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1

Hormones and Sexuality During Transition to Menopause  

Microsoft Academic Search

METHODS: Women in the Penn Ovarian Aging Study were assessed at yearly intervals for 3 years with early follicular hormone measurements (estradiol, follicle- stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone (LH), sex hor- mone binding globulin, dehyroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), total testosterone), anthropometric measures, and extensive questionnaires including the Female Sexual Function Index. Univariable analyses were performed to determine the association between hormones, meno-

Clarisa R. Gracia; Ellen W. Freeman; Mary D. Sammel; Hui Lin; Marjori Mogul

2007-01-01

2

Hormone-independent pathways of sexual differentiation.  

PubMed

New observations over the last 25 years of hormone-independent sexual dimorphisms have gradually and unequivocally overturned the dogma, arising from Jost's elegant experiments in the mid-1900s, that all somatic sex dimorphisms in vertebrates arise from the action of gonadal hormones. Although we know that Sry, a Y-linked gene, is the primary gonadal sex determinant in mammals, more recent analysis in marsupials, mice, and finches has highlighted numerous sexual dimorphisms that are evident well before the differentiation of the testis and which cannot be explained by a sexually dimorphic hormonal environment. In marsupials, scrotal bulges and mammary primordia are visible before the testis has differentiated due to the expression of a gene(s) on the X chromosome. ZZ and ZW gynandromorph finches have brains that develop in a sexually dimorphic way dependent on their sex chromosome content. In genetically manipulated mice, it is the X chromosomes, not the gonads, that determine many characters including rate of early development, adiposity, and neural circuits. Even spotted hyenas have sexual dimorphisms that cannot be simply explained by hormonal exposure. This review discusses the recent findings that confirm that there are hormone-independent sexual dimorphisms well before the gonads begin to produce their hormones. PMID:24577198

Renfree, Marilyn B; Chew, Keng Yih; Shaw, Geoffrey

2014-01-01

3

Hormonal and meta-hormonal determinants of sexual dimorphism.  

PubMed

The role of hormones in the determination of sexual characteristics has been known for several decades. It has been shown, for example, that several products, including sex steroids, may influence the body development pattern, metabolic pathways, fat and muscle distribution and vocal cord anatomy, thus producing an overall outcome consistent with a masculine or feminine phenotypic pattern. These qualities are usually described as secondary sexual traits, so as to be distinguished from primary sex traits, usually referring to the gonads and external genitalia. However, it must be noted that hormonal regulation may not explain the full range of the sexual phenotype, since the central nervous system retains a significant role in the establishment of sexual identity, thus giving rise to a higher sex determination stage exclusively described in humans, namely behavioral or psychological sex. Recently, it has been suggested that differences among the sexes are not limited to brain function but they may also refer to anatomical differences and different biochemical profiles, including a distinct pattern of AR and ER distribution. This new aspect of sexual dimorphism suggests a whole system of meta-hormonal regulation, recently described as the sexual brain model. The role of local androgen and/or estrogen concentrations in the initial establishment of brain sexual dimorphism is still under evaluation, since the first results are relatively inconclusive and no direct cause and effect relationship has been proven so far. On the other hand, sex hormones have recently been found to participate in processes well beyond their initially suggested spectrum of action. For instance, ER interacts with EGFR in a number of ways, affecting development of a number of epithelial structures. Estrogen receptors have also been detected in a number of non-classic targets of steroids, such as the brain and the lungs. This observation may imply that sexual dimorphism goes a lot deeper than previously estimated, affecting virtually every organic system, suggesting, in essence, the existence of two different functional models for the whole human body, formulated and conserved throughout the evolutionary progress. PMID:17058540

Lavranos, Giagkos; Angelopoulou, Roxani; Manolakou, Panagiota; Balla, Marianthi

2006-09-01

4

Hormonal profile impact on female sexual function in young women  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Female sexual function is dependent, in physiological milieu upon hormonal impulses: estradiol, testosterone, cortisol, progesterone, prolactin and TSH. Out study tries to appreciate the impact of testosterone, estradiol and prolactin, the major hormones involved in the sexual response, on the normal sexual function. This parameter is approximated by the value of the total FSFI score, a validated international structured interview.

Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Craina, Marius; Pater, Liana; Pater, Flavius

2014-12-01

5

Hormonal influences on sex-linked sexual attitudes  

E-print Network

not using hormonal contraceptives. Results replicate previously reported sex differences in sexual attitudes, sex-linked behaviors and personality traits. More importantly, results provide the first evidence for both pre- and postnatal contributions...

Charles, Nora

2009-05-15

6

Sexual activity, endogenous reproductive hormones and ovulation in premenopausal women.  

PubMed

We investigated whether sexual activity was associated with reproductive function in the BioCycle Study, a prospective cohort study that followed 259 regularly menstruating women aged 18 to 44years for one (n=9) or two (n=250) menstrual cycles in 2005-2007. Women were not attempting pregnancy nor using hormonal contraceptives. History of ever having been sexually active was assessed at baseline and frequency of sexual activity, defined as vaginal-penile intercourse, was self-reported daily throughout the study. Serum concentrations of estradiol, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), progesterone, and testosterone were measured up to 8times/cycle. Sporadic anovulation was identified using peak progesterone concentration. Linear mixed models were used to estimate associations between sexual activity and reproductive hormone concentrations and generalized linear models were used to estimate associations with sporadic anovulation. Models were adjusted for age, race, body mass index, perceived stress, and alcohol consumption and accounted for repeated measures within women. Elevated concentrations of estrogen (+14.6%, P<.01), luteal progesterone (+41.0%, P<.01) and mid-cycle LH (+23.4%, P<.01), but not FSH (P=.33) or testosterone (P=.37), were observed in sexually active women compared with sexually inactive women (no prior and no study-period sexual activity); sexually active women had lower odds of sporadic anovulation (adjusted odds ratio=0.34, 95% confidence interval: 0.16-0.73). Among sexually active women, frequency of sexual activity was not associated with hormones or sporadic anovulation (all P>.23). Findings from our study suggest that ever having been sexually active is associated with improved reproductive function, even after controlling for factors such as age. PMID:24954690

Prasad, Ankita; Mumford, Sunni L; Buck Louis, Germaine M; Ahrens, Katherine A; Sjaarda, Lindsey A; Schliep, Karen C; Perkins, Neil J; Kissell, Kerri A; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Schisterman, Enrique F

2014-07-01

7

Acceleration of Sexual Maturation in Chinook Salmon Broodstock Using Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone Analog  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to problems encountered in broodstock acquisition and egg collection at Homer Spit, Alaska, we tested the effectiveness of a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analog (LHRHa) in accelerating and synchronizing the sexual maturation of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. We captured 341 fish in salt water and transported them to Elmendorf Hatchery in Anchorage, Alaska, where we injected 170 fish with

Carmen Olito; Diane Loopstra; Pat Hansen

2001-01-01

8

Sexual desire, sexual arousal and hormonal differences in premenopausal US and Dutch women with and without low sexual desire.  

PubMed

The interaction between women's hormonal condition and subjective, physiological, and behavioral indices of desire or arousal remains only partially explored, in spite of frequent reports from women about problems with a lack of sexual desire. The present study recruited premenopausal women at two sites, one in the United States and the other in the Netherlands, and incorporated various measures of acute changes in sexual desire and arousal. A sample of 46 women who met criteria for Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD) was compared to 47 women who experienced no sexual problems (SF). Half of each group used oral contraceptives (OCs). The specific goal was to investigate whether there is a relationship between women's hormone levels and their genital and subjective sexual responsiveness. Background demographics and health variables, including oral contraceptive (OC) use, were recorded and hormones (total testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT), SHBG, and estradiol) were analyzed along with vaginal pulse amplitude and self-report measures of desire and arousal in response to sexual fantasy, visual sexual stimuli, and photos of men's faces. Self-reported arousal and desire were lower in the HSDD than the SF group, but only for women who were not using oral contraceptives. Relationships between hormones and sexual function differed depending on whether a woman was HSDD or not. In line with prior literature, FT was positively associated with physiological and subjective sexual arousal in the SF group. The HSDD women demonstrated the opposite pattern, in that FT was negatively associated with subjective sexual responsiveness. The findings suggest a possible alternative relationship between hormones and sexual responsiveness in women with HSDD who have characteristics similar to those in the present study. PMID:21514299

Heiman, Julia R; Rupp, Heather; Janssen, Erick; Newhouse, Sarah K; Brauer, Marieke; Laan, Ellen

2011-05-01

9

Hormones and History: The Evolution and Development of Primate Female Sexuality  

PubMed Central

Sexual behavior is required for reproduction in internally fertilizing species but poses significant social and physical risks. Females in many nonprimate species have evolved physical and behavioral mechanisms restricting sexual behavior to when females are fertile. The same hormones producing female fertility also control these mechanisms, assuring that sex only occurs when reproduction is possible. In contrast to nonprimate mammals, hormones do not regulate the capacity to engage in sex in female anthropoid primates, uncoupling fertility and the physical capacity to mate. Instead, in primates, sexual motivation has become the primary coordinator between sexual behavior and fertility. This dependence upon psychological mechanisms to coordinate physiology with behavior is possibly unique to primates, including humans, and allows a variety of nonphysiological influences, particularly social context, to regulate sexual behavior. The independence between hormonal state and sexual behavior allows sex to be used for social purposes. This complex regulation of primate sexuality develops during adolescence, where female monkeys show both hormonally influenced sexual motivation and socially modulated sexual behavior. We present findings from rhesus monkeys illustrating how social context and hormonal state interact to modulate adolescent and adult sexuality. It is argued that this flexibility in sexual behavior, combined with a tight regulation of sexual motivational systems by reproductive hormones, allows sexual behavior to be used for nonreproductive purposes while still assuring its occurrence during periods of female fertility. The evolutionary pressures that produced such flexibility in sexual behavior remain puzzling, but may reflect the importance of sexuality to primate social attraction and cohesion. PMID:15216429

Wallen, Kim; Zehr, Julia L.

2005-01-01

10

Development of the renal sexual segment in immature snakes: effect of sex steroid hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The renal sexual segment (RSS) of immature Northern and Diamondback Water Snakes and Red-Sided Garter Snakes exhibited varying responses to testosterone or 17?-estradiol. In both male and female water snakes, kidney mass was not a reliable indicator of hormone treatment, whereas tubule diameter, epithelial height and number of sexual granules responded to hormone treatment. In male water snakes, either hormone

Randolph W. Krohmer; Dora Martinez; Robert T. Mason

2004-01-01

11

Correspondence between Gonadal Steroid Hormone Concentrations and Secondary Sexual Characteristics Assessed by Clinicians, Adolescents, and Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescent sexual maturation is staged using Tanner criteria assessed by clinicians, parents, or adolescents. The physiology of sexual maturation is driven by gonadal hormones. We investigate Tanner stage progression as a function of increasing gonadal hormone concentration and compare performances of different raters. Fifty-six boys (mean age,…

Huang, Bin; Hillman, Jennifer; Biro, Frank M.; Ding, Lili; Dorn, Lorah D.; Susman, Elizabeth J.

2012-01-01

12

Effects of hormonal, sexual, and social history on mating and pair bonding in prairie voles.  

PubMed

The interactive effects of hormones, sexual history and cohabitation on sexual and social behaviors were examined in pairs of ovariectomized female and sexually experienced male prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Monitoring with time lapse video tape revealed that females in estradiol benzoate (EB)-induced estrus, and their male partners engaged in high levels of sexual activity which continued intermittently for at least 3 days (until observations were arbitrarily terminated). In conjunction with other studies, these results indicate that the hormonal condition of the female at the time of testing is a major determinant of sexual activity. Prior hormonal, copulatory, or cohabitation experience did not significantly influence sexual responses between females and unfamiliar male partners. However, affiliative behaviors, such as side by side contact, were higher in pairs that were familiar due to prior sexual and cohabitational experience. These results indicate that social and sexual behaviors are independently regulated. Other behaviors, including nasogenital investigation and autogrooming were influenced by the hormonal and sexual history of the female. The implications of these behavioral patterns for reproductive activation, pair bonding, and incest avoidance are discussed. PMID:3074309

Carter, C S; Witt, D M; Thompson, E G; Carlstead, K

1988-01-01

13

Relationships between condoms, hormonal methods, and sexual pleasure and satisfaction: an exploratory analysis from the Women's Well-Being and Sexuality Study  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about how condoms and other contraceptives influence women's sexual enjoyment, which could shape use patterns. Methods Data from an online study of women's sexual health and functioning were used to examine how three categories of contraceptive use - hormonal method only, condoms primarily, and dual use - could help predict decreased sexual pleasure associated with contraceptive method and overall sexual satisfaction in the past 4 weeks. Results In analyses controlling for age, relationship length, and other variables, male condoms were most strongly associated with decreased pleasure, whether used alone or in conjunction with hormonal methods. Women who used hormonal methods alone were least likely to report decreased pleasure, but they also had significantly lower overall scores of sexual satisfaction compared with the other two groups. Dual users, or women who used both condoms and a hormonal method, reported the highest sexual satisfaction scores. Conclusions Because male condoms were viewed by many of these women as decreasing sexual pleasure, sexual risk practices are likely to be affected. Although hormonal only users were highly unlikely to report decreased pleasure, they reported lower sexual satisfaction compared with the other two groups. Dual users, who had the highest sexual satisfaction scores, may have been the most sexually satisfied because they felt more fully protected against unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmissible infections - consistent with previous qualitative documentation of `eroticising safety.' This exploratory study suggests that different contraceptives affect sexuality in various ways, warranting further research into these sexual dimensions and how they influence contraceptive practices. PMID:19061551

Higgins, Jenny A.; Hoffman, Susie; Graham, Cynthia A.; Sanders, Stephanie A.

2009-01-01

14

Neural Correlates of Erotic Stimulation under Different Levels of Female Sexual Hormones  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have demonstrated variable influences of sexual hormonal states on female brain activation and the necessity to control for these in neuroimaging studies. However, systematic investigations of these influences, particularly those of hormonal contraceptives as compared to the physiological menstrual cycle are scarce. In the present study, we investigated the hormonal modulation of neural correlates of erotic processing in a group of females under hormonal contraceptives (C group; N?=?12), and a different group of females (nC group; N?=?12) not taking contraceptives during their mid-follicular and mid-luteal phases of the cycle. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure hemodynamic responses as an estimate of brain activation during three different experimental conditions of visual erotic stimulation: dynamic videos, static erotic pictures, and expectation of erotic pictures. Plasma estrogen and progesterone levels were assessed in all subjects. No strong hormonally modulating effect was detected upon more direct and explicit stimulation (viewing of videos or pictures) with significant activations in cortical and subcortical brain regions previously linked to erotic stimulation consistent across hormonal levels and stimulation type. Upon less direct and less explicit stimulation (expectation), activation patterns varied between the different hormonal conditions with various, predominantly frontal brain regions showing significant within- or between-group differences. Activation in the precentral gyrus during the follicular phase in the nC group was found elevated compared to the C group and positively correlated with estrogen levels. From the results we conclude that effects of hormonal influences on brain activation during erotic stimulation are weak if stimulation is direct and explicit but that female sexual hormones may modulate more subtle aspects of sexual arousal and behaviour as involved in sexual expectation. Results may provide a basis for future imaging studies on sexual processing in females, especially in the context of less explicit erotic stimulation. PMID:23418428

Abler, Birgit; Kumpfmüller, Daniela; Grön, Georg; Walter, Martin; Stingl, Julia; Seeringer, Angela

2013-01-01

15

Sexual fantasies and gender/sex: a multimethod approach with quantitative content analysis and hormonal responses.  

PubMed

Research links explicit sexuality (e.g., physical attraction and pleasure) to high testosterone (T) and nurturance (loving contact) to low T. Engaging in sexual fantasy, which can include explicit sexual and nurturant elements, increases T in women but not in men. We examined whether individual differences in the explicit sexual and nurturant content of fantasy were linked with T or with estradiol (E2). In addition, we explored whether fantasy content differed or overlapped by gender/sex. Participants (26 women, 23 men) provided saliva samples for hormones before and after imagining a self-defined positive sexual encounter and responding to open-ended questions about the situation they imagined. We systematically content-coded responses for explicit sexual and nurturant content. In men, lower inclusion of nurturant content predicted larger T responses to fantasy. Fantasy content was not linked with T in women or with E2 in women or men. Women and men did not differ significantly in explicit sexual and nurturant content. Our findings suggest that individual experiences of fantasy as more or less nurturant affect T in men, provide support for the Steroid/Peptide Theory of Social Bonds, and highlight the value of integrating hormones and content analysis to investigate research questions relevant to sexuality and gender/sex. PMID:23998565

Goldey, Katherine L; Avery, Lanice R; van Anders, Sari M

2014-01-01

16

Sexual orientation differences in teen pregnancy and hormonal contraceptive use: An examination across two generations  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine whether sexual orientation is associated with disparities in teen pregnancy and hormonal contraception use among adolescent females in two intergenerational cohorts. Study Design Data were collected from 91,003 women in the Nurses’ Health Study II (NHSII),born between 1947–1964, and 6,463 of their children, born between 1982–1987, enrolled in the Growing Up Today Study (GUTS). Log-binomial models were used to estimate risk ratios (RR) for teen pregnancy and hormonal contraception use in sexual minorities compared to heterosexuals and meta-analysis techniques were used to compare the two cohorts. Results Overall, teen hormonal contraception use was lower and teen pregnancy was higher in NHSII than GUTS. In both cohorts, lesbians were less likely, whereas the other sexual minorities were more likely, to use hormonal contraception as teenagers compared to their heterosexual peers. All sexual minority groups in both cohorts, except NHSII lesbians, were at significantly increased risk for teen pregnancy, with RRs ranging from 1.61 (95%CI 0.40, 6.55) to 5.82 (95%CI 2.89, 11.73). Having a NHSII mother who was pregnant as a teen was not associated with teen pregnancy in GUTS participants. Finally, significant heterogeneity was found between the two cohorts. Conclusions Adolescent sexual minorities have been, and continue to be, at increased risk for pregnancy. Public health and clinical efforts are needed to address teen pregnancy in this population. PMID:23796650

Charlton, Brittany M.; Corliss, Heather L.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Rosario, Margaret; Spiegelman, Donna; Austin, S. Bryn

2013-01-01

17

Hormonal aspects of sexual dysfunction: The therapeutic use of exogenous androgens in men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hormones exert a pervasive influence on sexual activity. Androgens are involved in the initiation and maintenance of libido\\u000a and spontaneous arousal. In recent years, the clinical use of exogenous androgens for treatment of sexual dysfunction has\\u000a received a great deal of attention. Good evidence exists that such treatment is effective for arousal difficulties in men\\u000a and women in the setting

Stuart N. Seidman

2000-01-01

18

Early manipulation of juvenile hormone has sexually dimorphic effects on mature adult behavior in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Hormones are critical for the development, maturation, and maintenance of physiological systems; therefore, understanding their involvement during maturation of the brain is important for the elucidation of mechanisms by which adults become behaviorally competent. Changes in exogenous and endogenous factors encountered during sexual maturation can have long lasting effects in mature adults. In this study, we investigated the role of the gonadotropic hormone, juvenile hormone (JH), in the modulation of adult behaviors in Drosophila. Here we utilized methoprene (a synthetic JH analog) and precocene (a JH synthesis inhibitor) to manipulate levels of JH in sexually immature male and female Drosophila with or without decreased synthesis of neuronal dopamine (DA). Locomotion and courtship behavior were assayed once the animals had grown to sexual maturity. The results demonstrate a sexually dimorphic role for JH in the modulation of these centrally controlled behaviors in mature animals that is dependent on the age of the animals assayed, and present DA as a candidate neuronal factor that differentially interacts with JH depending on the sex of the animal. The data also suggest that JH modulates these behaviors through an indirect mechanism. Since gonadotropic hormones and DA interact in mammals to affect brain development and later function, our results suggest that this mechanism for the development of adult behavioral competence may be evolutionarily conserved. PMID:24012944

Argue, Kathryn J; Yun, Amber J; Neckameyer, Wendi S

2013-01-01

19

Women's Performance on Sexually Dimorphic Tasks: The Effect of Hormonal Fluctuations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effect of hormonal fluctuations on women's performance on sexually dimorphic cognitive tasks. Thirty-six participants were recruited through introduction to psychology courses at three colleges. Participants were assessed using the Woodcock-Johnson Test of Cognitive Ability III (WJ III COG), which is a commonly-used, widely…

Duell, Lanora J.

2011-01-01

20

Hormonal contraception, sexual behaviour and HIV prevalence among women in Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Data on the effect of contraceptive methods, other than the condom, on HIV acquisition is not clear. The aim of this study was to describe hormonal contraceptive use, sexual behaviour and HIV prevalence among women in Cameroon in order to provide baseline information for future analytical studies. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study based a nationally representative sample

Eugene J Kongnyuy; Varda Soskolne; Bella Adler

2008-01-01

21

Female social and sexual interest across the menstrual cycle: the roles of pain, sleep and hormones  

PubMed Central

Background Although research suggests that socio-sexual behavior changes in conjunction with the menstrual cycle, several potential factors are rarely taken into consideration. We investigated the role of changing hormone concentrations on self-reported physical discomfort, sleep, exercise and socio-sexual interest in young, healthy women. Methods Salivary hormones (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate-DHEAS, progesterone, cortisol, testosterone, estradiol and estriol) and socio-sexual variables were measured in 20 women taking oral contraceptives (OC group) and 20 not using OCs (control group). Outcome measures were adapted from questionnaires of menstrual cycle-related symptoms, physical activity, and interpersonal relations. Testing occurred during menstruation (T1), mid-cycle (T2), and during the luteal phase (T3). Changes in behavior were assessed across time points and between groups. Additionally, correlations between hormones and socio-behavioral characteristics were determined. Results Physical discomfort and sleep disturbances peaked at T1 for both groups. Exercise levels and overall socio-sexual interest did not change across the menstrual cycle for both groups combined. However, slight mid-cycle increases in general and physical attraction were noted among the control group, whereas the OC group experienced significantly greater socio-sexual interest across all phases compared to the control group. Associations with hormones differed by group and cycle phase. The estrogens were correlated with socio-sexual and physical variables at T1 and T3 in the control group; whereas progesterone, cortisol, and DHEAS were more closely associated with these variables in the OC group across test times. The direction of influence further varies by behavior, group, and time point. Among naturally cycling women, higher concentrations of estradiol and estriol are associated with lower attraction scores at T1 but higher scores at T3. Among OC users, DHEAS and progesterone exhibit opposing relationships with attraction scores at T1 and invert at T3. Conclusions Data from this study show no change across the cycle in socio-sexual interest among healthy, reproductive age women but higher social and physical attraction among OC users. Furthermore, a broader range of hormones may be associated with attraction than previously thought. Such relationships differ by use of oral contraceptives, and may either reflect endogenous hormone modulation by OCs and/or self-selection of sexually active women to practice contraceptive techniques. PMID:20507626

2010-01-01

22

Sex hormones and pituitary function in male epileptic patients with altered or normal sexuality.  

PubMed

Male epileptic patients frequently complain of sexual dysfunction, particularly impotence and loss of libido. Epilepsy itself, antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and psychosocial factors are believed to contribute to impaired sexuality. We studied luteinizing hormone (LH) pulsatile secretion, gonadotropin, and prolactin (PRL) responses to LH-releasing hormone (LHRH) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in 37 adult male epileptic patients receiving AED monotherapy who were seizure-free and had normal EEGs. Sexuality was assessed by psychological interview. Impotence was diagnosed in 8 patients (in 2 combined with loss of sexual desire). The occurrence of hyposexuality (approximately 20%) was independent of epilepsy syndrome or AED. No change in total testosterone (T) level was observed. Free T (fT) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels were lower and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels were higher in epileptic subjects than in healthy controls, but a statistically significant difference was not observed between hypo- and normosexual patients. In impotent epileptic patients, estradiol (E2) levels were significantly increased as compared with those of patients with preserved sexuality and of healthy controls. The unbalanced relation between androgen and E2 levels was emphasized by decreased T/E2, fT/E2, and DHT/E2 ratios obtained in hyposexual epileptic patients. In this group, LHRH induced blunted LH peaks. No changes were noted in LH pulsatility features. These findings of higher E2 levels and of decreased LH response to LHRH administration in some epileptic patients with impaired sexuality, may suggest they have subclinical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. PMID:7607114

Murialdo, G; Galimberti, C A; Fonzi, S; Manni, R; Costelli, P; Parodi, C; Solinas, G P; Amoretti, G; Tartara, A

1995-04-01

23

Hormones, Sex Accessory Structures, and Secondary Sexual Characteristics  

E-print Network

gland secretions) and secondary sexual characteristics (e.g., genial glands and skin glands of newts pads of American newts (e.g., Notophthalmus viridescens), whereas oxytocin antagonizes the influence of prolactin. In the Japanese newt (Cynops pyrrhogaster), however, estrogens block the action of prolactin

Sever, David M.

24

Heterothallic Phytophthora: Evidence for Hormonal Regulation of Sexual Reproduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both Al and A2 mating types of Phytophthora cinnamomi, Phytophthora parasitica and Phytophthora palmivora formed oospores by selfing when they were paired with different mating types on opposite sides of polycarbonate membranes. The selfing of one mating type in the presence of the other mating type demonstrates the production of diffusible sub- stances like plant hormones as found in related

W. H. KO

1978-01-01

25

Apomictic and sexual germline development differ with respect to cell cycle, transcriptional, hormonal and epigenetic regulation.  

PubMed

Seeds of flowering plants can be formed sexually or asexually through apomixis. Apomixis occurs in about 400 species and is of great interest for agriculture as it produces clonal offspring. It differs from sexual reproduction in three major aspects: (1) While the sexual megaspore mother cell (MMC) undergoes meiosis, the apomictic initial cell (AIC) omits or aborts meiosis (apomeiosis); (2) the unreduced egg cell of apomicts forms an embryo without fertilization (parthenogenesis); and (3) the formation of functional endosperm requires specific developmental adaptations. Currently, our knowledge about the gene regulatory programs underlying apomixis is scarce. We used the apomict Boechera gunnisoniana, a close relative of Arabidopsis thaliana, to investigate the transcriptional basis underlying apomeiosis and parthenogenesis. Here, we present the first comprehensive reference transcriptome for reproductive development in an apomict. To compare sexual and apomictic development at the cellular level, we used laser-assisted microdissection combined with microarray and RNA-Seq analyses. Conservation of enriched gene ontologies between the AIC and the MMC likely reflects functions of importance to germline initiation, illustrating the close developmental relationship of sexuality and apomixis. However, several regulatory pathways differ between sexual and apomictic germlines, including cell cycle control, hormonal pathways, epigenetic and transcriptional regulation. Enrichment of specific signal transduction pathways are a feature of the apomictic germline, as is spermidine metabolism, which is associated with somatic embryogenesis in various plants. Our study provides a comprehensive reference dataset for apomictic development and yields important new insights into the transcriptional basis underlying apomixis in relation to sexual reproduction. PMID:25010342

Schmidt, Anja; Schmid, Marc W; Klostermeier, Ulrich C; Qi, Weihong; Guthörl, Daniela; Sailer, Christian; Waller, Manuel; Rosenstiel, Philip; Grossniklaus, Ueli

2014-07-01

26

Apomictic and Sexual Germline Development Differ with Respect to Cell Cycle, Transcriptional, Hormonal and Epigenetic Regulation  

PubMed Central

Seeds of flowering plants can be formed sexually or asexually through apomixis. Apomixis occurs in about 400 species and is of great interest for agriculture as it produces clonal offspring. It differs from sexual reproduction in three major aspects: (1) While the sexual megaspore mother cell (MMC) undergoes meiosis, the apomictic initial cell (AIC) omits or aborts meiosis (apomeiosis); (2) the unreduced egg cell of apomicts forms an embryo without fertilization (parthenogenesis); and (3) the formation of functional endosperm requires specific developmental adaptations. Currently, our knowledge about the gene regulatory programs underlying apomixis is scarce. We used the apomict Boechera gunnisoniana, a close relative of Arabidopsis thaliana, to investigate the transcriptional basis underlying apomeiosis and parthenogenesis. Here, we present the first comprehensive reference transcriptome for reproductive development in an apomict. To compare sexual and apomictic development at the cellular level, we used laser-assisted microdissection combined with microarray and RNA-Seq analyses. Conservation of enriched gene ontologies between the AIC and the MMC likely reflects functions of importance to germline initiation, illustrating the close developmental relationship of sexuality and apomixis. However, several regulatory pathways differ between sexual and apomictic germlines, including cell cycle control, hormonal pathways, epigenetic and transcriptional regulation. Enrichment of specific signal transduction pathways are a feature of the apomictic germline, as is spermidine metabolism, which is associated with somatic embryogenesis in various plants. Our study provides a comprehensive reference dataset for apomictic development and yields important new insights into the transcriptional basis underlying apomixis in relation to sexual reproduction. PMID:25010342

Schmidt, Anja; Schmid, Marc W.; Klostermeier, Ulrich C.; Qi, Weihong; Guthörl, Daniela; Sailer, Christian; Waller, Manuel; Rosenstiel, Philip; Grossniklaus, Ueli

2014-01-01

27

Sexual dimorphism of stress response and immune/ inflammatory reaction: the corticotropin releasing hormone perspective  

PubMed Central

This review higlghts key aspects of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) biology of potential relevance to the sexual dimorphism of the stress response and immune/inflammatory reaction, and introduces two important new concepts based on the regulatory potential of the human (h) CRH gene: (1) a proposed mechanism to account for the tissue-specific antithetical responses of hCRH gene expression to glucocorticolds, that may also explain the frequently observed antithetical effects of chronic glucocorticoid administration in clinical practice and (2) a heuristic diagram to illustrate the proposed modulation of the stress response and immune/ inflammatory reaction by steroid hormones, from the perspective of the CRH system. PMID:18475634

Vamvakopoulos, Nicholas V.

1995-01-01

28

Female sexual receptivity is defective in juvenile hormone-deficient mutants of the apterous gene of Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

During reproductive maturation of female insects, the acquisition of sexual receptivity is coordinated with ovarian development. Juvenile homone regulates vitellogenesis in the ovaries, but the action of this hormone in the development of sexual behavior is less well-understood. A strain ofDrosophila melanogaster carrying a mutation in theapterous gene(ap4) was known to exhibit arrested vitellogenesis (rescuable by applying exogenous juvenile hormone),

John Ringo; Ruth Werczberger; Michal Altaratz; Daniel Segal

1991-01-01

29

Sexual Hearing: The influence of sex hormones on acoustic communication in frogs  

PubMed Central

The majority of anuran amphibians (frogs and toads) use acoustic communication to mediate sexual behavior and reproduction. Generally, females find and select their mates using acoustic cues provided by males in the form of conspicuous advertisement calls. In these species, vocal signal production and reception are intimately tied to successful reproduction. Research with anurans has demonstrated that acoustic communication is modulated by reproductive hormones, including gonadal steroids and peptide neuromodulators. Most of these studies have focused on the ways in which hormonal systems influence vocal signal production; however, here we will concentrate on a growing body of literature that examines hormonal modulation of call reception. This literature suggests that reproductive hormones contribute to the coordination of reproductive behaviors between signaler and receiver by modulating sensitivity and spectral filtering of the anuran auditory system. It has become evident that the hormonal systems that influence reproductive behaviors are highly conserved among vertebrate taxa, thus studying the endocrine and neuromodulatory bases of acoustic communication in frogs and toads can lead to insights of broader applicability to hormonal modulation of vertebrate sensory physiology and behavior. PMID:19272318

Arch, Victoria S.; Narins, Peter M.

2009-01-01

30

Building a scientific framework for studying hormonal effects on behavior and on the development of the sexually dimorphic nervous system  

EPA Science Inventory

There has been increasing concern that low-dose exposure to hormonally active chemicals disrupts sexual differentiation of the brain and peripheral nervous system. There also has been active drug development research on the therapeutic potential of hormone therapy on behaviors. T...

31

Physiological quantities of naturally occurring steroid hormones (androgens and progestogens), precursors and metabolites in beef of differing sexual origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation gives a comprehensive overview of the naturally occurring steroid hormones, their precursors and\\u000a metabolites in the food-stuff beef. Thus, comparison values have been established using modern analytical techniques for the\\u000a evaluation of the alimentary administration of hormones via beef and for the evaluation of detected residues. The utilization\\u000a of hormone patterns in meat samples enables the sexual

Mathias Hartwig; Sonja Hartmann; Hans Steinhart

1997-01-01

32

Sexual Functioning and Sex Hormones in Persons with Extreme Obesity and Seeking Surgical and Non-Surgical Weight Loss  

PubMed Central

Background Many individuals with obesity are motivated to lose weight to improve weight-related comorbidities or psychosocial functioning, including sexual functioning. Few studies have documented rates of sexual dysfunction in persons with obesity. Objectives This study investigated sexual functioning, sex hormones, and relevant psychosocial constructs in individuals with obesity who sought surgical and non-surgical weight loss. Setting University based health systems. Methods One hundred forty-one bariatric surgery patients (median BMI [25th percentile, 75th percentile] 44.6 [41.4, 50.1]) and 109 individuals (BMI = 40.0 [38.0, 44.0]) who sought nonsurgical weight loss participated. Sexual functioning was assessed by the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). Hormones were assessed by blood assay. Quality of life, body image, depressive symptoms and marital adjustment were assessed by validated questionnaires. Results Fifty-one percent of women presenting for bariatric surgery reported a sexual dysfunction; 36% of men presenting for bariatric surgery reported erectile dysfunction (ED). This is in contrast to 41% of women who sought nonsurgical weight loss and reported a sexual dysfunction and 20% of men who sought nonsurgical weight loss and reported ED. These differences were not statistically significant. Sexual dysfunction was strongly associated with psychosocial distress in women; these relationships were less strong and less consistent among men. Sexual dysfunction was unrelated to sex hormones, except for sex hormone binding globulin (SHGB) in women. Conclusion Women and men who present for bariatric surgery, as compared to individuals who sought non-surgical weight loss, were not significantly more likely to experience a sexual dysfunction. There were few differences in reproductive hormones and psychosocial constructs between candidates for bariatric surgery and individuals interested in non-surgical weight loss. PMID:24120985

Sarwer, David B.; Spitzer, Jacqueline C.; Wadden, Thomas A.; Rosen, Raymond C.; Mitchell, James E.; Lancaster, Kathy; Courcoulas, Anita; Gourash, William; Christian, Nicholas J.

2013-01-01

33

Sexual transfer of the steroid hormone 20E induces the postmating switch in Anopheles gambiae  

PubMed Central

Female insects generally mate multiple times during their lives. A notable exception is the female malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae, which after sex loses her susceptibility to further copulation. Sex in this species also renders females competent to lay eggs developed after blood feeding. Despite intense research efforts, the identity of the molecular triggers that cause the postmating switch in females, inducing a permanent refractoriness to further mating and triggering egg-laying, remains elusive. Here we show that the male-transferred steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) is a key regulator of monandry and oviposition in An. gambiae. When sexual transfer of 20E is impaired by partial inactivation of the hormone and inhibition of its biosynthesis in males, oviposition and refractoriness to further mating in the female are strongly reduced. Conversely, mimicking sexual delivery by injecting 20E into virgin females switches them to an artificial mated status, triggering egg-laying and reducing susceptibility to copulation. Sexual transfer of 20E appears to incapacitate females physically from receiving seminal fluids by a second male. Comparative analysis of microarray data from females after mating and after 20E treatment indicates that 20E-regulated molecular pathways likely are implicated in the postmating switch, including cytoskeleton and musculature-associated genes that may render the atrium impenetrable to additional mates. By revealing signals and pathways shaping key processes in the An. gambiae reproductive biology, our data offer new opportunities for the control of natural populations of malaria vectors. PMID:25368171

Gabrieli, Paolo; Kakani, Evdoxia G.; Mitchell, Sara N.; Mameli, Enzo; Want, Elizabeth J.; Mariezcurrena Anton, Ainhoa; Serrao, Aurelio; Baldini, Francesco; Catteruccia, Flaminia

2014-01-01

34

The effects of prenatal sex steroid hormones on sexual differentiation of the brain  

PubMed Central

Most of the anatomical, physiological and neurochemical gender-related differences in the brain occur prenatally. The sexual differences in the brain are affected by sex steroid hormones, which play important roles in the differentiation of neuroendocrine system and behavior. Testosterone, estrogen and dihydrotestosterone are the main steroid hormones responsible for the organization and sexual differentiation of brain structures during early development. The structural and behavioral differences in the female and male brains are observed in many animal species; however, these differences are variable between species. Animal and human (in vivo imaging and postmortem) studies on sex differences in the brain have shown many differences in the local distribution of the cortex, the gray-white matter ratio, corpus callosum, anterior commissure, hypothalamus, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, limbic system and neurotransmitter systems. This review aims to evaluate the anatomical, physiological and neurochemical differences in the female and male brains and to assess the effect of prenatal exposure to sex steroid hormones on the developing brain. PMID:24592097

Karaismailo?lu, Serkan; Erdem, Ay?en

2013-01-01

35

Hormonal basis of sexual dimorphism in birds: implications for new theories of sexual selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely assumed that the development of male secondary sexual traits in birds and mammals is testosterone-dependent. In birds, however, masculinity has dual origins. Male-type behaviour and morphology, such as spurs and wattles, are usually testosterone-dependent. However, showy male-type plumage is, generally, the neutral state of development. For example, castrating a peacock has no effect on his elaborate plumage

Ian P. F. Owens; Roger V. Short

1995-01-01

36

At a Supra-Physiological Concentration, Human Sexual Hormones Act as Quorum-Sensing Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

N-Acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated quorum-sensing (QS) regulates virulence functions in plant and animal pathogens such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A chemolibrary of more than 3500 compounds was screened using two bacterial AHL-biosensors to identify QS-inhibitors (QSIs). The purity and structure of 15 QSIs selected through this screening were verified using HPLC MS/MS tools and their activity tested on the A. tumefaciens and P. aeruginosa bacterial models. The IC50 value of the identified QSIs ranged from 2.5 to 90 µg/ml, values that are in the same range as those reported for the previously identified QSI 4-nitropyridine-N-oxide (IC50 24 µg/ml). Under the tested culture conditions, most of the identified QSIs did not exhibit bacteriostatic or bactericidal activities. One third of the tested QSIs, including the plant compound hordenine and the human sexual hormone estrone, decreased the frequency of the QS-regulated horizontal transfer of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid in A. tumefaciens. Hordenine, estrone as well as its structural relatives estriol and estradiol, also decreased AHL accumulation and the expression of six QS-regulated genes (lasI, lasR, lasB, rhlI, rhlR, and rhlA) in cultures of the opportunist pathogen P. aeruginosa. Moreover, the ectopic expression of the AHL-receptors RhlR and LasR of P. aeruginosa in E. coli showed that their gene-regulatory activity was affected by the QSIs. Finally, modeling of the structural interactions between the human hormones and AHL-receptors LasR of P. aeruginosa and TraR of A. tumefaciens confirmed the competitive binding capability of the human sexual hormones. This work indicates potential interferences between bacterial and eukaryotic hormonal communications. PMID:24376718

Beury-Cirou, Amélie; Tannières, Mélanie; Minard, Corinne; Soulère, Laurent; Rasamiravaka, Tsiry; Dodd, Robert H.; Queneau, Yves; Dessaux, Yves; Guillou, Catherine; Vandeputte, Olivier M.; Faure, Denis

2013-01-01

37

The hormonal regulation of color changes in the sexually dichromatic frog Buergeria robusta.  

PubMed

During the breeding season, dynamic changes in body coloration are regularly observed in the male brown tree frog Buergeria robusta. This study investigated the hypothesis that this sexual dichromatism in male B. robusta is mediated through hormonal regulation. Frogs were exogenously injected with testosterone (T) or estradiol (E2). This manipulation revealed that the body coloration (hue, brightness, and saturation) of the male frog increased significantly (i.e., the brilliant yellow color developed) in response to T but not in response to E2. Concurrently, the levels of expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in the pituitary gland were reduced in frogs whose coloration was pale brown on a yellow background. In particular, the weakest expressions of BDNF, PACAP, and PACAP type II receptors (VPAC-1R) were found in male frogs with a brilliant yellow body color during the breeding season regardless of background color. These changes may decrease ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone production associated with the PACAP receptors (VPAC-1R), resulting in the aggregation of black pigment in melanophores and the production of a brilliant yellow body color. The effects of hormones on skin coloration were further examined in isolated skin in vitro. The results of this investigation showed that the dispersion of xanthophores was stimulated by T or prolactin (PRL) and that the melanophores were aggregated by melatonin (MEL) but not by E2. Furthermore, yellow pigments in the xanthophores were significantly dispersed following the PRL+T treatment. In the T+MEL, PRL+MEL, and T+PRL+MEL treatments, xanthophores were dispersed, and melanophores were aggregated and subsequently moved to the low spongiosum layer of the dorsal skin, causing the increase in yellow coloration. These results reveal that multiple hormones play major roles in the regulation of the brilliant yellow coloration of male B. robusta by high plasma T during the breeding season. PMID:24769704

Tang, Zih-Jing; Lue, Sheng-I; Tsai, May-Jywan; Yu, Teng-Lang; Thiyagarajan, Varadharajan; Lee, Chia-Hun; Huang, Wei-Tung; Weng, Ching-Feng

2014-01-01

38

The role of feeding regimens in regulating metabolism of sexually mature broiler breeders: hepatic lipid metabolism, plasma hormones and metabolites  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A trial was conducted to determine the effects of different rearing feed regimens on plasma hormone and metabolite levels and hepatic lipid metabolism on sexually mature broiler breeders. A flock of Cobb 500 birds was divided into two groups at 35 days of age and fed either everyday (ED) or skip-a-d...

39

Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone Reduces Sexual Motivation But Not Lordosis Behavior In Female Syrian Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus)  

PubMed Central

Reproductive success is maximized when female sexual motivation and behavior coincide with the time of optimal fertility. Both processes depend upon coordinated hormonal events, beginning with signaling by the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal system. Two neuropeptidergic systems that lie upstream of GnRH, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH; also known as RFamide related peptide-3) and kisspeptin, are potent inhibitory and excitatory modulators of GnRH, respectively, participate in the timing of the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge and ovulation. Whether these neuropeptides serve as neuromodulators to coordinate female sexual behavior with the limited window of fertility has not been thoroughly explored. In the present study, either intact or ovariectomized, hormonetreated female hamsters were implanted for fifteen days with chronic release osmotic pumps filled with GnIH or saline. The effect of GnIH on sexual motivation, vaginal scent marking, and lordosis was examined. Following mating, FOS activation was quantified in brain regions implicated in the regulation of female sexual behavior. Intracerebroventricular administration of GnIH reduced sexual motivation and vaginal scent marking, but not lordosis behavior. GnIH administration altered FOS expression in key neural loci implicated in female reproductive behavior, including the medial preoptic area, medial amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, independent of changes in circulating gonadal steroids and kisspeptin cell activation. Together, these data point to GnIH as an important modulator of female proceptive sexual behavior and motivation, independent of downstream alterations in sex steroid production. PMID:23827890

Piekarski, David J.; Zhao, Sheng; Jennings, Kimberly J.; Iwasa, Takeshi; Legan, Sandra J.; Mikkelsen, Jens D.; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Kriegsfeld, Lance J.

2014-01-01

40

Transcriptomic Analyses of Sexual Dimorphism of the Zebrafish Liver and the Effect of Sex Hormones  

PubMed Central

The liver is one of the most sex-dimorphic organs in both oviparous and viviparous animals. In order to understand the molecular basis of the difference between male and female livers, high-throughput RNA-SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression) sequencing was performed for zebrafish livers of both sexes and their transcriptomes were compared. Both sexes had abundantly expressed genes involved in translation, coagulation and lipid metabolism, consistent with the general function of the liver. For sex-biased transcripts, from in addition to the high enrichment of vitellogenin transcripts in spawning female livers, which constituted nearly 80% of total mRNA, it is apparent that the female-biased genes were mostly involved in ribosome/translation, estrogen pathway, lipid transport, etc, while the male-biased genes were enriched for oxidation reduction, carbohydrate metabolism, coagulation, protein transport and localization, etc. Sexual dimorphism on xenobiotic metabolism and anti-oxidation was also noted and it is likely that retinol x receptor (RXR) and liver x receptor (LXR) play central roles in regulating the sexual differences of lipid and cholesterol metabolisms. Consistent with high ribosomal/translational activities in the female liver, female-biased genes were significantly regulated by two important transcription factors, Myc and Mycn. In contrast, Male livers showed activation of transcription factors Ppargc1b, Hnf4a, and Stat4, which regulate lipid and glucose metabolisms and various cellular activities. The transcriptomic responses to sex hormones, 17?-estradiol (E2) or 11-keto testosterone (KT11), were also investigated in both male and female livers and we found that female livers were relatively insensitive to sex hormone disturbance, while the male livers were readily affected. E2 feminized male liver by up-regulating female-biased transcripts and down-regulating male-biased transcripts. The information obtained in this study provides comprehensive insights into the sexual dimorphism of zebrafish liver transcriptome and will facilitate further development of the zebrafish as a human liver disease model. PMID:23349717

Zheng, Weiling; Xu, Hongyan; Lam, Siew Hong; Luo, Huaien; Karuturi, R. Krishna Murthy; Gong, Zhiyuan

2013-01-01

41

Neural mechanisms underlying sexual arousal in connection with sexual hormone levels: a comparative study of the postoperative male-to-female transsexuals and premenopausal and menopausal women.  

PubMed

This study compared the brain activation patterns associated with visual sexual arousal in connection with sexual hormone levels in postoperative male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals and normal premenopausal and menopausal women using 3.0 T functional MRI. A total of 30 volunteers including 10 premenopausal women, 10 menopausal women, and 10 postoperative MTF transsexuals who had undergone sex reassignment surgery participated in this study. Brain activity was measured while viewing erotic male and female nude pictures. The free testosterone and estradiol levels of the postoperative MTF transsexuals were not in the normal range seen in normal premenopausal women, but were in range seen in menopausal women. The postoperative MTF transsexuals showed significantly higher activities in the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdala, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, and head of caudate nucleus in response to erotic male nude pictures in contrast to female pictures (P<0.005). The predominant activation areas observed in the postoperative MTF transsexuals in contrast to the menopausal women when viewing male nude pictures included the insula, hippocampus, thalamus, and putamen (P<0.005). Similar to the postoperative MTF transsexuals, the premenopausal women showed significantly higher activities than menopausal women in the insula, hippocampus, thalamus, and parahippocampal gyrus (P<0.005). This study revealed that the brain activation patterns associated with visual sexual arousal in postoperative MTF transsexuals are similar to those in premenopausal women, although the sexual hormone levels in the postoperative MTF transsexuals are in the average range of those in menopausal women. PMID:24800986

Kim, Gwang-Won; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

2014-06-18

42

DEHP (DI-N-ETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE), WHEN ADMINISTERED DURING SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION, INDUCES DOSE DEPENDENT DECREASES IN FETAL TESTIS GENE EXPRESSION AND STEROID HORMONE SYNTHESIS  

EPA Science Inventory

DEHP (di-n-ethylhexyl phthalate), when administered during sexual differentiation, induces dose dependent decreases in fetal testis gene expression and steroid hormone synthesis. Vickie S. Wilson, Christy Lambright, Johnathan Furr, Kathy Bobseine, Carmen Wood, Gary Held, and ...

43

Hormones  

MedlinePLUS

Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

44

Ovarian activity, circulating hormones and sexual behavior in the cat: relationships during pregnancy, parturition, lactation and the postpartum estrus  

E-print Network

time of ovulation. Using this information and that from a previous study by Scott (1970), the duration of pregnancy was calculated in individual queens to be 66 days from the first day of mating based on the interval from estimated ovulation...OVARIAN ACTIVITY. CIRCULATING HORMONES AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOR IN THE CAT. RELATIONSHIPS DURING PREGNANCY, PARTURITION, LACTATION AND THE POSTPARTUM ESTRUS A Thesis by PATRICIA MARY SCHMIDT Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A...

Schmidt, Patricia Mary

2012-06-07

45

Association of Hormonal Contraceptive Use With Reduced Levels of Depressive Symptoms: A National Study of Sexually Active Women in the United States  

PubMed Central

An estimated 80% of sexually active young women in the United States use hormonal contraceptives during their reproductive years. Associations between hormonal contraceptive use and mood disturbances remain understudied, despite the hypothesis that estrogen and progesterone play a role in mood problems. In this study, we used data from 6,654 sexually active nonpregnant women across 4 waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994–2008), focusing on women aged 25–34 years. Women were asked about hormonal contraceptive use in the context of a current sexual partnership; thus, contraceptive users were compared with other sexually active women who were using either nonhormonal contraception or no contraception. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. At ages 25–34 years, hormonal contraceptive users had lower mean levels of concurrent depressive symptoms (? = ?1.04, 95% confidence interval: ?1.73, ?0.35) and were less likely to report a past-year suicide attempt (odds ratio = 0.37, 95% confidence interval: 0.14, 0.95) than women using low-efficacy contraception or no contraception, in models adjusted for propensity scores for hormonal contraceptive use. Longitudinal analyses indicated that associations between hormonal contraception and depressive symptoms were stable. Hormonal contraception may reduce levels of depressive symptoms among young women. Systematic investigation of exogenous hormones as a potential preventive factor in psychiatric epidemiology is warranted. PMID:24043440

Keyes, Katherine M.; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Westhoff, Carolyn; Heim, Christine M.; Haloossim, Michelle; Walsh, Kate; Koenen, Karestan

2013-01-01

46

Elevated testosterone reduces choosiness in female dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis): evidence for a hormonal constraint on sexual selection?  

PubMed

Because testosterone (T) often mediates the expression of attractive displays and ornaments, in the absence of constraints sexual selection should lead to an evolutionary increase in male T levels. One candidate constraint would be a genetic correlation between the sexes that leads to a correlated response in females. If increased T in females were to have deleterious effects on mate choice, the effect of sexual selection on male T would be weakened. Using female dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), we tested whether experimentally enhancing female T would lead to a decrease in discrimination between two classes of males, one treated with T (T-males) and one control (C-males). The two female treatments (T-implanted and C-females) spent equal amounts of time with both classes of males, but T-treated females failed to show a preference for either male treatment, whereas C-females showed a significant preference, albeit in an unexpected direction (for C-males). T-females were less discriminating than C-females, irrespective of the direction of their preference. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that circulating hormones can alter female choosiness without reducing sexual motivation. Our results suggest that hormonal correlations between the sexes have the potential to constrain sexual selection on males. PMID:15306336

McGlothlin, Joel W; Neudorf, Diane L H; Casto, Joseph M; Nolan, Val; Ketterson, Ellen D

2004-07-01

47

46,XX male - testicular disorder of sexual differentiation (DSD): hormonal, molecular and cytogenetic studies.  

PubMed

The XX male syndrome - Testicular Disorder of Sexual Differentiation (DSD) is a rare condition characterized by a spectrum of clinical presentations, ranging from ambiguous to normal male genitalia. We report hormonal, molecular and cytogenetic evaluations of a boy presenting with this syndrome. Examination of the genitalia at age of 16 months, showed: penis of 3.5 cm, proximal hypospadia and scrotal testes. Pelvic ultrasound did not demonstrate Mullerian duct structures. Karyotype was 46,XX. Gonadotrophin stimulation test yielded insufficient testosterone production. Gonadal biopsy showed seminiferous tubules without evidence of Leydig cells. Molecular studies revealed that SRY and TSPY genes and also DYZ3 sequences were absent. In addition, the lack of deletions or duplications of SOX9, NR5A1, WNT4 and NROB1 regions was verified. The infant was heterozygous for all microsatellites at the 9p region, including DMRT1 gene, investigated. Only 10% of the patients are SRY-negative and usually they have ambiguous genitalia, as the aforementioned patient. The incomplete masculinization suggests gain of function mutation in one or more genes downstream to SRY gene. PMID:21340153

Alves, Cresio; Braid, Zilda; Coeli, Fernanda Borchers; Mello, Maricilda Palandi de

2010-11-01

48

Normal prenatal but arrested postnatal sexual development of luteinizing hormone receptor knockout (LuRKO) mice.  

PubMed

To study further the role of gonadotropins in reproductive functions, we generated mice with LH receptor (LHR) knockout (LuRKO) by inactivating, through homologous recombination, exon 11 on the LHR gene. LuRKO males and females were born phenotypically normal, with testes, ovaries, and genital structures indistinguishable from their wild-type (WT) littermates. Postnatally, testicular growth and descent, and external genital and accessory sex organ maturation, were blocked in LuRKO males, and their spermatogenesis was arrested at the round spermatid stage. The number and size of Leydig cells were dramatically reduced. LuRKO females also displayed underdeveloped external genitalia and uteri postnatally, and their age of vaginal opening was delayed by 5-7 days. The (-/-) ovaries were smaller, and histological analysis revealed follicles up to the early antral stage, but no preovulatory follicles or corpora lutea. Reduced gonadal sex hormone production was found in each sex, as was also reflected by the suppressed accessory sex organ weights and elevated gonadotropin levels. Completion of meiosis of testicular germ cells in the LuRKO males differs from other hypogonadotropic/cryptorchid mouse models, suggesting a role for FSH in this process. In females, FSH appears to stimulate developing follicles from the preantral to early antral stage, and LH is the stimulus beyond this stage. Hence, in each sex, the intrauterine sex differentiation is independent of LH action, but it has a crucial role postnatally for attaining sexual maturity. The LuRKO mouse is a close phenocopy of recently characterized human patients with inactivating LHR mutations, although the lack of pseudohermaphroditism in LuRKO males suggests that the intrauterine sex differentiation in this species is not dependent on LH action. PMID:11145748

Zhang, F P; Poutanen, M; Wilbertz, J; Huhtaniemi, I

2001-01-01

49

Visuospatial performance on an internet line judgment task and potential hormonal markers: sex, sexual orientation, and 2D:4D.  

PubMed

We investigated whether performance on a visuospatial line judgment task, the Judgment of Line Angle and Position-15 test (JLAP-15), showed evidence of sensitivity to early sex steroid exposure by examining how it related to sex, as well as to sexual orientation and 2D:4D digit ratios. Participants were drawn from a large Internet study with over 250,000 participants. In the main sample (ages 12-58 years), males outperformed females on the JLAP-15, showing a moderate effect size for sex. In agreement with a prenatal sex hormone hypothesis, line judgment accuracy in adults related to 2D:4D and sexual orientation, both of which are postulated to be influenced by early steroids. In both sexes, better visuospatial performance was associated with lower (more male-typical) digit ratios. For men, heterosexual participants outperformed homosexual/bisexual participants on the JLAP-15 and, for women, homosexual/bisexual participants outperformed heterosexual participants. In children aged 8-10 years, presumed to be a largely prepubertal group, boys also outperformed girls. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that visuospatial ability is influenced by early sex steroids, although they do not rule out alternative explanations or additional influences. More broadly, such results support a prenatal sex hormone hypothesis that degree of androgen exposure may influence the neural circuitry underlying cognition (visuospatial ability) and sexual orientation as well as aspects of somatic (digit ratio) development. PMID:17380373

Collaer, Marcia L; Reimers, Stian; Manning, John T

2007-04-01

50

Tuberculosis and sexual inequality: the role of sex hormones in immunity.  

PubMed

The role of sex hormones is profound and diverse. The gender and age differences in TB incidences suggest a role of hormones. These data, together with their relevance to the epidemiology of tuberculosis, are gathered and analyzed in this review. The underlying network of hormones functionalities in TB is also proposed. PMID:23140164

Zhao, Yuzhong; Ying, He; Demei, Jiang; Xie, Jianping

2012-01-01

51

Sociosexual investigation in sexually experienced, hormonally manipulated male leopard geckos: Relation with phosphorylated DARPP-32 in dopaminergic pathways.  

PubMed

Dopaminergic activity is both associated with sociosexual exposure and modulated by sexual experience and hormonal state across vertebrate taxa. Mature leopard geckos, a reptile with temperature-dependent sex determination, have dopaminoceptive nuclei that are influenced by their embryonic environment and sensitive to adult hormonal manipulation. In this study, we exposed hormonally manipulated male leopard geckos from different incubation temperatures to conspecifics and measured their sociosexual investigation, as well as phosphorylated DARPP-32 at Threonine 34 (pDARPP-32) immunoreactivity as a marker for D1 dopamine receptor activity in the nucleus accumbens, striatum, and preoptic area. Social investigation time by males of different incubation temperatures was modulated in opposite directions by exogenous androgen treatment. Males exposed to novel stimuli spent a greater proportion of time investigating females of different incubation temperatures. The time spent investigating females was positively correlated to pDARPP-32 immunoreactivity in the preoptic area. This is the first study quantifying pDARPP-32 in a lizard species, and suggests the protein as a potential marker to measure differences in the dopaminergic pathway in a social setting with consideration of embryonic environment and hormonal state. J. Exp. Zool. 321A: 595-602, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25351686

Huang, Victoria; Hemmings, Hugh C; Crews, David

2014-12-01

52

Male-female differences in the effects of cannabinoids on sexual behavior and gonadal hormone function.  

PubMed

The putative role of the endocannabinoid system and the effects of cannabis use in male and female sexual functioning are summarized. The influence of cannabis intake on sexual behavior and arousability appear to be dose-dependent in both men and women, although women are far more consistent in reporting facilitatory effects. Furthermore, evidence from nonhuman species indicate somewhat more beneficial than debilitating effects of cannabinoids on female sexual proceptivity and receptivity while suggesting predominantly detrimental effects on male sexual motivation and erectile functioning. Data from human and nonhuman species converge on the ephemeral nature of THC-induced testosterone decline. However, it is clear that cannabinoid-induced inhibition of male sexual behavior is independent of concurrent declines in testosterone levels. Investigations also reveal a suppression of gonadotropin release by cannabinoids across various species. Historical milestones and promising future directions in the area of cannabinoid and sexuality research are also outlined in this review. PMID:19733173

Gorzalka, Boris B; Hill, Matthew N; Chang, Sabrina C H

2010-06-01

53

Expression patterns of gonadotropin hormones and their receptors during early sexual differentiation in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.  

PubMed

In Nile tilapia, sex-specific expression of foxl2 and cyp19a1a in XX gonads and dmrt1 in XY gonads at 5-6 days after hatching (dah) is critical for differentiation of the gonads into either ovaries or testes. The factors triggering sexually dimorphic expression of these genes are unknown, and whether the gonadotropin hormones are involved in early gonadal sex differentiation of the Nile tilapia has been unclear. In the present study, we determined the precise timing of expression of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in the pituitary and that of their receptors (fshra and lhcgrbb) in the undifferentiated gonad in both XX and XY tilapia fry by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemical analysis. Expression of fshb mRNA and Fsh protein in the pituitary was detected from the first sampling day (3 dah) to 25 dah in both XX and XY tilapia larvae without sexual dimorphism and increased gradually after 25 dah in the pituitary. fshra mRNA was expressed beginning 5 dah and was present at significantly higher levels in XX gonads than in the XY gonads at 6-25 dah. These results indicate that the level of Fsh protein in the pituitary was not critical for differentiation of gonads into ovaries or testes, but the expression level of its receptor, fshra, in undifferentiated gonads appeared to be involved in determining gonadal sexual differentiation. Based on these observations, it is likely that in XX gonads, up-regulation of fshra may be necessary to induce cyp19a1a expression, which stimulates estradiol-17beta (E(2)) production and subsequent ovarian differentiation. On the other hand, lhb mRNA was not detected until 25 dah in the pituitaries of both sexes, and sexual dimorphism in lhcgrbb mRNA levels appeared later (10-25 dah) than that of fshra in the gonads, indicating the limited role of LH and lhcgrbb in gonadal differentiation of the Nile tilapia. PMID:23018182

Yan, Hongwei; Ijiri, Shigeho; Wu, Quan; Kobayashi, Tohru; Li, Shuang; Nakaseko, Taro; Adachi, Shinji; Nagahama, Yoshitaka

2012-11-01

54

Testosterone Affects Neural Gene Expression Differently in Male and Female Juncos: A Role for Hormones in Mediating Sexual Dimorphism and Conflict  

PubMed Central

Despite sharing much of their genomes, males and females are often highly dimorphic, reflecting at least in part the resolution of sexual conflict in response to sexually antagonistic selection. Sexual dimorphism arises owing to sex differences in gene expression, and steroid hormones are often invoked as a proximate cause of sexual dimorphism. Experimental elevation of androgens can modify behavior, physiology, and gene expression, but knowledge of the role of hormones remains incomplete, including how the sexes differ in gene expression in response to hormones. We addressed these questions in a bird species with a long history of behavioral endocrinological and ecological study, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), using a custom microarray. Focusing on two brain regions involved in sexually dimorphic behavior and regulation of hormone secretion, we identified 651 genes that differed in expression by sex in medial amygdala and 611 in hypothalamus. Additionally, we treated individuals of each sex with testosterone implants and identified many genes that may be related to previously identified phenotypic effects of testosterone treatment. Some of these genes relate to previously identified effects of testosterone-treatment and suggest that the multiple effects of testosterone may be mediated by modifying the expression of a small number of genes. Notably, testosterone-treatment tended to alter expression of different genes in each sex: only 4 of the 527 genes identified as significant in one sex or the other were significantly differentially expressed in both sexes. Hormonally regulated gene expression is a key mechanism underlying sexual dimorphism, and our study identifies specific genes that may mediate some of these processes. PMID:23613935

Peterson, Mark P.; Rosvall, Kimberly A.; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Ziegenfus, Charles; Tang, Haixu; Colbourne, John K.; Ketterson, Ellen D.

2013-01-01

55

Testosterone affects neural gene expression differently in male and female juncos: a role for hormones in mediating sexual dimorphism and conflict.  

PubMed

Despite sharing much of their genomes, males and females are often highly dimorphic, reflecting at least in part the resolution of sexual conflict in response to sexually antagonistic selection. Sexual dimorphism arises owing to sex differences in gene expression, and steroid hormones are often invoked as a proximate cause of sexual dimorphism. Experimental elevation of androgens can modify behavior, physiology, and gene expression, but knowledge of the role of hormones remains incomplete, including how the sexes differ in gene expression in response to hormones. We addressed these questions in a bird species with a long history of behavioral endocrinological and ecological study, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), using a custom microarray. Focusing on two brain regions involved in sexually dimorphic behavior and regulation of hormone secretion, we identified 651 genes that differed in expression by sex in medial amygdala and 611 in hypothalamus. Additionally, we treated individuals of each sex with testosterone implants and identified many genes that may be related to previously identified phenotypic effects of testosterone treatment. Some of these genes relate to previously identified effects of testosterone-treatment and suggest that the multiple effects of testosterone may be mediated by modifying the expression of a small number of genes. Notably, testosterone-treatment tended to alter expression of different genes in each sex: only 4 of the 527 genes identified as significant in one sex or the other were significantly differentially expressed in both sexes. Hormonally regulated gene expression is a key mechanism underlying sexual dimorphism, and our study identifies specific genes that may mediate some of these processes. PMID:23613935

Peterson, Mark P; Rosvall, Kimberly A; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Ziegenfus, Charles; Tang, Haixu; Colbourne, John K; Ketterson, Ellen D

2013-01-01

56

Enhancing male sexual success in a lekking fly (Ananstrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) through a juvenile hormone analog has no effect on adult mortality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

While defending lek-territories, male Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) produce chemical, acoustic and visual courtship signals. In the laboratory and under semi-natural conditions, topical application of the juvenile hormone analog methoprene doubles pheromone production and subsequently doubles sexual su...

57

Effects of Body Weight and Feed Allocation During Sexual Maturation in Broiler Breeder Hens. 2. Ovarian Morphology and Plasma Hormone Profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of broiler breeder BW and nutrient intake on ovary morphology and plasma reproductive hormone profiles were examined at pho- tostimulation (PS) (21 wk) and at sexual maturity (SM) in standard (STD) and low (LOW), or high (HIGH) BW birds provided either restricted (RF) or ad libitum (AL) access to feed between PS and SM. At PS, 30 Shaver

R. A. RENEMA; F. E. ROBINSON; J. A. PROUDMAN; M. NEWCOMBE; R. I. McKAY; Shaver Poultry

58

A Genome-Wide Survey of Sexually Dimorphic Expression of Drosophila miRNAs Identifies the Steroid Hormone-Induced miRNA let-7 as a Regulator of Sexual Identity  

PubMed Central

MiRNAs bear an increasing number of functions throughout development and in the aging adult. Here we address their role in establishing sexually dimorphic traits and sexual identity in male and female Drosophila. Our survey of miRNA populations in each sex identifies sets of miRNAs differentially expressed in male and female tissues across various stages of development. The pervasive sex-biased expression of miRNAs generally increases with the complexity and sexual dimorphism of tissues, gonads revealing the most striking biases. We find that the male-specific regulation of the X chromosome is relevant to miRNA expression on two levels. First, in the male gonad, testis-biased miRNAs tend to reside on the X chromosome. Second, in the soma, X-linked miRNAs do not systematically rely on dosage compensation. We set out to address the importance of a sex-biased expression of miRNAs in establishing sexually dimorphic traits. Our study of the conserved let-7-C miRNA cluster controlled by the sex-biased hormone ecdysone places let-7 as a primary modulator of the sex-determination hierarchy. Flies with modified let-7 levels present doublesex-related phenotypes and express sex-determination genes normally restricted to the opposite sex. In testes and ovaries, alterations of the ecdysone-induced let-7 result in aberrant gonadal somatic cell behavior and non-cell-autonomous defects in early germline differentiation. Gonadal defects as well as aberrant expression of sex-determination genes persist in aging adults under hormonal control. Together, our findings place ecdysone and let-7 as modulators of a somatic systemic signal that helps establish and sustain sexual identity in males and females and differentiation in gonads. This work establishes the foundation for a role of miRNAs in sexual dimorphism and demonstrates that similar to vertebrate hormonal control of cellular sexual identity exists in Drosophila. PMID:25081570

Fagegaltier, Delphine; König, Annekatrin; Gordon, Assaf; Lai, Eric C.; Gingeras, Thomas R.; Hannon, Gregory J.; Shcherbata, Halyna R.

2014-01-01

59

Corpus callosum: effects of neonatal hormones on sexual dimorphism in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rat's corpus callosum is sexually dimorphic, with the male's being larger. In addition, giving rats extra stimulaUon m infancy via handhng increases callosal area in males, but not in females. To determine if this dimorphism is testosterone-dependent, male pups were castrated on Day 1 of life while females received an injection of testosterone proplonate (TP) on Day 4. Control

Roslyn H. Fitch; Albert S. Berrebi; Patricia E. Cowell; Lisa M. Schrott; Victor H. Denenberg

1990-01-01

60

The Association between Nonylphenols and Sexual Hormones Levels among Pregnant Women: A Cohort Study in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Background Nonylphenol (NP) has been proven as an endocrine disrupter and had the ability to interfere with the endocrine system. Though the health effects of NP on pregnant women and their fetuses are sustained, these negative associations related to the mechanisms of regulation for estrogen during pregnancy need to be further clarified. The objective of this study is to explore the association between maternal NP and hormonal levels, such as estradiol, testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and progesterone. Methods A pregnant women cohort was established in North Taiwan between March and December 2010. Maternal urine and blood samples from the first, second, and third trimesters of gestation were collected. Urinary NP concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescent detection. A mixed-effects model using a generalised estimating equation (GEE) was applied to assess the associations between maternal NP concentration and plasma hormones throughout the three trimesters. Results In total, 162 singleton pregnant women completed this study through delivery. The geometric mean of creatinine-adjusted urinary NP concentrations were 4.27, 4.21, and 4.10 µg/g cre. in the first, second, and third trimesters respectively. A natural log-transformation of urinary NP concentrations were significantly associated with LH in the GEE model (??=??0.23 mIU/ml, p<0.01). Conclusion This perspective cohort study demonstrates that negative association occurs between maternal NP exposure and plasma LH levels. The estrogen-mimic effect of NP might influence the negative feedback on LH during pregnancy. PMID:25148048

Chang, Chia-Huang; Tsai, Ming-Song; Lin, Ching-Ling; Hou, Jia-Woei; Wang, Tzu-Hao; Tsai, Yen-An; Liao, Kai-Wei; Mao, I-Fang; Chen, Mei-Lien

2014-01-01

61

Diethylnitrosamine causes pituitary damage, disturbs hormone levels, and reduces sexual dimorphism of certain liver functions in the rat.  

PubMed Central

The acute toxicity of diethylnitrosamine (DEN) to the liver has been well documented in the literature, but whether DEN also affects the endocrine parameters has been addressed in only a few studies. We thus investigated the effects of DEN on pituitary, serum hormone levels, and certain sex-differentiated liver enzymes in this study. Adult male Wister rats were intraperitoneally injected with DEN at a single dose of 200 mg/kg and were sacrificed at 1, 3, 7, and 35 days after injection; DEN-treated females were included as controls at days 7 and 35. Electron microscopic observation showed that during the first week after injection, all types of granular cells of the anterior pituitary in male animals exhibited cellular damage, including disrupted organelles and cellular structure, as well as pyknotic or lytic nuclei. Many undamaged secretory cells exhibited dilated endoplasmic reticula, hypertrophic Golgi complexes, and peripheral location of secretory granules, which usually are morphologic features of increased cellular activities. In male rats, the serum level of total testosterone decreased and the corticosterone increased 1 day after DEN treatment. The serum level of growth hormone (GH) decreased and the prolactin level increased on day 3. The hepatic expression of the male-specific cytochrome P450 2C11 (CYP2C11) decreased to 1-5% of the normal levels during the first week and was still 50% lower than the normal level on day 35, whereas the female-specific CYP2C12 expression increased only slightly. Activities of the male predominant 16alpha, 16beta, and 6beta hydroxylation of androstenedione by microsome decreased in an in vitro assay, whereas the non-sex-differentiated 7alpha hydroxylation and the female-predominant 5alpha reduction of androstenedione were unaffected. In female rats, decreased serum GH level was observed on day 7. The CYP2C12 expression in females was decreased to about 1% and 80% of the normal levels on day 7 and day 35, respectively, but the CYP2C11 expression was unchanged. These data suggest that in male rats, DEN treatment may cause pituitary damage, disturb serum hormone levels, and induce long-lasting reduction of sexual dimorphism in certain liver functions. PMID:11673124

Liao, D J; Blanck, A; Eneroth, P; Gustafsson, J A; Hällström, I P

2001-01-01

62

Longitudinal hormonal evaluation in a patient with disorder of sexual development, 46,XY karyotype and one NR5A1 mutation.  

PubMed

Steroidogenic factor 1 (encoded by the NR5A1 gene) is a critical regulator of reproduction, controlling transcription of key genes involved in sexual dimorphism. To date, NR5A1 variants have been found in individuals with a 46,XY karyotype and gonadal dysgenesis, as well as with a wide spectrum of genital anomalies and, in some patients, with adrenal insufficiency. We describe evolution of gonadal function, from the neonatal period to puberty, in a patient with a 46,XY karyotype, a disorder of sexual development, and a mutation (c.691_699dupCTGCAGCTG) in the NR5A1 gene. The patient, ascertained at birth due to ambiguous genitalia, showed normal values of plasma testosterone in the late neonatal period. Evaluation of the hormonal profile over time indicated severe tubular testicular hypofunction suggestive for a 46,XY disorder of gonadal development. A comprehensive review of published reports of 46,XY and disordered sexual development related to the NR5A1 gene confirmed the clinical and hormonal variability in patients with NR5A1 mutations. Analysis of multiple data allowed us to define the most common features associated with NR5A1 mutations. We further confirmed the indication to perform NR5A1 screening in patients with 46,XY karyotype and disordered sexual development even when Müllerian structures appear to be absent and plasma testosterone levels are within the normal range for age. PMID:25160005

Pedace, Lucia; Laino, Luigi; Preziosi, Nicoletta; Valentini, Maria Stella; Scommegna, Salvatore; Rapone, Anna Maria; Guarino, Nino; Boscherini, Brunetto; De Bernardo, Carmelilia; Marrocco, Giacinto; Majore, Silvia; Grammatico, Paola

2014-11-01

63

Cognitive and behavioral characteristics of turner syndrome: exploring a role for ovarian hormones in female sexual differentiation.  

PubMed

To better understand factors contributing to behavioral development, we studied patients with Turner syndrome (TS), a disorder typically marked by prenatal onset of ovarian dysfunction. We compared girls and women (ages 12 and up) with TS (n = 21) to matched controls (n = 21) in cognitive and motor skills, as well as sex-typed personality characteristics and activity preferences. Measures were categorized (based on prior studies) as showing an average male advantage (male-superior measures), female advantage (female-superior measures), or no sex difference (sex-neutral measures). It was hypothesized that, if gonadal function contributes to behavioral development, effects of this deficiency would be more prominent on sexually differentiated than sex-neutral measures and thus that patient-control differences would be most marked for measures that show sex differences. Our findings indicated that TS patients and controls differed more on cognitive and motor domains that show sex differences than on sex-neutral domains. Patients also had more "undifferentiated" personalities and showed reduced sex-typed interests and activities. Differing experiences, as indexed by interests and activities, did not explain the observed cognitive and motor differences. These results are consistent with a role for ovarian hormones acting on the brain to influence cognitive and behavioral development, although they do not rule out other possible interpretations. PMID:11855899

Collaer, Marcia L; Geffner, Mitchell E; Kaufman, Francine R; Buckingham, Bruce; Hines, Melissa

2002-03-01

64

The effects of simultaneous or separate infusions of some pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides (beta-endorphin, melanocyte stimulating hormone, and corticotrophin-like intermediate polypeptide) and their acetylated derivatives upon sexual and ingestive behaviour of male rats.  

PubMed

Intraneuronal post-translational cleavage of pro-opiomelanocortin yields a variety of peptides including beta-endorphin, melanocyte stimulating hormone and corticotrophin-like intermediate polypeptide, some of which are subsequently N-acetylated. Such peptides may be co-released from neuronal terminals, and so these experiments explored the effects of co-administration of some of them on sexual behaviour in the male rat, which is known to be sensitive to hypothalamic infusions of beta-endorphin. Peptides were infused into the pre-optic-anterior hypothalamic area bilaterally in doses up to 320 pmol, and males allowed access to a sexually receptive female and/or a sweet solution (0.1% Acesulfame-K) for 15 min, so that both sexual and ingestive behaviour could be studied. beta-Endorphin(1-31) by itself inhibited sexual interaction, confirming our previous data. Acesulfame-K ingestion was inhibited in control-infused rats in the presence of a female, but this inhibition was released when sexual behaviour was itself diminished by beta-endorphin(1-31). Both the acetylated and non-acetylated forms of melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone and des-acetyl melanocyte stimulating hormone) stimulate sexual behaviour; latencies both to ejaculation and to resumption of copulatory behaviour after an ejaculation (post-ejaculatory interval) were reduced. However, infusion of either corticotrophin-like intermediate peptide or N-acetylated beta-endorphin (1-31) had no effect on either sexual or ingestive behaviour. Infusion of either acetylated melanocyte stimulating hormone or des-acetyl melanocyte stimulating hormone mixed with beta-endorphin(1-31) prevented the inhibitory effect of the latter on sexual behaviour. Dose-response studies showed that the behavioural effect of such mixtures depended upon the molar ratios of the two peptides, rather than their absolute concentrations. The higher the ratio in favour of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone or des-acetyl melanocyte stimulating hormone, the greater the display of sexual behaviour. Infusing either corticotrophin-like intermediate polypeptides or N-acetyl beta-endorphin(1-31) with beta-endorphin(1-31) did not prevent the inhibition of sexual activity expected with beta-endorphin(1-31) alone. These results are discussed in terms of the functional consequences of co-release of proopiomelanocortin peptides from hypothalamic nerve terminals. PMID:2851118

Hughes, A M; Everitt, B J; Herbert, J

1988-11-01

65

Sex Differences and Steroid Hormone Receptors  

E-print Network

Sex Differences and Steroid Hormone Receptors NEUS 501 October 24, 2014 #12;Sexual Differentiation of the Brain · Genetic sex determination · Steroid hormones · Sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior · Steroid hormone receptors and behavior · New genetic approaches to studying sexual differentiation

Alford, Simon

66

Sex Hormone Regulation of Innate Immunity in the Female Reproductive Tract: The Role of Epithelial Cells in Balancing Reproductive Potential with Protection against Sexually Transmitted Pathogens  

PubMed Central

The immune system in the female reproductive tract (FRT) does not mount an attack against HIV or other sexually transmitted infections (STI) with a single endogenously produced microbicide or with a single arm of the immune system. Instead, the body deploys dozens of innate antimicrobials to the secretions of the female reproductive tract. Working together, these antimicrobials along with mucosal antibodies attack many different viral, bacterial and fungal targets. Within the FRT, the unique challenges of protection against sexually transmitted pathogens coupled with the need to sustain the development of an allogeneic fetus have evolved in such a way that sex hormones precisely regulate immune function to accomplish both tasks. The studies presented in this review demonstrate that estradiol and progesterone secreted during the menstrual cycle act both directly and indirectly on epithelial cells and other immune cells in the reproductive tract to modify immune function in a way that is unique to specific sites throughout the FRT. As presented in this review, studies from our laboratory and others demonstrate that the innate immune response is under hormonal control, varies with the stage of the menstrual cycle, and as such is suppressed at mid-cycle to optimize conditions for successful fertilization and pregnancy. In doing so, a window of STI vulnerability is created during which potential pathogens including HIV enter the reproductive tract to infect host targets. PMID:20367623

Wira, Charles R.; Fahey, John V.; Ghosh, Mimi; Patel, Mickey V.; Hickey, Danica K.; Ochiel, Daniel O.

2013-01-01

67

Current hormonal contraceptive use predicts female extra-pair and dyadic sexual behavior: evidence based on Czech National Survey data.  

PubMed

Data from 1155 Czech women (493 using oral contraception, 662 non-users), obtained from the Czech National Survey of Sexual Behavior, were used to investigate evolutionary-based hypotheses concerning the predictive value of current oral contraceptive (OC) use on extra-pair and dyadic (in-pair) sexual behavior of coupled women. Specifically, the aim was to determine whether current OC use was associated with lower extra-pair and higher in-pair sexual interest and behavior, because OC use suppresses cyclical shifts in mating psychology that occur in normally cycling women. Zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression and negative binomial models were used to test associations between OC use and these sexual measures, controlling for other relevant predictors (e.g., age, parity, in-pair sexual satisfaction, relationship length). The overall incidence of having had an extra-pair partner or one-night stand in the previous year was not related to current OC use (the majority of the sample had not). However, among the women who had engaged in extra-pair sexual behavior, OC users had fewer one-night stands than non-users, and tended to have fewer partners, than non-users. OC users also had more frequent dyadic intercourse than non-users, potentially indicating higher commitment to their current relationship. These results suggest that suppression of fertility through OC use may alter important aspects of female sexual behavior, with potential implications for relationship functioning and stability. PMID:24412772

Klapilová, Kate?ina; Cobey, Kelly D; Wells, Timothy; Roberts, S Craig; Weiss, Petr; Havlí?ek, Jan

2014-01-01

68

Serum levels of reproductive steroid hormones in captive sand tiger sharks, Carcharias taurus (Rafinesque), and comments on their relation to sexual conflicts.  

PubMed

Levels of reproductively-related steroids were determined in captive male sand tiger sharks, Carcharias taurus, maintained at two institutions: SeaWorld Adventure Park Orlando and the National Aquarium in Baltimore. Sexual conflicts were absent at the former, but were documented at the latter. Serum titers of 17beta-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone were determined via radioimmunoassay in adult male sharks from 1988 to 2000. Sampling overlap between the two institutions occurred for 3 months of the year, but steroid concentrations were compared only for April due to the occurrence of sexual conflicts in the sharks at the National Aquarium in Baltimore in that month. For April, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone were significantly higher in the SeaWorld males, and progesterone was significantly higher in the National Aquarium in Baltimore males, while estradiol was not significantly different. Steroid levels were also determined from serial samples taken monthly over 17 months from three male sharks and one female shark at the National Aquarium in Baltimore in 2001-2002 and were compared with corresponding observed sexual conflicts. The steroid levels obtained showed distinct annual hormonal cycles in the male sharks and corroborated a biennial cycle for the single serially-sampled female shark. Furthermore, the steroid levels for individual males correlated with sexual conflicts as well as their position within the male dominance hierarchy. As this species is depleted in some regions globally, insight into the steroid profile of mature sand tiger sharks is important for a greater understanding of the relationship between their reproductive physiology and behavior, and may aid in captive management and reproduction. PMID:18958600

Henningsen, A D; Murru, F L; Rasmussen, L E L; Whitaker, B R; Violetta, G C

2008-12-01

69

[Endocrinological diseases, metabolic diseases, sexuality].  

PubMed

Sexuality is regularly evaluated in media surveys. Relations between sexual problems and some chronic pathologies as diabetes or metabolic syndrome have been brought to light. Androgen deficiency in the aging male has become a topic of increasing interest. Hormones play an important role in sexual function and relation between hormonal status and metabolic data are now well established. PMID:25239542

Lemaire, Antoine

2014-10-01

70

Sexual dimorphism and hormone responsiveness in the spinal cord of the socially monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster).  

PubMed

Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are exceptional among rodents in that many aspects of their brain and behavior are not masculinized by exogenous aromatizable androgens. However, the sexually differentiated endpoints studied to date rely on estrogenic mechanisms in other mammals. We examined whether sexual differentiation of an androgen receptor-dependent sex difference would be similarly distinct in prairie voles. Male mammals have more and larger motoneurons projecting to perineal muscles than do females. This sex difference normally arises from males' perinatal androgen exposure and can be eliminated by treating developing females with androgens. Gross dissection revealed bulbospongiosus muscles in adult male, but not female, prairie voles. Retrograde tracing from males' bulbocavernosus muscles and the external anal sphincter from both sexes revealed sexually dimorphic populations of labeled motoneurons in the ventral horn of the lumbar spinal cord. Similar to other rodents, males had twice as many motoneurons as females, although no sex difference in motoneuron size was detected. Unexpectedly, prenatal or early postnatal exposure to testosterone propionate had no effect on adult females' motoneuron number or size. In adulthood, gonadectomy alone or followed by chronic testosterone treatment also had no effect on females' motoneuron size or number, although castration reduced motoneuron size in males. Comparing gonadally intact weanlings confirmed that the sex difference in motoneuron number exists before adulthood. As with some other sexually dimorphic traits, and perhaps related to their unique social organization, sexual differentiation of the prairie vole spinal cord differs from that found in most other laboratory rodents. PMID:19575447

Holmes, Melissa M; Musa, Mutaz; Lonstein, Joseph S; Monks, D Ashley

2009-09-10

71

Behavloural effects of an antigonadotropin, of sexual hormones, and of psychopharmaka in the pumpkinseed sunfish, Lepomis gibbosus (Centrarchidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Ein synthetisches Antigonadotropin (Methallibur, I.C.I) hemmt das Sexual- und Nestbauverhalten von Sonnenbarsch-Männchen (Lepomis gibbosus). Testosteron hingegen steigert die Aggressivität, und Säuger-LH zudem noch die Sexualtendenz. Reserpin erhöht die Kampfstimmung; Chlorpromazin hemmt dagegen die Kampf- und Nestbaustimmung, nicht aber die Sexualtendenz.

B. Kramer

1972-01-01

72

The effect of stress and stress hormones on dynamic colour-change in a sexually dichromatic Australian frog.  

PubMed

Rapid colour changes in vertebrates have fascinated biologists for centuries, herein we demonstrate dynamic colour change in an anuran amphibian, the stony creek frog (Litoria wilcoxii), which turns from brown to bright (lemon) yellow during amplexus. We show this by comparing the colour of baseline (unpaired males) and amplecting (paired) males. We also investigate the possible role of stress and stress hormones on this colour change. Frogs were subjected to four different levels of stressors (handling, toe-clipping, saline injection and adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH] injection) and the colour change was measured using digital photography. A comparison of baseline colour and stress hormone (corticosterone) levels was also conducted to give further insight to this topic. From the images, the Red Blue Green (RGB) colour values were calculated, and a principal components analysis (PCA) was used to create a single colour metric (the major axis) as an index of colour in the visible spectrum. A moderate stressor (toe-clipping) led to a significant change in colour (within 10 min) similar to that of amplecting males. Surprisingly, neither a mild stressor (handling and saline injection) nor the maximum stressor (handling and ACTH injection) led to a lightening response. This study confirms that the dynamic male colour change in this species in response to medium stressors adds new knowledge to the understanding of the functional mechanisms of dynamic colour change in amphibians. PMID:23507571

Kindermann, Christina; Narayan, Edward J; Wild, Francis; Wild, Clyde H; Hero, Jean-Marc

2013-06-01

73

Maternal endocrine adaptation throughout pregnancy to nutrient manipulation: Consequences for sexually dimorphic programming of thyroid hormones and development of their progeny.  

PubMed

Maternal nutrient restriction during critical windows of fetal development alters postnatal growth, often in a sexually dimorphic manner. Intrauterine growth restriction is frequently characterized by accelerated growth and increased adiposity in later life. Thyroid hormones are implicated as part of the mechanism involved in this scenario via their actions within the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. We fed high (H = 240%) and low (L = 70%) levels of recommended daily crude protein intake during the first and second trimesters of gestation to beef heifers to investigate effects to their progeny's plasma concentrations of free and total triiodothyronine (FT3 and TT3) and thyroxine (FT4 and TT4) from birth until weaning at 191 days of age (n = 68). The study design was a two-by-two factorial. For male progeny, exposure to maternal diets low in protein during the first trimester of gestation resulted in greater FT4 at birth (P < 0.05) which was subsequent to lower concentrations of leptin in maternal plasma at 271 days of gestation compared with their high-protein-exposed counterparts. These same animals went on to have greater milk intake during the latter half of the lactation period (P < 0.05) and exhibited faster rates of average daily gain (ADG) relative to birth weight during this time (P < 0.05). For all progeny, independent of sex, exposure to low-protein maternal diets during the second trimester of gestation resulted in greater FT3 relative to TT3 at birth. Because FT3 at birth and 29 days was positively associated with ADG (P < 0.05) and ADG relative to birth weight (P < 0.05), it is proposed that FT3 plays an integral role in catch-up growth in the bovine as per other species. Protein intake during the first and second trimesters of gestation has a sexually dimorphic effect on progeny plasma thyroid hormone concentrations, and these changes are associated with altered milk intake and postnatal growth pathway. PMID:25492373

Micke, G C; Sullivan, T M; Kennaway, D J; Hernandez-Medrano, J; Perry, V E A

2015-03-01

74

The development of sexually dimorphic sensitivity to growth hormone (GH) feedback of the clonidine-induced GH surge in the rat.  

PubMed

This study investigates the development of sexually dimorphic sensitivity of the GH system to alpha 2-adrenergic stimulation and GH feedback in the rat. Sensitivity to alpha 2-adrenergic stimulation was tested with clonidine (CLN, an alpha 2-adrenergic agonist) which stimulates GH release in the adult male rat. Feedback was examined by testing whether human (h)GH suppressed the CLN-induced GH surge as previously demonstrated in adult male rats. The integrity of the pituitary and its capacity to respond to stimulation was tested at the end of the experiment by perifusing with GRF. Studies were conducted using a hypothalamic-pituitary coperifusion system which allows incubation of these tissues without the confounding influences of peripheral hormonal and extrahypothalamic neural factors. Tissue from prepubertal rats of 10, 20, 25 and 30 days of age, 50-day-old and adult rats (90-100 days) were evaluated. Results indicate that tissue from both male and female rats is sensitive to alpha 2-adrenergic stimulation at 10 days of age. In male tissue, there is an increase in GH release in response to CLN until 30 days of age, after which a slight decline in sensitivity occurs by 50 days of age and is maintained in adulthood. In regard to GH release from female tissue, a GH surge occurs in response to CLN until 30 days of age. At 50 days and in adulthood, this response is substantially diminished. Additionally, there is a profound sexual dimorphism in the capacity of hGH to suppress the CLN induced GH surge. In tissue from male rats, by 20 days of age there is an apparent GH-associated inhibition of the CLN-induced GH surge which is significant by 25 days, is more pronounced by 30 days of age, and is maintained after puberty at 50 days of age.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8538868

Maszak, G; Becker, K; Conway, S

1995-09-01

75

Características Emocionais e Comportamentais de Adolescentes e Adultos Suspeitos de Praticar Abuso Sexual.  

E-print Network

??OBJETIVO: Caracterizar o perfil emocional e comportamental de adolescentes e adultos suspeitos de praticar abuso sexual, bem como, identificar o respectivo histórico criminal. MÉTODO: Estudo… (more)

Denise Müller Böhm

2012-01-01

76

Asymmetry within and around the human planum temporale is sexually dimorphic and influenced by genes involved in steroid hormone receptor activity.  

PubMed

The genetic determinants of cerebral asymmetries are unknown. Sex differences in asymmetry of the planum temporale (PT), that overlaps Wernicke's classical language area, have been inconsistently reported. Meta-analysis of previous studies has suggested that publication bias established this sex difference in the literature. Using probabilistic definitions of cortical regions we screened over the cerebral cortex for sexual dimorphisms of asymmetry in 2337 healthy subjects, and found the PT to show the strongest sex-linked asymmetry of all regions, which was supported by two further datasets, and also by analysis with the FreeSurfer package that performs automated parcellation of cerebral cortical regions. We performed a genome-wide association scan (GWAS) meta-analysis of PT asymmetry in a pooled sample of 3095 subjects, followed by a candidate-driven approach which measured a significant enrichment of association in genes of the 'steroid hormone receptor activity' and 'steroid metabolic process' pathways. Variants in the genes and pathways identified may affect the role of the PT in language cognition. PMID:25239853

Guadalupe, Tulio; Zwiers, Marcel P; Wittfeld, Katharina; Teumer, Alexander; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Hoogman, Martine; Hagoort, Peter; Fernandez, Guillen; Buitelaar, Jan; van Bokhoven, Hans; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Völzke, Henry; Franke, Barbara; Fisher, Simon E; Grabe, Hans J; Francks, Clyde

2015-01-01

77

Hormonal Aspects of Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Synopsis The interactions between hormones, epilepsy, and the medications used to treat epilepsy are complex, with tridirectional interactions which affect both men and women in various ways. Abnormalities of baseline endocrine status occur more commonly in people with epilepsy, and are most often described for the sex steroid hormone axis. Common symptoms include sexual dysfunction, decreased fertility, premature menopause, and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Antiepileptic drugs and hormones have a bidirectional interaction, with a decrease in the efficacy of hormonal contraceptive agents with some AEDs and a decrease in the concentration and efficacy of other AEDs with hormonal contraceptives. Endogenous hormones can influence seizure severity and frequency, resulting in catamenial patterns of epilepsy. However, this knowledge can be used to develop hormonal strategies to improve seizure control in people with epilepsy. PMID:19853217

Pennell, Page B.

2009-01-01

78

Biology and Sexual Minority Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this chapter is to provide clinicians with an overview of current knowledge pertaining to the biology of sexual\\u000a minority status. Under the umbrella of sexual minority are included homosexuals, bisexuals, transgenders and intersexes. The\\u000a most developed biologic theory pertaining to sexual minority status is the prenatal hormonal\\u000a hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, prenatal hormones act (primarily during

William Byne

79

Serum immunoglobulin G concentration in Southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonina (Linnaeus, 1758), from Elephant Island (Antarctica): sexual and adrenal steroid hormones effects.  

PubMed

Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG; indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), as well as sexual and adrenal steroid hormones' concentrations (radioimmunoassay) were determined in 63 (male and female) Southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonine) at different developmental stages (weaned pups, juveniles and adults). In females, IgG values (mean+/-S.D.) were higher (P<0.05) in adults (15.9+/-6.5mg ml(-1)) than in juveniles (7.9+/-4.0mg ml(-1)), but similar to weaned pups (12.0+/-5.0mg ml(-1)). Estrogen concentration was higher (P<0.05) in adults than in the weaned pups. In females, a significant (P<0.05) correlation (R=0.4) between serum IgG level and progesterone concentration was observed. In males, testosterone concentration was higher (P<0.05) in adults than in the juveniles and weaned pups. Aldosterone and cortisol concentrations were higher (P<0.05) in weaned pups (1056.0+/-643.1pmol 1(-1) and 272.7+/-110.0 nmol 1(-1), respectively) than in the juveniles (638.6+/-579.7pmol1(-1) and 152.9+/-97.3nmol 1(-1), respectively) and adults (386.5+/-209.1pmol (-1) and 145.7+/-67.3nmol 1(-1), respectively). These findings indicate that weaned pups are subjected to a higher natural stressful condition in the field. Despite this, humoral immunity, measured through IgG concentration, is not impaired in weaned pups. PMID:15963822

Ferreira, Ana P S; Martínez, Pablo E; Colares, Elton P; Robaldo, Ricardo B; Berne, Maria E A; Miranda Filho, Kleber C; Bianchini, Adalto

2005-07-15

80

Sexual functioning in older adults.  

PubMed

This article reviews recent medical and social science literature on sexual functioning in older adults. We provide a broad definition of sexual functioning that includes a range of solo and partnered forms of sexual expression. We identify four determinants of sexual functioning: biologic, psychological, social context (including culture), and interactions of these with each other. Recent literature on the impact of aging and physical health documents some decline in frequency of sexual activity. Interest continues in the role of hormones in male and female sexual functioning. Recent research highlights the role of the social context, especially the presence of a sexual partner and the relationship with that partner, in sexual activity. We discuss variations in sexual functioning by life course events, gender, and race and ethnicity. Relevant results from the Global Study of Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors; Male Attitudes Regarding Sexual Health Survey; and the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project are also reviewed. PMID:19187702

DeLamater, John; Karraker, Amelia

2009-02-01

81

Sex hormone profiles in pedophilic and incestuous men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty-eight pedophiles, 45 incest offenders, and 44 community controls with no history of sexual or violent crime were compared on eight hormones: androstenedione, cortisol, estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, and testosterone, and on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Results showed that sex offenders had elevated levels of four hormones: androstenedione, cortisol, estradiol and

Reuben A. Lang; Pierre Flor-Henry; Roy R. Frenzel

1990-01-01

82

Hormone levels  

MedlinePLUS

Blood or urine tests can determine the levels of various hormones in the body. This includes reproductive hormones, thyroid hormones, adrenal hormones, pituitary hormones, and many others. For more information, see: ...

83

Sexual Assault  

MedlinePLUS

... assault fact sheet Sexual assault fact sheet ePublications Sexual assault fact sheet Print this fact sheet Sexual assault ... assaulted? More information on sexual assault What is sexual assault? Sexual assault and abuse is any type of ...

84

Sexual Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Sexual Attraction and Orientation Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying Talking to Your Partner About Condoms Tampons, Pads, ... Sexual Attraction and Orientation Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying Talking to Your Partner About Condoms Testicular Exams ...

85

Research Focus Stress hormones and mate choice  

E-print Network

the interactions among glucocor- ticoid stress hormones, sex steroids and body condition. Stress hormones during periods when stress could affect sexually selected traits. In birds, the stress response canResearch Focus Stress hormones and mate choice Jerry F. Husak and Ignacio T. Moore Department

Husak, Jerry F.

86

Hormonal aspects of epilepsy.  

PubMed

The relationships among hormones, epilepsy, and the medications used to treat epilepsy are complex, with tridirectional interactions that affect both men and women in various ways. Abnormalities of baseline endocrine status occur more commonly in people with epilepsy. Abnormalities are most often described for the sex steroid hormone axis, commonly presenting as sexual dysfunction in men and women with epilepsy and lower fertility. Other signs and symptoms in women with epilepsy include menstrual irregularities, premature menopause, and polycystic ovarian syndrome. The evaluation and care of adult patients with epilepsy should include considerations of the common hormonal aberrations that occur in this patient population. Questions about reproductive health disorders, sexual function, symptoms of thyroid disorders, and bone health should be part of the evaluation of all adult patients with epilepsy. Further laboratory or radiologic testing and referral to other specialists to participate in collaborative care may be warranted if underlying disorders are suspected, especially given that many of these hormone abnormalities can result in long-term health risks as well as negatively affect quality of life. AEDs and hormones have a bidirectional interaction that can impair the efficacy of contraceptive hormone treatments and of the AEDs. Endogenous hormones can influence seizure severity and frequency, resulting in catamenial patterns of epilepsy. However, this susceptibility to hormonal influences can be used to develop hormonal strategies to improve seizure control in women with epilepsy with use of cyclic PROG supplementation or alteration of the endogenous hormone release. Additionally, development of the neurosteroid analog ganaxolone provides a novel approach that can potentially be used across both genders and all age groups. PMID:19853217

Pennell, Page B

2009-11-01

87

Sexual Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Parents can help their adolescent make healthy choices Sexual Health News & Information Understanding Sexual Health Public Health Reports ... infectious diseases, reproductive health and sexual violence prevention. Sexual Health Topics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Up-to-date information ...

88

Sexual desire in later life  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been relatively little research on sexuality in later life, particularly among persons over 60 years of age. The existing literature consists of studies of small samples, much of it from a biomedical perspective. This literature suggests that age, hormone levels, specific illnesses, and various medications negatively affect sexual functioning in older persons. This study reports results from a

John D. DeLamater; Morgan Sill

2005-01-01

89

PHTHALATE ESTER-INDUCED MALFORMATIONS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH CHANGES IN GENE EXPRESSION AND STEROID HORMONE PRODUCTION IN THE FETAL RAT TESTIS DURING SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Phthalate ester-induced gubernacular ligament lesions are associated with reduced Insl3 gene expression in the fetal rat testis during sexual differentiation. Vickie S Wilson, Christy Lambright, Johnathan Furr, Joseph Ostby, Carmen Wood, Gary Held, L.Earl Gray Jr. U.S. EPA,...

90

Serum levels of reproductive steroid hormones in captive sand tiger sharks, Carcharias taurus (Rafinesque), and comments on their relation to sexual conflicts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of reproductively-related steroids were determined in captive male sand tiger sharks, Carcharias\\u000a taurus, maintained at two institutions: SeaWorld Adventure Park Orlando and the National Aquarium in Baltimore. Sexual conflicts\\u000a were absent at the former, but were documented at the latter. Serum titers of 17?-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and\\u000a 5?-dihydrotestosterone were determined via radioimmunoassay in adult male sharks from 1988 to

A. D. Henningsen; F. L. Murru; L. E. L. Rasmussen; B. R. Whitaker; G. C. Violetta

2008-01-01

91

Sexual Assault  

MedlinePLUS

... for Patients Share This Page: Sexual Assault Resources Sexual Assault Sexual assault is a significant problem affecting American ... National Network at 1-800-656-HOPE (4673). Sexual Assault Examinations It is important to know that a ...

92

SRIS: Sexuality Research Information Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Sexuality Research Information Service (SRIS), recently launched by The Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction, centralizes and disseminates current research findings related to four sexual well-being issues: Adolescent Sexual Behavior, High Risk Sexual Behavior, Male Sexual Response, and Reproductive Hormones and Women's Sexuality and Emotional Well-Being. For each of the four topics, SRIS provides researchers, policymakers, and health care professionals with a fully searchable bibliographic database of selected, current research citations. Many of the detailed citations also include abstracts and commentaries written by specialists at The Kinsey Institute. The databases support a complex search mode that allows users to tag citations and export them to a bibliographic management tool such as ProCite or EndNote (requires a free plug-in, RIS, available at the site).

93

Female sexual function and response.  

PubMed

Although female sexual dysfunction is a problem with low priority, it can have a profound impact on quality of life. In women, the cycle of sexual response begins in the brain, where a memory, an image, a scent, music, or a fantasy acts as a trigger to prompt sexual arousal. Thus, the brain is really the key and starting place for treatment of sexual dysfunction. Decreased libido, altered arousal, inability to achieve orgasm, and dyspareunia are the four broad types of sexual dysfunction in women. Decreased libido, thought to be related to androgenic hormones, results in delayed or altered arousal, decreased vaginal lubrication and dilation, delayed or absent orgasm, and pain or dyspareunia, which can lead to an aversion to sexual experiences. PMID:14992322

Arcos, Barbara

2004-01-01

94

Modular genetic control of sexually dimorphic behaviors  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Sex hormones such as estrogen and testosterone are essential for sexually dimorphic behaviors in vertebrates. However, the hormone-activated molecular mechanisms that control the development and function of the underlying neural circuits remain poorly defined. We have identified numerous sexually dimorphic gene expression patterns in the adult mouse hypothalamus and amygdala. We find that adult sex hormones regulate these expression patterns in a sex-specific, regionally-restricted manner, suggesting that these genes regulate sex typical behaviors. Indeed, we find that mice with targeted disruptions of each of four of these genes (Brs3, Cckar, Irs4, Sytl4) exhibit extremely specific deficits in sex specific behaviors, with single genes controlling the pattern or extent of male sexual behavior, male aggression, maternal behavior, or female sexual behavior. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that various components of sexually dimorphic behaviors are governed by separable genetic programs. PMID:22304924

Xu, Xiaohong; Coats, Jennifer K.; Yang, Cindy F.; Wang, Amy; Ahmed, Osama M.; Alvarado, Maricruz; Izumi, Tetsuro; Shah, Nirao M.

2012-01-01

95

Sexual Assault  

MedlinePLUS

Sexual assault is any sexual activity to which you haven't freely given your consent. This includes completed ... trust, a friend, an acquaintance, or a stranger. Sexual assault can affect your health in many ways. It ...

96

Endocrine Aspects of Sexual Dysfunction in Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Endocrine disorders of sex steroid hormones may adversely affect men's sexual function. Aim. To provide expert opinions\\/recommendations concerning state-of-the-art knowledge for the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of endocrinologic sexual medicine disorders. Methods. An International Consultation in collaboration with the major urology and sexual med- icine associations assembled over 200 multidisciplinary experts from 60 countries into 17 commit- tees. Committee

Alvaro Morales; Jacques Buvat; Louis J. Gooren; Andre T. Guay; Jean-Marc Kaufman; Hui Meng Tan; Luiz O. Torres

2004-01-01

97

Synergistic effect of the hydroalcoholic extract from Lepidium meyenii (Brassicaceae) and Fagara tessmannii (Rutaceae) on male sexual organs and hormone level in rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Lepidium meyenii is a plant, which has been used in folk medicine to treat infertility and to increase sexual desire. However, few reports have investigated the administration of this plant with other plants having the same properties. Objective: The present investigation was designed to evaluate whether the combination of Lepidium meyenii and Fagara tessmannii can improve spermatogenesis and testosterone level in rats. Materials and Method: Twenty male rats were treated daily for 2 weeks with the hydroalcoholic extract of Fagara tessmannii and Lepidium meyenii (Fag + MN) as follow: (vehicle), (0.01 g + 0.5 mg), (0.1 g + 5 mg) and (1 g+ 50 mg)/kg BW. Results: At doses Fag 0.01 g/MN 0.5 mg and Fag 0.1 g/MN 5 mg, the weight of seminal vesicle, prostate, and testis significantly decreased (P < 0.05) while at dose Fag 1 g/MN 50 mg, the weight of epididymis and testis significantly increased (P < 0.05) when compared to the control. We noticed a significant increase of the number of spermatids/test (P < 0.05), epididymis sperm count (P < 0.05), and DSP/test of the rats at dose Fag 1 g/MN 50 mg while at dose Fag 0.01 g/MN 0.5 mg and Fag 0.1 g/MN 5 mg, sperm count was reduced in male organs, particularly in vas deferens (P < 0.05) and epididymis (P < 0.001). The serum testosterone concentration significantly decreased (P < 0.05) at lowest dose Fag 0.01 g/MN 0.5 mg. However, at highest dose Fag 1 g/MN 50 mg, the serum testosterone concentration increased significantly (P < 0.05). The length of stage VII-VIII and IX-I of the seminiferous tubule significantly (P < 0.05) increased while the length of stage II-VI significantly (P < 0.05) decreased. Conclusion: The results indicated that the combination of Lepidium meyenii (Black Maca) with Fagara tessmannii can improve male reproductive organs activities. PMID:24497748

Lembè, Dieudonné Massoma; Gasco, Manuel; Gonzales, G. F.

2014-01-01

98

Internet Sexualities  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The term “internet sexuality” (or OSA, online sexual activities) refers to sexual-related content and activities observable\\u000a on the internet (cf. Adams, Oye, & Parker, 2003; Cooper, McLoughlin, & Campbell, 2000; Leiblum & Döring, 2002). It designates\\u000a a variety of sexual phenomena (e.g., pornography, sex education, sexual contacts) related to a wide spectrum of online services\\u000a and applications (e.g., websites, online

Nicola Döring

2010-01-01

99

Synthesis and absolute configuration of hormone alpha1.  

PubMed

An important biological event in phytopathogens of the genus Phytophthora is sexual reproduction, which is conducted by two mating types, A1 and A2. A factor known as hormone alpha1 is secreted by the A1 mating type and induces the formation of sexual spores (oospores) in the A2 mating type. Here we describe the asymmetric synthesis and assignment of the absolute configuration of hormone alpha1 by oospore-inducing assays of the synthesized isomers. PMID:18297064

Yajima, Arata; Qin, Yong; Zhou, Xuan; Kawanishi, Naoki; Xiao, Xue; Wang, Jue; Zhang, Dan; Wu, Yi; Nukada, Tomoo; Yabuta, Goro; Qi, Jianhua; Asano, Tomoyo; Sakagami, Youji

2008-04-01

100

Effects of carbamazepine on male reproductive hormones  

PubMed Central

Background: Reproductive endocrine disorders and sexual dysfunction are common among men with epilepsy. We investigated sexual hormone serum levels among men with newly diagnosed epilepsy, before starting any antiepileptic drug (AED), and then after starting carbamazepine (CBZ), to determine the role and effects of epilepsy versus CBZ in creating reproductive endocrine disorders. Methods: In this prospective study, male patients 20 to 40 years of age who due to new-onset seizure(s) were referred to the outpatient epilepsy clinic at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences from 2009 through 2012 were studied. A blood sample was obtained to evaluate the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, testosterone, free-testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and sex hormone binding globulin. CBZ was started after blood works. After at least three months of taking CBZ, another blood sample was obtained to determine the serum levels of those hormones again. Results: Twenty patients were included. Their mean age (± standard deviation) was 28 years (± 5). The statistical analysis with paired sample tests did not show any significant changes in serum levels of sex hormones before and after CBZ therapy. Conclusion: Despite the fact that, sexual dysfunction and reproductive disorders are common among men with epilepsy, the exact pathophysiology of these problems is not clear yet. Further studies are required to determine the exact role of epilepsy itself, AEDs, and other possible determinants.

Asadi-Pooya, Ali A.; Dabbaghmanesh, Mohammad Hossein; Ashjazadeh, Nahid

2014-01-01

101

Sexual Difficulties  

MedlinePLUS

... difficulties Explore other publications and websites Age Page: Sexuality in Later Life - This brochure describes the normal ... effects of illness, disability, and emotional concerns of sexuality in later life. Atrophic Vaginitis (Copyright © UCLA Health ...

102

Healthy Sexuality  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... a sexual experience is safe, healthy, and enjoyable. Sexual health is a vital part of a person’s total well-being. Of course, sex is essential for reproduction, but it can also build intimacy in relationships ...

103

Sexual Abuse  

MedlinePLUS

... between victim and suspect Inappropriate, unusual, or aggressive sexual behavior How can I learn more? "Speaking the unspeakable: An interview about elder sexual assault with Holly Ramsey-Klawsnik, Ph.D" in ...

104

Sexual conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual conflict occurs when the genetic interests of males and females diverge. Recent evidence supporting the view that male and female genomes are in conflict has now revolutionized the way in which we interpret interactions between the sexes, and suggests that sexual conflict is a potent force in male–female coevolution. Here, we consider the nature of sexual conflict and what

Tracey Chapman; Göran Arnqvist; Jenny Bangham; Locke Rowe

2003-01-01

105

Flibanserin for female sexual dysfunction.  

PubMed

Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most commonly described form of female sexual dysfunction. There is currently no pharmacological therapy approved to treat HSDD, and therefore, there is an unmet medical need for the development of efficacious treatment alternatives. Flibanserin is a novel, non-hormonal drug for the treatment of HSDD in pre- and postmenopausal women, although the application submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration by Sprout Pharmaceuticals is only for premenopausal women. Flibanserin works by correcting an imbalance of the levels of the neurotransmitters that affect sexual desire. More specifically, flibanserin increases dopamine and norepinephrine, both responsible for sexual excitement, and decreases serotonin, responsible for sexual inhibition. Clinically, flibanserin has exhibited some encouraging results in terms of its ability to increase the frequency of satisfying sexual events, and the intensity of sexual desire. However, adverse events such as dizziness, nausea, fatigue and somnolence, typical of a centrally acting drug, are also frequently related to flibanserin treatment. PMID:25187905

Reviriego, C

2014-08-01

106

Sexual behaviour.  

PubMed

Sexual health is not merely the absence of disease, but the ability to have informed, consensual, safe, respectful, and pleasurable sexual relationships. The majority of the population are sexually active, most with someone of the opposite sex. The frequency and range of sexual practices that people engage in declines with age, but for many, sexual activity continues well into later life. Different aspects of sexual health affect people at different times throughout their lives. As people in the UK tend to first have sex around the age of 16, but do not start living with a partner until much later, the avoidance of sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancy is necessary for many for a number of years. As people get older, their sexual health needs change and they become more concerned with the impact of their general health on their ability to have sex. Some people experience non-volitional sex (sex against their will); although this occurs typically in late teenage it may affect women and men at any age and so requires consideration throughout life. As many people find it difficult to talk about sex and sexual health matters, health professionals should make sexual health enquiry a component of their holistic healthcare. PMID:24966786

Mercer, Catherine H

2014-06-01

107

Hormone impostors  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the accumulating evidence that some synthetic chemicals disrupt hormones in one way or another. Some mimic estrogen and others interfere with other parts of the body`s control or endocrine system such as testosterone and thyroid metabolism. Included are PCBs, dioxins, furans, atrazine, DDT. Several short sidebars highlight areas where there are or have been particular problems.

Colborn, T.; Dumanoski, D.; Myers, J.P.

1997-01-01

108

Androgen deprivation treatment of sexual behavior.  

PubMed

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists are underutilized in patients seeking diminution of problematic sexual drives. This chapter reviews the literature on surgical castration of sex offenders, anti-androgen use and the rationale for providing androgen deprivation therapy, rather than selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or more conservative interventions, for patients with paraphilias and excessive sexual drive. Discussions of informed consent, side effects, contraindications and case examples are provided. PMID:22005210

Houts, Frederick W; Taller, Inna; Tucker, Douglas E; Berlin, Fred S

2011-01-01

109

[Hormonal contraception].  

PubMed

The forms of administration, mechanisms of action, side effects and complications, and other aspects of female hormonal contraception are set forth in this "lesson" for medical students. Female hormonal contraception has been in use for over 30 years and is used by more than 150 million women worldwide. Oral contraceptives suppress the preovulatory peak of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, preventing ovulation and follicular maturation. Progestins render the cervical mucus impermeable to sperm and modify the endometrium so that it will no longer support implantation. The synthetic estrogen ethinyl estradiol is used in most combined oral contraceptives (OCs). Among the numerous progestins in use are the newer desogestrel, gestodene, and norgestimate, which have fewer androgenic and metabolic effects than did the 1st generation. the different forms of administration of hormonal methods include combined OCs, oral preparations containing low doses of progestin continuously administered or high doses continuously or discontinuously administered. Intramuscular injection of progestins and the so-called "morning after" postcoital pills are less often prescribed. The combined preparations may be monophasic, biphasic, triphasic, or sequential. Sequential preparations should be avoided because of the hyperestrogenic climate they induce. The low-dose progestin preparations are indicated for women with contraindications to synthetic estrogen. They must be taken at the same time each day and have a relatively high rate of side effects, especially ovarian and breast cysts and irregular bleeding. High-dose progestin preparations have significant metabolic effects and are indicated primarily for patients with gynecological problems such as fibromas and endometriosis. Intramuscular injection of medroxyprogesterone acetate every 3 months is effective but has the same side effects as high-dose progestins. It is indicated primarily for patients unable to control their own behavior. The hormonal methods are all highly effective in preventing pregnancy when correctly administered. Side effects may be minor problems, such as nervousness and nausea, that are usually of short duration. the more serious side effects, including modifications of lipid or carbohydrate metabolism, hemostasis, blood pressure, or hepatic functioning and cardiovascular effects, have been reduced with the new lower dosed formulations. Absolute contraindications to hormonal contraception include undiagnosed vaginal bleeding or amenorrhea, history of thromboembolic or cerebral vascular accidents, severe cardiopathy or hypertension, hyperlipidemia, hepatopathy, hormonodependent cancer, pituitary tumors, porphyria, and severe mental problems. Relative contraindications impose the need for careful monitoring and follow-up. The practitioner should be aware of the possibility of interactions between OCs and certain other drugs. PMID:1604074

Van Cauwenberge, J R

1992-05-01

110

Amyloid ? precursor protein regulates male sexual behavior  

PubMed Central

Sexual behavior is variable between individuals, ranging from celibacy to sexual addictions. Within normal populations of individual men, ranging from young to middle aged, testosterone levels do not correlate with libido. To study the genetic mechanisms that contribute to individual differences in male sexual behavior, we used hybrid B6D2F1 male mice, which are a cross between two common inbred strains (C57BL/6J and DBA/2J). Unlike most laboratory rodent species in which male sexual behavior is highly dependent upon gonadal steroids, sexual behavior in a large proportion of these hybrid male mice after castration is independent of gonadal steroid hormones and their receptors; thus, we have the ability to discover novel genes involved in this behavior. Gene expression arrays, validation of gene candidates, and transgenic mice that over-express one of the genes of interest were utilized to reveal genes involved in maintenance of male sexual behavior. Several genes related to neuroprotection and neurodegeneration were differentially expressed in the hypothalamus of males that continued to mate after castration. Male mice over-expressing the human form of one of these candidate genes, amyloid beta precursor protein (APP), displayed enhanced sexual behavior prior to castration and maintained sexual activity for a longer duration after castration as compared with controls. Our results reveal a novel and unexpected relationship between APP and male sexual behavior. We speculate that declining APP during normal aging in males may contribute to the loss of sexual function. PMID:20668181

Park, Jin Ho; Bonthius, Paul; Tsai, Houng-Wei; Bekiranov, Stefan; Rissman, Emilie F.

2010-01-01

111

Sexual Differentiation of the Vertebrate Brain: Principles and Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide variety of sexual dimorphisms, structural differences between the sexes, have been described in the brains of many vertebrate species, including humans. In animal models of neural sexual dimorphism, gonadal steroid hormones, specifically androgens, play a crucial role in engendering these differences by masculinizing the nervous system of males. Usually, the androgen must act early in life, often during

Bradley Cooke; Carol D. Hegstrom; Loic S. Villeneuve; S. Marc Breedlove

1998-01-01

112

The Problem... ! Sexual Assault & Sexual Harassment are  

E-print Network

SPEAK UP SPEAK OUT #12;The Problem... ! Sexual Assault & Sexual Harassment are underreported and sexual harassment seriously. " We continue to meet WSU's obligations under Title IX and under WSU's own Sexual Harassment ! Unwelcome sexual advances or other behavior of a sexual nature, when submission

VandeVord, Pamela

113

Teenage Sexuality  

MedlinePLUS

... Register About Us Contact Us My Cart Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen > Dating & Sex > Teenage Sexuality Ages & Stages Listen Teenage Sexuality Article ... to Know, 2nd Edition Sports Success Rx! Your Child’s Prescription for the Best Experience HealthyChildren.org Post-it Notes Home Strength Training for Young Athletes ... Nutrition Driving Safety School Substance Abuse Young ...

114

Sexual selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competition over mates takes many forms and has far-reaching consequences for many organisms. Recent work suggests that relative reproductive rates of males and females, sperm competition and quality variation among mates affect the strength of sexual selection. Song, other display, body size, visual ornaments and material resource offerings are often sexually selected. There is much empirical evidence of mate choice,

Malte Andersson; Yoh Iwasa

1996-01-01

115

Sexuality in the Older Female With Diabetes Mellitus - A Review Of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexuality is an important topic across the life continuum. Research has shown that sexuality or intimacy declines with age. This has been attributed to several factors, including but not limited to age- related changes, changes in vasculature, hormones, endocrine func- tion, chronic disease, and psychosocial effects. Limited research has been provided on the effect diabetes mellitus may have on sexual

Christina R. Whitehouse

2009-01-01

116

Sexual differentiation in three unconventional mammals: Spotted hyenas, elephants and tammar wallabies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present review explores sexual differentiation in three non-conventional species: the spotted hyena, the elephant and the tammar wallaby, selected because of the natural challenges they present for contemporary understanding of sexual differentiation. According to the prevailing view of mammalian sexual differentiation, originally proposed by Alfred Jost, secretion of androgen and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) by the fetal testes during critical

Stephen E. Glickman; Roger V. Short; Marilyn B. Renfree

2005-01-01

117

Hormone treatment of the adult transsexual patient.  

PubMed

Hormonal reassignment has two aims: (1) to reduce the hormonally induced secondary sex characteristics of the original sex and (2) to induce the secondary sex characteristics of the new sex. In Europe, cyproterone acetate is generally used to inhibit androgens in male-to-female transsexuals. Medroxyprogesterone acetate is an acceptable, though less effective, alternative. To induce feminization there is a wide range of oestrogens. Oral ethinyloestradiol is a potent and inexpensive oestrogen, but it may cause venous thrombosis. Oral 17beta-oestradiol valerate or transdermal 17beta-oestradiol is the treatment of choice. The goal of treatment in female-to-male transsexuals is to induce virilization, including a male pattern of sexual hair, a male voice and male physical contours, and to stop menses. The principal hormonal treatment is a testosterone preparation. Hormone-dependent tumours have been encountered and surveillance is necessary. PMID:16286768

Gooren, Louis

2005-01-01

118

Sexual Dysfunction in Women with Diabetic Kidney  

PubMed Central

Few studies address alteration of sexual function in women with diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Quality of life surveys suggest that discussion of sexual function and other reproductive issues are of psychosocial assessment and that education on sexual function in the setting of chronic diseases such as diabetes and CKD is widely needed. Pharmacologic therapy with estrogen/progesterone and androgens along with glycemic control, correction of anemia, ensuring adequate dialysis delivery, and treatment of underlying depression are important. Changes in lifestyle such as smoking cessation, strength training, and aerobic exercises may decrease depression, enhance body image, and have positive impacts on sexuality. Many hormonal abnormalities which occur in women with diabetes and CKD who suffer from chronic anovulation and lack of progesterone secretion may be treated with oral progesterone at the end of each menstrual cycle to restore menstrual cycles. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most common sexual problem reported by women with diabetes and CKD. Sexual function can be assessed in women, using the 9-item Female Sexual Function Index, questionnaire, or 19 items. It is important for nephrologists and physicians to incorporate assessment of sexual function into the routine evaluation protocols. PMID:25276130

Satta, Ersilia; Magno, Carlo; Galì, Alessandro; Inferrera, Antonino; Granese, Roberta; Aloisi, Carmela; Buemi, Michele; Bellinghieri, Guido; Santoro, Domenico

2014-01-01

119

Sexual dysfunction in women with diabetic kidney.  

PubMed

Few studies address alteration of sexual function in women with diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Quality of life surveys suggest that discussion of sexual function and other reproductive issues are of psychosocial assessment and that education on sexual function in the setting of chronic diseases such as diabetes and CKD is widely needed. Pharmacologic therapy with estrogen/progesterone and androgens along with glycemic control, correction of anemia, ensuring adequate dialysis delivery, and treatment of underlying depression are important. Changes in lifestyle such as smoking cessation, strength training, and aerobic exercises may decrease depression, enhance body image, and have positive impacts on sexuality. Many hormonal abnormalities which occur in women with diabetes and CKD who suffer from chronic anovulation and lack of progesterone secretion may be treated with oral progesterone at the end of each menstrual cycle to restore menstrual cycles. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most common sexual problem reported by women with diabetes and CKD. Sexual function can be assessed in women, using the 9-item Female Sexual Function Index, questionnaire, or 19 items. It is important for nephrologists and physicians to incorporate assessment of sexual function into the routine evaluation protocols. PMID:25276130

Satta, Ersilia; Magno, Carlo; Galì, Alessandro; Inferrera, Antonino; Granese, Roberta; Aloisi, Carmela; Buemi, Michele; Bellinghieri, Guido; Santoro, Domenico

2014-01-01

120

Sexual Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... that is, no pleasurable sexual sensations in her clitoris or vagina. Male erectile disorder, or ED, is ... fall under this category, including vibrators, dilators, and clitoral devices. Vibrators and dildos can be used by ...

121

Gene regulation by steroid hormones III  

SciTech Connect

In this book, the authors discuss the latest advances in molecular endocrinology: - steroid receptor binding to DNA sequences of hormonally controlled genes, - structure of genes controlled by steroid hormones, - heterogeneity of steroid receptors, - immunochemical approaches to receptor studies, and - the most recent approaches to steroid hormone action and biological response. The Contents discussed are: Biochemical Evidence for the Exclusive Nuclear Localization of the Estrogen Receptor. - Structure, Dynamics, and Cloning of the Estrogen Receptor. - Structure, Dynamics, and Cloning of the Estrogen Receptor - Physical and Functional Parameters of Isolated Estrogen Receptor - Type II Binding Sites: Cellular Origin and an Endogeneous Ligand. - The Two Phosphorylation Reactions of the Progesterone Receptor. - Receptor Mediated Action of the Vitamin D Hormone. - Characterization of the Nuclear Binding Sites (Acceptor Sites) for a Steroid Receptor. Antibodies in Estrogen, Progesterone, Glucocorticoid, Vitamin D Receptors and Autoantibodies to Antrogene Receptor. - Isolation and Characterization of cDNA probes for Human CBG and Rat ABP. Ornithine Decarboxy lase mRNAs in Murine Kidney: Structure and Regulation by Androgens - Glucocorticoid Receptors and the Control of Gene Expression. - Activation and Regulation of the Vitellogenin Gene Family. - Intra- and Intercellular Aspects of the Hormonal Regulation of the ..cap alpha..2..mu.. Globulin Gene Expression. - Hormonal Regulation of Sexually Differentiated Isozymes of Cytochrome P-450 in Rat Liver. - Interaction of Thyroid Hormone and Carbohydrates on Hepatic Gene Expression.

Roy, A.K.; Clark, J.H.

1987-01-01

122

Prenatal endocrine influences on sexual orientation and on sexually differentiated childhood behavior  

PubMed Central

Both sexual orientation and sex-typical childhood behaviors, such as toy, playmate and activity preferences, show substantial sex differences, as well as substantial variability within each sex. In other species, behaviors that show sex differences are typically influenced by exposure to gonadal steroids, particularly testosterone and its metabolites, during early development (prenatally or neonatally). This article reviews the evidence regarding prenatal influences of gonadal steroids on human sexual orientation, as well as sex-typed childhood behaviors that predict subsequent sexual orientation. The evidence supports a role for prenatal testosterone exposure in the development of sex-typed interests in childhood, as well as in sexual orientation in later life, at least for some individuals. It appears, however, that other factors, in addition to hormones, play an important role in determining sexual orientation. These factors have not been well-characterized, but possibilities include direct genetic effects, and effects of maternal factors during pregnancy. Although a role for hormones during early development has been established, it also appears that there may be multiple pathways to a given sexual orientation outcome and some of these pathways may not involve hormones. PMID:21333673

Hines, Melissa

2012-01-01

123

Hormone Replacement Therapy  

MedlinePLUS

... before and during menopause, the levels of female hormones can go up and down. This can cause ... hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Some women take hormone replacement therapy (HRT), also called menopausal hormone therapy, ...

124

Growth hormone deficiency - children  

MedlinePLUS

Growth hormone deficiency means the pituitary gland does not make enough growth hormone. ... The pituitary gland is located at the base of the brain. This gland controls the body’s balance of hormones. It ...

125

Sexual differentiation of the human hypothalamus.  

PubMed

Functional sex differences in reproduction, gender and sexual orientation and in the incidence of neurological and psychiatric diseases are presumed to be based on structural and functional differences in the hypothalamus and other limbic structures. Factors influencing gender, i.e., the feeling to be male or female, are prenatal hormones and compounds that change the levels of these hormones, such as anticonvulsants, while the influence of postnatal social factors is controversial. Genetic factors and prenatal hormone levels are factors in the determination of sexual orientation, i.e. heterosexuality, bisexuality or homosexuality. There is no convincing evidence for postnatal social factors involved in the determination of sexual orientation. The period of overt sexual differentiation of the human hypothalamus occurs between approximately four years of age and adulthood, thus much later than is generally presumed, although the late sexual differentiation may of course be based upon processes that have already been programmed in mid-pregnancy or during the neonatal period. The recently reported differences in a number of structures in the human hypothalamus and adjacent structures depend strongly on age. Replication of these data is certainly necessary. Since the size of brain structures may be influenced by premortem factors (e.g. agonal state) and postmortem factors (e.g. fixation time), one should not only perform volume measurements, but also estimate a parameter that is not dependent on such factors as, i.e., total cell number of the brain structure in question. In addition, functional differences that depend on the levels of circulating hormones in adulthood have been observed in several hypothalamic and other brain structures. The mechanisms causing sexual differentiation of hypothalamic nuclei, the pre- and postnatal factors influencing this process, and the exact functional consequences of the morphological and functional hypothalamic differences await further elucidation. PMID:12575757

Swaab, Dick F; Chung, Wilson C J; Kruijver, Frank P M; Hofman, Michael A; Ishunina, Tatjana A

2002-01-01

126

Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bulllying  

MedlinePLUS

... sexual assault or rape, and it's a serious crime. Back Continue Flirting or Harassment? Sometimes people who ... worth it. It can help to keep a record of the events that have happened. Write down ...

127

Healthy Aging -- Sexual Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) Sexual health More information on sexual health Many older women ... Protecting yourself Return to top More information on Sexual health Read more from womenshealth.gov Sexually Transmitted Infections ...

128

[Adolescent sexuality].  

PubMed

Between 1975-79, adolescents between ages 14-18 in Austrian schools were questioned about their sexual behavior. In contrast to earlier reports, an increased incidence and earlier onset of premarital sexual activity was seen. Of the 2809 individuals questioned, 41% of the females and 36% of the males had already had intercourse. There was a strong age dependence. At age 16, 30% had already engaged in sex; 49% at age 17; 65% at age 18; and 75% at age 19. Prior to age 16, 23% had already had intercourse. Early physical maturation (acceleration) freedom both sexually and morally, and a greater independence from the ethical and moral authority of the church seem to play a major part in this development. Love and fidelity play a major role among young people. The change of partners and promiscuity are not typical behavioral features among young people. The reproductive function of sexual activity is of no concern to young people; this aspect of sexuality must be eliminated through contraception. Contraception is a central topic for young people. 85% of this group do not feel that early onset of intercourse contradicts marriage. 95% of all young people want to marry and have a family at a later date. (author's modified) PMID:7112445

Husslein, A

1982-06-01

129

Hypogonadism, ADAM, and hormone replacement  

PubMed Central

Male hypogonadism, or testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS), results from a failure of the testes to produce adequate androgen. Patients have low circulating testosterone in combination with clinical symptoms such as fatigue, erectile dysfunction, and body composition changes. The cause may be primary (genetic anomaly, Klinefelter’s syndrome) or secondary (defect in hypothalamus or pituitary), but often presents with the same symptomatology. In the older patient, androgen deficiency of the aging male (ADAM) is an important cause of secondary hypogonadism because testosterone levels decline progressively after age 40. Hypogonadal patients have alterations not only in sexual function and body composition, but also in cognition and metabolism. Regardless of etiology, hypogonadal patients who are both symptomatic and who have clinically significant alterations in laboratory values are candidates for treatment. The goal of hormone replacement therapy in these men is to restore hormone levels to the normal range and to alleviate symptoms suggestive of hormone deficiency. This can be accomplished in a variety of ways, although most commonly testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is employed. PMID:21789087

Pinsky, Michael R.; Hellstrom, Wayne J. G.

2010-01-01

130

Sex hormones and macronutrient metabolism.  

PubMed

The biological differences between males and females are determined by a different set of genes and by a different reactivity to environmental stimuli, including the diet, in general. These differences are further emphasized and driven by the exposure to a different hormone flux throughout the life. These differences have not been taken into appropriate consideration by the scientific community. Nutritional sciences are not immune from this "bias" and when nutritional needs are concerned, females are considered only when pregnant, lactating or when their hormonal profile is returning back to "normal," i.e., to the male-like profile. The authors highlight some of the most evident differences in aspects of biology that are associated with nutrition. This review presents and describes available data addressing differences and similarities of the "reference man" vs. the "reference woman" in term of metabolic activity and nutritional needs. According to this assumption, available evidences of sex-associated differences of specific biochemical pathways involved in substrate metabolism are reported and discussed. The modulation by sexual hormones affecting glucose, amino acid and protein metabolism and the metabolization of nutritional fats and the distribution of fat depots, is considered targeting a tentative starting up background for a gender concerned nutritional science. PMID:24915409

Comitato, Raffaella; Saba, Anna; Turrini, Aida; Arganini, Claudia; Virgili, Fabio

2015-01-01

131

Schultheiss, Schiepe, & Rawolle Hormone assays 1 Running head: HORMONE ASSAYS  

E-print Network

Schultheiss, Schiepe, & Rawolle Hormone assays 1 Running head: HORMONE ASSAYS Hormone assays Oliver: Schultheiss, O. C., Schiepe, A., & Rawolle, M. (2012). Hormone assays. In H. Cooper, P. M. Camic, D. L. Long Association. #12;Schultheiss, Schiepe, & Rawolle Hormone assays 2 Hormone assays Hormones can be assayed from

Schultheiss, Oliver C.

132

Thoreau's Sexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) has often been described as lacking in sexual drive or at most a rather reluctant heterosexual, a close study of his life and writings indicates the presence of a pronounced vein of homoeroticism-although there seems to be no concrete evidence of any homosexual activity on his part. Cognizance of that homoeroticism helps one to understand

Walter Harding

1991-01-01

133

J Sex Med 2006;3:628638 2006 International Society for Sexual Medicine Blackwell Publishing IncMalden, USAJSMJournal of Sexual Medicine1743-6095 2006 International Society for Sexual Medicine200634628638Original ArticleBremelanotide Treatment of Women wi  

E-print Network

200634628638Original ArticleBremelanotide Treatment of Women with Sexual DisorderDiamond et al. ORIGINAL with Sexual Arousal Disorder by Bremelanotide (PT-141), a Melanocortin Receptor Agonist Lisa E. Diamond, Ph is a synthetic peptide melanocortin analog of -melanocyte-stimulating hormone that is an agonist at melanocortin

134

Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone receptor signaling and its impact on reproduction in chickens  

E-print Network

luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion from the pituitary gland. However review discusses the recent advances in GnIHR signal- ing at the level of the pituitary gland receptors. In the chicken pituitary gland, the GnRHR-II/GnIHR ratio changes during sexual maturation

Ramachandran, Ramesh

135

Sexuality and breast cancer: prime time for young patients  

PubMed Central

Sexuality and sexual functioning is a cardinal domain of health-related quality of life in breast cancer patients, namely in the younger population. Young women below 40 years of age go through a time in their lives where sexual self-identity has recently matured, their professional obligations are demanding and they bear interpersonal and childbearing expectations, all of which can suffer a devastating turnaround with cancer diagnosis and its physical and psychological aftermath. Although these women’s sexuality and directed interventions have remained largely unaddressed so far, concepts are evolving and treatment options are becoming diversified, chiefly on the field of non-hormonal pharmacological therapy of sexual dysfunction. This review will examine the definitions of female sexual dysfunction, the etiology of the disorders in young breast cancer patients, the assessment methods, the non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options and the challenges that lie ahead. PMID:23819031

2013-01-01

136

Hormonal Regulation of Hepatic Drug Metabolizing Enzyme Activity During Adolescence  

PubMed Central

Activities of drug metabolizing enzymes (DME) are known to change throughout the course of physical and sexual maturation with the greatest variability noted during infancy and adolescence. The mechanisms responsible for developmental regulation of DME are currently unknown. However, the hormonal changes of puberty/adolescence provide a theoretical framework for understanding biochemical regulation of DME activity during growth and maturation. Important information regarding potential influences of growth and sex hormones can also be extrapolated from studies evaluating changes in activities of DMEs occurring as a consequence of physiologic, pathologic and/or pharmacologic hormonal fluctuations. Collectively, current data support the hypothesis that isoform-specific alterations in DME activity during adolescence are mediated via sex and/or growth hormones. Characterization of the underlying biochemical alterations responsible for developmental changes in DME activity will require additional studies in which relationships between DME and important hormonal axes are evaluated during the course of pubertal development. PMID:18971926

Kennedy, M.J.

2009-01-01

137

Plant-Hormones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Long Ashton Research Station -- part of the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (UK) -- will close in March 2003, but its online resource Plant-Hormones will continue to provide general information and references on gibberellins, auxins, cytokinins, and other hormone groups. Additionally, this Web site provides a link to a listserver for plant hormone scientists, a discussion forum "intended to promote communication between professionals in the plant hormone field." Plant-Hormones also lists job vacancies, meetings announcements, and Web links for botany and molecular biology resources, while offering an online directory of plant hormone researchers searchable by country.

1995-01-01

138

Plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone growth hormone, oestradiol, testosterone  

E-print Network

Plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone growth hormone, oestradiol, testosterone of Hull, Hull, HU6 7RX, North Humberside, England. Summary. The concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH), growth hormone (GH), oestra- diol, testosterone and androstenedione were determined in weekly blood

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

139

Biologically active Phytophthora mating hormone prepared by catalytic asymmetric total synthesis.  

PubMed

A Phytophthora mating hormone with an array of 1,5-stereogenic centers has been synthesized by using our recently developed methodology of catalytic enantioselective conjugate addition of Grignard reagents. We applied this methodology in a diastereo- and enantioselective iterative route and obtained two of the 16 possible stereoisomers of Phytophthora hormone alpha1. These synthetic stereoisomers induced the formation of sexual spores (oospores) in A2 mating type strains of three heterothallic Phytophthora species, P. infestans, P. capsici, and P. nicotianae but not in A1 mating type strains. The response was concentration-dependent, and the oospores were viable. These results demonstrate that the biological activity of the synthetic hormone resembles that of the natural hormone alpha1. Mating hormones are essential components in the sexual life cycle of a variety of organisms. For plant pathogens like Phytophthora, sexual reproduction is important as a source of genetic variation. Moreover, the thick-walled oospores are the most durable propagules that can survive harsh environmental conditions. Sexual reproduction can thus greatly affect disease epidemics. The availability of synthetic compounds mimicking the activity of Phytophthora mating hormone will be instrumental for further unravelling sexual reproduction in this important group of plant pathogens. PMID:18559862

Harutyunyan, Syuzanna R; Zhao, Zhijian; Hartog, Tim den; Bouwmeester, Klaas; Minnaard, Adriaan J; Feringa, Ben L; Govers, Francine

2008-06-24

140

Sexual Intimacy After Sexual Assault or Sexual Abuse1  

E-print Network

with others for some time. Fortunately, even if one does not actively work on sexual healing, as the sexual or maintaining an intimate relationship 9. Experiencing vaginal pain or orgasmic difficulties 10.Experiencing concerns at this time, and it will indicate to you how the sexual assault or abuse may have impacted your

Machel, Hans

141

Hormones and Hypertension  

MedlinePLUS

... tobacco, alcohol, and certain medications play a part. Hormones made in the kidneys and in blood vessels ... the heart relaxes between beats. FACT SHeeT and hormones hypertension normal Below 120/80 mm hg Prehypertensive ...

142

Menopause and Hormones  

MedlinePLUS

... Topics Resources for You Menopause Resources Menopause and Hormones: Common Questions Print and Share (PDF 102KB) En ... reproduction and distribution. Learn More about Menopause and Hormones Menopause--Medicines to Help You Links to other ...

143

Hormones and Obesity  

MedlinePLUS

... Hormones and Obesity Share: Fact Sheet Hormones and Obesity March, 2010 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Caroline Apovian, MD Judith Korner, MD, PhD What is obesity? Obesity is a chronic (long-term) medical problem ...

144

HEALTH MATTERS Hormonal IUD  

E-print Network

. The hormonal IUD contains a hormone called progestin. It is easily and quickly inserted into your uterus releasing eggs. · Thick cervical mucus forms and blocks the opening to your uterus. · The IUD also affects

Yener, Aylin

145

Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility  

MedlinePLUS

... asrm.org PATIENT FACT SHEET Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility You probably don't realize how many people ... talk to a sex therapist. Sexual dysfunction and infertility Sexual dysfunction may cause problems getting pregnant (infertility). ...

146

Your Sexual Health  

MedlinePLUS

... during treatment of a sexual problem? • Glossary Your Sexual Health 4. Sexual pain disorder What are desire problems? ... by women. A lack of desire before having sex is normal for some women. They may not ...

147

Understanding Sexual Violence  

MedlinePLUS

... risky sexual activity. Why is sexual violence a public health problem? SV is a significant problem in the ... CDC uses a 4-step approach to address public health problems like sexual violence. Step 1: Define the ...

148

Hormones and Migraines  

MedlinePLUS

Home » Hormones and Migraine Hormones and Migraine Submitted by Admin on Thu, 2007-10-25 15:06 Migraine occurs more often in women than in ... their menstrual cycle supports this link between female hormone changes and migraine headaches. Attacks may occur several ...

149

Sex Differences in Play Fighting Revisited: Traditional and Nontraditional Mechanisms of Sexual Differentiation in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the traditional model for sexual differentiation in mammals, the female phenotype is the default condition. That is, the female-typical pattern will persist unless acted upon by hormones early in development. The frequency of play fighting in rats, as in most other mammals, is sexually differentiated, and conforms to the traditional model. Males engage in more play fighting than females,

Sergio M. Pellis

2002-01-01

150

Depression as a prominent cause of sexual dysfunction in women with epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The etiology of sexual dysfunction in patients with epilepsy is perceived as multifactorial, with seizure and medication effects being the most often discussed and analyzed factors. We used common statistical methods to evaluate the impact of type of epilepsy, antiepileptic medication, hormones, seizure control, and symptoms of depression and anxiety on sexual function in a group of 78 women with

V?ra Zelená; Robert Kuba; Vladimír Soška; Ivan Rektor

2011-01-01

151

The use of medroxyprogesterone acetate for the treatment of sexually inappropriate behaviour in patients with dementia.  

PubMed

Sexually inappropriate behaviour in a patient with dementia can be a problem for caregivers. Little research has been done concerning treatment for this behavioural disorder. The hormone medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) is a known, but infrequently used, treatment option. We describe a series of 5 cases in which MPA was used successfully to control inappropriate sexual behaviours in men with dementia. PMID:16575429

Light, Stacy Anderson; Holroyd, Suzanne

2006-03-01

152

Sexual con ict and cooperation in butter y reproduction: a comparative study of polyandry  

E-print Network

Sexual con ict and cooperation in butter y reproduction: a comparative study of polyandry hormonesömay each corre- spond to a separate con£ict^cooperation balance between the sexes. Two scenarios. Keywords: nuptial gifts; mating frequency; sexual con£ict; lifetime fecundity 1. INTRODUCTION

Leimar, Olof

153

The Cognitive, Behavioral, and Personality Profiles of a Male Monozygotic Triplet Set Discordant for Sexual Orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neurohormonal theory of sexual orientation proposes that homosexual men and homosexual women are exposed prenatally to a hormonal environment that is similar to that of the other sex. Prenatal exposure to an opposite-sex hormonal environment may lead the nervous system to develop in a manner consistent with the opposite sex. If this cross-sex exposure occurs, one prediction would be

Scott L. Hershberger; Nancy L. Segal

2004-01-01

154

Thoreau's sexuality.  

PubMed

Although Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) has often been described as lacking in sexual drive or at most a rather reluctant heterosexual, a close study of his life and writings indicates the presence of a pronounced vein of homoeroticism--although there seems to be no concrete evidence of any homosexual activity on his part. Cognizance of that homoeroticism helps one to understand many elements of his life and writings and suggests that his intense love of nature may have resulted from sublimation of that homoeroticism. PMID:1880400

Harding, W

1991-01-01

155

Reframing sexual differentiation of the brain  

PubMed Central

In the twentieth century, the dominant model of sexual differentiation stated that genetic sex (XX versus XY) causes differentiation of the gonads, which then secrete gonadal hormones that act directly on tissues to induce sex differences in function. This serial model of sexual differentiation was simple, unifying and seductive. Recent evidence, however, indicates that the linear model is incorrect and that sex differences arise in response to diverse sex-specific signals originating from inherent differences in the genome and involve cellular mechanisms that are specific to individual tissues or brain regions. Moreover, sex-specific effects of the environment reciprocally affect biology, sometimes profoundly, and must therefore be integrated into a realistic model of sexual differentiation. A more appropriate model is a parallel-interactive model that encompasses the roles of multiple molecular signals and pathways that differentiate males and females, including synergistic and compensatory interactions among pathways and an important role for the environment. PMID:21613996

McCarthy, Margaret M; Arnold, Arthur P

2011-01-01

156

Sexuality and Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author examines specific manifestations of violence in relation to sexuality: (1) forcible rape rate; (2) war atrocities; (3) sexual violence in prisons; and (4) pornography. Drawing much from Hannah Arendt's book on violence, he views sexual violence as symptomatic of a lack of sexual power, not a sign of its possession. The causes are seen…

Sanctuary, Gerald

157

Addressing Sexual Harassment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

2008-01-01

158

The pathophysiology of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in women.  

PubMed

Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is defined as a deficiency or absence of sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity that causes marked distress or interpersonal difficulty. The dysfunction cannot be better accounted for by another psychiatric disorder (except another sexual dysfunction) and must not be due exclusively to the physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition. HSDD occurs in approximately 1 in 10 adult women in the USA and its prevalence appears to be similar in Europe. A number of potential causative and contributory factors to low sexual desire have been identified, reflecting the interplay among hormonal, neurobiological, and psychosocial factors. One theory is that sexual desire is controlled in the brain by a balance between inhibitory and excitatory factors. In general, dopamine, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone play an excitatory role in sexual desire, whereas serotonin, prolactin, and opioids play an inhibitory role. It is hypothesized that decreased sexual desire may be due to a reduced level of excitatory activity, an increased level of inhibitory activity, or both. A greater understanding of the complex pathophysiology of HSDD would improve the identification and management of women for whom low sexual desire is a concern. PMID:20434725

Clayton, Anita H

2010-07-01

159

Neonatal Endocrinology of Abnormal Male Sexual Differentiation: Molecular Aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal male sexual differentiation is a complex mechanism, depending on genetic and hormonal control. The bipotent gonad arises at the genital ridge under the control of autosomal genes which are also involved in the formation of other organs. Progression towards testicular differentiation is mediated through both autosomal and gonosomal genes, leading to alignment of Sertoli cells and Leydig cells. Within

Olaf Hiort

2000-01-01

160

Treatment of Paraphilic Sexual Offenders in Brazil: Issues and Controversies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychopharmacological treatments have not only proven to be valuable but sometimes indispensable in the management of paraphilic sexual offenders. Despite not being approved by the FDA, some medications commonly used in paraphilic outpatients, such as Medroxyprogesterone and Leuprolide Acetate, cannot be considered an experimental or investigative medical procedure. Unfortunately, in Brazil, the use of hormonal medications for the treatment of

Danilo Antonio Baltieri; Arthur Guerra de Andrade

2009-01-01

161

PERCEPTION OF THE MOLTING HORMONE 20-HYDROXECDYSONE BY HOMARUS AMERICANUS: LOCALIZATION OF STEROID RECEPTORS AND EFFECT ON BEHAVIOR  

EPA Science Inventory

There is growing evidence that hormones, when released from an animal into the environment, act as chemical signals to other organisms. There is also evidence to suggest that hormones are released by lobsters during sexual and agonistic encounters to signal conspecifics. The go...

162

Nature Needs Nurture: The Interaction of Hormonal and Social Influences on the Development of Behavioral Sex Differences in Rhesus Monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty years of research on early social and hormonal environments and their relationship to the expression of behavioral sex differences in rhesus monkeys are reviewed. These studies demonstrate that whether aggressive and submissive behaviors are sexually dimorphic depends primarily on the social and not the hormonal environment. Early rearing environments without mothers or allowing brief periods of peer interaction produced

Kim Wallen

1996-01-01

163

Book review of "The estrogen elixir: A history of hormone replacement therapy in America" by Elizabeth Siegel Watkins  

PubMed Central

"The Estrogen elixir: A history of hormone replacement therapy in America" by Elizabeth Siegel Watkins is a thoroughly documented cautionary tale of the information and advice offered to women in the perimenopausal period of their life, and the consequences of exposure to sexual hormones on their health and wellbeing.

Sonnenschein, Carlos

2008-01-01

164

Sexuality and Islam.  

PubMed

This paper deals with three major questions: (1) What are the sexual norms defined by the sacred texts (Koran and Sunna)? (2) What are the sexual practices currently observed among Moslems? (3) To which extent are current sexual practices of Moslems dissociated from Islamic sexual norms? Sexual standards in Islam are paradoxical: on the one hand, they allow and actually are an enticement to the exercise of sexuality but, on the other hand, they discriminate between male and female sexuality, between marital and pre- or extramarital sexuality, and between heterosexuality and homosexuality. Men are given more rights with regard to the expression of their sexuality; women are forbidden to have extramarital sex (with their slaves) and both genders to have homosexual relationships. The combination of these paradoxical standards with modernisation leads to the current back and forth swing of sexual practices between repression and openness. Partial modernisation leads to greater sexual tolerance. But restrictive sexual standards have gathered strength and have become idealised as a result of the current radicalisation of Islam. This swing of the pendulum between repression and openness is illustrated by phenomena such as public harassment, premarital sexuality, female pleasure, prostitution, and homosexuality. Currently, Islam is not any more the only reference which provides guidance concerning sexual practices but secularisation of sexual laws is still politically unthinkable today. So the only solution is to achieve reform in the name of Islam, through the reinterpretation of repressive holy texts. PMID:20441406

Dialmy, Abdessamad

2010-06-01

165

LH-RH agonists modulate amygdala response to visual sexual stimulation: A single case fMRI study in pedophilia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pedophilia is characterized by a persistent sexual attraction to prepubescent children. Treatment with anti-androgen agents, such as luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonists, reduces testosterone levels and thereby sexual drive and arousal. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare visual erotic stimulation pre- and on-treatment with the LH-RH agonist leuprolide acetate in the case of homosexual pedophilia. The pre-treatment

Benedikt Habermeyer; Nadja Händel; Patrick Lemoine; Markus Klarhöfer; Erich Seifritz; Volker Dittmann; Marc Graf

2011-01-01

166

Sexual differences of imprinted genes' expression levels  

PubMed Central

In mammals, genomic imprinting has evolved as a dosage-controlling mechanism for a subset of genes that play critical roles in their unusual reproduction scheme involving viviparity and placentation. As such, many imprinted genes are highly expressed in sex-specific reproductive organs. In the current study, we sought to test whether imprinted genes are differentially expressed between the two sexes. According to the results, the expression levels of the following genes differ between the two sexes of mice: Peg3, Zim1, Igf2, H19 and Zac1. The expression levels of these imprinted genes are usually greater in males than in females. This bias is most obvious in the developing brains of 14.5-dpc embryos, but also detected in the brains of postnatal-stage mice. However, this sexual bias is not obvious in 10.5-dpc embryos, a developmental stage before the sexual differentiation. Thus, the sexual bias observed in the imprinted genes is most likely attributable by gonadal hormones rather than by sex chromosome complement. Overall, the results indicate that several imprinted genes are sexually different in terms of their expression levels, and further suggest that the transcriptional regulation of these imprinted genes may be influenced by unknown mechanisms associated with sexual differentiation. PMID:24125951

Faisal, Mohammad; Kim, Hana; Kim, Joomyeong

2013-01-01

167

Pharmacology of sexually compulsive behavior.  

PubMed

In a meta-analysis on controlled outcomes evaluations of 22,000 sex offenders, Losel and Schmucker found 80 comparisons between treatment and control groups. The recidivism rate averaged 19% in treated groups, and 27% in controls. Most other reviews reported a lower rate of sexual recidivism in treated sexual offenders. Of 2039 citations in this study (including literature in five languages), 60 studies held independent comparisons. Problematic issues included the control groups; various hormonal, surgical, cognitive behavioral, and psychotherapeutic treatments; and sample sizes. In the 80 studies compared after the year 2000, 32% were reported after 2000, 45% originated in the United States, 45% were reported in journals, and 36% were unpublished. Treatment characteristics showed a significant lack of pharmacologic treatment (7.5%), whereas use cognitive and classical behavioral therapy was 64%. In 68% of the studies, no information was available on the integrity of the treatment implementation; 36% of the treatment settings were outpatient only, 31% were prison settings, and 12% were mixed settings (prison, hospital, and outpatient). Integrating research interpretations is complicated by the heterogeneity of sex offenders, with only 56% being adult men and 17.5% adolescents. Offense types reported included 74% child molestation, 48% incest, and 30% exhibitionism. Pedophilia was not singled out. Follow-up periods varied from 12 months to greater than 84 months. The definition of recidivism ran the gamut from arrest (24%), conviction (30%), charges (19%), and no indication (16%). Results were difficult to interpret because of the methodological problems with this type of study. Overall, a positive outcome was noted with sex offender treatment. Cognitive-behavioral and hormonal treatment were the most promising. Voluntary treatment led to a slightly better outcome than mandatory participation. When accounting for a low base rate of sexual recidivism, the reduction was 37%, which included psychological and medical modes of treatment. Which treatments will reduce recidivism rates in sex offenders is extremely difficult to conclude. Some treatment effects are determined from small studies; however, recidivism rates may be based on different criteria. Larger studies tend to be published more frequently than small studies, negative results may be less likely to be reported in published studies, and differences in mandatory versus voluntary treatment may occur. Clearly more high-quality outcome studies are needed to determine which treatments work best for which individuals. One size is unlikely to fit all. However, pharmacologic intervention, although not always the perfect choice, has improved and will continue to advance the treatment of paraphilic, nonparaphilic, and compulsive sexual behaviors. PMID:18996306

Codispoti, Victoria L

2008-12-01

168

Sexual narcissism and the perpetration of sexual aggression.  

PubMed

Despite indirect evidence linking narcissism to sexual aggression, studies directly examining this relationship have yielded inconsistent results. Likely contributing to such inconsistencies, prior research has used global measures of narcissism not sensitive to whether the components of narcissism are activated in sexual versus non-sexual domains. The current research avoided such problems by using a measure of sexual narcissism to predict sexual aggression. In a sample of 299 men and women, Study 1 validated the Sexual Narcissism Scale, a new sexuality research instrument with four subscales-Sexual Exploitation, Sexual Entitlement, Low Sexual Empathy, and Sexual Skill. Then, in a sample of 378 men, Study 2 demonstrated that sexual narcissism was associated with reports of the frequency of sexual aggression, three specific types of sexual aggression (unwanted sexual contact, sexual coercion, and attempted/completed rape), and the likelihood of future sexual aggression. Notably, global narcissism was unrelated to all indices of sexual aggression when sexual narcissism was controlled. That sexual narcissism outperformed global assessments of narcissism to account for variance in sexual aggression suggests that future research may benefit by examining whether sexual narcissism and other sexual-situation-specific measurements of personality can similarly provide a more valid test of the association between personality and other sexual behaviors and outcomes (e.g., contraceptive use, infidelity, sexual satisfaction). PMID:19130204

Widman, Laura; McNulty, James K

2010-08-01

169

RESPONSE TO SEXUAL DISCRIMINATION/HARASSMENT Sexual Harassment  

E-print Network

RESPONSE TO SEXUAL DISCRIMINATION/HARASSMENT Sexual Harassment Sexual harassment is a form of discrimination, as defined in the university Discrimination and Harassment policy. Sexual harassment can include against other student Contact the Office of J

Mayfield, John

170

Sexual Narcissism and the Perpetration of Sexual Aggression  

PubMed Central

Despite indirect evidence linking narcissism to sexual aggression, studies directly examining this relationship have yielded inconsistent results. Likely contributing to such inconsistencies, prior research has used global measures of narcissism not sensitive to whether the components of narcissism are activated in sexual versus non-sexual domains. The current research avoided such problems by using a measure of sexual narcissism to predict sexual aggression. In a sample of 299 men and women, Study 1 validated the Sexual Narcissism Scale, a new sexuality research instrument with four subscales—Sexual Exploitation, Sexual Entitlement, Low Sexual Empathy, and Sexual Skill. Then, in a sample of 378 men, Study 2 demonstrated that sexual narcissism was associated with reports of the frequency of sexual aggression, three specific types of sexual aggression (unwanted sexual contact, sexual coercion, and attempted/completed rape), and the likelihood of future sexual aggression. Notably, global narcissism was unrelated to all indices of sexual aggression when sexual narcissism was controlled. That sexual narcissism outperformed global assessments of narcissism to account for variance in sexual aggression suggests that future research may benefit by examining whether sexual narcissism and other sexual-situation-specific measurements of personality can similarly provide a more valid test of the association between personality and other sexual behaviors and outcomes (e.g., contraceptive use, infidelity, sexual satisfaction). PMID:19130204

McNulty, James K.

2014-01-01

171

Immunoendocrinology: faulty hormonal imprinting in the immune system.  

PubMed

Hormonal imprinting is an epigenetic process which is taking place perinatally at the first encounter between the developing hormone receptors and their target hormones. The hormonal imprinting influences the binding capacity of receptors, the hormone synthesis of the cells, and other hormonally regulated functions, as sexual behavior, aggressivity, empathy, etc. However, during the critical period, when the window for imprinting is open, molecules similar to the physiological imprinters as synthetic hormone analogs, other members of the hormone families, environmental pollutants, etc. can cause faulty imprinting with life-long consequences. The developing immune system, the cells of which also have receptors for hormones, is very sensitive to faulty imprinting, which causes alterations in the antibody and cytokine production, in the ratio of immune cells, in the defense against bacterial and viral infections as well as against malignant tumors. Immune cells (lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes and mast cells) are also producing hormones which are secreted into the blood circulation as well as are transported locally (packed transport). This process is also disturbed by faulty imprinting. As immune cells are differentiating during the whole life, faulty imprinting could develop any time, however, the most decisive is the perinatal imprinting. The faulty imprinting is inherited to the progenies in general and especially in the case of immune system. In our modern world the number and amount of artificial imprinters (e.g. endocrine disruptors and drugs) are enormously increasing. The effects of the faulty imprinters most dangerous to the immune system are shown in the paper. The present and future consequences of the flood of faulty imprintings are unpredictable however, it is discussed. PMID:24939679

Csaba, György

2014-06-01

172

Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults  

MedlinePLUS

Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) occurs when the pituitary gland does not make enough growth hormone. This important hormone is responsible for the body’s growth and development. In children, GHD slows the growth ...

173

Menopausal Hormone Therapy and Cancer  

Cancer.gov

A fact sheet about the results of research on menopausal hormone therapy. Includes information about the effect of menopausal hormone therapy on the body. Also outlines the benefits and risks of using menopausal hormones.

174

Indian concepts on sexuality  

PubMed Central

India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality. PMID:23858263

Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha

2013-01-01

175

Sexuality and Reproductive Issues (PDQ)  

MedlinePLUS

... Dictionary Search for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Sexuality and Reproductive Issues (PDQ®) Sexual Problems as a ... known about how other types of cancer affect sexuality . Both sexual desire and ability can be affected. ...

176

Puberty without gonadotropins. A unique mechanism of sexual development.  

PubMed

Recent evidence suggests that a group of children exists in whom premature sexual maturation occurs in the absence of pubertal levels of gonadotropins; that is, they have gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty. We compared six boys and one girl with this disorder with four boys and five girls with central precocious puberty, in which there is a pubertal pattern of gonadotropin release. The two groups were similar in age of onset, degree of sexual development, growth velocity, and rate of skeletal maturation. A family history of precocity was noted in four of the boys with gonadotropin-independent precocity, and the girl had McCune-Albright syndrome. Children with central precocious puberty demonstrated a pulsatile release of gonadotropins, pubertal responses to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, and complete suppression of gonadarche after exposure to an analogue of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRHa). In contrast, children with gonadotropin-independent precocity demonstrated an absence of gonadotropin pulsations, variable responses to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, lack of suppression of puberty in response to LHRHa, and cyclic steroidogenesis. Tissue from testicular biopsies performed in five of six boys with gonadotropin-independent precocity showed a range from incipient pubertal development of the tubules with proliferation of Leydig cells to the appearance of normal adult testes. We conclude that gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty is a distinct syndrome, of unknown cause, that may be familial and may have been responsible for many previously reported cases of precocious puberty. PMID:3917301

Wierman, M E; Beardsworth, D E; Mansfield, M J; Badger, T M; Crawford, J D; Crigler, J F; Bode, H H; Loughlin, J S; Kushner, D C; Scully, R E

1985-01-10

177

Obtención de perfiles teóricos de elementos metálicos con velocidades macroscópicas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

El propósito de este trabajo es poder establecer -a partir de la modelización de perfiles de distintas especies- patrones de comparación observacional que permitan caracterizar los fenómenos físicos que están presentes en las estructuras que se observan. Para ello se resuelven las ecuaciones de equilibrio de ionización para un determinado átomo y una atmósfera de parámetros determinados. A partir de ello se definen las poblaciones para los distintos grados de ionización. Considerando distintas configuraciones e intensidades de flujos de masa se deducen la función fuente, el espesor óptico y se calculan los perfiles de las distintas líneas. Se obtuvieron perfiles teóricos de líneas del CII, CIV y del OIV para flujos entrante, saliente y pasante. La forma del perfil, las intensidades relativas entre los distintos flujos y el corrimiento Doppler da cuenta de una caracterización teórica a partir de la cual se comparará con observaciones.

Cirigliano, D.; Costa, A.; Rovira, M.

178

[Circadian oscillators and hormones].  

PubMed

Circadian mechanism of clock-genes proteins (clock-proteins) directly and through an activation of clock-controlled genes initiates and tides over circadian rhythms of many processes, including secretion of hormones. However, investigations of the hormonal control of circadian oscillators of different levels and functions of clock-proteins apply to "top of iceberg" only. In the review, we analyse the investigations of clock-proteins functions and the hormonal control of clock-genes transcription and posttranslational modifications of clock-proteins. The clock-proteins had been discussed as second messengers for hormonal actions. Besides, the hormonal system is regarded as a system of synchronization of different clock-oscillators with genesis of ultradian, circadian and circannual rhythms. PMID:25509132

Chernysheva, M P

2013-01-01

179

An Overview of Sexual Harassment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual harassment, according to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), is when any unwelcome sexual advances for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature takes place. For sexual harassment to take place there must be some type of behavior, language, or material of a sexual nature, which is offensive.…

Stier, William F., Jr.

2005-01-01

180

Female Hormone Receptors are Differentially Expressed in Mouse Fibrocartilages  

PubMed Central

Objective: Despite the female predilection for joint diseases, and the known effects of female hormones in regulating chondrocyte function, the various female hormone receptor subtypes in joints are not well characterized, and comparisons in receptor profiles between joints and genders is lacking. This investigation characterized and compared the relative levels of estrogen receptors (ER) –? and -?, relaxin receptors LGR7 and LGR8, and progesterone receptor (PR) in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc, knee meniscus and pubic symphysis fibrocartilages. Methods: Fibrocartilaginous cells from 12-week old mice were maintained in serum-containing ?-MEM until confluence. Total RNA and cell lysates were assayed by RT-PCR, qRT-PCR, immunocytochemistry and Western blots, and joint sections subjected to immunohistochemistry. Results: All hormone receptors assayed were present in the three joints, but showed substantial differences in expression levels between joints. TMJ cells had higher ER-? (>2.8-fold), ER-? (>2.2-fold), LGR7 (>3-fold) and PR (>1.8-fold), and lower LGR8 (0.5-fold) gene expression levels than knee meniscus cells. The ratio of ER-?:ER-? and LGR7:LGR8 was 1.8- and 7.5-fold higher, respectively, in TMJ than in knee meniscus cells. The profile of hormone receptors in the TMJ disc were similar to those in the pubic symphysis. Immunochemistry confirmed the differential expression patterns of these receptors in the three tissues. The TMJ cells demonstrated sexual dimorphism in the levels of PR. Conclusions: The findings suggest that these fibrocartilages are putative target tissues for actions of female hormones. The differential expression profiles of the hormone receptors in the three joint fibrocartilages and the sexual dimorphism in ERs in TMJ disc cells are likely to result in varied downstream effects in response to hormones within these fibrocartilaginous tissues. PMID:19010067

Wang, Wei; Hayami, Takayuki; Kapila, Sunil

2009-01-01

181

Sexuality and Dementia  

MedlinePLUS

... chronic illness. "No one asked me about my marriage or sexuality. Yet it plays a large part ... masturbation or pursuing a sexual relationship outside the marriage. One caregiver shared that she sometimes has sex ...

182

Sexual Risk Factors  

MedlinePLUS

... can be. These actions include: Choose less risky sexual behaviors. Oral sex is much less risky than anal or vaginal sex. Anal sex is the highest-risk sexual activity for HIV transmission. If you are HIV- ...

183

[Sexuality and dementia].  

PubMed

Sexuality, love, companionship and intimacy remain important parts of life in older people and demented patients. The most frequent sexual disorder reported by spouses of patients with dementia is sexual indifference related to apathy and blunted affect. Increase of sexual demands is rare and many behaviors considered as inappropriate or expressing hypersexuality actually express affective needs or result from cognitive disturbances. Permanence of sexual activity is most often a factor of adjustment for married dementia sufferers and their caregivers. However, some sexual behaviors are stressing for the spouses, mainly women spouses. In nursing homes or long term care facilities, expressing sexuality by demented subjects and dealing with inappropriate sexual expression are source of concerns for the nursing staff, other residents, and families. Information about sex and dementia and a psychobehavioral approach can decrease the strain of families and caregivers. PMID:16316819

Derouesné, Christian

2005-12-01

184

Sexuality in Older Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... time touching, kissing, and enjoying each other’s company. Practice safe sex. Older adults are still at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Ask your partner about his or her sexual history, and share yours. Consider getting tested for ...

185

Sexual (Lust) Homicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter discusses the historical definitional origins of sexual homicide (lust murder), the dynamics of sexual homicide\\u000a injury, offense definition constructs and their limitations, and key presumptions of injuries associated with sexual homicide\\u000a offense models. The chapter concludes by arguing for the clarification of concepts, characterizations, linkages, and research\\u000a into the offense dynamics and offender motivations of sexual (lust) homicides.

Janet McClellan

186

Religiosity, spirituality, sexual attitudes, and sexual behaviors among college students.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine whether religiosity, spirituality, and sexual attitudes accounted for differences in sexual behaviors among college students. The sample included 960 college students enrolled at four northeastern colleges. Results indicated differences in sexual attitudes, religiosity, and spirituality by gender. Moreover, sexual attitudes, religiosity, and spirituality were associated with sexual behaviors among college students. Sexual behaviors among males were influenced by their sexual attitudes, religiosity, and spirituality, while for females, their sexual behaviors were mostly influenced by their sexual attitudes. College health professionals can use these findings when discussing sexual practices with students. PMID:21822743

Luquis, Raffy R; Brelsford, Gina M; Rojas-Guyler, Liliana

2012-09-01

187

Sexual Victimization of Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An estimated 7.0% to 8.1% of American youth report being sexually victimized at some point in their life time. This article presents a background to youth sexual victimization, focusing on prevalence data, challenging issues when studying this problem, risk factors, and common characteristics of perpetrators. Additionally, a type of sexual…

Small, Kevonne; Zweig, Janine M.

2007-01-01

188

Sexual Assault Prevention Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is designed to educate men and women about sexual assault. The goals are to encourage people to become involved in their own protection and to make them better informed and able to deal with sexual assaults when they do occur. Facts about sexual assault are presented, including descriptions of rapists, rape victims, and rape…

Missouri Governor's Commission on Crime, Jefferson.

189

What is Sexual Addiction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Married men labeled as sexual addicts seek help after being discovered to have had broken monogamy rules for sexual behavior through their use of masturbation, pornography, cybersex, commercial sex involvement, paraphilic pursuits, or affairs. This study analyzed the sexual patterns and dynamics of 30 men who presented to 1 clinician between 2005 and 2009. Their important differences were captured by

Stephen B. Levine

2010-01-01

190

Understanding sexual homicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual homicide is a crime that receives much media attention, but one that still has a relatively small research base compared to other crimes. Although the idea of someone deriving sexual gratification from or during the killing of another is an anathema to many, forensic professionals need to understand sexual homicide and the range of circumstances and motivations that lie

Paul V. Greenall

2011-01-01

191

Evolutionary biology Sexual ornamentation  

E-print Network

the antibacterial activity of semen from mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and tested whether the bactericidal bacteria-induced damage. Keywords: Anas platyrhynchos; bacteria; sexual selection; sperm; sexually from mallard ducks (Anas platyr- hynchos). Additionally, to test the hypothesis that sexual ornament

Richner, Heinz

192

ORIGINAL PAPER Sexual Self-Schemas, Sexual Dysfunction, and the Sexual Responses  

E-print Network

trauma Á Sexual abuse Á Sexual function Introduction A history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is often with a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse Alessandra H. Rellini · Cindy M. Meston Received: 30 June 2009 / Revised to the mediating effects of sexual self-schemas on the sexual difficulties of women with a history of childhood

Meston, Cindy

193

ORIGINAL PAPER Sexual Self-Schemas, Sexual Dysfunction, and the Sexual Responses  

E-print Network

-schema Á Sexual arousal Á Vaginal photoplethysmography Á Childhood trauma Á Sexual abuse Á Sexual function with a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse Alessandra H. Rellini · Cindy M. Meston Received: 30 June 2009 / Revised-schemas on the sexual difficulties of women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The following study adds

Meston, Cindy

194

Low sexual desire--is it all in her head? Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder.  

PubMed

Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is thought to be the most prevalent form of female sexual dysfunction (FSD), affecting up to 1 in 10 US women. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder is defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) as persistent or recurrent deficiency or absence of sexual fantasies and thoughts, and/or desire for, or receptivity to, sexual activity, which causes personal distress or interpersonal difficulties and is not caused by a medical condition or drug. This definition has recently received criticism and recommendations for changes encompass the inclusion of duration, intensity, and frequency, and the elimination of distress as a diagnostic criterion. More recently, it has been suggested that arousal and desire be combined into one disorder for the upcoming DSM-V. Causes of low desire include chronic medical conditions, medications, surgeries, and psychosocial factors, but not necessarily increased age; both pre- and postmenopausal women can have HSDD, although the frequency appears to vary by age. Sexual function requires the complex interaction of multiple neurotransmitters and hormones, both centrally and peripherally, and sexual desire is considered the result of a complex balance between inhibitory and excitatory pathways in the brain. For example, dopamine, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone play an excitatory role, whereas serotonin and prolactin are inhibitory. Thus, decreased sexual desire could be due to a reduced level of excitatory activity, an increased level of inhibitory activity, or both. A number of validated self-report and clinician-administered instruments are available for assessing female sexual function; however, most have been used primarily in clinical research trials. The Decreased Sexual Desire Screener (DSDS) was developed for practicing clinicians who are neither trained nor specialized in FSD to assist in making an accurate diagnosis of generalized acquired HSDD. As our understanding of the pathophysiology of HSDD increases, it may become easier for physicians to identify and treat women with low sexual desire. PMID:21084789

Simon, James A

2010-11-01

195

Semaphorin Signaling in the Development and Function of the Gonadotropin Hormone-Releasing Hormone System  

PubMed Central

The semaphorin proteins are among the best-studied families of guidance cues, contributing to morphogenesis and homeostasis in a wide range of tissue types. The major semaphorin receptors are plexins and neuropilins, however other receptors and co-receptors are capable to mediate signaling by semaphorins. These guidance proteins were originally identified as growth cone “collapsing factors” or as inhibitory signals, crucial for nervous system development. Since those seminal discoveries, the list of functions of semaphorins has rapidly grown. Over the past few years, a growing body of data indicates that semaphorins are involved in the regulation of the immune and vascular systems, in tumor growth/cancer cell metastasis and in neural circuit formation. Recently there has been increasing emphasis on research to determine the potential influence of semaphorins on the development and homeostasis of hormone systems and how circulating reproductive hormones regulate their expression and functions. Here, we focus on the emerging role of semaphorins in the development, differentiation and plasticity of unique neurons that secrete gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which are essential for the acquisition and maintenance of reproductive competence in all vertebrates. Genetic evidence is also provided showing that insufficient semaphorin signaling contributes to some forms of reproductive disorders in humans, characterized by the reduction or failure of sexual competence. Finally, we will review some studies with the goal of highlighting how the expression of semaphorins and their receptors might be regulated by gonadal hormones in physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:24065959

Messina, Andrea; Giacobini, Paolo

2013-01-01

196

Measurement of testosterone in human sexuality research: methodological considerations.  

PubMed

Testosterone (T) and other androgens are incorporated into an increasingly wide array of human sexuality research, but there are a number of issues that can affect or confound research outcomes. This review addresses various methodological issues relevant to research design in human studies with T; unaddressed, these issues may introduce unwanted noise, error, or conceptual barriers to interpreting results. Topics covered are (1) social and demographic factors (gender and sex; sexual orientations and sexual diversity; social/familial connections and processes; social location variables), (2) biological rhythms (diurnal variation; seasonality; menstrual cycles; aging and menopause), (3) sample collection, handling, and storage (saliva vs. blood; sialogogues, saliva, and tubes; sampling frequency, timing, and context; shipping samples), (4) health, medical issues, and the body (hormonal contraceptives; medications and nicotine; health conditions and stress; body composition, weight, and exercise), and (5) incorporating multiple hormones. Detailing a comprehensive set of important issues and relevant empirical evidence, this review provides a starting point for best practices in human sexuality research with T and other androgens that may be especially useful for those new to hormone research. PMID:23807216

van Anders, Sari M; Goldey, Katherine L; Bell, Sarah N

2014-02-01

197

Identification Of Domains Of The Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor Involved In Hormone Binding And Signal Transduction.  

E-print Network

??The glycoprotein hormones, Luteinizing Hormone (LH), human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG), Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) are heterodimeric proteins with an identical… (more)

Agrawal, Gaurav

2008-01-01

198

Mapping Of Glycoprotein Hormone-Receptor Interactions Using Hormone Analogs And Antibodies.  

E-print Network

??The glycoprotein hormone family comprising of Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG), Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) plays important role in… (more)

Roy, Satarupa

2008-01-01

199

Thyroid hormone and leptin in the testis.  

PubMed

Leptin is primarily expressed in white adipose tissue; however, it is expressed in the hypothalamus and reproductive tissues as well. Leptin acts by activating the leptin receptors (Ob-Rs). Additionally, the regulation of several neuroendocrine and reproductive functions, including the inhibition of glucocorticoids and enhancement of thyroxine and sex hormone concentrations in human beings and mice are leptin functions. It has been suggested that thyroid hormones (TH) could directly regulate leptin expression. Additionally, hypothyroidism compromises the intracellular integration of leptin signaling specifically in the arcuate nucleus. Two TH receptor isoforms are expressed in the testis, TRa and TRb, with TRa being the predominant one that is present in all stages of development. The effects of TH involve the proliferation and differentiation of Sertoli and Leydig cells during development, spermatogenesis, and steroidogenesis. In this context, TH disorders are associated with sexual dysfunction. An endocrine and/or direct paracrine effect of leptin on the gonads inhibits testosterone production in Leydig cells. Further studies are necessary to clarify the effects of both hormones in the testis during hypothyroidism. The goal of this review is to highlight the current knowledge regarding leptin and TH in the testis. PMID:25505448

Ramos, Cristiane Fonte; Zamoner, Ariane

2014-01-01

200

Thyroid Hormone and Leptin in the Testis  

PubMed Central

Leptin is primarily expressed in white adipose tissue; however, it is expressed in the hypothalamus and reproductive tissues as well. Leptin acts by activating the leptin receptors (Ob-Rs). Additionally, the regulation of several neuroendocrine and reproductive functions, including the inhibition of glucocorticoids and enhancement of thyroxine and sex hormone concentrations in human beings and mice are leptin functions. It has been suggested that thyroid hormones (TH) could directly regulate leptin expression. Additionally, hypothyroidism compromises the intracellular integration of leptin signaling specifically in the arcuate nucleus. Two TH receptor isoforms are expressed in the testis, TRa and TRb, with TRa being the predominant one that is present in all stages of development. The effects of TH involve the proliferation and differentiation of Sertoli and Leydig cells during development, spermatogenesis, and steroidogenesis. In this context, TH disorders are associated with sexual dysfunction. An endocrine and/or direct paracrine effect of leptin on the gonads inhibits testosterone production in Leydig cells. Further studies are necessary to clarify the effects of both hormones in the testis during hypothyroidism. The goal of this review is to highlight the current knowledge regarding leptin and TH in the testis. PMID:25505448

Ramos, Cristiane Fonte; Zamoner, Ariane

2014-01-01

201

Thyroid Hormone Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... hormone for the body’s needs. This is called Hypothyroidism and may be caused by a non-functioning ... or by a non-functioning pituitary gland (see Hypothyroidism Brochure ). Hypothyroidism, is the most common reason for ...

202

Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause  

MedlinePLUS

... made products. These are made in a compounding pharmacy (a pharmacy that mixes medications according to a doctor’s instructions). ... that bioidentical hormones, whether prepared by a compounding pharmacy or pharmaceutical company, are safer to use than ...

203

Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones  

MedlinePLUS

... Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Endocrine System » Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

204

Sexuality in Huntington's disease.  

PubMed

Sexuality and partnership have an important influence on the quality of life of patients with chronic disorders. There are just a few studies in literature about sexuality in Huntington's disease which conclude that up to 85% men and up to 75% of women experience high levels of sexual problems, most of them having prevalent symptoms of a hypoactive sexual disorder but also increased sexual interest and paraphilia were found. There is no evidence that sexual dysfunction is mainly a specific symptom of HD and may be associated with the specific brain lesion itself or if it is chiefly related to the psychosocial factors caused by the steadily worsening of the disease. Further studies should focus on asymptomatic patients to explore sexual changes preceding neurological and motor symptoms and should incorporate partners to objectify sexual distinctive features. Investigations on the context of sexual dysfunction with depression, irritability and dementia symptoms are needed to better understand reasons for sexual changes in HD. Treatment options for HD patients with sexual disorder are only reported sporadically, guidelines can only be obtained from non-HD patients and further research is needed. PMID:18330523

Schmidt, Eva Z; Bonelli, Raphael M

2008-01-01

205

The sexually exploited child.  

PubMed

Sexual exploitation of children (under 14 years of age) is a common occurrence, although actual numbers are unknown. There are three major forms of sexual abuse: (1) incest, ie, sexual activity between consanguineous family members; (2) sexual assault, such as rape or molestation by adults not related to the child; and (3) habitual sexual exploitation for purposes of financial reward or perverse sexual satisfaction. Brother-sister incest has the highest incidence in the middle and upper socioeconomic levels and is probably the least damaging, psychologically, to sexual adjustment later in life. Father-daughter incest is more common in the lower socioeconomic levels and is thought to produce major disorders in the psychosexual area. Sexual assault of children, if handled supportively and with understanding by the surrounding adults, including parents, physicians, teachers, law enforcement officers, and others, can result in minimal sequelae; however, often the situation is handled with emotional reactions ranging from disgust to hysteria which result in the child's being victimized and traumatized unnecessarily. These latter situations lead to sexual acting-out in adolescence, promiscuity, perversions, or frigidity in adult sexual life. Teachers, physicians, and child welfare workers need to be attuned to the possibility to sexual abuse in the children they serve. PMID:941049

Weeks, R B

1976-07-01

206

Menopausal Hormone Therapy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) provides this compilation of Web links for important information on the risks and benefits of hormone replacement therapy. The links lead to relevant NIH Web pages, including the most current NIH research on the subject. Topics covered range from NIH's Women's Health Initiative estrogen/ progestin hormone therapy study to the use of black cohosh as an alternative therapy to osteoporosis and ovarian cancer. A useful and well-organized resource.

207

Effects of sexual dimorphism on facial attractiveness.  

PubMed

Testosterone-dependent secondary sexual characteristics in males may signal immunological competence and are sexually selected for in several species. In humans, oestrogen-dependent characteristics of the female body correlate with health and reproductive fitness and are found attractive. Enhancing the sexual dimorphism of human faces should raise attractiveness by enhancing sex-hormone-related cues to youth and fertility in females, and to dominance and immunocompetence in males. Here we report the results of asking subjects to choose the most attractive faces from continua that enhanced or diminished differences between the average shape of female and male faces. As predicted, subjects preferred feminized to average shapes of a female face. This preference applied across UK and Japanese populations but was stronger for within-population judgements, which indicates that attractiveness cues are learned. Subjects preferred feminized to average or masculinized shapes of a male face. Enhancing masculine facial characteristics increased both perceived dominance and negative attributions (for example, coldness or dishonesty) relevant to relationships and paternal investment. These results indicate a selection pressure that limits sexual dimorphism and encourages neoteny in humans. PMID:9732869

Perrett, D I; Lee, K J; Penton-Voak, I; Rowland, D; Yoshikawa, S; Burt, D M; Henzi, S P; Castles, D L; Akamatsu, S

1998-08-27

208

The effect of camphor on sex hormones levels in rats.  

PubMed

In some traditional therapies, it has been claimed that camphor (a crystalline ketone obtained from cinnamomum camphora) would be a suppressor of sexual behaviors and sex hormones. This study evaluated the effects of camphor on sex hormones, like luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone. In this experimental study, 56 male rats were divided into 5 groups, including control (n=12), sham (n=11) and three treatment groups (n=11) in three different doses. The sham groups received daily intra peritoneal (IP) injections of the vehicle (ethanol 10%) for 30 days. Three treatment groups received different daily IP injections of the camphor (1, 2 and 5 mg/Kg) for 30 days and the control groups didn't received anything. Serums were used for assaying LH, FSH and testosterone. The level of LH significantly increased in all doses of camphor among the treatment groups as compared to the control (p<0.05), but camphor in doses 2 and 5 mg/Kg significantly reduced the FSH level as compared to control group (p<0.05). No significant changes were seen in testosterone levels. Camphor increased level of LH, decreased level of FSH, whereas it failed to change level of testosterone. The claim of inhibitory effect of camphor on sexual activity could not be confirmed by this study. More investigations in this field are suggested. PMID:24567939

Shahabi, Sima; Jorsaraei, Seyed Gholam Ali; Akbar Moghadamnia, Ali; Barghi, Effat; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Golsorkhtabar Amiri, Masoumeh; Maliji, Ghorban; Sohan Faraji, Alieh; Abdi Boora, Maryam; Ghazinejad, Neda; Shamsai, Hajar

2014-01-01

209

Analysis of estrone sulphate, testosterone, and cortisol concentrations around time of ejaculation and potential correlation to sexual behavior and sperm characteristics in stallions  

E-print Network

In the stallion, inconsistent sexual behavior and variable semen quality are common. This reproductive variability has been attributed to differences in circulating hormone concentrations. In order to further examine this relationship, 7 miniature...

Seale, Jennifer

2010-07-14

210

Tell Someone Responding to sexual harassment and sexual violence  

E-print Network

sexual harassment, and is committed to creating a community free from discrimination. Sexual harassment, such behavior is not tolerated. Harvard has both formal and informal procedures and resources in place to assist students who have experienced or witnessed sexual harassment. What is sexual violence? Sexual violence

Loncar, Marko

211

Using Digital Images of the Zebra Finch Song System as a Tool to Teach Organizational Effects of Steroid Hormones: A Free Downloadable Module  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Zebra finch song behavior is sexually dimorphic: males sing and females do not. The neural system underlying this behavior is sexually dimorphic, and this sex difference is easy to quantify. During development, the zebra finch song system can be altered by steroid hormones, specifically estradiol, which actually masculinizes it. Because of the…

Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A.; Beck McCauley, Lisa M.; Pham, Anh P.; Ruiz, Maureen L.; Fong, Michelle C.; Cui, Xinran

2011-01-01

212

SEXUAL MISCONDUCT/SEXUAL ASSAULT POLICY  

E-print Network

Sexual Misconduct to seek assistance from counseling or mental health services and/or to seek medical uniform guidelines to promote and foster a safe climate as well as University compliance with federal

Dennett, Daniel

213

The Relationship Between Sexual Function and Quality of Sleep in Caregiving Mothers of Sons with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Introduction The task of the caregiver, especially a caregiving mother of a son with a chronic and fatal disease, may interfere with their quality of sleep, sexuality, and some hormone levels. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the sexual function and the quality of sleep of caregiving mothers of sons with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Methods We evaluated 20 caregiving mothers of sons with DMD and 20 caregiving mothers of sons without any neuromuscular or chronic disease. All of them voluntarily responded to the evaluating questionnaires about their sexuality and their quality of sleep, and gave blood samples to evaluate their hormonal levels. Main Outcome Measures All mothers were evaluated using the questionnaire of Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and the Pittsburgh questionnaire (PSQI). The blood samples were tested to determine serum levels of testosterone, estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, progesterone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and cortisol. Results Caregiving mothers of sons with DMD had significantly lower scores in the FSFI questionnaire, suggesting a higher risk for sexual dysfunction. The PSQI demonstrated that these caregiving mothers present increased sleep latency, reduced sleep efficiency, daytime dysfunction, and poor sleep quality. Blood tests showed a rise in cortisol levels, which correlated with the compromised sexuality and quality of sleep. Conclusions This study indicates that caregiving mothers of sons with DMD show major risk for sexual dysfunction and a reduction in their quality of sleep mediated in part by the hormonal changes related to stress. Nozoe KT, Hachul H, Hirotsu C, Polesel DN, Moreira GA, Tufik S, and Andersen ML. The relationship between sexual function and quality of sleep in caregiving mothers of sons with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Sex Med 2014;2:133–140. PMID:25356310

Nozoe, Karen T; Hachul, Helena; Hirotsu, Camila; Polesel, Daniel N; Moreira, Gustavo A; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L

2014-01-01

214

Pharmacological effects on sexual function.  

PubMed

Many drugs may have effects on sexual function. Sexual function is complex and psychological and relationship issues are likely to have greater impacts on sexual function in women than drugs. Although it is important to understand the effects of drugs on sexual function, physicians should use caution in "medicalization" of sexual function in women [106]. PMID:17116504

Carey, J Chris

2006-12-01

215

Serotonin signaling in the brain of adult female mice is required for sexual preference  

PubMed Central

A role for serotonin in male sexual preference was recently uncovered by our finding that male mutant mice lacking serotonin have lost sexual preference. Here we show that female mouse mutants lacking either central serotonergic neurons or serotonin prefer female over male genital odors when given a choice, and displayed increased female–female mounting when presented either with a choice of a male and a female target or only with a female target. Pharmacological manipulations and genetic rescue experiments showed that serotonin is required in adults. Behavioral changes caused by deficient serotonergic signaling were not due to changes in plasma concentrations of sex hormones. We demonstrate that a genetic manipulation reverses sexual preference without involving sex hormones. Our results indicate that serotonin controls sexual preference. PMID:23716677

Zhang, Shasha; Liu, Yan; Rao, Yi

2013-01-01

216

Can Ayahuasca and sleep loss change sexual performance in male rats?  

PubMed

The ingestion of the beverage Ayahuasca usually occurs in religious ceremonies that are performed during the night leading to sleep deprivation. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the acute effects of Ayahuasca upon the sexual response of sleep deprived male rats. One group of sexually experienced male Wistar rats were submitted to a paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) protocol for 96h, while another group spent the same amount of time in the home cage (CTRL). After this period, either saline or Ayahuasca drink (250, 500 and 1000?gmL(-1)) was administered by gavage and sexual behavior and hormonal concentrations were measured. Ayahuasca alone significantly decreased sexual performance at all doses. However, in sleep deprived rats, the lower dose increased sexual performance while the intermediate dose produced a detrimental effect on sexual response compared to the CTRL rats at the same dose. Regarding the hormonal analyses, a lower testosterone concentration was observed in sleep-deprived saline rats in relation to the CTRL group. Progesterone was significantly lower only in PSD rats at the dose 500?gmL(-1) compared with CTRL-500?gmL(-1) group. Corticosterone was unchanged among the groups evaluated. Our results suggest that Ayahuasca intake markedly impaired sexual performance alone, but, when combined with sleep deprivation, had significant, but heterogeneous, effects on male sexual response. PMID:25256159

Alvarenga, T A; Polesel, D N; Matos, G; Garcia, V A; Costa, J L; Tufik, S; Andersen, M L

2014-10-01

217

Gastrointestinal hormones regulating appetite  

PubMed Central

The role of gastrointestinal hormones in the regulation of appetite is reviewed. The gastrointestinal tract is the largest endocrine organ in the body. Gut hormones function to optimize the process of digestion and absorption of nutrients by the gut. In this capacity, their local effects on gastrointestinal motility and secretion have been well characterized. By altering the rate at which nutrients are delivered to compartments of the alimentary canal, the control of food intake arguably constitutes another point at which intervention may promote efficient digestion and nutrient uptake. In recent decades, gut hormones have come to occupy a central place in the complex neuroendocrine interactions that underlie the regulation of energy balance. Many gut peptides have been shown to influence energy intake. The most well studied in this regard are cholecystokinin (CCK), pancreatic polypeptide, peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin and ghrelin. With the exception of ghrelin, these hormones act to increase satiety and decrease food intake. The mechanisms by which gut hormones modify feeding are the subject of ongoing investigation. Local effects such as the inhibition of gastric emptying might contribute to the decrease in energy intake. Activation of mechanoreceptors as a result of gastric distension may inhibit further food intake via neural reflex arcs. Circulating gut hormones have also been shown to act directly on neurons in hypothalamic and brainstem centres of appetite control. The median eminence and area postrema are characterized by a deficiency of the blood–brain barrier. Some investigators argue that this renders neighbouring structures, such as the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius in the brainstem, susceptible to influence by circulating factors. Extensive reciprocal connections exist between these areas and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and other energy-regulating centres of the central nervous system. In this way, hormonal signals from the gut may be translated into the subjective sensation of satiety. Moreover, the importance of the brain–gut axis in the control of food intake is reflected in the dual role exhibited by many gut peptides as both hormones and neurotransmitters. Peptides such as CCK and GLP-1 are expressed in neurons projecting both into and out of areas of the central nervous system critical to energy balance. The global increase in the incidence of obesity and the associated burden of morbidity has imparted greater urgency to understanding the processes of appetite control. Appetite regulation offers an integrated model of a brain–gut axis comprising both endocrine and neurological systems. As physiological mediators of satiety, gut hormones offer an attractive therapeutic target in the treatment of obesity. PMID:16815798

Chaudhri, Owais; Small, Caroline; Bloom, Steve

2006-01-01

218

Postpartum female sexual function.  

PubMed

Although many women experience sexual problems in the postpartum period, research in this subject is under-explored. Embarrassment and preoccupation with the newborn are some of the reasons why many women do not seek help. Furthermore, there is a lack of professional awareness and expertise and recognition that a prerequisite in the definition of sexual dysfunction is that it must cause distress to the individual (not her partner). Sexual dysfunction is classified as disorders of sexual desire, arousal, orgasm and pain. However, in the postpartum period the most common disorder appears to be that of sexual pain as a consequence of perineal trauma. Health care workers need to be made aware of this silent affliction as sexual morbidity can have a detrimental effect on a women's quality of life impacting on her social, physical and emotional well-being. PMID:19481858

Abdool, Zeelha; Thakar, Ranee; Sultan, Abdul H

2009-08-01

219

Somnambulistic sexual behaviour (sexsomnia).  

PubMed

Somnambulism or sleepwalking is a viable defence on the basis of automatism. The behaviours that occur during sleepwalking can be highly complex and include sexual behaviour of all types. Somnambulistic sexual behaviour (also called sexsomnia, sleep sex) is considered a variant of sleepwalking disorder as the overwhelming majority of people with Sexsomnia have a history of parasomnia and a family history of sleepwalking. Sexual behaviour during a sleep automatism can vary from explicit sexual vocalisations, to violent masturbation, to complex sexual acts including anal, oral and vaginal penetration. A recent case in England is reported where the defendant was acquitted on 3 charges of rape on the basis of automatism due to somnambulistic sexual behaviour. PMID:16564199

Ebrahim, Irshaad Osman

2006-05-01

220

Sexual Differentiation of the Human Brain and Male\\/Female Behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Once the differentiation of our sexual organs into male or female is settled, the next thing to be differentiated is the brain.\\u000a The difference in brain structures resulting from the interaction of sex hormones and developing brain cells, is thought to\\u000a be the basis of sex differences in behaviour, in gender identity, in gender roles, in our sexual orientation (hetero-,

Dick F. Swaab

221

[Sexuality and urological diseases].  

PubMed

Patients with lower urinary tract symptoms related to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) frequently suffer from sexual dysfunction (erectile dysfunction and ejaculatory dysfunction). Erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation are two times more common in men with chronic pelvic pain/chronic prostatitis. All treatments of prostate cancer are responsible for sexual dysfunctions. Sexual disorders frequently appear during the management of infertile couples. Information and support should be offered to couples. Women with urinary incontinence also suffer frequently from coital incontinence. PMID:25201599

Droupy, Stéphane

2014-10-01

222

[Depressive symptoms and sexuality].  

PubMed

The mutually reinforcing dyad of depressive symptoms and erectile dysfunction is scientifically established. The cure of depression improves sexual dysfunction (SD) and the treatment of SD induces improvement of depression. Most of anti-depressants induce negative sexual side effects that lead to non-compliance of these treatments. The knowledge of interrelation between depression, anti-depressants and sexuality is of great importance in clinical practice. PMID:25148948

Porto, Robert

2014-10-01

223

Transsexuals' Sexual Stories  

Microsoft Academic Search

When viewed through a popular cultural lens, male-to-female transsexuals' sexual biographies can appear to indicate male transvestitism,\\u000a heterosexuality, or homosexuality rather than transsexuality. How do transsexuals subvert such implications and construct\\u000a transsexual identities? Drawing on K. Plummer's (1995) approach to sexual stories, we examine how nine male-to-female transsexuals\\u000a construct their sexual pasts to accomplish what sociologists call “identity work.” Interviewees

Douglas P. Schrock; Lori L. Reid

2006-01-01

224

Female Sexual Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this book is men and their sexual function and dysfunction, however, many women will also develop some degree\\u000a of sexual health problems concerned with sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and\\/or pain. The goal is to make relevant evidence-based\\u000a clinical information to help identify and treat specific biologically based pathophysiologies available to the motivated health\\u000a care professional. The prevalence

Irwin Goldstein

225

Organochlorines Affect the Major Androgenic Hormone, Testosterone, in Male Polar Bears (Ursus Maritimus) at Svalbard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal sexual development and subsequent reproductive function are dependent on appropriate testosterone production and action. The regulation of steroid hormones, including androgens, can be influenced by both biological and environmental factors, including environmental chemicals. Concentrations of organochlorines are considerably greater in Svalbard polar bears than in polar bears from other regions. Between 1995 and 1998, samples were collected from 121

Irma C. Oskam; Erik Ropstad; Ellen Dahl; Elisabeth Lie; Andrew E. Derocher; Stig Larsen; Richard Wiger; Janneche Utne Skaare

2003-01-01

226

EFFECTS OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS (EDCS) ON FETAL TESTES HORMONE PRODUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Effects of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) on Fetal Testes Hormone Production CS Lambright, VS Wilson, JR Furr, CJ Wolf, N Noriega, LE Gray, Jr US EPA, ORD/NHEERL/RTD, RTP, NC 27711 Exposure to EDCs during critical periods of fetal sexual development can have...

227

Academic Sexual Correctness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This list on the subject of academic sexual correctness(ASC-L). ASC-L was an outgrowth of CASE (Consenting Academics for Sexual Equity), founded in early 1994 by both professors and students to combat a concerted "feminist" campaign against students and professors who had become involved in an intimate(romantic) relationship. CASE dealt with only one small area of the current emphasis on sexual correctness in academia. Consequently, the need for a network that focused on all aspects of academic sexual correctness became apparent; the ASC-L was a response to that need. ASC-L encompasses all aspects of campus sexual control issues -- irrespective of their ideological origins, such as sexual consent issues, sexual discrimination issues (irrespective of the subjects of the discrimination) and attempts to regulate sexual content of speech on campus or sexual content of course materials. The principles of consent, privacy and academic freedom are the core principles which have motivated the founding of ASC-L.

1996-01-01

228

Applying the Female Sexual Functioning Index to Sexual Minority Women  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Available measurements of women's sexual function do not account for different sexual orientations; rather, instruments have been developed using heterosexual samples. The Female Sexual Functioning Index (FSFI) is a widely used instrument, applicable for sexually active or inactive women. We apply the FSFI to a sample of women who have or prefer women as sexual partners, defined as sexual minority women, and who vary with respect to their sexual activity. Methods A modified version of the FSFI was used in a sample of sexual minority women. Statistical analyses focused on examining associations between FSFI responses of no sexual activity and women's characteristics. Results Partner status and sexual frequency was significantly associated with reporting no sexual activity on the FSFI. A revised scoring of the FSFI allows for the use of this instrument among women who vary on sexual frequency and partner status, without biasing their scores towards sexual dysfunction. The desire subscale is independent of sexual frequency, partner status, and sexual orientation. Conclusions The modified wording of the FSFI and its revised scoring allow for the use of this instrument among sexual minority women. A separate reporting of the desire subscale will generate reliable and valid assessments of sexual minority women's sexual functioning. PMID:22136340

Timm, Alison; Ozonoff, Al; Potter, Jennifer

2012-01-01

229

Bioidentical Hormone Therapy  

PubMed Central

The change in hormonal milieu associated with perimenopause and menopause can lead to a variety of symptoms that can affect a woman's quality of life. Postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) is an effective, well-tolerated treatment for these symptoms. However, combined HT consisting of conjugated equine estrogen and medroxyprogesterone acetate has been associated with an increased number of health risks when compared with conjugated equine estrogen alone or placebo. As a result, some women are turning to alternative hormonal formulations known as compounded bioidentical HT because they perceive them to be a safer alternative. This article defines compounded bioidentical HT and explores the similarities and differences between it and US Food and Drug Administration–approved HT. We will examine the major claims made by proponents of compounded bioidentical HT and recommend strategies for management of patients who request bioidentical HT from physicians. PMID:21531972

Files, Julia A.; Ko, Marcia G.; Pruthi, Sandhya

2011-01-01

230

Hormonal therapies: progesterone.  

PubMed

Seizures do not occur randomly in the majority of people with epilepsy. They tend to cluster. Seizure clusters, in turn, commonly occur with a temporal rhythmicity that shows a readily identifiable and predictable periodicity. When the periodicity of seizure exacerbation in women conforms to that of the menstrual cycle, it is commonly known as catamenial epilepsy. This may be attributable to 1) the neuroactive properties of steroid hormones and 2) the cyclic variation in their serum levels. If hormones play a role in seizure occurrence, hormones may also have a role in treatment. Progesterone has potent GABAergic metabolites that may provide safe and effective seizure control in women who have catamenial epilepsy. PMID:19332334

Herzog, Andrew G

2009-04-01

231

Hormonal therapy for epilepsy.  

PubMed

In 2011, there are greater than 20 antiepileptic medications available. These medications work by modulating neuronal excitability. Reproductive hormones have been found to have a role in the pathogenesis and treatment of seizures by also altering neuronal excitability, especially in women with catamenial epilepsy. The female reproductive hormones have in general opposing effects on neuronal excitability; estrogens generally impart a proconvulsant neurophysiologic tone, whereas the progestogens have anticonvulsant effects. It follows then that fluctuations in the levels of serum progesterone and estrogen throughout a normal reproductive cycle bring about an increased or decreased risk of seizure occurrence based upon the serum estradiol/progesterone ratio. Therefore, using progesterone, its metabolite allopregnanolone, or other hormonal therapies have been explored in the treatment of patients with epilepsy. PMID:21451944

Stevens, Scott J; Harden, Cynthia L

2011-08-01

232

When Is Sexual Counseling Helpful?  

MedlinePLUS

... Can testosterone restore sexual functioning? When is sexual counseling helpful? Any sexual problem caused or worsened by anxiety can be helped through counseling with a mental health therapist who specializes in ...

233

Schemas, sexuality, and romantic attachment  

Microsoft Academic Search

One's self-views are powerful regulators of both cognitive processing and behavioral responding. Sexual self-schemas are cognitive generalizations about sexual aspects of the self. The bivariate sexual self-schema model, which posits independent effects of positive and negative components of women's sexual self-views, was tested. Three hundred eighteen female undergraduates completed anonymous questionnaires, including the Sexual Self-Schema Scale and assessments of sexual

Jill M. Cyranowski; Barbara L. Andersen

1998-01-01

234

Neuroendocrinology and Sexual Differentiation in Eusocial Mammals  

PubMed Central

Sexual differentiation of the mammalian nervous system has been studied intensively for over 25 years. Most of what we know, however, comes from work on relatively non-social species in which direct reproduction (i.e., production of offspring) is virtually the only route to reproductive success. In social species, an individual’s inclusive fitness may include contributions to the gene pool that are achieved by supporting the reproductive efforts of close relatives; this feature is most evident in eusocial organisms. Here, we review what is known about neuroendocrine mechanisms, sexual differentiation, and effects of social status on the brain and spinal cord in two eusocial mammals: the naked mole-rat and Damaraland mole-rat. These small rodents exhibit the most rigidly organized reproductive hierarchy among mammals, with reproduction suppressed in a majority of individuals. Our findings suggest that eusociality may be associated with a relative lack of sex differences and a reduced influence of gonadal hormones on some functions to which these hormones are usually tightly linked. We also identify neural changes accompanying a change in social and reproductive status, and discuss the implications of our findings for understanding the evolution of sex differences and the neuroendocrinology of reproductive suppression. PMID:19416733

Holmes, Melissa M.; Goldman, Bruce D.; Goldman, Sharry L.; Seney, Marianne L.; Forger, Nancy G.

2009-01-01

235

Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... surgery in the pituitary region, have several other pituitary hormone deficiencies, or if you have proven genetic causes ... the pituitary or brain a lack of other pituitary hormones a head injury Adults who do not have ...

236

Genetics Home Reference: Isolated growth hormone deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... Glossary definitions Reviewed February 2012 What is isolated growth hormone deficiency? Isolated growth hormone deficiency is a ... body against infection (agammaglobulinemia). How common is isolated growth hormone deficiency? The incidence of isolated growth hormone ...

237

Zebrafish pituitary gene expression before and after sexual maturation.  

PubMed

Sexual maturation and somatic growth cessation are associated with adolescent development, which is precisely controlled by interconnected neuroendocrine regulatory pathways in the endogenous endocrine system. The pituitary gland is one of the key regulators of the endocrine system. By analyzing the RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) transcriptome before and after sexual maturation, in this study, we characterized the global gene expression patterns in zebrafish pituitaries at 45 and 90 days post-fertilization (dpf). A total of 15?043 annotated genes were expressed in the pituitary tissue, 3072 of which were differentially expressed with a greater than or equal to twofold change between pituitaries at 45 and 90 dpf. In the pituitary transcriptome, the most abundant transcript was gh. The expression levels of gh remained high even after sexual maturation at 90 dpf. Among the eight major pituitary hormone genes, lhb was the only gene that exhibited a significant change in its expression levels between 45 and 90 dpf. Significant changes in the pituitary transcripts included genes involved in the regulation of immune responses, bone metabolism, and hormone secretion processes during the juvenile-sexual maturity transition. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis was carried out to verify the RNA-seq transcriptome results and demonstrated that the expression patterns of the eight major pituitary hormone genes did not exhibit a significant gender difference at 90 dpf. For the first time, we report the quantitative global gene expression patterns at the juvenile and sexual maturity stages. These expression patterns may account for the dynamic neuroendocrine regulation observed in body metabolism. PMID:24709578

He, Wenxia; Dai, Xiangyan; Chen, Xiaowen; He, Jiangyan; Yin, Zhan

2014-06-01

238

Sexual Orientation Related Differences in Cortical Thickness in Male Individuals  

PubMed Central

Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated sex and also sexual orientation related structural and functional differences in the human brain. Genetic information and effects of sex hormones are assumed to contribute to the male/female differentiation of the brain, and similar effects could play a role in processes influencing human's sexual orientation. However, questions about the origin and development of a person's sexual orientation remain unanswered, and research on sexual orientation related neurobiological characteristics is still very limited. To contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to compare regional cortical thickness (Cth) and subcortical volumes of homosexual men (hoM), heterosexual men (heM) and heterosexual women (heW). hoM (and heW) had thinner cortices primarily in visual areas and smaller thalamus volumes than heM, in which hoM and heW did not differ. Our results support previous studies, which suggest cerebral differences between hoM and heM in regions, where sex differences have been reported, which are frequently proposed to underlie biological mechanisms. Thus, our results contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation. PMID:25479554

Abé, Christoph; Johansson, Emilia; Allzén, Elin; Savic, Ivanka

2014-01-01

239

Lesbian Sexual Renegades?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whereas gay men have idealized the gay man as a sexual renegade, lesbians often are eager to distance themselves from practitioners of “deviant” lesbian sexuality. This paper explores how “acceptable” lesbian desire has been articulated in terms of a vision of “normal” sex that reflects feminine norms, making much of lesbian sex literally and figuratively unspeakable-yet also creating a potentially

Julie Inness

1999-01-01

240

Sexual Issues (Concerns, Harassment,  

E-print Network

Sexual Issues (Concerns, Harassment, Assault, etc.) Student Survey Items (Survey names listed in blue) #12;Student Survey Feedback by Topical Area: Sexual Issues (Concerns, Harassment, Assault, etc of the following: Services for victims of crime and harassment Freedom from harassment on campus Rules governing

Baltisberger, Jay H.

241

Sexual dimorphism in animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many animals show sexual dimorphism, or differences between the males and females of that species. These are mostly physical differences, but other differences like songs in male and female birds can also be thought of as sexual dimorphism. Generally, males are more decorated and larger than females, but there are several species of animals in which the females are larger than the males.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-05-23

242

Maternal Sexuality and Breastfeeding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the…

Bartlett, Alison

2005-01-01

243

Sexual selection and speciation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power of sexual selection to drive changes in mate recognition traits gives it the potential to be a potent force in speciation. Much of the evidence to support this possibility comes from comparative studies that examine differences in the number of species between clades that apparently differ in the intensity of sexual selection. We argue that more detailed studies

Tami M. Panhuis; Roger Butlin; Marlene Zuk; Tom Tregenza

2001-01-01

244

Sexuality, Power, and Politics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The source of contemporary attitudes toward sexuality, power, and politics is found in the literature of the ancient Greeks, specifically, Plato's "Republic" and "Symposium," Aristotle's "Politics," and the plays of Aeschylus and Aristophanes. The "Symposium" can be read as an account of how sexuality can be incorporated into the public life of…

Hartsock, Nancy C. M.

245

Female Sexuality: An Enigma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes constructions of sexuality that have occurred within social context in which language, culture, and behavior interact to reinforce male power. Against backdrop of these patriarchal examples of female sexual expression and experience, discusses difficulties of female clients. Addresses critical counseling concerns in terms of contextual…

Daniluk, Judith

1991-01-01

246

Aging and sexuality.  

PubMed Central

Recent research suggesting that a high proportion of men and women remain sexually active well into later life refutes the prevailing myth that aging and sexual dysfunction are inexorably linked. Age-related physiological changes do not render a meaningful sexual relationship impossible or even necessarily difficult. In men, greater physical stimulation is required to attain and maintain erections, and orgasms are less intense. In women, menopause terminates fertility and produces changes stemming from estrogen deficiency. The extent to which aging affects sexual function depends largely on psychological, pharmacological, and illness-related factors. In this article I review the physiological sex-related changes that occur as part of the normal aging process in men and women. I also summarize the effects on sexual function of age-related psychological issues, illness factors, and medication use. An understanding of the sexual changes that accompany normal aging may help physicians give patients realistic and encouraging advice on sexuality. Although it is important that older men and women not fall into the psychosocial trap of expecting (or worse, trying to force) the kind and degree of sexual response characteristic of their youth, it is equally as important that they not fall prey to the negative folklore according to which decreased physical intimacy is an inevitable consequence of the passage of time. PMID:9348761

Meston, C M

1997-01-01

247

Frailty and Hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on this definition, approximately 6.9% of community dwelling older persons are frail. Frailty is present more often in women than men. Frailty is a precursor for functional deterioration, falls and mortality. Functional deterioration is itself a strong predictor of institutionalization and death. There are many causes of frailty. Of these, alterations in hormones and cytokines represent major factors involved

John E. Morley; Moon Jong Kim; Matthew T. Haren

2005-01-01

248

Stress hormones and immune function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 20 years we have demonstrated both in animal models and in human studies that stress increases neuroendocrine hormones, particularly glucocorticoids and catecholamines but to some extent also prolactin, growth hormone and nerve growth factor. We have also shown that stress, through the action of these stress hormones, has detrimental effects on immune function, including reduced NK cell

Jeanette I. Webster Marketon; Ronald Glaser

2008-01-01

249

Bioidentical Hormones for Menopausal Hormone Therapy: Variation on a Theme  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Progesterone creams and natural or bioidentical compounded estrogen preparations are being promoted to consumers as safe alternatives to conventional menopausal hormone therapy and as health-promoting tonics. No reliable data support these claims. SAFETY Natural hormones, including estradiol, estriol, estrone, and progesterone, can be expected to have the same adverse event profile as conventional menopausal hormone regimens. SALIVARY HORMONE TESTS Salivary tests may be used to persuade asymptomatic consumers to use hormones (or symptomatic patients to use higher doses than those needed to mitigate symptoms), a practice that can be expected to result in adverse events. PMID:17549577

Bythrow, Jenna

2007-01-01

250

Male child sexual abuse.  

PubMed

Up to 92,000 male children report sexual abuse each year, and as many as 31% of all male children under age 18 years experience sexual molestation. Male child sexual abuse is now believed to be a far more common occurrence than it once was. Pediatric nurse practitioners are in a key position to prevent and recognize the sexual exploitation of male children. This article addresses the incidence of male child sexual abuse, the psychological and physical ramifications for the child, and the roles and responsibilities of the clinician, including interview, physical and psychological assessment, legal aspects of reporting, and referral. Prevention techniques in a primary care setting are also discussed. PMID:10531903

Moody, C W

1999-01-01

251

Sexual Desire Disorders  

PubMed Central

Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) and sexual aversion disorder (SAD) are an under-diagnosed group of disorders that affect men and women. Despite their prevalence, these two disorders are often not addressed by healthcare providers and patients due their private and awkward nature. As physicians, we need to move beyond our own unease in order to adequately address our patients’ sexual problems and implement appropriate treatment. Using the Sexual Response Cycle as the model of the physiological changes of humans during sexual stimulation and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition this article will review the current literature on the desire disorders focusing on prevalence, etiology, and treatment. PMID:19727285

Montgomery, Keith A.

2008-01-01

252

Challenges in sexual medicine.  

PubMed

The sexual medicine field has been in mode of revolution until recently. Like all other fields of biomedical research, the economic situation around the world has had a negative impact on the field's momentum-research funding bodies, regulatory bodies and pharmaceutical companies seem to have placed sexual medicine in their low-priority list. But this is not the only challenge the field is facing. The successful development of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors for treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) means that research in this area seems to have slowed. However, there remain several unmet medical needs within sexual medicine such as premature ejaculation, severe ED and hypoactive sexual desire disorder, which await novel therapeutic approaches. Despite these challenges, research into finding and developing such therapies is likely to continue in the sexual medicine field, in an effort to improve the lives of our patients, who wait for effective therapies. PMID:22777290

Cellek, Selim; Giraldi, Annamaria

2012-09-01

253

Plant Hormone Binding Sites  

PubMed Central

• Aims Receptors for plant hormones are becoming identified with increasing rapidity, although a frustrating number remain unknown. There have also been many more hormone?binding proteins described than receptors. This Botanical Briefing summarizes what has been discovered about hormone binding sites, their discovery and descriptions, and will not dwell on receptor functions or activities except where these are relevant to understand binding. • Scope Of those receptors identified, each falls into recognized protein superfamilies. Ethylene and cytokinin receptors have intracellular histidine kinase phosphorelay domains, but the ligand?binding sites are distinct, one being buried within membrane?spanning helices, the other in an extracellular loop domain. Brassinosteroid and phytosulfokine receptors are members of the leucine?rich repeat receptor?like protein superfamily and for these the ligand binding sites are likely to be in one of the loops of the extracellular leucine?rich domain. For auxin, the auxin?binding protein ABP1 is a member of the cupin superfamily and the binding site is in a hydrophobic pocket at the head of which is a zinc ion to coordinate the acid group of the ligand. Receptors for other plant hormones have still to be identified. • Conclusions Plant hormone receptors have been identified through the application of many different techniques; no one technique is likely to prove more successful than any other for discovering new receptors. At present there is structural detail only for auxin binding, although a good model exists for the amino acid residues needed for Cu(I) and ethylene binding. In this respect plant biology is very poor and effort needs to be put into receptor discovery and molecular characterizetion. The information accumulated by such work will undoubtedly indicate many new ways in which plant growth and development can be manipulated, but knowledge?led design of new ligands or of altered sensitivities is still some way off. PMID:14988095

NAPIER, RICHARD

2004-01-01

254

Genetically triggered sexual differentiation of brain and behavior.  

PubMed

The dominant theory of sexual differentiation of the brain holds that sex differences in brain anatomy and function arise because of the action of gonadal steroids during embryonic and neonatal life. In mammals, testicular steroids trigger masculine patterns of neural development, and feminine patterns of neural development occur in the absence of such testicular secretions. In contrast, gonadal differentiation in mammals is not initiated by hormonal mechanisms, but is regulated by the action of gene products such as SRY, a testis-determining gene on the Y chromosome. This paper argues that such genetic, nonhormonal signals may also trigger specific examples of sexual differentiation of the brain. This thesis is supported by two arguments. The first is that "direct genetic" (i.e., nonhormonal) control of sexual differentiation may be as likely to evolve as hormonal control. The second line of argument is that neural and nonneural dimorphisms have already been described that are not well explained by classical theories of steroid-dependent sexual differentiation and for which other factors need to be invoked. PMID:9047274

Arnold, A P

1996-12-01

255

Neuroendocrinology of Sexual Plasticity in Teleost Fishes  

PubMed Central

The study of sex differences has produced major insights into the organization of animal phenotypes and the regulatory mechanisms generating phenotypic variation from similar genetic templates. Teleost fishes display the greatest diversity of sexual expression among vertebrate animals. This diversity appears to arise from diversity in the timing of sex determination and less functional interdependence among the components of sexuality relative to tetrapod vertebrates. Teleost model systems therefore provide powerful models for understanding gonadal and non-gonadal influences on behavioral and physiological variation. This review addresses socially controlled sex change and alternate male phenotypes in fishes. These sexual patterns are informative natural experiments that illustrate how variation in conserved neuroendocrine pathways can give rise to a wide range of reproductive adaptations. Key regulatory factors underlying sex change and alternative male phenotypes that have been identified to date include steroid hormones and the neuropeptides GnRH and arginine vasotocin, but genomic approaches are now implicating a diversity of other influences as well. PMID:20176046

Godwin, John

2010-01-01

256

Outcomes of Sexual Behaviors among Sexual Minority Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Very little is known about outcomes of sexual behavior for sexual minority youth. In this chapter, I review relevant literature and draw on findings from my own research to initiate an inquiry into this important topic. I begin with a brief overview of the range of sexual behaviors of sexual minority adolescents and young adults. Next, I describe…

Morgan, Elizabeth M.

2014-01-01

257

Changes in Women's Sexual Behavior Following Sexual Assault  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examines changes in women's sexual activity and behavior following sexual assault and the relationship between alcohol abuse and postassault promiscuity. Although many researchers have focused on avoidance of sexual activity following an assault, some have suggested that women may exhibit an increase in sexual activity…

Deliramich, Aimee N.; Gray, Matt J.

2008-01-01

258

Policy on Sexual Harassment Policy on Sexual Harassment  

E-print Network

verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature is sexual harassment when: Submission to such conduct sexual harassment, and complaints of retaliatory behavior of any kind. The legal definition of sexual behavior which may come to his or her attention. The obligation to cooperate fully in the investigation

Sridhar, Srinivas

259

SexualHarassment Yale University statement on sexual harassment  

E-print Network

is prohibited Any person who retaliates against an indi- vidual who reports sexual harassment or files a sexual will not tolerate any member of that community sexually harassing another. Please read this publication carefully define sexual harassment in the workplace as a distinct type of employment discrimination on the basis

260

A lophotrochozoan-specific nuclear hormone receptor is required for reproductive system development in the planarian.  

PubMed

Germ cells of sexually reproducing organisms receive an array of cues from somatic tissues that instruct developmental processes. Although the nature of these signals differs amongst organisms, the importance of germline-soma interactions is a common theme. Recently, peptide hormones from the nervous system have been shown to regulate germ cell development in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea; thus, we sought to investigate a second class of hormones with a conserved role in reproduction, the lipophilic hormones. In order to study these signals, we identified a set of putative lipophilic hormone receptors, known as nuclear hormone receptors, and analyzed their functions in reproductive development. We found one gene, nhr-1, belonging to a small class of functionally uncharacterized lophotrochozoan-specific receptors, to be essential for the development of differentiated germ cells. Upon nhr-1 knockdown, germ cells in the testes and ovaries fail to mature, and remain as undifferentiated germline stem cells. Further analysis revealed that nhr-1 mRNA is expressed in the accessory reproductive organs and is required for their development, suggesting that this transcription factor functions cell non-autonomously in regulating germ cell development. Our studies identify a role for nuclear hormone receptors in planarian reproductive maturation and reinforce the significance of germline-soma interactions in sexual reproduction across metazoans. PMID:25278423

Tharp, Marla E; Collins, James J; Newmark, Phillip A

2014-12-01

261

Off-label use of hormones as an antiaging strategy: a review  

PubMed Central

Given demographic evolution of the population in modern societies, one of the most important health care needs is successful aging with less frailty and dependency. During the last 20 years, a multitude of anti-aging practices have appeared worldwide, aiming at retarding or even stopping and reversing the effects of aging on the human body. One of the cornerstones of anti-aging is hormone replacement. At present, women live one third of their lives in a state of sex-hormone deficiency. Men are also subject to age-related testosterone decline, but andropause remains frequently under-diagnosed and under-treated. Due to the decline of hormone production from gonads in both sexes, the importance of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in steroid hormone production increases with age. However, DHEA levels also decrease with age. Also, growth hormone age-associated decrease may be so important that insulin growth factor-1 levels found in elderly individuals are sometimes as low as those encountered in adult patients with established deficiency. Skin aging as well as decreases in lean body mass, bone mineral density, sexual desire and erectile function, intellectual activity and mood have all been related to this decrease of hormone production with age. Great disparities exist between recommendations from scientific societies and actual use of hormone supplements in aging and elderly patients. In this article, we review actual data on the effects of age related hormone decline on the aging process and age-related diseases such as sarcopenia and falls, osteoporosis, cognitive decline, mood disorders, cardiovascular health and sexual activity. We also provide information on the efficiency and safety of hormone replacement protocols in aging patients. Finally, we argue on future perspectives of such protocols as part of everyday practice. PMID:25092967

Samaras, Nikolaos; Papadopoulou, Maria-Aikaterini; Samaras, Dimitrios; Ongaro, Filippo

2014-01-01

262

Neurobiology of DHEA and effects on sexuality, mood and cognition.  

PubMed

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate ester, DHEAS, are the most abundant steroid hormones in the humans. However, their physiological significance, their mechanisms of action and their possible roles as treatment are not fully clarified. Biological actions of DHEA(S) in the brain involve neuroprotection, neurite growth, neurogenesis and neuronal survival, apoptosis, catecholamine synthesis and secretion, as well as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiglucocorticoid effects. In addition, DHEA affects neurosteroidogenis and endorphin synthesis/release. We also demonstrated in a model of ovariectomized rats that DHEA therapy increases proceptive behaviors, already after 1 week of treatment, affecting central function of sexual drive. In women, the analyses of clinical outcomes are far from being conclusive and many issues should still be addressed. Although DHEA preparations have been available in the market since the 1990s, there are very few definitive reports on the biological functions of this steroid. We demonstrate that 1 year DHEA administration at the dose of 10mg provided a significant improvement in comparison with vitamin D in sexual function and in frequency of sexual intercourse in early postmenopausal women. Among symptomatic women, the spectrum of symptoms responding to DHEA requires further investigation, to define the type of sexual symptoms (e.g. decreased sexual function or hypoactive sexual desire disorder) and the degree of mood/cognitive symptoms that could be responsive to hormonal treatment. In this regard, our findings are promising, although they need further exploration with a larger and more representative sample size. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Essential role of DHEA. PMID:24892797

Pluchino, N; Drakopoulos, P; Bianchi-Demicheli, F; Wenger, J M; Petignat, P; Genazzani, A R

2015-01-01

263

Contextual influences on sexual risk-taking in the transgender community.  

PubMed

High HIV prevalence and incidence rates and high-risk sexual activity have been documented in certain subgroups of the transgender community; however, less is known about the sexual experiences and risks shared by these subgroups. To identify contextual features influencing the sexual risk-taking of transgender adults, semi-structured interviews conducted with 41 self-identified transgender adults were analyzed via constant comparative analysis, a technique rooted in grounded theory. Seven aspects of the transgender experience, including stigma, financial hardship, sexual objectification, a lack of outreach, hormones, a second puberty, and gender role issues, created a unique context of risk. Findings indicate that traditional HIV prevention efforts might not be suited to the unique needs of transgender adults. Tailoring HIV prevention efforts to this community will warrant further attention to contextual influences on sexual risk and safety. PMID:20336575

Kosenko, Kami A

2011-03-01

264

Thyroid Hormone and Wound Healing  

PubMed Central

Although thyroid hormone is one of the most potent stimulators of growth and metabolic rate, the potential to use thyroid hormone to treat cutaneous pathology has never been subject to rigorous investigation. A number of investigators have demonstrated intriguing therapeutic potential for topical thyroid hormone. Topical T3 has accelerated wound healing and hair growth in rodents. Topical T4 has been used to treat xerosis in humans. It is clear that the use of thyroid hormone to treat cutaneous pathology may be of large consequence and merits further study. This is a review of the literature regarding thyroid hormone action on skin along with skin manifestations of thyroid disease. The paper is intended to provide a context for recent findings of direct thyroid hormone action on cutaneous cells in vitro and in vivo which may portend the use of thyroid hormone to promote wound healing. PMID:23577275

Safer, Joshua D.

2013-01-01

265

Human Sexuality: Responsible Life Choices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides a complete course in human sexuality. It can also be used to supplement a family living course. Text content provides current information for teaching high school students about sexuality issues. The text offers basic information on growth and development, sexual development, pregnancy, and birth. It explains the sexual decision…

Ryder, Verdene; Smith, Peggy B.

266

Sexual harassment proclivities in men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three studies were conducted to develop and validate a measure of sexual harassment proclivities in males. Previous studies of sexual harassment were reviewed and a gap in the current knowledge of the psychological characteristics of sexual harassers was revealed. A possible technique for studying sexual harassment proclivities was suggested by recent research on rape proclivities. Two initial studies using this

John B. Pryor

1987-01-01

267

Effect of physical activity on calcium homeostasis and calciotropic hormones: a review.  

PubMed

Physical exercise has frequently been shown to improve bone mass, especially at load-bearing bone sites. It is widely acknowledged that the anabolic effects of exercise on bone tissue are related to the application of mechanical constraints, but part of the osteogenic response may be due to other factors. In particular, various hormonal parameters that are modified by training, such as insulin-like growth factor-1 and sexual hormones, may modulate the bone response. In contrast, little is known about the involvement of calciotropic hormones in the adaptation mechanism of bone tissue. These hormones, which include parathyroid hormone, vitamin D metabolites, and calcitonin, are highly implicated in the regulation of both bone remodeling and calcium homeostasis. In addition to their direct action on bone cell activity, these hormones act on various target tissues such as kidney and intestine. This article describes the acute and long-term effects of exercise on both calcium homeostasis and calciotropic hormones in various populations. It clearly shows that exercise modifies calcium homeostasis and calciotropic hormone levels and that the variations in response are modulated by parameters related to exercise, including duration and intensity, as well as by individual characteristics such as age, sex, and training status. PMID:19760298

Maïmoun, Laurent; Sultan, Charles

2009-10-01

268

Managing female sexual dysfunction.  

PubMed

Female sexual dysfunctions (FSDs) range from short-term aggravations to major emotional disturbances adversely affecting family and workplace. This review highlights diagnosis and management of the four most widely diagnosed FSDs. It initially focuses on hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) as a driving force at the heart of all other FSDs; nothing happens without sexual desire. Successful resolution of HSDD frequently facilitates resolution of other disorders. Central to understanding HSDD is the impact of aging female sexual endocrinology and its effect on both prevalence and expression patterns of FSD. Advances in this field have enabled introduction of some the most effective treatments yet described for HSDD. Sexual arousal disorder, though commonly affected by the same factors as HSDD, is heavily associated with psychotropic drugs and mood elevators. Orgasmic disorder is frequently the downstream result of other sexual dysfunctions, particularly HSDD, or the result of a major psychosexual trauma. Successful management of the underlying disorder often resolves orgasmic disorder. Sexual pain disorder is frequently the result of a gynecologic disorder, such as endometriosis, that can be substantially managed through successful treatment of that disorder. This article ends with the article's most important note: how to initiate the conversation. PMID:24074537

Buster, John E

2013-10-01

269

Objectification Theory and Sexual Health among Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used objectification theory as a framework through which to explore the effect of interpersonal objectification, self-objectification, and indicators of selfobjectification (body shame, general surveillance, and surveillance during sexual activity) on women’s sexual health, including sexual subjectivity (sexual body esteem, sexual selfreflection, and entitlement and efficacy in attaining pleasure), sexual functioning, and risky sexual behaviors. It was hypothesized that

Kara Lustig

2012-01-01

270

Divergence in androgen sensitivity contributes to population differences in sexual dimorphism of electrocommunication behavior.  

PubMed

Weakly-electric fish (Apteronotidae) produce highly diverse electrocommunication signals. Electric organ discharges (EODs) vary across species, sexes, and in the magnitude and direction of their sexual dimorphism. Gonadal steroid hormones can modulate EODs, and differences in androgen sensitivity are hypothesized to underlie variation in the degree of sexual dimorphism across species. In this study, we asked whether variation in androgen sensitivity explained variation in sexual dimorphism of EODs within species, at the population level. We examined two populations of black ghost knifefish (Apteronotus albifrons), one from the Orinoco and the other from the Amazon River Basin. EOD frequency (EODf) and chirp rates were measured to characterize diversity in sexual dimorphism across populations. The magnitude of sexual dimorphism in EODf differed significantly across populations, and was more pronounced in the Orinoco population than in the Amazon population. Chirp rates were sexually monomorphic in both populations. 11-Ketotestosterone (11-kT) was administered over a two-week period to assess population differences in sensitivity to androgens. 11-kT masculinized EODf significantly more in the population with the greater degree of sexual dimorphism. 11-kT had no effect on the sexually monomorphic chirping rates. We conclude that population divergence in androgen sensitivity contributes to variation in sexual dimorphism of EODf in A. albifrons. PMID:23142327

Ho, Winnie W; Rack, Jessie M; Smith, G Troy

2013-01-01

271

Divergence in androgen sensitivity contributes to population differences in sexual dimorphism of electrocommunication behavior  

PubMed Central

Weakly-electric fish (Apteronotidae) produce highly diverse electrocommunication signals. Electric organ discharges (EODs) vary across species, sexes, and in the magnitude and direction of their sexual dimorphism. Gonadal steroid hormones can modulate EODs, and differences in androgen sensitivity are hypothesized to underlie variation in the degree of sexual dimorphism across species. In this study, we asked whether variation in androgen sensitivity explained variation in sexual dimorphism of EODs within species, at the population level. We examined two populations of black ghost knifefish (Apteronotus albifrons), one from the Orinoco and the other from the Amazon river basin. EOD frequency (EODf) and chirp rates were measured to characterize diversity in sexual dimorphism across populations. The magnitude of sexual dimorphism in EODf differed significantly across populations, and was more pronounced in the Orinoco population than in the Amazon population. Chirp rates were sexually monomorphic in both populations. 11-ketotestosterone (11-kT) was administered over a two-week period to assess population differences in sensitivity to androgens. 11-kT masculinized EODf significantly more in the population with the greater degree of sexual dimorphism. 11-kT had no effect on the sexually monomorphic chirping rates. We conclude that population divergence in androgen sensitivity contributes to variation in sexual dimorphism of EODf in A. albifrons. PMID:23142327

Ho, Winnie W.; Rack, Jessie M.; Smith, G. Troy

2013-01-01

272

Human hormone function emulator.  

PubMed

This paper describes the addition of simulated hormone action to the author's modular, open-systems, computerized human nervous system function emulator. For this project he revived his 32-year old design for a pulse-integrating artificial neuron with controlled voltage droop and reset, to serve as the principal linear computational element. This neuron sums bursts of quantized presynaptic impulses to produce a simulated altered cell membrane voltage. When coupled with a variable-threshold Schmitt trigger, voltage changes can initiate a mock action potential signal. These altered neural membrane voltages and action potential signals are utilized in the nervous system emulator to qualitatively emulate the level of simulated hormone activity, to react to changes in the electrochemical environment, and to signal initiation of high level behavioral responses in the artificial intelligence system. PMID:16817660

Frenger, Paul

2006-01-01

273

Investigation of the mechanism for phthalate-induced toxicity during male sexual differentiation in the rat.  

EPA Science Inventory

Male rats exposed to phthalate esters during sexual differentiation (GDI4-GDI8) display various reproductive developmental abnormalities later in adult life which are associated with declines in fetal testicular testosterone (T) production and insulin-like three hormone (lnsl-3...

274

Relationships among cardiovascular, muscular, and oxytocin responses during human sexual activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the psychophysiological correlates of hormonal response during sexual activity, systolic blood pressure (SBP), anal electromyography (EMG), and anal photoplethysmography (APG) were monitored continuously throughout testing in 13 women and 10 men. Each subject completed two or more tests of self-stimulation to 5 min beyond orgasm. Blood samples were obtained continuously for measurement of oxytocin (OT) levels. In both

Marie S. Carmichael; Valerie L. Warburton; Jean Dixen; Julian M. Davidson

1994-01-01

275

The riddle of sex: biological theories of sexual difference in the early twentieth-century.  

PubMed

At the turn of the twentieth century, biologists such as Oscar Riddle, Thomas Hunt Morgan, Frank Lillie, and Richard Goldschmidt all puzzled over the question of sexual difference, the distinction between male and female. They all offered competing explanations for the biological cause of this difference, and engaged in a fierce debate over the primacy of their respective theories. Riddle propounded a metabolic theory of sex dating from the late-nineteenth century suggesting that metabolism lay at the heart of sexual difference. Thomas Hunt Morgan insisted on the priority of chromosomes, Frank Lillie emphasized the importance of hormones, while Richard Goldschmidt supported a mixed model involving both chromosomes and hormones. In this paper, I will illustrate how the older metabolic theory of sex was displaced when those who argued for the relatively newer theories of chromosomes and hormones gradually formed an alliance that accommodated each other and excluded the metabolic theory of sex. By doing so, proponents of chromosomes and hormones established their authority over the question of sexual difference as they laid the foundations for the new disciplines of genetics and endocrinology. Their debate raised urgent questions about what constituted sexual difference, and how scientists envisioned the plasticity and controllability of this difference. These theories also had immediate political and cultural consequences at the turn of the twentieth century, especially for the eugenic and feminist movements, both of which were heavily invested in knowledge of sex and its determination, ascertainment, and command. PMID:21082219

Ha, Nathan Q

2011-01-01

276

Thyroid hormones as neurotransmitters.  

PubMed

During brain development, before the apparatus of neurotransmission has been set into place, many neurotransmitters act as growth regulators. In adult brain, their role in neurotransmission comes to the fore but neuronal plasticity and other growth-related processes are their continuing responsibility. This has been clearly demonstrated for catecholamines. Previous as well as recent evidence now indicates that thyroid hormones may participate in the developing and adult brain through similar mechanisms. Immunohistochemical mapping of brain triiodothyronine (antibody specificity established by numerous appropriate tests) demonstrated that the hormone was concentrated in both noradrenergic centers and noradrenergic projection sites. In the centers (locus coeruleus and lateral tegmental system) triiodothyronine staining, like that of tyrosine hydroxylase, was heavily concentrated in cytosol and cell processes. By contrast, in noradrenergic targets, label was most prominent in cell nuclei. Combined biochemical and morphologic data allows a construct of thyroid hormone circuitry to unfold: The locus coeruleus is conveniently located just beneath the ependyma of the 4th ventricle. Thyroxine, entering the brain via the choroid plexus, is preferentially delivered to subependymal brain structures. High concentrations of locus coeruleus norepinephrine promote active conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine, leading to the preeminence of the locus coeruleus as a site of triiodothyronine concentration. Results of treatment with the locus coeruleus neurotoxin DSP-4 established that axonal transport accounts for delivery of both triiodothyronine and norepinephrine from locus coeruleus to noradrenergic terminal fields. The apparatus for transduction of thyronergic and noradrenergic signals at both membrane and nuclear sites resides in the postsynaptic target cells. Upon internalization of hormone in post-synaptic target cells, genomic effects of triiodothyronine, norepinephrine, and/or their second messengers are possible and expected. The evidence establishes a direct morphologic connection between central thyronergic and noradrenergic systems, supporting earlier proposals that triiodothyronine or its proximate metabolites may serve as cotransmitters with norepinephrine in the adrenergic nervous system. PMID:9001201

Dratman, M B; Gordon, J T

1996-12-01

277

Hormone replacement therapy.  

PubMed

Hormone replacement therapy is increasingly being used for purposes unrelated to the alleviation of menopausal symptoms, such as the prevention of osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. Clinical trials, however, suggest that the one drug/many purposes concept may be too optimistic. The availability of new estrogen-like compounds and the discovery of a second estrogen receptor have opened new possibilities for more specific drug development. PMID:10419847

Kooistra, T; Emeis, J J

1999-08-01

278

The pursuit of sexual pleasure  

Microsoft Academic Search

While people engage in sexual activities for a variety of reasons, one primary motivation is pleasure. Rather than disentangle\\u000a the various complications of human sexuality, this paper will focus on sexual pleasure. We begin with definitions of sex and\\u000a sexuality, and a consideration of the nature of sexual pleasure. To this end, we will discuss a wide variety of activities

B. J. Rye; Glenn J. Meaney

2007-01-01

279

Sexual Behavior, Sexual Knowledge, and Sexual Attitudes of Emerging Adult Women: Implications for Working with Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to examine the sexual behavior of emerging adult women in relation to their sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes, and perceptions of their parents' sexual attitudes; and second, to discuss the implications of this research in working with young adult women. Three hundred and sixty-four college-age women…

Byno, Lucy H.; Mullis, Ronald L.; Mullis, Ann K.

2009-01-01

280

Sexual addiction, sexual compulsivity, sexual impulsivity, or what? Toward a theoretical model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We critically review the concepts of sexual addiction, sexual compulsivity, and sexual impulsivity and discuss their theoretical bases. A sample of 31 self?defined sex addicts was assessed by means of interview and questionnaires and compared with a large age?matched control group. A tendency to experience increased sexual interest in states of depression or anxiety was strongly characteristic of the sex

John Bancroft; Zoran Vukadinovic

2004-01-01

281

Sexual anxiety and eroticism predict the development of sexual problems in youth with a history of sexual abuse.  

PubMed

Youth with confirmed histories of sexual abuse (N = 118) were followed longitudinally to examine associations between their initial sexual reactions to abuse and subsequent sexual functioning. Participants were interviewed at abuse discovery (ages 8 through 15) and again 1 and 6 years later. Eroticism and sexual anxiety emerged as distinct indices of abuse-specific sexual reactions and predicted subsequent sexual functioning. Eroticism was associated with indicators of heightened sexuality, including more sexual risk behavior and views of sexual intimacy focused on partners' needs. Sexual anxiety was associated with indicators of diminished sexuality, including few sexual partners and avoidant views of sexual intimacy. Age at abuse discovery moderated some associations, suggesting that the timing of abuse-specific reactions affects trajectories of sexual development. Findings point to the need for a developmental approach to understanding how abuse-specific sexual reactions disrupt sexual development and the need for early interventions promoting healthy sexual development. PMID:18408212

Simon, Valerie A; Feiring, Candice

2008-05-01

282

Quality of Life and Sexual Health in the Aging of PCa Survivors  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy in elderly men. The progressive ageing of the world male population will further increase the need for tailored assessment and treatment of PCa patients. The determinant role of androgens and sexual hormones for PCa growth and progression has been established. However, several trials on androgens and PCa are recently focused on urinary continence, quality of life, and sexual function, suggesting a new point of view on the whole endocrinological aspect of PCa. During aging, metabolic syndrome, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and central obesity, can be associated with a chronic, low-grade inflammation of the prostate and with changes in the sex steroid pathways. These factors may affect both the carcinogenesis processes and treatment outcomes of PCa. Any treatment for PCa can have a long-lasting negative impact on quality of life and sexual health, which should be assessed by validated self-reported questionnaires. In particular, sexual health, urinary continence, and bowel function can be worsened after prostatectomy, radiotherapy, or hormone treatment, mostly in the elderly population. In the present review we summarized the current knowledge on the role of hormones, metabolic features, and primary treatments for PCa on the quality of life and sexual health of elderly Pca survivors. PMID:24744780

Gacci, Mauro; Tamburrino, Lara; Detti, Beatrice; Livi, Lorenzo; De Nunzio, Cosimo; Tubaro, Andrea; Gravas, Stavros; Carini, Marco; Serni, Sergio

2014-01-01

283

MSU Resource Guide on Sexual Assault as a Form of Sexual Harassment  

E-print Network

MSU Resource Guide on Sexual Assault as a Form of Sexual Harassment MSU Statement Regarding Sexual Assault as a form of Sexual Harassment Michigan State University is committed to maintaining. Sexual assault is a form of sexual harassment. The MSU Sexual Harassment Policy (www.inclusion.msu.edu/files/Sexual_Harassment

284

Teen Sexual Health  

MedlinePLUS

... to have sex. If you choose to have sex, however, latex condoms are the best protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Condoms are also a form of birth control to help prevent pregnancy.

285

Men and Sexual Trauma  

MedlinePLUS

... M., Choquet, M., Ledoux, S., & Manfredi, R. (1998). Gender differences in symptoms of adolescents reporting sexual assault. Social ... and emotional and behavioral problems in adolescence: Gender differences. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent ...

286

Sexually transmitted diseases.  

PubMed

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) constitute a major health burden in the United States, causing pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, infertility, chronic pelvic pain, genital lesions, genital neoplasms, adverse pregnancy outcomes, immune system dysfunction, liver disease, and even death. STDs disproportionately affect adolescents and young adults. Of the estimated 15 million STDs that occur annually each year in the United States, 4 million are among adolescents and 6 million among young adults. The current epidemic is complicated by the high asymptomatic carrier state associated with most STDs and the inadequate protection of condoms in preventing transmission. Sexually active individuals, particularly adolescents, must be educated on the ramifications of early onset of sexual activity and the health consequences of multiple sexual partners. PMID:14724772

Sulak, Patricia J

2003-11-01

287

General sexually transmitted diseases.  

PubMed

This review discusses current trends in sexually transmitted diseases. Topics include treatment and prevention of syphilis and gonorrhea, as well as the association of sexually transmitted diseases with sexual assault. Also discussed are the various organisms that cause vulvitis, including Trichomonas, Candida, and Gardnerella species, along with a discussion of vulvar lesions that are especially difficult to diagnose and treat. Diagnosis, sampling, pathogenesis, and treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis are also covered. A discussion of the various degrees of protection offered by different forms of contraception encourages use of barrier methods and oral contraceptives for teenagers as well as postponement of sexual activity. Detection, treatment, and vaccination against genital herpes are covered, along with diagnosing anogenital warts in children as either skin or genital wart virus types, and the relationship between human papillomavirus and cancer. PMID:1958806

Paavonen, J

1991-10-01

288

Scleroderma and Sexuality  

MedlinePLUS

... partner can explore alternatives to intercourse. Because the clitoris (not the vagina) is the primary source of sexual pleasure in many women, they often find clitoral stimulation with hand or mouth more enjoyable than ...

289

Sexual Health and Reproduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity provides questions and Web sites to guide student investigation of birth control methods, fetal development, risks of alcohol and smoking during pregnancy, changes during puberty, and HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases.

Ingrid Waldron

290

Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson describes how meiosis makes sexual reproduction possible. Specifically, meiosis produces haploid cells and allows for genetic variation. Key terms in this lesson are hyperlinked so students can easily find definitions to new words.

291

Prevalence of Sexual Dysfunctions  

PubMed Central

Ten years of research that has provided data regarding the prevalence of sexual dysfunctions is reviewed. A thorough review of the literature identified 52 studies that have been published in the 10 years since an earlier review by Spector and Carey (1990). Community samples indicate a current prevalence of 0 - 3% for male orgasmic disorder, 0 - 5% for erectile disorder, and 0 - 3% for male hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Pooling current and 1-year figures provides community prevalence estimates of 7 - 10% for female orgasmic disorder and 4 - 5% for premature ejaculation. Stable community estimates of the current prevalence for the other sexual dysfunctions remain unavailable. Prevalence estimates obtained from primary care and sexuality clinic samples are characteristically higher. Although a relatively large number of studies have been conducted since Spector and Carey’s (1990) review, the lack of methodological rigor of many studies limits the confidence that can be placed in these findings. PMID:11329727

Simons, Jeffrey; Carey, Michael P.

2008-01-01

292

Rape (sexual assault) - overview  

MedlinePLUS

Sex and rape; Date rape; Sexual assault ... Rape may occur between members of the same sex. This is more common in places such as prisons, military settings, and single-sex schools. People with physical or mental disabilities or ...

293

Adolescent Sexual Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 530 South Carolina college and university students' sexual behavior patterns and contraceptive use indicates the need for comprehensive family planning programs focusing on preventing conception rather than preventing intercourse. (JMF)

Faulkenberry, James R.; Vincent, Murray L.

1979-01-01

294

The Implications of Sexual Narcissism for Sexual and Marital Satisfaction  

PubMed Central

There is theoretical reason to believe narcissism is associated with a number of sexual behaviors and outcomes that affect both sexual and relationship satisfaction. Nevertheless, research on the association between personality and behavior demonstrates that personality traits, such as narcissism, only predict behavior in domains that activate the components of the personality system. Given that global assessments of narcissism do not capture the extent to which the components of narcissism are activated in the sexual domain, we examined the extent to which the facets of a domain-specific measure of sexual narcissism accounted for the trajectories of own and partner sexual and marital satisfaction over the first five years of 120 new marriages. Three of the four facets of sexual narcissism (sexual exploitation, sexual entitlement, and low sexual empathy) were negatively associated with both trajectories. The fourth facet (sexual skill) was positively associated with both trajectories. Notably, sexual satisfaction mediated the effect of every facet of sexual narcissism on marital satisfaction. A global assessment of narcissism was not associated with either trajectory of satisfaction. These findings highlight (1) the importance of narcissistic tendencies for sexual processes, (2) the benefits of using domain-specific measures of personality in research on sexual behavior, and (3) the importance of examining the implications of the specific facets of personality constructs. PMID:23297145

McNulty, James K.; Widman, Laura

2013-01-01

295

The implications of sexual narcissism for sexual and marital satisfaction.  

PubMed

There is theoretical reason to believe narcissism is associated with a number of sexual behaviors and outcomes that affect both sexual and relationship satisfaction. Nevertheless, research on the association between personality and behavior demonstrates that personality traits, such as narcissism, only predict behavior in domains that activate the components of the personality system. Given that global assessments of narcissism do not capture the extent to which the components of narcissism are activated in the sexual domain, we examined the extent to which the facets of a domain-specific measure of sexual narcissism accounted for the trajectories of own and partner sexual and marital satisfaction over the first five years of 120 new marriages. Three of the four facets of sexual narcissism (sexual exploitation, sexual entitlement, and low sexual empathy) were negatively associated with both trajectories. The fourth facet (sexual skill) was positively associated with both trajectories. Notably, sexual satisfaction mediated the effect of every facet of sexual narcissism on marital satisfaction. A global assessment of narcissism was not associated with either trajectory of satisfaction. These findings highlight (1) the importance of narcissistic tendencies for sexual processes, (2) the benefits of using domain-specific measures of personality in research on sexual behavior, and (3) the importance of examining the implications of the specific facets of personality constructs. PMID:23297145

McNulty, James K; Widman, Laura

2013-08-01

296

Sexual Addiction: Diagnostic Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years clinicians report a great deal of concern about definition, diagnostic assessment, and treatment modalities\\u000a when dealing with what might be called out-of-control sexual behavior. Many terms have been used to describe the phenomenon\\u000a of problematic sexual behavior. Many of these concepts overlap, some are no longer popular, and some are used interchangeably.\\u000a Without clear criteria and definitions,

John R. Giugliano

2009-01-01

297

The Sexual Domain of Identity: Sexual Statuses of Identity in Relation to Psychosocial Sexual Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual identity has been substantially underinvestigated relative to other aspects of identity. The purpose of this study was to document the relationship between sexual psychosocial maturity, positive sexual self-concepts, and effective sexual decision-making\\/coping styles with the identity processes that college students choose to use in defining their sexual self. Participants in the study were 275 undergraduate male and female students

Sally L. Archer; Jeremy A. Grey

2009-01-01

298

Sexual dimorphism in immunity: improving our understanding of vaccine immune responses in men.  

PubMed

Weaker immune responses are often observed in males compared to females. Since female hormones have proinflammatory properties and androgens have potent immunomodulatory effects, this sexual dimorphism in the immune response seems to be hormone dependent. Despite our current knowledge about the effect of sex hormones on immune cells, definition of the factors driving the sex differences in immunoclinical outcomes, such as the diminished response to infection and vaccination observed in men or the higher rates of autoimmunity observed in females, remains elusive. Recently, systems approaches to immune function have started to suggest a way toward establishing this connection. Such studies promise to improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the sexual dimorphism observed in the human immune system. PMID:25278153

Furman, David

2015-03-01

299

UCSC Policy on Sexual Assault University of California Policy on Sexual Harassment  

E-print Network

UCSC Policy on Sexual Assault University of California Policy on Sexual Harassment and Procedures for Reporting Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault December 1994 · Amended January 2005 · Amended August 2011...........................................................................2 II. UC Policy on Sexual Harassment

Lee, Herbie

300

Management of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal breast cancer patients taking adjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy  

PubMed Central

Treatment with aromatase inhibitors for postmenopausal women with breast cancer has been shown to reduce or obviate invasive procedures such as hysteroscopy or curettage associated with tamoxifen-induced endometrial abnormalities. The side effect of upfront aromatase inhibitors, diminished estrogen synthesis, is similar to that seen with the natural events of aging. The consequences often include vasomotor symptoms (hot flushes) and vaginal dryness and atrophy, which in turn may result in cystitis and vaginitis. Not surprisingly, painful intercourse (dyspareunia) and loss of sexual interest (decreased libido) frequently occur as well. Various interventions, both non-hormonal and hormonal, are currently available to manage these problems. The purpose of the present review is to provide the practitioner with a wide array of management options to assist in treating the sexual consequences of aromatase inhibitors. The suggestions in this review are based on recent literature and on the recommendations set forth both by the North American Menopause Association and in the clinical practice guidelines of the Society of Gynaecologists and Obstetricians of Canada. The complexity of female sexual dysfunction necessitates a biopsychosocial approach to assessment and management alike, with interventions ranging from education and lifestyle changes to sexual counselling, pelvic floor therapies, sexual aids, medications, and dietary supplements—all of which have been reported to have a variable, but often successful, effect on symptom amelioration. Although the use of specific hormone replacement—most commonly local estrogen, and less commonly, systemic estrogen with or without an androgen, progesterone, or the additional of an androgen in an estrogenized woman (or a combination)—may be highly effective, the concern remains that in patients with estrogen-dependent breast cancer, including those receiving anti-estrogenic adjuvant therapies, the use of these hormones may be attended with potential risk. Therefore, non-hormonal alternatives should in all cases be initially tried with the expectation that symptomatic relief can often be achieved. First-line therapy for urogenital symptoms, notably vaginal dryness and dyspareunia, should be the non-hormonal group of preparations such as moisturizers and precoital vaginal lubricants. In patients with estrogen-dependent breast cancer (notably those receiving anti-estrogenic adjuvant therapies) and severely symptomatic vaginal atrophy that fails to respond to non-hormonal options, menopausal hormone replacement or prescription vaginal estrogen therapy may considered. Systemic estrogen may be associated with risk and thus is best avoided. Judicious use of hormones may be appropriate in the well-informed patient who gives informed consent, but given the potential risk, these agents should be prescribed only after mutual agreement of the patient and her oncologist. PMID:18087605

Derzko, C.; Elliott, S.; Lam, W.

2007-01-01

301

Thyroid Hormone Upregulates Hypothalamic kiss2 Gene in the Male Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus  

PubMed Central

Kisspeptin has recently been recognized as a critical regulator of reproductive function in vertebrates. During the sexual development, kisspeptin neurons receive sex steroids feedback to trigger gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. In teleosts, a positive correlation has been found between the thyroid status and the reproductive status. However, the role of thyroid hormone in the regulation of kisspeptin system remains unknown. We cloned and characterized a gene encoding kisspeptin (kiss2) in a cichlid fish, the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Expression of kiss2 mRNA in the brain was analyzed by in situ hybridization. The effect of thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine, T3) and hypothyroidism with methimazole (MMI) on kiss2 and the three GnRH types (gnrh1, gnrh2, and gnrh3) mRNA expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. Expression of thyroid hormone receptor mRNAs were analyzed in laser-captured kisspeptin and GnRH neurons by RT-PCR. The kiss2 mRNA expressing cells were seen in the nucleus of the lateral recess in the hypothalamus. Intraperitoneal administration of T3 (5??g/g body weight) to sexually mature male tilapia significantly increased kiss2 and gnrh1 mRNA levels at 24?h post injection (P?hormone mRNA levels were insensitive to the thyroid hormone manipulations. Furthermore, RT-PCR showed expression of thyroid hormone receptor mRNAs in laser-captured GnRH neurons but not in kiss2 neurons. This study shows that GnRH1 may be directly regulated through thyroid hormone, while the regulation of Kiss2 by T3 is more likely to be indirect. PMID:24324459

Ogawa, Satoshi; Ng, Kai We; Xue, Xiaoyu; Ramadasan, Priveena Nair; Sivalingam, Mageswary; Li, Shuisheng; Levavi-Sivan, Berta; Lin, Haoran; Liu, Xiaochun; Parhar, Ishwar S.

2013-01-01

302

Hypoactive sexual desire disorder in premenopausal women: case studies.  

PubMed

Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most common female sexual dysfunction (FSD) and is thus frequently encountered in the primary care provider and OB/GYN practices. Causes of low sexual desire may be hormonal, neurologic, vascular, psychologic, or a result of illness/surgery or medications. The condition is often left untreated because both women and clinicians feel embarrassed to bring up the topic and believe that there is no available treatment. The use of short, validated questionnaires, such as the Decreased Sexual Desire Screener, to be completed in the waiting room, can open up discussion between provider and patient. In addition, 2 other algorithms are designed for clinicians who are not specifically trained in FSD and can help in diagnosing and managing a broad range of conditions related to FSD. Treatment for low desire consists primarily of patient education and counseling, as well as treatment of underlying comorbid conditions, such as diabetes, obesity, or cancer. While testosterone products are approved in Europe for use in surgically postmenopausal women with HSDD, in the United States, no pharmacologic treatments are approved for the treatment of HSDD or any FSD. Testosterone products are being used off-label, but questions remain about their efficacy and safety in pre- and postmenopausal women. This article gives an overview of HSDD in clinical practice and provides 3 case descriptions to illustrate the treatment of low sexual desire in women with diverse histories. PMID:22314119

Miner, Martin; Sadovsky, Richard; Buster, John E

2012-01-01

303

Ageing, mate preferences and sexuality: a mini-review.  

PubMed

The evolutionary constraints that lead to the evolution of sexual reproduction are framed by the better repair mechanisms that repair fatal mutations, as well as the need for variable immune systems imposed on large organisms by parasites, such as viruses and bacteria. Besides the evolution of sexual reproduction, these factors also affect mate choice, especially as regards the gene complex that encodes the immune system. The need to increase both the likelihood of gametes to encounter each other as well as sufficient provision of nutrition for the offspring then leads to the evolution of two sexes: large numbers of small mobile sperms ensure that gametes meet, whereas large egg cells full of energy provide for the zygote, thus leading to a developmental advantage. The asymmetric investment in the offspring then affects not only mate choice criteria, but also cognitive strategies. Men place more importance on youthfulness and fertility than women, who regard resource holding potential as a more relevant criterion. Consequently, female jealousy is connected to endangered access to resources, whereas male jealousy is rooted in paternal uncertainty. Cognitive adaptations developed to ensure reproductive success show sex differences, such as in error management. The most obvious function of sexual behavior is reproduction. To foster the benefits for the offspring, reproduction partners should also develop an emotional bond, which is mediated by hormones connected to sexual intercourse. With increasing age, reproduction loses importance, while pair bonding functions remain relevant. Therefore, sexuality never ceases to be part of a relationship. PMID:19229111

Oberzaucher, Elisabeth; Grammer, Karl

2009-01-01

304

Hormonal interactions and gene regulation can link monoecy and environmental plasticity to the evolution of dioecy in plants.  

PubMed

Most models for dioecy in flowering plants assume that dioecy arises directly from hermaphroditism through a series of independent feminizing and masculinizing mutations that become chromosomally linked. However, dioecy appears to evolve most frequently through monoecious grades. The major genetic models do not explain the evolution of unisexual flowers in monoecious and submonoecious populations, nor do they account for environmentally induced sexual plasticity. In this review, we explore the roles of environmental stress and hormones on sex determination, and propose a model that can explain the evolution of dioecy through monoecy, and the mechanisms of environmental sex determination. Environmental stresses elicit hormones that allow plants to mediate the negative effects of the stresses. Many of these same hormones are involved in the regulation of floral developmental genes. Recent studies have elucidated the mechanisms whereby these hormones interact and can act as switchpoints in regulatory pathways. Consequently, differential concentrations of plant hormones can regulate whole developmental pathways, providing a mechanism for differential development within isogenic individuals such as seen in monoecious plants. Sex-determining genes in such systems will evolve to generate clusters of coexpressed suites. Coexpression rather than coinheritance of gender-specific genes will define the sexual developmental fate. Therefore, selection for gender type will drive evolution of the regulatory sequences of such genes rather than their synteny. Subsequent mutations to hyper- or hyposensitive alleles within the hormone response pathway can result in segregating dioecious populations. Simultaneously, such developmental systems will remain sensitive to external stimuli that modify hormone responses. PMID:23538873

Golenberg, Edward M; West, Nicholas W

2013-06-01

305

A Nonpeptidyl Growth Hormone Secretagogue  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nonpeptidyl secretagogue for growth hormone of the structure 3-amino-3-methyl-N-(2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-2-oxo-1-{[2'-(1 H-tetrazol-5-yl) (1, 1'-biphenyl)-4-yl]methyl}-1 H-1-benzazepin-3(R)-yl)-butanamide (L-692,429) has been identified. L-692, 429 synergizes with the natural growth hormone secretagogue growth hormone-releasing hormone and acts through an alternative signal transduction pathway. The mechanism of action of L-692,429 and studies with peptidyl and nonpeptidyl antagonists suggest that this molecule is a mimic of the

Roy G. Smith; Kang Cheng; William R. Schoen; Sheng-Shung Pong; Gerard Hickey; Tom Jacks; Bridget Butler; Wanda W.-S. Chan; Lee-Yuh P. Chaung; Fred Judith; Joyce Taylor; Matthew J. Wyvratt; Michael H. Fisher

1993-01-01

306

Isolation and structural elucidation of flibanserin as an adulterant in a health supplement used for female sexual performance enhancement.  

PubMed

A health supplement used for female sexual performance enhancement was sent to Health Sciences Authority of Singapore for testing. An unknown compound was detected and isolated from the health supplement and its structure was elucidated using LC-DAD, LC-FTMS, NMR and IR. The detected compound was identified to be flibanserin, a non-hormonal treatment developed for pre-menopausal woman with hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). PMID:21955644

Low, Min-Yong; Li, Lin; Ge, Xiaowei; Kee, Chee-Leong; Koh, Hwee-Ling

2012-01-01

307

Role of the Vomeronasal Organ in the Male-Induced Enhancement of Sexual Receptivity in Female Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the vomeronasal organ (VNO) in the male-induced enhancement of sexual receptivity in ovariectomized estrogen-primed rats was investigated. Removal of the VNO significantly reduced the enhancement of sexual receptivity following mating, as compared with the sham-operated controls. The sham-operated females exhibited a surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) following mating; however, LH release induced by pairing with males was

Gopalan Rajendren; Carol A. Dudley; Robert L. Moss

1990-01-01

308

Sexual coercion and the misperception of sexual intent?  

PubMed Central

Misperceiving a woman’s platonic interest as sexual interest has been implicated in a sexual bargaining process that leads to sexual coercion. This paper provides a comprehensive review of sexual misperception, including gender differences in perception of women’s sexual intent, the relationship between sexual coercion and misperception, and situational factors that increase the risk that sexual misperception will occur. Compared to women, men consistently perceive a greater degree of sexual intent in women’s behavior. However, there is evidence to suggest that this gender effect may be driven largely by a sub-group of men who are particularly prone to perceive sexual intent in women’s behavior, such as sexually coercive men and men who endorse sex-role stereotypes. Situational factors, such as alcohol use by the man or woman, provocative clothing, and dating behaviors (e.g., initiating the date or making eye contact), are all associated with increased estimates of women’s sexual interest. We also critique the current measurement strategies and introduce a model of perception that more closely maps on to important theoretical questions in this area. A clearer understanding of sexual perception errors and the etiology of these errors may serve to guide sexual-assault prevention programs toward more effective strategies. PMID:17462798

Farris, Coreen; Treat, Teresa A.; Viken, Richard J.; McFall, Richard M.

2010-01-01

309

Sexual coercion and the misperception of sexual intent.  

PubMed

Misperceiving a woman's platonic interest as sexual interest has been implicated in a sexual bargaining process that leads to sexual coercion. This paper provides a comprehensive review of sexual misperception, including gender differences in perception of women's sexual intent, the relationship between sexual coercion and misperception, and situational factors that increase the risk that sexual misperception will occur. Compared to women, men consistently perceive a greater degree of sexual intent in women's behavior. However, there is evidence to suggest that this gender effect may be driven largely by a sub-group of men who are particularly prone to perceive sexual intent in women's behavior, such as sexually coercive men and men who endorse sex-role stereotypes. Situational factors, such as alcohol use by the man or woman, provocative clothing, and dating behaviors (e.g., initiating the date or making eye contact), are all associated with increased estimates of women's sexual interest. We also critique the current measurement strategies and introduce a model of perception that more closely maps on to important theoretical questions in this area. A clearer understanding of sexual perception errors and the etiology of these errors may serve to guide sexual-assault prevention programs toward more effective strategies. PMID:17462798

Farris, Coreen; Treat, Teresa A; Viken, Richard J; McFall, Richard M

2008-01-01

310

Hormonal contraception in men.  

PubMed

All major advances in the development of hormonal methods of contraception over the past 40 years have been exclusively female orientated with male hormonal contraception forever "just around the corner". Despite this, the last few years have seen a significant increase in the pace of research and increased involvement from the pharmaceutical industry. This is essential if the progress derived from the public sector is to be translated into a real product for widespread use. Current male methods of contraception, condoms and vasectomy, are relied on by 30% of couples throughout the world but there have been no new male contraceptive methods introduced in the last century. There is currently an increasing emphasis on male involvement in family planning, and evidence both that some men would be keen to shoulder this responsibility and that their partners would trust them to do so. There are several potential novel approaches to male contraception, but the hormonal one is the only one at the stage of clinical research. This method is based on the normal regulation of spermatogenesis by the pituitary gonadotrophins: suppression of gonadotrophin secretion results in a reduction in the rate of spermatogenesis, and azoospermia, the absence of sperm from the ejaculate, can be achieved. Current approaches are now getting close to the ideal of inducing azoospermia in all men. This approach also results in suppression of testicular testosterone production, thus androgen 'add-back' is an essential component of a contraceptive regime. Many different steroids and delivery methods -oral, buccal, transdermal, subcutaneous implants- are under exploration at present, each with their own advantages and drawbacks. The use of synthetic androgens is also starting to be explored: these have the potential advantage of offering tissue-specific actions. PMID:16178786

Walton, Melanie; Anderson, Richard A

2005-09-01

311

Is pedophilia a sexual orientation?  

PubMed

In this article, I address the question of whether pedophilia in men can be construed as a male sexual orientation, and the implications for thinking of it in this way for scientific research, clinical practice, and public policy. I begin by defining pedophilia and sexual orientation, and then compare pedophilia (as a potential sexual orientation with regard to age) to sexual orientations with regard to gender (heterosexuality, bisexuality, and homosexuality), on the bases of age of onset, correlations with sexual and romantic behavior, and stability over time. I conclude with comments about the potential social and legal implications of conceptualizing pedophilia as a type of sexual orientation in males. PMID:22218786

Seto, Michael C

2012-02-01

312

Signs of sexual behaviour are not increased after subchronic treatment with LHRH in young men.  

PubMed

Apart from its action as gonadotropin releasing factor, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) is a potent regulator of sexual behaviour in animals. The present study aimed to assess a similar role of LHRH for sexuality in humans. In a double-blind placebo-controlled and randomized study, effects of human LHRH after acute (400 microg) and subchronic (800 microg/day over 2 weeks) intranasal administration were evaluated in 20 young and healthy men. Sexual desire and activity was assessed by a diary, ratings of women's attractiveness, a modified version of the Stroop colour naming task and a short term memory task. Effects on sexuality were contrasted with those on eating motivation and general neurocognitive functioning, the latter being assessed in addition by tasks of divergent thinking and a motor perseveration test. None of the measures of sexual desire and activity indicated any effect of LHRH, neither after acute nor after subchronic treatment. Unexpectedly, the diary indicated a significant increase in 'food intake' towards the end of the 14-day LHRH treatment. Enhanced colour naming performance on the Stroop task (independently of whether sex, food or neutral stimuli were used) in conjunction with an increased motor perseveration after LHRH points to a general effect on cognitive function towards stronger focussing of cortical processing. While overall the data show discrete central nervous changes after LHRH, a particular influence on sexuality after acute or subchronic intranasal administration in healthy men was not detected. PMID:11070330

Perras, B; Smolnik, R; Fehm, H L; Born, J

2001-01-01

313

Management of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in women: current and emerging therapies.  

PubMed

Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is a common multifactorial condition which is characterized by a decrease in sexual desire that causes marked personal distress and/or interpersonal difficulty. The general idea that HSDD is a sexual dysfunction difficult to treat is due to the large number of potential causes and contributing factors. Indeed, a balanced approach comprising both biological and psycho-relational factors is mandatory for accurate diagnosis and tailored management in clinical practice. There are currently no approved pharmacological treatments for premenopausal women with HSDD, while transdermal testosterone is approved in Europe for postmenopausal women who experience HSDD as a result of a bilateral oophorectomy. Even though the role of sex hormones in modulating the sexual response during the entire reproductive life span of women is crucial, a better understanding of the neurobiological basis of sexual desire supports the idea that selective psychoactive agents may be proposed as nonhormonal treatments to restore the balance between excitatory and inhibitory stimuli leading to a normal sexual response cycle. We conclude that the ideal clinical approach to HSDD remains to be established in term of efficacy and safety, and further research is needed to develop specific hormonal and nonhormonal pharmacotherapies for individualized care in women. PMID:21072309

Nappi, Rossella E; Martini, Ellis; Terreno, Erica; Albani, Francesca; Santamaria, Valentina; Tonani, Silvia; Chiovato, Luca; Polatti, Franco

2010-01-01

314

Management of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in women: current and emerging therapies  

PubMed Central

Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is a common multifactorial condition which is characterized by a decrease in sexual desire that causes marked personal distress and/or interpersonal difficulty. The general idea that HSDD is a sexual dysfunction difficult to treat is due to the large number of potential causes and contributing factors. Indeed, a balanced approach comprising both biological and psycho-relational factors is mandatory for accurate diagnosis and tailored management in clinical practice. There are currently no approved pharmacological treatments for premenopausal women with HSDD, while transdermal testosterone is approved in Europe for postmenopausal women who experience HSDD as a result of a bilateral oophorectomy. Even though the role of sex hormones in modulating the sexual response during the entire reproductive life span of women is crucial, a better understanding of the neurobiological basis of sexual desire supports the idea that selective psychoactive agents may be proposed as nonhormonal treatments to restore the balance between excitatory and inhibitory stimuli leading to a normal sexual response cycle. We conclude that the ideal clinical approach to HSDD remains to be established in term of efficacy and safety, and further research is needed to develop specific hormonal and nonhormonal pharmacotherapies for individualized care in women. PMID:21072309

Nappi, Rossella E; Martini, Ellis; Terreno, Erica; Albani, Francesca; Santamaria, Valentina; Tonani, Silvia; Chiovato, Luca; Polatti, Franco

2010-01-01

315

29 CFR 1604.11 - Sexual harassment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sexual harassment. 1604.11 Section 1604...BECAUSE OF SEX § 1604.11 Sexual harassment. (a) Harassment on the...of a sexual nature constitute sexual harassment when (1)...

2013-07-01

316

49 CFR 1019.5 - Sexual harassment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sexual harassment. 1019.5 Section 1019...BOARD EMPLOYEES § 1019.5 Sexual harassment. (a) Members and employees...of a sexual nature constitute sexual harassment when: (1)...

2013-10-01

317

49 CFR 1019.5 - Sexual harassment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sexual harassment. 1019.5 Section 1019...BOARD EMPLOYEES § 1019.5 Sexual harassment. (a) Members and employees...of a sexual nature constitute sexual harassment when: (1)...

2011-10-01

318

49 CFR 1019.5 - Sexual harassment.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sexual harassment. 1019.5 Section 1019...BOARD EMPLOYEES § 1019.5 Sexual harassment. (a) Members and employees...of a sexual nature constitute sexual harassment when: (1)...

2014-10-01

319

29 CFR 1604.11 - Sexual harassment.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sexual harassment. 1604.11 Section 1604...BECAUSE OF SEX § 1604.11 Sexual harassment. (a) Harassment on the...of a sexual nature constitute sexual harassment when (1)...

2014-07-01

320

29 CFR 1604.11 - Sexual harassment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sexual harassment. 1604.11 Section 1604...BECAUSE OF SEX § 1604.11 Sexual harassment. (a) Harassment on the...of a sexual nature constitute sexual harassment when (1)...

2011-07-01

321

29 CFR 1604.11 - Sexual harassment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sexual harassment. 1604.11 Section 1604...BECAUSE OF SEX § 1604.11 Sexual harassment. (a) Harassment on the...of a sexual nature constitute sexual harassment when (1)...

2012-07-01

322

49 CFR 1019.5 - Sexual harassment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sexual harassment. 1019.5 Section 1019...BOARD EMPLOYEES § 1019.5 Sexual harassment. (a) Members and employees...of a sexual nature constitute sexual harassment when: (1)...

2010-10-01

323

49 CFR 1019.5 - Sexual harassment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sexual harassment. 1019.5 Section 1019...BOARD EMPLOYEES § 1019.5 Sexual harassment. (a) Members and employees...of a sexual nature constitute sexual harassment when: (1)...

2012-10-01

324

29 CFR 1604.11 - Sexual harassment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sexual harassment. 1604.11 Section 1604...BECAUSE OF SEX § 1604.11 Sexual harassment. (a) Harassment on the...of a sexual nature constitute sexual harassment when (1)...

2010-07-01

325

Health Risks among Sexual Minority Youth  

MedlinePLUS

... Recommendations from this Report What CDC Is Doing Health Risks Among Sexual Minority Youth Sexual minority youth—those ... Report , “ Sexual Identity, Sex of Sexual Contacts, and Health-Risk Behaviors Among Students in Grades 9–12 in ...

326

Your kidneys also produce several hormones. These hormones help to  

E-print Network

Your kidneys also produce several hormones. These hormones help to control your blood pressure kidney function as we get older. People can even survive with just one kidney if they donate the other to a friend or family member. But when kidney function drops because of an under- lying kidney disease, it

Baker, Chris I.

327

Plant Growth and Hormones 102 Plant Growth and Hormones  

E-print Network

Plant Growth and Hormones 102 Plant Growth and Hormones Because plants have so many repeating parts, therefore, it helps to mark plants. Then you can monitor them over time and figure out (1) whether they are actively growing or dormant; and (2) if they are growing, how fast they are growing. You can measure "how

Koptur, Suzanne

328

Growth hormone-releasing hormone and growth hormone secretagogue-receptor ligands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin are the most important hypothalamic neurohormones controlling growth\\u000a hormone (GH) secretion. Several neurotransmitters and neuropeptides also play an important role in the control of GH secretion,\\u000a mainly acting via modulation of GHRH and somatostatin. In the past two decades, particular attention has been given to a new\\u000a family of substances showing a strong GH-releasing

Emanuela Arvat; Laura Gianotti; Roberta Giordano; Fabio Broglio; Mauro Maccario; Fabio Lanfranco; Giampiero Muccioli; Mauro Papotti; Andrea Graziani; Ezio Ghigo; Romano Deghenghi

2001-01-01

329

Steroid hormones and brain development: some guidelines for understanding actions of pseudohormones and other toxic agents  

SciTech Connect

Gonadal, adrenal, and thyroid hormones affect the brain directly, and the sensitivity to hormones begins in embryonic life with the appearance of hormone receptor sites in discrete populations of neurons. Because the secretion of hormones is also under control by its neural and pituitary targets, the brain-endocrine axis during development is in a delicately balanced state that can be upset in various ways, and any agent that disrupts normal hormone secretion can upset normal brain development. Moreover, exogenous substances that mimic the actions of natural hormones can also play havoc with CNS development and differentiation. This paper addresses these issues in the following order: First, actions of glucocorticoids on the developing nervous system related to cell division dendritic growth and neurotransmitter phenotype will be presented followed by a discussion of the developmental effects of synthetic steroids. Second, actions of estrogens related to brain sexual differentiation will be described, followed by a discussion of the actions of the nonsteroidal estrogen, diethylstilbestrol, as an example of exogenous estrogenic substances. The most important aspect of the potency of exogenous estrogens appears to be the degree to which they either bypass protective mechanisms or are subject to transformations to more active metabolites. Third, agents that influence hormone levels or otherwise modify the neuroendocrine system, such as nicotine, barbiturates, alcohol, opiates, and tetrahydrocannabinol, will be noted briefly to demonstrate the diversity of toxic agents that can influence neural development and affect personality, cognitive ability, and other aspects of behavior. 53 references.

McEwen, B.S.

1987-10-01

330

Influence of gonadal hormones on the development of parental behavior in adult virgin prairie voles ( Microtus ochrogaster)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are a socially monogamous species and both sexes are parental after the birth of pups. In contrast, sexually inexperienced adult prairie voles differ in their behavior towards pups such that virgin males are paternal whereas virgin females are often infanticidal. To test whether there exists a discrete perinatal ‘sensitive period’ during which gonadal hormones influence this

Joseph S. Lonstein; Geert J. De Vries

2000-01-01

331

The role of adrenoceptors in the central nervous system in male and female rat sexual behavior.  

PubMed

Three different phases can be distinguished in rats' sexual cycle, the introductory (precopulatory), the copulatory and the executive (ejaculatory) phases. In this review, a new analysis of existing pharmacological data is made, both in male and female rats, in which the different aspects of sexual behavior are taken into account. An effort is made to distinguish pharmacological effects on sexual behavior from a possible physiological role of noradrenaline. In addition, new data on the role of ?2-adrenoceptors on female sexual behavior is presented. The new analysis suggests that noradrenaline has a stimulatory role on the executive phase of male sexual behavior, while the introductory and copulatory phases remain unaffected. Adrenoceptors play a role in the regulation of sexual behavior in the medial preoptic area and the lateral septum. In female rats, noradrenaline also does not play a vital role in the introductory phase. Only the lordosis behavior of the copulatory phase is sometimes affected by adrenergic agents, but only under a certain hormonal condition. The medial preoptic area, the ventromedial nucleus, the arcuate ventromedial nucleus and median eminence are involved in the regulation of female sexual behavior. The new data suggest that ?2-adrenoceptors play no major role on any indices of female sexual behavior. PMID:25218984

Snoeren, Eelke M S

2014-09-10

332

The biological basis of human sexual orientation: is there a role for epigenetics?  

PubMed

Sexual orientation is one of the largest sex differences in humans. The vast majority of the population is heterosexual, that is, they are attracted to members of the opposite sex. However, a small but significant proportion of people are bisexual or homosexual and experience attraction to members of the same sex. The origins of the phenomenon have long been the subject of scientific study. In this chapter, we will review the evidence that sexual orientation has biological underpinnings and consider the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms. We will first discuss studies that show that sexual orientation has a genetic component. These studies show that sexual orientation is more concordant in monozygotic twins than in dizygotic ones and that male sexual orientation is linked to several regions of the genome. We will then highlight findings that suggest a link between sexual orientation and epigenetic mechanisms. In particular, we will consider the case of women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). These women were exposed to high levels of testosterone in utero and have much higher rates of nonheterosexual orientation compared to non-CAH women. Studies in animal models strongly suggest that the long-term effects of hormonal exposure (such as those experienced by CAH women) are mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. We conclude by describing a hypothetical framework that unifies genetic and epigenetic explanations of sexual orientation and the continued challenges facing sexual orientation research. PMID:25172350

Ngun, Tuck C; Vilain, Eric

2014-01-01

333

Gender, Religiosity, Sexual Activity, Sexual Knowledge, and Attitudes Toward Controversial Aspects of Sexuality.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to examine the role of gender, religiosity, sexual activity, and sexual knowledge in predicting attitudes toward controversial aspects of sexuality among Turkish university students. Participants were 162 female and 135 male undergraduate students who were recruited on a volunteer basis from an urban state university in Turkey. The SKAT-A Attitude Scale along with background information form, sexual activities inventory, and sexual knowledge scale were administered to the participants. Simultaneous multiple regression analyses revealed that religiosity, particularly attendance to religious services was the most significant predictor in explaining university students' attitudes toward masturbation, abortion, homosexuality, pornography, and sexual coercion. PMID:24510128

Sümer, Zeynep Hatipo?lu

2014-02-01

334

Sexual fantasies and sensation seeking among psychopathic sexual offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationship between psychopathy, sensation seeking behavior and sexual fantasies in a sample of 199 participants from a maximum security forensic hospital. Psychopathy, measured by the Psychopathy Checklist – Revised (PCL-R), and several sensation seeking and sexual fantasy measures were utilized. Results indicated that, in agreement with previous research, sexually deviant psychopaths are more likely to offend

Leah C. Skovran; Matthew T. Huss; Mario J. Scalora

2010-01-01

335

Association of Sexual Revictimization with Sexuality and Psychological Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the associations of sexual revictimization (experiencing sexual abuse in childhood and adulthood) in a sample of 230 African American women who are low-income. Data indicate that women who experience sexual revictimization are more at risk for emotional stress and psychological pathology than women with no history of abuse. In…

Miner, Michael H.; Flitter, Jill M. Klotz; Robinson, Beatrice E.

2006-01-01

336

Sexual Abuse, Incest, and Sexual Exploitation: Mental Health Practitioners' Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a 33-item questionnaire based on Alexander G. Zaphiris's conceptualization of the terminology of sexual mistreatment. Results indicate that mental health counselors (N=300) who encountered sexual abuse, incest, and sexual exploitation agreed with Zaphiris's conceptualization but did not use this system of classification in actual…

Freet, Mary A.; Scalise, Joseph J.; Ginter, Earl J.

1996-01-01

337

Psychopathy and Deviant Sexual Arousal in Incarcerated Sexual Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the relationship between psychopathy and deviant sexual arousal in a sample of 65 sexual offenders, with approximately equal numbers of rapists and child molesters. Psychopathy, measured by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised and phallometric indexes of deviant sexual arousal were significantly correlated, r(63) =.28, p <. 02. Differentiating between rapists, extrafamilial pedophiles, and incest offenders revealed that this relationship,

RALPH C. SERIN; P. BRUCE MALCOLM; ARUNIMA KHANNA; HOWARD E. BARBAREE

1994-01-01

338

Psychopharmacology of male rat sexual behavior: modeling human sexual dysfunctions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of our current understanding of the neurobiology, neuroanatomy and psychopharmacology of sexual behavior and ejaculatory function has been derived from preclinical studies in the rat. When a large population of male rats is tested on sexual activity during a number of successive tests, over time individual rats display a very stable sexual behavior that is either slow, normal or

B. Olivier; J. S. W. Chan; T. Pattij; T. R. de Jong; R. S. Oosting; J. G. Veening; M. D. Waldinger

2006-01-01

339

Polymorphism in sexual versus non-sexual disease transmission  

E-print Network

Polymorphism in sexual versus non-sexual disease transmission PETER H. THRALL AND JANIS ANTONOVICS transmitted diseases (STDs) often consist of related strains that cause non- sexually transmitted, or `ordinary infectious', diseases (OIDs). We use differential equation models of single populations to derive

Antonovics, Janis

340

Sexual Coercion Content in 21 Sexuality Education Curricula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined adolescent sexuality-education curricula for information on coercion (date rape, stranger rape, pressure, incest, sexual harassment, unwanted/inappropriate touch, and exploitation/victimization). Exploitation/victimization and pressure received the greatest attention. Sexual harassment was not covered in any of the curricula. Results…

Beyer, Christine E.; Ogletree, Roberta J.

1998-01-01

341

Hormonal control of inflammatory responses  

PubMed Central

Almost any stage of inflammatory and immunological responses is affected by hormone actions. This provides the basis for the suggestion that hormones act as modulators of the host reaction against trauma and infection. Specific hormone receptors are detected in the reactive structures in inflamed areas and binding of hormone molecules to such receptors results in the generation of signals that influence cell functions relevant for the development of inflammatory responses. Diversity of hormonal functions accounts for recognized pro- and anti-inflammatory effects exerted by these substances. Most hormone systems are capable of influencing inflammatory events. Insulin and glucocorticoids, however, exert direct regulatory effects at concentrations usually found in plasma. Insulin is endowed with facilitatory actions on vascular reactivity to inflammatory mediators and inflammatory cell functions. Increased concentrations of circulating glucocorticoids at the early stages of inflammation results in downregulation of inflammatory responses. Oestrogens markedly reduce the response to injury in a variety of experimental models. Glucagon and thyroid hormones exert indirect anti-inflammatory effects mediated by the activity of the adrenal cortex. Accordingly, inflammation is not only merely a local response, but a hormone-controlled process. PMID:18475521

Farsky, Sandra P.

1993-01-01

342

Hormonal Therapy of Prostate Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of all cancers, prostate cancer is the most sensitive to hormones: it is thus very important to take advantage of this unique property and to always use optimal androgen blockade when hormone therapy is the appropriate treatment. A fundamental observation is that the serum testosterone concentration only reflects the amount of testosterone of testicular origin which is released in the

Fernand Labrie

2010-01-01

343

Plant Hormones: Bioassay for Gibberellin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simply assay makes use of the ability of the plant hormone GA3 to induce starch breakdown in the endosperm of a barley seed from which the embryo has been removed. The effect of the hormone is clear and repeatable.

Sandra L. Biroc (University of Colorado;)

1988-06-06

344

MODELING HORMONAL CONTROL MENSTRUAL CYCLE  

E-print Network

. That the pituitary gland plays a crucial role in the control of the menstrual cycle was not known until this century predict the serum levels of ovarian and pituitary hormones may assist the experimentalist by indicating and pituitary hormones is the key ingredient for regulating and maintaining the menstrual cycle in adult women

345

Bystanders' Reactions to Sexual Harassment  

E-print Network

Sexual harassment is associated with negative consequences for victims and bystanders. Because 9 in 10 victims do not report harassment, understanding bystanders' reactions to sexual harassment is important. Thus, my dissertation?s purpose...

Benavides Espinoza, Claudia

2010-07-14

346

[Female sexuality and parenthood].  

PubMed

From the child conception to the early years of life, couples generally present less sexual activity. Parenthood constraints are a burden for the couple's relationships. Generally, persistent sexual difficulties six months after delivery, despite those generated by depression or altered health raise the question of an alteration in the quality of the couple's relationships and lack of satisfaction of the mother with her partner's involvement in family life. Numerous parameters can be implied, especially with persistent trouble of desire, such as fatigue, body image problems and libido lessening of the partner due to modifications of his status. Women who presented sexual difficulties before pregnancy remain the same. In all cases, appropriate information can avoid the intimacy's difficulties and contribute to maintain pleasure and intimacy even when vaginal penetration remains difficult. PMID:25262091

Colson, M-H

2014-10-01

347

Sexual dysfunctions in depression.  

PubMed

The incidence of sexual dysfunctions in a group of 51 drug-free depressed patients and in age- and sex-matched controls was studied. Three groups of sexual dysfunction were assessed: alterations of libido, genital symptoms, and menstrual irregularities. The Beck Rating Scale for Depression, the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were completed on each participant. Depressed patients obtained significantly higher scores on anxiety, depression, and alterations of libido than controls. Rating scale scores for anxiety and depression were strongly intercorrelated, making the separation of depression-related symptoms from anxiety difficult. In males, the genital symptoms correlated inversely with the L (lie) score of the Eysenck Personality Inventory. There were no interrelationships between the three groups of sexual dysfunction. PMID:7149967

Mathew, R J; Weinman, M L

1982-08-01

348

Assessing the association between childhood sexual abuse and adult sexual experiences in women with sexual difficulties.  

PubMed

Self-report instruments for assessing sexual well-being in women with sexual difficulties have not to date been explicitly validated among women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Given an extensive literature suggesting psychological differences between women with and without a history of CSA, it is possible that sexual well-being has a different meaning for these groups. Without validated scales, it is difficult to evaluate the impact of early sexual trauma on adult sexuality. The present study assessed whether the factor structure of widely used measures of sexual well-being were consistent across women experiencing sexual difficulties, with and without an abuse history, and to estimate effect sizes for the statistical effect of CSA on sexual well-being in this population. A sample of women with and without a history of CSA (N = 238) completed the Female Sexual Function Index and the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women. Structural equation models indicated generally consistent factor structures across groups, suggesting good construct validity. Effect size estimates indicated medium to large (0.53-0.72) effects of CSA on sexual well-being for women with sexual difficulties. These findings support and extend research regarding the potential effects of CSA that may inform treatment for this population. PMID:24948536

Stephenson, Kyle R; Pulverman, Carey S; Meston, Cindy M

2014-06-01

349

Associations between youth homelessness, sexual offenses, sexual victimization, and sexual risk behaviors: a systematic literature review.  

PubMed

Homeless youth commonly report engaging in sexual risk behaviors. These vulnerable young people also frequently report being sexually victimized. This systematic review collates, summarizes, and appraises published studies of youth investigating relationships between homelessness, perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior. A systematic search of seventeen psychology, health, and social science electronic databases was conducted. Search terms included "homeless*," "youth," "offend*," "victimization," "crime," "rape," "victim*," and "sex crimes." Thirty-eight studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Findings showed homeless youth commonly report being raped and sexually assaulted, fear being sexually victimized, and engage in street prostitution and survival sex. Rates of victimization and sexual risk behavior were generally higher for females. Given the paucity of longitudinal studies and limitations of current studies, it is unclear whether homelessness is prospectively associated with sexual victimization or engagement in sexual risk behavior, and whether such associations vary cross nationally and as a function of time and place. Future prospective research examining the influence of the situational context of homelessness is necessary to develop a better understanding of how homelessness influences the perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior among homeless youth. PMID:25411128

Heerde, Jessica A; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A

2015-01-01

350

The Sexual Health Interview: Female  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sexuality is the quintessential biopsychosocial phenomenon. It is an integration of emotional, somatic, intellectual, and\\u000a social aspects of an individual [1]. Sexual practices encompass a wide range of activities. Sexual intimacy may be central\\u000a to the maintenance of long-term relationships, particularly for females. Sexuality involves the relationship between the individual\\u000a and society, and it is influenced by social and religious

Sharon J. Parish; Sheryl A. Kingsberg

351

Sexual selection paves the road to sexual isolation during ecological speciation  

E-print Network

Sexual selection paves the road to sexual isolation during ecological speciation R. Brian of sexual selection in generating sexual isolation during this process. We illustrate that four distinct mechanisms can drive sexual isolation: (I) divergent sexual selection, (II) uniform sexual selection, (III

Schlupp, Ingo

352

[Sexuality and awareness levels].  

PubMed

Is it our full consciousness during the day that conditions our next sleep or, on the contrary, is it what happens during our sleep. Including dreams, that conditions our following day? Something similar could be presumed about sexuality, prepared maybe during the unconsciousness of sleep rather than in a state of wakefulness, In this case the sexual and emotional situation of a couple could be quite different during the day and at the moment they are preparing themselves to sleep and lose consciousness. PMID:19365910

Abraham, G; Vlatkovic, D

2009-03-18

353

Induction of common mucosal immunity by hormonally immunomodulated peripheral immunization.  

PubMed Central

The study described in this report demonstrates that peripheral lymph nodes draining nonmucosal tissues can effectively serve as induction sites for the establishment of common mucosal immunity if the microenvironmental conditions are altered to mimic those normally present within mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (e.g., Peyer's patches). Lymph node lymphocytes exposed in situ to the immunomodulatory influences of the hormone 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxy vitamin D 3 were found to produce less gamma interferon and interleukin-2 (IL-2) and far more IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 than lymphocytes from control animals. When couples with vaccination with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), the hormone, immunomodulated switch from a peripheral lymph node phenotype to a Peyer's patch-like pattern promoted the induction of both a systemic and a common mucosal immune response. This was determined by the observed increased concentrations of serum anti-HBsAg antibody and by finding that anti-HBsAg secretory antibodies were detectable in urogenital, lachrymal, fecal and oral secretions only in the hormone-treated animals. In addition, specific antibody-secreting cells were detectable in the lamina propria of the lungs and small intestines of the hormone-treated animals subsequent to vaccination, indicating that the homing properties of antigen-specific B cells were being affected by the treatment procedure. The humoral and mucosal immune responses were further augmented if both 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxy vitamin D 3 and dehydroepiandrosterone were used together as hormonal immunomodulators. This novel immunization technique may afford new opportunities to effectively intervene in sexually transmitted diseases and other diseases caused by mucosal pathogens. PMID:8606065

Daynes, R A; Enioutina, E Y; Butler, S; Mu, H H; McGee, Z A; Araneo B, A

1996-01-01

354

Sexually transmitted diseases and travel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections and resulting clinical syndromes caused by more than 25 infectious organisms transmitted through sexual activity. International travellers are at great risk of contracting any of these STDs, including HIV, if they have been sexually exposed to persons with any of these diseases. Population movement has been shown to be a major contributing factor in

Ziad A Memish; Abimbola O Osoba

2003-01-01

355

Literature Review of Sexual Abuse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides a review of recent, state-of-the-art literature concerning the nature, extent, dynamics, and effects of child sexual abuse and examines America's preventive intervention and treatment efforts for child sexual abuse. After an extensive presentation of the problems of defining terms in sexual abuse, these topics are discussed:…

DePanfilis, Diane

356

Volunteer Bias, Sexuality, and Personality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participants were recruited either for a study of sexual attitudes and behavior or for a study of attitudes and behavior without mention of sexuality. Both groups answered questions about their sexual behavior and completed the Self-Monitoring Scale, the Balanced F Scale, and the Social Responsibility Scale. No differences were found as a function of recruitment technique in the mean reports

Neil Trivedi; John Sabini

1998-01-01

357

Sexuality Education as a Ministry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author describes her development from being her religious congregation's sexuality educator to completing doctoral studies and finding her place in the professional sexuality education community. She equates sexuality education to a ministry that reaches out to those in need of knowledge.

Davis, Melanie J.

2011-01-01

358

Sexual Interaction in Nonclinical Couples.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the sexual functioning and interaction of 58 nonclinical heterosexual couples as measured by the Sexual Interaction System Scale (SISS). On all five SISS factors, the nonclinical sample scored significantly better than persons in therapy for sexual dysfunction; they also reported satisfactory relationship adjustment and high levels of…

Woody, Jane D.; D'Souza, Henry J.

1997-01-01

359

Sexual Selection II: Intrasexual Competition  

E-print Network

Sexual Selection II: Intrasexual Competition BIO3176 - University of Ottawa Prof. Gabriel Blouin&physiologicalecol ogy 1 See section on combat 2 Intense Sexual Selection 3 4 Map Turtles Bulté, Irschick & Blouin-Demers 2008 Func Ecol 22: 824-830 Bulté, Gravel & Blouin-Demers 2008. Can J Zool, in press 5 Sexual Selection

Blouin-Demers, Gabriel

360

Syracuse University Gender, Disability & Sexuality  

E-print Network

Syracuse University CFE/WS 700 Gender, Disability & Sexuality: Seminar in Feminist Disability, such as gender, race, sexuality, and social class. Issues explored within feminist disability studies are wide--Researching gender/race/class/sexuality from a disability studies lens. In groups of 3 or 4, choose a research topic

Mather, Patrick T.

361

Sexual Education for Psychiatric Residents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors seek to promote sexuality curriculum development in departments of psychiatry. Methods: The authors first focus on educational philosophy about what residents can be taught about sexual topics and then provide numerical and narrative resident evaluation data following a 6-month, half day per week rotation in a sexuality…

Levine, Stephen B.; Scott, David L.

2010-01-01

362

Sexual Behavior Disorders in Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper reviews the literature on sexual delinquency in male and female adolescents and considers guidelines for effective intervention in nonspecialized treatment programs. A section on sexual delinquency in females touches on prostitution and incest, while a section on males notes the changing composition of the sexually delinquent population.…

Erickson, William D.

363

Neurobiological correlates of masculine sexual behavior.  

PubMed

The experimental analysis of the neuroendocrine interactions regulating sexual behavior has traditionally relied on studying the effects of CNS lesions and pharmacological treatments with hormones or drugs purportedly acting through specific neurotransmitter systems. New methodological developments have allowed the assessment of several indices of neural function in experimental animals, particularly the rat, as they relate to behavioral changes. In the field of sexual behavior, ex vivo analyses have been used to measure markers of energy metabolism, such as 2-deoxyglucose uptake and Na,K-ATPase activity, the tissue content of neurotransmitters and metabolites, the levels of steroid receptors and neurosteroids, and immediate-early gene expression products in different areas of the CNS. In vivo studies have monitored brain electrical activity and temperature, as well as the extracellular levels of neurotransmitters and metabolites by cerebrospinal fluid sampling, push-pull perfusion and, especially, electrochemical recordings and microdialysis, in the course of mating and exposure to various relevant stimuli. The findings with the different methodologies are generally consistent and agree with those of previous surgical and pharmacological manipulations. They provide data on temporal relationships between neurobiological and behavioral events and suggest new interpretations for different aspects of the male copulatory pattern. PMID:7630582

Mas, M

1995-01-01

364

Pharmacotherapy for inappropriate sexual behaviors in dementia: a systematic review of literature.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to systematically review the published literature on pharmacotherapy for inappropriate sexual behaviors in dementia. Literature search of the 5 databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and COCHRANE collaboration) and the analysis of the data available for the pharmacotherapeutic treatments of inappropriate sexual behaviors in dementia were carried out. There are no published randomized controlled trials of pharmacotherapy for inappropriate sexual behaviors in dementia, but available data form uncontrolled trials, case series, and individual case reports suggest efficacy for antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, hormonal agents, cimetidine, and pindolol for the treatment of these behaviors. Although there are no controlled data for the treatment of inappropriate sexual behaviors in dementia, available data suggest efficacy for some commonly used pharmacotherapeutic agents. PMID:18509106

Ozkan, Banu; Wilkins, Kirsten; Muralee, Sunanda; Tampi, Rajesh R

2008-01-01

365

Hormonally exacerbated hereditary angioedema.  

PubMed

Hereditary angioedema is a rare disorder which is associated with an inherited deficiency of the inhibitor of the activated first component of complement. Genetic transmission occurs in an autosomal dominant manner. Affected patients are heterozygotes, and their deficiency is incomplete, many of them having up to 20% of the normal amount of the inhibitor. We describe two cases of C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency occurring in a mother and daughter in whom the symptoms appeared to be related to the menstrual cycle or the taking of the oral contraceptive pill. Although both features have been mentioned in the literature, to the best of our knowledge premenstrual exacerbations have not been documented previously. We examined the likely basis of hormonally exacerbated hereditary angioedema. PMID:1445091

Yip, J; Cunliffe, W J

1992-01-01

366

Sexual communication and sexual behavior among young adult heterosexual latinos.  

PubMed

We examined verbal sexual health communication, pleasure discussions, and physical sexual communication in relation to condom use by young adult, heterosexual Latinos (ages 18-30 years). Participants (N = 220, 51% female) were recruited in a Midwestern state. Verbal sexual health communication was positively associated with consistent condom use among men (odds ratio [OR] = 2.66, p < .05) and women (OR = 3.12, p < .05). For men, pleasure discussions were negatively associated with consistent condom use (OR = 0.21, p < .05). For women, verbal sexual health communication was positively associated with condom use at last sex (OR = 2.75, p < .05), whereas physical sexual communication was negatively associated with condom use at last sex (OR = .29, p < .05). Various aspects of sexual communication may be important in HIV-prevention programs with young Latinos. Physical sexual communication and pleasure discussions, in particular, warrant further exploration given negative relationships with condom use. PMID:25305027

Alvarez, Carmen; Bauermeister, José A; Villarruel, Antonia M

2014-01-01

367

Sexual burglaries and sexual homicide: clinical, forensic, and investigative considerations.  

PubMed

Burglary, the third most common crime after larceny-theft and motor vehicle theft, is rarely the focus of forensic psychiatric study. While most burglaries are motivated simply by material gain, there is a subgroup of burglaries fueled by sexual dynamics. The authors differentiate two types of sexual burglaries: 1) fetish burglaries with overt sexual dynamics; and 2) voyeuristic burglaries, in which the sexual element is often covert and far more subtle. Many forensic practitioners have informally noted the relationship of burglaries to sexual homicide, but this relationship has not otherwise been studied in any detail. In this article, the incidence of (sexual) burglaries by 52 sexual murderers whom the authors evaluated, as well as the incidence in cases reported by others, is reported. Implications of these findings for forensic assessments and profiling of unidentified offenders are discussed. PMID:10400431

Schlesinger, L B; Revitch, E

1999-01-01

368

Our stolen figures: the interface of sexual differentiation, endocrine disruptors, maternal programming, and energy balance.  

PubMed

This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". The prevalence of adult obesity has risen markedly in the last quarter of the 20th century and has not been reversed in this century. Less well known is the fact that obesity prevalence has risen in domestic, laboratory, and feral animals, suggesting that all of these species have been exposed to obesogenic factors present in the environment. This review emphasizes interactions among three biological processes known to influence energy balance: Sexual differentiation, endocrine disruption, and maternal programming. Sexual dimorphisms include differences between males and females in body weight, adiposity, adipose tissue distribution, ingestive behavior, and the underlying neural circuits. These sexual dimorphisms are controlled by sex chromosomes, hormones that masculinize or feminize adult body weight during perinatal development, and hormones that act during later periods of development, such as puberty. Endocrine disruptors are natural and synthetic molecules that attenuate or block normal hormonal action during these same developmental periods. A growing body of research documents effects of endocrine disruptors on the differentiation of adipocytes and the central nervous system circuits that control food intake, energy expenditure, and adipose tissue storage. In parallel, interest has grown in epigenetic influences, including maternal programming, the process by which the mother's experience has permanent effects on energy-balancing traits in the offspring. This review highlights the points at which maternal programming, sexual differentiation, and endocrine disruption might dovetail to influence global changes in energy balancing traits. PMID:24681201

Schneider, Jill E; Brozek, Jeremy M; Keen-Rhinehart, Erin

2014-06-01

369

Women's History of Sexual Abuse, Their Sexuality, and Sexual Self-Schemas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors assessed 48 female survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA) and 71 female control participants using measures of adult sexual function, psychological function (i.e., depression and anxiety), and sexual self-schemas. The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether differences existed between women with and without a…

Meston, Cindy M.; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Heiman, Julia R.

2006-01-01

370

The emancipation of testosterone from niche hormone to multi-system player  

PubMed Central

It is no exaggeration to say that our conceptualization of the (patho-) physiological functions of testosterone has undergone a revolutionary development over the last three decades. The traditional thinking was that the biological functions of testosterone were restricted mainly to the area of reproduction and male sexuality. However, scientific research has clearly demonstrated that testosterone is a multi-system hormone serving a wide range of hitherto unsuspected biological functions. PMID:25248654

Saad, Farid

2015-01-01

371

[Relationship between insulin like hormone 3 and testicular descent and development].  

PubMed

Testicular descent is an essential step in the course of reproductive system development. The mechanisms involved in the regulation of testis descent is not distinct. Gubernaculum has a very close relationship with testis descent. Maldescent of testis can cause abnormalities of genital system such as testicular underwent (cryptorchidism), dysplasia, tumor, infertility and low sexuality. Recently insulin like hormone 3 is a hotspot of concerning affecting gubernacular development and testicular descent. This article briefly reviews the advances in these aspects. PMID:16483166

Xie, Xiao-jun; Jiang, Xue-Wu

2006-01-01

372

Sexuality following hematopoietic cell transplantation.  

PubMed

Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a therapeutic modality used to treat a variety of malignant and nonmalignant disorders. Because HCT often involves the use of high-dose radiation and chemotherapy, it is associated with numerous toxicities and effects, including changes in sexuality and sexual functioning. These changes may include decreased libido, erectile and ejaculatory dysfunction, premature menopause, vaginal alterations, dyspareunia, and infertility. Psychosocial factors, such as anxiety, depression, and concurrent life stressors, also may affect sexuality and sexual functioning. Healthcare providers caring for patients undergoing HCT need to initiate discussions about the impact of HCT on sexuality pretransplant and continue those discussions throughout and following the treatment process. PMID:14983763

Tierney, D Kathryn

2004-02-01

373

Rescheduling Child Sexual Trajectories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author comments on Diederik Janssen's essay "ReQueering Queer Youth Development: A Post-Developmental Approach to Childhood and Pedagogy," commenting that Janssen's analysis can inform both both materialist and post-structuralist understandings of children's sexuality by shifting focus from children as fetishized objects or as a group…

Yuill, Richard

2008-01-01

374

Child Sexual Abuse  

MedlinePLUS

... worthlessness and an abnormal or distorted view of sex. The child may become withdrawn and mistrustful of adults, and ... Child Abuse #10 Teen Suicide #28 Responding to Child Sexual Abuse #62 Talking to Your Kids about Sex #73 Self-Injury in Adolescents #00 Definition of ...

375

Contextualizing Sexual Objectification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The preceding articles provide an excellent overview of relatively recent theory and research on sexual objectification of women from a psychological perspective. Importantly, the authors have contributed to the literature through their conceptual extensions and research applications of objectification theory. In this reaction piece, our goals are…

Fischer, Ann R.; Bettendorf, Sonya K.; Wang, Yu-Wei

2011-01-01

376

Sexually transmitted diphtheria.  

PubMed

Diphtheria is caused by diphtheria toxin-producing Corynebacterium species. While classical respiratory diphtheria is transmitted by droplets, cutaneous diphtheria often results from minor trauma. This report concerns the first case of sexually transmitted diphtheria in a patient with non-gonococcal urethritis after orogenital contact. PMID:22628666

Berger, Anja; Lensing, Carmen; Konrad, Regina; Huber, Ingrid; Hogardt, Michael; Sing, Andreas

2013-03-01

377

Avalon Sexual Assault Centre  

E-print Network

494 6672 hrehp.dal.ca Get Consent www.getconsent.dal.ca Dalhousie Security Services ph. 902-494-6400 Dalhousie Security Services ph. 902-494-6400 @dalsecurity #12;Avalon Sexual Assault Centre www.getconsent.dal.ca Dalhousie Security Services ph. 902-494-6400 Dalhousie Security Services ph. 902-494-6400 @dalsecurity #12

Brownstone, Rob

378

Sexual Harassment Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Jackson Library at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro offers an annotated, hypertext discussion of resources concerning sexual harassment. The recently updated site includes numerous links to federal government and military materials as well as to important Supreme Court decisions. Websites and documents from educational and institutional sources are also linked to and described. Some documents are in .pdf format.

379

Nonvolitional sex and sexual health.  

PubMed

Nonvolitional sex is sexual behavior that violates a person's right to choose when and with whom to have sex and what sexual behaviors to engage in. The more extreme forms of this behavior include rape, forced sex, childhood sexual abuse, sex trafficking, and violence against people with nonconventional sexual identities. More nuanced forms of nonvolitional sex include engaging in sexual behavior that masks one's nonconventional sexual identity, or that protects one's position with peers, or that represents a quid pro quo for the economic support that one obtains within an intimate relationship. The aim of this essay is to highlight the ways in which nonvolitional sex threatens sexual health and to identify strategies for ameliorating this problem. These strategies will have to be as broad in scope as is the problem that they are designed to address. The essay discusses the following strategies to reduce nonvolitional sex: (1) advocacy for sexual rights, gender equality, and equality for individuals with nonconventional sexual identities; (2) primary prevention programs and interventions that offer comprehensive sexuality education that establishes volitional sex and sexual health as basic human rights; (3) health services that routinely ask clients about their experiences with nonvolitional sex in an open and culturally appropriate manner; and (4) secondary prevention programs to meet the needs of victims of nonvolitional sex identified by the "screening" programs. PMID:15129039

Kalmuss, Debra

2004-06-01

380

Sexual side effects of antidepressants.  

PubMed

Patients with depressive disorders frequently have concurrent sexual problems. The sexual dysfunction is often masked by the mood disorder, and many patients have difficulty discussing these problems openly. Thus, sexual dysfunction often is detectable only by careful inquiry. The relationship between sexual dysfunction and depressive disorders is further complicated by antidepressant therapy, which itself may cause sexual dysfunction, increasing the risk of noncompliance and relapse. This article reviews studies indicating that antidepressants may cause 30% to 40% of patients who take them to develop some degree of sexual dysfunction. Management strategies for alleviating sexual dysfunction as a complication of antidepressant treatment are discussed in terms of supporting research studies as well as practicality. Spontaneous resolution of antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunctions rarely occurs, and dose reductions may jeopardize the antidepressant effect. Antidotes, drug holidays, and timing sexual relations with respect to antidepressant dose are effective for some patients, but only a few of these strategies have been studied with double-blind paradigms. Switching to antidepressants that cause sexual dysfunction at lower rates and data comparing rates of sexual dysfunction among antidepressants are discussed. PMID:10926052

Rothschild, A J

2000-01-01

381

Young people and sexual health.  

PubMed

Prevention and control of the sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) requires attention to the characteristics of the sexual interactions between people that determine whether or not sex can be protected. These interactions are influenced by a diversity of factors, including gender inequalities, societal norms, power, socioeconomic status, knowledge, and personality. The poor, the marginalized, the young, and many women are at a disadvantage in protecting themselves from sexual exploitation and sexually transmitted diseases. Programs that seek to instill self-confidence and sexual negotiation skills in individuals overlook the pervasive influence of cultural norms. The focus of AIDS prevention programs must shift from the empowerment of individuals to community-wide considerations of sexual health. Finally, any program that seeks to encourage young people to redefine social norms governing their sexual relationships must also reach out to the adults (from parents to community leaders) who wield power over these young people. PMID:12291984

Klouda, T

1996-01-01

382

Acute sexual assault: a review.  

PubMed

Acute sexual assault includes a broad spectrum of nonconsensual sexual activity. Care of victims of acute sexual assault can be challenging, especially given the significant potential psychological and legal ramifications of the event and subsequent medical care and forensic evidence collection. In some emergency department settings, utilization of sexual assault response teams and sexual assault nurse examiners has demonstrated that a systematic approach to these patients improves care. However, given that victims of acute sexual assault are likely to present for care in emergency departments where such teams do not exist, it is critical for the emergency medicine physician, pediatrician, and family physician to have knowledge of key aspects of history taking, the physical examination, evidence collection, and medical record documentation. This review of care of the victim of acute sexual assault will provide practitioners with the tools needed to effectively evaluate these patients. PMID:22668668

Mollen, Cynthia J; Goyal, Monika K; Frioux, Sarah M

2012-06-01

383

Sexual Identity as a Universal Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter summarizes advances in current theoretical and empirical literature on sexual identity development. It proposes\\u000a a model of sexual identity that offers a more global (i.e., non-sexual identity group specific) perspective in comparison\\u000a to existing sexual identity group-specific sexual identity models. Attention to commonalities in sexual identity development\\u000a across sexual identity subgroups can offer a more global perspective that

Frank R. Dillon; Roger L. Worthington; Bonnie Moradi

384

Growth hormone and aging: A challenging controversy  

PubMed Central

Although advanced age or symptoms of aging are not among approved indications for growth hormone (GH) therapy, recombinant human GH (rhGH) and various GH-related products are aggressively promoted as anti-aging therapies. Well-controlled studies of the effects of rhGH treatment in endocrinologically normal elderly subjects report some improvements in body composition and a number of undesirable side effects in sharp contrast to major benefits of GH therapy in patients with GH deficiency. Controversies surrounding the potential utility of GH in treatment of a geriatric patient are fueled by increasing evidence linking GH and cancer and by remarkably increased lifespan of GH-resistant and GH-deficient mice. Conservation of cellular signaling mechanisms that influence aging in organisms ranging from worms to mammals suggests that at least some of the results obtained in mutant mice are applicable to the human. We suggest that the normal, physiological functions of GH in promoting growth, sexual maturation and fecundity involve significant costs in terms of aging and life expectancy. Natural decline in GH levels during aging likely contributes to concomitant alterations in body composition and vigor but also may be offering important protection from cancer and other age-associated diseases. PMID:19281058

Bartke, Andrzej

2008-01-01

385

Sex hormone binding globulin and aging.  

PubMed

New and more active concepts of steroid binding globulin action are emerging from recent research. As a result, examination of steroid levels in aging humans and the role of steroid binding globulins need to be re-visited. This review will discuss the possibility that sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) plays an active role in the aging process. It will discuss the changes in blood levels of SHBG in aging humans in association with sexual activity, prostate hypertrophy and cancer, uterine leiomyoma, breast cancer, obesity and particularly the relationship between SHBG and HDL-cholesterol, Alzheimer's disease, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease. Starting with the idea that SHBG is an active participant in steroid action demands a re-evaluation of data demonstrating a primary change in blood SHBG levels in association with various pathologies. Here we discuss the postulate that SHBG may act at its own receptor at the plasma membrane level to influence other receptors such as scavenger receptors and HDL-cholesterol receptors. We will also suggest that SHBG is a critical marker for mating and thus may be an important physiological molecule in control of aging. PMID:18956301

Caldwell, J D; Jirikowski, G F

2009-03-01

386

Blue whale earplug reveals lifetime contaminant exposure and hormone profiles  

PubMed Central

Lifetime contaminant and hormonal profiles have been reconstructed for an individual male blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus, Linnaeus 1758) using the earplug as a natural aging matrix that is also capable of archiving and preserving lipophilic compounds. These unprecedented lifetime profiles (i.e., birth to death) were reconstructed with a 6-mo resolution for a wide range of analytes including cortisol (stress hormone), testosterone (developmental hormone), organic contaminants (e.g., pesticides and flame retardants), and mercury. Cortisol lifetime profiles revealed a doubling of cortisol levels over baseline. Testosterone profiles suggest this male blue whale reached sexual maturity at approximately 10 y of age, which corresponds well with and improves on previous estimates. Early periods of the reconstructed contaminant profiles for pesticides (such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes and chlordanes), polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers demonstrate significant maternal transfer occurred at 0–12 mo. The total lifetime organic contaminant burden measured between the earplug (sum of contaminants in laminae layers) and blubber samples from the same organism were similar. Total mercury profiles revealed reduced maternal transfer and two distinct pulse events compared with organic contaminants. The use of a whale earplug to reconstruct lifetime chemical profiles will allow for a more comprehensive examination of stress, development, and contaminant exposure, as well as improve the assessment of contaminant use/emission, environmental noise, ship traffic, and climate change on these important marine sentinels. PMID:24043814

Trumble, Stephen J.; Robinson, Eleanor M.; Berman-Kowalewski, Michelle; Potter, Charles W.; Usenko, Sascha

2013-01-01

387

Endocrine Disruption of Brain Sexual Differentiation by Developmental PCB Exposure  

PubMed Central

In mammals, sexual differentiation of the hypothalamus occurs during prenatal and early postnatal development due in large part to sex differences in hormones. These early organizational processes are critically important for the attainment and maintenance of adult reproductive functions. We tested the hypothesis that perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) that disrupt hormonal pathways would perturb reproductive maturation and the sexually dimorphic development of neuroendocrine systems in the preoptic area (POA). Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected on gestational d 16 and 18 with vehicle (dimethylsulfoxide), Aroclor 1221 (A1221, an estrogenic PCB mix), a reconstituted PCB mixture representing those highest in human body burden (PCBs 138, 153, 180), or estradiol benzoate, an estrogenic control. Male and female pups were monitored for somatic and reproductive development. In adulthood, some rats were perfused and used for immunohistochemistry of estrogen receptor ?, kisspeptin, and coexpression of Fos in GnRH neurons. Other rats were used to obtain fresh-frozen POA dissections for use in a PCR-based 48-gene expression array. Pubertal onset was advanced and estrous cyclicity irregular in endocrine-disrupted females. Furthermore, sexual differentiation of female neuroendocrine systems was masculinized/defeminized. Specifically, in the adult female anteroventral periventricular nucleus, estrogen receptor ?-cell numbers and kisspeptin fiber density were significantly decreased, as was GnRH-Fos coexpression. PCR analysis identified androgen receptor, IGF-I, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit NR2b, and TGF?1 mRNAs as significantly down-regulated in endocrine-disrupted female POAs. These data suggest that developmental PCBs profoundly impair the sexual differentiation of the female hypothalamus. PMID:21190954

Dickerson, Sarah M.; Cunningham, Stephanie L.; Patisaul, Heather B.; Woller, Michael J.

2011-01-01

388

Changes of pituitary hormones in brain death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In six patients with clinical and electroencephalographic signs of brain death, pituitary hormones such as prolactin, human growth hormone (GH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and thyrotrophin (TSH) were measured in blood close to the demonstration of intracranial circulatory arrest by angiography. In addition, pituitary hormone releasing tests and an insulin test were carried out in two patients. The results showed

H. Schrader; K. Krogness; A. Aakvaag; O. Sortland; K. Purvis

1980-01-01

389

Sex hormone profiles in genital exhibitionists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen male genital exhibitionists were compared to nonviolent nonsex offender controls with respect to 9 serum hormones: cortisol, prolactin, dehydroepiandrosterone, estradiol, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, androstenedione, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, and two indices of free testosterone. There were group differences in estradiol, total testosterone and percent free testosterone. Exhibitionists had lower estradiol and testosterone but higher overall free

Reuben A. Lang; Ron Langevin; J. Bain; Roy Frenzel; Percy Wright

1989-01-01

390

[Androgens - a common biological marker of sleep disorders and selected sexual dysfunctions?].  

PubMed

The relationship between sleep disturbances and sexual dysfunctions still remains unclear. The links which indicate the importance of central nervous system and sleep mechanisms in regulations of the endocrine system seem to have bilateral character; the nature of such associations is not fully understood. The aim of the paper is to describe the influence of androgens on the relations between sexual functioning and sleep functions in patients of both sexes. The physiological role of the androgens is described with the emphasis put on the specific action of these hormones in sleep regulation, as well as the mutual relations between the regulatory role of sleep on the sexual apparatus. The newest data suggest that the androgenic hormonal profile is linked to the sleep rhythm, but not to the chronobiological diurnal rhythm in male patients. This may constitute the purpose for further research on the role of androgens in the connections between sexual and sleep disturbances. Up to date there is little known about androgens' role in sleep regulation in women. The influence of sexual activity disturbances as behavioral factors influencing the severity and the persistence of insomnia as well as their position among other factors important for the triggering of insomnia requires further scientific exploration. PMID:25314798

Holka-Pokorska, Justyna; Jarema, Marek; Wichniak, Adam

2014-01-01

391

Varieties of male-sexual-identity development in clinical practice: a neuropsychoanalytic model.  

PubMed

Variations of sexual identity development are present in all cultures, as well as in many animal species. Freud - founding father of psychoanalysis - believed that all men have an inherited, bisexual disposition, and that many varieties of love and desire are experienced as alternative pathways to intimacy. In the neuropsychoanalytic model, psychic development starts with the constitutional self. The constitutional self is comprised of the neurobiological factors which contribute to sexual identity development. These neurobiological factors are focused on biphasic sexual organization in the prenatal phase, based on variations in genes, sex hormones, and brain circuits. This psychosocial construction of sexual identity is determined through contingent mirroring by the parents and peers of the constitutional self. The development of the self-or personal identity-is linked with the development of sexual identity, gender-role identity, and procreative identity. Incongruent mirroring of the constitutional self causes alienation in the development of the self. Such alienation can be treated within the psychoanalytic relationship. This article presents a contemporary, neuropsychoanalytic, developmental theory of male-sexual identity relating to varieties in male-sexual-identity development, with implications for psychoanalytic treatment, and is illustrated with three vignettes from clinical practice. PMID:25566168

Stortelder, Frans

2014-01-01

392

Varieties of male-sexual-identity development in clinical practice: a neuropsychoanalytic model  

PubMed Central

Variations of sexual identity development are present in all cultures, as well as in many animal species. Freud – founding father of psychoanalysis – believed that all men have an inherited, bisexual disposition, and that many varieties of love and desire are experienced as alternative pathways to intimacy. In the neuropsychoanalytic model, psychic development starts with the constitutional self. The constitutional self is comprised of the neurobiological factors which contribute to sexual identity development. These neurobiological factors are focused on biphasic sexual organization in the prenatal phase, based on variations in genes, sex hormones, and brain circuits. This psychosocial construction of sexual identity is determined through contingent mirroring by the parents and peers of the constitutional self. The development of the self—or personal identity—is linked with the development of sexual identity, gender-role identity, and procreative identity. Incongruent mirroring of the constitutional self causes alienation in the development of the self. Such alienation can be treated within the psychoanalytic relationship. This article presents a contemporary, neuropsychoanalytic, developmental theory of male-sexual identity relating to varieties in male-sexual-identity development, with implications for psychoanalytic treatment, and is illustrated with three vignettes from clinical practice. PMID:25566168

Stortelder, Frans

2014-01-01

393

Hypothalamic inhibition of socio-sexual behaviour by increasing neuroestrogen synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that inhibits gonadotropin secretion and socio-sexual behaviours. Oestrogen (neuroestrogen) synthesized in the brain from androgen by aromatase regulates male socio-sexual behaviours. Here we show that GnIH directly activates aromatase and increases neuroestrogen synthesis in the preoptic area (POA) and inhibits socio-sexual behaviours of male quail. Aromatase activity and neuroestrogen concentration in the POA are low in the morning when the birds are active, but neuroestrogen synthesis gradually increases until the evening when the birds become inactive. Centrally administered GnIH in the morning increases neuroestrogen synthesis in the POA and decreases socio-sexual behaviours. Centrally administered 17?-oestradiol at higher doses also inhibits socio-sexual behaviours in the morning. These results suggest that GnIH inhibits male socio-sexual behaviours by increasing neuroestrogen synthesis beyond its optimum concentration for the expression of socio-sexual behaviours. This is the first demonstration of any hypothalamic neuropeptide that directly regulates neuroestrogen synthesis.

Ubuka, Takayoshi; Haraguchi, Shogo; Tobari, Yasuko; Narihiro, Misato; Ishikawa, Kei; Hayashi, Takanori; Harada, Nobuhiro; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

2014-01-01

394

A radioimmunoassay of chicken growth hormone using growth hormone produced by recombinant DNA technology  

E-print Network

A radioimmunoassay of chicken growth hormone using growth hormone produced by recombinant DNA technology : validation and observations of plasma hormone variations in genetically fat and lean chickens G. A radioimmunoassay (RIA) of chicken growth hormone (c-GH) has been developed using growth hormone produced

Boyer, Edmond

395

Maturation of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) and somatostatin (SRIF) neuronal systems  

E-print Network

Maturation of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) and somatostatin (SRIF) neuronal systems tyeproduction, l. N. R. A., Nouzilly, France. 1&dquo;&dquo;) Laboratoire des Hormones Polypeptidiques, C hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) and somatostatin (SRIF) were identified in the hypo- thalamus of growing

Boyer, Edmond

396

High-risk sexual offenders: an examination of sexual fantasy, sexual paraphilia, psychopathy, and offence characteristics.  

PubMed

High-risk sexual offenders are a complex and heterogeneous group of offenders about whom researchers, clinicians, and law enforcement agencies still know relatively little. In response to the paucity of information that is specifically applicable to high-risk offenders, the present study investigated the potential influence of sexual fantasy, sexual paraphilia, and psychopathy on the offending behaviour of 139 of the highest risk sexual offenders in one province of Canada. The sample included 41 child molesters, 42 rapists, 18 rapist/molesters, 30 mixed offenders, and 6 "other" sexual offenders. Two offenders could not be categorized by type due to insufficient file information. Data analyses revealed significant differences between offender types for a number of criminal history variables including past sexual and nonsexual convictions, number of victims, weapon use, and age of offending onset. Further, there were significant differences between offender types for sexual fantasy themes, paraphilia diagnoses, and levels of psychopathy. For example, results revealed that offenders' sexual fantasies were significantly more likely to correspond with the specific type of index sexual offence that they had committed. Further, offenders scoring high in psychopathy were significantly more likely to have a sadistic paraphilia than offenders with either low or moderate psychopathy scores. Results from the current study provide a refined and informed understanding of sexual offending behaviour with important implications for future research, assessment, and treatment, as well as law enforcement practices when working with high-risk sexual offenders. PMID:23395507

Woodworth, Michael; Freimuth, Tabatha; Hutton, Erin L; Carpenter, Tara; Agar, Ava D; Logan, Matt

2013-01-01

397

Network Identification of Hormonal Regulation  

PubMed Central

Relations among hormone serum concentrations are complex and depend on various factors, including gender, age, body mass index, diurnal rhythms and secretion stochastics. Therefore, endocrine deviations from healthy homeostasis are not easily detected or understood. A generic method is presented for detecting regulatory relations between hormones. This is demonstrated with a cohort of obese women, who underwent blood sampling at 10 minute intervals for 24-hours. The cohort was treated with bromocriptine in an attempt to clarify how hormone relations change by treatment. The detected regulatory relations are summarized in a network graph and treatment-induced changes in the relations are determined. The proposed method identifies many relations, including well-known ones. Ultimately, the method provides ways to improve the description and understanding of normal hormonal relations and deviations caused by disease or treatment. PMID:24852517

Vis, Daniel J.; Westerhuis, Johan A.; Hoefsloot, Huub C. J.; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; van der Greef, Jan

2014-01-01

398

Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer  

Cancer.gov

A fact sheet that describes hormone therapy (including antiestrogens, LH-RH agonists, aromatase inhibitors, and SERMs) and its role in preventing and treating breast cancer. Includes information about possible side effects.

399

Sex Hormones and Immune Dimorphism  

PubMed Central

The functioning of the immune system of the body is regulated by many factors. The abnormal regulation of the immune system may result in some pathological conditions. Sex hormones of reproductive system are one of the major factors that regulate immune system due to the presence of hormone receptors on immune cells. The interaction of sex hormones and immune cells through the receptors on these cells effect the release of cytokines which determines the proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of different types of immunocytes and as a result the outcome of inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. The different regulations of sex hormones in both sexes result in immune dimorphism. In this review article the mechanism of regulation of immune system in different sexes and its impact are discussed. PMID:25478584

Bhatia, Aruna; Sekhon, Harmandeep Kaur; Kaur, Gurpreet

2014-01-01

400

Hormones, Women and Breast Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... used therapy is a female hormone blocker called tamoxifen. A newer therapy uses a pill (anastrozole, letrozole, ... are at high risk for developing breast cancer, tamoxifen or raloxifene can also be taken to prevent ...

401

Hormones, Women and Breast Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Edition hoW is Breast cancer treated? Treatment for breast cancer depends on the type and the stage of the cancer. Typical treatments include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, anti-estrogen hormone therapy, or a combination ...

402

Hormonal Regulation of Leaf Abscission  

PubMed Central

A review is given of the progress made during the last 6 years in elucidating the nature, locus of action, and transport properties of the endogenous hormones that control leaf abscission. PMID:16657014

Jacobs, William P.

1968-01-01

403

PLANT SCIENCE: Nodules and Hormones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. A hormone-signaling pathway is crucial to the ability of certain plants to form nodules when stimulated by nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

Giles E. D. Oldroyd (John Innes Centre; Department of Disease and Stress Biology)

2007-01-05

404

Growth hormone stimulation test (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... test is performed by administering the amino acid arginine in a vein to raise hGH levels. The ... to secrete growth hormone in response to the arginine. Lack of hGH can cause growth retardation in ...

405

Side Effects of Hormone Therapy  

MedlinePLUS

... PCF Spotlight Glossary African American Men Living with Prostate Cancer Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects Urinary ... to evaluate its use in men with advanced prostate cancer. If the approach proves to be as effective ...

406

Sexual Harassment Sexual harassment is the most common type of sexual violence. Surveys show that roughly 70% of  

E-print Network

Sexual Harassment Sexual harassment is the most common type of sexual violence. Surveys show that roughly 70% of women and 15% of men have experienced sexual harassment in the workplace.1 This number does not include sexual harassment that occurs in other environments such as learning institutions or social

Machel, Hans

407

Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Men and Women Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes. The authors investigated the relation between CSA and sexual risk behavior in 827 patients recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Overall, CSA was reported by 53% of women and 49% of men and was associated with greater sexual risk behavior, including more sexual partners, unprotected

Theresa E. Senn; Michael P. Carey; Peter A. Vanable; Patricia Coury-Doniger; Marguerite A. Urban

2006-01-01

408

Women's History of Sexual Abuse, Their Sexuality, and Sexual Self-Cindy M. Meston and Alessandra H. Rellini  

E-print Network

, and Reproduction In this study, the authors assessed 48 female survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA) and 71 femaleWomen's History of Sexual Abuse, Their Sexuality, and Sexual Self- Schemas Cindy M. Meston control participants using measures of adult sexual function, psychological function (i.e., depression

Meston, Cindy

409

Implications of hormonal and neuroendocrine changes associated with seizures and antiepileptic drugs: a clinical perspective.  

PubMed

Epilepsy and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) affect hormones and neuroendocrine systems, which may result in a change in the seizure threshold (catamenial epilepsy) or in comorbidities including sexual dysfunction, reproductive dysfunction, and abnormalities in bone health. Catamenial epilepsy occurs commonly in women with epilepsy. The most commonly reported and studied mechanism proposed to explain why some women have a catamenial seizure exacerbation relates to cyclic changes in reproductive steroid hormones. Women and men with epilepsy have a higher than expected prevalence of sexual dysfunction. The epilepsy syndrome and localization influence the presentation of sexual dysfunction. Reproductive dysfunction occurs in both men and women with epilepsy. As with sexual dysfunction both the epilepsy syndrome and specific AEDs influence the presentation of reproductive dysfunction. Persons with epilepsy have an increased risk of fracture secondary to decreased bone mineral density (BMD), altered bone quality, and a propensity to fall because of either seizures or side effects of medication. Some AEDs are associated with abnormalities in BMD and bone and mineral metabolism. PMID:20618422

Pack, Alison M

2010-07-01

410

Dance and sexuality: many moves.  

PubMed

This literature review of dance and sexual expression considers dance and religion, dance and sexuality as a source of power, manifestations of sexuality in Western theater art and social dance, plus ritual and non-Western social dance. Expressions of gender, sexual orientation, asexuality, ambiguity, and adult entertainment exotic dance are presented. Prominent concerns in the literature are the awareness, closeting, and denial of sexuality in dance; conflation of sexual expression and promiscuity of gender and sexuality, of nudity and sexuality, and of dancer intention and observer interpretation; and inspiration for infusing sexuality into dance. Numerous disciplines (American studies, anthropology, art history, comparative literature, criminology, cultural studies, communication, dance, drama, English, history, history of consciousness, journalism, law, performance studies, philosophy, planning, retail geography, psychology, social work, sociology, and theater arts) have explored dance and sexual expression, drawing upon the following concepts, which are not mutually exclusive: critical cultural theory, feminism, colonialism, Orientalism, postmodernism, poststructuralism, queer theory, and semiotics. Methods of inquiry include movement analysis, historical investigation, anthropological fieldwork, autoethnography, focus groups, surveys, and self-reflection or autobiographical narrative. Directions for future exploration are addressed. PMID:20358462

Hanna, Judith Lynne

2010-03-01

411

SEXUAL HARASSMENT UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS AMHERST  

E-print Network

SEXUAL HARASSMENT POLICY AND PROCEDURES UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS AMHERST EQUAL OPPORTUNITY or studies without being sexually harassed. Sexual harassment of or by any member of the University community, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature constitute sexual harassment when: 1) submission

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

412

Urban Heterosexual Couples’ Sexual Scripts for Three Shared Sexual Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heterogeneous sample of 38 young adult heterosexual couples living in a US city (N?=?76) provided narratives about their first, most physically arousing, and most emotionally intimate sexual experiences.\\u000a Physical arousal and passion and emotional intimacy intrapsychic scripts were evident across all three sexual experiences,\\u000a although both discourses encompassed multiple sub-themes. First sexual occasions generally adhered to more traditional interpersonal

David Wyatt Seal; Michael Smith; Brenda Coley; June Perry; Maria Gamez

2008-01-01

413

Sexuality on the Internet: From Sexual Exploration to Pathological Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing number of clients are presenting in therapy with problems related to their on-line sexual habits. Adults who had used the Internet for sexual pursuits at least once (N = 9,177) completed a 59-item on-line survey. Men and women generally behaved differently, and most (92%) indicated their on-line sexual behaviors were not problematic. Heavy users (8%) reported significant problems

Alvin Cooper; Coralie R. Scherer; Sylvain C. Boies; Barry L. Gordon

1999-01-01

414

[Child sexual exploitation].  

PubMed

Child Sexual Exploitation is a complex phenomenon in our country and the world; it dates back to an ancient past but it has a very recent conceptualization and specific approach. This article proposes a tour through this process as well as some inputs for its categorization, the attention to the affected subjects by the very design of public policies taken from a concrete institutional experience. PMID:19812796

Cabello, María F; Castaldi, Paula D; Cataldo, Andrea M

2009-01-01

415

Sexualizing Sarah Palin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Sarah Palin’s candidacy for the vice-presidency, Heflick and Goldenberg (2011) empirically link female sexual objectification\\u000a with the negative perceptions and poor performances of female candidates. We argue that the authors undersell the importance\\u000a of their findings, especially considering shifts in the content and ubiquitousness of mass media. Advances in communication\\u000a technologies have enabled a new era of objectification, marked

Caroline Heldman; Lisa Wade

416

SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Find links to various topics below: CDC = Center for Disease Control and Prevention CDC- A-Z Index CDC- Diesease and Conditions writeInsertLink('projectBody','CDC- Diesease and Conditions'); CDC - HIV/AIDS STDs CDC - HIV Basic Information CDC - HIV - LInks to other resources CDC - STD Picture Cards Herpes-Coldsores Kids Health MedlinePlus - Sexually Transmitted Diseases Teen Health Wellness real life real answers ...

Ms. Schultz

2010-10-27

417

Sexuality in Parkinsonism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parkinson’s disease has traditionally been considered as a pure motor condition; characterized by tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia\\u000a and slow postural reflexes. Disability can be seen in the patients with Parkinson’s disease. In additional to general physical\\u000a and psychological aberration, sexual dysfunction is common in Parkinson’s disease, occurring as a non-motor manifestation\\u000a of the illness but often compounded by secondary problems relating

Viroj Wiwanitkit

2008-01-01

418

Diabetes and Sexual Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes is a complex disease that affects both men and women, resulting in a myriad of physical and psychological conditions.\\u000a Sexual dysfunction is a common, devastating complication of diabetes that significantly impacts quality of life, and as such\\u000a must be addressed and treated. The most common complications in men with diabetes are erectile dysfunction, low testosterone,\\u000a and premature ejaculation. Women

Donna Rice; Janis Roszler; Jo Anne B. Farrell

419

Doing sexuality in sport.  

PubMed

Based on interviews with Norwegian athletes living as lesbians, gays and bisexuals, this article investigates the possible subversive effect of queer visibility in sport. While female athletes living as lesbians sometimes create queer alternative spaces within mainstream sport contexts, male athletes acting openly as homosexuals challenge heteronormative discourses by attempting to disrupt hegemonic beliefs about homosexual behavior. The sexual practices of both groups confirm as well as challenge the laws of heteronormativity. PMID:18771115

Eng, Heidi

2008-01-01

420

Sexually Transmitted Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) affect an estimated 19 million people a year in the United States. Clinicians who may\\u000a encounter patients with STDs need to be aware of treatment guidelines and recent changes in treatment recommendations. For\\u000a example, due to increased resistance, fluoroquinolones are no longer recommended for the treatment of infections due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Recent new approaches also

Alice C. Thornton; Bojana Stevich; Janet N. Arno; Barbara Van Der Pol

421

The Role of Attention in Sexual Arousal: Implications for Treatment of Sexual Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on the role of attention in sexual arousal is reviewed, especially that which has implications for noninvasive treatment of sexual dysfunction. Findings suggest that voluntary control of sexual arousal can be achieved through attentional focus on nonsexual cognitions or sexual fantasy. Cognitive biases may direct attention and thus facilitate or impede sexual arousal. Sexual arousal may be influenced

David C. de Jong

2009-01-01

422

Sexual Victimization among Spanish College Women and Risk Factors for Sexual Revictimization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual revictimization is frequent among victims of child sexual abuse. Several variables, such as sexual experience, substance abuse, and sexual assertiveness, have been proposed to explain the link between child sexual abuse and adolescent and adult sexual victimization, although they have typically been tested separately. The main objective of…

Santos-Iglesias, Pablo; Sierra, Juan Carlos

2012-01-01

423

28 CFR 115.311 - Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator.  

...2014-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator... § 115.311 Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator...zero tolerance toward all forms of sexual abuse and sexual harassment and outlining...

2014-07-01

424

28 CFR 115.211 - Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator.  

...2014-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator... § 115.211 Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator...zero tolerance toward all forms of sexual abuse and sexual harassment and outlining...

2014-07-01

425

28 CFR 115.311 - Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator... § 115.311 Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator...zero tolerance toward all forms of sexual abuse and sexual harassment and outlining...

2013-07-01

426

28 CFR 115.211 - Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator... § 115.211 Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator...zero tolerance toward all forms of sexual abuse and sexual harassment and outlining...

2013-07-01

427

28 CFR 115.211 - Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator... § 115.211 Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator...zero tolerance toward all forms of sexual abuse and sexual harassment and outlining...

2012-07-01

428

The Relationship Between Exposure to Sexual Music Videos and Young Adults' Sexual Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between exposure to sexual music videos and young people's sexual attitudes (i.e., premarital sexual permissiveness and endorsement of the sexual double standard). Items gauging exposure to 75 music videos ranging in sexual explicitness were used to measure sexual video viewing among a sample of 266 undergraduate students. As expected, exposure

Yuanyuan Zhang; Laura E. Miller; Kristen Harrison

2008-01-01

429

Treatment of sexually compulsive adolescents.  

PubMed

We clarified the nature of sexual compulsivity in adolescence, addressed who is labeled as "sexually compulsive youth," conceptualized the underlying factors of sexual compulsivity, and outlined a treatment format. We focused on trauma, dissociation, attachment, and self-concept. We questioned the conventional perceptions of who is included in this group. We reiterated that the belief that sexually compulsive adolescents are abusive males is no longer considered accurate. The evolution and accessibility of the Internet only raises greater concerns about compulsive sexual behavior, as more adolescents are brought into therapy because of Internet use to seek sexual interaction or stimulation. The sexually compulsive youth is as likely to be the clean-cut, high-achieving, intelligent student as is the economically deprived, juvenile delinquent on the street. This article began with the observation that adolescents rarely receive any direct, accurate information about sexuality and intimacy. The messages taken in through music, television, movies, politicians, popular press, clergy, and school are polarizing and contradictory. Beyond this are the implications as to how we, as a society, treat the youths that do present with sexual behavior problems. We have tended to treat these youth (as well as adults) with disdain and to designate sexually abusive youth the same as adult offenders with harsher, more punitive treatment interventions. Research and clinical experience now strongly question this type of response. This article is consistent with this leaning. Early psychological injury, from sexual abuse, physical abuse, exposure to violence, attachment trauma, or early sexualization, is at the root of sexually compulsive behavior. While it is necessary to reign in out-of-control and destructive behaviors, if we acknowledge that the source of the behavior is psychological injury, then it is cruel and inconsistent to treat the individual with disdain or as a pariah. The same dilemma is present with adult sexual addicts and offenders. Our society must develop a response to sexually compulsive or offensive behavior that can protect those who need protection, while implementing a rational legal response and providing treatment options for the underlying injury. Perhaps even more importantly, our society must learn how to educate adolescents about sexuality with clear, accurate information that includes not only reproduction but sexual response and intimacy as well. PMID:18996305

Gerber, James

2008-12-01

430

Cholinergic Modulation of Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone Effects on Growth Hormone Secretion in Dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An impairment of cholinergic and somatostatinergic neurotransmission have been reported in dementia. Both acetylcholine and somatostatin are involved in the regulation of growth hormone (GH) secretion. The effects of GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) 1–44 on GH release have been studied before and after the pretreatment with pyridostigmine or pirenzepine in subjects with senile dementia of the Alzheimer type, multi-infarct dementia and

Giovanni Murialdo; Francesco Zerbi; Ugo Filippi; Pietro Tosca; Stefano Fonzi; Enrica Di Paolo; Patrizia Costelli; Savino Porro; Alessandro Polleri; Faustino Savoldi

1991-01-01

431

Synergistic Induction of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone -Subunit Gene Expression by Gonadal Steroid Hormone  

E-print Network

Synergistic Induction of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone -Subunit Gene Expression by Gonadal Steroid Hormone Receptors and Smad Proteins Varykina G. Thackray and Pamela L. Mellon Departments of Reproductive by mediating steroidogenesis and gametogenesis. Gonadal ste- roid hormones influence gonadotropin production

Mellon, Pamela L.

432

Military sexual trauma.  

PubMed

Nurses' awareness of MST as a specific type of sexual assault within the military culture and sensitivity to the physical and psychological symptoms are important aspects of care. Nurses must treat the physical and emotional components of sexual assault in all settings; however, referral to the veterans administration programs and resources is key for the woman veteran to receive the specialized care developed by the healthcare system. Women veterans who have PTSD from MST and combat exposure are prone to depression, suicide and substance use/abuse. Nurses must not fear asking the woman if she is having suicidal thoughts or has a plan and intent to follow through with the plan. MST and PTSD may result in internalized anger, shame, self-blame, helplessness, hopelessness and powerlessness. Patient safety is of utmost importance. Assessing Patients for Sexual Violence, A Guide for Health Care Providers (2009) is a useful resource for nurses. The National Center for PTSD (2009) newsletter on the topic of MST includes a list of research studies. The work of Benedict (2007) and Corbett (2007) provide additional personal accounts of women soldiers who were in the Middle East conflicts. The nurse's referral to specialized services to treat MST and PTSD with evidence-based therapies is a crucial first step in the resiliency and well-being of these brave women who have served in all branches of the U.S. military. PMID:22359967

Wieland, Diane M; Haley, Jenna L; Bouder, Michelle

2011-12-01

433

Greater Exposure to Sexual Content in Popular Movies Predicts Earlier Sexual Debut and Increased Sexual Risk Taking  

PubMed Central

Early sexual debut is associated with risky sexual behavior and an increased risk of unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections later in life. The relations among early movie sexual exposure (MSE), sexual debut, and risky sexual behavior in adulthood (i.e., multiple sexual partners and inconsistent condom use) were examined in a longitudinal study of U.S. adolescents. MSE was measured using the Beach method, a comprehensive procedure for media content coding. Controlling for characteristics of adolescents and their families, analyses showed that MSE predicted age of sexual debut, both directly and indirectly through changes in sensation seeking. MSE also predicted engagement in risky sexual behaviors both directly and indirectly via early sexual debut. These results suggest that MSE may promote sexual risk taking both by modifying sexual behavior and by accelerating the normal rise in sensation seeking during adolescence. PMID:22810165

O’Hara, Ross E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D.

2013-01-01

434

Men's reproductive and sexual health.  

PubMed

A broad definition of men's reproductive and sexual health (MRSH) includes medical (pathophysiological) matters such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs), developmental anomalies, malignancy, trauma, and infertility. It also includes psychosocial concerns: sexuality, contraception, disease prophylaxis, developmental and lifecycle issues, tobacco and drug use, sexual identity and orientation, and partnership issues. College men, of whom a large majority are sexually active, have a range of MRSH needs, including some that are particular to their age and social environment. To reach men effectively requires approaches that are somewhat different from those used with women. Clinicians in college health services are in an excellent position to help young men recognize the importance of reproductive health and sexual responsibility. College health services therefore should offer men screening; clinical diagnosis and treatment for MRSH conditions; and information, education, and counseling services, in a manner designed to meet their unique needs. PMID:11413943

Forrest, K A

2001-05-01

435

Are genes of human intelligence related to the metabolism of thyroid and steroids hormones? - endocrine changes may explain human evolution and higher intelligence.  

PubMed

We propose the hypothesis that genes of human intelligence are related with metabolism of thyroid and steroids hormones, which have a crucial role in brain development and function. First, there is evidence to support the idea that during hominid evolution small genetic differences were related with significant endocrine changes in thyroid and steroids hormones. Second, these neuroactive hormones are also related with unique features of human evolution such as body and brain size increase, penis and breast enlargement, pelvic sexual dimorphism, active sexuality, relative lack of hair and higher longevity. Besides underling many of the differences between humans and great apes, steroids hormones promote brain growth and development, are important in the myelination process, explain sexual dimorphisms in brain and intelligence and improve specific cognitive abilities in humans. Supporting our hypothesis, recent studies indicate differences in neuroactive hormones metabolism between humans and non-human primates. Furthermore, a link between X chromosome genes and sex steroids may explain why the frequency of genes affecting intelligence is so high on the X chromosome. This association suggests that, during hominid evolution, there was a positive feedback in both sexes on the same genes responsible for secondary sexual character development and intelligence. This interaction leads to acceleration of development of human brain and intelligence. Finally, we propose that neuroactive hormone therapy may provide significant improvement in some cognitive deficits in all stages of human life and in cases of neurodegenerative diseases. However, further investigation is needed, mainly in the enzymatic machinery, in order to understand the direct role of these hormones in intelligence. PMID:16122877

Correia, H R; Balseiro, S C; de Areia, M L

2005-01-01

436

Sexual satisfaction in male infertility.  

PubMed

Infertility is proposed to be a continuing stressor for couples suffering from involuntary childlessness. A long duration of the desire for a child and, correspondingly, a longer period of diagnostic and treatment procedures could have a negative impact on sexual satisfaction, thus leading to an unfavorable psychological circuit. The present evaluation should clarify the state of sexual satisfaction and relationships, with relevant parameters in 68 men with fertility problems, of couples with involuntary childlessness. Subjects reported relatively high average levels of present sexual satisfaction with only nonsignificant lower scores (p = .08) compared to recalled sexual satisfaction prior to diagnosis of infertility. Multiple regression analyses revealed that a positive age difference between men and their spouses (p = .042) and a higher weekly coitus frequency (p = .002) were the only significant parameters associated independently with higher sexual satisfaction. Neither the age of partners, attitudes toward sexuality, treatment duration, duration of the partnership and the duration of the desire for a child, nor andrological findings had an influence on present sexual satisfaction. The results propose that treatment duration and duration of the desire for a child may not necessarily be connected to lowered sexual satisfaction in infertile males and that coitus frequency seems to be an indicator of sexual satisfaction in this patient group. PMID:10407644

Müller, M J; Schilling, G; Haidl, G

1999-01-01

437

Male sexual dysfunction in Asia  

PubMed Central

Sex has always been a taboo subject in Asian society. However, over the past few years, awareness in the field of men's sexual health has improved, and interest in sexual health research has recently increased. The epidemiology and prevalence of erectile dysfunction, hypogonadism and premature ejaculation in Asia are similar in the West. However, several issues are specific to Asian males, including culture and beliefs, awareness, compliance and the availability of traditional/complementary medicine. In Asia, sexual medicine is still in its infancy, and a concerted effort from the government, relevant societies, physicians and the media is required to propel sexual medicine to the forefront of health care. PMID:21643001

Ho, Christopher CK; Singam, Praveen; Hong, Goh Eng; Zainuddin, Zulkifli Md

2011-01-01

438

Condom use during sexual assault.  

PubMed

This study examines questions about forced unprotected sex. Study objectives include assessing the prevalence of condom use in sexual assault and improving our understanding of the correlates of condom use in sexual assault. We analyze 841 sexual assault complaints reported to three law enforcement agencies. Descriptive data are used to assess the prevalence of condom use in sexual assault and to examine the contextual factors associated with condom use in sexual assault. We conduct logistic regression analysis to examine motivations for condom use during sexual assault. Condom use prevalence rates across the sites range from 11.7% to 15.6%. Few differences exist across jurisdictions regarding the correlates of condom use. Condom use during sexual assault appears to be motivated by three contextual factors. Younger suspects and suspects who use a weapon during assaults are more likely to use a condom. The suspect's use of alcohol is negatively related to condom use. The low rates of condom use found in this study, coupled with the dangers of unprotected sexual contact, suggest that public health efforts must address the needs of victims of sexual assault more carefully. PMID:23910843

O'Neal, Eryn Nicole; Decker, Scott H; Spohn, Cassia; Tellis, Katharine

2013-08-01

439

Sexual Health for Older Women  

PubMed Central

This article presents findings from a review of the evidence regarding sexual health for older women from MEDLINE, SCOPUS and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINHAL) databases. A total of 10 articles based on primary studies, reporting about the sexuality or sexual health of older women (and older people), and published between 2002–2012, were deemed suitable. The major themes that emerged from the available literature suggest that the sexual health of older people is affected by factors such as physical changes, mental health, changes to their relationship with their husband, chronic ill health and other psychosocial situations. It is concluded that nurses and other healthcare providers have a range of interventions that can be adopted to promote sexual health among older women. These interventions may focus on improving the older woman’s sexual health assessment; increasing awareness and knowledge about sexuality in later life; pharmacological and psychotherapeutic therapies; using alternative techniques to achieve better sexual functioning; addressing partner and relationship issues, and advocating the importance of sexual health through media and policy development. PMID:24273655

Muliira, Joshua K.; Muliira, Rhoda S.

2013-01-01

440

Sexual transmission of viral hepatitis.  

PubMed

Identification and vaccination of adults at risk for hepatitis B virus acquisition through sexual contact is a key strategy to reduce new hepatitis B virus infections among at-risk adults. Hepatitis C has emerged as a sexually transmitted infection among men with male sex partners (MSM). Several biological and behavioral factors have been linked to hepatitis C virus transmission among MSM, including human immunodeficiency virus coinfection; participation in sexual practices that result in mucosal damage or result in exposure to blood; presence of sexually transmitted diseases (STIs), particularly ulcerative STIs; multiple/casual sex partners; and unprotected anal intercourse. PMID:24275272

Gorgos, Linda

2013-12-01

441

Exposure to Sexual Lyrics and Sexual Experience Among Urban Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background Two thirds of all sexual references in music are degrading in nature, yet it remains uncertain whether these references promote earlier sexual activity. The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex in popular music is independently associated with sexual behavior in a cohort of urban adolescents. Methods All ninth-grade health students at three large urban high schools completed in-school surveys in 2006 and 2007. Participants’ exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex was computed with overall music exposure and content analyses of their favorite artists’ songs. Outcomes included sexual intercourse and progression along a noncoital sexual continuum. Multivariable regression was used to assess independent associations between exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex and outcomes. Results The 711 participants were exposed to 14.7 hours each week of songs with lyrics describing degrading sex (SD=17.0). Almost one third of participants (n=216) had previously been sexually active. Compared to those with the least exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex, those with the most exposure were more than twice as likely to have had sexual intercourse (OR=2.07; 95% CI=1.26, 3.41), even after adjusting for all covariates. Similarly, among those who had not had sexual intercourse, those in the highest tertile of exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex were nearly twice as likely to have progressed along a noncoital sexual continuum (OR=1.88; 95% CI=1.23, 2.88) compared to those in the lowest tertile. Finally, the relationships between exposure to lyrics describing nondegrading sex and sexual outcomes were not significant. Conclusions This study supports an association between exposure to lyrics describing degrading sex in popular music and early sexual experience among adolescents. PMID:19285196

Primack, Brian A.; Douglas, Erika L.; Fine, Michael J.; Dalton, Madeline A.

2010-01-01

442

18 CFR 1300.104 - Sexual harassment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sexual harassment. 1300.104 Section 1300...VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1300.104 Sexual harassment. It is TVA policy that...that the workplace is free from sexual harassment. Accordingly, all...

2010-04-01

443

18 CFR 1300.104 - Sexual harassment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sexual harassment. 1300.104 Section 1300...VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1300.104 Sexual harassment. It is TVA policy that...that the workplace is free from sexual harassment. Accordingly, all...

2011-04-01

444

18 CFR 1300.104 - Sexual harassment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sexual harassment. 1300.104 Section 1300...VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1300.104 Sexual harassment. It is TVA policy that...that the workplace is free from sexual harassment. Accordingly, all...

2012-04-01

445

Sexuality for the Woman with Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Topic How the female body works sexually Cancer, sex, and sexuality When you first learned you had ... affect your sexual function. What is a normal sex life? People vary a great deal in their ...

446

Implicit cognitive distortions and sexual offending.  

PubMed

This work develops and tests the semantic-motivation hypothesis of sexual offenders' implicit cognitions. This hypothesis posits that sexual offenders' cognitive distortions emerge at the interface between implicit motivation and cognition. The semantic-motivation hypothesis is used to guide the development of 3 implicit association tests (IATs). These IATs were used to test for the existence of 3 expected child sexual offender implicit cognitive distortions in child sexual offenders ("children as sexual beings," "uncontrollability of sexuality," and "sexual entitlement-bias"). Results showed that child sexual offenders had larger IAT effects than did mainstream offenders and male and female nonoffenders for the "children as sexual beings" and the "uncontrollability of sexuality" implicit theories. Child sexual offenders also had a larger IAT effect than male and female nonoffenders for the "sexual entitlement-bias" implicit theory. Implications for the semantic-motivation hypothesis are discussed. PMID:15560415

Mihailides, Stephen; Devilly, Grant J; Ward, Tony

2004-10-01

447

Interrelationships among Sexual Guilt, Experience, Misinformation and Satisfaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has suggested that high levels of sexual guilt lead to decreased exposure to sexual behaviors, sexual stimuli, or sexual information. A study was conducted to examine the interrelationships among the variables of sexual guilt, sexual experience, sexual misinformation, and sexual satisfaction. College students (N=125), selected through a…

Holland, Abby L.; Johnson, Mark E.

448

Hormonal Regulation of Nuclear Permeability*?  

PubMed Central

Transport into the nucleus is critical for regulation of gene transcription and other intranuclear events. Passage of molecules into the nucleus depends in part upon their size and the presence of appropriate targeting sequences. However, little is known about the effects of hormones or their second messengers on transport across the nuclear envelope. We used localized, two-photon activation of a photoactivatable green fluorescent protein to investigate whether hormones, via their second messengers, could alter nuclear permeability. Vasopressin other hormones that increase cytosolic Ca2+ and activate protein kinase C increased permeability across the nuclear membrane of SKHep1 liver cells in a rapid unidirectional manner. An increase in cytosolic Ca2+ was both necessary and sufficient for this process. Furthermore, localized photorelease of caged Ca2+ near the nuclear envelope resulted in a local increase in nuclear permeability. Neither activation nor inhibition of protein kinase C affected nuclear permeability. These findings provide evidence that hormones linking to certain G protein-coupled receptors increase nuclear permeability via cytosolic Ca2+. Short term regulation of nuclear permeability may provide a novel mechanism by which such hormones permit transcription factors and other regulatory molecules to enter the nucleus, thereby regulating gene transcription in target cells. PMID:17158097

O'Brien, Elizabeth M.; Gomes, Dawidson A.; Sehgal, Sona; Nathanson, Michael H.

2010-01-01

449

Sexually disrupting effects of nonylphenol and diethylstilbestrol on male silver carp ( Carassius auratus) in aquatic microcosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on detected nonylphenol (NP) levels in aquaculture water, this study investigated sexually disrupting effects in mature male silver carp (Carassius auratus) exposed to NP and a positive control diethylstilbestrol (DES). The combined evidences of steroid hormone (17?-estradiol, estrone and testosterone) levels and hispathological pictures showed that NP (?10?g\\/L) and DES could exert estrogenic effects through indirect mechanisms [i.e. increased

Lihua Yang; Li Lina; Shaoping Weng; Zhiqin Feng; Tiangang Luan

2008-01-01

450

Male sexual signaling is defective in mutants of the apterous gene of Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theapterous (ap) gene ofDrosophila melanogaster exhibits extreme pleiotrophy: its functioning is essential for life, normal wing structure, juvenile hormone production, female fertility, and normal development of female sexual receptivity. Four mutantap alleles (ap4,ap56f,apc, andapblt) were characterized for three additional phenotypes: male mating success, courtship behavior, and immature male sex appeal (the ability of males to stimulate homosexual cortship). Mating success

John Ringo; Ruth Werczberger; Daniel Segal

1992-01-01

451

Sexuality among Adolescents with Moderate Disabilities: Promoting Positive Sexual Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescents with moderate disabilities are not being given vital information regarding their sexuality and ways to behave responsibly with their peers. This article examines the laws that govern the education of all persons with disabilities, how societal norms and attitudes have contributed to this lack of sexuality knowledge, how these…

Harader, Dana L.; Fullwood, Harry; Hawthorne, Melissa

2009-01-01

452

Sexual size dimorphism and sexual selection in turtles (order testudines)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper combines published and original data on sexual size dimorphism, reproductive behavior, and habitat types in turtles. Our major finding is that observed patterns of sexual size dimorphism correlate with habitat type and male mating strategy. (1) In most terrestrial species, males engage in combat with each other. Males typically grow larger than females. (2) In semiaquatic and “bottom-walking”

James F. Berry; Richard Shine

1980-01-01

453

ORIGINAL PAPER The Association Between Sexual Motives and Sexual Satisfaction  

E-print Network

``input.''Wecontend,however,thatdistinguishing between different motives is important because different rea- sons for having sex may lead to differentORIGINAL PAPER The Association Between Sexual Motives and Sexual Satisfaction: Gender Differences / Revised: 1 March 2010 / Accepted: 26 June 2010 / Published online: 22 October 2010 Ã? Springer Science

Meston, Cindy

454

Developmental Antecedents of Sexual Coercion in Juvenile Sexual Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has linked adult sex offending behavior to a multiplicity of variables, including juvenile delinquency and the experience of childhood abuse. The purpose of this study was to explore developmental pathways among childhood abuse, juvenile delinquency, and personality dimensions possibly conducive to adolescent sexual coercion. Using a retrospective self-report inventory, we measured the extent to which juvenile sexual offenders

Grant M. Johnson; Raymond A. Knight

2000-01-01

455

The Transmissibility of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Sexually Abused Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarizes what is known about, and research needs on, the transmissibility to sexually abused children of the following sexually transmitted diseases: gonorrhea, chlamydia trachomatis, human papillomavirus genital warts, condylomata acuminata, syphilis, bacterial vaginosis, trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex, and human…

Hammerschlag, Margaret R.

1998-01-01

456

Sexual Learning, Sexual Experience, and Healthy Adolescent Sex  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter is organized around the question "How do adolescents learn to have healthy sex?" The chapter assumes that sexual learning derives from a broad range of both informal and formal sources that contribute to learning within the context of neurocognitive brain systems that modulate sexual motivations and self-regulation. The…

Fortenberry, J. Dennis

2014-01-01

457

TIPS FOR GRADUATE STUDENTS Teaching Assistants and Sexual Harassment  

E-print Network

TIPS FOR GRADUATE STUDENTS Teaching Assistants and Sexual Harassment Graduate students, generally, sexual harassment, discrimination, and the injection of romantic or sexual overtones into relationships, regulations, and policies applicable to you. Sexual Harassment Sexual harassment is a form of sex

Oklahoma, University of

458

Sexual narcissism and infidelity in early marriage.  

PubMed

There is theoretical reason to believe that narcissism is associated with infidelity. Yet, studies that have examined this association have yielded inconsistent results. Given that these inconsistencies may have emerged because prior studies used global assessments of narcissism that do not capture the extent to which the components of narcissism are activated in the sexual domain, the current research drew from two longitudinal studies of 123 married couples to examine the extent to which sexual narcissism predicted marital infidelity. Consistent with the idea that narcissism predicts sexual behavior when activated in the sexual domain, own sexual narcissism was positively associated with infidelity, controlling for own marital and sexual satisfaction, own globally-assessed narcissism, partner globally-assessed narcissism, and partner sexual narcissism. Helping to explain why this association emerged, further analyses demonstrated that it was driven by all four facets of sexual narcissism-sexual exploitation, grandiose sense of sexual skill, sexual entitlement (Study 1 only), and lack of sexual empathy (husbands only). Additionally, although partner sexual narcissism was unrelated to infidelity on average, partners' grandiose sense of sexual skill and partners' sexual entitlement (Study 2 only) were positively associated with infidelity, and partners' lack of sexual empathy was negatively associated with infidelity (Study 2 only). These findings highlight the benefits of using domain-specific measures of sexual narcissism in research on sexual behavior and the benefits of using domain-specific measures of personality more generally. PMID:24696386

McNulty, James K; Widman, Laura

2014-10-01

459

Child sexual abuse, peer sexual abuse, and sexual assault in adulthood: a multi-risk model of revictimization.  

PubMed

This study explored the predictors and consequences of sexual assault occurring after the age of 16 years in a nonclinical sample of women. Child sexual abuse occurring before the age of 16 years was the only predictor of later sexual assault among comorbid risk factors. Peer sexual abuse, number of perpetrators, age at time of sexual abuse, and severity of sexual abuse did not increase the risk for later sexual assault. Adult sexual assault victims showed lower levels of mental health functioning than did survivors of child or peer sexual abuse. We discuss a specificity model of revictimization and the differential effects of child, peer, and adult sexual trauma on the developmental trajectory of sexual violence and psychosocial functioning. PMID:11469162

Maker, A H; Kemmelmeier, M; Peterson, C

2001-04-01

460

Effects of exogenous testosterone on testicular luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone receptors during aging.  

PubMed

During aging, the male Japanese quail exhibits a loss of fertility, increased morphological abnormalities in the testes, and a higher incidence of Sertoli cell tumors. Although there is a coincident loss of reproductive behavior, plasma androgen levels remain high until testicular regression occurs in association with senescence. The purpose of this study was to compare mean specific binding of chicken luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) as a measure of testicular receptors during identified stages during aging. Males were categorized according to age (young = 9 months, middle aged = 24 months, or old = 36+ months) and sexual behavior (active or inactive). Testicular samples were collected immediately after perfusion with 4% paraformaldehyde from the following groups: young active (n = 8), young photoregressed (n = 5), young photoregressed plus testosterone implant (n = 4), middle-aged active (n = 8), middle-aged inactive (n = 4), old inactive (n = 5), and old inactive plus testosterone implant (n = 6). A crude plasma membrane fraction was prepared from the testes of each bird and an aliquot deriving from 10 mg of testicular tissue was used for binding assay. Specific binding of labeled LH or FSH was expressed as percentage of total radioactive hormone. Results showed significant (P < 0.05) age-related decreases in both FSH and LH receptor numbers. The highest FSH binding was found in young and middle-aged active males, with low binding in old inactive males. Testicular LH binding decreased during aging, with a sharp decrease in middle-aged males, which was similar to old males. Testosterone implants weakly stimulated FSH and LH binding in old males. Both LH and FSH binding decreased in photoregressed young males. However, testosterone implants stimulated increased LH binding, but did not affect FSH binding in young photoregressed males. These results provide evidence for separate regulation of testicular LH and FSH receptors, with testosterone stimulation of LH receptor, but not FSH receptor number in young males. However, during aging there appears to be a loss of this response, potentially because of the reduced efficacy of testosterone stimulation, thereby implying a diminished capacity for response with aging. PMID:12324665

Ottinger, M A; Kubakawa, K; Kikuchi, M; Thompson, N; Ishii, S

2002-10-01

461

Management of sexual assault.  

PubMed

The incidence of sexual assault continues to escalate, and it is under-reported. Victim care requires special attention in the emergency department because the history and physical examination are unique and frequently time consuming. The victim should receive counseling and treatment for potential STDs, HIV, and hepatitis exposure, while stressing the importance of follow-up care. The emergency department physician must fulfill obligations not only to the patient but also to law enforcement. To be done well, documentation of findings and the completion of the evidentiary portion of the exam require a familiarity with the process. PMID:11554289

Patel, M; Minshall, L

2001-08-01

462

Sexual minority youth.  

PubMed

This article provides an overview of the medical and mental health needs of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth population. Information is reviewed regarding both primary medical care and the special health risks that these youth face. Providers are introduced to the concept that societal and internalized homophobia lead directly to certain health disparities, including substance use, school and family rejection, depression, and increased sexually transmitted infection acquisition. This article familiarizes the primary care practitioner with the health care needs of the LGBT population and the research behind the various recommendations for caring for these youth. PMID:25124211

Steever, John; Francis, Jenny; Gordon, Lonna P; Lee, Janet

2014-09-01

463

Challenging Sexual Harassment on Campus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than thirty years ago, an administrative assistant at Cornell University first challenged her university's indifference to her boss's sexually predatory behavior. While she did not prevail, her case sparked a movement. Litigation, news stories, and government guidelines defining sexual harassment followed. And universities responded: policies…

Baker, Nancy V.

2010-01-01

464

Sexual dysfunctions of the alcoholic  

Microsoft Academic Search

After reviewing the theories proposed as models for alcoholism, a picture seems to emerge that may serve to incorporate the sexual dysfunctions occuring in chronic alcoholism. So far, neither the clinical anecdotal data, nor the recent research on non-alcoholics conducted in controlled laboratory conditions could explain the persistence of sexual ysfunctions after years of sobriety. The seemingly paradoxical appearance, during

Irene Gad-Luther

1980-01-01

465

Predictors of naturalistic sexual aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research integrated within a theoretical and empirical framework varied predictor factors pertaining to males' sexual aggression against women. The selection of predictors was guided by theorizing that sexual aggression is caused by the interaction among multiple factors, including those creating the motivation for the act, those reducing internal and external inhibitions, and those providing the op- portunity for the

Neil M. Malamuth

1986-01-01

466

Psychological consequences of sexual assault.  

PubMed

Sexual violence is an important issue worldwide and can have long-lasting and devastating consequences. In this chapter, we outline the psychological reactions to serious sexual assault and rape, including development of post-traumatic stress disorder. Myths and stereotypes surrounding this subject, and their potential effect on the emotional response and legal situation, are discussed. PMID:23182852

Mason, Fiona; Lodrick, Zoe

2013-02-01

467

Sexual Harassment: It's Not Academic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual harassment of students is illegal. A federal law, "Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972" ("Title IX"), prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex, including sexual harassment, in education programs and activities. All public and private education institutions that receive any federal funds must comply with "Title IX." "Title IX"…

US Department of Education, 2008

2008-01-01

468

Sexual Attitudes of College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the sexual attitudes of college students at a western Kansas university. The independent variables employed were gender, family structure, family sex communication, age, and classification. The dependent variables were the following subscales of sexual attitudes: permissiveness, sex practices, communion, and…

Etchison, Marilyn G.

469

[Sexually transmitted coinfections. HIV coinfections].  

PubMed

Coinfections of sexually transmitted infections are frequent due to the same transmission routes which may facilitate the transmission of other sexually transmitted infections. Sexually transmitted coinfections are associated with atypical and generally more severe clinical features, more complications, resistency to treatment, unfavourable outcome, and worse prognosis. Sexually transmitted infections may increase the likelihood of acquiring and transmission of HIV infection. The authors summarize the most important characteristics of sexually transmitted infections (such as HIV and hepatitis B virus, HIV and hepatitis C virus, HIV and syphilis, HIV and gonorrhoeae, HIV and chlamydia coinfections). These infections are more frequent in HIV infected patients than in the normal population. The shared transmission routes, impairment of the immune response, elevated cytokine levels and the associated inflammatory milieu produce local tissue damage, breaches in mucosal epithelium, which increases the risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Regular screening for sexually transmitted infections, use of more sensitive diagnostic methods, improved reporting and avoidance of unsafe sexual behaviour among certain subpopulations as well as education are essential in the prevention of sexually transmitted coinfections. Orv. Hetil., 2015, 156(1), 4-9. PMID:25544048

Marschalkó, Márta; Pónyai, Katinka; Kárpáti, Sarolta

2015-01-01

470

Teacher Negotiations of Sexual Subjectivities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discrimination often silences and marginalizes those who do not conform to the dominant gender and (hetero)sexual discourses that operate in broader society. This discussion addresses the ways that seventeen self-identified lesbian teachers working in New South Wales (NSW) Australia negotiate their sexual subjectivities at work in order to pass or…

Ferfolja, Tania

2007-01-01

471

Sexual Revictimization Revisited: A Commentary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the early 1990s, there has been an increase in scholarly work and theoretical writing on the topic of sexual revictimization--particularly of women. The foundation for this work was set earlier when it was noted that rape and sexual assault were traumatic, more widespread than anyone could ever imagine, and many adult rape victims had…

Gidycz, Christine A.

2011-01-01

472

Sexuality, Television and Broadcast Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph provides a rationale for contemporary guidelines for the television and broadcast network management of sexual content in proposed progam materials. Beginning with a brief outline of the professional practices and responsibilities of broadcast standards editors, it then explores the relationships between sexual development,…

Heller, Melvin S.

473

Child Sexual Abuse by Caretakers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study undertook to identify the characteristics of caretakers who commit child sexual abuse. Among 2,372 cases of founded sexual abuse in Iowa, biologically unrelated caretakers were substantially overrepresented, and male perpetrators greatly outnumbered female perpetrators. Implications for practice are discussed. (Author/TE)

Margolin, Leslie; Craft, John L.

1989-01-01

474

Terapia hormonal para el cáncer de próstata  

Cancer.gov

Hoja informativa que describe la terapia hormonal y su función en el tratamiento del cáncer de próstata. Incluye información acerca de los tipos diferentes de terapia hormonal, cómo se usan y los efectos secundarios posibles.

475

Terapia hormonal para el cáncer de seno  

Cancer.gov

Hoja informativa que describe la terapia hormonal y su función en la prevención y tratamiento del cáncer de seno. Incluye información acerca de los efectos secundarios posibles y de los fármacos que pueden interferir con la terapia hormonal.

476

Growth hormone stimulation test - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

The growth hormone (GH) is a protein hormone released from the anterior pituitary gland under the control of the hypothalamus. In children, GH has growth-promoting effects on the body. It stimulates the ...

477

Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy (Beyond the Basics)  

MedlinePLUS

... pregnant horses (mares). Other preparations are derived from plant sources. All types of estrogen can help to ... therapy Hormone therapy Hot flashes