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1

Growth hormone, prolactin, and sexuality.  

PubMed

GH and PRL, although not considered as 'classical' sexual hormones, could play a role in the endocrine control of sexual function both in men and women. Physiologically, PRL seems to be involved in the central control of sexual behavior and activity, by modulating mainly the effects of dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems on sexual function. Indeed, circulating PRL levels increase after orgasm and may potentially play a role in the acute regulation of further sexual arousal following orgasm both in men and women. On the other hand, either short-term or long-term PRL increase can modulate central nervous system areas involved in the control of sexual function and, peripherally, can directly influence mechanisms of penile erection in men, and presently only as an hypothesis, mechanisms related to the sexual response of genitalia in women. Furthermore, chronic hyperprolactinemia is classically associated with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and sexual dysfunction in both sexes. Successful treatment of chronic hyperprolactinemia generally restores normal sexual function both in men and women although this effect is not only related to relapse of gonadal function. Hypoprolactinemia is recently recognised as a possible risk factor of arteriogenic erectile dysfunction while a possible role on female sexual function is not known. The physiological role of GH on sexual function is not fully elucidated. GH is an important regulator of hypothalamuspituitary- gonadal axis and seems to participate in the regulation of the sexual response of genitalia in men, and potentially also in women. Sexual function in men and women with GH deficiency (GHD) and GH excess, particularly in acromegaly, is scantily studied and GH- or IGF-I-dependent effects are difficult to quantify. Nevertheless, a decrease of desire and arousability both in men and women, together with an impairment of erectile function in men, have been described both in patients with GHD and acromegaly, although it is not clear whether they are dependent directly on the hormone defect or excess or they are consequence of the hypogonadism or the different clinical complications or the physical disfigurement and psychological imbalance, which are associated with the diseases, and are potentially affecting sexual function. Data on beneficial effects of GH replacement therapy and specific surgical or pharmacological approach for acromegaly are far to be fully elucidated although restoring normal GH/IGF-I levels have been associated to improvement of sexual function. PMID:23014134

Galdiero, M; Pivonello, R; Grasso, L F S; Cozzolino, A; Colao, A

2012-09-01

2

Hormones, Sex Accessory Structures, and Secondary Sexual Characteristics  

E-print Network

Chapter 5 Hormones, Sex Accessory Structures, and Secondary Sexual Characteristics in Amphibians University, Spokane, WA, USA SUMMARY Gonadal steroid hormones, particularly testosterone (T) and related hormones, such as prolactin, have been found to be necessary in conjunction with gonadal steroids

Sever, David M.

3

Thyroid hormones and male sexual function.  

PubMed

The role of thyroid hormones in the control of erectile functioning has been only superficially investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between thyroid and erectile function in two different cohorts of subjects. The first one derives from the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS study), a multicentre survey performed on a sample of 3369 community-dwelling men aged 40-79 years (mean 60 ± 11 years). The second cohort is a consecutive series of 3203 heterosexual male patients (mean age 51.8 ± 13.0 years) attending our Andrology and Sexual Medicine Outpatient Clinic for sexual dysfunction at the University of Florence (UNIFI study). In the EMAS study all subjects were tested for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4). Similarly, TSH levels were checked in all patients in the UNIFI study, while FT4 only when TSH resulted outside the reference range. Overt primary hyperthyroidism (reduced TSH and elevated FT4, according to the reference range) was found in 0.3 and 0.2% of EMAS and UNIFI study respectively. In both study cohorts, suppressed TSH levels were associated with erectile dysfunction (ED). Overt hyperthyroidism was associated with an increased risk of severe erectile dysfunction (ED, hazard ratio = 14 and 16 in the EMAS and UNIFI study, respectively; both p < 0.05), after adjusting for confounding factors. These associations were confirmed in nested case-control analyses, comparing subjects with overt hyperthyroidism to age, BMI, smoking status and testosterone-matched controls. Conversely, no association between primary hypothyroidism and ED was observed. In conclusion, erectile function should be evaluated in all individuals with hyperthyroidism. Conversely, assessment of thyroid function cannot be recommended as routine practice in all ED patients. PMID:22834774

Corona, G; Wu, F C W; Forti, G; Lee, D M; O'Connor, D B; O'Neill, T W; Pendleton, N; Bartfai, G; Boonen, S; Casanueva, F F; Finn, J D; Giwercman, A; Han, T S; Huhtaniemi, I T; Kula, K; Lean, M E J; Punab, M; Vanderschueren, D; Jannini, E A; Mannucci, E; Maggi, M

2012-10-01

4

Sexual activity, endogenous reproductive hormones and ovulation in premenopausal women.  

PubMed

We investigated whether sexual activity was associated with reproductive function in the BioCycle Study, a prospective cohort study that followed 259 regularly menstruating women aged 18 to 44years for one (n=9) or two (n=250) menstrual cycles in 2005-2007. Women were not attempting pregnancy nor using hormonal contraceptives. History of ever having been sexually active was assessed at baseline and frequency of sexual activity, defined as vaginal-penile intercourse, was self-reported daily throughout the study. Serum concentrations of estradiol, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), progesterone, and testosterone were measured up to 8times/cycle. Sporadic anovulation was identified using peak progesterone concentration. Linear mixed models were used to estimate associations between sexual activity and reproductive hormone concentrations and generalized linear models were used to estimate associations with sporadic anovulation. Models were adjusted for age, race, body mass index, perceived stress, and alcohol consumption and accounted for repeated measures within women. Elevated concentrations of estrogen (+14.6%, P<.01), luteal progesterone (+41.0%, P<.01) and mid-cycle LH (+23.4%, P<.01), but not FSH (P=.33) or testosterone (P=.37), were observed in sexually active women compared with sexually inactive women (no prior and no study-period sexual activity); sexually active women had lower odds of sporadic anovulation (adjusted odds ratio=0.34, 95% confidence interval: 0.16-0.73). Among sexually active women, frequency of sexual activity was not associated with hormones or sporadic anovulation (all P>.23). Findings from our study suggest that ever having been sexually active is associated with improved reproductive function, even after controlling for factors such as age. PMID:24954690

Prasad, Ankita; Mumford, Sunni L; Buck Louis, Germaine M; Ahrens, Katherine A; Sjaarda, Lindsey A; Schliep, Karen C; Perkins, Neil J; Kissell, Kerri A; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Schisterman, Enrique F

2014-07-01

5

Associations Among Physiological and Subjective Sexual Response, Sexual Desire, and Salivary Steroid Hormones in Healthy Premenopausal Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Few studies have examined how sexual arousal influences healthy premenopausal women's hormones, limiting our understanding of basic physiology and our ability to transfer knowledge from clinical and nonhuman populations. Aim. To examine how sexual arousal and steroid hormones (testosterone (T), cortisol (C), estradiol (E)) were linked, to see whether hormone levels influenced and\\/or changed in response to sexual arousal

Sari M. van Anders; Lori Brotto; Janine Farrell; Morag Yule

2009-01-01

6

Sexual Differentiation of the Brain: Genetic, Hormonal and Trophic Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The current hypothesis to explain the sexual dimorphism of structure and function in the brain of vertebrates maintains that\\u000a these differences are produced by the interaction of genetic mechanisms and gonadal hormones. In this chapter we summarize\\u000a the evidence from our laboratory, as well as other laboratories analyzing the mechanisms that control sexually differentiated\\u000a growth of axons in hypothalamic neurons

Hugo F. Carrer; María J. Cambiasso

7

Hormonal influences on sex-linked sexual attitudes  

E-print Network

(Hines, 2004b). Girls with CAH are usually diagnosed early in life because they display 5 masculinized genitalia as a result of their prenatal exposure to increased levels of testosterone. These girls are prescribed hormone therapy and surgery... associated with a number of sexually dimorphic traits. For example, some traits and disorders that are more common in males, 7 such as left-handedness and autism-spectrum disorders, are associated with low 2D:4D ratios (Manning, Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright...

Charles, Nora

2009-05-15

8

Development of the renal sexual segment in immature snakes: effect of sex steroid hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The renal sexual segment (RSS) of immature Northern and Diamondback Water Snakes and Red-Sided Garter Snakes exhibited varying responses to testosterone or 17?-estradiol. In both male and female water snakes, kidney mass was not a reliable indicator of hormone treatment, whereas tubule diameter, epithelial height and number of sexual granules responded to hormone treatment. In male water snakes, either hormone

Randolph W. Krohmer; Dora Martinez; Robert T. Mason

2004-01-01

9

Women's expectations and experiences of hormone treatment for sexual dysfunction.  

PubMed

Abstract Objectives There is a paucity of information regarding women's expectations of medical treatment for female sexual dysfunction (FSD) and their self-appraisal of treatment outcomes. The aims of this study were to explore women's perception and expectations of treatment and their experiences of treatment for FSD using a qualitative approach. Methods First-time attendees to an endocrinologist with the complaint of sexual difficulties were identified and were invited to take part in an in-depth interview on the same day as, but prior to, their medical consultation. Follow-up phone interview took place 3-4 months later. Results Seventeen women, aged 26-70 years, participated in the face-to-face interview. Ten of these participated in the follow-up interview. Four major themes emerged from the women's narrative stories: (1) personal psychological distress associated with FSD, (2) concern about the adverse effect of FSD on the relationship with their sexual partner, (3) a belief in a relationship between FSD and 'hormone deficiency', and (4) an expectation of treatment, which included positive physical and sexual changes. Conclusions Health professionals should be aware of the high degree of psychological distress that can result from FSD and consider available treatment options, which may include hormone therapy. PMID:24884596

Fooladi, E; Bell, R J; Whittaker, A M; Davis, S R

2014-12-01

10

Correspondence between Gonadal Steroid Hormone Concentrations and Secondary Sexual Characteristics Assessed by Clinicians, Adolescents, and Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescent sexual maturation is staged using Tanner criteria assessed by clinicians, parents, or adolescents. The physiology of sexual maturation is driven by gonadal hormones. We investigate Tanner stage progression as a function of increasing gonadal hormone concentration and compare performances of different raters. Fifty-six boys (mean age,…

Huang, Bin; Hillman, Jennifer; Biro, Frank M.; Ding, Lili; Dorn, Lorah D.; Susman, Elizabeth J.

2012-01-01

11

Sex hormone suppression and sexual impotence in hypoxic pulmonary fibrosis.  

PubMed

Eight men with hypoxia associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis were studied. Serum testosterone concentrations were low in two subjects and fell to subnormal levels in two others as the clinical condition and arterial oxygen tension deteriorated. There was a significant correlation between serum testosterone concentrations and arterial oxygen tensions (p less than 0.05). Three patients showed evidence of suppression of luteinising hormone secretion at the pituitary level. Only occasional abnormalities of thyroid and prolactin concentrations were noted. Most of the men suffered from organic sexual impotence, which is considered to be due at least in part to endocrine disturbance. These findings are similar to observations in patients with hypoxic chronic obstructive airways disease and support the hypothesis that hypoxia of lung disease suppresses the hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular axis. PMID:6695352

Semple, P D; Beastall, G H; Brown, T M; Stirling, K W; Mills, R J; Watson, W S

1984-01-01

12

Mating experience and juvenile hormone enhance sexual signaling and mating in male Caribbean fruit flies.  

PubMed

Young mated male Caribbean fruit flies [Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)] have greater sexual prowess than their virgin counterparts. After mating for the first time, 6- to 7-day-old males released twice as much sex pheromone and acquired another mate in less than half the time required by virgin males of the same age. Mass spectroscopic analysis of extracts of hemolymph from mated and virgin 7-day-old males resulted in identification of juvenile hormone III bisepoxide and juvenile hormone III in a ratio of 2.5:1. Extracts from mated males contained 3-fold more juvenile hormone than did extracts from virgins. Enhancement of sexual signaling, pheromone release, and mating was induced by topical application of juvenile hormone, methoprene, or fenoxycarb. Newly eclosed adult males treated with juvenoids engaged in sexual signaling, released pheromone, and mated at significantly earlier ages than control males. We conclude that juvenile hormone mediated a positive feedback system that imparted a competitive advantage, guaranteeing that males who mated at an early age would out-compete virgins of the same age for mating opportunities. Additionally, the results support the hypothesis that juvenile hormone is a pivotal hormone coordinating the development of sexual signaling and reproductive maturity in these flies. PMID:10706642

Teal, P E; Gomez-Simuta, Y; Proveaux, A T

2000-03-28

13

Mating experience and juvenile hormone enhance sexual signaling and mating in male Caribbean fruit flies  

PubMed Central

Young mated male Caribbean fruit flies [Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)] have greater sexual prowess than their virgin counterparts. After mating for the first time, 6- to 7-day-old males released twice as much sex pheromone and acquired another mate in less than half the time required by virgin males of the same age. Mass spectroscopic analysis of extracts of hemolymph from mated and virgin 7-day-old males resulted in identification of juvenile hormone III bisepoxide and juvenile hormone III in a ratio of 2.5:1. Extracts from mated males contained 3-fold more juvenile hormone than did extracts from virgins. Enhancement of sexual signaling, pheromone release, and mating was induced by topical application of juvenile hormone, methoprene, or fenoxycarb. Newly eclosed adult males treated with juvenoids engaged in sexual signaling, released pheromone, and mated at significantly earlier ages than control males. We conclude that juvenile hormone mediated a positive feedback system that imparted a competitive advantage, guaranteeing that males who mated at an early age would out-compete virgins of the same age for mating opportunities. Additionally, the results support the hypothesis that juvenile hormone is a pivotal hormone coordinating the development of sexual signaling and reproductive maturity in these flies. PMID:10706642

Teal, P. E. A.; Gomez-Simuta, Y.; Proveaux, A. T.

2000-01-01

14

The role of central and peripheral hormones in sexual and violent recidivism in sex offenders.  

PubMed

Hormonal factors are important in multifactorial theories of sexual offending. The relationship between hormones and aggression in nonhumans is well established, but the putative effect in humans is more complex, and the direction of the effect is usually unclear. In this study, a large sample (N = 771) of adult male sex offenders was assessed between 1982 and 1996. Gonadotrophic (follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone) and androgen hormone (total and free testosterone; T) levels were assessed at Time 1, along with indicators of sex drive and hostility. Individuals were observed up to 20 years in the community, with an average time at risk of 10.9 years (SD 4.6). Gonadotrophic hormones correlated positively with self-reported hostility and were better predictors of recidivism than was T (area under the curve (AUC), 0.58-0.63). Self-reported hostility emerged as a partial mediator of this relationship between gonadotrophic hormones and recidivism. These results point to a potentially new area of investigation for hormones and sexual aggression. PMID:23233468

Kingston, Drew A; Seto, Michael C; Ahmed, Adekunle G; Fedoroff, Paul; Firestone, Philip; Bradford, John M

2012-01-01

15

Commentary: exploring hormonal influences on problem sexual behavior.  

PubMed

The conceptualization of sexual offending remains problematic and prey to fashion and enthusiasm. Progress can come only on the basis of sound research on the biological, social, and psychological associations to such offending. This study, though in some ways modest in its contribution, offers a model of the systematic approaches which offer the best chances of eventually understanding and managing sexual offending. PMID:23233469

Sullivan, Danny H; Mullen, Paul E

2012-01-01

16

Sexual fantasies and gender/sex: a multimethod approach with quantitative content analysis and hormonal responses.  

PubMed

Research links explicit sexuality (e.g., physical attraction and pleasure) to high testosterone (T) and nurturance (loving contact) to low T. Engaging in sexual fantasy, which can include explicit sexual and nurturant elements, increases T in women but not in men. We examined whether individual differences in the explicit sexual and nurturant content of fantasy were linked with T or with estradiol (E2). In addition, we explored whether fantasy content differed or overlapped by gender/sex. Participants (26 women, 23 men) provided saliva samples for hormones before and after imagining a self-defined positive sexual encounter and responding to open-ended questions about the situation they imagined. We systematically content-coded responses for explicit sexual and nurturant content. In men, lower inclusion of nurturant content predicted larger T responses to fantasy. Fantasy content was not linked with T in women or with E2 in women or men. Women and men did not differ significantly in explicit sexual and nurturant content. Our findings suggest that individual experiences of fantasy as more or less nurturant affect T in men, provide support for the Steroid/Peptide Theory of Social Bonds, and highlight the value of integrating hormones and content analysis to investigate research questions relevant to sexuality and gender/sex. PMID:23998565

Goldey, Katherine L; Avery, Lanice R; van Anders, Sari M

2014-01-01

17

Early manipulation of juvenile hormone has sexually dimorphic effects on mature adult behavior in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Hormones are critical for the development, maturation, and maintenance of physiological systems; therefore, understanding their involvement during maturation of the brain is important for the elucidation of mechanisms by which adults become behaviorally competent. Changes in exogenous and endogenous factors encountered during sexual maturation can have long lasting effects in mature adults. In this study, we investigated the role of the gonadotropic hormone, juvenile hormone (JH), in the modulation of adult behaviors in Drosophila. Here we utilized methoprene (a synthetic JH analog) and precocene (a JH synthesis inhibitor) to manipulate levels of JH in sexually immature male and female Drosophila with or without decreased synthesis of neuronal dopamine (DA). Locomotion and courtship behavior were assayed once the animals had grown to sexual maturity. The results demonstrate a sexually dimorphic role for JH in the modulation of these centrally controlled behaviors in mature animals that is dependent on the age of the animals assayed, and present DA as a candidate neuronal factor that differentially interacts with JH depending on the sex of the animal. The data also suggest that JH modulates these behaviors through an indirect mechanism. Since gonadotropic hormones and DA interact in mammals to affect brain development and later function, our results suggest that this mechanism for the development of adult behavioral competence may be evolutionarily conserved. PMID:24012944

Argue, Kathryn J; Yun, Amber J; Neckameyer, Wendi S

2013-09-01

18

Thyroid Hormone Levels and Psychological Symptoms in Sexually Abused Adolescent Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To explore the relationships between psychological symptoms and thyroid hormone levels in adolescent girls who had experienced the traumatic stress of sexual abuse. Method: The study design was cross-sectional/correlational. Subjects ("N"=22; age range=12-18 years) had their blood drawn, and they completed 2 psychological tests…

Haviland, Mark G.; Sonne, Janet L.; Anderson, Donald L.; Nelson, Jerald C.; Sheridan-Matney, Clare; Nichols, Joy G.; Carlton, Esther I.; Murdoch, William G. C.

2006-01-01

19

Women's Performance on Sexually Dimorphic Tasks: The Effect of Hormonal Fluctuations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effect of hormonal fluctuations on women's performance on sexually dimorphic cognitive tasks. Thirty-six participants were recruited through introduction to psychology courses at three colleges. Participants were assessed using the Woodcock-Johnson Test of Cognitive Ability III (WJ III COG), which is a commonly-used, widely…

Duell, Lanora J.

2011-01-01

20

Early manipulation of juvenile hormone has sexually dimorphic effects on mature adult behavior in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Hormones are critical for the development, maturation, and maintenance of physiological systems; therefore, understanding their involvement during maturation of the brain is important for the elucidation of mechanisms by which adults become behaviorally competent. Changes in exogenous and endogenous factors encountered during sexual maturation can have long lasting effects in mature adults. In this study, we investigated the role of the gonadotropic hormone, juvenile hormone (JH), in the modulation of adult behaviors in Drosophila. Here we utilized methoprene (a synthetic JH analog) and precocene (a JH synthesis inhibitor) to manipulate levels of JH in sexually immature male and female Drosophila with or without decreased synthesis of neuronal dopamine (DA). Locomotion and courtship behavior were assayed once the animals had grown to sexual maturity. The results demonstrate a sexually dimorphic role for JH in the modulation of these centrally controlled behaviors in mature animals that is dependent on the age of the animals assayed, and present DA as a candidate neuronal factor that differentially interacts with JH depending on the sex of the animal. The data also suggest that JH modulates these behaviors through an indirect mechanism. Since gonadotropic hormones and DA interact in mammals to affect brain development and later function, our results suggest that this mechanism for the development of adult behavioral competence may be evolutionarily conserved. PMID:24012944

Argue, Kathryn J; Yun, Amber J; Neckameyer, Wendi S

2013-01-01

21

Relations between sex hormone levels and sexual behavior in men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a sample of 33 healthy young men, 6 blood samples were obtained in the course of 2 weeks, and testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol levels determined. The amount of free testosterone in the saliva was also ascertained for 23 of the subjects. All participants kept a daily record of their sexual activity during the investigational period. An interindividual comparison revealed

Rainer Knussmann; Kerrin Christiansen; Catharina Couwenbergs

1986-01-01

22

Apomictic and Sexual Germline Development Differ with Respect to Cell Cycle, Transcriptional, Hormonal and Epigenetic Regulation  

PubMed Central

Seeds of flowering plants can be formed sexually or asexually through apomixis. Apomixis occurs in about 400 species and is of great interest for agriculture as it produces clonal offspring. It differs from sexual reproduction in three major aspects: (1) While the sexual megaspore mother cell (MMC) undergoes meiosis, the apomictic initial cell (AIC) omits or aborts meiosis (apomeiosis); (2) the unreduced egg cell of apomicts forms an embryo without fertilization (parthenogenesis); and (3) the formation of functional endosperm requires specific developmental adaptations. Currently, our knowledge about the gene regulatory programs underlying apomixis is scarce. We used the apomict Boechera gunnisoniana, a close relative of Arabidopsis thaliana, to investigate the transcriptional basis underlying apomeiosis and parthenogenesis. Here, we present the first comprehensive reference transcriptome for reproductive development in an apomict. To compare sexual and apomictic development at the cellular level, we used laser-assisted microdissection combined with microarray and RNA-Seq analyses. Conservation of enriched gene ontologies between the AIC and the MMC likely reflects functions of importance to germline initiation, illustrating the close developmental relationship of sexuality and apomixis. However, several regulatory pathways differ between sexual and apomictic germlines, including cell cycle control, hormonal pathways, epigenetic and transcriptional regulation. Enrichment of specific signal transduction pathways are a feature of the apomictic germline, as is spermidine metabolism, which is associated with somatic embryogenesis in various plants. Our study provides a comprehensive reference dataset for apomictic development and yields important new insights into the transcriptional basis underlying apomixis in relation to sexual reproduction. PMID:25010342

Schmidt, Anja; Schmid, Marc W.; Klostermeier, Ulrich C.; Qi, Weihong; Guthörl, Daniela; Sailer, Christian; Waller, Manuel; Rosenstiel, Philip; Grossniklaus, Ueli

2014-01-01

23

[Structural and functional cardiac changes and sex hormone levels in men with sexual dysfunctions].  

PubMed

44 men with chronic prostatitis were examined for structural-functional heart alterations with reference to severity of erectile dysfunction (ED). Sex hormones were also estimated. Control group consisted of 20 healthy men. Doppler echocardiography, 24-h monitoring of arterial pressure (AP) and ECG, finger and ultrasound investigation of the prostatic gland and microscopy of its secretion were made. Blood plasm testosteron, prolactin and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate were estimated by enzyme immunoassay. Erectile function was assessed by the questionnaire "International index of erectile function". Thus, sexual hormone changes associated with sexual dysfunction in men promote left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. The type of intracardiac hemodynamics in this case is, as a rule, restrictive. PMID:15164508

Iskenderov, B G; Vakina, T N; Shutov, A M

2004-01-01

24

Sexual Hearing: The influence of sex hormones on acoustic communication in frogs  

PubMed Central

The majority of anuran amphibians (frogs and toads) use acoustic communication to mediate sexual behavior and reproduction. Generally, females find and select their mates using acoustic cues provided by males in the form of conspicuous advertisement calls. In these species, vocal signal production and reception are intimately tied to successful reproduction. Research with anurans has demonstrated that acoustic communication is modulated by reproductive hormones, including gonadal steroids and peptide neuromodulators. Most of these studies have focused on the ways in which hormonal systems influence vocal signal production; however, here we will concentrate on a growing body of literature that examines hormonal modulation of call reception. This literature suggests that reproductive hormones contribute to the coordination of reproductive behaviors between signaler and receiver by modulating sensitivity and spectral filtering of the anuran auditory system. It has become evident that the hormonal systems that influence reproductive behaviors are highly conserved among vertebrate taxa, thus studying the endocrine and neuromodulatory bases of acoustic communication in frogs and toads can lead to insights of broader applicability to hormonal modulation of vertebrate sensory physiology and behavior. PMID:19272318

Arch, Victoria S.; Narins, Peter M.

2009-01-01

25

Sexual differentiation of the adolescent rodent brain: hormonal influences and developmental mechanisms.  

PubMed

This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Sexual differentiation is the process by which the nervous system becomes structurally and functionally dissimilar in females and males. In mammals, this process has been thought to occur during prenatal and early postnatal development, when a transient increase in testosterone secretion masculinizes and defeminizes the developing male nervous system. Decades of research have led to the views that structural sexual dimorphisms created during perinatal development are passively maintained throughout life, and that ovarian hormones do not play an active role in feminization of the nervous system. Furthermore, perinatal testosterone was thought to determine sex differences in neuron number by regulating cell death and cell survival, and not by regulating cell proliferation. As investigations of neural development during adolescence became more prominent in the late 20th century and revealed the extent of brain remodeling during this time, each of these tenets has been challenged and modified. Here we review evidence from the animal literature that 1) the brain is further sexually differentiated during puberty and adolescence; 2) ovarian hormones play an active role in the feminization of the brain during puberty; and 3) hormonally modulated, sex-specific addition of new neurons and glial cells, as well as loss of neurons, contribute to sexual differentiation of hypothalamic, limbic, and cortical regions during adolescence. This architectural remodeling during the adolescent phase of sexual differentiation of the brain may underlie the known sex differences in vulnerability to addiction and psychiatric disorders that emerge during this developmental period. PMID:23998664

Juraska, Janice M; Sisk, Cheryl L; DonCarlos, Lydia L

2013-07-01

26

Changes in hormonal profile, gonads and sperm quality of Argyrosomus regius (Pisces, Scianidae) during the first sexual differentiation and maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, sexual gonadal differentiation and first sexual maturation of Meagre (Argyrosomus regius) was studied, based upon the annual changes in gonadosomatic index (GSI), gonadal histology, and the plasma steroid hormones, testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), and estradiol (E2). In addition, spermatozoa characteristics were evaluated by measuring sperm motility and morphology. Results demonstrated that Meagre completes sex differentiation at

R. Schiavone; L. Zilli; C. Storelli; S. Vilella

27

Sexual transfer of the steroid hormone 20E induces the postmating switch in Anopheles gambiae.  

PubMed

Female insects generally mate multiple times during their lives. A notable exception is the female malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae, which after sex loses her susceptibility to further copulation. Sex in this species also renders females competent to lay eggs developed after blood feeding. Despite intense research efforts, the identity of the molecular triggers that cause the postmating switch in females, inducing a permanent refractoriness to further mating and triggering egg-laying, remains elusive. Here we show that the male-transferred steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) is a key regulator of monandry and oviposition in An. gambiae. When sexual transfer of 20E is impaired by partial inactivation of the hormone and inhibition of its biosynthesis in males, oviposition and refractoriness to further mating in the female are strongly reduced. Conversely, mimicking sexual delivery by injecting 20E into virgin females switches them to an artificial mated status, triggering egg-laying and reducing susceptibility to copulation. Sexual transfer of 20E appears to incapacitate females physically from receiving seminal fluids by a second male. Comparative analysis of microarray data from females after mating and after 20E treatment indicates that 20E-regulated molecular pathways likely are implicated in the postmating switch, including cytoskeleton and musculature-associated genes that may render the atrium impenetrable to additional mates. By revealing signals and pathways shaping key processes in the An. gambiae reproductive biology, our data offer new opportunities for the control of natural populations of malaria vectors. PMID:25368171

Gabrieli, Paolo; Kakani, Evdoxia G; Mitchell, Sara N; Mameli, Enzo; Want, Elizabeth J; Mariezcurrena Anton, Ainhoa; Serrao, Aurelio; Baldini, Francesco; Catteruccia, Flaminia

2014-11-18

28

At a Supra-Physiological Concentration, Human Sexual Hormones Act as Quorum-Sensing Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

N-Acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated quorum-sensing (QS) regulates virulence functions in plant and animal pathogens such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A chemolibrary of more than 3500 compounds was screened using two bacterial AHL-biosensors to identify QS-inhibitors (QSIs). The purity and structure of 15 QSIs selected through this screening were verified using HPLC MS/MS tools and their activity tested on the A. tumefaciens and P. aeruginosa bacterial models. The IC50 value of the identified QSIs ranged from 2.5 to 90 µg/ml, values that are in the same range as those reported for the previously identified QSI 4-nitropyridine-N-oxide (IC50 24 µg/ml). Under the tested culture conditions, most of the identified QSIs did not exhibit bacteriostatic or bactericidal activities. One third of the tested QSIs, including the plant compound hordenine and the human sexual hormone estrone, decreased the frequency of the QS-regulated horizontal transfer of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid in A. tumefaciens. Hordenine, estrone as well as its structural relatives estriol and estradiol, also decreased AHL accumulation and the expression of six QS-regulated genes (lasI, lasR, lasB, rhlI, rhlR, and rhlA) in cultures of the opportunist pathogen P. aeruginosa. Moreover, the ectopic expression of the AHL-receptors RhlR and LasR of P. aeruginosa in E. coli showed that their gene-regulatory activity was affected by the QSIs. Finally, modeling of the structural interactions between the human hormones and AHL-receptors LasR of P. aeruginosa and TraR of A. tumefaciens confirmed the competitive binding capability of the human sexual hormones. This work indicates potential interferences between bacterial and eukaryotic hormonal communications. PMID:24376718

Beury-Cirou, Amelie; Tannieres, Melanie; Minard, Corinne; Soulere, Laurent; Rasamiravaka, Tsiry; Dodd, Robert H.; Queneau, Yves; Dessaux, Yves; Guillou, Catherine; Vandeputte, Olivier M.; Faure, Denis

2013-01-01

29

Sexually differentiated regulation of gnRH release by gonadal steroid hormones in sheep.  

PubMed

Exposure of the sheep fetus to testosterone from day 30 to day 90 of a 147 day gestation causes the neurones that control GnRH secretion, the GnRH neuronal network, to become organized in a sex-specific manner. After androgen exposure in utero, GnRH neurones are activated in a sexually differentiated pattern by gonadal steroid hormones. Specifically, follicular phase concentrations of oestrogen trigger a GnRH 'surge' in ewes, but not in rams or females treated with androgen during fetal life. Furthermore, progesterone is a less potent inhibitor of GnRH release in rams or females treated with androgen during fetal life. The reasons for the sexual differentiation of these steroid feedback mechanisms probably reside in a dimorphism in steroid-sensitive neural inputs to GnRH neurones. The density of neurones containing oestrogen receptor alpha is sexually differentiated in areas of the ovine brain that are known to be involved in the steroidal regulation of GnRH. Furthermore, neurones in these regions are activated in a gender-specific pattern. A determination of the neural phenotype of these steroid-sensitive cells will form a basis for understanding the mechanisms by which the GnRH neuronal network is organized and activated in a sexually differentiated manner. PMID:14635943

Robinson, J E; Birch, R A; Grindrod, J A E; Taylor, J A; Unsworth, W P

2003-01-01

30

In utero programming of sexually differentiated gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion.  

PubMed

It has long been recognised that steroids can have both organisational and activational effects on the reproductive neuroendocrine axis of many species, including the sheep. Specifically, if the ovine foetus is exposed to testosterone during a relatively short 'window' of in utero development (from approximately day 30-90 of a 147 day pregnancy) the neural mechanisms regulating gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion become organised in a male-specific manner. In post-natal life the consequences of foetal androgen exposure are sexually differentiated responses of the GnRH neuronal network to activation by factors such as photoperiod and ovarian steroid hormones. Studies in the gonadectomized lamb have demonstrated that elevated concentrations of oestrogen (E) are unable to trigger a preovulatory-like GnRH surge in the male and the androgenized ewe lamb. Further, these animals have markedly reduced sensitivity to the inhibitory actions of progesterone on tonic GnRH release compared with normal ewes. The reasons for these abnormal steroid feedback mechanisms may reside in sexually dimorphic inputs to the GnRH neurone, including those from oestrogen-receptive neurones in the arcuate nucleus that synthetize the neuropeptide, neurokinin B (NKB). The consequences of in utero androgen exposure are reflected in a progressive and dramatic impairment of fertility in the ovary-intact ewe. PMID:12142225

Robinson, Jane E; Birch, Rachel A; Taylor, James A; Foster, Douglas L; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

2002-07-01

31

Sexual dimorphism of cadmium-induced toxicity in rats: involvement of sex hormones.  

PubMed

The toxic effect of cadmium varies with sex in experimental animals. Previous studies have demonstrated that pretreatment of male Fischer 344 (F344) rats with the female sex hormone progesterone markedly enhances the susceptibility to cadmium, suggesting a role for progesterone in the sexual dimorphism of cadmium toxicity. In the present study, we attempted to further elucidate the mechanism for sex differences in cadmium-induced toxicity in F344 rats. A single exposure to cadmium (5.0 mg Cd/kg, sc) was lethal in 10/10 (100 %) female compared with 6/10 (60 %) male rats. Using a lower dose of cadmium (3.0 mg Cd/kg), circulating alanine aminotransferase activity, indicative of hepatotoxicity, was highly elevated in the cadmium treated females but not in males. However, no gender-based differences occurred in the hepatic cadmium accumulation, metallothionein or glutathione levels. When cadmium (5.0 mg Cd/kg) was administered to young rats at 5 weeks of age, the sex-related difference in lethality was minimal. Furthermore, although ovariectomy blocked cadmium-induced lethality, the lethal effects of the metal were restored by pretreatment with progesterone (40 mg/kg, sc, 7 consecutive days) or ?-estradiol (200 ?g/kg, sc, 7 consecutive days) to ovariectomized rats. These results provide further evidence that female sex hormones such as progesterone and ?-estradiol are involved in the sexual dimorphism of cadmium toxicity in rats. PMID:22466070

Shimada, Hideaki; Hashiguchi, Takashi; Yasutake, Akira; Waalkes, Michael P; Imamura, Yorishige

2012-09-01

32

PUBERTY IN BEEF BULLS: HORMONE CONCENTRATIONS, GROWTH, TESTICULAR DEVELOPMENT, SPERM PRODUCTION AND SEXUAL AGGRESSIVENESS IN BULLS OF DIFFERENT BREEDS I  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Postweaning growth and pubertal traits were studied in Hereford, Angus, Red Poll, Brown Swiss, Hereford-Angus crossbred (HXA) and Angus-Hereford crossbred (AX H) bulls from 7 through 13 months of age. Pubertal factors characterized included body weight, testicular size, hormone concentrations, sexual aggressive- ness and sperm production. Puberty was de- fined as the age at which a bull first produced

D. D. Lunstra; J. J. Ford; S. E. Echternkamp

2010-01-01

33

Hormones  

MedlinePLUS

Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

34

Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone Reduces Sexual Motivation But Not Lordosis Behavior In Female Syrian Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus)  

PubMed Central

Reproductive success is maximized when female sexual motivation and behavior coincide with the time of optimal fertility. Both processes depend upon coordinated hormonal events, beginning with signaling by the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal system. Two neuropeptidergic systems that lie upstream of GnRH, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH; also known as RFamide related peptide-3) and kisspeptin, are potent inhibitory and excitatory modulators of GnRH, respectively, participate in the timing of the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge and ovulation. Whether these neuropeptides serve as neuromodulators to coordinate female sexual behavior with the limited window of fertility has not been thoroughly explored. In the present study, either intact or ovariectomized, hormonetreated female hamsters were implanted for fifteen days with chronic release osmotic pumps filled with GnIH or saline. The effect of GnIH on sexual motivation, vaginal scent marking, and lordosis was examined. Following mating, FOS activation was quantified in brain regions implicated in the regulation of female sexual behavior. Intracerebroventricular administration of GnIH reduced sexual motivation and vaginal scent marking, but not lordosis behavior. GnIH administration altered FOS expression in key neural loci implicated in female reproductive behavior, including the medial preoptic area, medial amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, independent of changes in circulating gonadal steroids and kisspeptin cell activation. Together, these data point to GnIH as an important modulator of female proceptive sexual behavior and motivation, independent of downstream alterations in sex steroid production. PMID:23827890

Piekarski, David J.; Zhao, Sheng; Jennings, Kimberly J.; Iwasa, Takeshi; Legan, Sandra J.; Mikkelsen, Jens D.; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Kriegsfeld, Lance J.

2014-01-01

35

Effects of 4-nonylphenol on balance of steroid and thyroid hormones in sexually immature male yellowfin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus).  

PubMed

Nonylphenol (NP) is an endocrine disrupting chemical which has been shown to be able to modulate the endocrine system of various organisms by different mechanisms. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential effects of 4-NP on steroid and thyroid hormone levels in sexually immature male yellowfin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus), a protandrous hermaphrodite species. For this, the fish were injected with ascending doses (10, 50, 100, and 200 ?g g(-1) body weight) of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) or vehicle during 2 weeks. After 7 and 14 days the fish were anesthetized, blood sample were collected and plasma steroid and thyroid hormone concentrations were quantified by radioimmunoassay. The result showed that 4-NP induced a significant increase in 17?-etradiol levels at dose 10 ?g g(-1) , while the levels of this hormone in the higher doses decreased compared with the control group. However, 4-NP treatment did not have any significant effect on plasma levels of testosterone. In addition, it was observed that 4-NP affect the level of thyroid hormones in fish. Plasma thyroxine levels increased in a dose-dependent manner after 7 and 14 days of the exposure. In contrast, a significant decrease in triiodothyronine levels was observed during the experiment period. Moreover, no significant change was detected for thyroid stimulating hormone levels in 4-NP-treated fish. These results indicated that 4-NP could lead to disturb the balance of steroid and thyroid hormones with potential consequences for sexually immature male yellowfin seabream. PMID:22434574

Naderi, Mohammad; Mousavi, Seyed Mohammad; Safahieh, Alireza; Ghatrami, Ebrahim Rajabzade; Zargham, Davood

2014-04-01

36

Transcriptomic Analyses of Sexual Dimorphism of the Zebrafish Liver and the Effect of Sex Hormones  

PubMed Central

The liver is one of the most sex-dimorphic organs in both oviparous and viviparous animals. In order to understand the molecular basis of the difference between male and female livers, high-throughput RNA-SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression) sequencing was performed for zebrafish livers of both sexes and their transcriptomes were compared. Both sexes had abundantly expressed genes involved in translation, coagulation and lipid metabolism, consistent with the general function of the liver. For sex-biased transcripts, from in addition to the high enrichment of vitellogenin transcripts in spawning female livers, which constituted nearly 80% of total mRNA, it is apparent that the female-biased genes were mostly involved in ribosome/translation, estrogen pathway, lipid transport, etc, while the male-biased genes were enriched for oxidation reduction, carbohydrate metabolism, coagulation, protein transport and localization, etc. Sexual dimorphism on xenobiotic metabolism and anti-oxidation was also noted and it is likely that retinol x receptor (RXR) and liver x receptor (LXR) play central roles in regulating the sexual differences of lipid and cholesterol metabolisms. Consistent with high ribosomal/translational activities in the female liver, female-biased genes were significantly regulated by two important transcription factors, Myc and Mycn. In contrast, Male livers showed activation of transcription factors Ppargc1b, Hnf4a, and Stat4, which regulate lipid and glucose metabolisms and various cellular activities. The transcriptomic responses to sex hormones, 17?-estradiol (E2) or 11-keto testosterone (KT11), were also investigated in both male and female livers and we found that female livers were relatively insensitive to sex hormone disturbance, while the male livers were readily affected. E2 feminized male liver by up-regulating female-biased transcripts and down-regulating male-biased transcripts. The information obtained in this study provides comprehensive insights into the sexual dimorphism of zebrafish liver transcriptome and will facilitate further development of the zebrafish as a human liver disease model. PMID:23349717

Zheng, Weiling; Xu, Hongyan; Lam, Siew Hong; Luo, Huaien; Karuturi, R. Krishna Murthy; Gong, Zhiyuan

2013-01-01

37

Neural mechanisms underlying sexual arousal in connection with sexual hormone levels: a comparative study of the postoperative male-to-female transsexuals and premenopausal and menopausal women.  

PubMed

This study compared the brain activation patterns associated with visual sexual arousal in connection with sexual hormone levels in postoperative male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals and normal premenopausal and menopausal women using 3.0 T functional MRI. A total of 30 volunteers including 10 premenopausal women, 10 menopausal women, and 10 postoperative MTF transsexuals who had undergone sex reassignment surgery participated in this study. Brain activity was measured while viewing erotic male and female nude pictures. The free testosterone and estradiol levels of the postoperative MTF transsexuals were not in the normal range seen in normal premenopausal women, but were in range seen in menopausal women. The postoperative MTF transsexuals showed significantly higher activities in the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdala, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, and head of caudate nucleus in response to erotic male nude pictures in contrast to female pictures (P<0.005). The predominant activation areas observed in the postoperative MTF transsexuals in contrast to the menopausal women when viewing male nude pictures included the insula, hippocampus, thalamus, and putamen (P<0.005). Similar to the postoperative MTF transsexuals, the premenopausal women showed significantly higher activities than menopausal women in the insula, hippocampus, thalamus, and parahippocampal gyrus (P<0.005). This study revealed that the brain activation patterns associated with visual sexual arousal in postoperative MTF transsexuals are similar to those in premenopausal women, although the sexual hormone levels in the postoperative MTF transsexuals are in the average range of those in menopausal women. PMID:24800986

Kim, Gwang-Won; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

2014-06-18

38

DEHP (DI-N-ETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE), WHEN ADMINISTERED DURING SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION, INDUCES DOSE DEPENDENT DECREASES IN FETAL TESTIS GENE EXPRESSION AND STEROID HORMONE SYNTHESIS  

EPA Science Inventory

DEHP (di-n-ethylhexyl phthalate), when administered during sexual differentiation, induces dose dependent decreases in fetal testis gene expression and steroid hormone synthesis. Vickie S. Wilson, Christy Lambright, Johnathan Furr, Kathy Bobseine, Carmen Wood, Gary Held, and ...

39

Semiquantification of Hypothalamic GH-Releasing Hormone Output in Women: Evidence for Sexual Dimorphism in the Mechanism of the Somatopause  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying the decline of GH with aging (somatopause) are uncertain. We recently found that the age-dependent diminution of the hypothalamic GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) output contributes to the so- matopause in men. As the regulatory mechanisms of GH se- cretion are sexually dimorphic, we assessed the suppressibil- ity of spontaneous and GHRH-stimulated GH secretion by graded doses of

JOHN J. ORREGO; MARY RUSSELL-AULET; ROBERTA DEMOTT-FRIBERG; ARIEL L. BARKAN

40

Association of hormonal contraceptive use with reduced levels of depressive symptoms: a national study of sexually active women in the United States.  

PubMed

An estimated 80% of sexually active young women in the United States use hormonal contraceptives during their reproductive years. Associations between hormonal contraceptive use and mood disturbances remain understudied, despite the hypothesis that estrogen and progesterone play a role in mood problems. In this study, we used data from 6,654 sexually active nonpregnant women across 4 waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994-2008), focusing on women aged 25-34 years. Women were asked about hormonal contraceptive use in the context of a current sexual partnership; thus, contraceptive users were compared with other sexually active women who were using either nonhormonal contraception or no contraception. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. At ages 25-34 years, hormonal contraceptive users had lower mean levels of concurrent depressive symptoms (? = -1.04, 95% confidence interval: -1.73, -0.35) and were less likely to report a past-year suicide attempt (odds ratio = 0.37, 95% confidence interval: 0.14, 0.95) than women using low-efficacy contraception or no contraception, in models adjusted for propensity scores for hormonal contraceptive use. Longitudinal analyses indicated that associations between hormonal contraception and depressive symptoms were stable. Hormonal contraception may reduce levels of depressive symptoms among young women. Systematic investigation of exogenous hormones as a potential preventive factor in psychiatric epidemiology is warranted. PMID:24043440

Keyes, Katherine M; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Westhoff, Carolyn; Heim, Christine M; Haloossim, Michelle; Walsh, Kate; Koenen, Karestan

2013-11-01

41

Association of Hormonal Contraceptive Use With Reduced Levels of Depressive Symptoms: A National Study of Sexually Active Women in the United States  

PubMed Central

An estimated 80% of sexually active young women in the United States use hormonal contraceptives during their reproductive years. Associations between hormonal contraceptive use and mood disturbances remain understudied, despite the hypothesis that estrogen and progesterone play a role in mood problems. In this study, we used data from 6,654 sexually active nonpregnant women across 4 waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994–2008), focusing on women aged 25–34 years. Women were asked about hormonal contraceptive use in the context of a current sexual partnership; thus, contraceptive users were compared with other sexually active women who were using either nonhormonal contraception or no contraception. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. At ages 25–34 years, hormonal contraceptive users had lower mean levels of concurrent depressive symptoms (? = ?1.04, 95% confidence interval: ?1.73, ?0.35) and were less likely to report a past-year suicide attempt (odds ratio = 0.37, 95% confidence interval: 0.14, 0.95) than women using low-efficacy contraception or no contraception, in models adjusted for propensity scores for hormonal contraceptive use. Longitudinal analyses indicated that associations between hormonal contraception and depressive symptoms were stable. Hormonal contraception may reduce levels of depressive symptoms among young women. Systematic investigation of exogenous hormones as a potential preventive factor in psychiatric epidemiology is warranted. PMID:24043440

Keyes, Katherine M.; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Westhoff, Carolyn; Heim, Christine M.; Haloossim, Michelle; Walsh, Kate; Koenen, Karestan

2013-01-01

42

Elevated testosterone reduces choosiness in female dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis): evidence for a hormonal constraint on sexual selection?  

PubMed

Because testosterone (T) often mediates the expression of attractive displays and ornaments, in the absence of constraints sexual selection should lead to an evolutionary increase in male T levels. One candidate constraint would be a genetic correlation between the sexes that leads to a correlated response in females. If increased T in females were to have deleterious effects on mate choice, the effect of sexual selection on male T would be weakened. Using female dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), we tested whether experimentally enhancing female T would lead to a decrease in discrimination between two classes of males, one treated with T (T-males) and one control (C-males). The two female treatments (T-implanted and C-females) spent equal amounts of time with both classes of males, but T-treated females failed to show a preference for either male treatment, whereas C-females showed a significant preference, albeit in an unexpected direction (for C-males). T-females were less discriminating than C-females, irrespective of the direction of their preference. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that circulating hormones can alter female choosiness without reducing sexual motivation. Our results suggest that hormonal correlations between the sexes have the potential to constrain sexual selection on males. PMID:15306336

McGlothlin, Joel W; Neudorf, Diane L H; Casto, Joseph M; Nolan, Val; Ketterson, Ellen D

2004-07-01

43

Elevated testosterone reduces choosiness in female dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis): evidence for a hormonal constraint on sexual selection?  

PubMed Central

Because testosterone (T) often mediates the expression of attractive displays and ornaments, in the absence of constraints sexual selection should lead to an evolutionary increase in male T levels. One candidate constraint would be a genetic correlation between the sexes that leads to a correlated response in females. If increased T in females were to have deleterious effects on mate choice, the effect of sexual selection on male T would be weakened. Using female dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), we tested whether experimentally enhancing female T would lead to a decrease in discrimination between two classes of males, one treated with T (T-males) and one control (C-males). The two female treatments (T-implanted and C-females) spent equal amounts of time with both classes of males, but T-treated females failed to show a preference for either male treatment, whereas C-females showed a significant preference, albeit in an unexpected direction (for C-males). T-females were less discriminating than C-females, irrespective of the direction of their preference. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that circulating hormones can alter female choosiness without reducing sexual motivation. Our results suggest that hormonal correlations between the sexes have the potential to constrain sexual selection on males. PMID:15306336

McGlothlin, Joel W.; Neudorf, Diane L. H.; Casto, Joseph M.; Nolan, Val; Ketterson, Ellen D.

2004-01-01

44

Tuberculosis and sexual inequality: the role of sex hormones in immunity.  

PubMed

The role of sex hormones is profound and diverse. The gender and age differences in TB incidences suggest a role of hormones. These data, together with their relevance to the epidemiology of tuberculosis, are gathered and analyzed in this review. The underlying network of hormones functionalities in TB is also proposed. PMID:23140164

Zhao, Yuzhong; Ying, He; Demei, Jiang; Xie, Jianping

2012-01-01

45

Differential neural responses to child and sexual stimuli in human fathers and non-fathers and their hormonal correlates.  

PubMed

Despite the well-documented importance of paternal caregiving for positive child development, little is known about the neural changes that accompany the transition to fatherhood in humans, or about how changes in hormone levels affect paternal brain function. We compared fathers of children aged 1-2 with non-fathers in terms of hormone levels (oxytocin and testosterone), neural responses to child picture stimuli, and neural responses to visual sexual stimuli. Compared to non-fathers, fathers had significantly higher levels of plasma oxytocin and lower levels of plasma testosterone. In response to child picture stimuli, fathers showed stronger activation than non-fathers within regions important for face emotion processing (caudal middle frontal gyrus [MFG]), mentalizing (temporo-parietal junction [TPJ]) and reward processing (medial orbitofrontal cortex [mOFC]). On the other hand, non-fathers had significantly stronger neural responses to sexually provocative images in regions important for reward and approach-related motivation (dorsal caudate and nucleus accumbens). Testosterone levels were negatively correlated with responses to child stimuli in the MFG. Surprisingly, neither testosterone nor oxytocin levels predicted neural responses to sexual stimuli. Our results suggest that the decline in testosterone that accompanies the transition to fatherhood may be important for augmenting empathy toward children. PMID:24882167

Mascaro, Jennifer S; Hackett, Patrick D; Rilling, James K

2014-08-01

46

Sociosexual investigation in sexually experienced, hormonally manipulated male leopard geckos: Relation with phosphorylated DARPP-32 in dopaminergic pathways.  

PubMed

Dopaminergic activity is both associated with sociosexual exposure and modulated by sexual experience and hormonal state across vertebrate taxa. Mature leopard geckos, a reptile with temperature-dependent sex determination, have dopaminoceptive nuclei that are influenced by their embryonic environment and sensitive to adult hormonal manipulation. In this study, we exposed hormonally manipulated male leopard geckos from different incubation temperatures to conspecifics and measured their sociosexual investigation, as well as phosphorylated DARPP-32 at Threonine 34 (pDARPP-32) immunoreactivity as a marker for D1 dopamine receptor activity in the nucleus accumbens, striatum, and preoptic area. Social investigation time by males of different incubation temperatures was modulated in opposite directions by exogenous androgen treatment. Males exposed to novel stimuli spent a greater proportion of time investigating females of different incubation temperatures. The time spent investigating females was positively correlated to pDARPP-32 immunoreactivity in the preoptic area. This is the first study quantifying pDARPP-32 in a lizard species, and suggests the protein as a potential marker to measure differences in the dopaminergic pathway in a social setting with consideration of embryonic environment and hormonal state. J. Exp. Zool. 321A: 595-602, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25351686

Huang, Victoria; Hemmings, Hugh C; Crews, David

2014-12-01

47

Hormonal contraception and risk of sexually transmitted disease acquisition: Results from a prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To examine the relationship between use of oral contraceptive pills or depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and sexually transmitted disease acquisition. Study Design: Prospective cohort included 948 Kenyan prostitutes. Multivariate Andersen-Gill proportional hazards models were constructed, adjusting for sexual behavioral and demographic variables. Results: When compared with women who were using no contraception, users of oral contraceptive pills were at increased

Jared M. Baeten; Patrick M. Nyange; Barbra A. Richardson; Ludo Lavreys; Bhavna Chohan; Harold L. Martin; Kishorchandra Mandaliya; Jeckoniah O. Ndinya-Achola; Job J. Bwayo; Joan K. Kreiss

2001-01-01

48

Testosterone Affects Neural Gene Expression Differently in Male and Female Juncos: A Role for Hormones in Mediating Sexual Dimorphism and Conflict  

PubMed Central

Despite sharing much of their genomes, males and females are often highly dimorphic, reflecting at least in part the resolution of sexual conflict in response to sexually antagonistic selection. Sexual dimorphism arises owing to sex differences in gene expression, and steroid hormones are often invoked as a proximate cause of sexual dimorphism. Experimental elevation of androgens can modify behavior, physiology, and gene expression, but knowledge of the role of hormones remains incomplete, including how the sexes differ in gene expression in response to hormones. We addressed these questions in a bird species with a long history of behavioral endocrinological and ecological study, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), using a custom microarray. Focusing on two brain regions involved in sexually dimorphic behavior and regulation of hormone secretion, we identified 651 genes that differed in expression by sex in medial amygdala and 611 in hypothalamus. Additionally, we treated individuals of each sex with testosterone implants and identified many genes that may be related to previously identified phenotypic effects of testosterone treatment. Some of these genes relate to previously identified effects of testosterone-treatment and suggest that the multiple effects of testosterone may be mediated by modifying the expression of a small number of genes. Notably, testosterone-treatment tended to alter expression of different genes in each sex: only 4 of the 527 genes identified as significant in one sex or the other were significantly differentially expressed in both sexes. Hormonally regulated gene expression is a key mechanism underlying sexual dimorphism, and our study identifies specific genes that may mediate some of these processes. PMID:23613935

Peterson, Mark P.; Rosvall, Kimberly A.; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Ziegenfus, Charles; Tang, Haixu; Colbourne, John K.; Ketterson, Ellen D.

2013-01-01

49

Testosterone affects neural gene expression differently in male and female juncos: a role for hormones in mediating sexual dimorphism and conflict.  

PubMed

Despite sharing much of their genomes, males and females are often highly dimorphic, reflecting at least in part the resolution of sexual conflict in response to sexually antagonistic selection. Sexual dimorphism arises owing to sex differences in gene expression, and steroid hormones are often invoked as a proximate cause of sexual dimorphism. Experimental elevation of androgens can modify behavior, physiology, and gene expression, but knowledge of the role of hormones remains incomplete, including how the sexes differ in gene expression in response to hormones. We addressed these questions in a bird species with a long history of behavioral endocrinological and ecological study, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), using a custom microarray. Focusing on two brain regions involved in sexually dimorphic behavior and regulation of hormone secretion, we identified 651 genes that differed in expression by sex in medial amygdala and 611 in hypothalamus. Additionally, we treated individuals of each sex with testosterone implants and identified many genes that may be related to previously identified phenotypic effects of testosterone treatment. Some of these genes relate to previously identified effects of testosterone-treatment and suggest that the multiple effects of testosterone may be mediated by modifying the expression of a small number of genes. Notably, testosterone-treatment tended to alter expression of different genes in each sex: only 4 of the 527 genes identified as significant in one sex or the other were significantly differentially expressed in both sexes. Hormonally regulated gene expression is a key mechanism underlying sexual dimorphism, and our study identifies specific genes that may mediate some of these processes. PMID:23613935

Peterson, Mark P; Rosvall, Kimberly A; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Ziegenfus, Charles; Tang, Haixu; Colbourne, John K; Ketterson, Ellen D

2013-01-01

50

Sexual Experience Promotes Adult Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus Despite an Initial Elevation in Stress Hormones  

PubMed Central

Aversive stressful experiences are typically associated with increased anxiety and a predisposition to develop mood disorders. Negative stress also suppresses adult neurogenesis and restricts dendritic architecture in the hippocampus, a brain region associated with anxiety regulation. The effects of aversive stress on hippocampal structure and function have been linked to stress-induced elevations in glucocorticoids. Normalizing corticosterone levels prevents some of the deleterious consequences of stress, including increased anxiety and suppressed structural plasticity in the hippocampus. Here we examined whether a rewarding stressor, namely sexual experience, also adversely affects hippocampal structure and function in adult rats. Adult male rats were exposed to a sexually-receptive female once (acute) or once daily for 14 consecutive days (chronic) and levels of circulating glucocorticoids were measured. Separate cohorts of sexually experienced rats were injected with the thymidine analog bromodeoxyuridine in order to measure cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the hippocampus. In addition, brains were processed using Golgi impregnation to assess the effects of sexual experience on dendritic spines and dendritic complexity in the hippocampus. Finally, to evaluate whether sexual experience alters hippocampal function, rats were tested on two tests of anxiety-like behavior: novelty suppressed feeding and the elevated plus maze. We found that acute sexual experience increased circulating corticosterone levels and the number of new neurons in the hippocampus. Chronic sexual experience no longer produced an increase in corticosterone levels but continued to promote adult neurogenesis and stimulate the growth of dendritic spines and dendritic architecture. Chronic sexual experience also reduced anxiety-like behavior. These findings suggest that a rewarding experience not only buffers against the deleterious actions of early elevated glucocorticoids but actually promotes neuronal growth and reduces anxiety. PMID:20644737

Leuner, Benedetta; Glasper, Erica R.; Gould, Elizabeth

2010-01-01

51

Sexual behavior and urinary ovarian hormone concentrations during the lowland Gorilla menstrual cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual behaviors were recorded and urinary concentrations of total estrogens and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (Pdg) measured\\u000a during six normal menstrual cycles from two female lowland gorillas in a stable, captive group. Frequencies of female presentations,\\u000a mounts, and copulations were positively associated with peak estrogen values but not with elevations of Pdg. These results\\u000a support the observation that sexual behaviors in the gorilla

W. R. Mitchell; D. G. Lindburg; S. E. Shideler; S. Presley; B. L. Lasley

1985-01-01

52

Precocious sexual signalling and mating in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) sterile males achieved through juvenile hormone treatment and protein supplements.  

PubMed

Sexual maturation of Anastrepha fraterculus is a long process. Methoprene (a mimic of juvenile hormone) considerably reduces the time for sexual maturation in males. However, in other Anastrepha species, this effect depends on protein intake at the adult stage. Here, we evaluated the mating competitiveness of sterile laboratory males and females that were treated with methoprene (either the pupal or adult stage) and were kept under different regimes of adult food, which varied in the protein source and the sugar:protein ratio. Experiments were carried out under semi-natural conditions, where laboratory flies competed over copulations with sexually mature wild flies. Sterile, methoprene-treated males that reached sexual maturity earlier (six days old), displayed the same lekking behaviour, attractiveness to females and mating competitiveness as mature wild males. This effect depended on protein intake. Diets containing sugar and hydrolyzed yeast allowed sterile males to compete with wild males (even at a low concentration of protein), while brewer´s yeast failed to do so even at a higher concentration. Sugar only fed males were unable to achieve significant numbers of copulations. Methoprene did not increase the readiness to mate of six-day-old sterile females. Long pre-copulatory periods create an additional cost to the management of fruit fly pests through the sterile insect technique (SIT). Our findings suggest that methoprene treatment will increase SIT effectiveness against A. fraterculus when coupled with a diet fortified with protein. Additionally, methoprene acts as a physiological sexing method, allowing the release of mature males and immature females and hence increasing SIT efficiency. PMID:22929968

Liendo, M C; Devescovi, F; Bachmann, G E; Utgés, M E; Abraham, S; Vera, M T; Lanzavecchia, S B; Bouvet, J P; Gómez-Cendra, P; Hendrichs, J; Teal, P E A; Cladera, J L; Segura, D F

2013-02-01

53

Reproductive hormone monitoring of dugongs in captivity: detecting the onset of sexual maturity in a cryptic marine mammal.  

PubMed

Determining the reproductive status of long-term captive animals is essential because the onset of sexual maturity and reproductive activity may necessitate changes in husbandry requirements. This study reports on the first multi-year reproductive hormone monitoring program for captive dugongs of both sexes using feces. Fecal samples were collected from one male (Pig) over 9 years (4-13.2y of age; n=288 samples, 0.8±0.1 samples per week from July 2007 to February 2012) and one female (Wuru) over 7 years (from neonate to 6.9 y; n=171 samples, 0.5±0.1 samples per week from July 2007 to February 2012), and from one solitary female dugong (Gracie) over 10 months (10.5-11.3y of age; n=54 samples, 1.1±0.2 sample per week from September 2008 to June 2009). Using enzyme-immunoassay, fecal progesterone (fP) and estradiol-17? (fE) concentrations were assayed in the two captive females, and testosterone (fT) concentration in the captive male, and compared these to concentrations in wild dugongs. Female Wuru exhibited increasing fP concentrations at 5+ y, indicating early onset of ovarian cycling typical of non-pregnant adult females. Female Gracie maintained basal fP concentrations consistent with wild immature dugongs, indicating that she had not reached puberty by 11y. Nutritional plane may account for differences in age at sexual maturity in these female dugongs. At age 3-4y, Wuru had fE concentrations 1.4 times greater than maximum concentrations recorded in all wild females, and these concentrations were coincident with a period of rapid weight gain. For the male Pig, increasing fT concentrations at 9y provided early indications of puberty. Pig's tusks erupted by 11y, and sexual maturity (indicated by spermatic semen) was confirmed by 12.8y. Identification of sexual maturation prompted two trials of a male contraceptive treatment using the GnRH agonist, deslorelin (9.4mg administered in 2010 and 15.6mg in 2011). Testosterone production was not significantly suppressed by these dosages, and treatment did not terminate sperm production at week 10-11 post-implantation, even at the larger dose tested. Routine analysis of fecal hormones was helpful for making reproductive management decisions regarding individual captives and in guiding the long-term captive management of this cryptic species. PMID:23870803

Burgess, Elizabeth A; Blanshard, Wendy H; Barnes, Andrew D; Gilchrist, Sam; Keeley, Tamara; Chua, Jayce; Lanyon, Janet M

2013-08-01

54

Sexuality I. Sexual Orienta0on  

E-print Network

1 Sexuality I. Sexual Orienta0on II. Hormones & cogni0on III. The Female sexual Behavior of the Human Female (1953) by A. Kinsey #12;2 II. Hormones, Cogni0on & Learning A and female-typical sexual behaviors in vertebrates 1. Testosterone ­ Posi0ve rela0onship

Dever, Jennifer A.

55

Association of sexual hormones with nucleobases in water: NMR-investigations.  

PubMed

The mixed association of testosterone-sulfate and estradiol-sulfate with several derivatives of nucleobases in D2O has been investigated by means of nuclear magnetic resonnance spectroscopy. From the differences among the chemical shifts of the hormone-protons it is concluded, that the nucleobases in the complexes are located above the center of the steroid molecule. The beta-side of the steroid which is characterized by the axial methyl-groups is directed towards the bases. The enthalpies of mixed association of the hormones with a certain nucleobase of the same order of magnitude as the enthalpy of selfassociation of this nucleobase (Schimmack et al., to be published). It is suggested that the complexes are stabilized by van-der-Waals forces. This stacking-like interaction is not specific for the male or female sex hormones: no qualitative or quantitative differences have been observed among the complexes of the two hormone-sulfates with the nucleobases. PMID:1234032

Schimmack, W; Lohmann, W

1975-12-19

56

Monoamines and ovarian hormone-linked sexual and emotional changes: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional upsets related to changes in ovarian hormones are highly prevalent and are responsible for psychiatric morbidity and mortality. Significant increases in acute psychiatric hospitalizations, suicidal activity, and other psychopathology occur during the premenstruum and during menstruation. This paper reviews evidence indicating that menstrual cycle psychopathology may be mediated by the effects of estrogen, progesterone, and possibly the renin—angiotensin—aldosterone system

David S. Janowsky; William E. Fann; John M. Davis

1971-01-01

57

Hormonal predictors of sexual motivation in natural menstrual cycles James R. Roney , Zachary L. Simmons  

E-print Network

Menstrual cycle Estradiol Testosterone Progesterone Little is known regarding which hormonal signals may. To address this, we collected daily saliva samples across 1­2 menstrual cycles from a sample of young women; assayed samples for estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone; and also collected daily diary reports

Dever, Jennifer A.

58

Hormones, sexual signals, and performance of green anole lizards (Anolis carolinensis)  

E-print Network

dewlap size and/or bite-force capacity, as dewlap size is known to be a reliable predictor of bite male `quality' (reviewed in Maynard Smith and Harper, 1995; Searcy and Nowicki, 2005). In some species, sexual signal size is a strong predictor of fighting capacity (e.g., Berglund et al., 1996; Lappin et al

Nishikawa, Kiisa

59

Effect of hypothalamic deafferentation on LH and sexual behaviour in ovariectomized ewe under hormonally  

E-print Network

Effect of hypothalamic deafferentation on LH and sexual behaviour in ovariectomized ewe under and Pupp (1965), deafferentation of the hypothalamus has proved to be a highly valuable method females (Signoret, 1970). The use of deafferentation techniques in sheep has been reported by Jackson et

Boyer, Edmond

60

Maternal exposure to dioxin imprints sexual immaturity of the pups through fixing the status of the reduced expression of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone.  

PubMed

Our previous studies have shown that treatment of pregnant rats with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; 1 ?g/kg) at gestational day (GD) 15 reduces the pituitary synthesis of luteinizing hormone (LH) during the late fetal and early postnatal period, leading to the imprinting of defects in sexual behaviors at adulthood. However, it remains unclear how the attenuation of pituitary LH is linked to sexual immaturity. To address this issue, we performed a DNA microarray analysis to identify the gene(s) responsible for dioxin-induced sexual immaturity on the pituitary and hypothalamus of male pups, born of TCDD-treated dams, at the age of postnatal day (PND) 70. Among the reduced genes, we focused on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in the hypothalamus because of published evidence that it has a role in sexual behaviors. An attenuation by TCDD of GnRH expression emerged at PND4, and no subsequent return to the control level was seen. A change in neither DNA methylation nor histone acetylation accounted for the reduced expression of GnRH. Intracerebroventricular infusion of GnRH to the TCDD-exposed pups after reaching maturity restored the impairment of sexual behaviors. Supplying equine chorionic gonadotropin, an LH-mimicking hormone, to the TCDD-exposed fetuses at GD15 resulted in a recovery from the reduced expression of GnRH, as well as from the defects in sexual behavior. These results strongly suggest that maternal exposure to TCDD fixes the status of the lowered expression of GnRH in the offspring by reducing the LH-assisted steroidogenesis at the perinatal stage, and this mechanism imprints defects in sexual behaviors at adulthood. PMID:24132183

Takeda, Tomoki; Fujii, Misaki; Hattori, Yukiko; Yamamoto, Midori; Shimazoe, Takao; Ishii, Yuji; Himeno, Masaru; Yamada, Hideyuki

2014-01-01

61

A Genome-Wide Survey of Sexually Dimorphic Expression of Drosophila miRNAs Identifies the Steroid Hormone-Induced miRNA let-7 as a Regulator of Sexual Identity.  

PubMed

MiRNAs bear an increasing number of functions throughout development and in the aging adult. Here we address their role in establishing sexually dimorphic traits and sexual identity in male and female Drosophila. Our survey of miRNA populations in each sex identifies sets of miRNAs differentially expressed in male and female tissues across various stages of development. The pervasive sex-biased expression of miRNAs generally increases with the complexity and sexual dimorphism of tissues, gonads revealing the most striking biases. We find that the male-specific regulation of the X chromosome is relevant to miRNA expression on two levels. First, in the male gonad, testis-biased miRNAs tend to reside on the X chromosome. Second, in the soma, X-linked miRNAs do not systematically rely on dosage compensation. We set out to address the importance of a sex-biased expression of miRNAs in establishing sexually dimorphic traits. Our study of the conserved let-7-C miRNA cluster controlled by the sex-biased hormone ecdysone places let-7 as a primary modulator of the sex-determination hierarchy. Flies with modified let-7 levels present doublesex-related phenotypes and express sex-determination genes normally restricted to the opposite sex. In testes and ovaries, alterations of the ecdysone-induced let-7 result in aberrant gonadal somatic cell behavior and non-cell-autonomous defects in early germline differentiation. Gonadal defects as well as aberrant expression of sex-determination genes persist in aging adults under hormonal control. Together, our findings place ecdysone and let-7 as modulators of a somatic systemic signal that helps establish and sustain sexual identity in males and females and differentiation in gonads. This work establishes the foundation for a role of miRNAs in sexual dimorphism and demonstrates that similar to vertebrate hormonal control of cellular sexual identity exists in Drosophila. PMID:25081570

Fagegaltier, Delphine; König, Annekatrin; Gordon, Assaf; Lai, Eric C; Gingeras, Thomas R; Hannon, Gregory J; Shcherbata, Halyna R

2014-10-01

62

A Genome-Wide Survey of Sexually Dimorphic Expression of Drosophila miRNAs Identifies the Steroid Hormone-Induced miRNA let-7 as a Regulator of Sexual Identity  

PubMed Central

MiRNAs bear an increasing number of functions throughout development and in the aging adult. Here we address their role in establishing sexually dimorphic traits and sexual identity in male and female Drosophila. Our survey of miRNA populations in each sex identifies sets of miRNAs differentially expressed in male and female tissues across various stages of development. The pervasive sex-biased expression of miRNAs generally increases with the complexity and sexual dimorphism of tissues, gonads revealing the most striking biases. We find that the male-specific regulation of the X chromosome is relevant to miRNA expression on two levels. First, in the male gonad, testis-biased miRNAs tend to reside on the X chromosome. Second, in the soma, X-linked miRNAs do not systematically rely on dosage compensation. We set out to address the importance of a sex-biased expression of miRNAs in establishing sexually dimorphic traits. Our study of the conserved let-7-C miRNA cluster controlled by the sex-biased hormone ecdysone places let-7 as a primary modulator of the sex-determination hierarchy. Flies with modified let-7 levels present doublesex-related phenotypes and express sex-determination genes normally restricted to the opposite sex. In testes and ovaries, alterations of the ecdysone-induced let-7 result in aberrant gonadal somatic cell behavior and non-cell-autonomous defects in early germline differentiation. Gonadal defects as well as aberrant expression of sex-determination genes persist in aging adults under hormonal control. Together, our findings place ecdysone and let-7 as modulators of a somatic systemic signal that helps establish and sustain sexual identity in males and females and differentiation in gonads. This work establishes the foundation for a role of miRNAs in sexual dimorphism and demonstrates that similar to vertebrate hormonal control of cellular sexual identity exists in Drosophila. PMID:25081570

Fagegaltier, Delphine; Konig, Annekatrin; Gordon, Assaf; Lai, Eric C.; Gingeras, Thomas R.; Hannon, Gregory J.; Shcherbata, Halyna R.

2014-01-01

63

Convergent Pathways for Steroid Hormone-and Neurotransmitter-Induced Rat Sexual Behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estrogen and progesterone modulate gene expression in rodents by activation of intracellular receptors in the hypothalamus, which regulate neuronal networks that control female sexual behavior. However, the neurotransmitter dopamine has been shown to activate certain steroid receptors in a ligand-independent manner. A dopamine receptor stimulant and a D_1 receptor agonist, but not a D_2 receptor agonist, mimicked the effects of progesterone in facilitating sexual behavior in female rats. The facilitatory effect of the neurotransmitter was blocked by progesterone receptor antagonists, a D_1 receptor antagonist, or antisense oligonucleotides to the progesterone receptor. The results suggest that in rodents neurotransmitters may regulate in vivo gene expression and behavior by means of cross-talk with steroid receptors in the brain.

Mani, S. K.; Allen, J. M. C.; Clark, J. H.; Blaustein, J. D.; O'Malley, B. W.

1994-08-01

64

Dopamine Release in the Medial Preoptic Area is Related to Hormonal Action and Sexual Motivation  

PubMed Central

In order to help elucidate how general the role of dopamine (DA) release in the medial preoptic area (mPOA) is for the activation of male sexual behavior in vertebrates, we recently developed an in vivo microdialysis procedure in the mPOA of Japanese quail. Using these techniques in the present experiment, the temporal pattern of DA release in relation to the pre-copulatory exposure to a female and to the expression of both appetitive and consummatory aspects of male sexual behavior was investigated. Extracellular samples from the mPOA of adult sexually-experienced male quail were collected every six minutes before, while viewing, while in physical contact with, and after exposure to a female. In the absence of a pre-copulatory rise in DA, males failed to copulate when the barrier separating them from the female was removed. In contrast, males that showed a substantial increase in mPOA DA during pre-copulatory interactions behind the barrier, copulated with females after its removal. However, there was no difference in DA during periods when the quail were copulating as compared to when the female was present but the males were not copulating. In addition, we show that pre-copulatory DA predicts future DA levels and copulatory behavior frequency. Furthermore, the size of the cloacal gland, an accurate indicator of testosterone action, is positively correlated with pre-copulatory DA. Taken together, these results provide further support for the hypothesis that DA action in the mPOA is specifically linked to sexual motivation as compared to copulatory behavior per se. PMID:21133533

Kleitz-Nelson, H.K.; Dominguez, J.M.; Ball, G.F.

2010-01-01

65

Influence of sex hormones, HIV status, and concomitant sexually transmitted infection on cervicovaginal inflammation.  

PubMed

The impact of demographic characteristics, phase of the menstrual cycle, use of hormonal contraceptives, and concomitant lower genital-tract infections on cervicovaginal inflammatory cells was assessed in 967 women, 654 of whom were infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) fluid was evaluated for total white blood cell (WBC), polymorphonuclear leukocyte, and monocyte counts. HIV-1 infection was not associated with statistically significant differences in numbers of inflammatory cells in CVL fluid except in 1 group--HIV-1-infected women with Chlamydia trachomatis infection had a 0.43 log(10) higher WBC count than their HIV-uninfected, chlamydia-positive counterparts (P=.04). Younger age and use of progesterone-based hormonal contraceptives were independently associated with increased numbers of inflammatory cells in CVL fluid. A 0.15-0.2 log(10) increase in inflammatory cells was seen in black versus white and Hispanic women after adjustment for known potential confounders. Progesterone-based contraceptives, younger age, and race have an independent effect on cervicovaginal inflammatory cells. PMID:15633094

Ghanem, Khalil G; Shah, Nina; Klein, Robert S; Mayer, Kenneth H; Sobel, Jack D; Warren, D L; Jamieson, Denise J; Duerr, Ann C; Rompalo, Anne M

2005-02-01

66

An Enriched Rearing Environment Calms Adult Male Rat Sexual Activity: Implication for Distinct Serotonergic and Hormonal Responses to Females  

PubMed Central

Early life events induce alterations in neural function in adulthood. Although rearing in an enriched environment (EE) has a great impact on behavioral development, the effects of enriched rearing on sociosexual behavior remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of rearing in an EE on male copulatory behavior and its underlying neurobiological mechanisms in Wistar-Imamichi rats. Three-week-old, recently weaned rats were continuously subjected to a standard environment (SE) or an EE comprised of a large cage with several objects, such as toys, tunnels, ladders, and a running wheel. After 6 weeks, rats reared in an EE (EE rats) showed decreased sexual activity compared with rats reared in a SE (SE rats). This included a lower number of ejaculations and longer latencies in three consecutive copulatory tests. In addition, EE rats showed decreased emotional responsiveness and less locomotor behavior in an open field. In a runway test, on the other hand, sexual motivation toward receptive females in EE males was comparable to that of SE males. Furthermore, following exposure to a female, increases in serotonin levels in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum were significantly suppressed in EE males, whereas dopaminergic responses were similar between the groups. Female-exposure-induced increases in the levels of plasma corticosterone and testosterone were also suppressed in EE rats compared to SE rats. These data suggest that rearing in an EE decreases male copulatory behavior, and serotonin and hormonal regulating systems may regulate the differences in sociosexual interactions that result from distinct rearing environments. PMID:24505330

Urakawa, Susumu; Mitsushima, Dai; Shimozuru, Michito; Sakuma, Yasuo; Kondo, Yasuhiko

2014-01-01

67

An enriched rearing environment calms adult male rat sexual activity: implication for distinct serotonergic and hormonal responses to females.  

PubMed

Early life events induce alterations in neural function in adulthood. Although rearing in an enriched environment (EE) has a great impact on behavioral development, the effects of enriched rearing on sociosexual behavior remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of rearing in an EE on male copulatory behavior and its underlying neurobiological mechanisms in Wistar-Imamichi rats. Three-week-old, recently weaned rats were continuously subjected to a standard environment (SE) or an EE comprised of a large cage with several objects, such as toys, tunnels, ladders, and a running wheel. After 6 weeks, rats reared in an EE (EE rats) showed decreased sexual activity compared with rats reared in a SE (SE rats). This included a lower number of ejaculations and longer latencies in three consecutive copulatory tests. In addition, EE rats showed decreased emotional responsiveness and less locomotor behavior in an open field. In a runway test, on the other hand, sexual motivation toward receptive females in EE males was comparable to that of SE males. Furthermore, following exposure to a female, increases in serotonin levels in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum were significantly suppressed in EE males, whereas dopaminergic responses were similar between the groups. Female-exposure-induced increases in the levels of plasma corticosterone and testosterone were also suppressed in EE rats compared to SE rats. These data suggest that rearing in an EE decreases male copulatory behavior, and serotonin and hormonal regulating systems may regulate the differences in sociosexual interactions that result from distinct rearing environments. PMID:24505330

Urakawa, Susumu; Mitsushima, Dai; Shimozuru, Michito; Sakuma, Yasuo; Kondo, Yasuhiko

2014-01-01

68

Sex steroid hormones in natural populations of a sexual whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus inornatus, a direct evolutionary ancestor of a unisexual parthenogen.  

PubMed

The lizard genus Cnemidophorus consists of both sexual species and unisexual, all-female species. We characterized changes in circulating levels of gonadal sex steroid hormones in males and females in one of the sexual species, C. inornatus, to compare them to previously measured levels in a unisexual, parthenogenetic species, C. uniparens. Reproductively active male C. inornatus have high levels of dihydrotestosterone and somewhat lower levels of testosterone. These levels are highest immediately after females become sexually receptive and decrease later at the onset of testicular regression. Female C. inornatus have high levels of estradiol and low levels of progesterone during the previtellogenic and vitellogenic phases of the ovarian cycle. During the postovulatory phase, they have low levels of estradiol and high levels of progesterone. We could not detect circulating levels of androgen at any phase of the ovarian cycle. The patterns of hormone secretion in the female C. inornatus are virtually identical to those of its direct evolutionary descendant, C. uniparens. This confirms our previous conclusion that the evolution of the parthenogenetic mode of reproduction and expression of male-like pseudosexual behavior that are characteristic of the unisexual C. uniparens has not been accomplished by evolutionary modifications in the pattern of sex steroid hormone secretion. Rather it is the response to this pattern of secretion that has been modified. PMID:3557067

Moore, M C; Crews, D

1986-09-01

69

Longitudinal hormonal evaluation in a patient with disorder of sexual development, 46,XY karyotype and one NR5A1 mutation.  

PubMed

Steroidogenic factor 1 (encoded by the NR5A1 gene) is a critical regulator of reproduction, controlling transcription of key genes involved in sexual dimorphism. To date, NR5A1 variants have been found in individuals with a 46,XY karyotype and gonadal dysgenesis, as well as with a wide spectrum of genital anomalies and, in some patients, with adrenal insufficiency. We describe evolution of gonadal function, from the neonatal period to puberty, in a patient with a 46,XY karyotype, a disorder of sexual development, and a mutation (c.691_699dupCTGCAGCTG) in the NR5A1 gene. The patient, ascertained at birth due to ambiguous genitalia, showed normal values of plasma testosterone in the late neonatal period. Evaluation of the hormonal profile over time indicated severe tubular testicular hypofunction suggestive for a 46,XY disorder of gonadal development. A comprehensive review of published reports of 46,XY and disordered sexual development related to the NR5A1 gene confirmed the clinical and hormonal variability in patients with NR5A1 mutations. Analysis of multiple data allowed us to define the most common features associated with NR5A1 mutations. We further confirmed the indication to perform NR5A1 screening in patients with 46,XY karyotype and disordered sexual development even when Müllerian structures appear to be absent and plasma testosterone levels are within the normal range for age. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25160005

Pedace, Lucia; Laino, Luigi; Preziosi, Nicoletta; Valentini, Maria Stella; Scommegna, Salvatore; Rapone, Anna Maria; Guarino, Nino; Boscherini, Brunetto; De Bernardo, Carmelilia; Marrocco, Giacinto; Majore, Silvia; Grammatico, Paola

2014-11-01

70

Sexual hormones terminate in the rat: the significantly enhanced catecholaminergic/serotoninergic tone in the brain characteristic to the post-weaning period.  

PubMed

The amount of dopamine released from the striatum, substantia nigra and tuberculum olfactorium, noradrenaline from locus coeruleus and serotonin from the raphe, was significantly higher in four and five weeks old rats than in three month old ones, proving that the catecholaminergic/serotoninergic activity enhancer (CAE/SAE) regulation works unrestrained during developmental longevity and is restricted thereafter. As the dampening of the CAE/SAE regulation (end to the second month of age) coincided temporally with the appearance of sexual hormones, we castrated three weeks old male and female rats and measured at the end of the third month of their life the release of catecholamines and serotonin from selected discrete brain regions. The amount of catecholamines and serotonin released from the neurons was significantly higher in castrated than in untreated or sham operated rats, signalting that sexual hormones inhibit the CAE/SAE regulation in the brain. We therefore treated male and female rats s.c. with oil (0.1 ml/rat), testosterone, (0.1 mg/rat), estrone (0.01 mg/rat) and progesterone (0.5 mg/rat), respectively, and measured their effect on the CAE/SAE regulation. Twenty-four hours after a single injection with the hormones, the release of noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin was significantly inhibited in the testosterone or estrone treated rats, but remained unchanged after progesteron treatment. In rats treated with a single hormone injection, testosterone in the male and estrone in the female was the significantly more effective inhibitor. Remarkably, the reverse order of potency was found in rats treated with daily hormone injections for 7 or 14 days. After two-week treatment with the hormones estrone was in the male and testosterone in the female the significantly more potent inhibitor of the CAE/SAE regulation. The data indicate that sexual hormones terminate the hyperactive phase of adolescence by dampening the impulse propagation mediated release of catecholamines and serotonin in the brain. PMID:10968406

Knoll, J; Miklya, I; Knoll, B; Dalló, J

2000-07-01

71

Bioactive and immunoreactive concentrations of circulating luteinizing hormone during sexual maturation in the bovine.  

PubMed

The characteristics of circulating LH during sexual maturation in cattle were assessed by examining bioactive and immunoreactive LH concentrations, as well as their ratio (B/I ratio). Male and female intact control (CONT), gonadectomized (GNX; at 241 +/- 3 days of age, Day 0 of the study), and gonadectomized animals administered 17 beta-estradiol (GNXE) were evaluated. Serum samples were collected at 15-min intervals for 24 h at 1, 7, 13, 17, 21, 25, 29, 33, 37, and 43 wk subsequent to Day 0. Bioactive LH was assessed with an in vitro bioassay using mouse testicular interstitial cells. In initial experiments, immunoreactive LH was quantified in RIAs using three different antibodies. The two RIAs employing polyclonal antibodies overestimated low LH concentrations, but the absolute values obtained in each of the three assays were highly correlated. Hence, immunoreactive LH was measured in an RIA using monoclonal anti-bovine LH (bLH) (JR-518B7). No significant changes in the B/I ratios were observed during individual pulses of LH secretion. Accordingly, pools consisting of equal volumes of the serial blood samples collected during the 24-h period for each animal at each stage of maturation (pools) were compared. LH B/I ratios for GNX females increased significantly with time (p less than 0.01) and the B/I ratios for GNX males were significantly higher than for GNX females (p less than 0.05). Concentrations of LH in most of the pools for GNXE and CONT animals were extremely low or nondetectable until the later bleeding periods.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1391319

Hejl, K M; Wolfe, M W; Kinder, J E; Grotjan, H E

1992-06-01

72

Implants, Injections, Rings, and Patches: Hormonal Birth Control Options  

MedlinePLUS

... methods? • Do hormonal birth control methods protect against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)? • What is the contraceptive implant? • What are ... Options Do hormonal birth control methods protect against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)? Hormonal birth control methods do not protect ...

73

Female Sexual Dysfunction  

MedlinePLUS

... menopause-and-womens-health.cfm North American Menopause Society information about sexual health and menopause: www.menopause.org/ ... em-sexual-health-menopause-em-online Mayo Clinic information about female sexual ... www.hormone.org or call 1-800-HORMONE (1-800-467-6663)

74

Sexual Dimorphism of Growth Hormone (GH) Regulation in Humans: Endogenous GH-Releasing Hormone Maintains Basal GH in Women But Not in Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

GH secretory patterns in humans are sexually dimorphic in terms of pulse regularity, amplitude of the diurnal rhythm, and magnitude of basal (trough) secretion. The neuroendo- crine mechanisms of gender-specific GH regulation in hu- mans are currently unknown, but the interpulse GH levels are generally assumed to be controlled by somatostatin. In rats, however, administration of antiserum to GHRH lowers

STACY K. JESSUP; ELENI V. DIMARAKI; KATHLEEN V. SYMONS; ARIEL L. BARKAN

75

Sex Hormone Regulation of Innate Immunity in the Female Reproductive Tract: The Role of Epithelial Cells in Balancing Reproductive Potential with Protection against Sexually Transmitted Pathogens  

PubMed Central

The immune system in the female reproductive tract (FRT) does not mount an attack against HIV or other sexually transmitted infections (STI) with a single endogenously produced microbicide or with a single arm of the immune system. Instead, the body deploys dozens of innate antimicrobials to the secretions of the female reproductive tract. Working together, these antimicrobials along with mucosal antibodies attack many different viral, bacterial and fungal targets. Within the FRT, the unique challenges of protection against sexually transmitted pathogens coupled with the need to sustain the development of an allogeneic fetus have evolved in such a way that sex hormones precisely regulate immune function to accomplish both tasks. The studies presented in this review demonstrate that estradiol and progesterone secreted during the menstrual cycle act both directly and indirectly on epithelial cells and other immune cells in the reproductive tract to modify immune function in a way that is unique to specific sites throughout the FRT. As presented in this review, studies from our laboratory and others demonstrate that the innate immune response is under hormonal control, varies with the stage of the menstrual cycle, and as such is suppressed at mid-cycle to optimize conditions for successful fertilization and pregnancy. In doing so, a window of STI vulnerability is created during which potential pathogens including HIV enter the reproductive tract to infect host targets. PMID:20367623

Wira, Charles R.; Fahey, John V.; Ghosh, Mimi; Patel, Mickey V.; Hickey, Danica K.; Ochiel, Daniel O.

2013-01-01

76

Sexually dimorphic expression of gonadotropin subunits in the pituitary of protogynous honeycomb grouper (Epinephelus merra): evidence that follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) induces gonadal sex change.  

PubMed

Recent studies have suggested that the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is involved in gonadal sex change in sex-changing teleosts. However, its underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. In this study, we focused on the distinct roles of two gonadotropins (GTHs), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), in the protogynous hermaphrodite teleost, honeycomb grouper (Epinephelus merra). First, we investigated the expression pattern of mRNAs for GTH subunits (cga, fshb, and lhb) in the pituitaries from fish at the different sexual phases. Real-time RT-PCR analyses showed that fhsb mRNA levels in the female pituitary were low. However, fshb transcripts increased dramatically in association with testis development. In contrast, levels of cga and lhb mRNAs did not significantly vary during sex change. In addition, immunohistochemical observations of Fshb- and Lhb-producing cells in the pituitary, through the use of specific antibodies for detections of teleost GTH subunits, were consistent with sexually dimorphic expression of Fshb. In order to identify the role of GTH in gonad of honeycomb grouper, we treated females with bovine FSH (50 or 500 ng/fish) or LH (500 ng/fish) in vivo. After 3 wk, FSH treatments induced female-to-male sex change and up-regulated endogenous androgen levels and fshb transcripts, whereas LH treatment had no effect on sex change. These results suggest that FSH may trigger the female-to-male sex change in honeycomb grouper. PMID:20147735

Kobayashi, Yasuhisa; Alam, Mohammad Ashraful; Horiguchi, Ryo; Shimizu, Akio; Nakamura, Masaru

2010-06-01

77

Raging Hormones and Powerful Cars: The Construction of Men's Sexuality in School Sex Education and Popular Adolescent Films.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses issues of men's sexuality in the context of school sex education, and analyzes units on human reproduction in secondary biology textbooks. Compares official school knowledge about men's sexuality with alternative sources, including progressive books and the films of John Hughes, to explore the overlapping and contradictory discourses…

Whatley, Mariamne H.

1988-01-01

78

Current hormonal contraceptive use predicts female extra-pair and dyadic sexual behavior: evidence based on Czech National Survey data.  

PubMed

Data from 1155 Czech women (493 using oral contraception, 662 non-users), obtained from the Czech National Survey of Sexual Behavior, were used to investigate evolutionary-based hypotheses concerning the predictive value of current oral contraceptive (OC) use on extra-pair and dyadic (in-pair) sexual behavior of coupled women. Specifically, the aim was to determine whether current OC use was associated with lower extra-pair and higher in-pair sexual interest and behavior, because OC use suppresses cyclical shifts in mating psychology that occur in normally cycling women. Zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression and negative binomial models were used to test associations between OC use and these sexual measures, controlling for other relevant predictors (e.g., age, parity, in-pair sexual satisfaction, relationship length). The overall incidence of having had an extra-pair partner or one-night stand in the previous year was not related to current OC use (the majority of the sample had not). However, among the women who had engaged in extra-pair sexual behavior, OC users had fewer one-night stands than non-users, and tended to have fewer partners, than non-users. OC users also had more frequent dyadic intercourse than non-users, potentially indicating higher commitment to their current relationship. These results suggest that suppression of fertility through OC use may alter important aspects of female sexual behavior, with potential implications for relationship functioning and stability. PMID:24412772

Klapilová, Kate?ina; Cobey, Kelly D; Wells, Timothy; Roberts, S Craig; Weiss, Petr; Havlí?ek, Jan

2014-01-01

79

Sexual dimorphism and hormone responsiveness in the spinal cord of the socially monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster).  

PubMed

Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are exceptional among rodents in that many aspects of their brain and behavior are not masculinized by exogenous aromatizable androgens. However, the sexually differentiated endpoints studied to date rely on estrogenic mechanisms in other mammals. We examined whether sexual differentiation of an androgen receptor-dependent sex difference would be similarly distinct in prairie voles. Male mammals have more and larger motoneurons projecting to perineal muscles than do females. This sex difference normally arises from males' perinatal androgen exposure and can be eliminated by treating developing females with androgens. Gross dissection revealed bulbospongiosus muscles in adult male, but not female, prairie voles. Retrograde tracing from males' bulbocavernosus muscles and the external anal sphincter from both sexes revealed sexually dimorphic populations of labeled motoneurons in the ventral horn of the lumbar spinal cord. Similar to other rodents, males had twice as many motoneurons as females, although no sex difference in motoneuron size was detected. Unexpectedly, prenatal or early postnatal exposure to testosterone propionate had no effect on adult females' motoneuron number or size. In adulthood, gonadectomy alone or followed by chronic testosterone treatment also had no effect on females' motoneuron size or number, although castration reduced motoneuron size in males. Comparing gonadally intact weanlings confirmed that the sex difference in motoneuron number exists before adulthood. As with some other sexually dimorphic traits, and perhaps related to their unique social organization, sexual differentiation of the prairie vole spinal cord differs from that found in most other laboratory rodents. PMID:19575447

Holmes, Melissa M; Musa, Mutaz; Lonstein, Joseph S; Monks, D Ashley

2009-09-10

80

Sexual dimorphism of growth hormone (GH) regulation in humans: endogenous GH-releasing hormone maintains basal GH in women but not in men.  

PubMed

GH secretory patterns in humans are sexually dimorphic in terms of pulse regularity, amplitude of the diurnal rhythm, and magnitude of basal (trough) secretion. The neuroendocrine mechanisms of gender-specific GH regulation in humans are currently unknown, but the interpulse GH levels are generally assumed to be controlled by somatostatin. In rats, however, administration of antiserum to GHRH lowers GH interpulse levels in females but not males. In this study, using a competitive antagonist to GHRH in humans, we investigated whether endogenous GHRH has differential, gender-specific effects on the interpulse GH levels. Six healthy men and five healthy women (20-28 yr old) who were nonobese, did not smoke, and were on no medications known to influence GH secretion were studied. Each served as his or her own control during an infusion of GHRH antagonist or saline for a 27-h period. A control bolus of GHRH was given near the end of the infusion. In both sexes during GHRH antagonist infusion, mean GH, pulse amplitude, and GH response to GHRH decreased significantly, whereas pulse frequency remained unchanged. However, during the GHRH antagonist infusion, trough GH did not significantly change in men (P = 0.54) but significantly decreased in women (P = 0.008). Deconvolution analysis confirmed the lack of a significant change in basal secretion in men (P = 0.81) as opposed to women (P = 0.006). We conclude that sexual dimorphism in the neuroendocrine regulation of GH secretion in humans involves a differential role of endogenous GHRH in maintaining baseline GH. PMID:14557454

Jessup, Stacy K; Dimaraki, Eleni V; Symons, Kathleen V; Barkan, Ariel L

2003-10-01

81

Early Hormonal Influences on Childhood Sex-Typed Activity and Playmate Preferences: Implications for the Development of Sexual Orientation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined hormonal influences on activity and playmate preferences in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) age 2.5 to 12 years and their relatives. Found that girls with CAH preferred boys' toys and activities, whereas boys with CAH did not differ significantly from controls. Activity and playmate preferences were not related. (MDM)

Berenbaum, Sheri A.; Snyder, Elizabeth

1995-01-01

82

Prenatal exposure of the ovine fetus to androgens sexually differentiates the steroid feedback mechanisms that control gonadotropin releasing hormone secretion and disrupts ovarian cycles.  

PubMed

Exposure of the female sheep fetus to exogenous testosterone in early pregnancy permanently masculinizes the reproductive neuroendocrine axis. Specifically, in utero androgens given to female lambs from day 30 to 90 of a 147 day pregnancy dramatically altered the response of the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal network in the hypothalamus to both estrogen (E) and progesterone (P) feedback. Elevated concentrations of estrogen stimulated a massive release of GnRH in gonadectomized female sheep; however, male and androgenized female lambs were unable to respond to high E concentrations by producing this preovulatory-like "surge" of GnRH. Further, the inhibitory actions of progesterone (P) were also sexually differentiated and adult males and androgenized females were much less responsive to P-negative feedback than normal ewes. The consequences of these abnormal steroid feedback mechanisms were reflected in the fact that only 72% of ovary-intact androgenized ewes exhibited normal estrous cycles in their first breeding season whereas none had a single estrous cycle during the second breeding season. In contrast, 100% of the control animals exhibited repeated reproductive cycles in both seasons. These data indicate that a relatively short exposure to male hormones during in utero life permanently alters the neural mechanisms that control reproduction and leads progressively to a state of infertility. PMID:11910790

Robinson, Jane E; Birch, Rachel A; Foster, Douglas L; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

2002-02-01

83

Behavloural effects of an antigonadotropin, of sexual hormones, and of psychopharmaka in the pumpkinseed sunfish, Lepomis gibbosus (Centrarchidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Ein synthetisches Antigonadotropin (Methallibur, I.C.I) hemmt das Sexual- und Nestbauverhalten von Sonnenbarsch-Männchen (Lepomis gibbosus). Testosteron hingegen steigert die Aggressivität, und Säuger-LH zudem noch die Sexualtendenz. Reserpin erhöht die Kampfstimmung; Chlorpromazin hemmt dagegen die Kampf- und Nestbaustimmung, nicht aber die Sexualtendenz.

B. Kramer

1972-01-01

84

The effect of stress and stress hormones on dynamic colour-change in a sexually dichromatic Australian frog.  

PubMed

Rapid colour changes in vertebrates have fascinated biologists for centuries, herein we demonstrate dynamic colour change in an anuran amphibian, the stony creek frog (Litoria wilcoxii), which turns from brown to bright (lemon) yellow during amplexus. We show this by comparing the colour of baseline (unpaired males) and amplecting (paired) males. We also investigate the possible role of stress and stress hormones on this colour change. Frogs were subjected to four different levels of stressors (handling, toe-clipping, saline injection and adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH] injection) and the colour change was measured using digital photography. A comparison of baseline colour and stress hormone (corticosterone) levels was also conducted to give further insight to this topic. From the images, the Red Blue Green (RGB) colour values were calculated, and a principal components analysis (PCA) was used to create a single colour metric (the major axis) as an index of colour in the visible spectrum. A moderate stressor (toe-clipping) led to a significant change in colour (within 10 min) similar to that of amplecting males. Surprisingly, neither a mild stressor (handling and saline injection) nor the maximum stressor (handling and ACTH injection) led to a lightening response. This study confirms that the dynamic male colour change in this species in response to medium stressors adds new knowledge to the understanding of the functional mechanisms of dynamic colour change in amphibians. PMID:23507571

Kindermann, Christina; Narayan, Edward J; Wild, Francis; Wild, Clyde H; Hero, Jean-Marc

2013-06-01

85

Visuospatial Performance on an Internet Line Judgment Task and Potential Hormonal Markers: Sex, Sexual Orientation, and 2D:4D  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated whether performance on a visuospatial line judgment task, the Judgment of Line Angle and Position-15 test\\u000a (JLAP-15), showed evidence of sensitivity to early sex steroid exposure by examining how it related to sex, as well as to\\u000a sexual orientation and 2D:4D digit ratios. Participants were drawn from a large Internet study with over 250,000 participants.\\u000a In the main

Marcia L. Collaer; Stian Reimers; John T. Manning

2007-01-01

86

Urinary steroid hormone analysis of ovarian cycles and pregnancy in mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) indicate that menses, copulatory behavior, sexual swellings and reproductive condition are associated with changing estrone conjugates (E(1)C) and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PdG).  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine if sexual swellings in mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) are a reflection of reproductive endocrine state. Urine samples were assayed using an enzyme immunoassay measuring pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PdG) and estrone conjugates (E(1)C). Hormone patterns of ovarian cycles, pregnancy and lactation were characterized and compared with sexual swellings and copulations relative to menses and peak E(1)C. Cycle lengths averaging 28.7 days and pregnancy length of 181 days determined by hormonal and sexual swelling measures were similar to those reported in other Old World primate species. First day of copulation was observed during rising E(1)C concentrations and preceded observations of peak swelling by 1-2 days. Observations of peak sexual swellings occurred at or on the day after peak E(1)C and decreased following the ovulatory increase in PdG. Observations of menses and sexual swellings are a useful method to track mandrill ovarian cycles and can assist zoos in determining the reproductive state of females in their collections. Zoo Biol 27:320-330, 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19360627

Phillips, Rebecca Sellin; Wheaton, Catharine J

2008-07-01

87

Ghrelin secretion in humans is sexually dimorphic, suppressed by somatostatin, and not affected by the ambient growth hormone levels.  

PubMed

We studied plasma ghrelin and GH concentrations over a 24-h period in young healthy men and women and in patients with acromegaly. Healthy subjects were restudied after administration of GH-lowering agents, octreotide or GHRH antagonist. Ghrelin concentrations in women studied during the late follicular stage of the cycle were about 3-fold higher than in men. Suppression of GH secretion by GHRH antagonist did not alter ghrelin concentration profiles. In the presence of high GH levels (acromegaly), ghrelin levels were similar to those found in healthy men. Administration of somatostatin analog octreotide suppressed both GH and ghrelin concentration profiles. We conclude that: 1) ghrelin secretion is sexually dimorphic in humans, with women in the late follicular stage having higher levels than men; 2) ghrelin secretion is suppressed by somatostatin; and 3) GH has no influence over ghrelin secretion. PMID:12727973

Barkan, Ariel L; Dimaraki, Eleni V; Jessup, Stacy K; Symons, Kathleen V; Ermolenko, Mikhail; Jaffe, Craig A

2003-05-01

88

Biology and Sexual Minority Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this chapter is to provide clinicians with an overview of current knowledge pertaining to the biology of sexual\\u000a minority status. Under the umbrella of sexual minority are included homosexuals, bisexuals, transgenders and intersexes. The\\u000a most developed biologic theory pertaining to sexual minority status is the prenatal hormonal\\u000a hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, prenatal hormones act (primarily during

William Byne

89

Steroid regulation of sexual behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigation into the hormonal control of sexual behavior has a rich and extensive history. For many researchers currently active in the field, the physiological psychologist Frank A. Beach is recognized as the modern father of the study of hormones and behavior. His publication of the seminal book Hormones and Behavior—A Survey of Interrelationships Between Endocrine Secretions and Patterns of Overt

Margaret M. McCarthy; Eugene D. Albrecht

1996-01-01

90

Características Emocionais e Comportamentais de Adolescentes e Adultos Suspeitos de Praticar Abuso Sexual.  

E-print Network

??OBJETIVO: Caracterizar o perfil emocional e comportamental de adolescentes e adultos suspeitos de praticar abuso sexual, bem como, identificar o respectivo histórico criminal. MÉTODO: Estudo… (more)

Denise Müller Böhm

2012-01-01

91

Hormonal Control of Coloration rebecca t. kimball  

E-print Network

10 Hormonal Control of Coloration rebecca t. kimball Numerous studies have examined the evolution is ancestral; Kimball and Ligon 1999). 431 Preprint of: Kimball, R.T. 2006. Hormonal control of coloration. Pp, and environmental conditions, sexual dichromatism must be controlled by other factors. Hormones, which can vary

Kimball, Rebecca T.

92

Research Focus Stress hormones and mate choice  

E-print Network

Research Focus Stress hormones and mate choice Jerry F. Husak and Ignacio T. Moore Department suggested that glucocorticoid stress hormones can play a role in sexual selection. In terms of mate choice glucocorticoid levels. This appears to occur because stress hormones can be key mediators of many condition

Husak, Jerry F.

93

Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone Involvement in the Reproductive Behavior of a Male Amphibian  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study demonstrates that an intracerebroventricular injection of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) activates sexual behaviors and elevates the plasma androgen concentrations in rough-skinned newts (Taricha granulosa). The stimulatory effect of LHRH on male behavior may be a seasonal phenomenon, because LHRH stimulation of sexual behavior was only observed during the early part of the breeding season (November and December).

Frank L. Moore; Larry J. Miller; Sandra P. Spielvogel; Teresa Kubiak; Karl Folkers

1982-01-01

94

Age and size at sexual maturity for the winter skate, Leucoraja ocellata , in the western Gulf of Maine based on morphological, histological andsteroid hormone analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis  We determined age and size at sexual maturity in male and female winter skates, Leucoraja ocellata, from the western Gulf of Maine. Age estimated from vertebral band counts resulted in an Index of Average Percent Error (IAPE) of 5.6%, suggesting that this method represents an accurate approach to the age assessment of L. ocellata. Size at sexual maturity was assessed

James A. Sulikowski; Paul C. W. Tsang; W. Huntting Howell

2005-01-01

95

Sexual Assault  

MedlinePLUS

... assault fact sheet Sexual assault fact sheet ePublications Sexual assault fact sheet Print this fact sheet Sexual assault ... assaulted? More information on sexual assault What is sexual assault? Sexual assault and abuse is any type of ...

96

Estradiol Increases Female Sexual Initiation Independent of Male Responsiveness  

E-print Network

for estrogen as the critical steroid increas- ing female sexual motivation in primates. © 1998 Academic Press the ovarian cycle, suggesting that female hormonal condition influences female sexual motivation in rhesus monkeys. However, the effects of hormones on female sexual motivation are difficult to identify because

Maestripieri, Dario

97

Maintenance of sexual immaturity in male mice and bucks by immunization against N-terminal peptides of the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor.  

PubMed

The follicle-stimulating hormone is one of the two pituitary hormones that control fertility in both sexes. In the male, receptors for FSH (FSHR) are only expressed on testicular Sertoli cells. FSH plays different roles during the male life; it functions as a growth factor during development and sustains spermatogenesis in adults. However, the exact role of this hormone as an initiator of male fertility is not fully understood and few data are available concerning its involvement during the peripubertal period. We recently produced filamentous phages displaying FSHR fragments overlapping residues 18-38, which, if injected in animals, induced anti-FSH receptor immunity capable of inhibiting hormone binding. We employed this strategy to transiently inhibit FSH activity in male mice and male goats of the Saanen and the Mongolian Alpas Cashmere breeds at the prepubertal stage. Anti-FSHR peptide immunization from the age of 3 wk delayed the acquisition of fecundity in male mice by up to 1 wk. Once fertile, progeny sizes produced by mating immunized males and untreated females were found to be reduced by up to 60%. In two different breeds of goats, FSHR peptide vaccines were able to maintain circulating testosterone at low prepubertal levels for several months despite no alteration in LH levels, reflecting their ability to delay the onset of puberty. These results support the conclusion that FSH may play a central role in the male at puberty through the control of testosterone production. PMID:12493729

Abdennebi, Latifa; Chun, E Ying; Jammes, Hélène; Wei, De; Remy, Jean Jacques

2003-01-01

98

STAT 5 and NF-Y are involved in expression and growth hormone-mediated sexually dimorphic regulation of cytochrome P450 3A10/lithocholic acid 6beta-hydroxylase.  

PubMed Central

The level of expression of a number of sexually differentiated liver proteins is primarily determined by plasma growth hormone (GH). Adult males have a pulsatile profile of GH release, while females have a relatively steady-state pattern of GH release. An important subset of these sexually differentiated hepatic proteins is certain cytochrome P450s (P450s). CYP3A10/6beta-hydroxylase is a male-specific P450 that catalyzes 6beta-hydroxylation of lithocholic acid, and the pattern of GH secretion is directly responsible for male-specific expression of this gene. The DNA element involved in GH-mediated regulation of CYP3A10/6beta-hydroxylase promoter activity binds a member of the STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription) family of proteins. In this study we functionally demonstrate that two members of the STAT family, STAT 5a and STAT 5b, mediate GH-dependent regulation of CYP3A10/6beta-hydroxylase promoter activity. Furthermore, a neighboring DNA element binds NF-Y, a transcription factor involved in maintaining high levels of transcription of many genes and known to functionally interact with other factors. In the CYP3A10/6beta-hydroxylase gene, NF-Y also modulates binding of STAT 5, thereby modulating GH-mediated activation of its transcription. PMID:9547277

Subramanian, A; Wang, J; Gil, G

1998-01-01

99

Increased prevalence of sexually transmitted viral infections in women: the role of female sex hormones in regulating susceptibility and immune responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) caused by viruses, including HSV-2, HIV-1, HPV, are among the most prevalent infectious diseases worldwide and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Despite decades of effort, the attempts to develop efficacious vaccines against viral STIs have failed repeatedly, with the exception of the recent HPV vaccine. Given the higher prevalence rates of STIs in women,

Charu Kaushic; Kristy L. Roth; Varun Anipindi; Fangming Xiu

2011-01-01

100

sexual Assault sexual Assault  

E-print Network

sexual Assault sexual Assault if You Are a Victim of a sexual Assault 1. Get to a safe place. 2. Call out for help. 3. DiAl 6111 or ask someone to ring for you and state "sEXUAl AssAUlT" giving exact. if You Witness a sexual Assault 1. Everyone is asked to assist in making the campus a safe place by being

Hickman, Mark

101

Sexual Symptoms in Endocrine Diseases: Psychosomatic Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Not only the most frequent causes of endocrine sexual dysfunction, such as hypogonadism and hyperprolactinemia, but almost all extragonadal endocrinopathies (hyper- and hypothyroidism, hyper- and hypocortisolism, steroidal secreting tumors, etc.) may have a greater or lesser effect on sexual function. Methods: We analyzed scientific literature on the correlations between hormones and sexual behavior, analyzing the most important issue from

Giancarlo Balercia; Marco Boscaro; Francesco Lombardo; Eleonora Carosa; Andrea Lenzi; Emmanuele A. Jannini

2007-01-01

102

The effects of biogenic amines, gonadotropin-releasing hormones and corazonin on spermatogenesis in sexually mature small giant freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurotransmitters such as the serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA), as well as the neurohormones gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs) and corazonin (Crz), are known to have various effects on decapod crustaceans, including ovarian maturation and spermatogenesis. The effects of these neurotransmitters and neurohormones on spermatogenesis in the small male freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, have not been reported. So, we undertook histological and

Jaruwan Poljaroen; Yotsawan Tinikul; Ittipon Phoungpetchara; Wilairat Kankoun; Saowaros Suwansa-ard; Tanapan Siangcham; Prasert Meeratana; Scott F. Cummins; Prapee Sretarugsa; Peter J. Hanna; Prasert Sobhon

2011-01-01

103

Sex hormones and male homosexuality in comparative perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal research has demonstrated the modifiability of sex-dimorphic mating behavior by hormone and brain manipulation, especially in subprimate mammals, and has led to radical attempts at treating human homosexuality by psychosurgery and to the suggestion of preventing homosexuality by prenatal hormone manipulation. This article reviews psychoendocrine studies of human homosexuality — the effects of hormone treatments on sexual orientation, the

Heino F. L. Meyer-Bahlburg

1977-01-01

104

Effects of sex hormones on oncogene expression in the vagina and on development of sexual dimorphism of the pelvis and anococcygeus muscle in the mouse.  

PubMed Central

Neonatal treatment of female mice with diethystilbestrol (DES) is known to induce ovary-independent persistent proliferation and cornification of vaginal epithelium. This irreversibly changed vaginal epithelium persistently expressed higher levels of c-jun and c-fos mRNAs, which was not altered by postpubertal estrogen. Sexual dimorphism was encountered in mouse pelvis and anococcygeus muscle. Postpubertal estrogen changed the shape of the pelvis to the female type and postpubertal androgen changed it to the male type. Neonatal exposure to DES and to the antiestrogen tamoxifen altered the developmental pattern of the pelvis, which contained lower concentrations of calcium and phosphorus than controls. The size of anococcygeus muscle was increased by postpubertal androgen but decreased by postpubertal estrogen. However, neonatal estrogen (DES) exposure permanently enlarged the anococcygeus muscle. Thus, neonatal treatment of mice with estrogen and antiestrogen results in irreversible changes in nonreproductive as well as reproductive structures. PMID:8593880

Iguchi, T; Fukazawa, Y; Bern, H A

1995-01-01

105

Sexual Assault  

MedlinePLUS

... for Patients Share This Page: Sexual Assault Resources Sexual Assault Sexual assault is a significant problem affecting American ... National Network at 1-800-656-HOPE (4673). Sexual Assault Examinations It is important to know that a ...

106

Hormone Transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Hormone transport in plants is a fundamental process governing all aspects of plant development. Identification and functional\\u000a analysis of plasma membrane proteins, which regulate the import and export of plant hormones, is a requirement if we are to\\u000a develop a systems biology level understanding of these processes. For several plant hormones, the characterization of the\\u000a transporters has produced remarkable steps

Ian D. Kerr; David J. Carrier; Jamie Twycross

107

Popular Weed Killer Disrupts Frogs' Sexual Development  

NSF Publications Database

... The herbicide also lowers levels of the male hormone testosterone in sexually mature male frogs by a ... atrazine has significant endocrinological effects on frogs at very low doses." As Hayes discovered ...

108

[Hormonal etiology in erectile dysfunction].  

PubMed

The proper function of erection mechanisms depend on correct interrelationship between psychological, vascular, neurological and hormonal factors. Endocrine diseases affect sexual function, and sexual dysfunction may be one of the symptoms of some hormonal anomalies. Diabetes mellitus is the endocrine disease most frequently causing erectile dysfunction due to the frequent vascular and neurological complications associated. It is important to determine blood glucose in the initial evaluation of a male with erectile dysfunction, as well as to try an adequate control of blood glucose levels to avoid worsening. Diabetic male erectile dysfunction is multifactorial, more severe and has worse response to oral treatment. Hyperprolactinemia causes disorders of the sexual sphere because it produces a descent of testosterone. In these cases, sexual symptoms are treated by correcting the levels of prolactin. Routine determination of prolactin is not clear and it seems it should be determined when testosterone levels are diminished. Thyroid hormone disorders (both hyper and hypotyroidism) are associated with erectile dysfunction, which will subside in half the patients with thyroid hormone normalization. The role of adrenal hormones in erectile function is not clear and their routine determination is not considered in the diagnostic evaluation of erectile dysfunction. The role of estradiol in the regulation of the erection mechanism is not well known either, although it is known that high levels may cause erectile dysfunction. Among endocrine-metabolic disorders we point out dyslipemias, with hypercholesterolemia as an important risk factor for erectile dysfunction and, though its correction may prevent vascular system deterioration, the role of statins in erectile dysfunction is not clear. PMID:20978293

Jabaloyas, José María Martínez

2010-10-01

109

Steroid hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steroid hormones that play major roles in the neuroimmune regulatory network include glucocorticoids, aldosterone, estrogens, androgens and vitamin D. These hormones have cytoplasmic or nuclear receptors, which are transcription factors that directly regulate gene expression. Glucocorticoids are produced in the adrenal gland as well as the thymus and are fundamental to immune function. Physiological levels are required for the

Istvan Berczi; Eva Nagy; Edward Baral; Andor Szentivanyi

2003-01-01

110

[Migrant adolescents and sexuality].  

PubMed

Besides its emotional, hormonal and physical components, sexuality has also an important social function. Analyzing these interactions in immigrant adolescents who are challenged at the same time by developmental changes and modified cultural and social rules--especially if they differ from the rules assimilated during childhood--might help professionals to access better comprehension. Personal experience, individual and external resources, whether they are family oriented or professional, are prone to influence on behavior, perception and outcome related to sexual health. The subject is discussed on the base of scientific literature and medical practice. PMID:22787726

Renteria, Saira-Christine

2012-06-13

111

Synergistic effect of the hydroalcoholic extract from Lepidium meyenii (Brassicaceae) and Fagara tessmannii (Rutaceae) on male sexual organs and hormone level in rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Lepidium meyenii is a plant, which has been used in folk medicine to treat infertility and to increase sexual desire. However, few reports have investigated the administration of this plant with other plants having the same properties. Objective: The present investigation was designed to evaluate whether the combination of Lepidium meyenii and Fagara tessmannii can improve spermatogenesis and testosterone level in rats. Materials and Method: Twenty male rats were treated daily for 2 weeks with the hydroalcoholic extract of Fagara tessmannii and Lepidium meyenii (Fag + MN) as follow: (vehicle), (0.01 g + 0.5 mg), (0.1 g + 5 mg) and (1 g+ 50 mg)/kg BW. Results: At doses Fag 0.01 g/MN 0.5 mg and Fag 0.1 g/MN 5 mg, the weight of seminal vesicle, prostate, and testis significantly decreased (P < 0.05) while at dose Fag 1 g/MN 50 mg, the weight of epididymis and testis significantly increased (P < 0.05) when compared to the control. We noticed a significant increase of the number of spermatids/test (P < 0.05), epididymis sperm count (P < 0.05), and DSP/test of the rats at dose Fag 1 g/MN 50 mg while at dose Fag 0.01 g/MN 0.5 mg and Fag 0.1 g/MN 5 mg, sperm count was reduced in male organs, particularly in vas deferens (P < 0.05) and epididymis (P < 0.001). The serum testosterone concentration significantly decreased (P < 0.05) at lowest dose Fag 0.01 g/MN 0.5 mg. However, at highest dose Fag 1 g/MN 50 mg, the serum testosterone concentration increased significantly (P < 0.05). The length of stage VII-VIII and IX-I of the seminiferous tubule significantly (P < 0.05) increased while the length of stage II-VI significantly (P < 0.05) decreased. Conclusion: The results indicated that the combination of Lepidium meyenii (Black Maca) with Fagara tessmannii can improve male reproductive organs activities. PMID:24497748

Lembè, Dieudonné Massoma; Gasco, Manuel; Gonzales, G. F.

2014-01-01

112

Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause  

MedlinePLUS

... Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause Share: Fact Sheet Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause January, 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol ... take HT for symptom relief.) What are bioidentical hormones? Bioidentical hormones are identical to the hormones that ...

113

Reframing sexual differentiation of the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the twentieth century, the dominant model of sexual differentiation stated that genetic sex (XX versus XY) causes differentiation of the gonads, which then secrete gonadal hormones that act directly on tissues to induce sex differences in function. This serial model of sexual differentiation was simple, unifying and seductive. Recent evidence, however, indicates that the linear model is incorrect and

Arthur P Arnold; Margaret M McCarthy

2011-01-01

114

Sexual dimorphism and homosexual gender identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposes that the classification of homosexuality as hereditary or constitutional vs. acquired is outmoded. It is suggested that the differentiation should be between chronic, obligative, or essential vs. transient, facultative, or optional. Cytogenetics and statistical genetics do not elucidate etiology, but new research on fetal hormonal differentiation of sexual morphology, and especially of sexually dimorphic hypothalamic differentiation offers promising leads.

John Money

1970-01-01

115

Sexual Problems  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... or constant. Sexual disorders can affect men and women and are classified into four categories: desire disorders, ... the time. Sexual disorders affect both men and women and are classified into 4 main categories: sexual ...

116

Healthy Sexuality  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... or her sexuality. Let’s talk about how a woman’s body responds to sexual stimulation. During sexual arousal, blood flow increases to a woman’s genitals. Her vagina is lubricated by secretions from ...

117

Sexual Assault  

MedlinePLUS

Sexual assault is any sexual activity to which you haven't freely given your consent. This includes completed ... trust, a friend, an acquaintance, or a stranger. Sexual assault can affect your health in many ways. It ...

118

HEALTH MATTERS Hormonal IUD  

E-print Network

HEALTH MATTERS Hormonal IUD What is the hormonal IUD? The hormonal IUD is one of two types. The hormonal IUD contains a hormone called progestin. It is easily and quickly inserted into your uterus by a health care provider to prevent pregnancy. How effective is the hormonal IUD? The hormonal IUD

Yener, Aylin

119

Hormonal and pheromonal control of spawning behavior in the goldfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species that employ sexual reproduction must synchronize gamete maturity with behavior within and between genders. Teleost\\u000a fishes solve this challenge by using reproductive hormones both as endogenous signals to synchronize sexual behavior with\\u000a gamete maturation, and as exogenous signals (pheromones) to synchronize spawning interactions between fish. This dual role\\u000a of hormonal products is best understood in the goldfish, an external

Makito Kobayashi; Peter W. Sorensen; Norm E. Stacey

2002-01-01

120

Internet Sexualities  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The term “internet sexuality” (or OSA, online sexual activities) refers to sexual-related content and activities observable\\u000a on the internet (cf. Adams, Oye, & Parker, 2003; Cooper, McLoughlin, & Campbell, 2000; Leiblum & Döring, 2002). It designates\\u000a a variety of sexual phenomena (e.g., pornography, sex education, sexual contacts) related to a wide spectrum of online services\\u000a and applications (e.g., websites, online

Nicola Döring

2010-01-01

121

Response to growth hormone therapy in adolescents with familial panhypopituitarism.  

PubMed

Familial combined pituitary hormone deficiency is a rare endocrine disorder. We describe growth patterns of four children (3 females and 1 male) from two families with combined pituitary hormone deficiency. These children received growth hormone at ages ranging from 14.5 years to 19 years. While all the female siblings reached their target height, the male sibling was much shorter than mid parental height. The reasons for sexual dimorphism in growth patterns in these children are unclear. PMID:20431169

Kulshreshtha, B; Eunice, M; Ammini, A C

2010-04-01

122

Survivorship: sexual dysfunction (female), version 1.2013.  

PubMed

Cancer treatment, especially hormonal therapy and therapy directed toward the pelvis, can contribute to sexual problems, as can depression and anxiety, which are common in cancer survivors. Thus, sexual dysfunction is common in survivors and can cause increased distress and have a significant negative impact on quality of life. This section of the NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship provides screening, evaluation, and treatment recommendations for female sexual problems, including those related to sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain. PMID:24586080

Denlinger, Crystal S; Carlson, Robert W; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K Scott; Davis, Elizabeth; Edge, Stephen B; Friedman, Debra L; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S; Ligibel, Jennifer A; McCabe, Mary S; McVary, Kevin T; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; O'Connor, Tracey; Paskett, Electra D; Raza, Muhammad; Syrjala, Karen L; Urba, Susan G; Wakabayashi, Mark T; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole; Freedman-Cass, Deborah

2014-02-01

123

Excreted Metabolites of Gonadal Steroid Hormones and Corticosterone in Greylag Geese (Anser anser)  

E-print Network

Excreted Metabolites of Gonadal Steroid Hormones and Corticosterone in Greylag Geese (Anser anser Accepted August 8, 2001 Steroid hormones play major roles in the organization of the phenotype. We investigated the relationship between the ontogenetic patterns of steroid hormones and the sexual

124

Internet Sexualities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The term “internet sexuality” (or OSA, online sexual activities) refers to sexual-related content and activities observable on the internet (cf. Adams, Oye, & Parker, 2003; Cooper, McLoughlin, & Campbell, 2000; Leiblum & Döring, 2002). It designates a variety of sexual phenomena (e.g., pornography, sex education, sexual contacts) related to a wide spectrum of online services and applications (e.g., websites, online chat rooms, peer-to-peer networks). If an even broader range of computer networks - such as the Usenet or bulletin board systems - is included in this extensional definition, one speaks of “online sexuality” or “cybersexuality.”

Döring, Nicola

125

[Contraception and sexuality].  

PubMed

Earlier age at menarche, a longer reproductive life, and fewer desired births have been factors in the increasing importance of contraception in the life of women and couples. This work assesses the optimal contraceptive methods for different physiological phases of affective and sexual life and for various sexual problems. Contraception should prevent pregnancy, not promote sexually transmitted diseases and disorders of the genital tract, and preserve future fertility. The 1st gynecological consultation, even for very young girls, has 3 main objectives: detecting anomalies of the genital tract, ensuring that no physiological problems will arise in the 1st intercourse, and providing contraception if it will be needed in the relatively near future. The physician should speak directly to the young patient instead of to her mother. Hormonal contraception is preferred for adolescents with regular sexual activity, but for the majority who have episodic and irregular sexual relations other methods may be preferable. Condoms provide some protection against sexually transmitted diseases but require cooperation from the male partner. Vaginal sponges which can be left in place for 24 hours are easier to use than other vaginal methods. The "morning after" pill is available in case of unprotected coitus. The unplanned and unstable sexuality of adolescents is increasingly followed by a period of regular and continuous premarital sexual relations requiring reliable and continuous contraception. The pill remains the best choice for its efficacy, tolerance, and safety. Various formulations are available in case of contraindications to the classic combined pill. IUDs should be formally contraindicated because of the possibility of extrauterine pregnancy or salpingitis. Mechanical methods can be used for short periods but should not replace a more effective method on a permanent basis. The IUD may be a good choice for women who have completed their families. Oral contraceptives may be continued for premenopausal women without other cardiovascular risk factors. High dose progestins derived from 17 hydroxyprogesterone are recommended in case of luteal insufficiency. Premenopausal women whose sexual relations have become less frequent may prefer IUDs, local methods, or tubal ligation. Sexual difficulties of couples should be considered in selecting a method. Frigid women do not tolerate contraception well because fear of pregnancy is their excuse for avoiding sex. IUDs may be more satisfactory than pills in such cases because they do not require daily action. Pills may be the best choice in cases of premature ejaculation or impotence. PMID:12342527

Kahn-nathan, J

1987-01-01

126

Sexual Health  

MedlinePLUS

... them do, even if interest in sex and sexual activity declines to some extent with increasing age. This ... and a quarter report no pleasure from their sexual activity. About one out of 10 older women have ...

127

Sexual Abuse  

MedlinePLUS

... form of non-consensual physical contact. It includes rape, molestation, or any sexual conduct with a person ... more? "Speaking the unspeakable: An interview about elder sexual assault with Holly Ramsey-Klawsnik, Ph.D" in nexus , ...

128

Sexuality Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the state of sexuality education in the United States. After concerted efforts in the 1960s to stop sex education, interest in sexuality education resurged in the 1980s, largely as a result of AIDS fears. There is now a broad-based consensus on the necessity of sexuality education, but there are still few effective programs. (SLD)

Haffner, Debra W.

1998-01-01

129

Sexual conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual conflict occurs when the genetic interests of males and females diverge. Recent evidence supporting the view that male and female genomes are in conflict has now revolutionized the way in which we interpret interactions between the sexes, and suggests that sexual conflict is a potent force in male–female coevolution. Here, we consider the nature of sexual conflict and what

Tracey Chapman; Göran Arnqvist; Jenny Bangham; Locke Rowe

2003-01-01

130

Steroid regulation of sexual behavior.  

PubMed

Investigation into the hormonal control of sexual behavior has a rich and extensive history. For many researchers currently active in the field, the physiological psychologist Frank A. Beach is recognized as the modern father of the study of hormones and behavior. His publication of the seminal book Hormones and Behavior-A Survey of Interrelationships Between Endocrine Secretions and Patterns of Overt Response, published in 1948, was a compilation of the previous 20 years of research establishing that gonadal secretions acted in the brain and modulated behavior. The question of precisely how hormones can alter brain functioning in a coordinated fashion and profoundly influence the patterns of behavioral responsiveness remains unanswered. As with many research areas, application of new techniques and approaches to the problem reveals additional layers of complexity and previously unimagined relationships between hormones, brain, and behavior. In addition, with the increasing understanding that the brain is a target organ for steroids, the implications of the ramifications of this steroid sensitivity have broadened. The hormonal regulation of sexual behavior is not an isolated aspect of steroid action in the brain; rather, it is one component of a host of physiological responses influenced by steroids. These include such diverse responses as anxiety, aggression, feeding, and learning and memory. An appreciation of the diverse effects of steroids has emerged from studies on sexual behavior, and a mutually beneficial relationship between this and other aspects of behavioral neuroscience has flourished and endured. As with all of neuroscience, this research area has been dynamic and progressive and has additionally benefited from a long history of comparative and integrative approaches to animal behavior. PMID:18406766

McCarthy, M M; Albrecht, E D

1996-11-01

131

Multicenter Study on the Prevalence of Sexual Symptoms in Male Hypo and Hyperthyroid Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Thyroid hormones have a dramatic effect on human be- havior. However, their role on sexual behavior and performance has seldom been investigated in men. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of sexual dysfunctions in patients with hyper- and hypothyroidism and their resolution after normalization of thyroid hormone levels. Design and Setting: We conducted a

Cesare Carani; Andrea M. Isidori; Antonio Granata; Eleonora Carosa; Mario Maggi; Andrea Lenzi; Emmanuele A. Jannini

132

[Sexual orientations].  

PubMed

In this paper we study the concept of sexual orientation and its components by comparing the common orientations of hetero-, homo-, and bisexuality with alternative concepts suitable for describing persons with psychosexual and somatosexual divergencies (e.g., transgender or intersex developments). An assessment of these divergencies as well as their prevalence and societal influences are presented. Empirical findings on the relationship between sexual orientation and mental health are examined against the background of the sexual minority stress model, looking especially at the risks and the opportunities associated with belonging to a sexual minority. The paper also focuses on the normative power of a monosexual model. Finally, sexual orientation is conceptualized as an umbrella term encompassing both conscious and unconscious elements, including the aspects of sexual behavior, sexual identity, fantasies, and attraction. PMID:23361208

Schweizer, K; Brunner, F

2013-02-01

133

Sexuality and pregnancy: a review.  

PubMed

Marital success and failure may be related to sexual satisfaction, including orgasmic capability. Pregnancy represents a life crisis to the pregnant woman and her husband. Complex psychosocial and physiological demands may produce insecurities, anxieties, and somatic complaints. The expectant mother may seek to fulfill increasing nurturant needs through increased physical contact such as cuddling or being held. A pregnant woman's interest in sexual activity may be affected by her changing physical appearance and the hormonal milieu of pregnancy. Although there are marked individual variations and methodological biases and differences among empirical studies, pregnancy appears to be usually accompanied by a decrease in sexual desire, coital frequency, and orgasm. Sexual behavior in pregnancy has been traditionally restricted and is currently poorly defined. Sexual proscriptions may precipitate sexual frustration and marital estrangement. Abortion is only rarely caused by coitus. The relationship of coitus and orgasm to prematurity and distress of the fetus and newborn has not been clearly established. Coitus can indirectly result in maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality through the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. Deaths from air embolism in pregnancy associated with cunnilingus and vaginal insufflation have been reported. PMID:7181650

White, S E; Reamy, K

1982-10-01

134

Flibanserin for female sexual dysfunction.  

PubMed

Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most commonly described form of female sexual dysfunction. There is currently no pharmacological therapy approved to treat HSDD, and therefore, there is an unmet medical need for the development of efficacious treatment alternatives. Flibanserin is a novel, non-hormonal drug for the treatment of HSDD in pre- and postmenopausal women, although the application submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration by Sprout Pharmaceuticals is only for premenopausal women. Flibanserin works by correcting an imbalance of the levels of the neurotransmitters that affect sexual desire. More specifically, flibanserin increases dopamine and norepinephrine, both responsible for sexual excitement, and decreases serotonin, responsible for sexual inhibition. Clinically, flibanserin has exhibited some encouraging results in terms of its ability to increase the frequency of satisfying sexual events, and the intensity of sexual desire. However, adverse events such as dizziness, nausea, fatigue and somnolence, typical of a centrally acting drug, are also frequently related to flibanserin treatment. PMID:25187905

Reviriego, C

2014-08-01

135

SEXUAL ASSAULT AND SEXUAL HARASSMENT QUICK REFERENCE  

E-print Network

SEXUAL ASSAULT AND SEXUAL HARASSMENT QUICK REFERENCE Sexual Assault Definition ­ any form of sexual contact without both parties' voluntary consent. Contrary to what most people think, sexual assault. ­ Zvulony & Company ­ The Law of Sexual Assault in Canada. Sexual Harassment Definition ­ is comment

Thompson, Michael

136

Hormone Replacement Therapy  

MedlinePLUS

... before and during menopause, the levels of female hormones can go up and down. This can cause ... hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Some women take hormone replacement therapy (HRT), also called menopausal hormone therapy, ...

137

Sexual behaviour  

PubMed Central

Sexual health is not merely the absence of disease, but the ability to have informed, consensual, safe, respectful, and pleasurable sexual relationships. The majority of the population are sexually active, most with someone of the opposite sex. The frequency and range of sexual practices that people engage in declines with age, but for many, sexual activity continues well into later life. Different aspects of sexual health affect people at different times throughout their lives. As people in the UK tend to first have sex around the age of 16, but do not start living with a partner until much later, the avoidance of sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancy is necessary for many for a number of years. As people get older, their sexual health needs change and they become more concerned with the impact of their general health on their ability to have sex. Some people experience non-volitional sex (sex against their will); although this occurs typically in late teenage it may affect women and men at any age and so requires consideration throughout life. As many people find it difficult to talk about sex and sexual health matters, health professionals should make sexual health enquiry a component of their holistic healthcare. PMID:24966786

Mercer, Catherine H.

2014-01-01

138

Sexual dimorphism of the developing human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.1. Sexual dimorphism of human brain anatomy has not been well-studied between 4 and 18 years of age, a time of emerging sex differences in behavior and the sexually specific hormonal changes of adrenarche (the predominantly androgenic augmentation of adrenal cortex function occurring at approximately age 8) and puberty.2.2. To assess sex differences in brain structures during this developmental period

Jay N. Giedd; F. Xavier Castellanos; Jagath C. Rajapakse; A. Catherine Vaituzis; Judith L. Rapoport

1997-01-01

139

Sexual harassment.  

PubMed

We review the current state of sexual harassment theory, research, treatment, and prevention. Definitional problems and implications are discussed. An examination of the epidemiology of sexual harassment is presented, highlighting correlates that include characteristics of the organizational environment, the perpetrator, and the recipient of unwanted sexual behavior. Normative responses to sexual harassment and consequences are discussed. Descriptions of the most prevalent models of sexual harassment are offered and the empirical evidence for them is briefly reviewed. From there, the effect of model development and evaluation on the prevention and treatment of sexual harassment is considered. We comment on the steps that would need to be taken to develop viable prevention and treatment programs. Suggestions for fruitful avenues of research and theory development are offered. PMID:11351834

Sbraga, T P; O'Donohue, W

2000-01-01

140

Fetal exposure to prescription drugs and adult sexual orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to determine if prenatal exposure to therapeutic drugs contributes to variations in sexual orientation. Especially suspect were drugs that could affect the delicate balance of sex hormone levels that appear to guide the sexual differentiation of the fetal brain. The recollections of 5102 mothers concerning their use of therapeutic drugs during pregnancy were linked to reports

Lee Ellis; Jill Hellberg

2005-01-01

141

Adolescent sexuality.  

PubMed

The consequences of adolescent sexual behavior are an enormous burden both for the adolescent and society. The problem is not that teens are sexually active but rather that they have little preparation and guidance in developing responsible sexual behavior. Developmentally, adolescents reach physical maturity before they are cognitively able to appreciate the consequences of their behavior. A teenager's primary source of information regarding sexuality is his or her peer group, all of whom are experiencing and reinforcing the same behaviors. The family, the major socializer of other behaviors, is not as powerful a force in shaping responsible sexual behavior because of parental discomfort with sex education and sexual discussions. This is the result of a social milieu in which sex is frequently portrayed but rarely linked with responsible behavior or accurate, nonjudgmental information. The pediatric practitioner is in an ideal position to intervene in these dynamics. In the office, the practitioner can provide accurate sexual information to both parents and adolescents, support parental-child communication on sexual issues, and provide appropriate services or referral. In the community, the practitioner can advocate for school-based sex education as well as act as an information resource. Finally, the practitioner can advocate for the health care needs for adolescents on a national level, supporting legislation that provides adolescents with information and access to services necessary to make responsible sexual decisions. PMID:3059299

Grant, L M; Demetriou, E

1988-12-01

142

Sexy thoughts: Effects of sexual cognitions on testosterone, cortisol, and arousal in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research suggests that sexual stimuli increase testosterone (T) in women and shows inconsistent effects of sexual arousal on cortisol (C), but effects of cognitive aspects of arousal, rather than behaviors or sensory stimuli, are unclear. The present study examined whether sexual thoughts affect T or C and whether hormonal contraceptive (HC) use moderated this effect, given mixed findings of

Katherine L. Goldey; Sari M. van Anders

2011-01-01

143

Sexual Selections: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following selection of papers arose out of a half-year seminar course, The Anthropology of Sex, held at McMaster University in the winter of 1990. The course was originally conceived as a vehicle for scrutinizing the physical anthropological significance of current understandings of human sexuality and reproduction. As such, I imagined we would discuss human sexuality from the point of

Ann Herring

1991-01-01

144

[Hormonal dysnatremia].  

PubMed

Because of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) disorder on production or function we can observe dysnatremia. In the absence of production by posterior pituitary, central diabetes insipidus (DI) occurs with hypernatremia. There are hereditary autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive or X- linked forms. When ADH is secreted but there is an alteration on his receptor AVPR2, it is a nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in acquired or hereditary form. We can make difference on AVP levels and/or on desmopressine response which is negative in nephrogenic forms. Hyponatremia occurs when there is an excess of ADH production: it is a euvolemic hypoosmolar hyponatremia. The most frequent etiology is SIADH (syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH), a diagnostic of exclusion which is made after eliminating corticotropin deficiency and hypothyroidism. In case of brain injury the differential diagnosis of cerebral salt wasting (CSW) syndrome has to be discussed, because its treatment is perfusion of isotonic saline whereas in SIADH, the treatment consists in administration of hypertonic saline if hyponatremia is acute and/or severe. If not, fluid restriction demeclocycline or vaptans (antagonists of V2 receptors) can be used in some European countries. Four types of SIADH exist; 10 % of cases represent not SIADH but SIAD (syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis) due to a constitutive activation of vasopressin receptor that produces water excess. c 2013 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. PMID:24356291

Karaca, P; Desailloud, R

2013-10-01

145

DR. JOSE SEGUINOT BARBOSA Perfil Profesional  

E-print Network

DR. JOSE SEGUINOT BARBOSA Perfil Profesional El Dr. Jos� Seguinot Barbosa curs� estudios�a para el a�o 2007- 08. Comenz� su actividad docente como profesor de geograf�a f�sica en la Universidad

Gilbes, Fernando

146

Schultheiss, Schiepe, & Rawolle Hormone assays 1 Running head: HORMONE ASSAYS  

E-print Network

Schultheiss, Schiepe, & Rawolle Hormone assays 1 Running head: HORMONE ASSAYS Hormone assays Oliver: Schultheiss, O. C., Schiepe, A., & Rawolle, M. (2012). Hormone assays. In H. Cooper, P. M. Camic, D. L. Long Association. #12;Schultheiss, Schiepe, & Rawolle Hormone assays 2 Hormone assays Hormones can be assayed from

Schultheiss, Oliver C.

147

Sex Hormones and Macronutrient Metabolism  

PubMed Central

The biological differences between males and females are determined by a different set of genes and by a different reactivity to environmental stimuli, including the diet, in general. These differences are further emphasized and driven by the exposure to a different hormone flux throughout the life. These differences have not been taken into appropriate consideration by the scientific community. Nutritional sciences are not immune from this “bias” and when nutritional needs are concerned, females are considered only when pregnant, lactating or when their hormonal profile is returning back to “normal,” i.e., to the male-like profile. The authors highlight some of the most evident differences in aspects of biology that are associated with nutrition. This review presents and describes available data addressing differences and similarities of the “reference man” vs. the “reference woman” in term of metabolic activity and nutritional needs. According to this assumption, available evidences of sex-associated differences of specific biochemical pathways involved in substrate metabolism are reported and discussed. The modulation by sexual hormones affecting glucose, amino acid and protein metabolism and the metabolization of nutritional fats and the distribution of fat depots, is considered targeting a tentative starting up background for a gender concerned nutritional science. PMID:24915409

Comitato, Raffaella; Saba, Anna; Turrini, Aida; Arganini, Claudia; Virgili, Fabio

2015-01-01

148

Hypogonadism, ADAM, and hormone replacement  

PubMed Central

Male hypogonadism, or testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS), results from a failure of the testes to produce adequate androgen. Patients have low circulating testosterone in combination with clinical symptoms such as fatigue, erectile dysfunction, and body composition changes. The cause may be primary (genetic anomaly, Klinefelter’s syndrome) or secondary (defect in hypothalamus or pituitary), but often presents with the same symptomatology. In the older patient, androgen deficiency of the aging male (ADAM) is an important cause of secondary hypogonadism because testosterone levels decline progressively after age 40. Hypogonadal patients have alterations not only in sexual function and body composition, but also in cognition and metabolism. Regardless of etiology, hypogonadal patients who are both symptomatic and who have clinically significant alterations in laboratory values are candidates for treatment. The goal of hormone replacement therapy in these men is to restore hormone levels to the normal range and to alleviate symptoms suggestive of hormone deficiency. This can be accomplished in a variety of ways, although most commonly testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is employed. PMID:21789087

Pinsky, Michael R.; Hellstrom, Wayne J. G.

2010-01-01

149

Updates in hormonal emergency contraception.  

PubMed

In recent years, there have been many updates in hormonal emergency contraception. Levonorgestrel emergency contraception has been available for several years to prevent pregnancy when used within 72 hours after unprotected intercourse or contraceptive failure, and it was recently approved for nonprescription status for patients aged 17 years or older. Current research suggests that the primary mechanism of action is delaying ovulation. Ulipristal is the newest emergency contraception, available by prescription only, approved for use up to 120 hours after unprotected intercourse or contraceptive failure. The primary mechanism of action is delaying ovulation. When compared with levonorgestrel emergency contraception, ulipristal was proven noninferior in preventing pregnancy. Evidence suggests that ulipristal does not lose efficacy from 72-120 hours; however, more studies are warranted to support this claim. Many misconceptions and controversies about hormonal emergency contraception still exist. Research does not support that increased access to emergency contraception increases sexual risk-taking behavior. Several studies suggest that health care providers, including pharmacists, could benefit from increased education about emergency contraception. It is important for pharmacists to remain up-to-date on the most recent hormonal emergency contraception products and information, as pharmacists remain a major point of access to emergency contraception. PMID:21923590

Shrader, Sarah P; Hall, Larissa N; Ragucci, Kelly R; Rafie, Sally

2011-09-01

150

CAPTULO 1 Perfil Institucional 1. Finalidades  

E-print Network

SUMÁRIO CAPÍTULO 1 ­ Perfil Institucional 1. Finalidades 2. Missão da UFMG 3. Breve Histórico 4 Planejamento Institucional 1. Política de Pessoal 1.1. Pessoal Docente 1.2. Pessoal Técnico-Administrativo em a revisão do PDI Cronograma de Implementação #12;CAPÍTULO 1 ­ PERFIL INSTITUCIONAL 1. FINALIDADES Nos termos

Chaimowicz, Luiz

151

Epidemiology and pathophysiology of male sexual dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male sexual dysfunction (MSD) is a common disorder associated with a wide range of physical and psychological conditions. Erectile dysfunction, the most commonly studied aspect of MSD, is common and increases with age and with certain comorbid conditions. The pathophysiology of ED and other forms of MSD can be traced to a variety of etiologies, including vascular, hormonal, psychiatric, iatrogenic

J Kaminetsky

2008-01-01

152

Quality of sexual life in men with obstructive sleep apnoea.  

PubMed

The study investigated the quality of sexual life of male obstructive sleep apnoea patients. Apnoea and non-apnoea participants were assessed with Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS) and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) before the sleep test. Folicule Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinising Hormone (LH), prolactin, testosterone and oestrogen levels were also evaluated. The apnoea group had a higher BMI and lower LH and testosterone levels than the non-apnoea group. There were no differences between the apnoea, non-apnoea groups and within the apnoea groups (mild, moderate and high apnoea) in terms of sexual satisfaction. Although there was a change in the hormonal levels of obstructive sleep apnoea patients, the sexual life of apnoea patients was not affected at the clinical level. PMID:22419417

Ak, Mehmet; Balikci, Adem; Haciomeroglu, Bikem; Zincir, Serkan; Cinar, Alper; Congologlu, Emel; Bozkurt, Ali; Ozgen, Fuat; Ozsahin, Aytekin

2013-02-01

153

Sexual function of the ageing male.  

PubMed

With the progressive increase in the proportion of older people, there is an increasing interest in characterizing the modifications of sexual health and the effect of its perturbations as a function of the aging process. The aim of this review is to summarize the available evidence regarding the age-dependent modifications of male sexual function and their interaction with general health and age-dependent modification of endocrine function. Elderly patients are often affected by multiple organic diseases which can interfere with sexual function. Despite this evidence, several studies have indicated that, with advancing age, normal erections are not an absolute prerequisite to remain sexually active. Good physical health, the availability of a partner, and a regular and stable pattern of sexual activity earlier in life predict the maintenance of sexual activity in old age. Conversely, there are no convincing data that hormonal changes, associated with aging, have a primary role in underlying changes in sexual function in healthy aging men. Nonetheless, sexual dysfunctions especially in elderly people are poor investigated. Asking about sexual health remains difficult or embarrassing for many primary care physicians. In addition, many patients find it difficult to raise sexual issues with their doctor. This situation often results in sexual issues not being adequately addressed thus resulting in depression, social withdrawal and delayed diagnosis of underlying medical conditions often resulting in forthcoming cardiovascular events. Education and permission from a health care professional may help to alter such misconceptions. Information from physicians regarding normal age-related changes in sexuality and encouragement, together with advice on how to continue meaningful sexual relations, may play a key role in altering such negative attitudes. PMID:24054932

Corona, Giovanni; Rastrelli, Giulia; Maseroli, Elisa; Forti, Gianni; Maggi, Mario

2013-08-01

154

Childhood Sexual Abuse, Adolescent Sexual Behaviors and Sexual Revictimization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An 18-year longitudinal study of 520 New Zealand women found that those reporting childhood sexual abuse, particularly severe abuse involving intercourse, had significantly higher rates of early onset consensual sexual activity, teenage pregnancy, multiple sexual partners, unprotected intercourse, sexually transmitted disease, and sexual assault…

Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Lynskey, Michael T.

1997-01-01

155

Sexual Dysfunction in Women with Diabetic Kidney  

PubMed Central

Few studies address alteration of sexual function in women with diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Quality of life surveys suggest that discussion of sexual function and other reproductive issues are of psychosocial assessment and that education on sexual function in the setting of chronic diseases such as diabetes and CKD is widely needed. Pharmacologic therapy with estrogen/progesterone and androgens along with glycemic control, correction of anemia, ensuring adequate dialysis delivery, and treatment of underlying depression are important. Changes in lifestyle such as smoking cessation, strength training, and aerobic exercises may decrease depression, enhance body image, and have positive impacts on sexuality. Many hormonal abnormalities which occur in women with diabetes and CKD who suffer from chronic anovulation and lack of progesterone secretion may be treated with oral progesterone at the end of each menstrual cycle to restore menstrual cycles. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most common sexual problem reported by women with diabetes and CKD. Sexual function can be assessed in women, using the 9-item Female Sexual Function Index, questionnaire, or 19 items. It is important for nephrologists and physicians to incorporate assessment of sexual function into the routine evaluation protocols. PMID:25276130

Satta, Ersilia; Magno, Carlo; Gali, Alessandro; Inferrera, Antonino; Granese, Roberta; Aloisi, Carmela; Buemi, Michele; Bellinghieri, Guido; Santoro, Domenico

2014-01-01

156

Prenatal endocrine influences on sexual orientation and on sexually differentiated childhood behavior  

PubMed Central

Both sexual orientation and sex-typical childhood behaviors, such as toy, playmate and activity preferences, show substantial sex differences, as well as substantial variability within each sex. In other species, behaviors that show sex differences are typically influenced by exposure to gonadal steroids, particularly testosterone and its metabolites, during early development (prenatally or neonatally). This article reviews the evidence regarding prenatal influences of gonadal steroids on human sexual orientation, as well as sex-typed childhood behaviors that predict subsequent sexual orientation. The evidence supports a role for prenatal testosterone exposure in the development of sex-typed interests in childhood, as well as in sexual orientation in later life, at least for some individuals. It appears, however, that other factors, in addition to hormones, play an important role in determining sexual orientation. These factors have not been well-characterized, but possibilities include direct genetic effects, and effects of maternal factors during pregnancy. Although a role for hormones during early development has been established, it also appears that there may be multiple pathways to a given sexual orientation outcome and some of these pathways may not involve hormones. PMID:21333673

Hines, Melissa

2012-01-01

157

Student Sexual Misconduct Policy  

E-print Network

. PROHIBITED BEHAVIOR a. Definitions i. Sexual Misconduct ii. Sexual Harassment iii. Sexual Assault iv. Consent resources by reading the Campus Sexual Violence Prevention Program and visiting the Sexual Assault Policy, including but not limited to, sexual harassment, sexual assault, stalking, and relationship violence

Huang, Jianyu

158

Intralocus sexual conflict for fitness: sexually antagonistic alleles for testosterone  

PubMed Central

Intralocus sexual conflict occurs when a trait encoded by the same genetic locus in the two sexes has different optima in males and females. Such conflict is widespread across taxa, however, the shared phenotypic traits that mediate the conflict are largely unknown. We examined whether the sex hormone, testosterone (T), that controls sexual differentiation, contributes to sexually antagonistic fitness variation in the bank vole, Myodes glareolus. We compared (opposite-sex) sibling reproductive fitness in the bank vole after creating divergent selection lines for T. This study shows that selection for T was differentially associated with son versus daughter reproductive success, causing a negative correlation in fitness between full siblings. Our results demonstrate the presence of intralocus sexual conflict for fitness in this small mammal and that sexually antagonistic selection is acting on T. We also found a negative correlation in fitness between parents and their opposite-sex progeny (e.g. father–daughter), highlighting a dilemma for females, as the indirect genetic benefits of selecting reproductively successful males (high T) are lost with daughters. We discuss mechanisms that may mitigate this disparity between progeny quality. PMID:22171083

Mills, Suzanne C.; Koskela, Esa; Mappes, Tapio

2012-01-01

159

Plant-Hormones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Long Ashton Research Station -- part of the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (UK) -- will close in March 2003, but its online resource Plant-Hormones will continue to provide general information and references on gibberellins, auxins, cytokinins, and other hormone groups. Additionally, this Web site provides a link to a listserver for plant hormone scientists, a discussion forum "intended to promote communication between professionals in the plant hormone field." Plant-Hormones also lists job vacancies, meetings announcements, and Web links for botany and molecular biology resources, while offering an online directory of plant hormone researchers searchable by country.

1995-01-01

160

Sexual differentiation of the human hypothalamus.  

PubMed

Functional sex differences in reproduction, gender and sexual orientation and in the incidence of neurological and psychiatric diseases are presumed to be based on structural and functional differences in the hypothalamus and other limbic structures. Factors influencing gender, i.e., the feeling to be male or female, are prenatal hormones and compounds that change the levels of these hormones, such as anticonvulsants, while the influence of postnatal social factors is controversial. Genetic factors and prenatal hormone levels are factors in the determination of sexual orientation, i.e. heterosexuality, bisexuality or homosexuality. There is no convincing evidence for postnatal social factors involved in the determination of sexual orientation. The period of overt sexual differentiation of the human hypothalamus occurs between approximately four years of age and adulthood, thus much later than is generally presumed, although the late sexual differentiation may of course be based upon processes that have already been programmed in mid-pregnancy or during the neonatal period. The recently reported differences in a number of structures in the human hypothalamus and adjacent structures depend strongly on age. Replication of these data is certainly necessary. Since the size of brain structures may be influenced by premortem factors (e.g. agonal state) and postmortem factors (e.g. fixation time), one should not only perform volume measurements, but also estimate a parameter that is not dependent on such factors as, i.e., total cell number of the brain structure in question. In addition, functional differences that depend on the levels of circulating hormones in adulthood have been observed in several hypothalamic and other brain structures. The mechanisms causing sexual differentiation of hypothalamic nuclei, the pre- and postnatal factors influencing this process, and the exact functional consequences of the morphological and functional hypothalamic differences await further elucidation. PMID:12575757

Swaab, Dick F; Chung, Wilson C J; Kruijver, Frank P M; Hofman, Michael A; Ishunina, Tatjana A

2002-01-01

161

Evaluation of the Female Sexual Function Index in a Population Based Sample from Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factor structure and reliability of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) was evaluated in a Finnish population based\\u000a sample of 2,081 women, age 33–43 years. In addition, associations between female sexual function and age, psychological distress,\\u000a alcohol use, hormone based contraceptives, child sexual abuse (CSA), and adult sexual abuse were examined. The results supported\\u000a a six factor solution for the

Katarina Witting; Pekka Santtila; Patrick Jern; Markus Varjonen; Ingrid Wager; Maria Höglund; Ada Johansson; Nina Vikström; N. Kenneth Sandnabba

2008-01-01

162

Prospective study of hormonal contraception and women's risk of HIV infection in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Many women using hormonal contraceptives are also at risk of sexually transmit- ted HIV infection, but data are mixed on whether hormonal contraception increases women's risk of HIV. We investigated associations between HIV incidence and use of combined oral contraceptives (COC), norethindrone enanthate (NET-EN) or depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DM PA) in ac ohort of South African women. Methods Participants

Landon Myer; Lynette Denny; Thomas C Wright; Louise Kuhn

2007-01-01

163

Sexy thoughts: effects of sexual cognitions on testosterone, cortisol, and arousal in women.  

PubMed

Previous research suggests that sexual stimuli increase testosterone (T) in women and shows inconsistent effects of sexual arousal on cortisol (C), but effects of cognitive aspects of arousal, rather than behaviors or sensory stimuli, are unclear. The present study examined whether sexual thoughts affect T or C and whether hormonal contraceptive (HC) use moderated this effect, given mixed findings of HC use confounding hormone responses. Participants (79 women) provided a baseline saliva sample for radioimmunoassay. We created the Imagined Social Situation Exercise (ISSE) to test effects of imagining social interactions on hormones, and participants were assigned to the experimental (sexual) or one of three control (positive, neutral, stressful) conditions. Participants provided a second saliva sample 15 min post-activity. Results indicated that for women not using HCs, the sexual condition increased T compared to the stressful or positive conditions. In contrast, HC using women in the sexual condition had decreased T relative to the stressful condition and similar T to the positive condition. The effect was specific to T, as sexual thoughts did not change C. For participants in the sexual condition, higher baseline T predicted larger increases in sexual arousal but smaller increases in T, likely due to ceiling effects on T. Our results suggest that sexual thoughts change T but not C, baseline T levels and HC use may contribute to variation in the T response to sexual thoughts, and cognitive aspects of sexual arousal affect physiology. PMID:21185838

Goldey, Katherine L; van Anders, Sari M

2011-05-01

164

Are hormonal contraceptive users more likely to misreport unprotected sex? Evidence from a biomarker validation study in zimbabwe.  

PubMed

We analyzed biomarker validation data of unprotected sex from women in Zimbabwe to determine whether condom and sexual behavior misreporting differs between users of different contraceptive methods. Self-reported sexual behavior was compared with the presence of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in vaginal fluid, a biomarker of semen exposure. Of the 195 women who were PSA positive, 94 (48 %) reported no sex or only condom-protected sex. Hormonal contraceptive users misreported sexual behavior less than women using non-hormonal methods (45 vs. 67 %, P = 0.03). This misclassification pattern could have implications on the elevated risk of HIV infection associated with hormonal contraception in some studies. PMID:24619603

McCoy, Sandra I; Ralph, Lauren J; Padian, Nancy S; Minnis, Alexandra M

2014-12-01

165

Menopause and Hormones  

MedlinePLUS

... Topics Resources for You Menopause Resources Menopause and Hormones: Common Questions Print and Share (PDF 102KB) En ... reproduction and distribution. Learn More about Menopause and Hormones Menopause--Medicines to Help You Links to other ...

166

Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones  

MedlinePLUS

... Modules Resources Archived Modules Updates Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones The endocrine system is made up of the endocrine glands that secrete hormones. Although there are eight major endocrine glands scattered ...

167

Hormones and Obesity  

MedlinePLUS

... Hormones and Obesity Share: Fact Sheet Hormones and Obesity March, 2010 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Caroline Apovian, MD Judith Korner, MD, PhD What is obesity? Obesity is a chronic (long-term) medical problem ...

168

Analysis of natural-occurring and synthetic sexual hormones in sludge-amended soils by matrix solid-phase dispersion and isotope dilution gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A sensitive analytical method is presented for the simultaneous determination of four synthetic estrogens and six steroid hormones in sludge-amended soil. The method employs matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by isotope dilution gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry injecting a large volume sample (10?L) after trimethylsilyl derivatization, using the solvent vent mode. It affords good resolution, high sensitivity and reproducibility and freedom from interferences even from complex matrices as soil amended with sewage sludge. The limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 10 to 300pgg(-1) with testosterone and progesterone having the highest limits. Soil amended with sewage sludge was spiked at 2, 10, 25 and 50ngg(-1) and the recoveries after MSPD with acetonitrile:methanol (90:10, v/v), ranged from 80 to 110% with relative standard deviations ?9%. The method was applied to the analysis of six soil samples collected from agricultural plots and forested fields that had been amended with sewage sludge using isotopically labeled surrogates. Three of the synthetic estrogens studied were found at least in one of the six samples analyzed and trans-androsterone and estrone were the only natural hormones detected, although at very low levels (?0.4ngg(-1)). PMID:23465128

Albero, Beatriz; Sánchez-Brunete, Consuelo; Miguel, Esther; Pérez, Rosa A; Tadeo, José L

2013-03-29

169

Hormone treatment of depression  

PubMed Central

There is a well-established relationship between alterations of various hormonal systems and psychiatric disorders, both in endocrine and psychiatric patients. This has led to clinical and research studies examining the efficacy of the different hormones for treatment of depression. These data will be reviewed with particular regard to the thyroid, gonadal, pineal, and adrenal cortex hormones. The data generally provide limited, but varying evidence for the antidepressant efficacy of these hormones. PMID:21485752

Joffe, Russell T.

2011-01-01

170

Hormonally active ovarian tumors.  

PubMed

Steroid-hormone-producing ovarian tumors include those in which the neoplastic cells secrete hormones as well as a wide variety of tumors in which the neoplastic cells stimulate the ovarian stroma or adjacent hilus cells to become hormonally active. PMID:9474877

Scully, R E

1997-01-01

171

Assessment of Salivary Hormones  

E-print Network

17 3 Assessment of Salivary Hormones Oliver C. Schultheiss Steven J. Stanton A Primer on Concepts and Measurement Issues in Behavioral Endocrinology "Hormones" are messenger molecules that are released). Thus one hormone can drive several different physi- ological and psychological functions through its

Schultheiss, Oliver C.

172

A prospective study of the effects of oral contraceptives on sexuality and well-being and their relationship to discontinuation  

E-print Network

1 A prospective study of the effects of oral contraceptives on sexuality and well@indiana.edu; bus. tel. 812- 855-7686; fax: 812-855-8277) Running head: Oral contraceptives, sexuality and well in the research literature. Key words: Contraceptives, oral; sex; sexuality; affect; mood; hormones #12;3 1

173

Early Hormonal Influences on Cognitive Functioning in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports the results of cognitive test performance and early childhood activities in individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, an autosomal recessive disorder associated with elevated prenatal adrenal androgen levels, demonstrating the effects of early exposure to excess androgenizing hormones on sexually dimorphic cognitive functioning.…

Resnick, Susan M.; And Others

1986-01-01

174

c0013 Hormones and Reproductive Cycles in Primates  

E-print Network

(HPG) axis is followed by a period of `adolescent infer- tility.' Ovarian cycles are prolonged factors can all influence the course of puberty, conception, pregnancy, and, to a lesser extent, lactation across the lifespan; pregnancy and lactation; sexual behavior and its hormonal underpinnings

Saltzman, Wendy

175

Hormonal Regulation of CREB Phosphorylation in the Anteroventral Periventricular Nucleus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) is a nodal point in neural circuits regulating secretion of gonadotropin and contains sexually dimorphic populations of hormonally regu- lated dopamine-, dynorphin-, and enkephalin-containing neu- rons. Because the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), prodynorphin (PDYN), and proenkephalin (PENK) genes contain cAMP re- sponse elements that control their expression in their promot- ers, we used histochemical methods to

Guibao Gu; Anthony A. Rojo; Michele C. Zee; Jianhua Yu; Richard B. Simerly

1996-01-01

176

Review: neuroestrogen regulation of socio-sexual behavior of males  

PubMed Central

It is thought that estrogen (neuroestrogen) synthesized by the action of aromatase in the brain from testosterone activates male socio-sexual behaviors, such as aggression and sexual behavior in birds. We recently found that gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), a hypothalamic neuropeptide, inhibits socio-sexual behaviors of male quail by directly activating aromatase and increasing neuroestrogen synthesis in the preoptic area (POA). The POA is thought to be the most critical site of aromatization and neuroestrogen action for the regulation of socio-sexual behavior of male birds. We concluded that GnIH inhibits socio-sexual behaviors of male quail by increasing neuroestrogen concentration beyond its optimal concentration in the brain for expression of socio-sexual behavior. On the other hand, it has been reported that dopamine and glutamate, which stimulate male socio-sexual behavior in birds and mammals, inhibit the activity of aromatase in the POA. Multiple studies also report that the activity of aromatase or neuroestrogen is negatively correlated with changes in male socio-sexual behavior in fish, birds, and mammals including humans. Here, we review previous studies that investigated the role of neuroestrogen in the regulation of male socio-sexual behavior and reconsider the hypothesis that neuroestrogen activates male socio-sexual behavior in vertebrates. It is considered that basal concentration of neuroestrogen is required for the maintenance of male socio-sexual behavior but higher concentration of neuroestrogen may inhibit male socio-sexual behavior. PMID:25352775

Ubuka, Takayoshi; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

2014-01-01

177

Child Sexual Abuse  

MedlinePLUS

... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Child Sexual Abuse Child Sexual Abuse What is child sexual abuse? Child sexual abuse includes a wide ... be at least five years older. Who commits child sexual abuse? Most often, sexual abusers know the ...

178

Was sind hormone?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically, the meaning of the term hormone has changed during the last decades. Morphological studies of secreting cells lead Feyrter to the concept of paracrine action of some hormones. While endocrine regulators are blood-borne, paracrine messengers reach their target cells through the diffusion in the intracellular space. Though it is rather difficult to draw a line between true hormones and hormone-like substances, valid definitions for endocrine and paracrine regulatory systems can be given. The term ‘hormonal control’ should be restricted to endocrine systems. For effectors acting by paracrine mechanisms, the term paramone is proposed in this article.

Karlson, P.

1982-01-01

179

[Resistance to thyroid hormone].  

PubMed

Resistance to thyroid hormone is a syndrome involving reduced responsiveness of target tissues to thyroid hormone. Most cases involve mutations of the thyroid hormone receptor beta gene. Since many patients demonstrate tachycardia, goiter and elevated serum thyroid hormone levels, some patients have been misdiagnosed with Graves' disease, and nearly one third of patients are being treated inappropriately. It is important to keep this diagnosis in mind when a patient with elevated thyroid hormone level accompanied by normal or slightly increased TSH levels (SITSH) is encountered. Therapy with TRIAC has been used in several patients. PMID:17154085

Yamada, Masanobu

2006-12-01

180

Thoreau's Sexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) has often been described as lacking in sexual drive or at most a rather reluctant heterosexual, a close study of his life and writings indicates the presence of a pronounced vein of homoeroticism-although there seems to be no concrete evidence of any homosexual activity on his part. Cognizance of that homoeroticism helps one to understand

Walter Harding

1991-01-01

181

Sexual inadequacy in the male  

PubMed Central

The adequacy of sexual functioning in the male depends on a complex interaction between psychological, hormonal and neurophysiological factors. Disturbance of any one of these factors may lead to sexual inadequacy. In the majority of cases no gross abnormality is found but the absence of gross hormonal or neurophysiological abnormality does not necessarily imply a purely psychological cause. Individual variations in the pattern of response of the autonomic nervous system or in the ability to learn control of autonomic responses such as erection or ejaculation may be sufficient to account for some cases of inadequacy and in others may increase the susceptibility to psychological factors. Further research is required to clarify these undoubtedly important psychophysiological relationships. Treatment has been most successful when it has taken into account both psychological and physiological factors. The advances made by Masters & Johnson (1970) in this area have partly depended on their earlier physiological and anatomical studies of sexual response (Masters & Johnson, 1966). It may be that in some cases the use of anxiety-reducing drugs or androgens will be all that is required but further work is required to identify such cases. The placebo effects of such preparations should not be overlooked particularly as many cases of sexual inadequacy are based on lack of confidence or ignorance and require little more than good advice or reassurance. Considerable advances in our understanding of these problems have been made in the past 20 years and techniques of endocrine, physiological and behavioural assessment are now available which should enable further progress to be made in the near future.

Bancroft, John

1971-01-01

182

[Hormone-based classification and therapy concepts in psychiatry].  

PubMed

This study retells key aspects of the history of the idea of hormone-based classification and therapy concepts in psychiatry. Different contributions to the history are not only represented from a historical, but also from a current medico-scientific perspective. One of the oldest, yet ethically most problematic, indications concerning hormonal methods to modify undesirable behaviour and sexuality was castration, which was widely used in the 20th century to "cure" homosexuality. Felix Platter, whose concept was humoral-pathological in nature, documented the first postpartum psychosis in the German-speaking countries, the pathogenesis of which according to present-day expertise is brought about by changes in female hormones. The concept of an "endocrine psychiatry" was developed at the beginning of the 20th century. Some protagonists for neuroendocrinology are highlighted, such as Paul Julius Möbius around 1900 or, in the 1950s, Manfred Bleuler, the nestor of this new discipline. Only the discovery of the hormones as such and the development of technologies like radioimmunassay to measure and quantify these hormone changes in mental illnesses allowed investigating these conditions properly. Ever since hormone-based therapeutic and classification concepts have played an important role, above all, in sexual, affective and eating disorders as well as alcohol dependence. PMID:21271499

Himmerich, H; Steinberg, H

2011-07-01

183

[Male infertility in delay of sexual development].  

PubMed

The examination of 260 infertile males revealed that delay of sexual development (DSD) predisposes to male infertility. DSD is often characterized by autoimmune reactions pointing to DSD as one of the causes of autoimmune infertility. Spermatozoa in DSD have low viability. Hormonal changes in DSD in adult males did not significantly change from the group with normal sexual development. LH/testosterone and testosteron/estradiol differed significantly in DSD and hypogonadism. Calculation of these proportions may serve differential criteria of DSD and secondary hypogonadism. PMID:17915450

Kirpatovski?, I D; Kir'ianov, A V

2007-01-01

184

Plant Growth and Hormones 102 Plant Growth and Hormones  

E-print Network

Plant Growth and Hormones 102 Plant Growth and Hormones Because plants have so many repeating parts does your data compare to that of other groups in your lab? #12;Plant Growth and Hormones 103 Plant Hormones Hormones are chemical substances that are produced in one tissue and transported to another, where

Koptur, Suzanne

185

Puberty and adolescent sexuality.  

PubMed

This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Sexuality emerges as a major developmental element of puberty and the adolescent years that follow. However, connecting the sexuality that emerges with puberty and elements of adult sexuality is difficult because much adolescent sexuality research addresses the transition to partnered sexual behaviors (primarily coitus) and consequences such as unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This review proposes a framework of an expanded understanding of puberty and adolescent sexuality from the perspective of four hallmarks of adult sexuality: sexual desire; sexual arousal; sexual behaviors; and, sexual function. This approach thus addresses important gaps in understanding of the ontogeny of sex and the continuum of sexuality development from adolescence through the adult lifespan. PMID:23998672

Fortenberry, J Dennis

2013-07-01

186

UV-radiation-induced electron emission by hormones. Hypothesis for specific communication mechanisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The highlights of recently observed electron emission from electronically excited sexual hormones (17?-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone) and the phytohormone genistein in polar media are briefly reviewed. The electron yield, Q(e aq-), dependence from substrate concentration, hormone structure, polarity of solvent, absorbed energy and temperature are discussed. The hormones reactivity with e aq- and efficiency in electron transfer ensure them the ability to communicate with other biological systems in an organism. A hypothesis is presented for the explanation of the mechanisms of the distinct recognition of signals transmitted by electrons, originating from different types of hormones to receiving centres. Biological consequences of the electron emission in respect to cancer are mentioned.

Getoff, Nikola

2009-11-01

187

Sexuality after breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer (BC) may affect three main domains of women's sexuality: sexual identity, sexual function and sexual relationship. Age, lymphedema, side-effects of surgery, radio-, chemo- and hormonotherapy, pregnancy-related problems, infertility, iatrogenic premature menopause, with its cohort of symptoms secondary to the chronic loss of estrogens on the brain, on the sensory organs, on the pathophysiology of sexual response and on

A. Graziottin; V. Rovei

2007-01-01

188

Sexuality and Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes normal aspects of sexuality during the early years, including masturbation and children's fanciful sexual ideas. Presents inappropriately mature sexual knowledge as a danger sign of abuse. Discusses whether and what teachers/caregivers should tell children about sexuality, and notes the importance of teaching staff about sexual identity…

Honig, Alice Sterling

2000-01-01

189

[Sexual mutilation].  

PubMed

Sexual mutilation (SM) of women is an old tradition that predates Christianity and Islam. There are 4 types of SM (female circumcision): 1) clitorectomy; 2) infibulation; 3) introcision and 4) mutilation of the sexual organs. The 4 major justifications for the SM of women are: 1) the mythological rationale or Divine Androgony. All people arrive on Earth as androgens and as the 1st God; they have a female element, the clitoris for the boys and a male element, the penis for the girls. To remove that original stage of androgeny requires circumcision and excision; 2) the religious rationale in spite of its predating Islam the Prophet Mohammed recommended a mild form of clitorectomy (Sunna); 3) the sexual rationale this is the universal reason why, worldwide, women are excised and infibulated. Excision is performed to control women's sexuality permanently and infibulation is performed to control procreation. Traditional Africans perform excision and circumcision for reasons of socialization--that is it allows the individual to go from one group to the next; 4) the cleanliness rationale non-excised women are not clean. SM is practiced when little girls are very young because they are less sensitive to the pain; however, there is no exact age and SM can be performed after age 8, during adolescence, before marriage and during the 7th month of pregnancy. Medicalized or clinical excisions performed in hospitals with anesthesia and antibiotics; however, traditional excision is practiced in the rural areas with untrained personnel and without anesthesia, often leading to many genital and medical complications. The worst of these is being unable to consummate marriage and having difficult pregnancies. Women should refuse medicalization of an act that destroys a health organ; this system that allows men to enjoy as much sex as possible and promotes women's passive attitudes towards SM, must be changed. PMID:12342831

Kouyate, H

1990-07-01

190

Plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone growth hormone, oestradiol, testosterone  

E-print Network

Plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone growth hormone, oestradiol, testosterone), growth hormone (GH), oestra- diol, testosterone and androstenedione were determined in weekly blood, progesterone, oestradiol and testosterone by radioimmunoassay. As this study covered the period from 28 to 1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

191

Sex Differences in Play Fighting Revisited: Traditional and Nontraditional Mechanisms of Sexual Differentiation in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the traditional model for sexual differentiation in mammals, the female phenotype is the default condition. That is, the female-typical pattern will persist unless acted upon by hormones early in development. The frequency of play fighting in rats, as in most other mammals, is sexually differentiated, and conforms to the traditional model. Males engage in more play fighting than females,

Sergio M. Pellis

2002-01-01

192

Disco clothing, female sexual motivation, and relationship status: Is she dressed to impress?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between a female's clothing choice, sexual motivation, hormone levels, and partnership status (single or not single, partner present or not present) was analyzed in 351 females attending Austrian discotheques. We digitally analyzed clothing choice to determine the amount of skin display, sheerness, and clothing tightness. Participants self?reported sexual motivation, and we assessed estradiol and testosterone levels through saliva

Karl Grammer; LeeAnn Renninger; Bettina Fischer

2004-01-01

193

Sexual function, sexual abuse and sexually transmitted diseases in adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

As adolescents progress through puberty, many biological changes occur and, for young women, this includes the onset of menses and the capability for reproduction. During this time, sexual identity is developed and expressions of sexuality become more frequent. Adolescent women engage in a variety of sexual behaviours, both non-coital and coital. As teens begin dating relationships, they are at risk

Margaret J. Blythe

2003-01-01

194

Childhood sexual abuse, adolescent sexual behaviors and sexual revictimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aims of this study were to examine the extent to which exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was associated with increased rates of sexual risk taking behaviors and sexual revictimization during adolescence.Method: A birth cohort of 520 New Zealand born young women was studied at regular intervals from birth to the age of 18. At age 18 retrospective

David M. Fergusson; L. John Horwood; Michael T. Lynskey

1997-01-01

195

PERCEPTION OF THE MOLTING HORMONE 20-HYDROXECDYSONE BY HOMARUS AMERICANUS: LOCALIZATION OF STEROID RECEPTORS AND EFFECT ON BEHAVIOR  

EPA Science Inventory

There is growing evidence that hormones, when released from an animal into the environment, act as chemical signals to other organisms. There is also evidence to suggest that hormones are released by lobsters during sexual and agonistic encounters to signal conspecifics. The go...

196

Book review of "The estrogen elixir: A history of hormone replacement therapy in America" by Elizabeth Siegel Watkins  

PubMed Central

"The Estrogen elixir: A history of hormone replacement therapy in America" by Elizabeth Siegel Watkins is a thoroughly documented cautionary tale of the information and advice offered to women in the perimenopausal period of their life, and the consequences of exposure to sexual hormones on their health and wellbeing.

Sonnenschein, Carlos

2008-01-01

197

Growth Hormone and Stroke Risk  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... lower right-hand corner of the player. Growth Hormone and Stroke Risk HealthDay August 14, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Children's Health Growth Disorders Hormones Stroke Transcript Children who receive growth hormone treatments ...

198

Aging changes in hormone production  

MedlinePLUS

... made up of organs and tissues that produce hormones. Hormones are natural chemicals produced in one location, released ... used by other target organs and systems. The hormones control the target organs. Some organ systems have ...

199

Child abuse - sexual  

MedlinePLUS

... sexual activities by another person. Such abuse includes: Oral sex Pornography Sexual intercourse Touching (fondling) ... and street drugs or engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors Do poorly in school Have excessive fears Withdraw ...

200

Toddlers and Sexual Behavior  

MedlinePLUS

... Commons Pediatrics Common Questions, Quick Answers Toddlers and Sexual Behavior Donna D'Alessandro, M.D. Lindsay Huth, B. ... behavioral problem or sexual abuse. What kind of sexual behaviors are okay? Masturbation in toddlers is usually nothing ...

201

Military Sexual Trauma  

MedlinePLUS

... 8255 Military One Source 800-342-9647 Military Sexual Assault SafeHelpline 877-995-5247 87 reads Home Topics ... experienced a sexual trauma. Sexual trauma (harassment, assault, rape and associated violence) can trigger a range of ...

202

Ethnicity and sexuality  

E-print Network

?sexual ?degenerates?? and ?in- ferior races.? Sexualized racism, homophobia, and misogyny were all foils against which propagandists contrasted the superior morality and sexuality of fascist na- tionalists across Europe (Boyarin 1997, Spackman 1996...

Nagel, Joane

2000-01-01

203

University of California Policy Sexual Harassment and Sexual Violence  

E-print Network

includes sexual assault, rape, #12;University of California Policy Sexual Harassment and Sexual Violence 1 of 20 Academic Student prohibits sexual harassment and sexual violence, and that such behavior violates both law and University

Jacobs, Lucia

204

Maternal treatment with picrotoxin in late pregnancy improved female sexual behavior but did not alter male sexual behavior of offspring.  

PubMed

Previous studies from our laboratory investigated the effects of picrotoxin (PT), a ?-aminobutyric acid receptor antagonist administered during several perinatal periods, on the sexual behavior of male and female rats. We observed that the time of perinatal exposure to PT is critical to determine either facilitation or impairment of sexual behavior. The present study evaluated the effects of prenatal administration of a single dose of PT on gestation day 18 of dams (the first critical period of male brain sexual differentiation) on sexual behavior of male and female offspring. Thus, female Wistar rats were mated with males and, on gestation day 18, received 0.6 mg/kg of PT or 0.9% saline solution subcutaneously. On postnatal day 1, the offspring were weighed and several measures of sexual development were assessed. The sexual behaviors and the general activity in the open field of adult male and ovariectomized, hormone-treated female rats were observed. On comparison with the control group, maternal PT treatment: (i) did not alter the maternal weight, pup weight, anogenital distance, or male and female general activity; (ii) increased female sexual behavior, that is, decreased the latencies to first mount, first lordosis, and tenth lordosis, and the percentage of females presenting lordosis; and (iii) did not alter male sexual behavior. It is suggested that prenatal PT exposure interfered with epigenetic mechanisms related to the development of sex differences in the brain, leading to the observed sexually dimorphic effects on sexual behavior. PMID:23838964

Bernardi, Maria M; Scanzerla, Kayne K; Chamlian, Mayra; Teodorov, Elizabeth; Felicio, Luciano F

2013-08-01

205

Human sexual dimorphism--a sex and gender perspective.  

PubMed

The term gender is essential in recent biological anthropology. After decades of critical discussion the differentiation into biological sex and social gender is accepted as especially useful. The distinction into sex and gender makes a more complex view at biological phenomenon such a sexual size dimorphism typical of Homo sapiens possible. Although sexual size dimorphism has a clear evolutionary basis and is caused by genetic and hormonal factors, socio-cultural factors such as gender role in society and gender typical workload influence the degree of sexual size dimorphism too. PMID:24818443

Kirchengast, Sylvia

2014-01-01

206

Thoreau's sexuality.  

PubMed

Although Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) has often been described as lacking in sexual drive or at most a rather reluctant heterosexual, a close study of his life and writings indicates the presence of a pronounced vein of homoeroticism--although there seems to be no concrete evidence of any homosexual activity on his part. Cognizance of that homoeroticism helps one to understand many elements of his life and writings and suggests that his intense love of nature may have resulted from sublimation of that homoeroticism. PMID:1880400

Harding, W

1991-01-01

207

Growth Hormone Promotes Lymphangiogenesis  

PubMed Central

The lymphatic system plays an important role in inflammation and cancer progression, although the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. As determined using comparative transcriptional profiling studies of cultured lymphatic endothelial cells versus blood vascular endothelial cells, growth hormone receptor was expressed at much higher levels in lymphatic endothelial cells than in blood vascular endothelial cells. These findings were confirmed by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses. Growth hormone induced in vitro proliferation, sprouting, tube formation, and migration of lymphatic endothelial cells, and the mitogenic effect was independent of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 or -3 activation. Growth hormone also inhibited serum starvation-induced lymphatic endothelial cell apoptosis. No major alterations of lymphatic vessels were detected in the normal skin of bovine growth hormone-transgenic mice. However, transgenic delivery of growth hormone accelerated lymphatic vessel ingrowth into the granulation tissue of full-thickness skin wounds, and intradermal delivery of growth hormone resulted in enlargement and enhanced proliferation of cutaneous lymphatic vessels in wild-type mice. These results identify growth hormone as a novel lymphangiogenic factor. PMID:18583315

Banziger-Tobler, Nadja Erika; Halin, Cornelia; Kajiya, Kentaro; Detmar, Michael

2008-01-01

208

e.hormone: Your Gateway to the Environment and Hormones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

e.hormone serves as a "a hub of scientific and media information about environmental signaling." Hosted by the Center for Biomedical Research at Tulane and Xavier Universities, e.hormone is an excellent resource for keeping up with environmental hormone news and research from estrogen-mimicking compounds to mercury contamination and more. e.hormone offers research summaries, links to related news stories, an events calendar, and even an introductory educational section about environmental hormones and the endocrine system in general. e.hormone has recently subsumed Environmental Estrogens and Other Hormones, its former sister site also from Tulane University.

209

Embryonic temperature determines adult sexuality in a reptile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gonadal differentiation in amniote vertebrates is controlled by one of two mechanisms: genotypic sex determination (GSD) or environmental sex determination (ESD)1. After differentiation the fetal gonad produces sex steroid hormones which govern the development of other components of sexuality2,3. Thus, the primary sex determiner is thought to operate solely as a trigger that initiates a cascade of events culminating in

W. H. N. Gutzke; David Crews

1988-01-01

210

Sexual coercion and the misperception of sexual intent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Misperceiving a woman's platonic interest as sexual interest has been implicated in a sexual bargaining process that leads to sexual coercion. This paper provides a comprehensive review of sexual misperception, including gender differences in perception of women's sexual intent, the relationship between sexual coercion and misperception, and situational factors that increase the risk that sexual misperception will occur. Compared to

Coreen Farris; Teresa A. Treat; Richard J. Viken; Richard M. McFall

2008-01-01

211

Impact of Child Sexual Abuse on Developing Sexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews theoretical and empirical literature on sexual abuse and focuses on the effects of child sexual abuse on developing sexuality. The issues addressed include (a) prominent family qualities associated with sexual socialization, (b) theoretical formulations that account for the effects of sexual abuse on developing sexuality, and (c) research findings on the impact of child sexual abuse on

Deborah Tharinger

1990-01-01

212

Hormonal Control of Calcium Homeostasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium homeostasis in the extracellular fluid is tightly controlled and defended physiologically. Hypercalce- mia always represents considerable underlying pathol- ogy and occurs when the hormonal control of calcium homeostasis is overwhelmed. The major hormones that are responsible for normal calcium homeostasis are parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D; these hormones control extracellular fluid calcium on a chronic basis. Over- or underproduction

Gregory R. Mundy; Theresa A. Guise

1999-01-01

213

Hormones, pheromones and reproductive behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish commonly use reproductive hormones (steroids and prostaglandins) both as endogenous signals between reproductive tract and brain and as exogenous signals (hormonal pheromones) that synchronize gamete maturation and\\/or spawning interactions between and among conspecifics. This dual function for hormonal products not only extends traditional concepts that sex hormone actions are limited to reproductive synchrony within the individual, but also implies

Norm Stacey

2003-01-01

214

Alcohol and Sexual Assault  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservative estimates of sexual assault prevalence suggest that 25 percent of American women have experienced sexual assault, including rape. Approximately one-half of those cases involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, victim, or both. Alcohol contributes to sexual assault through multiple pathways, often exacerbating existing risk factors. Beliefs about alcohol's effects on sexual and aggressive behavior, stereotypes about drinking women, and

Antonia Abbey; Tina Zawacki; Philip O. Buck; A. Monique Clinton; Pam McAuslan

2001-01-01

215

Sexual Assault Support Resources  

E-print Network

Sexual Assault Support Resources #12;#12;IIf you have been sexually assaulted it can have a serious're not comfortable with. If the sexual assault has occurred in the last 24 to 72 hours, it is usually recommended resource, as appropriate. #12;ON-CAMPUSRESOURCES WHAT TO EXPECT FROM: SEXUAL ASSAULT SURVIVORS' SUPPORT

216

Sexual Problems of Counselees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approximately 50% of American marriages have some sexual dysfunction. Because sexuality is an important part of a person's life, counselors should be sensitive to sexual concerns of their clients. Taking an adequate sex history and highlighting problem areas may increase counseling efficiency. When counselors teach courses on human sexuality, they…

Heritage, Jeannette G.; West, W. Beryl

217

Addressing Sexual Harassment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

2008-01-01

218

Military Sexual Trauma  

MedlinePLUS

October, 2014 What is military sexual trauma (MST)? Military sexual trauma, or MST, is the term used by VA to refer to experiences of sexual ... diagnosis, and Veterans’ current treatment needs will vary. Military Sexual Trauma October, 2014 How can MST affect ...

219

Sexuality and Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author examines specific manifestations of violence in relation to sexuality: (1) forcible rape rate; (2) war atrocities; (3) sexual violence in prisons; and (4) pornography. Drawing much from Hannah Arendt's book on violence, he views sexual violence as symptomatic of a lack of sexual power, not a sign of its possession. The causes are seen…

Sanctuary, Gerald

220

Sexuality and the law.  

PubMed

Federal, state, and local laws in the US now govern almost every aspect of sexuality. This includes sexuality at the workplace, sexuality education, adolescent sexuality, access to sexuality information and sexually explicit materials, sexual orientation, and sexually transmitted disease(STD)/HIV transmission. Almost 33% of the US Supreme Court's docket this past term concerned sexuality issues. In contrast to 50 years ago, when sexuality law was confined to the criminal arena, contemporary "sex crimes" primarily relate to nonconsensual and exploitative behaviors. It is time for lawmakers, judges, lawyers, policy analysts, lobbyists, and advocates to realize they cannot legislate or litigate how, when, or why people fall in love. Rather, the role of the law should be to create and preserve models of justice and equality that seek to preserve one's individual rights to privacy and freedom to choose in matters related to one's sexuality. This includes free access to age-appropriate sexuality information, the right to marriage and children regardless of sexual orientation, comprehensive sexuality education that encompasses information about avoiding unwanted pregnancies and HIV/STDs, access to contraception and abortion, protection from sexually abusive or exploitative relationships, and access to sexual health care. PMID:12295182

Portelli, C J

1998-01-01

221

LH (Luteinizing Hormone) Test  

MedlinePLUS

... a 24-hour urine collection may be taken Test Preparation Needed? None, but the timing of a ... will be correlated with her menstrual cycle. The Test Sample What is being tested? Luteinizing hormone (LH) ...

222

Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause  

MedlinePLUS

... custom-made products. These are made in a compounding pharmacy (a pharmacy that mixes medications according to a ... proof that bioidentical hormones, whether prepared by a compounding pharmacy or pharmaceutical company, are safer to use than ...

223

Thyroid Hormone Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... hormone for the body’s needs. This is called Hypothyroidism and may be caused by a non-functioning ... or by a non-functioning pituitary gland (see Hypothyroidism Brochure ). Hypothyroidism, is the most common reason for ...

224

Sexual dysfunction in males with chronic hepatitis C and antiviral therapy: interferon-induced functional androgen deficiency or depression?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decrease of libido and erectile dysfunction are reported by male patients during antiviral therapy of chronic hepatitis C, but therapy-associated underlying factors for sexual dysfunction are not well defined. To assess putative contributions of interferon-induced sex hormone changes to sexual dysfunction, we prospectively investigated changes in free testosterone, total testosterone, dehydro- epiandrosterone sulfate, prolactin, sex hormone-binding globulin, FSH and LH

M R Kraus; A Schäfer; T Bentink; M Scheurlen; B Weissbrich; O Al-Taie; J Seufert

2005-01-01

225

Women, Alcohol, and Sexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol consumption increases subjective sexual desire, arousal, and pleasure for many women, although it lowers physiological\\u000a arousal. Despite the general belief that alcohol disinhibits female sexual behaviors, alcohol leads to changes in sexual behavior\\u000a only for a minority of women. Expectancies about the effects of alcohol on sexual behavior may be important mediators of the\\u000a alcohol-sexual behavior linkage. There also

Linda J. Beckman; Kimberly T. Ackerman

226

Sexuality and Islam.  

PubMed

This paper deals with three major questions: (1) What are the sexual norms defined by the sacred texts (Koran and Sunna)? (2) What are the sexual practices currently observed among Moslems? (3) To which extent are current sexual practices of Moslems dissociated from Islamic sexual norms? Sexual standards in Islam are paradoxical: on the one hand, they allow and actually are an enticement to the exercise of sexuality but, on the other hand, they discriminate between male and female sexuality, between marital and pre- or extramarital sexuality, and between heterosexuality and homosexuality. Men are given more rights with regard to the expression of their sexuality; women are forbidden to have extramarital sex (with their slaves) and both genders to have homosexual relationships. The combination of these paradoxical standards with modernisation leads to the current back and forth swing of sexual practices between repression and openness. Partial modernisation leads to greater sexual tolerance. But restrictive sexual standards have gathered strength and have become idealised as a result of the current radicalisation of Islam. This swing of the pendulum between repression and openness is illustrated by phenomena such as public harassment, premarital sexuality, female pleasure, prostitution, and homosexuality. Currently, Islam is not any more the only reference which provides guidance concerning sexual practices but secularisation of sexual laws is still politically unthinkable today. So the only solution is to achieve reform in the name of Islam, through the reinterpretation of repressive holy texts. PMID:20441406

Dialmy, Abdessamad

2010-06-01

227

Male hormonal contraceptives.  

PubMed

As the world human population continues to explode, the need for effective, safe and convenient contraceptive methods escalates. Historically, women have borne the brunt of responsibility for contraception and family planning. Except for the condom, there are no easily reversible, male-based contraceptive options. Recent surveys have confirmed that the majority of men and women would consider using a hormonal male contraceptive if a safe, effective and convenient formulation were available. Investigators have sought to develop a male hormonal contraceptive based on the observation that spermatogenesis depends on stimulation by gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinising hormone (LH). Testosterone (T) and other hormones such as progestins suppress circulating gonadotropins and spermatogenesis and have been studied as potential male contraceptives. Results from two large, multi-centre trials demonstrated that high-dosage T conferred an overall contraceptive efficacy comparable to female oral contraceptives. This regimen was also fully reversible after discontinuation. However, this regimen was not universally effective and involved weekly im. injections that could be painful and inconvenient. In addition, the high dosage of T suppressed serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, an effect that might increase atherogenesis. Investigators have attempted to develop a hormonal regimen that did not cause androgenic suppression of HDL cholesterol and that was uniformly effective by suppressing spermatogenesis to zero in all men. Studies of combination regimens of lower-dosage T and a progestin or a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue have demonstrated greater suppression of spermatogenesis than the WHO trials of high-dosage T but most of these regimens cause modest weight gain and suppression of serum HDL cholesterol levels. Overall, the data suggest that we are close to developing effective male hormonal contraceptives. The focus is now on developing effective oral regimens that could be safely taken daily or long-acting depot formulations of a male hormonal contraception that could be conveniently injected every 3 - 6 months. In this article, we shall review the exciting new developments in male hormonal contraception. PMID:11585019

Anawalt, B D; Amory, J K

2001-09-01

228

Sexually transmitted infections and older adults.  

PubMed

Older adults continue to be sexually active in their later years. A range of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV have been reported among older adults. Risk factors for STIs in older populations include (a) normal sexual changes associated with aging (e.g., increased time to attain an erection, decreased vaginal lubrication, decreases in sexual hormones); (b) psychosocial changes (e.g., loss of partner or spouse and re-entering the dating scene); and (c) risky sexual behaviors, including no or infrequent use of condoms. Screening of adults for STIs should occur regardless of age based on guidelines such as those from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. As discussed in this article, nurses can use assessment guides and engage in interventions such as counseling and education with older adults to reduce STI risk or refer for treatment. Numerous online resources exist for both nurses and older adults to increase knowledge of STIs. PMID:24066789

Johnson, Beverly K

2013-11-01

229

Effect of Centrally Administered Insulin on Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neuron Activity and Luteinizing Hormone Surge in the Diabetic Female Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetic female rats have decreased ovulation, sexual behavior, and luteinizing hormone (LH) surges. Peripheral insulin treatment restores the phenotype to normal. We administered central insulin and analyzed serum LH during the time of the LH surge in diabetic and non-diabetic animals to determine if central insulin was sufficient to normalize the phenotype. We assessed the activity and number of hypothalamic

Peter Kovacs; Albert F. Parlow; George B. Karkanias

2002-01-01

230

The Effect of Camphor on Sex Hormones Levels in Rats  

PubMed Central

In some traditional therapies, it has been claimed that camphor (a crystalline ketone obtained from cinnamomum camphora) would be a suppressor of sexual behaviors and sex hormones. This study evaluated the effects of camphor on sex hormones, like luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone. In this experimental study, 56 male rats were divided into 5 groups, including control (n=12), sham (n=11) and three treatment groups (n=11) in three different doses. The sham groups received daily intra peritoneal (IP) injections of the vehicle (ethanol 10%) for 30 days. Three treatment groups received different daily IP injections of the camphor (1, 2 and 5 mg/Kg) for 30 days and the control groups didn’t received anything. Serums were used for assaying LH, FSH and testosterone. The level of LH significantly increased in all doses of camphor among the treatment groups as compared to the control (p<0.05), but camphor in doses 2 and 5 mg/Kg significantly reduced the FSH level as compared to control group (p<0.05). No significant changes were seen in testosterone levels. Camphor increased level of LH, decreased level of FSH, whereas it failed to change level of testosterone. The claim of inhibitory effect of camphor on sexual activity could not be confirmed by this study. More investigations in this field are suggested. PMID:24567939

Shahabi, Sima; Jorsaraei, Seyed Gholam Ali; Akbar Moghadamnia, Ali; Barghi, Effat; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Golsorkhtabar Amiri, Masoumeh; Maliji, Ghorban; Sohan Faraji, Alieh; Abdi Boora, Maryam; Ghazinejad, Neda; Shamsai, Hajar

2014-01-01

231

Differential effects of flurothyl- and electro-convulsive shock on sexual maturation and prolactin release in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of single and repeated seizures on luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin secretion and on the onset of sexual maturation in rats are described. In addition, the influence of convulsions generated electrically (electroconvulsive shock, ECS) and chemically (using flurothyl) are compared. Repeated flurothyl convulsions and ECS (one daily convulsion from age 24 days) significantly delay

R. Bhanot; M. Wilkinson

1984-01-01

232

Differential effects of testosterone and progesterone on the activation and retention of courtship behavior in sexual and parthenogenetic whiptail lizards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both testosterone (T) and progesterone (P) facilitate the expression of male-typical sexual behavior in a variety of animals, including rodents and lizards. In two species of whiptail lizards, Cnemidophorus inornatus and C. uniparens, both hormones elicit the full repertoire of courtship behavior. However, the relative efficacy of the two hormones is unknown. In Experiments 1 and 2 we assessed differences

Jon T Sakata; S. C Woolley; Ajay Gupta; David Crews

2003-01-01

233

Hormone selectivity in thyroid hormone receptors.  

PubMed

Separate genes encode thyroid hormone receptor subtypes TRalpha (NR1A1) and TRbeta (NR1A2). Products from each of these contribute to hormone action, but the subtypes differ in tissue distribution and physiological response. Compounds that discriminate between these subtypes in vivo may be useful in treating important medical problems such as obesity and hypercholesterolemia. We previously determined the crystal structure of the rat (r) TRalpha ligand-binding domain (LBD). In the present study, we determined the crystal structure of the rTRalpha LBD in a complex with an additional ligand, Triac (3,5, 3'-triiodothyroacetic acid), and two crystal structures of the human (h) TRbeta receptor LBD in a complex with either Triac or a TRbeta-selective compound, GC-1 [3,5-dimethyl-4-(4'-hydroy-3'-isopropylbenzyl)-phenoxy acetic acid]. The rTRalpha and hTRbeta LBDs show close structural similarity. However, the hTRbeta structures extend into the DNA-binding domain and allow definition of a structural "hinge" region of only three amino acids. The two TR subtypes differ in the loop between helices 1 and 3, which could affect both ligand recognition and the effects of ligand in binding coactivators and corepressors. The two subtypes also differ in a single amino acid residue in the hormone-binding pocket, Asn (TRbeta) for Ser (TRalpha). Studies here with TRs in which the subtype-specific residue is exchanged suggest that most of the selectivity in binding derives from this amino acid difference. The flexibility of the polar region in the TRbeta receptor, combined with differential recognition of the chemical group at the 1-carbon position, seems to stabilize the complex with GC-1 and contribute to its beta-selectivity. These results suggest a strategy for development of subtype-specific compounds involving modifications of the ligand at the 1-position. PMID:11222741

Wagner, R L; Huber, B R; Shiau, A K; Kelly, A; Cunha Lima, S T; Scanlan, T S; Apriletti, J W; Baxter, J D; West, B L; Fletterick, R J

2001-03-01

234

Sexual functioning and practices in a multi?ethnic study of midlife women: Baseline results from swan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the sexual practices and function of midlife women by ethnicity (African American, Caucasian, Chinese, Hispanic, Japanese) and menopausal status. Sexual behavior was compared in 3,262 women in the baseline cohort of SWAN. Participants were 42 to 52 years old, premenopausal or early perimenopausal, and not hysterectomized or using hormones. Analysis used multivariate proportional odds regression. In our

Virginia S. Cain; Catherine B. Johannes; Nancy E. Avis; Beth Mohr; Miriam Schocken; Joan Skurnick; Marcia Ory

2003-01-01

235

Indian concepts on sexuality.  

PubMed

India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality. PMID:23858263

Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha

2013-01-01

236

Effects of estrogen treatment on sexual behavior in male-to-female transsexuals: Experimental and clinical observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of oral estrogen treatment on sexual physiology and behavior were examined in seven presurgical male-to-female transsexuals engaged in cross-living. Subjects were studied prior to hormone treatment, during long-term hormone treatment, and during an experimental double-blind period in which the effects of their usual hormone regimen were compared to those of placebo during successive 4-week periods. Subjects maintained daily

Marie Kwan; Judly VanMaasdam; Julian M. Davidson

1985-01-01

237

[Impact on human health of hormonal additives used in animal production].  

PubMed

The establishment of the impact of environmental compounds or additives with hormone-like activity on human health still requires further investigation, as well as a reexamination of biologic models and experimental methodology employed so far. In 1988, the FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives Joint with the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) considered that sexual hormone residues usually present in meat do not represent a risk for human consumption. Nevertheless, this resolution seems to be uncertain since the scientific elements employed for this statement may not be adequate. In this review the principal objections to the evidence used to establish the innocuousness of growth promoter hormones are considered. PMID:17910413

Larrea, Fernando; Chirinos, Mayel

2007-01-01

238

Bioidentical Hormone Therapy  

PubMed Central

The change in hormonal milieu associated with perimenopause and menopause can lead to a variety of symptoms that can affect a woman's quality of life. Postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) is an effective, well-tolerated treatment for these symptoms. However, combined HT consisting of conjugated equine estrogen and medroxyprogesterone acetate has been associated with an increased number of health risks when compared with conjugated equine estrogen alone or placebo. As a result, some women are turning to alternative hormonal formulations known as compounded bioidentical HT because they perceive them to be a safer alternative. This article defines compounded bioidentical HT and explores the similarities and differences between it and US Food and Drug Administration–approved HT. We will examine the major claims made by proponents of compounded bioidentical HT and recommend strategies for management of patients who request bioidentical HT from physicians. PMID:21531972

Files, Julia A.; Ko, Marcia G.; Pruthi, Sandhya

2011-01-01

239

Causes of sexual dysfunction (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Female sexual dysfunction describes women who are indifferent or hostile to sexual intercourse, who have no response to sexual advances or stimulation, or who are unable to have an orgasm during sexual intercourse.

240

Effects of child and adult sexual abuse on adult sexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The differential effects of child and adult sexual abuse on adult sexual functioning were examined. The Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS) and a sexual experiences questionnaire were administered to 201 psychology students at the University of South Florida, 175 of whom were retained in the study. GRISS variables that were analyzed consisted of anorgasmia, sexual avoidance, sexual dissatisfaction,

Marla Green Bartoi; Bill N. Kinder

1998-01-01

241

ORIGINAL PAPER Sexual Victimization, Alcohol Intoxication, Sexual-Emotional  

E-print Network

in the past year, completed childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent/adult sexual assault(ASA) measures combine to exacerbate their sexual risks. Keywords Child sexual abuse Á Sexual assault Á Alcohol Á Sexual. F. Kajumulo Á J. M. Otto Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Box 351525, Seattle, WA

242

Treatment with thyroid hormone.  

PubMed

Thyroid hormone deficiency can have important repercussions. Treatment with thyroid hormone in replacement doses is essential in patients with hypothyroidism. In this review, we critically discuss the thyroid hormone formulations that are available and approaches to correct replacement therapy with thyroid hormone in primary and central hypothyroidism in different periods of life such as pregnancy, birth, infancy, childhood, and adolescence as well as in adult patients, the elderly, and in patients with comorbidities. Despite the frequent and long term use of l-T4, several studies have documented frequent under- and overtreatment during replacement therapy in hypothyroid patients. We assess the factors determining l-T4 requirements (sex, age, gender, menstrual status, body weight, and lean body mass), the major causes of failure to achieve optimal serum TSH levels in undertreated patients (poor patient compliance, timing of l-T4 administration, interferences with absorption, gastrointestinal diseases, and drugs), and the adverse consequences of unintentional TSH suppression in overtreated patients. Opinions differ regarding the treatment of mild thyroid hormone deficiency, and we examine the recent evidence favoring treatment of this condition. New data suggesting that combined therapy with T3 and T4 could be indicated in some patients with hypothyroidism are assessed, and the indications for TSH suppression with l-T4 in patients with euthyroid multinodular goiter and in those with differentiated thyroid cancer are reviewed. Lastly, we address the potential use of thyroid hormones or their analogs in obese patients and in severe cardiac diseases, dyslipidemia, and nonthyroidal illnesses. PMID:24433025

Biondi, Bernadette; Wartofsky, Leonard

2014-06-01

243

Hormone de croissance placentaire. Signification par rapport aux hormones de croissance et  

E-print Network

Hormone de croissance placentaire. Signification par rapport aux hormones de croissance et. Placentalgrowth hormone. Significance relative to pituitary growth hormo- nes and placental lactogen hormone growth hormone (PGH). This entity, agonist of pituitary GH, appears responsible for the elevated IGFI

Boyer, Edmond

244

Stress and hormones.  

PubMed

In the modern environment one is exposed to various stressful conditions. Stress can lead to changes in the serum level of many hormones including glucocorticoids, catecholamines, growth hormone and prolactin. Some of these changes are necessary for the fight or flight response to protect oneself. Some of these stressful responses can lead to endocrine disorders like Graves' disease, gonadal dysfunction, psychosexual dwarfism and obesity. Stress can also alter the clinical status of many preexisting endocrine disorders such as precipitation of adrenal crisis and thyroid storm. PMID:21584161

Ranabir, Salam; Reetu, K

2011-01-01

245

Prostate Cancer and Sexual Function  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer is now ranked fifth in incidence among cancers in Korean adult males. This is attributable to the more Westernized dietary style which increases the morbidity of prostate cancer and the development of cancer diagnostic technologies, such as prostate-specific antigen and advanced medical systems, increasing the rate of prostate cancer diagnosis. Prostate cancer effects include not only erectile dysfunction caused by the disease itself, but also by psychiatric disorders caused by prostate cancer or its treatments. Prostate cancer by itself reduces sexual desire and the frequency of sexual intercourse. Additionally, surgery or hormonal therapy to block testosterone further increases the frequency of erectile dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction following radical prostatectomy is primarily attributable to nerve injury caused by intraoperative nerve traction, thermal injury, ischemic injury, and local inflammatory reactions. Additionally, the absence of nocturnal penile tumescence causes persistent hypoxia of the corpus cavernosum, which, secondarily, causes anatomical and functional changes in the corpus cavernosum. Preservation of erectile function is one of the most significant issues for patients with local prostate cancer. Erectile dysfunction following radical prostatectomy is known to have various prognoses, depending on preservation of the neurovascular bundle, patient age, and preoperative erectile status. Intracavernosal injections, PDE5 inhibitors, and penile rehabilitation therapy using a vacuum constriction device after radical prostatectomy are known to improve the recovery of erectile function. Recently, testosterone replacement therapy has also drawn attention as a treatment method. PMID:23596596

2012-01-01

246

An Overview of Sexual Harassment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual harassment, according to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), is when any unwelcome sexual advances for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature takes place. For sexual harassment to take place there must be some type of behavior, language, or material of a sexual nature, which is offensive.…

Stier, William F., Jr.

2005-01-01

247

Understanding Sexual Violence  

MedlinePLUS

... based activities that address healthy sexuality and dating relationships. • Helping parents identify and address violent attitudes and behaviors in their kids. • Creating policies at work, at school, and in other places ... relationships. For more examples, see Sexual Violence Prevention: Beginning ...

248

Notes on sexuality & space  

E-print Network

Very little has been written on sexuality in architectural scholarship. Sexuality & Space (Princeton Architectural Press, 1992) contains the proceedings of an eponymous 1990 conference at Princeton University, and was both ...

Jacobson, Samuel Ray

2013-01-01

249

Sexual Problems in Women  

MedlinePLUS

There are many problems that can keep a woman from enjoying sex. They include Lack of sexual ... concerns about marriage or relationship problems. For some women, the problem results from past sexual trauma. Occasional ...

250

Responding to Sexual Assault  

E-print Network

University will not tolerate sexual assault in any form, including acquaintance rape. Where there is probable assault, we think of rape. However, rape is not the only type of sexual assault. These words can be used

Ravikumar, B.

251

Using Digital Images of the Zebra Finch Song System as a Tool to Teach Organizational Effects of Steroid Hormones: A Free Downloadable Module  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Zebra finch song behavior is sexually dimorphic: males sing and females do not. The neural system underlying this behavior is sexually dimorphic, and this sex difference is easy to quantify. During development, the zebra finch song system can be altered by steroid hormones, specifically estradiol, which actually masculinizes it. Because of the…

Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A.; Beck McCauley, Lisa M.; Pham, Anh P.; Ruiz, Maureen L.; Fong, Michelle C.; Cui, Xinran

2011-01-01

252

Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test  

MedlinePLUS

ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...

253

Evolution of neuroendocrine mechanisms that regulate sexual behavior.  

PubMed

Whiptail lizards provide a unique system to study evolution of brain mechanisms because both ancestral (sexual) and descendant (parthenogenetic) species exist. Parthenogenetic whiptails enable us to avoid the two major confounds in sex differences research - males and females that differ both genetically and hormonally. Parthenogens are females that reproduce clonally, yet display alternately female-like and male-like pseudosexual behavior. Thus, the neural circuitry underlying male and female sexual behavior can be examined within the 'same' brain (same genome), enabling us to see how neuroendocrine mechanisms controlling mounting behavior change. In ancestral males, testicular androgens control sexual behavior, whereas male-like pseudocopulatory behavior is controlled by ovarian progesterone in parthenogens, revealing that progesterone is important in regulating sexual behavior in male vertebrates, including mammals. PMID:16139506

Crews, David

2005-10-01

254

Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer in Men  

MedlinePLUS

... Topic Targeted therapy for breast cancer in men Hormone therapy for breast cancer in men Hormone therapy ... fatigue, and pain at the injection site. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogs and anti-androgens LHRH ...

255

Genetics Home Reference: Isolated growth hormone deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... definitions Reviewed February 2012 What is isolated growth hormone deficiency? Isolated growth hormone deficiency is a condition ... against infection (agammaglobulinemia). How common is isolated growth hormone deficiency? The incidence of isolated growth hormone deficiency ...

256

Measurement of testosterone in human sexuality research: methodological considerations.  

PubMed

Testosterone (T) and other androgens are incorporated into an increasingly wide array of human sexuality research, but there are a number of issues that can affect or confound research outcomes. This review addresses various methodological issues relevant to research design in human studies with T; unaddressed, these issues may introduce unwanted noise, error, or conceptual barriers to interpreting results. Topics covered are (1) social and demographic factors (gender and sex; sexual orientations and sexual diversity; social/familial connections and processes; social location variables), (2) biological rhythms (diurnal variation; seasonality; menstrual cycles; aging and menopause), (3) sample collection, handling, and storage (saliva vs. blood; sialogogues, saliva, and tubes; sampling frequency, timing, and context; shipping samples), (4) health, medical issues, and the body (hormonal contraceptives; medications and nicotine; health conditions and stress; body composition, weight, and exercise), and (5) incorporating multiple hormones. Detailing a comprehensive set of important issues and relevant empirical evidence, this review provides a starting point for best practices in human sexuality research with T and other androgens that may be especially useful for those new to hormone research. PMID:23807216

van Anders, Sari M; Goldey, Katherine L; Bell, Sarah N

2014-02-01

257

Profiling Sexual Fantasy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Criminal profiling attempts to understand the behavioral and personality characteristics of an offender and has gained increasing\\u000a recognition as a valuable investigative procedure. This chapter investigates sexual fantasy within the context of sexual crimes.\\u000a It opens by providing an account of sexual fantasy, its nexus with sexually aberrant behavior, and how it has been utilized\\u000a within the domain of criminal

Dion Gee; Aleksandra Belofastov

258

Schooling & Sexualities: Teaching for a Positive Sexuality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers contains a Foreword by Jane Kenway, an Introduction by Louise Laskey and Catherine Beavis, and four sections. Section 1, Schools and the Social Construction of Sexuality, contains 3 chapters: (1) Power and Partnership? Challenging the Sexual Construction of Schooling (D. Denborough); (2) Where Do You Draw the Line?…

Laskey, Louise, Ed.; Beavis, Catherine, Ed.

259

Is Homosexuality Hormonally Determined?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper suggests there is insufficient evidence to conclude that homosexuality has endocrine bases. The search for hormonal correlates occurs within a model that views homosexuality as a medical problem requiring biological explanations and a program of treatment or prevention. This search is heavily rooted in popular conception of gender-appropriate behavior, as well as in naïve concepts of the significance

Lynda I. A. Birke

1981-01-01

260

Thyroid hormone resistance.  

PubMed

Thyroid hormone resistance (THR) is a rare syndrome of reduced end organ sensitivity. Patients with THR have elevated serum free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), but normal or slightly elevated serum thyrotropin values. The characteristic clinical feature is goitre without symptoms and metabolic consequences of thyroid hormone excess. THR can be classified on the basis of tissue resistance into pituitary, peripheral or generalised (both pituitary and peripheral) types. Mutations in the TRbeta gene, cell membrane transporter and genes controlling intracellular metabolism of thyroid hormone have been implicated. THR is differentiated from thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) secreting pituitary adenoma by history of THR in the family. No specific treatment is often required for THR; patients with features of hypo- or hyperthyroidism are appropriately treated with levo-triiodothyronine (L-T3), levo-thyroxine (L-T4), dextro-thyroxine(D-T4) or 3,3,5 triiodo-thyroacetic acid (TRIAC). The diagnosis helps in appropriate genetic counselling of the family. PMID:18940949

Agrawal, N K; Goyal, R; Rastogi, A; Naik, D; Singh, S K

2008-09-01

261

Growth Hormone Receptor Polymorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many variables influence the outcome of growth hormone (GH) therapy (GH dose and duration, height - SDS at treatment start or at puberty onset, bone age, mid parental height, growth velocity, age, etc.). Nevertheless, all these factors only partially explain the interindividual variability in response to GH in GH deficiency (GHD) and in short non-GHD subjects. To this regard, genes

F. Buzi; P. Mella; A. Pilotta; E. Prandi; F. Lanfranchi; T. Carapella

2007-01-01

262

Avalon Sexual Assault Centre  

E-print Network

Avalon Sexual Assault Centre www.avaloncentre.ca halifax.ca/MenEndingViolenceAgainstWomen www-494-6400 Dalhousie Security Services ph. 902-494-6400 @dalsecurity #12;Avalon Sexual Assault Centre www;Avalon Sexual Assault Centre www.avaloncentre.ca halifax.ca/MenEndingViolenceAgainstWomen www

Brownstone, Rob

263

Sexual Harassment in Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the legal principles and precedents that frame current sexual harassment laws as they relate to schools. Discusses school district liability and responsibility for providing school environments safe from sexual harassment. Includes guidelines for developing and implementing school policies regarding sexual harassment. (CFR)

Mawdsley, Ralph D.

1994-01-01

264

SEXUALITY AND GENDER IDENTITY  

E-print Network

LEARN TO UNDERSTAND SEXUALITY AND GENDER IDENTITY COUNSELLING AND PSYCHOLOGICAL SERVICES CAPS #12;CONTENTS 01 Questioning your sexuality or gender identity 02 Coming out 04 Sexual health 05 Harassment (or ever) label yourself as `gay', `lesbian', `bisexual', or even `straight'. Gender identity

Viglas, Anastasios

265

Loneliness and Sexual Dysfunctions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that sexual dysfunctions result from early childhood experiences which were originally nonsexual in nature. Contends that psychological difficulties centered around problems of loneliness tend to generate certain sexual dysfunctions. Extends and explores suggestion that genesis of sexual conflicts is in nonsexual infant separation anxiety…

Mijuskovic, Ben

1987-01-01

266

What is Sexual Addiction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Married men labeled as sexual addicts seek help after being discovered to have had broken monogamy rules for sexual behavior through their use of masturbation, pornography, cybersex, commercial sex involvement, paraphilic pursuits, or affairs. This study analyzed the sexual patterns and dynamics of 30 men who presented to 1 clinician between 2005 and 2009. Their important differences were captured by

Stephen B. Levine

2010-01-01

267

Sexual Behavior in Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys conducted between the 1930's and 1970's on the sexual behavior of adolescents indicate the following: (1) older adolescents are more sexually experienced now than in earlier generations; (2) there has been a greater increase in incidence of premarital sex for females than males; and (3) there is a trend toward earlier sexual experience for…

Hopkins, J. Roy

1977-01-01

268

Sexual Assault Prevention Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is designed to educate men and women about sexual assault. The goals are to encourage people to become involved in their own protection and to make them better informed and able to deal with sexual assaults when they do occur. Facts about sexual assault are presented, including descriptions of rapists, rape victims, and rape…

Missouri Governor's Commission on Crime, Jefferson.

269

Hormones of choice: the neuroendocrinology of partner preference in animals.  

PubMed

Partner preference behavior can be viewed as the outcome of a set of hierarchical choices made by an individual in anticipation of mating. The first choice involves approaching a conspecific verses an individual of another species. As a rule, a conspecific is picked as a mating partner, but early life experiences can alter that outcome. Within a species, an animal then has the choice between a member of the same sex or the opposite sex. The final choice is for a specific individual. This review will focus on the middle choice, the decision to mate with either a male or a female. Available data from rats, mice, and ferrets point to the importance of perinatal exposure to steroid hormones in the development of partner preferences, as well as the importance of activational effects in adulthood. However, the particular effects of this hormone exposure show species differences in both the specific steroid hormone responsible for the organization of behavior and the developmental period when it has its effect. Where these hormones have an effect in the brain is mostly unknown, but regions involved in olfaction and sexual behavior, as well as sexually dimorphic regions, seem to play a role. One limitation of the literature base is that many mate or 'partner preference studies' rely on preference for a specific stimulus (usually olfaction) but do not include an analysis of the relation, if any, that stimulus has to the choice of a particular sexual partner. A second limitation has been the almost total lack of attention to the type of behavior that is shown by the choosing animal once a 'partner' has been chosen, specifically, if the individual plays a mating role typical of its own sex or the opposite sex. Additional paradigms that address these questions are needed for better understanding of partner preferences in rodents. PMID:21377487

Henley, C L; Nunez, A A; Clemens, L G

2011-04-01

270

Hormonal Predictors of Prostate Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Androgens are necessary for the development and functioning of the prostate gland. The association of serum testosterone and pituitary hormone levels with prostate cancer development is not completely understood. In this clinical study, we evaluated the role of serum testosterone, free testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels in predicting prostate cancer risk in patients who had

Mustafa Sofikerim; Özgür Oruç; Haluk Özen

2007-01-01

271

MODELING HORMONAL CONTROL MENSTRUAL CYCLE  

E-print Network

MODELING HORMONAL CONTROL OF THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE James F. Selgrade Department of Mathematics of five hormones important for regulation and maintenance of the menstrual cycle. Models which correctly predict the serum levels of ovarian and pituitary hormones may assist the experimentalist by indicating

272

Sexual Revictimization: The Role of Sexual Self-Esteem and Dysfunctional Sexual Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disproportionately high rates of sexual revictimization have been noted among former victims of child sexual abuse (CSA), yet researchers have yet to determine the source of this apparent vulnerability to reexperience sexual violence. This study explores this issue by examining sexual self-esteem, sexual concerns, and sexual behaviors among 402 university women. Compared to women without a history of CSA (n

Lisa K. Van Bruggen; Marsha G. Runtz; Helena Kadlec

2006-01-01

273

Plant Hormone Binding Sites  

PubMed Central

• Aims Receptors for plant hormones are becoming identified with increasing rapidity, although a frustrating number remain unknown. There have also been many more hormone?binding proteins described than receptors. This Botanical Briefing summarizes what has been discovered about hormone binding sites, their discovery and descriptions, and will not dwell on receptor functions or activities except where these are relevant to understand binding. • Scope Of those receptors identified, each falls into recognized protein superfamilies. Ethylene and cytokinin receptors have intracellular histidine kinase phosphorelay domains, but the ligand?binding sites are distinct, one being buried within membrane?spanning helices, the other in an extracellular loop domain. Brassinosteroid and phytosulfokine receptors are members of the leucine?rich repeat receptor?like protein superfamily and for these the ligand binding sites are likely to be in one of the loops of the extracellular leucine?rich domain. For auxin, the auxin?binding protein ABP1 is a member of the cupin superfamily and the binding site is in a hydrophobic pocket at the head of which is a zinc ion to coordinate the acid group of the ligand. Receptors for other plant hormones have still to be identified. • Conclusions Plant hormone receptors have been identified through the application of many different techniques; no one technique is likely to prove more successful than any other for discovering new receptors. At present there is structural detail only for auxin binding, although a good model exists for the amino acid residues needed for Cu(I) and ethylene binding. In this respect plant biology is very poor and effort needs to be put into receptor discovery and molecular characterizetion. The information accumulated by such work will undoubtedly indicate many new ways in which plant growth and development can be manipulated, but knowledge?led design of new ligands or of altered sensitivities is still some way off. PMID:14988095

NAPIER, RICHARD

2004-01-01

274

Testosterone Affects Neural Gene Expression Differently in Male and Female Juncos: A Role for Hormones in  

E-print Network

of behavioral endocrinological and ecological study, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), using a customTestosterone Affects Neural Gene Expression Differently in Male and Female Juncos: A Role and Female Juncos: A Role for Hormones in Mediating Sexual Dimorphism and Conflict. PLoS ONE 8(4): e61784

275

Chronic stress and sexual function in women  

PubMed Central

Introduction Chronic stress is known to have negative effects on reproduction, but little is known about how it affects the sexual response cycle. The present study examined the relationship between chronic stress and sexual arousal and the mechanisms that mediate this relationship. Aim To test the relationship between chronic stress and sexual arousal and identify mechanisms that may explain this relationship. We predicted that women experiencing high levels of chronic stress would show lower levels of genital arousal & DHEAS and higher levels of cortisol and cognitive distraction compared to women with average levels of stress. Methods Women who were categorized as high in chronic stress (high stress group, n = 15) or average in chronic stress (average stress group; n = 15) provided saliva samples and watched an erotic film while having their genital and psychological arousal measured. Main Outcome Measures Main outcome measures were vaginal pulse amplitude, psychological arousal, salivary cortisol, salivary DHEAS, and heart rate and compared them between women with high and average levels of chronic stress. Results Women in the high stress group had lower levels of genital, but not psychological arousal, had higher levels of cortisol, and reported more distraction during the erotic film than women in the average stress group. The main predictor of decreased genital sexual arousal was participants’ distraction scores. Conclusions High levels of chronic stress were related to lower levels of genital sexual arousal. Both psychological (distraction) and hormonal (increased cortisol) factors were related to the lower levels of sexual arousal seen in women high in chronic stress, but distraction was the only significant predictor when controlling for other variables. PMID:23841462

Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Meston, Cindy M.

2014-01-01

276

Obtención de perfiles teóricos de elementos metálicos con velocidades macroscópicas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

El propósito de este trabajo es poder establecer -a partir de la modelización de perfiles de distintas especies- patrones de comparación observacional que permitan caracterizar los fenómenos físicos que están presentes en las estructuras que se observan. Para ello se resuelven las ecuaciones de equilibrio de ionización para un determinado átomo y una atmósfera de parámetros determinados. A partir de ello se definen las poblaciones para los distintos grados de ionización. Considerando distintas configuraciones e intensidades de flujos de masa se deducen la función fuente, el espesor óptico y se calculan los perfiles de las distintas líneas. Se obtuvieron perfiles teóricos de líneas del CII, CIV y del OIV para flujos entrante, saliente y pasante. La forma del perfil, las intensidades relativas entre los distintos flujos y el corrimiento Doppler da cuenta de una caracterización teórica a partir de la cual se comparará con observaciones.

Cirigliano, D.; Costa, A.; Rovira, M.

277

Sexual Misconduct and Enactment  

PubMed Central

Sexual misconduct remains a significant problem in the behavioral health professions. Although it is tempting to view sexual misconduct as perpetrated by “bad” clinicians against patients who are “victims,” this is an oversimplification of a complex problem. In this article, the author explores the psychoanalytic concept of enactment as a mechanism that can lead well-meaning clinicians to engage in sexual misconduct; defines enactment and differentiates it from near neighbor phenomena; uses case examples to illustrate how enactments may lead to sexual misconduct or may offer opportunities to deepen and enhance psychotherapeutic work; and offers recommendations for prevention of sexual misconduct. PMID:10523431

Plakun, Eric M.

1999-01-01

278

Sexual misconduct and enactment.  

PubMed

Sexual misconduct remains a significant problem in the behavioral health professions. Although it is tempting to view sexual misconduct as perpetrated by "bad" clinicians against patients who are "victims," this is an oversimplification of a complex problem. In this article, the author explores the psychoanalytic concept of enactment as a mechanism that can lead well-meaning clinicians to engage in sexual misconduct; defines enactment and differentiates it from near neighbor phenomena; uses case examples to illustrate how enactments may lead to sexual misconduct or may offer opportunities to deepen and enhance psychotherapeutic work; and offers recommendations for prevention of sexual misconduct. PMID:10523431

Plakun, E M

1999-01-01

279

Thyroid Hormone and Wound Healing  

PubMed Central

Although thyroid hormone is one of the most potent stimulators of growth and metabolic rate, the potential to use thyroid hormone to treat cutaneous pathology has never been subject to rigorous investigation. A number of investigators have demonstrated intriguing therapeutic potential for topical thyroid hormone. Topical T3 has accelerated wound healing and hair growth in rodents. Topical T4 has been used to treat xerosis in humans. It is clear that the use of thyroid hormone to treat cutaneous pathology may be of large consequence and merits further study. This is a review of the literature regarding thyroid hormone action on skin along with skin manifestations of thyroid disease. The paper is intended to provide a context for recent findings of direct thyroid hormone action on cutaneous cells in vitro and in vivo which may portend the use of thyroid hormone to promote wound healing. PMID:23577275

Safer, Joshua D.

2013-01-01

280

Sexual play and its functional significance in the domestic sheep (Ovis aries L.).  

PubMed

All the patterns of male sexual behavior were present from the first week of age in male and female lambs. The frequency of this sexual play increased considerably during the first month of life, and returned to a low level until early puberty. These behavioral changes could not be correlated with any hormonal changes. Rearing the lambs in the absence of adult females, in all-male groups or in physical isolation until weaning at 3 months of age, was without consequence for adult sexual behavior. However, despite the low level of sexual-like interactions during the pre and early pubertal period, i.e., between 3 and 6 months of age, the sexual segregation had a clear adverse effect on the development of the copulatory activity: the occurrence of the first copulation was delayed. However, after the first mating, the level of sexual activity was not affected by the treatment. PMID:6542231

Orgeur, P; Signoret, J P

1984-07-01

281

The Relationship Between Sexual Function and Quality of Sleep in Caregiving Mothers of Sons with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Introduction The task of the caregiver, especially a caregiving mother of a son with a chronic and fatal disease, may interfere with their quality of sleep, sexuality, and some hormone levels. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the sexual function and the quality of sleep of caregiving mothers of sons with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Methods We evaluated 20 caregiving mothers of sons with DMD and 20 caregiving mothers of sons without any neuromuscular or chronic disease. All of them voluntarily responded to the evaluating questionnaires about their sexuality and their quality of sleep, and gave blood samples to evaluate their hormonal levels. Main Outcome Measures All mothers were evaluated using the questionnaire of Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and the Pittsburgh questionnaire (PSQI). The blood samples were tested to determine serum levels of testosterone, estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, progesterone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and cortisol. Results Caregiving mothers of sons with DMD had significantly lower scores in the FSFI questionnaire, suggesting a higher risk for sexual dysfunction. The PSQI demonstrated that these caregiving mothers present increased sleep latency, reduced sleep efficiency, daytime dysfunction, and poor sleep quality. Blood tests showed a rise in cortisol levels, which correlated with the compromised sexuality and quality of sleep. Conclusions This study indicates that caregiving mothers of sons with DMD show major risk for sexual dysfunction and a reduction in their quality of sleep mediated in part by the hormonal changes related to stress. Nozoe KT, Hachul H, Hirotsu C, Polesel DN, Moreira GA, Tufik S, and Andersen ML. The relationship between sexual function and quality of sleep in caregiving mothers of sons with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Sex Med 2014;2:133–140. PMID:25356310

Nozoe, Karen T; Hachul, Helena; Hirotsu, Camila; Polesel, Daniel N; Moreira, Gustavo A; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L

2014-01-01

282

The Reciprocal Relationship Between Sexual Victimization and Sexual Assertiveness  

PubMed Central

Low sexual assertiveness has been proposed as a possible mechanism through which sexual revictimization occurs, yet evidence for this has been mixed. In this study, prospective path analysis was used to examine the relationship between sexual refusal assertiveness and sexual victimization over time among a community sample of women. Results provide support for a reciprocal relationship, with historical victimization predicting low sexual assertiveness and low sexual assertiveness predicting subsequent victimization. The effect of recent sexual victimization on subsequent sexual assertiveness also was replicated prospectively. These findings suggest that strengthening sexual assertiveness may help reduce vulnerability to future victimization. PMID:17322273

Livingston, Jennifer A.; Testa, Maria; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

2007-01-01

283

Biosimilar growth hormone.  

PubMed

As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is expiring, biosimilars or follow-on -protein products (FOPP's) have emerged. Biosimilar drugs are cheaper than the originator/comparator drug. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Biosimilar soamtropin has been approved in both the US and Europe. The scientific viability of biosimilar drugs and especially growth hormone has been proven by several rigorously conducted clinical trials. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation) for up to 7 y for pediatric indications measure up favorably to previously approved growth hormones which served as reference comparators. The Obama Administration appears to be committed to establish innovative pathways for the approval of biologics and biosimilars in the US. The cost savings in health care expenditures will be substantial as the global sales of biologics have reached $ 93 billion in 2009. PMID:22108957

Saenger, Paul

2012-01-01

284

Serotonin signaling in the brain of adult female mice is required for sexual preference  

PubMed Central

A role for serotonin in male sexual preference was recently uncovered by our finding that male mutant mice lacking serotonin have lost sexual preference. Here we show that female mouse mutants lacking either central serotonergic neurons or serotonin prefer female over male genital odors when given a choice, and displayed increased female–female mounting when presented either with a choice of a male and a female target or only with a female target. Pharmacological manipulations and genetic rescue experiments showed that serotonin is required in adults. Behavioral changes caused by deficient serotonergic signaling were not due to changes in plasma concentrations of sex hormones. We demonstrate that a genetic manipulation reverses sexual preference without involving sex hormones. Our results indicate that serotonin controls sexual preference. PMID:23716677

Zhang, Shasha; Liu, Yan; Rao, Yi

2013-01-01

285

Hormonal Contraceptives and Adherence  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Hormonal contraceptives are among the most widely used reversible methods of preventing pregnancy. In 2002, oral contraceptive\\u000a pills (OCPs) were the most popular contraceptive method, used by 11.6 million women in the USA [1]. Unfortunately, for methods\\u000a such as OCPs, which depend on adherence in order to be effective, there is a large difference in failure rates between perfect\\u000a use

Jeanette R. Chin; Geeta K. Swamy; Serina E. Floyd; Lori A. Bastian

286

Brandeis University prohibits all forms of sexual misconduct (including sexual  

E-print Network

Brandeis University prohibits all forms of sexual misconduct (including sexual assault, sexual of the resources below for help. A RESOURCE GUIDE FOR SExUAl ASSAUlt SURVIVORS Updated May 2014 Office Of c AND ASSISTANCE Sexual assault Services and prevention Specialist Sheila McMahon 781-736-3626 smcmahon

Snider, Barry B.

287

Late Adolescent Girls' Sexual Experiences and Sexual Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presented and tested a model of sexual satisfaction for late adolescent girls. In this model, sexual self-concept and approach sexual motives were tested as predictors of adolescent girls' sexual satisfaction with their most recent experience of sexual intercourse. A total of 116 girls in 12th grade (ages 16-19) completed measures of…

Impett, Emily A.; Tolman, Deborah L.

2006-01-01

288

The Content of Sexual Fantasies for Sexual Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the phenomenon of sexual fantasy has been extensively researched, little contemporary inquiry has investigated the content of sexual fantasy within the context of sexual offending. In this study, a qualitative analysis was used to develop a descriptive model of the phenomena of sexual fantasy during the offence process. Twenty-four adult males convicted of sexual offences provided detailed retrospective descriptions

Dion G. Gee; Grant J. Devilly; Tony Ward

2004-01-01

289

SexualHarassment Yale University statement on sexual harassment  

E-print Network

performance or creating an intimidating or hostile academic or work environment. Sexual harassment maySexualHarassment Yale University statement on sexual harassment Sexual harassment is antithetical of University policy and may result in serious disciplinary action. Sexual harassment consists of nonconsen

290

Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Sexual Education in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review of sexual education in the United States broadly defines the two most common approaches in sexual education seen in this country today. I cover the status of certain sexual behaviors and risks amongst the teenage population in the U.S. and specifically cover reported sexual activity in high school students and overall data on teen pregnancies and sexually transmitted

Therese B Orbea

2010-01-01

291

Sexual and aggressive motives in sexually aggressive college males  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative contributions to sexual aggression of general sexual and aggressive motives and their respective inhibitory factors were compared. One hundred forty-three university males responded to self-report measures of sexual and aggressive drives, sex and hostility guilt, social desirability response bias, and history of coercive sexuality. With the effects of social desirability controlled, the only predictor of sexual aggression was

James F. Porter; Joseph W. Critelli; Catherine S. K. Tang

1992-01-01

292

Endocrine response to masturbation-induced orgasm in healthy men following a 3-week sexual abstinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This current study examined the effect of a 3-week period of sexual abstinence on the neuroendocrine response to masturbation-induced\\u000a orgasm. Hormonal and cardiovascular parameters were examined in ten healthy adult men during sexual arousal and masturbation-induced\\u000a orgasm. Blood was drawn continuously and cardiovascular parameters were constantly monitored. This procedure was conducted\\u000a for each participant twice, both before and after a

Michael S. Exton; Tillmann H. C. Krüger; Norbert Bursch; Philip Haake; Wolfram Knapp; Manfred Schedlowski; Uwe Hartmann

2001-01-01

293

Sexual partner preference, hypothalamic morphology and aromatase in rams.  

PubMed

The male-oriented ram is a unique and valuable animal model for the study of hormonal, developmental and genetic contributions to sexual partner preference. Unlike most other mammalian models that are in use currently, variations in sexual attraction occur spontaneously in domestic ram populations. It is estimated that as many as 8-10% of rams exhibit a sexual partner preference for other males, classifying them as male-oriented rams. Studies have failed to identify any compelling social factors that can predict or explain the variations in sexual partner preferences of rams. Nor is there consensus on the endocrine and sensory responsiveness of male-oriented rams to other rams. However, a number of studies have reported differences in brain structure and function between male-oriented and female-oriented rams, suggesting that sexual partner preferences are neurologically hard-wired. Recently, we identified a sexually dimorphic nucleus (oSDN) in the sheep preoptic area-anterior hypothalamus. The oSDN is larger in female-oriented rams than in male-oriented rams and similar in size in male-oriented rams and ewes. In addition, mRNA levels for aromatase in the oSDN were higher in males than in females and were higher in female-oriented rams than in male-oriented rams. These results suggest a relationship between steroid hormones, specifically estrogens and oSDN morphology. In this review, we provide an overview of sexual behavior in rams and discuss the multiple factors that may contribute to the development and adult expression of same-sex partner preferences in rams. PMID:15488542

Roselli, Charles E; Larkin, Kay; Schrunk, Jessica M; Stormshak, Fredrick

2004-11-15

294

Nonvolitional Sex and Sexual Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonvolitional sex is sexual behavior that violates a person's right to choose when and with whom to have sex and what sexual behaviors to engage in. The more extreme forms of this behavior include rape, forced sex, childhood sexual abuse, sex trafficking, and violence against people with nonconventional sexual identities. More nuanced forms of nonvolitional sex include engaging in sexual

Debra Kalmuss

2004-01-01

295

The Evolution of Sexual Pleasure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual pleasure is an innate component of human sexuality. Although disdained throughout history by religious groups and variably explained by theories, philosophers, and societies, sexual pleasure permeates human experience. Traditional evolutionists explain this preoccupation via the development of sexual mating strategies and the human desire to propagate one's genes; however, here I will argue that the saturation of sexual pleasure

Felicia De la Garza-Mercer

2007-01-01

296

Pueraria tuberosa DC Extract Improves Androgenesis and Sexual Behavior via FSH LH Cascade  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanolic extract of Pueraria tuberosa (PT) on sexual behaviour and androgenic activity. Male albino rats were divided into four groups of six animals each: control group 1 (2% acacia solution), PT-treated group 2 (50?mg/Kg), PT-treated group 3 (100?mg/Kg), and PT-treated group 4 (150?mg/Kg). Sexual behavior of male rats in the presence of a female rat was recorded. The treated groups were evaluated for sexual parameters. The extract was characterized using LC-MS. The effect of treatment on anabolic and weight of secondary sexual organs was determined. The histological changes in section of testis and epididymis after treatment were observed. Sperm count in epididymis and fructose content in seminal vesicles were also measured. Levels of hormones like FSH, LH, and T were determined. A dose-dependent increase in sexual behaviors was evidenced in the animals of extract treated groups. Increase in testis weight was recorded in PT. At the highest dose PT also affects the hormones level. The four compounds namely puerarin, daidzein, biochanin-A and formononetin were identified in ethanolic extract using LC-MS. It concluded that PT extract possesses androgenic effect and it significantly increased the sexual behaviour and hormones level. PMID:24489512

Chauhan, Nagendra Singh; Sharma, Vikas; Christine Helena Frankland Sawaya, Alexandra; Dixit, V. K.

2013-01-01

297

Exotic Becomes Erotic: A Developmental Theory of Sexual Orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A developmental theory of erotic\\/romantic attraction is presented that provides the same basic account for opposite-sex and same-sex desire in both men and women. It proposes that biological variables, such as genes, prenatal hormones, and brain neuroanatomy, do not code for sexual orientation per se but for childhood temperaments that influence a child's preferences for sex-typical or sex-atypical activities and

Daryl J. Bem

1996-01-01

298

Neuroendocrinology and Sexual Differentiation in Eusocial Mammals  

PubMed Central

Sexual differentiation of the mammalian nervous system has been studied intensively for over 25 years. Most of what we know, however, comes from work on relatively non-social species in which direct reproduction (i.e., production of offspring) is virtually the only route to reproductive success. In social species, an individual’s inclusive fitness may include contributions to the gene pool that are achieved by supporting the reproductive efforts of close relatives; this feature is most evident in eusocial organisms. Here, we review what is known about neuroendocrine mechanisms, sexual differentiation, and effects of social status on the brain and spinal cord in two eusocial mammals: the naked mole-rat and Damaraland mole-rat. These small rodents exhibit the most rigidly organized reproductive hierarchy among mammals, with reproduction suppressed in a majority of individuals. Our findings suggest that eusociality may be associated with a relative lack of sex differences and a reduced influence of gonadal hormones on some functions to which these hormones are usually tightly linked. We also identify neural changes accompanying a change in social and reproductive status, and discuss the implications of our findings for understanding the evolution of sex differences and the neuroendocrinology of reproductive suppression. PMID:19416733

Holmes, Melissa M.; Goldman, Bruce D.; Goldman, Sharry L.; Seney, Marianne L.; Forger, Nancy G.

2009-01-01

299

Thyroid Hormone Resistance in children.  

PubMed

Thyroid Hormone Resistance (RTH) is characterized by the diminished response of thyroid hormone-responsive tissues in varying degrees in association with elevated serum levels of total and free T4 and T3 and inappropriately normal or elevated TSH levels. In almost all cases it is due to different mutations in only one allele of the thyroid hormone receptor beta gene which blocks the action of normal allele thus producing dominantly inherited RTH. In RTH, varying degrees of target tissue responsiveness result in a heterogenous clinical presentation. Resistance in the thyrotrophs and the peripheral tissues is assessed by the evaluation of TSH secretion and changes in peripheral markers of thyroid hormone action after administration of L-T3, respectively. The treatment decision depends on the individual characteristics of each patient. Patients with hypothyroid and hyperthyroid symptoms may require treatment with thyroid hormone and with agents such as beta blockers, antithyroid drugs and thyroid hormone analogues. PMID:16444158

Ercan, Oya

2003-12-01

300

Evolution and human sexuality.  

PubMed

The aim of this review is to put core features of human sexuality in an evolutionary light. Toward that end, I address five topics concerning the evolution of human sexuality. First, I address theoretical foundations, including recent critiques and developments. While much traces back to Darwin and his view of sexual selection, more recent work helps refine the theoretical bases to sex differences and life history allocations to mating effort. Second, I consider central models attempting to specify the phylogenetic details regarding how hominin sexuality might have changed, with most of those models honing in on transitions from a possible chimpanzee-like ancestor to the slightly polygynous and long-term bonded sociosexual partnerships observed among most recently studied hunter-gatherers. Third, I address recent genetic and physiological data contributing to a refined understanding of human sexuality. As examples, the availability of rapidly increasing genomic information aids comparative approaches to discern signals of selection in sexuality-related phenotypes, and neuroendocrine studies of human responses to sexual stimuli provide insight into homologous and derived mechanisms. Fourth, I consider some of the most recent, large, and rigorous studies of human sexuality. These provide insights into sexual behavior across other national samples and on the Internet. Fifth, I discuss the relevance of a life course perspective to understanding the evolution of human sexuality. Most research on the evolution of human sexuality focuses on young adults. Yet humans are sexual beings from gestation to death, albeit in different ways across the life course, and in ways that can be theoretically couched within life history theory. PMID:24151100

Gray, Peter B

2013-12-01

301

Sexual morality of Christianity.  

PubMed

After discussing the origin of religion, functions of religion, and the construction of meaning by religion, the author focuses on the connection between religion and anxiety. The permanent anxiety in religion is determined by guilt feelings that arise for example from the violation of norms in the area of sexuality. In a religion at enmity with sexuality, such as Christianity, the satisfaction of sexual desires is considered bad and sinful; the permanent production of anxiety and a guilty conscience are the result of it. Christian sexual suppression leads to the propagation of asceticism as the taming of corrupt sensuality that only religious virtuosi can maintain. One result of asceticism is celibacy, although passages from the Bible demand monogamy for bishops without prohibiting celibacy. In Catholicism, celibacy institutionalizes the enmity with sexuality and causes a permanent depreciation of real sexuality in favor of one projected onto the mother church and the Virgin Mary. A further consequence of asceticism is the reduction of sexuality to reproduction. In the section about the factual consequences of Christian sexual morality, the author connects sexual instinctual gratification with religious affiliation on the basis of an analysis of the sexual behavior of Germans. The weekly frequency rate of sexual intercourse amounts to 3.1 with male and female nondenominationals, 2.6 with Protestants, and 2.3 with Catholics; 39% of nondenominational men, 20% of Protestant men, and 12% of Catholic men in Germany use condoms. The connection of religion and aggression is empirically significant as well. The religiously most active men feel more inclined to use aggression to reach sexual goals than religiously indifferent ones. PMID:9611690

Runkel, G

1998-01-01

302

Preventing Sexually Transmitted Diseases  

PubMed Central

The discouraging results of early efforts to educate the public about sexually transmitted diseases indicated that the goals of STD preventive action must be longer term and must change attitudes and behaviour as well as educate. They must also avoid an ostrich mentality about the sexual involvement of young people. This article examines more recent approaches to teaching about sexuality in general and STD prevention in particular. PMID:21221351

Kieren, Dianne; Cumming, Ceinwen E.; Cumming, David C.

1992-01-01

303

Impaired Sexual Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of impaired sexual function in adults with Parkinson’s disease (PD) is greater than in the general population.\\u000a Studies have examined different aspects of sexual function among adults with PD and their partners. Comparison groups have\\u000a included healthy adults matched for age and gender, as well as age-matched controls with chronic, non-neurological disease\\u000a with motor impairment. Impaired sexual function

Cheryl Waters; Janice Smolowitz

304

[Depressive symptoms and sexuality].  

PubMed

The mutually reinforcing dyad of depressive symptoms and erectile dysfunction is scientifically established. The cure of depression improves sexual dysfunction (SD) and the treatment of SD induces improvement of depression. Most of anti-depressants induce negative sexual side effects that lead to non-compliance of these treatments. The knowledge of interrelation between depression, anti-depressants and sexuality is of great importance in clinical practice. PMID:25148948

Porto, Robert

2014-10-01

305

[Sexuality and urological diseases].  

PubMed

Patients with lower urinary tract symptoms related to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) frequently suffer from sexual dysfunction (erectile dysfunction and ejaculatory dysfunction). Erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation are two times more common in men with chronic pelvic pain/chronic prostatitis. All treatments of prostate cancer are responsible for sexual dysfunctions. Sexual disorders frequently appear during the management of infertile couples. Information and support should be offered to couples. Women with urinary incontinence also suffer frequently from coital incontinence. PMID:25201599

Droupy, Stéphane

2014-10-01

306

ORIGINAL PAPER Sexual Self-Schemas, Sexual Dysfunction, and the Sexual Responses  

E-print Network

with a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse Alessandra H. Rellini · Cindy M. Meston Received: 30 June 2009 / Revised to the mediating effects of sexual self-schemas on the sexual difficulties of women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The following study adds to the extant literature by investigating (1) sexual

Meston, Cindy

307

Hormones and psychosexual differentiation: implications for the management of intersexuality, homosexuality and transsexuality.  

PubMed

During fetal development of subprimate mammals, sexual differentiation of the genitals and of specific sex-dimorphic brain systems depends on androgens; corresponding sex differences are displayed in prepubertal behaviours as well as in behaviours that depend on activation by pubertal hormones. In human beings, fetal hormones play the same role in genital differentiation. Hormone-dependent structural brain changes are also very likely but have not yet been demonstrated. The corresponding effects of fetal hormones on childhood behaviour have been found both in subhuman primates and in man, while the evidence concerning later behaviour, including sexual orientation, is not yet clear. The development of gender identity in humans is a cognitive process that has no counterpart in animal behaviour and is unlikely to be based on a specific hormone-sensitive brain system. It appears that the hormone-dependent variations of sex-dimorphic behaviour in childhood can be accommodated within either gender identity, provided that the child's physical appearance is gender adequate and the parental (or other caregivers') rearing style does not interfere with typical gender role development. In intersex individuals, changes in gender identity seem to occur primarily when genital and/or general physical appearance are in conflict with the assigned gender and/or when rearing has been ambiguous. The available descriptions of such changes do not seem compatible with a primarily neuroendocrine explanation. Thus, decisions on sex assignment and reassignment of intersex patients need to be based on expected social and sexual functioning, and the clinical management of such patients must minimize the risk of ambiguous rearing and of the development of a gender-incongruent physical appearance. The development of a sexual orientation in humans as hetero- or homosexual does not seem to depend on pubertal hormones. The evidence for a role of fetal hormones is suggestive, but the issue is not yet settled. Attempts to implicate the H-Y antigen in the aetiology of transsexuality seem to have failed; psychoendocrine research here parallels that on sexual orientation. Some recent developments in the management of transsexual patients are discussed. PMID:7139993

Meyer-Bahlburg, H F

1982-11-01

308

Prime time sexual harrassment.  

PubMed

This study explores the explicit and implicit messages of sexual harassment that viewers receive when viewing prime-time television in the US. A content analysis of 48 hours of prime-time television reveals that sexual harassment on television is both highly visible and invisible. Sexual harassment is rendered visible simply by its prominence in these programs. Incidents involving quid-pro-quo harassment and environmental harassment occur with regularity on television. Furthermore, about 84% of the shows studied contained at least one incident of sexual harassment; yet these acts of sexual harassment remained largely invisible because none of the behaviors were labeled as sexual harassment. These incidents are presented in humorous ways, and victims are generally unharmed and very effective at ending the harassment. Although such programs may actually reflect the reality of many women's lives in terms of prevalence of sexual harassment, they perpetuate several myths about sexual harassment, such as that sexual harassment is not serious and that victims should be able to handle the situations themselves. PMID:12294811

Grauerholz, E; King, A

1997-04-01

309

Developmental expression and hormonal regulation of glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors during  

E-print Network

Developmental expression and hormonal regulation of glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors to potentiate the actions of thyroid hormone in amphibian metamorphosis. Environmental modulation, and thus control the timing of metamorphosis. Thyroid hormone and corticosteroids act through struc

Denver, Robert J.

310

Zebrafish pituitary gene expression before and after sexual maturation.  

PubMed

Sexual maturation and somatic growth cessation are associated with adolescent development, which is precisely controlled by interconnected neuroendocrine regulatory pathways in the endogenous endocrine system. The pituitary gland is one of the key regulators of the endocrine system. By analyzing the RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) transcriptome before and after sexual maturation, in this study, we characterized the global gene expression patterns in zebrafish pituitaries at 45 and 90 days post-fertilization (dpf). A total of 15?043 annotated genes were expressed in the pituitary tissue, 3072 of which were differentially expressed with a greater than or equal to twofold change between pituitaries at 45 and 90 dpf. In the pituitary transcriptome, the most abundant transcript was gh. The expression levels of gh remained high even after sexual maturation at 90 dpf. Among the eight major pituitary hormone genes, lhb was the only gene that exhibited a significant change in its expression levels between 45 and 90 dpf. Significant changes in the pituitary transcripts included genes involved in the regulation of immune responses, bone metabolism, and hormone secretion processes during the juvenile-sexual maturity transition. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis was carried out to verify the RNA-seq transcriptome results and demonstrated that the expression patterns of the eight major pituitary hormone genes did not exhibit a significant gender difference at 90 dpf. For the first time, we report the quantitative global gene expression patterns at the juvenile and sexual maturity stages. These expression patterns may account for the dynamic neuroendocrine regulation observed in body metabolism. PMID:24709578

He, Wenxia; Dai, Xiangyan; Chen, Xiaowen; He, Jiangyan; Yin, Zhan

2014-06-01

311

Mammalian sex hormones in plants.  

PubMed

The occurrence of mammalian sex hormones and their physiological role in plants is reviewed. These hormones, such as 17beta-estradiol, androsterone, testosterone or progesterone, were present in 60-80% of the plant species investigated. Enzymes responsible for their biosynthesis and conversion were also found in plants. Treatment of the plants with sex hormones or their precursors influenced plant development: cell divisions, root and shoot growth, embryo growth, flowering, pollen tube growth and callus proliferation. The regulatory abilities of mammalian sex hormones in plants makes possible their use in practice, especially in plant in vitro culture. PMID:16044944

Janeczko, Anna; Skoczowski, Andrzej

2005-01-01

312

Thyroid Hormones and Methylmercury Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Thyroid hormones are essential for cellular metabolism, growth, and development. In particular, an adequate supply of thyroid hormones is critical for fetal neurodevelopment. Thyroid hormone tissue activation and inactivation in brain, liver, and other tissues is controlled by the deiodinases through the removal of iodine atoms. Selenium, an essential element critical for deiodinase activity, is sensitive to mercury and, therefore, when its availability is reduced, brain development might be altered. This review addresses the possibility that high exposures to the organometal, methylmercury (MeHg), may perturb neurodevelopmental processes by selectively affecting thyroid hormone homeostasis and function. PMID:18716716

O'Mara, Daniel M.; Aschner, Michael

2013-01-01

313

About Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)  

MedlinePLUS

KidsHealth > Teens > Sexual Health > STDs & Other Infections > About Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Print A A A Text Size What's ... STDs Spread Preventing and Treating STDs More Information Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infectious diseases that spread from person ...

314

Conservation of progesterone hormone function in invertebrate reproduction  

PubMed Central

Steroids play fundamental roles regulating mammalian reproduction and development. Although sex steroids and their receptors are well characterized in vertebrates and several arthropod invertebrates, little is known about the hormones and receptors regulating reproduction in other invertebrate species. Evolutionary insights into ancient endocrine pathways can be gained by elucidating the hormones and receptors functioning in invertebrate reproduction. Using a combination of genomic analyses, receptor imaging, ligand identification, target elucidation, and exploration of function through receptor knockdown, we now show that comparable progesterone chemoreception exists in the invertebrate monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas, suggesting an ancient origin of the signal transduction systems commonly associated with the development and integration of sexual behavior in mammals. PMID:20547846

Stout, E. Paige; La Clair, James J.; Snell, Terry W.; Shearer, Tonya L.; Kubanek, Julia

2010-01-01

315

The importance of sexual health in the elderly: breaking down barriers and taboos.  

PubMed

Aging-related physical changes do not necessarily lead to a decline in sexual functioning: good physical and mental health, a positive attitude toward sex in later life, and access to a healthy partner are associated with continued sexual activity, and regular sexual expression is associated with good physical and mental health. However, it is usually assumed that older adults do not have sexual desires, and elderly people often find it difficult to discuss this topic with their doctor. There are many potential barriers concerning sexuality in older age: the lack of a healthy sexual partner, depression, the monotony of a repetitive sexual relationship, a spouse's physical unattractiveness, hormone variability, and illness and/or iatrogenic factors. Adaptive coping strategies can considerably mitigate the impact of such factors, however, and one way of contributing to breaking down barriers and taboos is undoubtedly to ensure that physicians are willing to discuss their patients' sexual history. The aim of this review was to explore the barriers and taboos to sexual expression in seniors, to propose strategies to foster this aspect of their lives, and to help physicians investigate the sexual history of their elderly patients. PMID:23160504

Inelmen, Emine Meral; Sergi, Giuseppe; Girardi, Agostino; Coin, Alessandra; Toffanello, Elena Debora; Cardin, Fabrizio; Manzato, Enzo

2012-06-01

316

Support for the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis in the wild: hormonal manipulation decreases survival in sick damselflies.  

PubMed

The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis (ICHH) states that hormones enhance sexual trait expression but impair immunity. Previous tests of the ICHH have been hampered by experimental design problems. Here, we report on an experimental test of the ICHH that includes manipulations of both hormones and infections in males of the territorial damselfly, Hetaerina americana, with accurate survival measurements. We conducted a fully factorial experiment subjecting each individual to one of three topical treatments: methoprene (a juvenile hormone analog), acetone, or control, and one of three injection treatments: bacteria, PBS, or control. We measured survival of manipulated males in both the wild and in captivity. As predicted, survival was most heavily impaired in methoprene-bacteria males than in the other groups in the wild, and no survival differences emerged in captive animals. This result confirms that survival is one cost an animal pays for increased hormonal levels. This corroborates theoretical predictions of the ICHH. PMID:23025617

González-Tokman, Daniel M; Munguía-Steyer, Roberto; González-Santoyo, Isaac; Baena-Díaz, Fernanda S; Córdoba-Aguilar, Alex

2012-10-01

317

Neuropeptides and central control of sexual behaviour from the past to the present: a review.  

PubMed

Of the numerous neuropeptides identified in the central nervous system, only a few are involved in the control of sexual behaviour. Among these, the most studied are oxytocin, adrenocorticotropin, ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone and opioid peptides. While opioid peptides inhibit sexual performance, the others facilitate sexual behaviour in most of the species studied so far (rats, mice, monkeys and humans). However, evidence for a sexual role of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y, galanin and galanin-like peptide, cholecystokinin, substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide, vasopressin, angiotensin II, hypocretins/orexins and VGF-derived peptides are also available. Corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y, cholecystokinin, vasopressin and angiotensin II inhibit, while substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide, hypocretins/orexins and some VGF-derived peptide facilitate sexual behaviour. Neuropeptides influence sexual behaviour by acting mainly in the hypothalamic nuclei (i.e., lateral hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus, ventromedial nucleus, arcuate nucleus), in the medial preoptic area and in the spinal cord. However, it is often unclear whether neuropeptides influence the anticipatory phase (sexual arousal and/or motivation) or the consummatory phase (performance) of sexual behaviour, except in a few cases (e.g., opioid peptides and oxytocin). Unfortunately, scarce information has been added in the last 15 years on the neural mechanisms by which neuropeptides influence sexual behaviour, most studied neuropeptides apart. This may be due to a decreased interest of researchers on neuropeptides and sexual behaviour or on sexual behaviour in general. Such a decrease may be related to the discovery of orally effective, locally acting type V phosphodiesterase inhibitors for the therapy of erectile dysfunction. PMID:23851261

Argiolas, Antonio; Melis, Maria Rosaria

2013-09-01

318

Schemas, sexuality, and romantic attachment  

Microsoft Academic Search

One's self-views are powerful regulators of both cognitive processing and behavioral responding. Sexual self-schemas are cognitive generalizations about sexual aspects of the self. The bivariate sexual self-schema model, which posits independent effects of positive and negative components of women's sexual self-views, was tested. Three hundred eighteen female undergraduates completed anonymous questionnaires, including the Sexual Self-Schema Scale and assessments of sexual

Jill M. Cyranowski; Barbara L. Andersen

1998-01-01

319

Your kidneys also produce several hormones. These hormones help to  

E-print Network

Your kidneys also produce several hormones. These hormones help to control your blood pressure kidney function as we get older. People can even survive with just one kidney if they donate the other to a friend or family member. But when kidney function drops because of an under- lying kidney disease, it

Baker, Chris I.

320

Urinary growth hormone estimation in diagnosing severe growth hormone deficiency.  

PubMed Central

Urinary growth hormone was measured in 54 children with short stature who had growth hormone deficiency that was initially diagnosed pharmacologically (arginine and L-dopa) and physiologically (mean growth hormone concentration during sleep evaluated twice). Based on the growth hormone response to pharmacological tests the subjects were subdivided into three groups: group A, 20 subjects with normal response (peak concentration > 8 micrograms/l); group B, 20 subjects with response between 4 and 8 micrograms/l; and group C, 14 subjects with response < 4 micrograms/l. In group A four subjects had an abnormally low nocturnal mean growth hormone concentration (< or = 3.3 micrograms/l). In group C seven subjects had multiple pituitary hormone deficiency and abnormal magnetic resonance imaging. All subjects had urine collected from 8.00 pm to 8.00 am for 4-5 consecutive nights. A positive correlation was found between serum nocturnal mean growth hormone values and urinary growth hormone in all subjects. Mean (SD) concentrations of urinary growth hormone were similar in groups A (18.0 (9.5) ng/g creatinine) and B (13.6 (5.9) ng/g creatinine), but significantly higher than that of group C (3.4 (3.7) ng/g creatinine). Considering as abnormal urinary growth hormones below the lower limit of the range in group A, specificity and sensitivity of urinary growth hormone was 100% and 35% respectively. Sensitivity for groups B and C were 5% and 78% respectively. When considering only the subjects of group C with pathological magnetic resonance findings, sensitivity increased to 100%. In the four subjects of group A with mean growth hormone concentration < or = 3.3 micrograms/l, specificity decreased to 80%. It is concluded that urinary growth hormone assay is characterised by a sensitivity too low to be regarded as improving the traditional diagnostic approach to define growth hormone deficiency, unless it is used to identify subjects with the most severe deficiencies. PMID:8976663

Pirazzoli, P; Mandini, M; Zucchini, S; Gualandi, S; Vignutelli, L; Capelli, M; Cacciari, E

1996-01-01

321

Thyroid Hormone Upregulates Hypothalamic kiss2 Gene in the Male Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus  

PubMed Central

Kisspeptin has recently been recognized as a critical regulator of reproductive function in vertebrates. During the sexual development, kisspeptin neurons receive sex steroids feedback to trigger gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. In teleosts, a positive correlation has been found between the thyroid status and the reproductive status. However, the role of thyroid hormone in the regulation of kisspeptin system remains unknown. We cloned and characterized a gene encoding kisspeptin (kiss2) in a cichlid fish, the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Expression of kiss2 mRNA in the brain was analyzed by in situ hybridization. The effect of thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine, T3) and hypothyroidism with methimazole (MMI) on kiss2 and the three GnRH types (gnrh1, gnrh2, and gnrh3) mRNA expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. Expression of thyroid hormone receptor mRNAs were analyzed in laser-captured kisspeptin and GnRH neurons by RT-PCR. The kiss2 mRNA expressing cells were seen in the nucleus of the lateral recess in the hypothalamus. Intraperitoneal administration of T3 (5??g/g body weight) to sexually mature male tilapia significantly increased kiss2 and gnrh1 mRNA levels at 24?h post injection (P?hormone mRNA levels were insensitive to the thyroid hormone manipulations. Furthermore, RT-PCR showed expression of thyroid hormone receptor mRNAs in laser-captured GnRH neurons but not in kiss2 neurons. This study shows that GnRH1 may be directly regulated through thyroid hormone, while the regulation of Kiss2 by T3 is more likely to be indirect. PMID:24324459

Ogawa, Satoshi; Ng, Kai We; Xue, Xiaoyu; Ramadasan, Priveena Nair; Sivalingam, Mageswary; Li, Shuisheng; Levavi-Sivan, Berta; Lin, Haoran; Liu, Xiaochun; Parhar, Ishwar S.

2013-01-01

322

Sexual Harassment in Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students and employees are legally protected against sexual harassment, regardless of the perpetrator's age or status. Although caution is needed when responding to complaints, school leaders should avoid making backroom deals with staff members accused of molestation or improper sexual conduct. All school community members need information and…

Stein, Nan D.

1993-01-01

323

Sexual Orientation (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC A Parent's Guide to Surviving the Teen Years Understanding Early Sexual Development STDs Questions and Answers About Sex Teaching Your Child Tolerance Transgender People Am I in a Healthy Relationship? Transgender People Love and Romance Sexual Attraction and ...

324

Sexual dimorphism in animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many animals show sexual dimorphism, or differences between the males and females of that species. These are mostly physical differences, but other differences like songs in male and female birds can also be thought of as sexual dimorphism. Generally, males are more decorated and larger than females, but there are several species of animals in which the females are larger than the males.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-05-23

325

Sexual Addiction: Diagnostic Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years clinicians report a great deal of concern about definition, diagnostic assessment, and treatment modalities when dealing with what might be called out-of-control sexual behavior. Many terms have been used to describe the phenomenon of problematic sexual behavior. Many of these concepts overlap, some are no longer popular, and some…

Giugliano, John R.

2009-01-01

326

Sexual Harassment Protocol.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document spells out policy regarding sexual harassment in the Connecticut vocational-technical school system that was developed by the Connecticut State Department of Education, the Connecticut Division of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education, and the Connecticut Women's Education and Legal Fund, Inc. The introduction calls sexual…

Connecticut Women's Education and Legal Fund, Hartford.

327

Sexing Geography, Teaching Sexualities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Draws on experiences as a straight feminist geographer to address questions regarding teaching sexualities in geography. Looks at "sexing" and "queering" geography curricula at the college level; discusses strategies to make universities and classrooms less heterosexist and lesbo/homophobic; and discusses dilemmas of disclosing sexuality in the…

England, Kim

1999-01-01

328

Evaluating Sexuality Education Curriculums.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In contrast to studies of abstinence-only programs, studies of abstinence-plus curricula indicate that students do not increase sexual activity. Parents, teachers, and administrators should evaluate all sexuality education programs according to three important criteria: credibility of training materials, curriculum content, and curriculum…

Wiley, David C.; Terlosky, Beverly

2000-01-01

329

Sexuality and Menopause  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postmenopausal sexuoerotic health is multivariately determined by both intrinsic and extrinsic variables, some of which may predate the menopause. In a pilot study of 20 postmenopausal women, even when deterioration in sexual well-being was anticipated beforehand, it did not inevitably materialize, but if it did so, it was not inevitably correlated with diminished partner availability. Postmenopausal ratings of eroto-sexual ideation,

James Frock; John Money

1992-01-01

330

Taking Sexual Harassment Seriously.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous "School Law" columns discussed developments under Title IX (Educational Amendments of 1970), noting a trend among federal courts to apply Title IX's prohibition against sexual harassment to peer and employee-to-student sexual harassment. A recent Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals decision against the Santa Rosa City School District…

Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

1998-01-01

331

Sexual Harassment in Nursing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual harassment in the workplace, specifically in nursing, is discussed. The impact of sexual harassment, characteristics of those commonly involved, the need for changing attitudes of men and women in the workplace, the factor of power in relationships, and ways to avoid legal suits are all examined. (CT)

Duldt, Bonnie W.

1982-01-01

332

The Sexual Genogram.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The sexual genogram combines aspects of the sex history with the genogram/family journey to examine the impact of the partners' family loyalties, secrets, and "scripts" on their sexual functioning. The exploration process offers an opportunity for major change to occur. Technique for this method is discussed, along with relevant case…

Hof, Larry; Berman, Ellen

1986-01-01

333

Female Sexuality: An Enigma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes constructions of sexuality that have occurred within social context in which language, culture, and behavior interact to reinforce male power. Against backdrop of these patriarchal examples of female sexual expression and experience, discusses difficulties of female clients. Addresses critical counseling concerns in terms of contextual…

Daniluk, Judith

1991-01-01

334

Men and Sexual Trauma  

MedlinePLUS

... Adult male survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 8, 233-241. Garnefski, N., & Diekstra, R. F. W. (1997). Child sexual abuse and emotional and behavioral problems in adolescence: Gender differences. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, ...

335

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Top Banner Content Area Skip Content Marketing ... of Two Herpes Viruses —Jan. 5, 2012 All Sexually Transmitted Diseases News Releases News From NIAID-Supported Institutions Last ...

336

Neuroendocrinology of Sexual Plasticity in Teleost Fishes  

PubMed Central

The study of sex differences has produced major insights into the organization of animal phenotypes and the regulatory mechanisms generating phenotypic variation from similar genetic templates. Teleost fishes display the greatest diversity of sexual expression among vertebrate animals. This diversity appears to arise from diversity in the timing of sex determination and less functional interdependence among the components of sexuality relative to tetrapod vertebrates. Teleost model systems therefore provide powerful models for understanding gonadal and non-gonadal influences on behavioral and physiological variation. This review addresses socially controlled sex change and alternate male phenotypes in fishes. These sexual patterns are informative natural experiments that illustrate how variation in conserved neuroendocrine pathways can give rise to a wide range of reproductive adaptations. Key regulatory factors underlying sex change and alternative male phenotypes that have been identified to date include steroid hormones and the neuropeptides GnRH and arginine vasotocin, but genomic approaches are now implicating a diversity of other influences as well. PMID:20176046

Godwin, John

2010-01-01

337

Plant Hormones: Bioassay for Gibberellin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simply assay makes use of the ability of the plant hormone GA3 to induce starch breakdown in the endosperm of a barley seed from which the embryo has been removed. The effect of the hormone is clear and repeatable.

Sandra L. Biroc (University of Colorado;)

1988-06-06

338

Sexual Desire Disorders  

PubMed Central

Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) and sexual aversion disorder (SAD) are an under-diagnosed group of disorders that affect men and women. Despite their prevalence, these two disorders are often not addressed by healthcare providers and patients due their private and awkward nature. As physicians, we need to move beyond our own unease in order to adequately address our patients’ sexual problems and implement appropriate treatment. Using the Sexual Response Cycle as the model of the physiological changes of humans during sexual stimulation and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition this article will review the current literature on the desire disorders focusing on prevalence, etiology, and treatment. PMID:19727285

Montgomery, Keith A.

2008-01-01

339

Cetrorelix, a Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Antagonist, Induces the Expression of Melatonin Receptor 1a in the Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neuronal Cell Line GT1–7  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melatonin has been implicated in the control of the reproductive system, and the modulatory actions of melatonin on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons have been assumed to be indirectly mediated through afferent neurons. However, our previous studies demonstrate sexually dimorphic modulation of A-type ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor (GABAAR) currents by melatonin in adult rat GnRH neurons and a preferential expression of

Hirotaka Ishii; Shun Sato; Chengzhu Yin; Yasuo Sakuma; Masakatsu Kato

2009-01-01

340

[Hormonal mechanisms of sex differentiation of the liver: the modern concepts and problems].  

PubMed

The level of thousands of genes expression in the liver is differentiated on the basis of sexual dimorphism that affects the frequency of appearance of different pathological forms. The main hormonal factors of the liver's sex differentiation are sex steroids and growth hormone. The impulsive and close to continuous secretion character of growth hormone in male and female individuals may have effects on masculinization or feminization processes, accordingly. The mechanism of decoding the growth hormone's secretion pattern by liver cells is not known. Some genes in the liver with the expression of sex differentiated genes, have so called memory of gender, which is created, probably, during early postnatal ontogenesis with involvement of both androgens and growth hormone. The physical transporter of this memory is not known. The possible molecular mechanisms of various effects based on sex differentiation in liver have been described in this survey, including unique cases of determining the role of the growth hormone's pattern and permissive function of the growth hormone concerning the direct effect of sex steroids to hepatocytes. PMID:19894609

Smirnov, A N

2009-01-01

341

Sexual Identity Development Among Ethnic Sexual-Minority Male Youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current research explores how ethnicity influences sexual identity development. Among 139 sexual-minority male youths, measures of sexual identity development assessed the timing and sequencing of developmental milestones, disclosure of sexual identity to others, internalized homophobia, and same- and opposite-sex relationship histories. Findings demonstrated that participants, regardless of ethnicity, experienced most identity milestones at developmentally appropriate ages, had moderately low

Eric M. Dubé; Ritch C. Savin-Williams

1999-01-01

342

Investigation of the mechanism for phthalate-induced toxicity during male sexual differentiation in the rat.  

EPA Science Inventory

Male rats exposed to phthalate esters during sexual differentiation (GDI4-GDI8) display various reproductive developmental abnormalities later in adult life which are associated with declines in fetal testicular testosterone (T) production and insulin-like three hormone (lnsl-3...

343

Relationships Among Childhood Sex-Atypical Behavior, Spatial Ability, Handedness, and Sexual Orientation in Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moderate support was obtained in a sample of 101 gay, bisexual, and heterosexual males for the perinatal hormone theory, which hypothesizes that attenuated levels of androgens during critical periods of male fetal development fail to masculinize and defeminize the brain. Affected individuals develop female-typical sexual orientation (assessed here by a pie chart) and cerebral organization, reflected in visual-spatial abilities and

Kenneth M. Cohen

2002-01-01

344

The riddle of sex: biological theories of sexual difference in the early twentieth-century.  

PubMed

At the turn of the twentieth century, biologists such as Oscar Riddle, Thomas Hunt Morgan, Frank Lillie, and Richard Goldschmidt all puzzled over the question of sexual difference, the distinction between male and female. They all offered competing explanations for the biological cause of this difference, and engaged in a fierce debate over the primacy of their respective theories. Riddle propounded a metabolic theory of sex dating from the late-nineteenth century suggesting that metabolism lay at the heart of sexual difference. Thomas Hunt Morgan insisted on the priority of chromosomes, Frank Lillie emphasized the importance of hormones, while Richard Goldschmidt supported a mixed model involving both chromosomes and hormones. In this paper, I will illustrate how the older metabolic theory of sex was displaced when those who argued for the relatively newer theories of chromosomes and hormones gradually formed an alliance that accommodated each other and excluded the metabolic theory of sex. By doing so, proponents of chromosomes and hormones established their authority over the question of sexual difference as they laid the foundations for the new disciplines of genetics and endocrinology. Their debate raised urgent questions about what constituted sexual difference, and how scientists envisioned the plasticity and controllability of this difference. These theories also had immediate political and cultural consequences at the turn of the twentieth century, especially for the eugenic and feminist movements, both of which were heavily invested in knowledge of sex and its determination, ascertainment, and command. PMID:21082219

Ha, Nathan Q

2011-01-01

345

Plasma sex hormone concentrations in men with hypertension treated with methyldopa and/or propranolol.  

PubMed Central

Serum concentrations of LH, FSH, testosterone and prolactin were measured in patients with hypertension treated with propranolol (34 cases), methyldopa (13 cases), and methyldopa + propranolol (11 cases). The results were compared with those obtained in 18 controls (hospital out-patients). There were no differences in these hormone concentrations in the various groups, and no difference between those complaining of impotence (13 cases) and those with normal sexual function. Impotence in hypertensive men on treatment with methyldopa cannot be explained by abnormalities in secretion of the reproductive hormones. PMID:6796950

Taylor, R. G.; Crisp, A. J.; Hoffbrand, B. I.; Maguire, A.; Jacobs, H. S.

1981-01-01

346

What is sexual addiction?  

PubMed

Married men labeled as sexual addicts seek help after being discovered to have had broken monogamy rules for sexual behavior through their use of masturbation, pornography, cybersex, commercial sex involvement, paraphilic pursuits, or affairs. This study analyzed the sexual patterns and dynamics of 30 men who presented to 1 clinician between 2005 and 2009. Their important differences were captured by a 6-category spectrum: (a) no sexual excess beyond breaking the spouse's restrictive rules (n = 2), (b) discovery of husband's longstanding sexual secrets (n = 5), (c) new discovery of the joys of commercial sex (n = 4), (d) the bizarre or paraphilic (n = 7), (e) alternate concept of normal masculinity (n = 5), and (f) spiraling psychological deterioration (n = 7). Only the men with a spiraling psychological deterioration-about 25% of the sample with sexual issues-could reasonably be described as having a sexual addiction. This group experienced significant psychological failures before the onset of their deterioration. Another 25% were adequately defined as paraphilic. Half of the sample was not adequately described using addiction, compulsivity, impulsivity, and relationship incapacity models. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for DSM-5 and treatment. PMID:20432125

Levine, Stephen B

2010-01-01

347

Research report Influence of gonadal hormones on the development of parental behavior in adult virgin prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are a socially monogamous species and both sexes are parental after the birth of pups. In contrast, sexually inexperienced adult prairie voles differ in their behavior towards pups such that virgin males are paternal whereas virgin females are often infanticidal. To test whether there exists a discrete perinatal 'sensitive period' during which gonadal hormones influence this

Joseph S. Lonstein; Geert J. De Vries

348

Immunohistochemical Study of Androgenic Gland Hormone: Localization in the Male Reproductive System and Species Specificity in the Terrestrial Isopods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Androgenic gland hormone (AGH) is responsible for male sexual differentiation in crustaceans. AGH of the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare, is a heterodimetric glycoprotein. To determine the distribution of AGH in the male reproductive system, an immunohistochemical study was carried out using antibodies raised against different components of the proAGH molecule of A. vulgare, for example, the whole molecule of recombinant

Yuriko Hasegawa; Atsuro Okuno; Hiromichi Nagasawa

2002-01-01

349

Influence of gonadal hormones on the development of parental behavior in adult virgin prairie voles ( Microtus ochrogaster)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are a socially monogamous species and both sexes are parental after the birth of pups. In contrast, sexually inexperienced adult prairie voles differ in their behavior towards pups such that virgin males are paternal whereas virgin females are often infanticidal. To test whether there exists a discrete perinatal ‘sensitive period’ during which gonadal hormones influence this

Joseph S. Lonstein; Geert J. De Vries

2000-01-01

350

Sexual assault in postmenopausal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual assault is a crime of violence affecting modern American society. Victims of sexual assault tend to be women from a broad cross-section of social, economic, ethnic, and age groups. The postmenopausal woman is not immune from sexual assault and is increasingly a victim. The author presents the topic of sexual assault within the general framework of the physician's role

Susan M. Ramin

1997-01-01

351

Human Sexuality: Responsible Life Choices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides a complete course in human sexuality. It can also be used to supplement a family living course. Text content provides current information for teaching high school students about sexuality issues. The text offers basic information on growth and development, sexual development, pregnancy, and birth. It explains the sexual decision…

Ryder, Verdene; Smith, Peggy B.

352

Sexual Rights: Striking a Balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual rights, the first of the eight Montreal Declarations adopted by the World Association for Sexual Health (WAS), are grounded within existing international human rights treaties, covenants and conventions and contribute to achieving the Millennium Development Goals (United Nations, 2005). Despite their apparent contribution to sexual health, sexual rights are particularly contentious, challenged both by nations that do not share

Eleanor Maticka-Tyndale; Lisa Smylie

2008-01-01

353

Research in Human Sexuality Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Medical students' attitudes towards concepts in sexuality before and after a five-day sexuality course were tested at the University of Miami School of Medicine and evaluated with Osgood's Semantic Differential. Concepts rated were "my sexuality,""masturbation,""homosexuality," and "my role in understanding sexual problems." (LBH)

Carmichael, Joan; And Others

1977-01-01

354

Divergence in androgen sensitivity contributes to population differences in sexual dimorphism of electrocommunication behavior.  

PubMed

Weakly-electric fish (Apteronotidae) produce highly diverse electrocommunication signals. Electric organ discharges (EODs) vary across species, sexes, and in the magnitude and direction of their sexual dimorphism. Gonadal steroid hormones can modulate EODs, and differences in androgen sensitivity are hypothesized to underlie variation in the degree of sexual dimorphism across species. In this study, we asked whether variation in androgen sensitivity explained variation in sexual dimorphism of EODs within species, at the population level. We examined two populations of black ghost knifefish (Apteronotus albifrons), one from the Orinoco and the other from the Amazon River Basin. EOD frequency (EODf) and chirp rates were measured to characterize diversity in sexual dimorphism across populations. The magnitude of sexual dimorphism in EODf differed significantly across populations, and was more pronounced in the Orinoco population than in the Amazon population. Chirp rates were sexually monomorphic in both populations. 11-Ketotestosterone (11-kT) was administered over a two-week period to assess population differences in sensitivity to androgens. 11-kT masculinized EODf significantly more in the population with the greater degree of sexual dimorphism. 11-kT had no effect on the sexually monomorphic chirping rates. We conclude that population divergence in androgen sensitivity contributes to variation in sexual dimorphism of EODf in A. albifrons. PMID:23142327

Ho, Winnie W; Rack, Jessie M; Smith, G Troy

2013-01-01

355

Quality of Life and Sexual Health in the Aging of PCa Survivors  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy in elderly men. The progressive ageing of the world male population will further increase the need for tailored assessment and treatment of PCa patients. The determinant role of androgens and sexual hormones for PCa growth and progression has been established. However, several trials on androgens and PCa are recently focused on urinary continence, quality of life, and sexual function, suggesting a new point of view on the whole endocrinological aspect of PCa. During aging, metabolic syndrome, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and central obesity, can be associated with a chronic, low-grade inflammation of the prostate and with changes in the sex steroid pathways. These factors may affect both the carcinogenesis processes and treatment outcomes of PCa. Any treatment for PCa can have a long-lasting negative impact on quality of life and sexual health, which should be assessed by validated self-reported questionnaires. In particular, sexual health, urinary continence, and bowel function can be worsened after prostatectomy, radiotherapy, or hormone treatment, mostly in the elderly population. In the present review we summarized the current knowledge on the role of hormones, metabolic features, and primary treatments for PCa on the quality of life and sexual health of elderly Pca survivors. PMID:24744780

Gacci, Mauro; Tamburrino, Lara; Detti, Beatrice; Livi, Lorenzo; De Nunzio, Cosimo; Tubaro, Andrea; Gravas, Stavros; Carini, Marco; Serni, Sergio

2014-01-01

356

Management of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal breast cancer patients taking adjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy  

PubMed Central

Treatment with aromatase inhibitors for postmenopausal women with breast cancer has been shown to reduce or obviate invasive procedures such as hysteroscopy or curettage associated with tamoxifen-induced endometrial abnormalities. The side effect of upfront aromatase inhibitors, diminished estrogen synthesis, is similar to that seen with the natural events of aging. The consequences often include vasomotor symptoms (hot flushes) and vaginal dryness and atrophy, which in turn may result in cystitis and vaginitis. Not surprisingly, painful intercourse (dyspareunia) and loss of sexual interest (decreased libido) frequently occur as well. Various interventions, both non-hormonal and hormonal, are currently available to manage these problems. The purpose of the present review is to provide the practitioner with a wide array of management options to assist in treating the sexual consequences of aromatase inhibitors. The suggestions in this review are based on recent literature and on the recommendations set forth both by the North American Menopause Association and in the clinical practice guidelines of the Society of Gynaecologists and Obstetricians of Canada. The complexity of female sexual dysfunction necessitates a biopsychosocial approach to assessment and management alike, with interventions ranging from education and lifestyle changes to sexual counselling, pelvic floor therapies, sexual aids, medications, and dietary supplements—all of which have been reported to have a variable, but often successful, effect on symptom amelioration. Although the use of specific hormone replacement—most commonly local estrogen, and less commonly, systemic estrogen with or without an androgen, progesterone, or the additional of an androgen in an estrogenized woman (or a combination)—may be highly effective, the concern remains that in patients with estrogen-dependent breast cancer, including those receiving anti-estrogenic adjuvant therapies, the use of these hormones may be attended with potential risk. Therefore, non-hormonal alternatives should in all cases be initially tried with the expectation that symptomatic relief can often be achieved. First-line therapy for urogenital symptoms, notably vaginal dryness and dyspareunia, should be the non-hormonal group of preparations such as moisturizers and precoital vaginal lubricants. In patients with estrogen-dependent breast cancer (notably those receiving anti-estrogenic adjuvant therapies) and severely symptomatic vaginal atrophy that fails to respond to non-hormonal options, menopausal hormone replacement or prescription vaginal estrogen therapy may considered. Systemic estrogen may be associated with risk and thus is best avoided. Judicious use of hormones may be appropriate in the well-informed patient who gives informed consent, but given the potential risk, these agents should be prescribed only after mutual agreement of the patient and her oncologist. PMID:18087605

Derzko, C.; Elliott, S.; Lam, W.

2007-01-01

357

[Side effects of hormonal contraception].  

PubMed

Female sex hormones have an influence not only on the reproductive process, but on nearly all organs and functional systems. This explains their broad spectre of side-effects, which by their degree of subjective annoyance may impair the acceptability of hormonal contraception or--through a suggested risk to the patient--even enforce discontinuation of medication. The significance of quite a number of alterations in biochemical and metabolic parameters cannot yet be fully elucidated. The author offers a summary of the principal side-effects of present-day hormonal contraceptives. PMID:7025479

Carol, W; Göretzlehner, G; Klinger, G

1981-04-15

358

Luteinizing hormone and human chorionic gonadotropin: distinguishing unique physiologic roles  

PubMed Central

Luteinizing hormone (LH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) are integral components of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis, which controls sexual maturation and functionality. In the absence of signaling through their shared receptor, fetal sexual differentiation and post-natal development cannot proceed normally. Although they share a high degree of homology, the physiologic roles of these hormones are unique, governed by differences in expression pattern, biopotency and regulation. Whereas LH is a key regulator of gonadal steroidogenesis and ovulation, hCG is predominantly active in pregnancy and fetal development. Emerging evidence has revealed endogenous functions not previously ascribed to hCG, including participation in ovulation and fertilization, implantation, placentation and other activities in support of successful pregnancy. Spontaneous and induced mutations in LH, hCG and their mutual receptor have contributed substantially to our understanding of reproductive development and function. The lack of naturally occurring, functionally significant mutations in the ?-subunit of hCG reinforce its putative role in establishment of pregnancy. Rescue of reproductive abnormalities resulting from aberrant gonadotropin signaling is possible in certain clinical contexts, depending on the nature of the underlying defect. By understanding the physiologic roles of LH and hCG in normal and pathologic states, we may better harness their diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic potential. PMID:24283620

Choi, Janet

2014-01-01

359

Number of sexual partners and sexual assertiveness predict sexual victimization: do more partners equal more risk?  

PubMed

In previous studies, number of sexual partners and sexual assertiveness were examined as independent risk factors for sexual victimization among college women. Using a sample of 335 college women, this study examined the interaction of number of sexual partners and sexual assertiveness on verbal sexual coercion and rape. Approximately 32% of the sample reported unwanted sexual intercourse, 6.9% (n = 23) experienced verbal sexual coercion, 17.9% (n = 60) experienced rape, and 7.2% (n = 24) experienced both. As number of sexual partners increased, instances of verbal sexual coercion increased for women low in relational sexual assertiveness but not for women high in relational sexual assertiveness. A similar relationship was not found for rape. Among women who experienced both verbal sexual coercion and rape, increases in number of partners in the context of low refusal and relational assertiveness were associated with increases in verbal sexual coercion and rape. Findings suggest sexual assertiveness is related to fewer experiences of sexual coercion. PMID:22288095

Walker, Dave P; Messman-Moore, Terri L; Ward, Rose Marie

2011-01-01

360

Sexual Behavior, Sexual Knowledge, and Sexual Attitudes of Emerging Adult Women: Implications for Working with Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to examine the sexual behavior of emerging adult women in relation to their sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes, and perceptions of their parents' sexual attitudes; and second, to discuss the implications of this research in working with young adult women. Three hundred and sixty-four college-age women…

Byno, Lucy H.; Mullis, Ronald L.; Mullis, Ann K.

2009-01-01

361

ORIGINAL PAPER Sexual Self-Schemas, Sexual Dysfunction, and the Sexual Responses  

E-print Network

with a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse Alessandra H. Rellini · Cindy M. Meston Received: 30 June 2009 / Revised access at Springerlink.com Abstract Accumulating evidence points to the mediating effects of sexual self-schemas on the sexual difficulties of women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The following study adds

Meston, Cindy

362

Thyroid hormone receptors and resistance to thyroid hormone disorders.  

PubMed

Thyroid hormone action is predominantly mediated by thyroid hormone receptors (THRs), which are encoded by the thyroid hormone receptor ? (THRA) and thyroid hormone receptor ? (THRB) genes. Patients with mutations in THRB present with resistance to thyroid hormone ? (RTH?), which is a disorder characterized by elevated levels of thyroid hormone, normal or elevated levels of TSH and goitre. Mechanistic insights about the contributions of THR? to various processes, including colour vision, development of the cochlea and the cerebellum, and normal functioning of the adult liver and heart, have been obtained by either introducing human THRB mutations into mice or by deletion of the mouse Thrb gene. The introduction of the same mutations that mimic human THR? alterations into the mouse Thra and Thrb genes resulted in distinct phenotypes, which suggests that THRA and THRB might have non-overlapping functions in human physiology. These studies also suggested that THRA mutations might not be lethal. Seven patients with mutations in THR? have since been described. These patients have RTH? and presented with major abnormalities in growth and gastrointestinal function. The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in these individuals is minimally affected, which suggests that the central T3 feedback loop is not impaired in patients with RTH?, in stark contrast to patients with RTH?. PMID:25135573

Ortiga-Carvalho, Tânia M; Sidhaye, Aniket R; Wondisford, Fredric E

2014-10-01

363

Theories of Sexual Orientation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results indicated homosexuals, heterosexuals, and bisexuals did not differ within each sex on measures of masculinity and femininity. Strong support was obtained for the hypothesis that sexual orientation relates primarily to erotic fantasy orientation. (Author/DB)

Storms, Michael D.

1980-01-01

364

Child Sexual Abuse  

MedlinePLUS

... the child will develop serious problems as an adult. For additional information see Facts for Families : #4 The Depressed Child #5 Child Abuse #10 Teen Suicide #28 Responding to Child Sexual Abuse #62 Talking ...

365

Evolutionary biology Sexual ornamentation  

E-print Network

range of bacterial species [10]. Sperm protection via antibacterial substances would maintain maleEvolutionary biology Sexual ornamentation reflects antibacterial activity of ejaculates in mallards the antibacterial activity of semen from mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and tested whether the bactericidal

Richner, Heinz

366

Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson describes how meiosis makes sexual reproduction possible. Specifically, meiosis produces haploid cells and allows for genetic variation. Key terms in this lesson are hyperlinked so students can easily find definitions to new words.

367

Sexuality After Breast Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... breast cancer treatment Emotional aspects of breast cancer Body image after breast cancer treatment Sexuality after breast cancer ... treatment for breast cancer stops working Previous Topic Body image after breast cancer treatment Next Topic Pregnancy after ...

368

Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility  

MedlinePLUS

... common type of sexual problem in men is erectile dysfunction, which is when your penis does not become or stay firm. Many medical conditions can cause erectile dysfunction: high blood pressure, diabetes, blood vessel diseases, surgery ...

369

Sexuality and Dementia  

MedlinePLUS

... A + A You are here Home Sexuality and Dementia Printer-friendly version Coping with Changes in Your ... said Jerry, who cared for his wife with dementia. At a recent conference of the Caregiver Resource ...

370

Sexual Problems in Men  

MedlinePLUS

Many men have sexual problems. They become more common as men age. Problems can include Erectile dysfunction Reduced or lost interest in sex Problems with ejaculation Low testosterone Stress, illness, medicines, or emotional problems may also ...

371

Sexual Health and Reproduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity provides questions and Web sites to guide student investigation of birth control methods, fetal development, risks of alcohol and smoking during pregnancy, changes during puberty, and HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases.

Waldron, Ingrid

372

Sexuality and Down Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... to decision-making, cultural norms, peer pressures, relationships, social skills and opportunities. Positioning sexuality within the context of community life requires the development of personal values and adult responsibilities. An ideal curriculum will ensure that individuals with ...

373

Am I Sexually Normal?  

MedlinePLUS

... The problem with these familiar sources of sexual education is that comparisons can sometimes lead to feelings of inadequacy, even if you are otherwise satisfied with your sex life. You start to wonder if you are ...

374

Sexual abuse and sexual risk behaviors of minority women with sexually transmitted diseases.  

PubMed

The relationship between sexual abuse and sexually transmitted disease (STD) represents an important and underinvestigated context of domestic violence. This study examined the association between sexual abuse, sexual risk behaviors, and risk for reinfection and HIV among minority women with STD. Mexican American and African American women (n = 617) with active STD entered a randomized study of behavioral intervention to reduce STD recurrence. Each underwent questioning at entry regarding sexual abuse and sexual risk behaviors. Comparisons of these behaviors using chi-square, t tests, and logistic regression were made by history of sexual abuse. Sexually abused women were more likely to have lower incomes, earlier coitus, STD history, currently abusive partners, new sex partners, anal sex, and bleeding with sex, placing them at increased risk for STD reinfection and HIV. Due to this association with sexual risk behavior, assessment for sexual abuse is essential in programs focusing on STD/HIV prevention. PMID:11291429

Champion, J D; Shain, R N; Piper, J; Perdue, S T

2001-04-01

375

Multidimensional characterization of sexual minority adolescents' sexual safety strategies.  

PubMed

Young adults have high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sexual minority youths' risk for STIs, including HIV, is as high as or higher than sexual majority peers'. Sexual safety, while often treated as a single behavior such as condom use, can be best conceptualized as the result of multiple factors. We used latent class analysis to identify profiles based on ever-used sexual safety strategies and lifetime number of partners among 425 self-identified LGBTQ youth aged 14-19. Data collection took place anonymously online. We identified four specific subgroup profiles for males and three for females, with each subgroup representing a different level and type of sexual safety. Profiles differed from each other in terms of age and outness for males, and in outness, personal homonegativity, and amount of education received about sexual/romantic relationships for females. Youths' sexual safety profiles have practice implications for sexuality educators, health care professionals, and parents. PMID:24011111

Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J; Wells, Elizabeth A

2013-10-01

376

Multidimensional Characterization of Sexual Minority Adolescents' Sexual Safety Strategies  

PubMed Central

Young adults have high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sexual minority youths’ risk for STIs, including HIV, is as high as or higher than sexual majority peers’. Sexual safety, while often treated as a single behavior such as condom use, can be best conceptualized as the result of multiple factors. We used latent class analysis to identify profiles based on ever-used sexual safety strategies and lifetime number of partners among 425 self-identified LGBTQ youth aged 14-19. Data collection took place anonymously online. We identified four specific subgroup profiles for males and three for females, with each subgroup representing a different level and type of sexual safety. Profiles differed from each other in terms of age and outness for males, and in outness, personal homonegativity, and amount of education received about sexual/romantic relationships for females. Youths’ sexual safety profiles have practice implications for sexuality educators, health care professionals, and parents. PMID:24011111

Masters, N. Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Morrison, Diane M.; Hoppe, Marilyn J.; Wells, Elizabeth A.

2013-01-01

377

After breast cancer: sexual functioning of sexual minority survivors.  

PubMed

Research on sexual difficulties after cancer has neglected sexual minority women (SMW); for example, lesbian and bisexual women. Clinicians treating these women are therefore at a disadvantage as they lack information about sexual problems in this population. This study tested the hypothesis that SMW with breast cancer have poorer sexual function than SMW without breast cancer, distinguishing partnered from unpartnered women. Using convenience sample recruitment, we conducted a case-control study to compare survivors of breast cancers who are SMW, in other words, cases to controls, that is, SMW without cancer. Anonymous survey data were collected from 85 cases after they had completed active cancer treatment and 85 age- and partner-status matched controls with no history of any cancer. Participants' self-reported sexual frequency and sexual function measured by the Female Sexual Function Index were evaluated. Cases and controls did not differ in risk of sexual dysfunction or the level of overall sexual functioning; however, cases had lower sexual frequency and scored lower on desire and ability to reach orgasm, and higher on pain compared to controls. Results inform clinicians about sexual minority survivors' sexual domains affected by cancer. When discussing sexual problems and therapeutic options, sexual orientation should be ascertained. PMID:23730713

Boehmer, Ulrike; Ozonoff, Al; Timm, Alison; Winter, Michael; Potter, Jennifer

2014-01-01

378

Neural Hormonal Regulation of Exocrine Pancreatic Secretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exocrine pancreatic secretion is regulated by hormone-hormonal and neural-hormonal interactions involving several regulatory peptides and neurotransmitter from the gut, the pancreas and the vagus nerve. The roles of the gastrointestinal peptides including secretin, CCK, neurotensin, motilin, PYY and pancreatic islet hormones including insulin, pancreatic polypeptide and somatostatin have been established. Interactions among secretin, CCK and neurotensin produce synergistic stimulatory effect.

William Y. Chey; Ta-min Chang

2001-01-01

379

Gender and Sexual Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hypotheses are evaluated in thisinvestigation of gender differences in the attitudinaland behavioral correlates of sexual risk. The“difference in magnitude” hypothesispredicts that the same factors are implicated for women and men butdifferences occur in the strength of correlates.Alternatively, women may engage in sexual risk fordifferent reasons than do men, leading to a“difference in pattern” hypothesis. We compared these possibilitieswith a

Nancy J. Bell; Keri K. O'Neal; Du Feng; Carol J. Schoenrock

1999-01-01

380

Sexual Dysfunction Following Vulvectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. This is a pilot study to evaluate sexual dysfunction in women after vulvectomy.Methods. An 88-question survey was used to assess body image and the DSM IV criteria for sexual dysfunction on women who had undergone vulvectomy.Results. Forty-seven women agreed to participate in the study and 41 women (87%) returned the survey. There was a significant alteration of body image

Michael S. Green; R. Wendel Naumann; Mollie Elliot; James B. Hall; Robert V. Higgins; Jared H. Grigsby

2000-01-01

381

Factors Mediating the Effects of Childhood Sexual Abuse on Risky Sexual Behavior Among College Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

We surveyed 157 college women regarding sexual abuse, age at first intercourse, reactions to first intercourse, sexual attitudes, and sexual risk behavior outcomes to clarify the relationship between early sexual experiences and risky sexual behavior. Women who had been sexually abused in childhood reported greater numbers of lifetime sexual partners. This relationship was partially explained by adolescent\\/adult sexual abuse, age

Mary E. Randolph; Katie E. Mosack

2006-01-01

382

The Sexual Domain of Identity: Sexual Statuses of Identity in Relation to Psychosocial Sexual Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual identity has been substantially underinvestigated relative to other aspects of identity. The purpose of this study was to document the relationship between sexual psychosocial maturity, positive sexual self-concepts, and effective sexual decision-making\\/coping styles with the identity processes that college students choose to use in defining their sexual self. Participants in the study were 275 undergraduate male and female students

Sally L. Archer; Jeremy A. Grey

2009-01-01

383

Side Effects of Hormone Therapy  

MedlinePLUS

... PCF Spotlight Glossary African American Men Living with Prostate Cancer Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects Urinary ... to evaluate its use in men with advanced prostate cancer. If the approach proves to be as effective ...

384

[Hormones and mammographic breast density].  

PubMed

Breast constitutional density may be altered and increased (acquired density) by hormonal interventions such as hormone replacement therapy (HRT). The effects of endogenous (steroids, prolactin, insulin-like factors...) and exogenous (HRT, levonorgestrel IUD, tibolone, tamoxifen, SERMs) hormones will be reviewed. Continuous combined estrogen-progestin preparations are most likely to cause an increase in density. Estrogen alone and tibolone are less likely to cause an increase in density. The sensitivity and specificity of mammography are decreased, with increased risk of interval carcinoma and rate of short interval follow-up from false positive results. The issue with regards to interruption of the hormonal therapy prior to mammography, and the duration of the interruption, are discussed. PMID:18772804

Boisserie-Lacroix, M; Lebiez-Michel, N; Cavagni, P; Bentolila, J; Laumonier, H; Bouzgarrou, M; Trillaud, H

2008-09-01

385

PLANT SCIENCE: Nodules and Hormones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. A hormone-signaling pathway is crucial to the ability of certain plants to form nodules when stimulated by nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

Giles E. D. Oldroyd (John Innes Centre;Department of Disease and Stress Biology)

2007-01-05

386

Network Identification of Hormonal Regulation  

PubMed Central

Relations among hormone serum concentrations are complex and depend on various factors, including gender, age, body mass index, diurnal rhythms and secretion stochastics. Therefore, endocrine deviations from healthy homeostasis are not easily detected or understood. A generic method is presented for detecting regulatory relations between hormones. This is demonstrated with a cohort of obese women, who underwent blood sampling at 10 minute intervals for 24-hours. The cohort was treated with bromocriptine in an attempt to clarify how hormone relations change by treatment. The detected regulatory relations are summarized in a network graph and treatment-induced changes in the relations are determined. The proposed method identifies many relations, including well-known ones. Ultimately, the method provides ways to improve the description and understanding of normal hormonal relations and deviations caused by disease or treatment. PMID:24852517

Vis, Daniel J.; Westerhuis, Johan A.; Hoefsloot, Huub C. J.; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; van der Greef, Jan

2014-01-01

387

Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer  

Cancer.gov

A fact sheet that describes hormone therapy (including antiestrogens, LH-RH agonists, aromatase inhibitors, and SERMs) and its role in preventing and treating breast cancer. Includes information about possible side effects.

388

Biodegradation of Estrogenic Steroidal Hormones  

E-print Network

of antibiotics on the hormone degradation was investigated in Sequencing Batch Reactors (SBRs). No significant difference was detected for the removal efficiency of target compounds in the SBRs in presence or absence of antibiotics (oxytetracycline...

Kim, Sang Hyun

2011-10-21

389

EDU-Snippets: Hormonally Yours  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

EDU-Snippets is a column designed to let the members of HAPS, share personal or institutional educational experiences. This issues focuses on the Endocrine System and the many different hormonal ideas being presented online and in various educational settings.

PhD Richard Faircloth (Anne Arundel Community College Dept. of Biology)

2008-04-01

390

The sexually active teenager.  

PubMed

This discussion of the sexually active teenager provides a statistical analysis of sexual behaviors and reviews developmental issues, contraceptive usage, adolescent pregnancy and its associated problems, and sex education. Major changes have occurred over the past 2 decades in sexual mores, contraceptive technology, the acceptance of single parent families, and the availability of induced abortion. In the US adolescent pregnancy and epidemic venereal disease have become major child health problems. It is important that the pediatrician, family practitioner, nurse practitioner, and mental health professional are aware of the magnitude of these problems and their potential areas for intervention. Various epidemiological studies of sexual behavior have documented an increase in the number of sexually active adolescents over the last decade. In a survey of metropolitan adolescents, Zelnik and Kantner found that the reported sexual activity among 15-19 years old adolescent girls increased from 30% in 1971 to 50% in 1979. Among never married white teenagers in this age group, statistics from 1971 indicated that 23% were sexually experienced, and this incidence increased to 42% in 1979. Much less is known about the sexual behavior of younger adolesents in the 11-14 year old range. The increased number of adolescents involved in premarital intercourse, coupled with the earlier age of menarche and delayed marriage, has increased the risk of premarital pregnancies. The number of adolescents between ages 15-19 experiencing a premarital pregnancy has increased significantly from 8.5% in 1971 to 16.2% in 1979, the most notable increase occurring among white teenagers. Among sexually experienced 15-19 years olds, 32.5% have experienced a premarital pregnancy. Sexual behavior among young adolescents is influenced by several variables, including maturation, personal values about premarital sex, inclination, and opportunity. There is an increasing tendency for adolescents to view sexual behavior as a matter of personal choice rather than a morality issue. Adolescents in all stages of development may delay obtaining adequate contraception. Denial of fertility is a common theme in early as well as late adolescence. The consistency and responsibility required for effective contraceptive use is not always compatible with the stage of adolescent development in which they have chosen to become sexually active. Use of effective contraception is often related to increasing sexual activity, increasing closeness of a relationship, a pregnancy scare because of a late or missing period, the positive influence of friends and family members or physicians, and/or the actual discovery of a contraceptive program. For adolescents access to contraceptives has been problematic and prescription contraception is frequently discontinued with continued sexual activity. Feelings of despair, worthlessness, and chronic school failure appear to be common factors among adolescents who choose to carry a pregnancy to term. Sex education courses should facilitate decision making about responsible sexual behavior. PMID:6833503

Emans, S J

1983-03-01

391

UCSC Policy on Sexual Assault University of California Policy on Sexual Harassment  

E-print Network

UCSC Policy on Sexual Assault University of California Policy on Sexual Harassment and Procedures for Reporting Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault December 1994 · Amended January 2005 · Amended August 2011 ...............................................................1 I. UCSC Policy on Sexual Assault

Lee, Herbie

392

The undescended testis. Hormonal and surgical management.  

PubMed

Cryptorchidism is the most common disorder of sexual differentiation in males, with an incidence of 3.4 per cent in the term newborn, decreasing to 0.8 per cent at 1 year of age. The mechanisms of normal testicular descent are multifactorial and include an intact hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, as well as a normal gubernaculum and epididymis. In boys with cryptorchidism, the testes demonstrate degenerative changes histologically as early as 1 to 2 years of age. Both testes may be affected, even with a unilateral undescended testis. The most important long-term complications of cryptorchidism include infertility and testicular cancer. The risk of malignancy is 10 to 40 times higher in men with cryptorchidism than in normal men and is highest in men who have had an intra-abdominal testis and in certain intersex conditions. Orchiopexy does not appear to lessen this risk. In clinical trials in the United States, hormonal therapy with hCG or GnRH has not been effective in causing testicular descent; therefore, orchiopexy remains standard treatment. However, hCG is recommended if the clinician suspects that a testis is retractile. Orchiopexy should be performed between 12 and 18 months of age to prevent the degenerative changes that are demonstrable by 2 years. PMID:2902694

Elder, J S

1988-10-01

393

Growth hormone and aging: A challenging controversy  

PubMed Central

Although advanced age or symptoms of aging are not among approved indications for growth hormone (GH) therapy, recombinant human GH (rhGH) and various GH-related products are aggressively promoted as anti-aging therapies. Well-controlled studies of the effects of rhGH treatment in endocrinologically normal elderly subjects report some improvements in body composition and a number of undesirable side effects in sharp contrast to major benefits of GH therapy in patients with GH deficiency. Controversies surrounding the potential utility of GH in treatment of a geriatric patient are fueled by increasing evidence linking GH and cancer and by remarkably increased lifespan of GH-resistant and GH-deficient mice. Conservation of cellular signaling mechanisms that influence aging in organisms ranging from worms to mammals suggests that at least some of the results obtained in mutant mice are applicable to the human. We suggest that the normal, physiological functions of GH in promoting growth, sexual maturation and fecundity involve significant costs in terms of aging and life expectancy. Natural decline in GH levels during aging likely contributes to concomitant alterations in body composition and vigor but also may be offering important protection from cancer and other age-associated diseases. PMID:19281058

Bartke, Andrzej

2008-01-01

394

Amphetamines, growth hormone and narcolepsy.  

PubMed Central

1 Plasma amphetamine and growth hormone levels have been measured in eight normal and twenty-six narcoleptic subjects following a single dose of (+)-amphetamine (20 mg) or (-)-amphetamine (20 mg) by mouth. 2 Peak plasma levels and the shape of the plasma amphetamine-time curve were similar with both isomers in normal and narcoleptic subjects. 3 In most normal subjects both (+)-and (-)-amphetamine (20 mg) caused an increase in the plasma concentration of growth hormone. The two isomers were approximately equipotent in this respect. Neither (+)- nor (-)-amphetamine (20 mg) caused an increase in plasma growth hormone concentration in narcoleptics. 4 Following amphetamine (30 mg), two of six narcoleptic subjects had an increase in plasma growth hormone concentration. 5 Levodopa (250 mg) with (-)-alpha-methyldopa hydrazine 25 mg (Sinemet) by mouth, caused a rise in plasma growth hormone concentration in most normal subjects. The magnitude of the Sinemet-induced rise in plasma growth hormone concentration in narcoleptics was less than in normal subjects. PMID:901702

Parkes, J D; Debono, A G; Jenner, P; Walters, J

1977-01-01

395

Sex hormones regulate ABR latency.  

PubMed

In an effort to characterize more completely the influence of sex hormones on auditory brainstem response (ABR) latency, we evaluated the ABRs of normal male and female subjects and women with previously diagnosed endocrinologic syndromes. We describe ABR latency results from the following subjects: five normal males, nine normally cycling females on no hormonal therapy, nine females using oral contraceptive pills, five females with premature ovarian failure (POF) undergoing cyclic estrogen-progesterone replacement therapy, and five hyperandrogenized females with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) treated with the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, Lupron depot, to suppress ovarian steroid production. All subjects were between 23 and 40 years of age. Serum levels of estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, prolactic, and gonadotropins (lutienizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone) were measured to document the hormonal status of each of the subjects at the time of the ABR evaluation. Normal cycling females and females with POF underwent ABR testing during different phases of the same cycle. Male subjects and females using birth control pills were studied four times in the same month at 1-week intervals. Females with PCOD were also studied four times; baseline and then at 2-week intervals after the initiation of Lupron depot therapy. Increased ABR wave V peak latencies were found to be associated with elevated levels of estrogen or testosterone. We have previously reported a lengthening of ABR wave V peak latencies coincident with peak estrogen levels during the female cycle.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8290301

Elkind-Hirsch, K E; Wallace, E; Malinak, L R; Jerger, J J

1994-01-01

396

Management of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in women: current and emerging therapies  

PubMed Central

Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is a common multifactorial condition which is characterized by a decrease in sexual desire that causes marked personal distress and/or interpersonal difficulty. The general idea that HSDD is a sexual dysfunction difficult to treat is due to the large number of potential causes and contributing factors. Indeed, a balanced approach comprising both biological and psycho-relational factors is mandatory for accurate diagnosis and tailored management in clinical practice. There are currently no approved pharmacological treatments for premenopausal women with HSDD, while transdermal testosterone is approved in Europe for postmenopausal women who experience HSDD as a result of a bilateral oophorectomy. Even though the role of sex hormones in modulating the sexual response during the entire reproductive life span of women is crucial, a better understanding of the neurobiological basis of sexual desire supports the idea that selective psychoactive agents may be proposed as nonhormonal treatments to restore the balance between excitatory and inhibitory stimuli leading to a normal sexual response cycle. We conclude that the ideal clinical approach to HSDD remains to be established in term of efficacy and safety, and further research is needed to develop specific hormonal and nonhormonal pharmacotherapies for individualized care in women. PMID:21072309

Nappi, Rossella E; Martini, Ellis; Terreno, Erica; Albani, Francesca; Santamaria, Valentina; Tonani, Silvia; Chiovato, Luca; Polatti, Franco

2010-01-01

397

Sex Differences and the Impact of Steroid Hormones on the Developing Human Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the hormonal effects of puberty on the anatomy of the developing human brain. In a voxel-based morphometry study, sex-related differences in gray matter (GM) volume were examined in 46 subjects aged 8--15 years. Males had larger GM volumes in the left amygdala, whereas females had larger right striatal and bilateral hippocampal GM volumes than males. Sexually

Susanne Neufang; Karsten Specht; Markus Hausmann

2009-01-01

398

Blue whale earplug reveals lifetime contaminant exposure and hormone profiles.  

PubMed

Lifetime contaminant and hormonal profiles have been reconstructed for an individual male blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus, Linnaeus 1758) using the earplug as a natural aging matrix that is also capable of archiving and preserving lipophilic compounds. These unprecedented lifetime profiles (i.e., birth to death) were reconstructed with a 6-mo resolution for a wide range of analytes including cortisol (stress hormone), testosterone (developmental hormone), organic contaminants (e.g., pesticides and flame retardants), and mercury. Cortisol lifetime profiles revealed a doubling of cortisol levels over baseline. Testosterone profiles suggest this male blue whale reached sexual maturity at approximately 10 y of age, which corresponds well with and improves on previous estimates. Early periods of the reconstructed contaminant profiles for pesticides (such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes and chlordanes), polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers demonstrate significant maternal transfer occurred at 0-12 mo. The total lifetime organic contaminant burden measured between the earplug (sum of contaminants in laminae layers) and blubber samples from the same organism were similar. Total mercury profiles revealed reduced maternal transfer and two distinct pulse events compared with organic contaminants. The use of a whale earplug to reconstruct lifetime chemical profiles will allow for a more comprehensive examination of stress, development, and contaminant exposure, as well as improve the assessment of contaminant use/emission, environmental noise, ship traffic, and climate change on these important marine sentinels. PMID:24043814

Trumble, Stephen J; Robinson, Eleanor M; Berman-Kowalewski, Michelle; Potter, Charles W; Usenko, Sascha

2013-10-15

399

Blue whale earplug reveals lifetime contaminant exposure and hormone profiles  

PubMed Central

Lifetime contaminant and hormonal profiles have been reconstructed for an individual male blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus, Linnaeus 1758) using the earplug as a natural aging matrix that is also capable of archiving and preserving lipophilic compounds. These unprecedented lifetime profiles (i.e., birth to death) were reconstructed with a 6-mo resolution for a wide range of analytes including cortisol (stress hormone), testosterone (developmental hormone), organic contaminants (e.g., pesticides and flame retardants), and mercury. Cortisol lifetime profiles revealed a doubling of cortisol levels over baseline. Testosterone profiles suggest this male blue whale reached sexual maturity at approximately 10 y of age, which corresponds well with and improves on previous estimates. Early periods of the reconstructed contaminant profiles for pesticides (such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes and chlordanes), polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers demonstrate significant maternal transfer occurred at 0–12 mo. The total lifetime organic contaminant burden measured between the earplug (sum of contaminants in laminae layers) and blubber samples from the same organism were similar. Total mercury profiles revealed reduced maternal transfer and two distinct pulse events compared with organic contaminants. The use of a whale earplug to reconstruct lifetime chemical profiles will allow for a more comprehensive examination of stress, development, and contaminant exposure, as well as improve the assessment of contaminant use/emission, environmental noise, ship traffic, and climate change on these important marine sentinels. PMID:24043814

Trumble, Stephen J.; Robinson, Eleanor M.; Berman-Kowalewski, Michelle; Potter, Charles W.; Usenko, Sascha

2013-01-01

400

Sex steroids, growth hormone, leptin and the pubertal growth spurt.  

PubMed

A normal rate for the linear growth of a child or adolescent is a strong statement for the good general health of that child. Normal growth during childhood is primarily dependent on adequate nutrition, an adequate psychosocial environment, the absence of disease and adequate amounts thyroid hormone and growth hormone (and its downstream product, IGF-1). At adolescence there is the reawakening of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and its interaction with the GH/IGF-1 axis to subserve the pubertal growth spurt. The fat tissue-derived hormone, leptin and its receptor are likely involved in at least two aspects of pubertal development - sexual development itself and the alterations in body composition including the regional distribution of fat and bone mineralization. During the prepubertal years the male female differences in body composition are quite modest, but change remarkably during pubertal development with boys showing a relative decrement in fat percentage and girls a marked increase in concert with rising levels of circulating leptin. The boys show a much greater increase in lean body tissue and the relative proportions of water, muscle and bone. These may be observed as the differential growth of the shoulders and hips. The net effect of these pubertal changes is that the young adult woman has approximately 25% body fat in the 'gynoid' distribution while the male has much more muscle, especially in the shoulders and upper body but only approximately 13% body fat. PMID:19955758

Rogol, Alan D

2010-01-01

401

Thyroid hormone: the modulator of erectile function in the rabbit.  

PubMed

The possible role of thyroid hormones in the Nitric Oxide (NO)-mediated response to sexual stimulation, and on prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) and Sildenafil in the treatment of erectile dysfunction was investigated using the corpus cavernosum of the New Zealand rabbit animal model. The parameters studied were penile erection monitored as contractile force of the erectile tissue, sperm count and motility; in parallel with the haematocrit, red cell count or rheology, Heart Rate (HR), Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP), Thyroid Stimulating Hormones (TSH) and Thyroxine levels. Hypothyroidism or thyroidectomy was found to cause depletion of Endothelium Derived Relaxant Factor (EDRF) thereby causing very feeble contraction of the cavernosum muscle, in both prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) and sildenafil, oligospermia and less than 45 % motile sperms. Thyroxine treatment produced contraction proportionate to the concentrations of PGE1 and Sildenafil; providing evidence that the erectogenic actions of both PGE1 and Sildenafil are possible only in the presence of adequate thyroid hormone level. PMID:17242734

Amadi, K; Sabo, M A; Sagay, A S

2006-01-01

402

Sex hormones and mental rotation: an intensive longitudinal investigation.  

PubMed

The present study used an intensive longitudinal design to examine whether mental rotation performance varies according to a monthly cycle in both males and females and whether these variations are related to variations in progesterone, estradiol, and testosterone levels. We collected reaction time and accuracy data for 10 males and seven females each workday over eight weeks using 136 pairs of mental rotation stimuli/day, and measured sexual hormones concentrations in the saliva twice a week. A mixed linear model statistical analysis revealed that all females and seven males showed significant cycle effects in mental rotation performance. The female cycle showed an amplitude that was twice as large compared with the amplitude found in males. For males and females, estradiol and testosterone were significantly linearly and quadratically related to interindividual variation in performance at the beginning of the study (progesterone was linearly related to performance for females). The association between testosterone and performance differed across sexes: for males, it had an inverse U-shape, for females it was U-shaped. Towards the end of the study, none of the hormones were significantly related to performance anymore. Thus, the relationship between hormones and mental rotation performance disappeared with repeated testing. Only estradiol levels were significantly elevated at the lowest point of the cycle in mental rotation performance in females. In conclusion, in this intensive longitudinal study spanning two months, a monthly cycle in mental rotation performance was found among both males and females, with a larger cycle's amplitude for females. PMID:23261859

Courvoisier, Delphine S; Renaud, Olivier; Geiser, Christian; Paschke, Kerstin; Gaudy, Kevin; Jordan, Kirsten

2013-02-01

403

Education for sexuality.  

PubMed

Sex education provides a means to reduce the growing incidence of sexual abuse and of sexually transmitted diseases. Knowledge, which differs from permission, may protect. Sex education needs to provide factual information about anatomy and physiology and sexual development and responses. Further, it must guide young people towards healthy attitudes that develop concern and respect for others. This should enable them to make sound decisions about sexual behavior based on both knowledge and understanding of their own sexual identity and interpersonal relationships. The recent research shows that teenagers exposed to sex education are no more likely to engage in sexual intercourse than are other adolescents, and those who become sexually active are more likely to use a contraceptive method at 1st intercourse and are slightly less likely to experience premarital pregnancies. The nonuse of contraceptives is related to ignorance, lack of awareness of the consequences of sexual activity, and inaccessibility of suitable services. Consequently, young people need help to learn about the risks of pregnancy, how to avoid unwanted pregnancy, and where to go for counseling and services before they become sexually active. The provision of contraceptives must be made to meet the needs of adolescents. Formal sex education should be given in schools only with parental knowledge and cooperation. Youth leaders can influence young people positively by teaching about health and hygiene and promoting responsible attitudes toward sex and religion. Doctors and nurses have a unique opportunity to provide counseling throughout their patients' lives. The Department of Health (Capetown, South Africa) has appointed 445 nurses who oversee the youth program. They give sex education at schools, teaching colleges, youth camps, and at clinics. They also provide individual and group counseling for never pregnant, pregnant, and parent adolescents and their parents and partners at 8 youth health centers and existing family planning clinics. The Family Planning Association provides sex education at schools and teaching colleges and for parent teachers association groups and youth groups as well as church leaders and business executives. It is essential to promote honest communication with regard to sexuality and reproductive health care. PMID:3380143

Sapire, K E

1988-03-01

404

Sexual coercion and the misperception of sexual intent?  

PubMed Central

Misperceiving a woman’s platonic interest as sexual interest has been implicated in a sexual bargaining process that leads to sexual coercion. This paper provides a comprehensive review of sexual misperception, including gender differences in perception of women’s sexual intent, the relationship between sexual coercion and misperception, and situational factors that increase the risk that sexual misperception will occur. Compared to women, men consistently perceive a greater degree of sexual intent in women’s behavior. However, there is evidence to suggest that this gender effect may be driven largely by a sub-group of men who are particularly prone to perceive sexual intent in women’s behavior, such as sexually coercive men and men who endorse sex-role stereotypes. Situational factors, such as alcohol use by the man or woman, provocative clothing, and dating behaviors (e.g., initiating the date or making eye contact), are all associated with increased estimates of women’s sexual interest. We also critique the current measurement strategies and introduce a model of perception that more closely maps on to important theoretical questions in this area. A clearer understanding of sexual perception errors and the etiology of these errors may serve to guide sexual-assault prevention programs toward more effective strategies. PMID:17462798

Farris, Coreen; Treat, Teresa A.; Viken, Richard J.; McFall, Richard M.

2010-01-01

405

Response to Growth Hormone Treatment in Isolated Growth Hormone Deficiency versus Multiple Pituitary Hormone Deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Growth hormone (GH) therapy successfully increases height prognosis in children with GH deficiency (GHD); however, adult height data are still limited. Aim: This study investigated near-adult height (NAH) in patients with idiopathic GHD (i.e. those with a GH peak <10 ?g\\/l with no organic pathology) divided into two groups: isolated GHD and multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (MPHD). Methods: All

F. Darendeliler; A. Lindberg; P. Wilton

2011-01-01

406

Memories, fantasies and sexual victimization  

E-print Network

related to sexual abuse than would non-abused individuals. Freud's Views of Child Sexual Abuse Early in his career, Sigmund Freud addressed the memories of childhood sexual experiences that his clients had related to him. He believed them to be true... related to sexual abuse than would non-abused individuals. Freud's Views of Child Sexual Abuse Early in his career, Sigmund Freud addressed the memories of childhood sexual experiences that his clients had related to him. He believed them to be true...

Cockroft, Ronald Duane

2012-06-07

407

Is pedophilia a sexual orientation?  

PubMed

In this article, I address the question of whether pedophilia in men can be construed as a male sexual orientation, and the implications for thinking of it in this way for scientific research, clinical practice, and public policy. I begin by defining pedophilia and sexual orientation, and then compare pedophilia (as a potential sexual orientation with regard to age) to sexual orientations with regard to gender (heterosexuality, bisexuality, and homosexuality), on the bases of age of onset, correlations with sexual and romantic behavior, and stability over time. I conclude with comments about the potential social and legal implications of conceptualizing pedophilia as a type of sexual orientation in males. PMID:22218786

Seto, Michael C

2012-02-01

408

A prospective study on sexual function and mood in female-to-male transsexuals during testosterone administration and after sex reassignment surgery.  

PubMed

Testosterone administration in female-to-male transsexual subjects aims to develop and maintain the characteristics of the desired sex. Very little data exists on its effects on sexuality of female-to-male transsexuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate sexual function and mood of female-to-male transsexuals from their first visit, throughout testosterone administration and after sex reassignment surgery. Participants were 50 female-to-male transsexual subjects who completed questionnaires assessing sexual parameters and mood. The authors measured reproductive hormones and hematological parameters. The results suggest a positive effect of testosterone treatment on sexual function and mood in female-to-male transsexual subjects. PMID:23470169

Costantino, Antonietta; Cerpolini, Silvia; Alvisi, Stefania; Morselli, Paolo Giovanni; Venturoli, Stefano; Meriggiola, Maria Cristina

2013-01-01

409

Synergistic Induction of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone -Subunit Gene Expression by Gonadal Steroid Hormone  

E-print Network

Synergistic Induction of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone -Subunit Gene Expression by Gonadal Steroid Hormone Receptors and Smad Proteins Varykina G. Thackray and Pamela L. Mellon Departments of Reproductive by mediating steroidogenesis and gametogenesis. Gonadal ste- roid hormones influence gonadotropin production

Mellon, Pamela L.

410

25 CFR 700.561 - Sexual harassment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or rejection of sexual advances; —If the sexual conduct substantially...intimidating, hostile or offensive work environment. (c) Within...explicit coercive sexual behavior to control...engaging in sexual harassment....

2010-04-01

411

25 CFR 700.561 - Sexual harassment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...or rejection of sexual advances; —If the sexual conduct substantially...intimidating, hostile or offensive work environment. (c) Within...explicit coercive sexual behavior to control...engaging in sexual harassment....

2012-04-01

412

25 CFR 700.561 - Sexual harassment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...or rejection of sexual advances; —If the sexual conduct substantially...intimidating, hostile or offensive work environment. (c) Within...explicit coercive sexual behavior to control...engaging in sexual harassment....

2013-04-01

413

25 CFR 700.561 - Sexual harassment.  

...or rejection of sexual advances; —If the sexual conduct substantially...intimidating, hostile or offensive work environment. (c) Within...explicit coercive sexual behavior to control...engaging in sexual harassment....

2014-04-01

414

25 CFR 700.561 - Sexual harassment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...or rejection of sexual advances; —If the sexual conduct substantially...intimidating, hostile or offensive work environment. (c) Within...explicit coercive sexual behavior to control...engaging in sexual harassment....

2011-04-01

415

Sexual Desire and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI): A Sexual Desire Cutpoint for Clinical Interpretation of the FSFI  

E-print Network

Sexual Desire and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI): A Sexual Desire Cutpoint for Clinical T Introduction. A validated cutpoint for the total Female Sexual Function Index scale score exists to classify, Rosen RC, Brewer JV, Meston CM, Brotto LA, Wiegel M, and Sand M. Sexual desire and the female sexual

Meston, Cindy

416

The Impact of Sexual Orientation on Sexuality and Sexual Practices in North American Medical Students  

PubMed Central

Introduction There has been limited investigation of the sexuality and sexual dysfunction in non-heterosexual subjects by the sexual medicine community. Additional research in these populations is needed. Aims To investigate and compare sexuality and sexual function in students of varying sexual orientations. Methods An internet-based survey on sexuality was administered to medical students in North American between the months of February and July of 2008. Main Outcome Measures All subjects provided information on their ethnodemographic characteristics, sexual orientation, and sexual history. Subjects also completed a series of widely-utilized instruments for the assessment of human sexuality (International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF], Female Sexual Function Index [FSFI], Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool [PEDT], Index of Sex Life [ISL]). Results There were 2,276 completed responses to the question on sexual orientation. 13.2% of male respondents and 4.7% of female respondents reported a homosexual orientation; 2.5% of male and 5.7% of female respondents reported a bisexual orientation. Many heterosexual males and females reported same-sex sexual experiences (4% and 10%, respectively). Opposite-sex experiences were very common in the male and female homosexual population (37% and 44%, respectively). The prevalence of premature ejaculation (PEDT > 8) was similar among heterosexual and homosexual men (16% and 17%, P = 0.7, respectively). Erectile dysfunction (IIEF-EF < 26) was more common in homosexual men relative to heterosexual men (24% vs. 12%, P = 0.02). High risk for female sexual dysfunction (FSFI < 26.55) was more common in heterosexual and bisexual women compared with lesbians (51%, 45%, and 29%, respectively, P = 0.005). Conclusion In this survey of highly educated young professionals, numerous similarities and some important differences in sexuality and sexual function were noted based on sexual orientation. It is unclear whether the dissimilarities represent differing relative prevalence of sexual problems or discrepancies in patterns of sex behavior and interpretation of the survey questions. PMID:20384941

Breyer, Benjamin N.; Smith, James F.; Eisenberg, Michael L.; Ando, Kathryn A.; Rowen, Tami S.; Shindel, Alan W.

2013-01-01

417

Hormonal changes during a prolonged tamoxifen treatment in patients with advanced breast cancer.  

PubMed

The effect of tamoxifen (TAM) on the serum levels of sexual hormones and on the sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) was investigated in 30 postmenopausal patients with advanced breast cancer. To study the 'prolactin reserve capacity' of the pituitary gland, thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) and sulpiride-induced prolactin release were measured prior to TAM treatment, then in the 2nd and 8th week of the therapy. The TRH (400 micrograms i.v.)-induced prolactin secretion was significantly suppressed by TAM after an 8-week treatment, but only in responding cases. Maximal prolactin stimulation occurred at the 15th min after TRH injection, being equal to 5,600 +/- 800 mlU/l in cancer patients, and decreasing to 2,400 +/- 150 mlU/l after 8 weeks. TAM did not suppress the sulpiride-inducable prolactin release either in responders or in nonresponders. PMID:3079899

Számel, I; Vincze, B; Hindy, I; Hermann, I; Borvendég, J; Eckhardt, S

1986-01-01

418

Sexual network position and risk of sexually transmitted infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:A population-based sexual network study was used to identify sexual network structures associated with sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk, and to evaluate the degree to which the use of network-level data furthers the understanding of STI risk.Methods:Participants (n = 655) were from the baseline and 12-month follow-up waves of a 2001–2 population-based longitudinal study of sexual networks among urban African–American

C M Fichtenberg; S Q Muth; B Brown; N S Padian; T A Glass; J M Ellen

2009-01-01

419

Sexual Offense Adjudication and Sexual Recidivism among Juvenile Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares the recidivism patterns of a cohort of 249 juvenile sexual offenders and 1,780 non-sexual offending delinquents who were released from secured custody over a two and one half year period. The prevalence of sex offenders with new sexual offense charges during the 5 year follow-up period was 6.8%, compared to 5.7% for the non-sexual offenders, a non-significant

Michael F. Caldwell

2007-01-01

420

ORIGINAL PAPER Reported Sexual Desire Predicts Men's Preferences for Sexually  

E-print Network

in Women's Faces Benedict C. Jones · Anthony C. Little · Christopher D. Watkins · Lisa L. M. Welling · Lisa investigating the relationship between sexual desire and sexual attraction have found that heterosexual women desire is a generalized energizer of sexual attraction in heterosexual women (i.e., influences women

Little, Tony

421

The Sexuality Education Challenge: Promoting Healthy Sexuality in Young People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book offers the insights and perspectives of 39 sexuality educators. The collection of essays, full of theoretical considerations and practical implications, addresses the needs of those responsible for educating young people about sexuality and examines the major issues and concerns of sexuality education within the school setting.…

Drolet, Judy C., Ed.; Clark, Kay, Ed.

422

Sexual Coercion Content in 21 Sexuality Education Curricula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined adolescent sexuality-education curricula for information on coercion (date rape, stranger rape, pressure, incest, sexual harassment, unwanted/inappropriate touch, and exploitation/victimization). Exploitation/victimization and pressure received the greatest attention. Sexual harassment was not covered in any of the curricula. Results…

Beyer, Christine E.; Ogletree, Roberta J.

1998-01-01

423

Child Sexual Behavior Inventory: Normative, Psychiatric, and Sexual Abuse Comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A normative sample of 1,114 children was contrasted with a sample of 620 sexually abused children and 577 psychiatric outpatients on the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI), a 38-item behavior checklist assessing sexual behavior in children 2 to 12 years old. The CSBI total score and each individual item differed significantly between the three groups after controlling for age, sex,

William N. Friedrich; Jennifer L. Fisher; Carrie Anne Dittner; Robert Acton; Lucy Berliner; Judy Butler; Linda Damon; W. Hobart Davies; Alison Gray; John Wright

2001-01-01

424

Association of Sexual Revictimization with Sexuality and Psychological Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the associations of sexual revictimization (experiencing sexual abuse in childhood and adulthood) in a sample of 230 African American women who are low-income. Data indicate that women who experience sexual revictimization are more at risk for emotional stress and psychological pathology than women with no history of abuse. In…

Miner, Michael H.; Flitter, Jill M. Klotz; Robinson, Beatrice E.

2006-01-01

425

Sexual Identity Development among Ethnic Sexual-Minority Male Youths.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored how ethnicity influenced sexual identity development in 139 sexual-minority males. Findings demonstrated that participants, regardless of ethnicity, experienced most identity milestones at developmentally appropriate ages, had moderately low internalized homophobia, and became romantically and sexually involved with other males…

Dube, Eric M.; Savin-Williams, Ritch C.

1999-01-01

426

Definition of Sexual Harassment and Sexual Attention Experienced.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American women holding full-time jobs provided definitions of sexual harassment somewhat narrower than those used in previous studies. While sexual attention experienced was not related to subjects' definitions, having been harassed according to one's definition appeared to influence beliefs concerning the seriousness of sexual harassment in the…

Powell, Gary N.

1983-01-01

427

Sexual Dysfunction Improved in Heroin-Dependent Men after Methadone Maintenance Treatment in Tianjin, China  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate whether methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is correlated with sexual dysfunction in heroin-dependent men and to determine the prevalence and risk factors of sexual dysfunction among men on MMT. Methods The study included a retrospective survey and a cross-sectional survey which contained interviews of 293 men who are currently engaged in MMT. The results of the two surveys were compared. For a subset of 43 participants, radioimmunoassay was additionally conducted using retrospective and prospective blood samples to test the levels of plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone. Other study evaluations were the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-15), and Self-rating Depression Scale. Results Sexual dysfunction in all five IIEF-15 domains (erectile function, orgasmic function, sexual desire, intercourse satisfaction, and overall satisfaction) was strongly associated with long-term use of heroin. A decrease in the severity of sexual dysfunction was associated with MMT initiation. Erectile dysfunction, lack of sexual desire, inability to orgasm, and lack of intercourse satisfaction were significantly correlated with increasing age of the participants. Methadone dose and duration of methadone treatment were not found to be associated with sexual dysfunction. The level of plasma testosterone significantly declined during methadone treatment, but results from multivariate analysis indicated low levels of testosterone were not the main cause of sexual dysfunction. No correlation between reported depression status and sexual function was found. Conclusions While high levels of sexual dysfunction were reported by heroin-dependent men in our study before and after MMT initiation, MMT appears to be correlated with improved sexual function in the population of the study. PMID:24520361

Zhang, Minying; Zhang, Huifang; Shi, Cynthia X.; McGoogan, Jennifer M.; Zhang, Baohua; Zhao, Linglong; Zhang, Mianzhi; Rou, Keming; Wu, Zunyou

2014-01-01

428

Recovery After Stroke: Redefining Sexuality  

MedlinePLUS

... is unlikely that a stroke will occur during sexual activity. Again, talk to your partner about this. It ... medicines. The medicines may increase your interest in sexual activity but also may have side effects that interfere ...

429

Sexual Harassment: Discrimination or Tort?  

E-print Network

distress caused by sexual harassment at work was an injuryCompensation and Sexual Harassment in the Work- place: Asexual harassment, the "conduct has the purpose or effect of unreasonably interfering with an individ- ual's work

Stromberg, Joanna

2003-01-01

430

Campus Climates for Sexual Minorities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual minorities encounter unique challenges due to their sexual orientation, gender identity, or gender expression that often prevents them from achieving their full academic potential or participating fully in the campus community. (Contains 3 tables and 2 notes.)

Rankin, Susan R.

2005-01-01

431

Sexual Harassment in the Workplace.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the literature on sexual harassment to determine the issues the problem raises, its social contexts, and the resources available to working women. Examined the implications of sexual harassment for social work practice, policy, and research. (JAC)

Maypole, Donald E.; Skaine, Rosemarie

1983-01-01

432

Sexuality Attitudes of Black Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed sexuality attitudes of black middle-class sample (N=124) concerning communication regarding sexuality information, adolescent contraception, adolescent pregnancy, nonmarital intercourse, responsibility for contraception and pregnancy, abortion, pornography, and masturbation. Results suggest that participants were well-informed, moderate,…

Timberlake, Constance A.; Carpenter, Wayne D.

1990-01-01

433

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... STDs) Share Compartir Prevention How You Can Prevent Sexually Transmitted Diseases This page includes information about STD prevention, testing, ... 4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348 Contact CDC–INFO Sexually Transmitted Diseases Diseases & Related Conditions STDs & Infertility Other STDs Archive ...

434

SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance System presents statistics and trends for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Data demonstrate details which provide information about STD morbidity in the United States, STD prevalence with subgroups and populations which are the f...

435

[Female sexuality and parenthood].  

PubMed

From the child conception to the early years of life, couples generally present less sexual activity. Parenthood constraints are a burden for the couple's relationships. Generally, persistent sexual difficulties six months after delivery, despite those generated by depression or altered health raise the question of an alteration in the quality of the couple's relationships and lack of satisfaction of the mother with her partner's involvement in family life. Numerous parameters can be implied, especially with persistent trouble of desire, such as fatigue, body image problems and libido lessening of the partner due to modifications of his status. Women who presented sexual difficulties before pregnancy remain the same. In all cases, appropriate information can avoid the intimacy's difficulties and contribute to maintain pleasure and intimacy even when vaginal penetration remains difficult. PMID:25262091

Colson, M-H

2014-10-01

436

Television and adolescent sexuality.  

PubMed

Existing studies of the sexual content of television programming and advertising and the effects of this content on adolescent viewers are reviewed. Content studies show that the frequency of sexual references have increased in the past decade and are increasingly explicit. Studies of the effects of this content, while scarce, suggest that adolescents who rely heavily on television for information about sexuality will have high standards of female beauty and will believe that premarital and extramarital intercourse with multiple partners is acceptable. They are unlikely to learn about the need for contraceptives as a form of protection against pregnancy or disease. Suggestions for future research and trends in television programming policies are explored. PMID:2307597

Brown, J D; Childers, K W; Waszak, C S

1990-01-01

437

Sexual Abuse Of Children  

PubMed Central

Increasing emphasis is being placed on the identification and management of sexual abuse in children. Family physicians have a role to play in identifying and treating these children. Some common myths about sexual abuse are that assaults are made mostly by strangers, that sexual abuse is rare, and that there's nothing wrong with sex between adults and children. Indicators in the child may be physical or behavioral. In the family, indicators include fathers with low self-esteem, poor relationships with wives, tendency to be domineering and restrictive, and mothers who are passive. Immediate and longterm intervention includes legal, protective and treatment components. The essential factors in successful intervention are belief in the child's disclosure; communication of that belief to the child; and immediate protection of the child and siblings. PMID:21286177

Herbert, Carol P.

1982-01-01

438

Conceptualizing positive adolescent sexuality development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is it possible to conceptualize adolescent sexuality in positive terms? Social control characterizes the cultural strategies\\u000a for managing both adolescence and sexuality, yet social movements have emerged in recent decades that have challenged historical\\u000a social norms and boundaries for both sexuality and adolescence. In this article, developing trends in adolescent sexual experience\\u000a (behavior, attitudes, and knowledge) are examined, as are

Stephen T. Russell

2005-01-01

439

Sexual Harassment: Identifying Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new model of the etiology of sexual harassment,the four-factor model, is presented and compared with several models of sexual harassment including the biological model, the organizational model, the sociocultural model,and the sexrole spillover model. A number of risk factors associated with sexually harassing behavior are examined within the framework of the four-factor model of sexual harassment. These include characteristics

Elizabeth A. O'Hare; William O'Donohue

1998-01-01

440

Behavioral aggressiveness in boys with sexual precocity  

PubMed Central

Background: Some boys with sexual precocity are known to have behavioral problems like increased physical and verbal aggression and school and social maladjustments. It is believed to be due to premature androgen exposure. However, it is not clear why only some develop this problem, difference in etiology could be one explanation. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess behavioral aggression in boys with sexual precocity due to different disorders. Materials and Methods: Seven children, ages three to seven years, were enrolled for this study. Two were diagnosed to have congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), three had testotoxicosis, while two had central precocious puberty. Parents of children with precocious puberty underwent the (CASP) questionnaire (children's aggression scale-parent version). Results: Testosterone levels were high in all patients. Parents denied any history of physical or verbal aggression in the two boys with CAH. Their CASP rating was 0. In contrast, the CASP ratings in the two boys with testotoxicosis and the two with precocious puberty for five domains ranged from 3.1 – 24.2, 2.6 – 8.3,1-5.6,0 – 7.1, and 0 – 1, respectively. In the present study, increased aggression was seen among all the patients with testotoxicosis and both with precocious puberty. In contrast, there were no symptoms of either increased verbal or physical aggression in either of the two patients with CAH. Conclusions: The hormonal milieu in the boys with CAH versus those with sexual precocity due to other causes differed in terms of cortisol and androgen precursors. The androgen excess in CAH children was a consequence of cortisol deficiency. It is possible that cortisol sufficiency is required for androgen-mediated behavioral effects. PMID:22629506

Kulshreshtha, Bindu; Mehta, Manju; Gupta, Nandita; Ammini, Ariachery C.

2012-01-01

441

Sexually transmitted diseases.  

PubMed

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases, remain a growing worldwide problem and public health issue. This article covers the epidemiology of STIs, the history and physical findings, screening guidelines, and the general plan to combat STIs. Prevention is discussed using the latest information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other references. Infections discussed from the standpoint of cause, epidemiology, risk factors, clinical disease, diagnosis, and treatment include gonorrhea, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, syphilis, chancroid, Herpes simplex, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale, Herpes papilloma virus, Molluscum contagiosum, and pubic lice. PMID:23958358

Markle, William; Conti, Tracey; Kad, Manjusha

2013-09-01

442

Sexual Risk-Taking in Gay Men: The Relevance of Sexual Arousability, Mood, and Sensation Seeking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examined the relationship of three aspects of personality to sexual risk-taking in gay men: (1) sexual arousability, as propensity for sexual excitation, and propensity for inhibition of sexual arousal in the face of threat (measured by the Sexual Excitation, SES, and Sexual Inhibition, SIS1, SIS2, scales); (2) the relation between negative mood and sexuality; and (3) sensation seeking.

John Bancroft; Erick Janssen; David Strong; Lori Carnes; Zoran Vukadinovic; J. Scott Long

2003-01-01

443

The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and adult male sexual dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The present study investigated the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and adult sexual dysfunction in men. In addition, the investigation compared sexually abused men and women on the characteristics of the sexual abuse.Method: Subjects were 359 men who sought sexual dysfunction treatment. Thirty men reported a history of sexual abuse. Characteristics of the sexual abuse experienced by these men

Isiaah Crawford; Joseph A. Durlak

1997-01-01

444

Sexual Abuse and Sexual Functioning in a Chronic Pelvic Pain Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual abuse, particularly childhood sexual abuse, has been linked to chronic pelvic pain and to sexual dysfunction, though the sexual functioning of survivors of sexual abuse has not been studied in a chronic pain population. Sixty-three women with chronic pelvic pain completed measures of sexual function, sexual abuse, and pain. Using an index…

Randolph, Mary E.; Reddy, Diane M.

2006-01-01

445

Know Your Rights: Title IX Prohibits Sexual Harassment1 Sexual Violence Where You Go to School  

E-print Network

that creates a hostile environment, the school must take immediate action to eliminate the sexual harassmentKnow Your Rights: Title IX Prohibits Sexual Harassment1 and Sexual Violence Where You Go to School on the basis of sex can include sexual harassment or sexual violence, such as rape, sexual assault, sexual

Logan, David

446

Sexual Assault: TOOLS FOR SAFETY  

E-print Network

Sexual Assault: TOOLS FOR SAFETY KNOWLEDGE FOR CHANGE Information=Power No Means No Learn the Truth Education Wellinformed Support FriendsUnited Sponsors: Center for the Education of Women, Sexual Assault Suggestions to Help Protect Yourself & Others n 10:15 Sexual Violence and Race: A Historical Perspective n 11

Eustice, Ryan

447

Responding to Sexual Assault and  

E-print Network

Responding to Sexual Assault and Relationship Violence at UMBC Revised 06/27/11 #12;2 INTRODUCTION will not be tolerated at UMBC. PURPOSE The UMBC Sexual Assault Policy requires students, faculty and staff to report all incidents of sexual assault. It is the goal of the Voices Against Violence Program to define and coordinate

Maryland, Baltimore County, University of

448

Adolescent sexuality and peer pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

It appears that adolescents are becoming sexually active at younger ages than in past generations. How much are they influenced by their peers to become sexually active? A study of 89 adolescent girls in a parochial high school in Manhattan showed that adolescent girls are influenced by their peers when they decide to become sexually active; however, they do not

Elizabeth N. Duncan-Ricks

1992-01-01

449

Sexuality Education: Forward or Backward?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews guidelines and objectives established by the United States Catholic bishops report on teaching human sexuality, identifying the goal of such education as the "realization of total sexual identity" and affective maturation. Describes workshops designed by the Archdiocese of Los Angeles to train sexuality educators in accordance with the…

Miller, Patricia F.

1993-01-01

450

[Sexual problems in dermatovenereology consultations].  

PubMed

The objective causes of sexual impotency include chronic prostatitis arising from bacterial infection (1/3 of patients have sexual disturbances), congestive prostatitis (owing to sexual hyperstimulation treated with temporary blockage of testosterone), and hemorrhoids. Diabetes, advances tuberculosis, neurological and psychological diseases also negatively impact sexual potency as does alcoholism. The increase of dopamine and the decrease of serotonin stimulate, while the reverse of these reduce sexual activity. Endocrine medicines, drugs that affect the central nervous system, antihypertension drugs, anticoagulants, vincristine, cimetidine, and clofibrate generally lower the libido. Methods to be avoided because of a negative effect on sexual life include coitus interruptus. The intolerance of sensitivity to the sperm of the partner also complicates the sexual life of a couple. Sexual disorders without apparent cause include the lack of harmony, attention, and education about sexual matters. Other disorders can be caused by rape (only 25% of rapists are caught and punished), as 50% of female victims have psychological sequelae with a sexual tone; venereophobia; repulsive cutaneous symptoms; emotional taste; fear of inability to complete the sexual act; timidity or excessive shyness with anxiety about intimacy; and lack of emotional attraction to the partner. Eventually, the lack of a satisfactory sexual life has an effect on the integrity of conjugal life, as it is frequently the cause of divorce. PMID:1823415

Munteanu, M

1991-01-01

451

Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Popularity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the relationship between popularity and sexual behavior in 1,405 junior high school students. Results showed White males and females with more female friends are more likely to be sexually experienced. There was little relationship between popularity and sexuality in Black adolescents. (JAC)

Newcomer, Susan F.; And Others

1983-01-01

452

Sexual Education for Psychiatric Residents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors seek to promote sexuality curriculum development in departments of psychiatry. Methods: The authors first focus on educational philosophy about what residents can be taught about sexual topics and then provide numerical and narrative resident evaluation data following a 6-month, half day per week rotation in a sexuality…

Levine, Stephen B.; Scott, David L.

2010-01-01

453

Mass media influences on sexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mainstream mass media (television, magazines, movies, music, and the Internet) provide increasingly frequent portrayals of sexuality. We still know relatively little about how this content is used and how it affects sexual beliefs and behaviors. The few available studies suggest that the media do have an impact because the media keep sexual behavior on public and personal agendas, media

Jane D. Brown

2002-01-01

454

Sexual Harassment of Women Journalists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finds that more than 60% of 227 women newspaper journalists believe sexual harassment is at least somewhat a problem for women journalists; more than one-third said harassment has been at least somewhat a problem for them personally; two-thirds experienced nonphysical sexual harassment sometimes; 17% experience physical sexual harassment at least…

Walsh-Childers, Kim; And Others

1996-01-01

455

Can we change sexual orientation?  

PubMed

The self-reports of individuals who claim that they have changed their sexual orientation are either dismissed as false or relied upon to promote sexual orientation change efforts. However, these reactions do not capture the complexity of the sexual reorientation phenomenon. This article provides an overview regarding the promise and effort of sexual reorientation and how this knowledge may inform our current understanding of human sexuality. Specifically, a brief history is given of the interventions used to change attractions to same-sex adults and the assumptions underlying these efforts. Information will be given regarding which conclusions can be derived from sexual reorientation studies. The limitations of these studies will be explained to strengthen future research. Hypotheses will be presented regarding the motivations and needs of those distressed by a same-sex erotic orientation and the impact that the hope of sexual reorientation may have for family members, religious leaders, and policy makers. A multivariate model of sexuality and sexual orientation, including scales of attraction and aversion, will be proposed based upon current understanding of sexuality and the distinctions found in sexual reorientation research. In the end, a therapeutic framework will be highlighted that may be used (and researched) to help those distressed by their sexual orientation. PMID:22350128

Beckstead, A Lee

2012-02-01

456

Sexual Interaction in Nonclinical Couples.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the sexual functioning and interaction of 58 nonclinical heterosexual couples as measured by the Sexual Interaction System Scale (SISS). On all five SISS factors, the nonclinical sample scored significantly better than persons in therapy for sexual dysfunction; they also reported satisfactory relationship adjustment and high levels of…

Woody, Jane D.; D'Souza, Henry J.

1997-01-01

457

Sexual Trauma, Spirituality, and Psychopathology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the association between spirituality and psychopathology in a group of sexual abuse victims and controls with a focus on whether spirituality moderated the association between sexual trauma and psychopathology. Seventy-one sexual trauma victims were compared to 25 control subjects on spiritual well-being, the Eating Disorder…

Krejci, Mark J.; Thompson, Kevin M.; Simonich, Heather; Crosby, Ross D.; Donaldson, Mary Ann; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Mitchell, James E.

2004-01-01

458

Sexual harassment in public schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Looks at the extent and consequences of sexual harassment in US schools. Points out that sexual harassment can occur at a young age and can happen to pupils of either gender. Reports a 1993 survey which indicates the level of sexual harassment taking place within US schools, the circumstances in which it happens, and the form that it takes. Underlines

Li-Min Chuang; Brian H. Kleiner

1999-01-01

459

Peer Facilitators Confront Sexual Harassment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the nature of sexual harassment, focusing on sexual harassment in the schools and examining the extent of the problem. Suggestions for confronting the problem are presented, noting how peer helpers can confront sexual harassment and describing a peer-led unit on the subject. (SM)

Sabella, Russell A.; Myrick, Robert D.

1995-01-01

460

The "Right" Sexuality for Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Feminist researchers in psychology and education have been theorizing about the kind of sexuality girls ought to have. They are not afraid to investigate morality and what makes a good life. While they explore the meaning and cultural context of girls' sexual development, the good sexual life they describe may be an elusive ideal that, in the end,…

Lamb, Sharon

2008-01-01

461

Sexual Harassment in High School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The frequency of sexually harassing behaviors in a high school setting were examined in this study; differences with regard to gender, level of coercion, and perceptions of what is, or is not, sexual harassment are also addressed. The implication of this study is that sexual harassment is likely to occur frequently, even in secondary schools.…

Heritage, Jeannette; Denton, Wanda L.; West, Beryl

462

Television and Adolescent Sexual Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the relationship of the frequency of viewing sexual content on television and the sexual activity among a sample of adolescents. Approximately 600 junior high school students filled out a questionnaire in their homes. Eight items measuring frequency of sexual intercourse and the number of partners formed one factor, which served…

Brown, Jane D.; Gaddy, Gary D.

463

ARBITATION, MEDIATION, AND SEXUAL HARASSMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1998 Supreme Court decisions in Faragher v. City of Boca Raton and Burlington Industries, Inc. v. Ellerth recognized an affirmative defense to hostile environment sexual harassment claims based in part on the existence of an effective policy prohibitiong sexual harassment in the workplace. The promulgation or refinement of policies prohibiting sexual harassment will likely lead to an increase in

Susan A. FitzGibbon

1999-01-01

464

Naturism and sexuality: broadening our approach to sexual wellbeing.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate how people manage their sexuality when practicing naturism in the United Kingdom (UK). Thirty-nine self-identified naturists from across the UK were interviewed. Sexuality, when practicing naturism, was found often to be suppressed through the use of rules, geographical isolation and thoughts and behaviour. Some participants found ways of exploring and enjoying their sexuality by keeping feelings hidden and/or seeking out more sympathetic naturist environments. Naturist environments may offer a unique space in which to explore aspects of our sexuality that are currently pathologised, criminalised or commercialised. This has important implications for sexual health policy and promotion. PMID:18926761

Smith, Glenn; King, Michael

2009-06-01

465

Sexual Dimorphism in Labiatae  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN a recent communication, Baker1 directed attention to the difference in size of pistillate and hermaphrodite flowers in gynodioecious and gynomonoecious plants and suggested that the hormonal control of sex-expression might be connected with the level of auxin activity in the developing flower bud. In the course of genetical studies of gynodioecy in members of the Labiatae, I have made

Audrey Plack

1957-01-01

466

Sexual education, gender ideology, and youth sexual empowerment.  

PubMed

Sexual education plays an essential role in preventing unplanned pregnancy and the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). School-based sexual education programs, in particular, may be well positioned to address social factors that are empirically linked to negative sexual health outcomes, such as traditional social norms surrounding gender and sexuality. However, youth are seldom granted access to sexual education programs that explicitly address these issues. This study presents findings from a pretest-posttest survey of a sexual education program that did. It was designed for eighth graders (N=95) in the context of a school-community collaboration. The study assessed the links between several components of sexual empowerment, including gender ideology, sexual knowledge, and contraceptive beliefs. Findings link participation in the sexual education program to more progressive attitudes toward girls and women, less agreement with hegemonic masculinity ideology, and increases in sexual health and resource knowledge. Structural equation models suggest that traditional attitudes toward women were significantly related to hegemonic masculinity ideology among both boys and girls, which was in turn negatively related to safer contraceptive beliefs. PMID:24024546

Grose, Rose Grace; Grabe, Shelly; Kohfeldt, Danielle

2014-01-01

467

Sexual and gonadal dysfunction in chronic kidney disease: Pathophysiology  

PubMed Central

Sexual and gonadal dysfunction/infertility are quite common in patients with chronic kidney disease. Forty percent of male and 55% of female dialysis patients do not achieve orgasm. The pathophysiology of gonadal dysfunction is multifactorial. It is usually a combination of psychological, physiological, and other comorbid factors. Erectile dysfunction in males is mainly due to arterial factors, venous leakage, psychological factors, neurogenic factors, endocrine factors, and drugs. Sexual dysfunction in females is mainly due to hormonal factors and manifests mainly as menstrual irregularities, amenorrhea, lack of vaginal lubrication, and failure to conceive. Treatment of gonadal dysfunction in chronic kidney disease is multipronged and an exact understanding of underlying pathology is essential in proper management of these patients. PMID:22470857

Rathi, Manish; Ramachandran, Raja

2012-01-01

468

Sexual communication and sexual behavior among young adult heterosexual latinos.  

PubMed

We examined verbal sexual health communication, pleasure discussions, and physical sexual communication in relation to condom use by young adult, heterosexual Latinos (ages 18-30 years). Participants (N = 220, 51% female) were recruited in a Midwestern state. Verbal sexual health communication was positively associated with consistent condom use among men (odds ratio [OR] = 2.66, p < .05) and women (OR = 3.12, p < .05). For men, pleasure discussions were negatively associated with consistent condom use (OR = 0.21, p < .05). For women, verbal sexual health communication was positively associated with condom use at last sex (OR = 2.75, p < .05), whereas physical sexual communication was negatively associated with condom use at last sex (OR = .29, p < .05). Various aspects of sexual communication may be important in HIV-prevention programs with young Latinos. Physical sexual communication and pleasure discussions, in particular, warrant further exploration given negative relationships with condom use. P