistent across women experiencing sexual difficulties, with and without an abuse history, and to estimate effect sizes for the statistical effect of CSA on sexual well-being in this population. A sample of women with and without a history of CSA (N = 238) completed the Female Sexual Function Index and the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women. Structural equation models indicated generally consistent factor structures across groups, suggesting good construct validity. Effect size estimates indicated medium to large (0.53-0.72) effects of CSA on sexual well-being for women with sexual difficulties. These findings support and extend research regarding the potential effects of CSA that may inform treatment for this population. PMID:24948536
Stephenson, Kyle R; Pulverman, Carey S; Meston, Cindy M
Thyroid hormone resistance (THR) is a rare syndrome of reduced end organ sensitivity. Patients with THR have elevated serum free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), but normal or slightly elevated serum thyrotropin values. The characteristic clinical feature is goitre without symptoms and metabolic consequences of thyroid hormone excess. THR can be classified on the basis of tissue resistance into pituitary, peripheral or generalised (both pituitary and peripheral) types. Mutations in the TRbeta gene, cell membrane transporter and genes controlling intracellular metabolism of thyroid hormone have been implicated. THR is differentiated from thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) secreting pituitary adenoma by history of THR in the family. No specific treatment is often required for THR; patients with features of hypo- or hyperthyroidism are appropriately treated with levo-triiodothyronine (L-T3), levo-thyroxine (L-T4), dextro-thyroxine(D-T4) or 3,3,5 triiodo-thyroacetic acid (TRIAC). The diagnosis helps in appropriate genetic counselling of the family. PMID:18940949
Agrawal, N K; Goyal, R; Rastogi, A; Naik, D; Singh, S K
The existence of a specific hormone of the thymus could be demonstrated with the traditional tests: The observation of the consequences of thymectomy. The possibility to suppress these consequences by a specific therapy. This succeeded by means of thymic grafts and by means of injections of an adequate thymus extract. (Several extracts of demonstrated substitutive potency have been prepared.) A
In 44 hirsute women treated with antiandrogens, sequential administration of cyproterone acetate and ethinylestradiol produced a success rate of 87%. The mean duration of treatment was 9 months, and side effects were rare. Antiandrogens are therefore superior to conventional cosmetic methods, though prior hormonal analysis is indispensable. PMID:982010
Floersheim, Y; Keller, P J
Based on this definition, approximately 6.9% of community dwelling older persons are frail. Frailty is present more often in women than men. Frailty is a precursor for functional deterioration, falls and mortality. Functional deterioration is itself a strong predictor of institutionalization and death. There are many causes of frailty. Of these, alterations in hormones and cytokines represent major factors involved
John E. Morley; Moon Jong Kim; Matthew T. Haren
Objective: To better understand sexual dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia and its associations with prolactin and reproductive hormones. Methods: This was a secondary analysis of an open-label, one-day study (N = 402). The primary objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of hyperprolactinemia in patients with schizophrenia who had been treated with conventional antipsychotics or risperidone. Other atypical antipsychotics available at the time of the study were not included due to a more favorable prolactin profile. Results: The majority of patients (59% of females and 60% of males) reported impairment of sexual function. In postmenopausal females, risk of impaired sexual interest was increased by 31% for every 10 ng/ml increase in prolactin (p = 0.035). In males, lower testosterone was associated with higher prolactin (p < 0.001) and with orgasmic (p = 0.004) and ejaculatory dysfunction (p = 0.028). Conclusion: These findings suggest that hyperprolactinemia may be associated with sexual dysfunction. They also provide more information on the relationships between prolactin, reproductive hormones, and sexual dysfunction. Sexual dysfunction is an understudied yet important consideration in the treatment of schizophrenia. More attention is warranted in this area as it may provide opportunities for improved quality of life and adherence to treatment for patients.
Liu-Seifert, Hong; Kinon, Bruce J; Tennant, Christopher J; Sniadecki, Jennifer; Volavka, Jan
Sexual abuse, particularly childhood sexual abuse, has been linked to chronic pelvic pain and to sexual dysfunction, though the sexual functioning of survivors of sexual abuse has not been studied in a chronic pain population. Sixty-three women with chronic pelvic pain completed measures of sexual function, sexual abuse, and pain. Using an index…
Randolph, Mary E.; Reddy, Diane M.
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases, remain a growing worldwide problem and public health issue. This article covers the epidemiology of STIs, the history and physical findings, screening guidelines, and the general plan to combat STIs. Prevention is discussed using the latest information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other references. Infections discussed from the standpoint of cause, epidemiology, risk factors, clinical disease, diagnosis, and treatment include gonorrhea, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, syphilis, chancroid, Herpes simplex, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale, Herpes papilloma virus, Molluscum contagiosum, and pubic lice. PMID:23958358
Markle, William; Conti, Tracey; Kad, Manjusha
Summarizes recent research on hormonal control of fetal growth, presenting data obtained using a new method for studying the area. Effects of endocrine ablations and congenital deficiencies, studies of hormone/receptor levels, in-vitro techniques, hormones implicated in promoting fetal growth, problems with existing methodologies, and growth of…
Cooke, Paul S.; Nicoll, Charles S.
A discussion of sexual harassment on American college campuses focuses on the case of Silva v. University of New Hampshire. The article examines the university's responsibility to protect students from sexual harassment while at the same time protecting freedom of expression. Various examples are presented in an attempt to define sexual…
This paper explores adult sexuality as a holistic human experience. Love, affection, intimacy, and sex are vital, rewarding aspects of life, which contribute to mental health and fulfillment. These needs do not diminish with age, physical condition, sexual preference, or even sexual trauma. In context of such a view the author suggests directions…
The term "sexual health" is often used in sexuality education without any concrete, operational definition, and students are left to ascertain the meaning for themselves. In the absence of a clear definition, students may adopt diverse or narrow understandings of this vague term, without learning the full scope of everything that sexual health…
Taverner, William J.
The mainstream mass media (television, magazines, movies, music, and the Internet) provide increasingly frequent portrayals of sexuality. We still know relatively little about how this content is used and how it affects sexual beliefs and behaviors. The few available studies suggest that the media do have an impact because the media keep sexual behavior on public and personal agendas, media
Jane D. Brown
The circumstances and characteristics of sexual assaults against adult males presenting to a crisis unit in a large metropolitan area were examined. Twenty-nine men, ranging in age from 18 to 65, who were victims of sexual assaults or attempted sexual assaults, were seen over a 16-month period. Information extracted from the unit database included client demographics and personal history, assault
LANA STERMAC; PETER M. SHERIDAN; ALISON DAVIDSON; SHEILA DUNN
In Sweden, society’s attitudes towards teenage sexual relationships are liberal, and sexual and reproductive health issues are given high priority. Family and sex education has been taught in schools since the 1950s. The age of sexual consent is 15 years. Since 1975, abortion has been free on demand. Contraceptive counselling is free, easily available at family planning and youth health
This study assessed the association between spirituality and psychopathology in a group of sexual abuse victims and controls with a focus on whether spirituality moderated the association between sexual trauma and psychopathology. Seventy-one sexual trauma victims were compared to 25 control subjects on spiritual well-being, the Eating Disorder…
Krejci, Mark J.; Thompson, Kevin M.; Simonich, Heather; Crosby, Ross D.; Donaldson, Mary Ann; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Mitchell, James E.
Recovering alcoholics and drug addicts are beginning to realize that untreated sexual addiction can result in relapse. The subject is now becoming not so taboo among the recovering community. Many people are entering treatment specifically for sexual addiction, some after many years of recovery from other addictions. Even more promising are the people who are entering treatment for sexual addiction
Aim. The purpose of this research was to explore the subject of sexual activity in the Polish population, with special focus on age and gender differences, and sexual infidelity. Sexual activity is one of the basic factors in initiating and maintaining relationships. On the one hand, sexual activity enables us to meet natural needs and maintain an intimate relationship with another human being; on the other, it may allow us to overcome loneliness and social isolation by providing the opportunity to express feelings of closeness and unity. Material and method. The research was conducted on a representative group of 3,200 Poles aged between 15-49, with the support of a well-known Polish research company - TNS OBOP. Face-to-face and Pencil and Paper (PAPI) interviews were carried out. Results. The results focus on two main issues: the age and motives of sexual initiation among teenagers (with a significant percentage starting their sexual activity at the age of 15), and the quality of the sexual lives of adults (average number of sexual partners, sexual infidelity and sexual satisfaction). Conclusion. There is dependence between the type of relationship and the performance or non-performance of sexual activity, as well as the quality of the relationship. Among both adolescents and adults, remaining in a stable relationship (partnership or marriage) promotes loyalty. The performance of sexual goals turns out to be an important mechanism regulating the interpersonal aspects of a relationship, influencing their perception and evaluation. PMID:24738523
Pastwa-Wojciechowska, Beata; Izdebski, Zbigniew
A veteran child therapist reflects on the distressing problem of adults who sexually violate children and youth in their care. Discusses changes in society that may be the cause of increased child sexual abuse. Offers three "truths" concerning child sexual abuse. Presents the account of an abuser and discusses what happens when an abuser is…
This study aimed to investigate how people manage their sexuality when practicing naturism in the United Kingdom (UK). Thirty-nine self-identified naturists from across the UK were interviewed. Sexuality, when practicing naturism, was found often to be suppressed through the use of rules, geographical isolation and thoughts and behaviour. Some participants found ways of exploring and enjoying their sexuality by keeping feelings hidden and/or seeking out more sympathetic naturist environments. Naturist environments may offer a unique space in which to explore aspects of our sexuality that are currently pathologised, criminalised or commercialised. This has important implications for sexual health policy and promotion. PMID:18926761
Smith, Glenn; King, Michael
Negative, confusing, guilt-inducing, or traumatic sexual experiences are almost universal for both females and males. Guidelines are presented for assessing sexual trauma using the medium of the detailed sexual history. The cognitive-behavioral treatment strategy considers past trauma in the context of the present sexual dysfunction rather than an issue to be dealt with first or separately. The guiding principles are to teach the person to be a "survivor" rather than a "victim" and to help the couple develop a functional and satisfying sexual style because "living well is the best revenge." PMID:2246791
McCarthy, B W
In this article, the authors consider how trans men's decisions about physical body modifications impact their sense of themselves as gendered and sexual actors. Based on interviews with 74 trans men, the authors explore how their embodiment, gender identity, erotic ideation, lifetime of sexual practices, and domain of potential partners-what the authors term "sexual habitus"-can be affirmed, transformed, or challenged as their embodiment changes. These changes underscore the dynamic relationship between gender and sexuality and illustrate how bodies matter in sexual trajectories across the life course. PMID:24392744
Schilt, Kristen; Windsor, Elroi
Sexual education plays an essential role in preventing unplanned pregnancy and the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). School-based sexual education programs, in particular, may be well positioned to address social factors that are empirically linked to negative sexual health outcomes, such as traditional social norms surrounding gender and sexuality. However, youth are seldom granted access to sexual education programs that explicitly address these issues. This study presents findings from a pretest-posttest survey of a sexual education program that did. It was designed for eighth graders (N=95) in the context of a school-community collaboration. The study assessed the links between several components of sexual empowerment, including gender ideology, sexual knowledge, and contraceptive beliefs. Findings link participation in the sexual education program to more progressive attitudes toward girls and women, less agreement with hegemonic masculinity ideology, and increases in sexual health and resource knowledge. Structural equation models suggest that traditional attitudes toward women were significantly related to hegemonic masculinity ideology among both boys and girls, which was in turn negatively related to safer contraceptive beliefs. PMID:24024546
Grose, Rose Grace; Grabe, Shelly; Kohfeldt, Danielle
Testosterone administration in female-to-male transsexual subjects aims to develop and maintain the characteristics of the desired sex. Very little data exists on its effects on sexuality of female-to-male transsexuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate sexual function and mood of female-to-male transsexuals from their first visit, throughout testosterone administration and after sex reassignment surgery. Participants were 50 female-to-male transsexual subjects who completed questionnaires assessing sexual parameters and mood. The authors measured reproductive hormones and hematological parameters. The results suggest a positive effect of testosterone treatment on sexual function and mood in female-to-male transsexual subjects. PMID:23470169
Costantino, Antonietta; Cerpolini, Silvia; Alvisi, Stefania; Morselli, Paolo Giovanni; Venturoli, Stefano; Meriggiola, Maria Cristina
Adolescence is a time of life characterized by danger because of the many changes that occur, the many ties that are severed: ties to childhood, ties to the child's body as it begins to take on an adult appearance, ties to a once-familiar body image and psyche as hormones complete the transformation to adulthood, ties to an unconscious that is struggling to restructure itself anew. The creation of the romantic couple is a danger inherent in any human society. This text was written from the professional practices of each author in a multidisciplinary approach combining the approaches of public health, risk reduction, and sexual, psychological and clinical care of adolescents. How to help anticipate the dangers is to use preventive insurance verifying that security is guaranteed before committing. Risk-taking is accepting all the challenges that boost the self with oneself and with others. The risk is therefore also the commitment in love. It is still the risk to speak, to feel, to express feelings, choices, and refusal of unwanted sex. The ability of adolescents to play and defeat the risk by learning the ethical value not only to protect themselves from contracting AIDS, but also to protect others is part of the pedagogy of risk. This pedagogy of risk, as we have seen, includes three areas: information, care and initiation into love. Adolescents must be supported in their emergence by responsible people to protect them from the dangers ahead. The support is not only to prevent them from engaging in risky behavior, but to help them better manage their anxieties and support the fragility of their families in a network approach. Not knowing how to confront the risk stifles the chance of allowing the child to grow up to be independent and helps reassure parents who may resent being removed from the empowerment of their children. PMID:22846539
Troussier, Thierry; Benghozi, Pierre; Ganem, Marc
Objective: To examine the relationship between childhood experiences of sexual abuse, sexual coercion during adolescence, and the acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in a population of homeless adolescents.Method: Homeless adolescent females (N = 216) from a northwestern United States city were recruited by street outreach workers for a longitudinal study of STI epidemiology. Baseline data on childhood abuse and
John Noell; Paul Rohde; John Seeley; Linda Ochs
In this study, the authors assessed 48 female survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA) and 71 female control participants using measures of adult sexual function, psychological function (i.e., depression and anxiety), and sexual self-schemas. The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether differences existed between women with and without a…
Meston, Cindy M.; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Heiman, Julia R.
The Electronic Journal of Human Sexuality (EJHS), published by the Institute for Advanced Study of Human Sexuality, is a new peer-reviewed publication covering all aspects of human sexuality research. EJHS provides abstracts and the full text of research articles, doctoral dissertations, conference papers and posters, and general interest articles. Some of the content of the inaugural volume includes Sexological Interviewing Techniques by Janice Epp, PhD; The Meaning of Sex by Marty Klein, PhD; a research study on consent for sexual behavior by David S. Hall, PhD; and a study on the sexual lives of former nuns by Jacqueline "Fran" Fisher, PhD.
Eight separate brochures, presented here in English versions, but also available in six additional languages (Cambodian, Chinese, Russian, Spanish, Tagalog, and Vietnamese), are designed to provide parents, adolescents, and children with information about sexual assault, self-protection, and healthy interpersonal relationships. Each brochure…
King County Sexual Assault Resource Center, Renton, WA.
... educate your teen about the consequences of early sexual activity. This test should be used only as a guideline and is based on information found in the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health. Please select the appropriate response to the following ...
This paper consists of a briefing or lecture outline on sexually transmitted diseases to be used by medical personnel as an instructional tool for a wide variety of audiences. It is intended to be used in whole or broken down to specific disease groups. I...
W. M. Simmons
Pornography in America is a 4-8 billion dollar a year business. Society has long been concerned about the effects obscene material may have on its members. In particular, there are those who claim pornography and sexual aggression is a cause and effect re...
S. D. Van Horn
This article provides sex and marital therapists with detailed, multifaceted descriptions of sexuality after breast cancer based on survey responses from 863 breast cancer survivors. One third of women reported that breast cancer had had a negative impact on her sex life, and most reported negative changes in at least some areas. Nonetheless, breast cancer survivors did not differ from
Beth E. Meyerowitz; Katherine A. Desmond; Julia H. Rowland; Gail E. Wyatt; Patricia A. Ganz
Little is known about the sexual inclinations and capacities of partially recovered stroke victims. Problems of mobility, communication and self-care have held the center of the stage, leaving little room for the nuances of personal relationships. After the late Douglas Ritchi¢ had published his autobiographical account of a stroke his wife complained bitterly that the medical profession had written him
Michael Humphrey; Glynda Kinsella
... to remove all or part of a woman’s breast. This surgery may cause some women to lose their sexual ... both women and men. If you want your breast rebuilt (reconstruction), talk to your cancer doctor or surgeon. Prostatectomy is surgery that removes all or part of a man’s ...
The author comments on Diederik Janssen's essay "ReQueering Queer Youth Development: A Post-Developmental Approach to Childhood and Pedagogy," commenting that Janssen's analysis can inform both both materialist and post-structuralist understandings of children's sexuality by shifting focus from children as fetishized objects or as a group…
Heterosexism and homophobia complicate the supervisory relationship regardless of whether it is the therapist, client, or supervisor who is a sexual minority. Several supervision models have been applied to gay and lesbian populations, including Stoltenberg and Delworth's (1987) Developmental Model, Buhrke's Conflictual Situation Model (1986), Holloway's (1995) Supervisee Empowerment Model, and Russell and Greenhouse's (1997) Homonegativity Model. Each of these
Stephen C. Halpert; Joan Pfaller
It has been proposed that sexual orientation related differences in cognitive performance are either due to the actions of prenatal factors early in development or the influence of gender role learning. This study examined the performance of 240 healthy, right-handed heterosexual and homosexual males and females (N = 60 per group) on a battery of cognitive tasks comprising mental rotation, judgement of line orientation (JLO), verbal fluency, perceptual speed and object location memory. Measures were also taken of the psychological gender, birth order, sibling sex composition and the 2nd to 4th finger length ratios of the right and left hands. A series of stepwise regression analyses revealed that sex and sexual orientation were the strongest predictors of cognitive performance, with IQ also contributing considerable variance. Psychological gender (M/F scores) added a small, but significant, amount of variance to mental rotation and perceptual speed scores in addition to these main factors, but prenatal hormone related indices, such as 2nd to 4th finger ratios, birth order and sibling sex composition added no independent predictive power. These findings are discussed in relation to biosocial influences on cognitive differences between heterosexuals and homosexuals. PMID:15177702
Rahman, Qazi; Wilson, Glenn D; Abrahams, Sharon
IgE recognition of autoantigens might augment allergic inflammation in the absence of exogenous allergen exposure. Among allergy and autoimmunity, there is disproportionate representation of males before puberty and females after puberty, suggesting a role for sex hormones. Hormone allergy is an allergic reaction where the offending allergens are one's own hormones. It is an immune reaction to the hormones, which can interfere with the normal function of the hormones. It can occur perimenstrually in women along with the variation in menstrual cycle. The perimenstrual allergies are about the cyclic abundance of the hormone causing a cyclic expression of allergic symptoms. The inflammatory mechanisms of allergic reactions to hormone allergens, which are intrinsic to the body, are the same as the mechanisms of allergic reactions to external allergens.
Although thyroid hormone is one of the most potent stimulators of growth and metabolic rate, the potential to use thyroid hormone to treat cutaneous pathology has never been subject to rigorous investigation. A number of investigators have demonstrated intriguing therapeutic potential for topical thyroid hormone. Topical T3 has accelerated wound healing and hair growth in rodents. Topical T4 has been used to treat xerosis in humans. It is clear that the use of thyroid hormone to treat cutaneous pathology may be of large consequence and merits further study. This is a review of the literature regarding thyroid hormone action on skin along with skin manifestations of thyroid disease. The paper is intended to provide a context for recent findings of direct thyroid hormone action on cutaneous cells in vitro and in vivo which may portend the use of thyroid hormone to promote wound healing.
Safer, Joshua D.
Nonvolitional sex is sexual behavior that violates a person's right to choose when and with whom to have sex and what sexual behaviors to engage in. The more extreme forms of this behavior include rape, forced sex, childhood sexual abuse, sex trafficking, and violence against people with nonconventional sexual identities. More nuanced forms of nonvolitional sex include engaging in sexual behavior that masks one's nonconventional sexual identity, or that protects one's position with peers, or that represents a quid pro quo for the economic support that one obtains within an intimate relationship. The aim of this essay is to highlight the ways in which nonvolitional sex threatens sexual health and to identify strategies for ameliorating this problem. These strategies will have to be as broad in scope as is the problem that they are designed to address. The essay discusses the following strategies to reduce nonvolitional sex: (1) advocacy for sexual rights, gender equality, and equality for individuals with nonconventional sexual identities; (2) primary prevention programs and interventions that offer comprehensive sexuality education that establishes volitional sex and sexual health as basic human rights; (3) health services that routinely ask clients about their experiences with nonvolitional sex in an open and culturally appropriate manner; and (4) secondary prevention programs to meet the needs of victims of nonvolitional sex identified by the "screening" programs. PMID:15129039
Abstract Objective To evaluate vaginal microbiological and functional aspects in women with and without premature ovarian failure (POF) and the relationship with sexual function. Methods A cross-sectional study of 36 women with POF under hormonal therapy who were age-matched with 36 women with normal gonadal function. The vaginal tropism was assessed through hormonal vaginal cytology, vaginal pH and vaginal health index (VHI). Vaginal flora were assessed by the amine test, bacterioscopy and culture for fungi. Sexual function was evaluated through the questionnaire Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Results Women in both groups were of similar age and showed similar marital status. The two groups presented vaginal tropic scores according to the VHI but the tropism was worse among women in the POF group. No difference was observed with respect to hormonal cytology and pH. Vaginal flora was similar in both groups. Women with POF showed worse sexual performance with more pain and poorer lubrication than women in the control group. The VHI, the only parameter evaluated showing statistical difference between the groups, did not correlate with the domains of pain and lubrication in the FSFI questionnaire. Conclusion These findings suggest that the use of systemic estrogen among women with POF is not enough to improve complaints of lubrication and pain despite conferring similar tropism and vaginal flora. Other therapeutic options need to be evaluated. PMID:24188246
Pacello, P C C; Yela, D A; Rabelo, S; Giraldo, P C; Benetti-Pinto, C L
Background: Some boys with sexual precocity are known to have behavioral problems like increased physical and verbal aggression and school and social maladjustments. It is believed to be due to premature androgen exposure. However, it is not clear why only some develop this problem, difference in etiology could be one explanation. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess behavioral aggression in boys with sexual precocity due to different disorders. Materials and Methods: Seven children, ages three to seven years, were enrolled for this study. Two were diagnosed to have congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), three had testotoxicosis, while two had central precocious puberty. Parents of children with precocious puberty underwent the (CASP) questionnaire (children's aggression scale-parent version). Results: Testosterone levels were high in all patients. Parents denied any history of physical or verbal aggression in the two boys with CAH. Their CASP rating was 0. In contrast, the CASP ratings in the two boys with testotoxicosis and the two with precocious puberty for five domains ranged from 3.1 – 24.2, 2.6 – 8.3,1-5.6,0 – 7.1, and 0 – 1, respectively. In the present study, increased aggression was seen among all the patients with testotoxicosis and both with precocious puberty. In contrast, there were no symptoms of either increased verbal or physical aggression in either of the two patients with CAH. Conclusions: The hormonal milieu in the boys with CAH versus those with sexual precocity due to other causes differed in terms of cortisol and androgen precursors. The androgen excess in CAH children was a consequence of cortisol deficiency. It is possible that cortisol sufficiency is required for androgen-mediated behavioral effects.
Kulshreshtha, Bindu; Mehta, Manju; Gupta, Nandita; Ammini, Ariachery C.
Sexual dysfunction is a serious medical and social symptom that occurs in 10%-52% in men and 25%-63% in women. Numerous central and peripheral neural circuits control sexual activity. Impairment of one or more of these functional circuits may have a significant impact on personal, social and biological relationships. Although several aspects of sexual motivation and performance are known, a complete picture of the various factors that control human sexual activity is still unknown. The available drugs and treatments have limited efficacy, unpleasant side effects and contraindications in certain disease conditions. A variety of botanicals are known to have a potential effect on the sexual functions, supporting older claims and offering newer hopes. This review, while evaluating various factors that control sexual function, identifies a variety of botanicals that may be potentially useful in treating sexual dysfunction. PMID:16114077
Tharakan, Binu; Manyam, Bala V
Research has shown men and women of all ages and sexual orientations to use the Internet for sexual purposes. For example, the Internet is used to access pornography, to find sex-related information, to purchase sexual merchandise, and to find partners for romance and sex. The specific characteristics of the medium have made it attractive for engaging in sexual behaviors that are regulated by societal and cultural norms offline. Thus, the Internet has made it easier to explore and express one's sexuality at less risk of negative personal sanctions. In this regard, the technological innovation has meant a sexual revolution, particularly for disenfranchised groups. While generally being perceived as positive, concerns have been raised about potential risks associated with the Internet. The purpose of this chapter is to provide the reader with an empirical and theoretical overview of the first 15 years of research in the field of Internet sexuality. PMID:22005208
Daneback, Kristian; Ross, Michael W
Background Data relating to the influence of hormonal contraception on sexual life are conflicting and mostly they refer to oral contraceptives. In this study we evaluated the effect of a long-acting contraceptive on sexual function, metabolism and bleeding pattern variations. Methods: 23 women with a permanent partner and an active sexual life completed a specific questionnaire at the start of the study and after cycles 3 and 6 of contraceptive use; a blood sample was performed or metabolic evaluation and a “bleeding calendar” was compiled by the patients. Conclusion: There is an increase of quality and frequency of sexual function after 6 month of contraception; there aren’t significant change in metabolic parameters and is detectable a modification of bleeding patterns.
Visconti, F; Zullo, F; Marra, M.L; De Masellis, G; Caiazza, M; Cibarelli, F; Buonomo, B; Guida, M.
Several brain nuclei interact to orchestrate the appetitive and consummatory aspects of male sexual behavior. Of these structures, the medial preoptic area (mPOA) of the hypothalamus is of particular interest, as it receives input from all sensory modalities, and damage to this region disrupts copulation in a wide variety of taxa. Furthermore, the mPOA is both responsive to gonadal hormones and involved in endocrine regulation. Neurochemical studies have demonstrated that both dopamine and glutamate levels rise in the mPOA in response to sexual activity, while antagonism of these neurotransmitters impairs male sexual response. Here we review how dopamine and glutamate act in the mPOA to modulate male sexual behavior. PMID:24534416
Will, Ryan G; Hull, Elaine M; Dominguez, Juan M
\\u000a This chapter summarizes advances in current theoretical and empirical literature on sexual identity development. It proposes\\u000a a model of sexual identity that offers a more global (i.e., non-sexual identity group specific) perspective in comparison\\u000a to existing sexual identity group-specific sexual identity models. Attention to commonalities in sexual identity development\\u000a across sexual identity subgroups can offer a more global perspective that
Frank R. Dillon; Roger L. Worthington; Bonnie Moradi
Unlike members of other species that are genetically wired to be attracted to their sexual partners, humans learn the cues that guide them in choosing their sexual partners and that trigger sexual arousal. Genetically wired mechanisms must be directing the acquisition of those cues and organizing them in information structures that underlie human sexual behavior. Individual sexuality is a combination of the genetic mechanisms and information learned through personal experiences. This article focuses on the roots of human sexuality - on genetically embedded mechanisms, common to all humans, around which the wide variety of sexual behaviors is built. It proposes a model that defines the basic mechanisms and their role in developing individual sexuality. It is suggested that three brain areas host the roots of human sexuality: the auditory area, which provides stimuli that serve as cues for the identification of a mate; an emotional area, which provides cues for emotional arousal; and a corporal area, which controls the physiological expressions of arousal. The amygdala is a main candidate for the emotional area, and the hypothalamus for the corporal area, but other areas may also provide those inputs. Experimental observations that support this model are discussed, and an outline of additional experiments for validating the model is proposed. If validated, the model would provide knowledge that fills a gap in the understanding of human sexuality - knowledge that would benefit individuals, the medical profession, and society as a whole. PMID:21095066
\\u000a Hormonal contraceptives are among the most widely used reversible methods of preventing pregnancy. In 2002, oral contraceptive\\u000a pills (OCPs) were the most popular contraceptive method, used by 11.6 million women in the USA . Unfortunately, for methods\\u000a such as OCPs, which depend on adherence in order to be effective, there is a large difference in failure rates between perfect\\u000a use
Jeanette R. Chin; Geeta K. Swamy; Serina E. Floyd; Lori A. Bastian
Thyroid hormone replacement has been used for more than 100 years in the treatment of hypothyroidism, and there is no doubt about its overall efficacy. Desiccated thyroid contains both thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3); serum T3 frequently rises to supranormal values in the absorption phase, associated with palpitations. Liothyronine (T3) has the same drawback and requires twice-daily administration in view
Wilmar M. Wiersinga
CONTEXT Understanding Latino youths’ sexual values is key to informing HIV prevention efforts. Few studies have examined associations between culturally based sexual values and behaviors among Latinos. METHODS A sample of 839 sexually active Latinos aged 16–22 residing in San Francisco were interviewed in 2003–2006. Multiple regression and multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between sexual values and behaviors, while adjusting for language use (a proxy for acculturation) and other covariates. RESULTS The importance attached to female virginity was negatively associated with the number of sexual partners women had had in their lifetime (odds ratio, 0.8) and in the past year (0.9), and was positively associated with women’s nonuse of condoms, rather than consistent use, during the first month of their current relationships (1.8). For men, the importance of satisfying sexual needs increased with the numbers of lifetime and recent sexual partners (1.4 and 1.1, respectively), and with inconsistent condom use in the first month of their relationships (1.9). Comfort with sexual communication was positively associated with inconsistent use or nonuse of condoms in the last month of both men’s and women’s current relationships (2.0–2.2). For women, considering satisfaction of sexual needs important was associated with more sexual partners only among those who attached little value to female virginity. CONCLUSIONS It is important to integrate themes of virginity and sexual desire into intervention curricula so youth can better understand how these sexual norms influence their developing sexual identities and behaviors.
Deardorff, Julianna; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Flores, Elena; Ozer, Emily J.
The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis (ICHH) states that hormones enhance sexual trait expression but impair immunity. Previous tests of the ICHH have been hampered by experimental design problems. Here, we report on an experimental test of the ICHH that includes manipulations of both hormones and infections in males of the territorial damselfly, Hetaerina americana, with accurate survival measurements. We conducted a fully factorial experiment subjecting each individual to one of three topical treatments: methoprene (a juvenile hormone analog), acetone, or control, and one of three injection treatments: bacteria, PBS, or control. We measured survival of manipulated males in both the wild and in captivity. As predicted, survival was most heavily impaired in methoprene-bacteria males than in the other groups in the wild, and no survival differences emerged in captive animals. This result confirms that survival is one cost an animal pays for increased hormonal levels. This corroborates theoretical predictions of the ICHH. PMID:23025617
González-Tokman, Daniel M; Munguía-Steyer, Roberto; González-Santoyo, Isaac; Baena-Díaz, Fernanda S; Córdoba-Aguilar, Alex
Thyroid hormone is important for development of various tissues, in particular brain, and for regulation of metabolic processes throughout life. The follicular cells of the thyroid gland produce predominantly T4 (thyroxine), but the biological activity of thyroid hormone is largely exerted by T3 (3,3',5-tri-iodothyronine). The deiodinases involved in T4-to-T3 conversion or T4 and T3 degradation, as well as the T3 receptors, are located intracellularly. Therefore the action and metabolism of thyroid hormone require transport of iodothyronines across the cell membrane via specific transporters. Recently, a number of transporters capable of cellular uptake of iodothyronines have been identified. The most specific transporters identified so far are OATP1C1 and MCT8, which appear to be involved in T4 transport across the blood-brain barrier, and in T3 transport into brain neurons, respectively. The MCT8 gene is located on human chromosome Xq13, and mutations in MCT8 are associated with X-linked severe psychomotor retardation and elevated serum T3 levels. PMID:15667314
Friesema, E C H; Jansen, J; Visser, T J
High-risk sexual offenders are a complex and heterogeneous group of offenders about whom researchers, clinicians, and law enforcement agencies still know relatively little. In response to the paucity of information that is specifically applicable to high-risk offenders, the present study investigated the potential influence of sexual fantasy, sexual paraphilia, and psychopathy on the offending behaviour of 139 of the highest risk sexual offenders in one province of Canada. The sample included 41 child molesters, 42 rapists, 18 rapist/molesters, 30 mixed offenders, and 6 "other" sexual offenders. Two offenders could not be categorized by type due to insufficient file information. Data analyses revealed significant differences between offender types for a number of criminal history variables including past sexual and nonsexual convictions, number of victims, weapon use, and age of offending onset. Further, there were significant differences between offender types for sexual fantasy themes, paraphilia diagnoses, and levels of psychopathy. For example, results revealed that offenders' sexual fantasies were significantly more likely to correspond with the specific type of index sexual offence that they had committed. Further, offenders scoring high in psychopathy were significantly more likely to have a sadistic paraphilia than offenders with either low or moderate psychopathy scores. Results from the current study provide a refined and informed understanding of sexual offending behaviour with important implications for future research, assessment, and treatment, as well as law enforcement practices when working with high-risk sexual offenders. PMID:23395507
Woodworth, Michael; Freimuth, Tabatha; Hutton, Erin L; Carpenter, Tara; Agar, Ava D; Logan, Matt
IN a recent communication, Baker1 directed attention to the difference in size of pistillate and hermaphrodite flowers in gynodioecious and gynomonoecious plants and suggested that the hormonal control of sex-expression might be connected with the level of auxin activity in the developing flower bud. In the course of genetical studies of gynodioecy in members of the Labiatae, I have made
Lesbian and bisexual women's sexual health is neglected in much Government policy and practice in England and Wales. This paper examines lesbian and bisexual women's negotiation of sexual health, drawing on findings from a small research project. Themes explored include invisibility and lack of information, influences on decision-making and sexual activities and experiences of services and barriers to sexual healthcare. Key issues of importance in this respect are homophobic and heterosexist social contexts. Drawing on understandings of lesbian, gay and bisexual human rights, sexual rights and sexual citizenship, it is argued that these are useful lenses through which to examine and address lesbian and bisexual women's sexual health and related inequalities. PMID:21972785
This study explored the predictors and consequences of sexual assault occurring after the age of 16 years in a nonclinical sample of women. Child sexual abuse occurring before the age of 16 years was the only predictor of later sexual assault among comorbid risk factors. Peer sexual abuse, number of perpetrators, age at time of sexual abuse, and severity of
Azmaira Hamid Maker; Markus Kemmelmeier; Christopher Peterson
Melatonin has been implicated in the control of the reproductive system, and the modulatory actions of melatonin on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons have been assumed to be indirectly mediated through afferent neurons. However, our previous studies demonstrate sexually dimorphic modulation of A-type ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor (GABAAR) currents by melatonin in adult rat GnRH neurons and a preferential expression of
Hirotaka Ishii; Shun Sato; Chengzhu Yin; Yasuo Sakuma; Masakatsu Kato
Kisspeptin has recently been recognized as a critical regulator of reproductive function in vertebrates. During the sexual development, kisspeptin neurons receive sex steroids feedback to trigger gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. In teleosts, a positive correlation has been found between the thyroid status and the reproductive status. However, the role of thyroid hormone in the regulation of kisspeptin system remains unknown. We cloned and characterized a gene encoding kisspeptin (kiss2) in a cichlid fish, the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Expression of kiss2 mRNA in the brain was analyzed by in situ hybridization. The effect of thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine, T3) and hypothyroidism with methimazole (MMI) on kiss2 and the three GnRH types (gnrh1, gnrh2, and gnrh3) mRNA expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. Expression of thyroid hormone receptor mRNAs were analyzed in laser-captured kisspeptin and GnRH neurons by RT-PCR. The kiss2 mRNA expressing cells were seen in the nucleus of the lateral recess in the hypothalamus. Intraperitoneal administration of T3 (5??g/g body weight) to sexually mature male tilapia significantly increased kiss2 and gnrh1 mRNA levels at 24?h post injection (P?0.001), while the treatment with an anti-thyroid, MMI (100?ppm for 6?days) significantly reduced kiss2 and gnrh1 mRNA levels (P?0.05). gnrh2, gnrh3, and thyrotropin-releasing hormone mRNA levels were insensitive to the thyroid hormone manipulations. Furthermore, RT-PCR showed expression of thyroid hormone receptor mRNAs in laser-captured GnRH neurons but not in kiss2 neurons. This study shows that GnRH1 may be directly regulated through thyroid hormone, while the regulation of Kiss2 by T3 is more likely to be indirect.
Ogawa, Satoshi; Ng, Kai We; Xue, Xiaoyu; Ramadasan, Priveena Nair; Sivalingam, Mageswary; Li, Shuisheng; Levavi-Sivan, Berta; Lin, Haoran; Liu, Xiaochun; Parhar, Ishwar S.
Sexual and gonadal dysfunction/infertility are quite common in patients with chronic kidney disease. Forty percent of male and 55% of female dialysis patients do not achieve orgasm. The pathophysiology of gonadal dysfunction is multifactorial. It is usually a combination of psychological, physiological, and other comorbid factors. Erectile dysfunction in males is mainly due to arterial factors, venous leakage, psychological factors, neurogenic factors, endocrine factors, and drugs. Sexual dysfunction in females is mainly due to hormonal factors and manifests mainly as menstrual irregularities, amenorrhea, lack of vaginal lubrication, and failure to conceive. Treatment of gonadal dysfunction in chronic kidney disease is multipronged and an exact understanding of underlying pathology is essential in proper management of these patients. PMID:22470857
Rathi, Manish; Ramachandran, Raja
Sexual and gonadal dysfunction/infertility are quite common in patients with chronic kidney disease. Forty percent of male and 55% of female dialysis patients do not achieve orgasm. The pathophysiology of gonadal dysfunction is multifactorial. It is usually a combination of psychological, physiological, and other comorbid factors. Erectile dysfunction in males is mainly due to arterial factors, venous leakage, psychological factors, neurogenic factors, endocrine factors, and drugs. Sexual dysfunction in females is mainly due to hormonal factors and manifests mainly as menstrual irregularities, amenorrhea, lack of vaginal lubrication, and failure to conceive. Treatment of gonadal dysfunction in chronic kidney disease is multipronged and an exact understanding of underlying pathology is essential in proper management of these patients.
Rathi, Manish; Ramachandran, Raja
Women are sexually assaulted at an alarming rate, and the workplace is a frequent arena for assault. However, in recent decades, attention has been given to improving responses to sexual assault. Sexual assault is a frequent cause of injury and death for women in the United States. One in five American women admit they have experienced a completed rape during their lifetime. These estimates are conservative because sexual assault and sexual violence are both underreported and underprosecuted. Fear of job loss and discrimination are frequent reasons women do not report sexual assault in the workplace. Women are entering the workplace in greater numbers due in part to more single parent families and the depressed economy. Also, women are entering work environments that have traditionally been the domain of male workers: corporate headquarters, semi trucks, health care providers' offices, rural farms, and rural factories. Employers must have a plan to protect female employees and effectively address any incidents of sexual assault or violence. Occupational health nurses and nurse practitioners can assist both employees and employers to prevent sexual assault and resolve the aftermath of sexual assault. However, to accomplish this goal, occupational health nurses and nurse practitioners must be trained in sexual assault and violence response as well as preventive interventions. PMID:21175106
Garrett, Linda H
This literature review of dance and sexual expression considers dance and religion, dance and sexuality as a source of power, manifestations of sexuality in Western theater art and social dance, plus ritual and non-Western social dance. Expressions of gender, sexual orientation, asexuality, ambiguity, and adult entertainment exotic dance are presented. Prominent concerns in the literature are the awareness, closeting, and denial of sexuality in dance; conflation of sexual expression and promiscuity of gender and sexuality, of nudity and sexuality, and of dancer intention and observer interpretation; and inspiration for infusing sexuality into dance. Numerous disciplines (American studies, anthropology, art history, comparative literature, criminology, cultural studies, communication, dance, drama, English, history, history of consciousness, journalism, law, performance studies, philosophy, planning, retail geography, psychology, social work, sociology, and theater arts) have explored dance and sexual expression, drawing upon the following concepts, which are not mutually exclusive: critical cultural theory, feminism, colonialism, Orientalism, postmodernism, poststructuralism, queer theory, and semiotics. Methods of inquiry include movement analysis, historical investigation, anthropological fieldwork, autoethnography, focus groups, surveys, and self-reflection or autobiographical narrative. Directions for future exploration are addressed. PMID:20358462
Hanna, Judith Lynne
Very little is known about outcomes of sexual behavior for sexual minority youth. In this chapter, I review relevant literature and draw on findings from my own research to initiate an inquiry into this important topic. I begin with a brief overview of the range of sexual behaviors of sexual minority adolescents and young adults. Next, I describe what we know about positive and negative outcomes of sexual behavior among sexual minority youth. This discussion takes into account physical outcomes, psychological and emotional outcomes, and outcomes related to identity development. Lastly, I discuss the limitations of prior research and propose several goals for future research to expand our understanding of this topic. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24962360
Morgan, Elizabeth M
The authors discussed disorders in adipocytokines' function in chronic renal failure (CRF) and their clinical implications. Adipocytokines' concentrations in CRF are in most cases elevated, which is associated with decreased level of their excretion. This may cause number of clinical implications such as inflammation, loss of appetite, development of protein energy wasting (PEW) syndrome and the progress of artherosclerosis, what leads to increased mortality in a group of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Disturbances in sexual hormones function are also characteristic for CRF. Disorders in fertility, sexual life and decreased quality of life are observed in patients with CRF. Therapeutic procedure is complicated and not fully effective. PMID:22538755
Niemczyk, Stanis?aw; Romejko-Ciepielewska, Katarzyna; Niemczyk, Longin
There is consistent evidence in the literature\\u000a that the foetal neurodevelopmental period is crucial\\u000a for the genesis of schizophrenia later in adult life.\\u000a There are also strong indications that the schizophrenic\\u000a illness has sexually dimorphic features. A hypothesis\\u000a consistent with both findings is that sexual hormones\\u000a may act as aetiological agents for schizophrenia during\\u000a the foetal period influencing the neurodevelopment
Marco Procopio; Russel J. E. Davies; Paul Marriott
PURPOSE: Preventive health strategies for women at increased hereditary risk of ovarian cancer include gynecologic screening (GS) and\\/or prophylactic oophorectomy (PBSO). Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is often prescribed to compensate for postsurgical endocrine deficiencies. This study examined the impact of HRT use on levels of endocrine symptoms and sexual functioning among premenopausal women who have undergone PBSO. Comparisons were made
J. B. Madalinska; M. van Beurden; E. M. A. Bleiker; H. B. Valdimarsdottir; J. Hollenstein; L. F. A. G. Massuger; K. N. Gaarenstroom; M. J. E. Mourits; R. H. M. Verheijen; E. B. L. van Dorst; H. van der Putten; K. van der Velden; H. Boonstra; N. K. Aaronson
The luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), a member of the G protein-coupled, seven transmembrane receptor family, is essential for normal sexual development and reproductive function. LHR are expressed primarily in the gonads, but also are found in non-gonadal and cancer tissues. LH acts through LH receptors in Leydig cells to maintain general metabolic processes and steroidogenic enzymes, and in the ovary
Ying Zhang; Maria L Dufau
Childhood sexuality and children's sexual experiences have become increasingly important to study because our knowledge on the impact of sexually abusive experiences on children's developing sexuality has increased. The main aim of this paper was to study aspects of young adults' recollections of their sexual experiences before the age of 13, solitary and shared, mutual as well as coercive. Anonymous
IngBeth Larsson; Carl-Göran Svedin
The role of sexual arousal in the etiology and\\/or maintenance of superficial dyspareunia is still unclear. Lack of sexual arousal may be both the cause and the result of anticipated pain. This study compared genital and subjective sexual responses to visual sexual stimuli of women with dyspareunia and women without sexual complaints. We investigated whether women with dyspareunia were less
Marieke Brauer; Ellen Laan; Moniek M. ter Kuile
Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that inhibits gonadotropin secretion and socio-sexual behaviours. Oestrogen (neuroestrogen) synthesized in the brain from androgen by aromatase regulates male socio-sexual behaviours. Here we show that GnIH directly activates aromatase and increases neuroestrogen synthesis in the preoptic area (POA) and inhibits socio-sexual behaviours of male quail. Aromatase activity and neuroestrogen concentration in the POA are low in the morning when the birds are active, but neuroestrogen synthesis gradually increases until the evening when the birds become inactive. Centrally administered GnIH in the morning increases neuroestrogen synthesis in the POA and decreases socio-sexual behaviours. Centrally administered 17?-oestradiol at higher doses also inhibits socio-sexual behaviours in the morning. These results suggest that GnIH inhibits male socio-sexual behaviours by increasing neuroestrogen synthesis beyond its optimum concentration for the expression of socio-sexual behaviours. This is the first demonstration of any hypothalamic neuropeptide that directly regulates neuroestrogen synthesis. PMID:24430094
Ubuka, Takayoshi; Haraguchi, Shogo; Tobari, Yasuko; Narihiro, Misato; Ishikawa, Kei; Hayashi, Takanori; Harada, Nobuhiro; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi
Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that inhibits gonadotropin secretion and socio-sexual behaviours. Oestrogen (neuroestrogen) synthesized in the brain from androgen by aromatase regulates male socio-sexual behaviours. Here we show that GnIH directly activates aromatase and increases neuroestrogen synthesis in the preoptic area (POA) and inhibits socio-sexual behaviours of male quail. Aromatase activity and neuroestrogen concentration in the POA are low in the morning when the birds are active, but neuroestrogen synthesis gradually increases until the evening when the birds become inactive. Centrally administered GnIH in the morning increases neuroestrogen synthesis in the POA and decreases socio-sexual behaviours. Centrally administered 17?-oestradiol at higher doses also inhibits socio-sexual behaviours in the morning. These results suggest that GnIH inhibits male socio-sexual behaviours by increasing neuroestrogen synthesis beyond its optimum concentration for the expression of socio-sexual behaviours. This is the first demonstration of any hypothalamic neuropeptide that directly regulates neuroestrogen synthesis.
Ubuka, Takayoshi; Haraguchi, Shogo; Tobari, Yasuko; Narihiro, Misato; Ishikawa, Kei; Hayashi, Takanori; Harada, Nobuhiro; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi
Unlike men, heterosexual women's genital arousal is gender nonspecific, such that heterosexual women show relatively similar genital arousal to sexual stimuli depicting men and women but typically report greater subjective arousal to male stimuli. Based on the ovulatory-shift hypothesis-that women show a mid-cycle shift in preferences towards more masculine features during peak fertility-we predicted that heterosexual women's genital and subjective arousal would be gender specific (more arousal towards male stimuli) during peak fertility. Twenty-two naturally-cycling heterosexual women were assessed during the follicular and luteal phases of their menstrual cycle to examine the role of menstrual cycle phase in gender specificity of genital and subjective sexual arousal. Menstrual cycle phase was confirmed with salivary hormone assays; phase at the time of first testing was counterbalanced. Women's genital and subjective sexual arousal patterns were gender nonspecific, irrespective of cycle phase. Cycle phase at first testing session did not influence genital or subjective arousal in the second testing session. Similar to previous research, women's genital and subjective sexual arousal varied with cues of sexual activity, but neither genital nor subjective sexual arousal varied by gender cues, with the exception of masturbation stimuli, where women showed higher genital arousal to the stimuli depicting male compared to female actors. These data suggest that menstrual cycle phase does not influence the gender specificity of heterosexual women's genital and subjective sexual arousal. PMID:24379080
Bossio, Jennifer A; Suschinsky, Kelly D; Puts, David A; Chivers, Meredith L
The development of a comprehensive program of sex education in Brazilian schools is described in the context of Brazil's culture and traditions such as the Carnival. The influence of Catholicism is explored as is the effect of the behavioral restrictions called for by scientists concerned about sexually transmitted diseases. The Brazilian response to homosexuality is described, and the emergence of a public discussion of sexuality in the media is traced. It is noted that improvements in the status of women have been held in check by a public ridicule of feminism and by the strength of the traditional patriarchal structures which dominate the culture. With this picture given of how the issue of sexuality fits into Brazilian life, the 1980s initiative on the part of the Work and Research Group for Sex Education is described. Opposition to this effort has largely taken the form of passive resistance; even the Catholic Church has not officially protested the sex education program. Details are provided about 1) the selection of teachers, teacher training, and weekly supervisory teacher meetings; 2) the way in which parental permission for student participation was gained; 3) the implementation of the program; 4) the successes achieved; and 5) the difficulties encountered. Finally, it is noted that plans were made to expand the sex education project from the Sao Paulo area to 6 additional large cities in 1994. Also planned is the publication of the Brazilian Guidelines for Comprehensive Sexuality which will explain the sex education methodology and be extremely valuable in the establishment of new projects. PMID:12287356
The objective of the study was to provide further information related to newly described parasomnia variant, Sexual Behaviour\\u000a in Sleep (SBS, sexsomnia). Previous studies dealt with selected population, typically middle-aged males, featuring extensive\\u000a medico-legal exposure. At the same time, an anecdotal evidence suggested higher involvement of younger population, and skew\\u000a towards balance between genders comparable to those seen in other
Nikola N. Trajanovic; Michael Mangan; Colin M. Shapiro
\\u000a Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) affect an estimated 19 million people a year in the United States. Clinicians who may\\u000a encounter patients with STDs need to be aware of treatment guidelines and recent changes in treatment recommendations. For\\u000a example, due to increased resistance, fluoroquinolones are no longer recommended for the treatment of infections due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Recent new approaches also
Alice C. Thornton; Bojana Stevich; Janet N. Arno; Barbara Van Der Pol
Based on interviews with Norwegian athletes living as lesbians, gays and bisexuals, this article investigates the possible subversive effect of queer visibility in sport. While female athletes living as lesbians sometimes create queer alternative spaces within mainstream sport contexts, male athletes acting openly as homosexuals challenge heteronormative discourses by attempting to disrupt hegemonic beliefs about homosexual behavior. The sexual practices of both groups confirm as well as challenge the laws of heteronormativity. PMID:18771115
Find links to various topics below: CDC = Center for Disease Control and Prevention CDC- A-Z Index CDC- Diesease and Conditions writeInsertLink('projectBody','CDC- Diesease and Conditions'); CDC - HIV/AIDS STDs CDC - HIV Basic Information CDC - HIV - LInks to other resources CDC - STD Picture Cards Herpes-Coldsores Kids Health MedlinePlus - Sexually Transmitted Diseases Teen Health Wellness real life real answers ...
The author reconsiders Freud's "The Sexual Aberrations," the first of his Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality (1905), in light of contemporary psychoanalytic theory. Are the concepts of sexual aberration and norm still viable? The author argues that they are necessary but insufficient elements in current theory. He then presents a competing model in which sexuality can be reduced to a more elemental level of disturbance and wish, where it is an expression of a nonsexual wish--for example, to possess or control the object to eliminate separateness. The author presents clinical material to demonstrate this alternative model. PMID:24777366
Phillips, Sidney H
Shoot branching is the process by which axillary buds, located on the axil of a leaf, develop and form new flowers or branches. The process by which a dormant bud activates and becomes an actively growing branch is complex and very finely tuned. Bud outgrowth is regulated by the interaction of environmental signals and endogenous ones, such as plant hormones. Thus these interacting factors have a major effect on shoot system architecture. Hormones known to have a major influence are auxin, cytokinin, and a novel, as yet chemically undefined, hormone. Auxin is actively transported basipetally in the shoot and inhibits bud outgrowth. By contrast, cytokinins travel acropetally and promote bud outgrowth. The novel hormone also moves acropetally but it inhibits bud outgrowth. The aim of this review is to integrate what is known about the hormonal control of shoot branching in Arabidopsis, focusing on these three hormones and their interactions. PMID:17728300
Ongaro, Veronica; Leyser, Ottoline
Objective: In this longitudinal study, the predictive validity of a psychiatric diagnosis of sexual sadism was compared with three behavioral indicators of sadism: index sexual offense violence, sexual intrusiveness, and phallometrically assessed sexual arousal to depictions of sexual or nonsexual violence. Method: Five hundred and eighty six adult male sexual offenders were assessed between 1982 and 1992, and these offenders
Drew A. Kingston; Michael C. Seto; Philip Firestone; John M. Bradford
Nurses' awareness of MST as a specific type of sexual assault within the military culture and sensitivity to the physical and psychological symptoms are important aspects of care. Nurses must treat the physical and emotional components of sexual assault in all settings; however, referral to the veterans administration programs and resources is key for the woman veteran to receive the specialized care developed by the healthcare system. Women veterans who have PTSD from MST and combat exposure are prone to depression, suicide and substance use/abuse. Nurses must not fear asking the woman if she is having suicidal thoughts or has a plan and intent to follow through with the plan. MST and PTSD may result in internalized anger, shame, self-blame, helplessness, hopelessness and powerlessness. Patient safety is of utmost importance. Assessing Patients for Sexual Violence, A Guide for Health Care Providers (2009) is a useful resource for nurses. The National Center for PTSD (2009) newsletter on the topic of MST includes a list of research studies. The work of Benedict (2007) and Corbett (2007) provide additional personal accounts of women soldiers who were in the Middle East conflicts. The nurse's referral to specialized services to treat MST and PTSD with evidence-based therapies is a crucial first step in the resiliency and well-being of these brave women who have served in all branches of the U.S. military. PMID:22359967
Wieland, Diane M; Haley, Jenna L; Bouder, Michelle
22% of the population of Peru, or 4.25 million individuals, is between the ages of 11 and 19 years. A survey was performed on a sample of 6,000 adolescents living in Lima, Cajamarca, Huarez, and Supe. Surveys were performed in a variety of locations, including school classrooms, maternity wards, schools, and work places. The questionnaire was constructed based on a format that had been tested in Nigeria; questions dealt with socioeconomic background, sex behavior, contraceptive behavior, pregnancy history, and health practices and knowledge. 60% of the adolescents were women and 40% were men. 41% had had at least 1 sexual experience; among 18-year-olds, this % rose to 55. Only 10% were in stable union. Married adolescents tended to have begun sexual relations sooner in life. Early sexual relations were more common among men than among women, and more common among non-religious adolescents than among Catholics. Fewer than 12% of the adolescents had at 1 time used contraceptives. Contraceptive use was more prevalent among adolescents from wealthier socioeconomic groups, and more prevalent in Lima than in other regions surveyed. Of adolescents using contraceptives, 38% used condoms, 24% used oral contraceptives, and 15% used rhythm methods. Most adolescents who did not use contraceptives failed to do so because of lack of knowledge. Almost 1/4 of the young women had had a pregnancy. 18.5 of these had abortions, usually in a hospital. The importance of supporting educational prevention programs is underlined. PMID:12269059
Loli, A; Aramburu, C; Paxman, J M
Objective To assess the degree to which a history of CSA moderates the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Method Women with (n = 105, M age = 33.71, 66.1% Caucasian) and without (n = 71, M age = 32.63, 74.7% Caucasian) a history of CSA taking part in a larger clinical trial completed self-report questionnaires at intake including the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women (SSS-W), the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), and the Trauma History Questionnaire (THQ). Results Desire, arousal, lubrication, and orgasm interacted with sexual abuse status in predicting sexual distress such that sexual functioning was more weakly associated with distress for women with a history of CSA. This disconnect was more pronounced for women who were abused by a family member. Conclusion CSA status serves as an important moderator of the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Specifically, women with a history of CSA show higher levels of distress in the context of good sexual functioning as compared to women without a history of CSA. Possible explanations and clinical implications are discussed.
Stephenson, Kyle R.; Hughan, Corey P.; Meston, Cindy M.
Plant growth and development require the integration of a variety of environmental and endogenous signals that, together with the intrinsic genetic program, determine plant form. Central to this process are several growth regulators known as plant hormones or phytohormones. Despite decades of study, only recently have receptors for several of these hormones been identified, revealing novel mechanisms for perceiving chemical signals and providing plant biologists with a much clearer picture of hormonal control of growth and development.
Spartz, Angela K.; Gray, William M.
This study used an experimental paradigm to investigate the roles of sexual victimization history and alcohol intoxication in young women's sexual-emotional responding and sexual risk taking. A nonclinical community sample of 436 young women, with both an instance of heavy episodic drinking and some HIV/STI risk exposure in the past year, completed childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA) measures. A majority of them reported CSA and/or ASA, including rape and attempted rape. After random assignment to a high alcohol dose (.10 %) or control condition, participants read and projected themselves into an eroticized scenario of a sexual encounter involving a new partner. As the story protagonist, each participant rated her positive mood and her sexual arousal, sensation, and desire, and then indicated her likelihood of engaging in unprotected sex. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that ASA and alcohol were directly associated with heightened risk taking, and alcohol's effects were partially mediated by positive mood and sexual desire. ASA was associated with attenuated sexual-emotional responding and resulted in diminished risk taking via this suppression. These are the first findings indicating that, compared to non-victimized counterparts, sexually victimized women respond differently in alcohol-involved sexual encounters in terms of sexual-emotional responding and risk-taking intentions. Implications include assessing victimization history and drinking among women seeking treatment for either concern, particularly women at risk for HIV, and alerting them to ways their histories and behavior may combine to exacerbate their sexual risks. PMID:23857517
George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Masters, N Tatiana; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Heiman, Julia R; Norris, Jeanette; Gilmore, Amanda K; Nguyen, Hong V; Kajumulo, Kelly F; Otto, Jacqueline M; Andrasik, Michele P
Background Several lines of evidence suggest a protective effect of female sex hormones in several organs subjected to ischemia-reperfusion\\u000a injury. The aim of the study was to investigate sex hormone production in male rats after a renal ischemia-reperfusion sequence\\u000a and analyze the influence of gender differences on tissue remodelling during the recovery process.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method Age-matched sexually mature male and female rats were
René Robert; Daniel Aiham Ghazali; Frédéric Favreau; Gérard Mauco; Thierry Hauet; Jean-Michel Goujon
Hormonal contraceptive measures can be used immediately postpartum if the patient so desires. Progestin-only contraceptives are preferable to estrogen-containing methods if initiated during the first six months after delivery. Progestin only contraceptives do not appear to affect milk volume, composition, or to cause deleterious effects in the infant. Ideally for women who desire a form of contraception in addition to lactation-induced amenorrhea, progestin-only methods should be started at six weeks postpartum if the woman is fully breastfeeding. Since contraception protection is provided by lactation amenorrhea, the six week delay will decrease infant exposure to exogenous hormones and decrease the incidence of irregular postpartum bleeding. Milk volume may decrease with the use of estrogen; however, no detrimental effects have been shown on infant growth or development. For women who are planning to gradually wean their infant, use of COCs may provide an easier transition to bottle-feeding. COCs should be used with caution by women who are not able to obtain supplemental milk. A decrease in milk volume can lead to earlier discontinuation of the hormonal contraceptive in an attempt to increase milk quantity. Supplementation is often needed, and then the woman ovulates again, possibly resulting in an unintended pregnancy. Many women are motivated immediately postpartum to accept contraception. For other women, lack of access to health care may provide barriers in obtaining adequate contraception later. In either case, there are adequate data to show no detriments of starting progestin-only contraceptives within days of delivery. Therefore, the best method for the patient should be employed to ensure adequate contraception while preserving optimal lactation. PMID:9025449
Kelsey, J J
Sexual self-schemas are cognitive generalizations about sexual aspects of oneself. In Part 1, a measure of men's sexual self-schema is developed. Studies of test—retest and internal consistency reliability and validity studies of factor analysis, internal structure, convergent and discriminant validity, process, group difference, and change are provided. The construct consists of 3 dimensions: passionate—loving, powerful-aggressive, and open-minded-liberal traits. In Part
Barbara L. Andersen; Jill M. Cyranowski; Derek Espindle
Transinstitutionalization (ie, the criminalization of those with mental illness) is relevant to individuals committing sexual offenses. Mental illness can affect the treatment and risk management of individuals committing sexual offenses. In this article the current literature on mentally disordered sexual offenders is described, including how psychosis, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and dementing disorders may affect treatment and management. PMID:24877705
Booth, Brad D; Gulati, Sanjiv
Understanding the role of socio-sexual cognitions and religiosity on adolescent sexual behavior could guide adolescent sexual health efforts. The present study utilized longitudinal data from 328 young women to assess the role of religion and socio-sexual cognitions on sexual behavior accrual (measuring both coital and non-coital sexual behavior). In the final triple conditional trajectory structural equation model, religiosity declined over time and then increased to baseline levels. Additionally, religiosity predicted decreased sexual conservatism and decreased sexual conservatism predicted increased sexual behavior. The final models are indicative of young women's increasing accrual of sexual experience, decreasing sexual conservatism and initial decreasing religiosity. The results of this study suggest that decreased religiosity affects the accrual of sexual experience through decreased sexual conservatism. Effective strategies of sexual health promotion should include an understanding of the complex role of socio-sexual attitudes with religiosity. PMID:24215966
Aalsma, Matthew C; Woodrome, Stacy E; Downs, Sarah M; Hensel, Devon J; Zimet, Gregory D; Orr, Don P; Fortenberry, J Dennis
Men with prostate cancer (PCa) frequently undergo androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), typically in the form of a depot injection of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists (LHRHa). LHRHa are associated with many adverse effects (eg, hot flashes, sexual dysfunction, loss of muscle mass, osteopenia, metabolic syndrome), which drastically impact patient quality of life. This literature review, which includes a comprehensive table documenting prevalence rates, provides a quick reference for health care professionals involved in the care of men undergoing ADT with LHRHa. Primary sources were acquired from PubMed using the search terms "androgen deprivation therapy" and each potentially adverse effect (eg, "androgen deprivation therapy and hot flashes"). Commonly cited review articles were also examined for citations of original studies containing prevalence rates. More than 270 articles were reviewed. In contrast to many existing reviews, rates are cited exclusively from original sources. The prevalence rates, obtained from original sources, suggest that more than half of documented adverse effects are experienced by as many as 40% or more of patients. A critique of the literature is also provided. Although there is a vast literature of both original and review articles on specific adverse effects of LHRHa, the quality of research on prevalence rates for some adverse effects is subpar. Many review articles contain inaccuracies and do not cite original sources. The table of prevalence rates will serve as a quick reference for health care providers when counseling patients and will aid in the development of evidence-based patient education materials. PMID:23891497
Walker, Lauren M; Tran, Susan; Robinson, John W
To date, the phenomenon of maternal transfer of hormones to the young is an enigma. The present study explains for the first time the maternal transfer of melatonin (MEL) to the young, affecting neonatal growth and sexual maturation. The suckling pups of MEL-treated mothers exhibited significant decreases in body, testicular, vas deferens (male pups), ovarian and uterine (female pups) weights
K. S. Bishnupuri; C. Haldar
The ovarian hormones, estradiol (E) and progesterone (P) facilitate the expression of sexual behavior in female rats. E and P mediate many of these behavioral effects by binding to their respective intracellular receptors in specific brain regions. Nuclear receptor coactivators, including Steroid Receptor Coactivator-1 (SRC-1) and CREB Binding Protein (CBP), dramatically enhance ligand-dependent steroid receptor transcriptional activity in vitro. Previously,
Heather A. Molenda-Figueira; Casey A. Williams; Andreana L. Griffin; Eric M. Rutledge; Jeffrey D. Blaustein; Marc J. Tetel
The under-18 conception rate in England is at a 40-year low but a further reduction is needed to reach levels in comparable western European countries. Sexually transmitted infections are common among young people, with chlamydia the most prevalent STI in the UK. To challenge this, a multi-agency approach is needed, with high-quality sex and relationships education, easy access to contraception and sexual health services and an open culture around relationships and sexual health. Nurses play a crucial role in supporting young people within both contraception and sexual health services and as trusted practitioners in a range of settings. PMID:24383309
Hadley, Alison; Evans, David T
This study examines questions about forced unprotected sex. Study objectives include assessing the prevalence of condom use in sexual assault and improving our understanding of the correlates of condom use in sexual assault. We analyze 841 sexual assault complaints reported to three law enforcement agencies. Descriptive data are used to assess the prevalence of condom use in sexual assault and to examine the contextual factors associated with condom use in sexual assault. We conduct logistic regression analysis to examine motivations for condom use during sexual assault. Condom use prevalence rates across the sites range from 11.7% to 15.6%. Few differences exist across jurisdictions regarding the correlates of condom use. Condom use during sexual assault appears to be motivated by three contextual factors. Younger suspects and suspects who use a weapon during assaults are more likely to use a condom. The suspect's use of alcohol is negatively related to condom use. The low rates of condom use found in this study, coupled with the dangers of unprotected sexual contact, suggest that public health efforts must address the needs of victims of sexual assault more carefully. PMID:23910843
O'Neal, Eryn Nicole; Decker, Scott H; Spohn, Cassia; Tellis, Katharine
This article presents findings from a review of the evidence regarding sexual health for older women from MEDLINE, SCOPUS and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINHAL) databases. A total of 10 articles based on primary studies, reporting about the sexuality or sexual health of older women (and older people), and published between 2002–2012, were deemed suitable. The major themes that emerged from the available literature suggest that the sexual health of older people is affected by factors such as physical changes, mental health, changes to their relationship with their husband, chronic ill health and other psychosocial situations. It is concluded that nurses and other healthcare providers have a range of interventions that can be adopted to promote sexual health among older women. These interventions may focus on improving the older woman’s sexual health assessment; increasing awareness and knowledge about sexuality in later life; pharmacological and psychotherapeutic therapies; using alternative techniques to achieve better sexual functioning; addressing partner and relationship issues, and advocating the importance of sexual health through media and policy development.
Muliira, Joshua K.; Muliira, Rhoda S.
This article attempts to review the most current and the well-established facts concerning drug addiction and sexual dysfunction. Surprisingly, even though alcohol is prevalent in many societies with many myths surrounding its sexual-enhancing effects, current scientific research cannot provide a solid conclusion on its effect on sexual function. Unfortunately, the same concept applies to tobacco smoking; however, most of the current knowledge tends to support the notion that it, indeed, can negatively affect sexual function. Similar ambiguities also prevail with substances of abuse. PMID:24011888
Zaazaa, Adham; Bella, Anthony J; Shamloul, Rany
... difference between STDs (sexually transmitted diseases) and STIs (sexually transmitted infections)? They are really the same thing. So why ... STIs) Symptoms of STDs (also called STIs or sexually transmitted infections) include itching, sores on the outside of your ...
This research describes the heterosexual male sexual self-schema, or the way heterosexual men conceptualize their sexual identity. The authors use as their basis of understanding Brooks' five-theme description of heterosexual male sexuality referred to as \\
William B. Elder; Gary R. Brooks; Susan L. Morrow
Discusses male and female sexual response in aging adults. Describes common medical problems and their relationship to sexuality in older adults. Considers common surgeries including hysterectomy, mastectomy, and prostatectomy and sexuality in older adults. Discusses implications for counselors. (RC)
Previous work with female rats showed that serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) are suppressed by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists less than are levels of serum luteinizing hormone (LH), suggesting a lesser dependency of FSH on GnRH stimulation. The differential regulation of LH and FSH is known to have some aspects that are sexually asymmetrical, and it was of interest to see if males also show differential gonadotropin suppressibility after injection of an antagonist to GnRH. Male rats were prepared for serial sampling 4 wk after castration. After a blood sample was removed at Time Zero, [Ac-3-Pro1, pF-D-Phe2, -D-Trp3,6]-GnRH (Antag) was injected subcutaneously in oil; doses were 0, 4, 20, 100, 500, and 2500 micrograms. Blood was sampled at 2, 5, 12, 24 and 36 h postinjection. All doses above 4 micrograms had lowered LH levels by 2 h, and LH remained suppressed for 12 to 24 h at the three higher doses. By contrast, serum FSH was unaffected by any dose at 5 h, and was only marginally suppressed by the highest doses thereafter. As in females, therefore, FSH secretion in male rats appears not to be as dependent on GnRH as is LH secretion. PMID:3105610
Kartun, K; Schwartz, N B
Ten multiparous lactating Japanese Black cows (beef breed) were used to evaluate the effects of bovine growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) analog on milk yield and profiles of plasma hormones and metabolites. The cows received 2 consecutive 21-d treatments (a daily s.c. injectionof 3-mg GHRH analog or saline) in a 2 (group) × 2 (period) Latin square cross- over design. The
H. Shingu; K. Hodate; S. Kushibiki; Y. Ueda; E. Touno; M. Shinoda; S. Ohashi
Luteinizing hormone (LH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) are integral components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, which controls sexual maturation and functionality. In the absence of signaling through their shared receptor, fetal sexual differentiation and post-natal development cannot proceed normally. Although they share a high degree of homology, the physiologic roles of these hormones are unique, governed by differences in expression pattern, biopotency and regulation. Whereas LH is a key regulator of gonadal steroidogenesis and ovulation, hCG is predominantly active in pregnancy and fetal development. Emerging evidence has revealed endogenous functions not previously ascribed to hCG, including participation in ovulation and fertilization, implantation, placentation and other activities in support of successful pregnancy. Spontaneous and induced mutations in LH, hCG and their mutual receptor have contributed substantially to our understanding of reproductive development and function. The lack of naturally occurring, functionally significant mutations in the ?-subunit of hCG reinforce its putative role in establishment of pregnancy. Rescue of reproductive abnormalities resulting from aberrant gonadotropin signaling is possible in certain clinical contexts, depending on the nature of the underlying defect. By understanding the physiologic roles of LH and hCG in normal and pathologic states, we may better harness their diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic potential. PMID:24283620
Choi, Janet; Smitz, Johan
This cross-sectional study examined the odds of being diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection (STI) or a sexual dysfunction disorder (SDD) among Operation Enduring Freedom\\/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF\\/OIF) American veterans receiving care in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) in relation to whether or not they have experienced military sexual trauma (MST). Among those veterans who experienced MST, the influence of
Jessica A. Turchik; Joanne Pavao; Deborah Nazarian; Samina Iqbal; Caitlin McLean; Rachel E. Kimerling
This paper provides an integration of our findings on the diagnosis of sexual sadism among sexual offenders. A summary of our review paper is provided followed by a description of two studies that we conducted where we examined both the application of the diagnosis in clinical settings and the inter-diagnostician agreement of the diagnosis based on detailed case descriptions. On
W. L. Marshall; Pamela Yates
Previous research on sexually victimized men has mainly addressed the acute symptoms seen in hospital emergency rooms and psychiatric clinics. Findings are reported on 14 men, all but 1 of whom had been sexually traumatized much earlier in life, as boys or young adults. Several problem areas are described: repression, denial, or normalization of the trauma; self-blame and shame; posttraumatic
Michael F. Myers
Our aim was to study the effect of temperament and sexual experience on female sexual behaviour. We used ewes from a flock that had been genetically selected for ‘calm’ or ‘nervous’ temperament, in which oestrus was synchronized by a 14-day treatment with intravaginal progesterone sponge. Using standardized behavioural tests to measure the proceptivity (initiative in establishing interaction with the male
H. Gelez; D. R. Lindsay; D. Blache; G. B. Martin; C. Fabre-Nys
This paper summarizes what is known about, and research needs on, the transmissibility to sexually abused children of the following sexually transmitted diseases: gonorrhea, chlamydia trachomatis, human papillomavirus genital warts, condylomata acuminata, syphilis, bacterial vaginosis, trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex, and human…
Hammerschlag, Margaret R.
There is much concern about the likelihood that online sexual offenders (particularly online child pornography offenders) have either committed or will commit offline sexual offenses involving contact with a victim. This study addresses this question in two meta-analyses: the first examined the contact sexual offense histories of online offenders, whereas the second examined the recidivism rates from follow-up studies of online offenders. The first meta-analysis found that approximately 1 in 8 online offenders (12%) have an officially known contact sexual offense history at the time of their index offense (k = 21, N = 4,464). Approximately one in two (55%) online offenders admitted to a contact sexual offense in the six studies that had self-report data (N = 523). The second meta-analysis revealed that 4.6% of online offenders committed a new sexual offense of some kind during a 1.5- to 6-year follow-up (k = 9, N = 2,630); 2.0% committed a contact sexual offense and 3.4% committed a new child pornography offense. The results of these two quantitative reviews suggest that there may be a distinct subgroup of online-only offenders who pose relatively low risk of committing contact sexual offenses in the future. PMID:21173158
Seto, Michael C; Hanson, R Karl; Babchishin, Kelly M
Purpose: To examine if attitudes toward premarital sex, beliefs about peer influence, and family communication about sexual relationships differ by sexual experience status. Methods: Data were collected from a randomly selected ethnically diverse youth sample (N = 1,318) residing in two Midwestern cities. The primary method used in data analysis…
Tolma, Eleni L.; Oman, Roy F.; Vesely, Sara K.; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene
The research on male homosexuality and alternative sexual cultures among Latin American men is one of the richest sources of data and cross-cultural analysis on sexuality, sexual identities and sexual communities anywhere in the world. New research includes not only an ongoing concern to describe the distinct contours of different social and cultural constructions of sexual identity (a concern that has been evident in this field for 3 decades), but also a concern to describe the complex process of social, cultural, economic and political change taking place in sexual cultures throughout the region. Numerous papers now document the dilemmas confronted--and the creative solutions that have been invented--by Latino American men in response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and the emerging struggles for sexual rights and sexual-determination that can now be seen emerging in major urban centers throughout the region. These papers demonstrate the limitations of the dominant North American models of behavior change in response to AIDS by carefully uncovering the culturally articulated worlds of intimacy and desire that such models ignore, pointing the way toward a culturally constituted prevention practice as the only possible route to health promotion--possibly among all marginalized and vulnerable populations. PMID:12322214
Parker, R; Caceres, C
The DSM-V Paraphilias Subworkgroup’s suggested revision to differentiate between paraphilias and Paraphilic Disorders appears to be a step forward in depathologizing unusual sexual interests. Paraphilia diagnoses are regularly misused in criminal and civil proceedings as an indication that individuals cannot control their behavior; these individuals turn for assistance to the National Coalition for Sexual Freedom (NCSF), a national advocacy organization
This study examined whether human sexuality and general health courses were negatively affecting college students'"moral fiber," hypothesizing that there would be no differences in sexual attitudes and behaviors before and after taking the courses. Questionnaires indicated the only change was that students had more positive safer sex behaviors…
Feigenbaum, Rhona; And Others
This study explores the associations of sexual revictimization (experiencing sexual abuse in childhood and adulthood) in a sample of 230 African American women who are low-income. Data indicate that women who experience sexual revictimization are more at risk for emotional stress and psychological pathology than women with no history of abuse. In addition, women who are revictimized appear to be at greater risk for emotional problems than women sexually abused only as a child or sexually assaulted only as adults. Revictimization also appears to be associated with an increased probability of engaging in prostitution, even higher than women with childhood- or adult-only victimization, who showed increased probability when compared to women never abused. Finally, women who are revictimized showed increased HIV risk, in that they were 4 times less likely than other women to consistently use condoms, but no more likely to be in monogamous relationships or less likely to have multiple partners. PMID:16501217
Miner, Michael H; Flitter, Jill M Klotz; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E