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1

Hormones and sexual orientation: a questionable link.  

PubMed

This paper critically reviews the studies which explore a possible causal relationship between sex hormones and the development of sexual orientation. Early studies focused on hormone measurements in adult men and women. While definitive interpretations are hindered by methodological problems, the studies as a whole do not support a causal relationship between postnatal hormone levels and sexual orientation. More recently, a theory that prenatal hormone levels produce varying degrees of brain androgenization and subsequent dimorphic sex role behavior has consistently been supported by studies in lower mammals. Attempts to generalize the causes of sexual orientation from animals to humans have been controversial. Efforts to measure the estrogen feedback as an indication of brain androgenization have produced inconsistent results. Studies of men and women who experienced defect in hormone metabolism (i.e., CAH and testicular feminization) have not found a concurrent increase in homosexual behavior. Overall, the data do not support a causal connection between hormones and human sexual orientation. PMID:7560930

Banks, A; Gartrell, N K

1995-01-01

2

Hormone-independent pathways of sexual differentiation.  

PubMed

New observations over the last 25 years of hormone-independent sexual dimorphisms have gradually and unequivocally overturned the dogma, arising from Jost's elegant experiments in the mid-1900s, that all somatic sex dimorphisms in vertebrates arise from the action of gonadal hormones. Although we know that Sry, a Y-linked gene, is the primary gonadal sex determinant in mammals, more recent analysis in marsupials, mice, and finches has highlighted numerous sexual dimorphisms that are evident well before the differentiation of the testis and which cannot be explained by a sexually dimorphic hormonal environment. In marsupials, scrotal bulges and mammary primordia are visible before the testis has differentiated due to the expression of a gene(s) on the X chromosome. ZZ and ZW gynandromorph finches have brains that develop in a sexually dimorphic way dependent on their sex chromosome content. In genetically manipulated mice, it is the X chromosomes, not the gonads, that determine many characters including rate of early development, adiposity, and neural circuits. Even spotted hyenas have sexual dimorphisms that cannot be simply explained by hormonal exposure. This review discusses the recent findings that confirm that there are hormone-independent sexual dimorphisms well before the gonads begin to produce their hormones. PMID:24577198

Renfree, Marilyn B; Chew, Keng Yih; Shaw, Geoffrey

2014-01-01

3

Hormonal profile impact on female sexual function in young women  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Female sexual function is dependent, in physiological milieu upon hormonal impulses: estradiol, testosterone, cortisol, progesterone, prolactin and TSH. Out study tries to appreciate the impact of testosterone, estradiol and prolactin, the major hormones involved in the sexual response, on the normal sexual function. This parameter is approximated by the value of the total FSFI score, a validated international structured interview.

Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Craina, Marius; Pater, Liana; Pater, Flavius

2014-12-01

4

Thyroid hormones and male sexual function.  

PubMed

The role of thyroid hormones in the control of erectile functioning has been only superficially investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between thyroid and erectile function in two different cohorts of subjects. The first one derives from the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS study), a multicentre survey performed on a sample of 3369 community-dwelling men aged 40-79 years (mean 60 ± 11 years). The second cohort is a consecutive series of 3203 heterosexual male patients (mean age 51.8 ± 13.0 years) attending our Andrology and Sexual Medicine Outpatient Clinic for sexual dysfunction at the University of Florence (UNIFI study). In the EMAS study all subjects were tested for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4). Similarly, TSH levels were checked in all patients in the UNIFI study, while FT4 only when TSH resulted outside the reference range. Overt primary hyperthyroidism (reduced TSH and elevated FT4, according to the reference range) was found in 0.3 and 0.2% of EMAS and UNIFI study respectively. In both study cohorts, suppressed TSH levels were associated with erectile dysfunction (ED). Overt hyperthyroidism was associated with an increased risk of severe erectile dysfunction (ED, hazard ratio = 14 and 16 in the EMAS and UNIFI study, respectively; both p < 0.05), after adjusting for confounding factors. These associations were confirmed in nested case-control analyses, comparing subjects with overt hyperthyroidism to age, BMI, smoking status and testosterone-matched controls. Conversely, no association between primary hypothyroidism and ED was observed. In conclusion, erectile function should be evaluated in all individuals with hyperthyroidism. Conversely, assessment of thyroid function cannot be recommended as routine practice in all ED patients. PMID:22834774

Corona, G; Wu, F C W; Forti, G; Lee, D M; O'Connor, D B; O'Neill, T W; Pendleton, N; Bartfai, G; Boonen, S; Casanueva, F F; Finn, J D; Giwercman, A; Han, T S; Huhtaniemi, I T; Kula, K; Lean, M E J; Punab, M; Vanderschueren, D; Jannini, E A; Mannucci, E; Maggi, M

2012-10-01

5

Associations Among Physiological and Subjective Sexual Response, Sexual Desire, and Salivary Steroid Hormones in Healthy Premenopausal Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Few studies have examined how sexual arousal influences healthy premenopausal women's hormones, limiting our understanding of basic physiology and our ability to transfer knowledge from clinical and nonhuman populations. Aim. To examine how sexual arousal and steroid hormones (testosterone (T), cortisol (C), estradiol (E)) were linked, to see whether hormone levels influenced and\\/or changed in response to sexual arousal

Sari M. van Anders; Lori Brotto; Janine Farrell; Morag Yule

2009-01-01

6

Hormones and History: The Evolution and Development of Primate Female Sexuality  

PubMed Central

Sexual behavior is required for reproduction in internally fertilizing species but poses significant social and physical risks. Females in many nonprimate species have evolved physical and behavioral mechanisms restricting sexual behavior to when females are fertile. The same hormones producing female fertility also control these mechanisms, assuring that sex only occurs when reproduction is possible. In contrast to nonprimate mammals, hormones do not regulate the capacity to engage in sex in female anthropoid primates, uncoupling fertility and the physical capacity to mate. Instead, in primates, sexual motivation has become the primary coordinator between sexual behavior and fertility. This dependence upon psychological mechanisms to coordinate physiology with behavior is possibly unique to primates, including humans, and allows a variety of nonphysiological influences, particularly social context, to regulate sexual behavior. The independence between hormonal state and sexual behavior allows sex to be used for social purposes. This complex regulation of primate sexuality develops during adolescence, where female monkeys show both hormonally influenced sexual motivation and socially modulated sexual behavior. We present findings from rhesus monkeys illustrating how social context and hormonal state interact to modulate adolescent and adult sexuality. It is argued that this flexibility in sexual behavior, combined with a tight regulation of sexual motivational systems by reproductive hormones, allows sexual behavior to be used for nonreproductive purposes while still assuring its occurrence during periods of female fertility. The evolutionary pressures that produced such flexibility in sexual behavior remain puzzling, but may reflect the importance of sexuality to primate social attraction and cohesion. PMID:15216429

Wallen, Kim; Zehr, Julia L.

2005-01-01

7

Development of the renal sexual segment in immature snakes: effect of sex steroid hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The renal sexual segment (RSS) of immature Northern and Diamondback Water Snakes and Red-Sided Garter Snakes exhibited varying responses to testosterone or 17?-estradiol. In both male and female water snakes, kidney mass was not a reliable indicator of hormone treatment, whereas tubule diameter, epithelial height and number of sexual granules responded to hormone treatment. In male water snakes, either hormone

Randolph W. Krohmer; Dora Martinez; Robert T. Mason

2004-01-01

8

Correspondence between Gonadal Steroid Hormone Concentrations and Secondary Sexual Characteristics Assessed by Clinicians, Adolescents, and Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescent sexual maturation is staged using Tanner criteria assessed by clinicians, parents, or adolescents. The physiology of sexual maturation is driven by gonadal hormones. We investigate Tanner stage progression as a function of increasing gonadal hormone concentration and compare performances of different raters. Fifty-six boys (mean age,…

Huang, Bin; Hillman, Jennifer; Biro, Frank M.; Ding, Lili; Dorn, Lorah D.; Susman, Elizabeth J.

2012-01-01

9

Female social and sexual interest across the menstrual cycle: the roles of pain, sleep and hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although research suggests that socio-sexual behavior changes in conjunction with the menstrual cycle, several potential factors are rarely taken into consideration. We investigated the role of changing hormone concentrations on self-reported physical discomfort, sleep, exercise and socio-sexual interest in young, healthy women. METHODS: Salivary hormones (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate-DHEAS, progesterone, cortisol, testosterone, estradiol and estriol) and socio-sexual variables were measured in

Chrisalbeth J. Guillermo; Heidi A. Manlove; Peter B. Gray; David T. Zava; Chandler R. Marrs

2010-01-01

10

Unexpected Effects of Perinatal Gonadal Hormone Manipulations on Sexual Differentiation of the  

E-print Network

­11), differential exposure of developing males and females to gonadal hormones influences sex dif- ferencesUnexpected Effects of Perinatal Gonadal Hormone Manipulations on Sexual Differentiation of this sex difference in prai- rie voles (Microtus ochrogaster), which show atypical effects of hormones

de Vries, Geert J.

11

Rapid inhibition of female sexual behavior by gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is largely responsible for the initiation of sexual behaviors; one form of GnRH activates a physiological cascade causing gonadal growth and gonadal steroid feedback to the brain, and another form is thought to act as a neurotransmitter to enhance sexual receptivity. In contrast to GnRH, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) inhibits gonadotropin release. The distribution of GnIH in the

George E. Bentley; Jay P. Jensen; Gurpinder J. Kaur; Douglas W. Wacker; Kazuyoshi Tsutsui; John C. Wingfield

2006-01-01

12

Relationships between condoms, hormonal methods, and sexual pleasure and satisfaction: an exploratory analysis from the Women's Well-Being and Sexuality Study  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about how condoms and other contraceptives influence women's sexual enjoyment, which could shape use patterns. Methods Data from an online study of women's sexual health and functioning were used to examine how three categories of contraceptive use - hormonal method only, condoms primarily, and dual use - could help predict decreased sexual pleasure associated with contraceptive method and overall sexual satisfaction in the past 4 weeks. Results In analyses controlling for age, relationship length, and other variables, male condoms were most strongly associated with decreased pleasure, whether used alone or in conjunction with hormonal methods. Women who used hormonal methods alone were least likely to report decreased pleasure, but they also had significantly lower overall scores of sexual satisfaction compared with the other two groups. Dual users, or women who used both condoms and a hormonal method, reported the highest sexual satisfaction scores. Conclusions Because male condoms were viewed by many of these women as decreasing sexual pleasure, sexual risk practices are likely to be affected. Although hormonal only users were highly unlikely to report decreased pleasure, they reported lower sexual satisfaction compared with the other two groups. Dual users, who had the highest sexual satisfaction scores, may have been the most sexually satisfied because they felt more fully protected against unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmissible infections - consistent with previous qualitative documentation of `eroticising safety.' This exploratory study suggests that different contraceptives affect sexuality in various ways, warranting further research into these sexual dimensions and how they influence contraceptive practices. PMID:19061551

Higgins, Jenny A.; Hoffman, Susie; Graham, Cynthia A.; Sanders, Stephanie A.

2009-01-01

13

Hormonal replacement therapy for postmenopausal women: A review of sexual outcomes and related gynecologic effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of hormonal replacement therapy on sexual behavior and functioning in postmenopausal women was examined. A methodological overview discusses issues of subject characteristics, research design, and the assessment of sexual functioning and related outcomes. Current therapy regimens include estrogen, progestogen, androgen, and combination therapy (e.g., cyclic estrogen and progestogen). With estrogen, significant gynecologic improvement (i.e., reduction in atrophic vaginitis)

Mary Walling; Barbara L. Andersen; Susan R. Johnson

1990-01-01

14

Hormones and history: The evolution and development of primate female sexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual behavior is required for reproduction in internally fertilizing species but poses significant social and physical risks. Females in many nonprimate species have evolved physical and behavioral mechanisms restricting sexual behavior to when females are fertile. The same hormones producing female fertility also control these mechanisms, assuring that sex only occurs when reproduction is possible. In contrast to nonprimate mammals,

Kim Wallen; Julia L. Zehr

2004-01-01

15

Sexual differentiation and the Kiss1 system: hormonal and developmental considerations  

PubMed Central

The nervous system (both central and peripheral) is anatomically and physiologically differentiated between the sexes, ranging from gender-based differences in the cerebral cortex to motoneuron number in the spinal cord. Although genetic factors may play a role in the development of some sexually differentiated traits, most identified sex differences in the brain and behavior are produced under the influence of perinatal sex steroid signaling. In many species, the ability to display an estrogen-induced luteinizing hormone (LH) surge is sexually differentiated, yet the specific neural population(s) that allows females but not males to display such estrogen-mediated “positive feedback” has remained elusive. Recently, the Kiss1/kisspeptin system has been implicated in generating the sexually-dimorphic circuitry underlying the LH surge. Specifically, Kiss1 gene expression and kisspeptin protein levels in the anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) nucleus of the hypothalamus are sexually differentiated, with females displaying higher levels than males, even under identical hormonal conditions as adults. These findings, in conjunction with accumulating evidence implicating kisspeptins as potent secretagogues of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), suggest that the sex-specific display of the LH surge (positive feedback) reflects sexual differentiation of AVPV Kiss1 neurons. In addition, developmental kisspeptin signaling via its receptor GPR54 appears to be critical in males for the proper sexual differentiation of a variety of sexually dimorphic traits, ranging from complex social behavior to specific forebrain and spinal cord neuronal populations. This review discusses the recent data, and their implications, regarding the bidirectional relationship between the Kiss1 system and the process of sexual differentiation. PMID:18644414

Kauffman, Alexander S.

2009-01-01

16

Early manipulation of juvenile hormone has sexually dimorphic effects on mature adult behavior in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Hormones are critical for the development, maturation, and maintenance of physiological systems; therefore, understanding their involvement during maturation of the brain is important for the elucidation of mechanisms by which adults become behaviorally competent. Changes in exogenous and endogenous factors encountered during sexual maturation can have long lasting effects in mature adults. In this study, we investigated the role of the gonadotropic hormone, juvenile hormone (JH), in the modulation of adult behaviors in Drosophila. Here we utilized methoprene (a synthetic JH analog) and precocene (a JH synthesis inhibitor) to manipulate levels of JH in sexually immature male and female Drosophila with or without decreased synthesis of neuronal dopamine (DA). Locomotion and courtship behavior were assayed once the animals had grown to sexual maturity. The results demonstrate a sexually dimorphic role for JH in the modulation of these centrally controlled behaviors in mature animals that is dependent on the age of the animals assayed, and present DA as a candidate neuronal factor that differentially interacts with JH depending on the sex of the animal. The data also suggest that JH modulates these behaviors through an indirect mechanism. Since gonadotropic hormones and DA interact in mammals to affect brain development and later function, our results suggest that this mechanism for the development of adult behavioral competence may be evolutionarily conserved. PMID:24012944

Argue, Kathryn J; Yun, Amber J; Neckameyer, Wendi S

2013-01-01

17

Women's Performance on Sexually Dimorphic Tasks: The Effect of Hormonal Fluctuations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effect of hormonal fluctuations on women's performance on sexually dimorphic cognitive tasks. Thirty-six participants were recruited through introduction to psychology courses at three colleges. Participants were assessed using the Woodcock-Johnson Test of Cognitive Ability III (WJ III COG), which is a commonly-used, widely…

Duell, Lanora J.

2011-01-01

18

Thyroid Hormone Levels and Psychological Symptoms in Sexually Abused Adolescent Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To explore the relationships between psychological symptoms and thyroid hormone levels in adolescent girls who had experienced the traumatic stress of sexual abuse. Method: The study design was cross-sectional/correlational. Subjects ("N"=22; age range=12-18 years) had their blood drawn, and they completed 2 psychological tests…

Haviland, Mark G.; Sonne, Janet L.; Anderson, Donald L.; Nelson, Jerald C.; Sheridan-Matney, Clare; Nichols, Joy G.; Carlton, Esther I.; Murdoch, William G. C.

2006-01-01

19

Heterothallic Phytophthora: Evidence for Hormonal Regulation of Sexual Reproduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both Al and A2 mating types of Phytophthora cinnamomi, Phytophthora parasitica and Phytophthora palmivora formed oospores by selfing when they were paired with different mating types on opposite sides of polycarbonate membranes. The selfing of one mating type in the presence of the other mating type demonstrates the production of diffusible sub- stances like plant hormones as found in related

W. H. KO

1978-01-01

20

Influence of Hormonal Contraceptive Use and Health Beliefs on Sexual Orientation Disparities in Papanicolaou Test Use  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Reproductive health screenings are a necessary part of quality health care. However, sexual minorities underutilize Papanicolaou (Pap) tests more than heterosexuals do, and the reasons are not known. Our objective was to examine if less hormonal contraceptive use or less positive health beliefs about Pap tests explain sexual orientation disparities in Pap test intention and utilization. Methods. We used multivariable regression with prospective data gathered from 3821 females aged 18 to 25 years in the Growing Up Today Study (GUTS). Results. Among lesbians, less hormonal contraceptive use explained 8.6% of the disparities in Pap test intention and 36.1% of the disparities in Pap test utilization. Less positive health beliefs associated with Pap testing explained 19.1% of the disparities in Pap test intention. Together, less hormonal contraceptive use and less positive health beliefs explained 29.3% of the disparities in Pap test intention and 42.2% of the disparities in Pap test utilization. Conclusions. Hormonal contraceptive use and health beliefs, to a lesser extent, help to explain sexual orientation disparities in intention and receipt of a Pap test, especially among lesbians. PMID:23763393

Corliss, Heather L.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Frazier, A. Lindsay; Rosario, Margaret; Kahn, Jessica A.; Austin, S. Bryn

2014-01-01

21

Apomictic and sexual germline development differ with respect to cell cycle, transcriptional, hormonal and epigenetic regulation.  

PubMed

Seeds of flowering plants can be formed sexually or asexually through apomixis. Apomixis occurs in about 400 species and is of great interest for agriculture as it produces clonal offspring. It differs from sexual reproduction in three major aspects: (1) While the sexual megaspore mother cell (MMC) undergoes meiosis, the apomictic initial cell (AIC) omits or aborts meiosis (apomeiosis); (2) the unreduced egg cell of apomicts forms an embryo without fertilization (parthenogenesis); and (3) the formation of functional endosperm requires specific developmental adaptations. Currently, our knowledge about the gene regulatory programs underlying apomixis is scarce. We used the apomict Boechera gunnisoniana, a close relative of Arabidopsis thaliana, to investigate the transcriptional basis underlying apomeiosis and parthenogenesis. Here, we present the first comprehensive reference transcriptome for reproductive development in an apomict. To compare sexual and apomictic development at the cellular level, we used laser-assisted microdissection combined with microarray and RNA-Seq analyses. Conservation of enriched gene ontologies between the AIC and the MMC likely reflects functions of importance to germline initiation, illustrating the close developmental relationship of sexuality and apomixis. However, several regulatory pathways differ between sexual and apomictic germlines, including cell cycle control, hormonal pathways, epigenetic and transcriptional regulation. Enrichment of specific signal transduction pathways are a feature of the apomictic germline, as is spermidine metabolism, which is associated with somatic embryogenesis in various plants. Our study provides a comprehensive reference dataset for apomictic development and yields important new insights into the transcriptional basis underlying apomixis in relation to sexual reproduction. PMID:25010342

Schmidt, Anja; Schmid, Marc W; Klostermeier, Ulrich C; Qi, Weihong; Guthörl, Daniela; Sailer, Christian; Waller, Manuel; Rosenstiel, Philip; Grossniklaus, Ueli

2014-07-01

22

Apomictic and Sexual Germline Development Differ with Respect to Cell Cycle, Transcriptional, Hormonal and Epigenetic Regulation  

PubMed Central

Seeds of flowering plants can be formed sexually or asexually through apomixis. Apomixis occurs in about 400 species and is of great interest for agriculture as it produces clonal offspring. It differs from sexual reproduction in three major aspects: (1) While the sexual megaspore mother cell (MMC) undergoes meiosis, the apomictic initial cell (AIC) omits or aborts meiosis (apomeiosis); (2) the unreduced egg cell of apomicts forms an embryo without fertilization (parthenogenesis); and (3) the formation of functional endosperm requires specific developmental adaptations. Currently, our knowledge about the gene regulatory programs underlying apomixis is scarce. We used the apomict Boechera gunnisoniana, a close relative of Arabidopsis thaliana, to investigate the transcriptional basis underlying apomeiosis and parthenogenesis. Here, we present the first comprehensive reference transcriptome for reproductive development in an apomict. To compare sexual and apomictic development at the cellular level, we used laser-assisted microdissection combined with microarray and RNA-Seq analyses. Conservation of enriched gene ontologies between the AIC and the MMC likely reflects functions of importance to germline initiation, illustrating the close developmental relationship of sexuality and apomixis. However, several regulatory pathways differ between sexual and apomictic germlines, including cell cycle control, hormonal pathways, epigenetic and transcriptional regulation. Enrichment of specific signal transduction pathways are a feature of the apomictic germline, as is spermidine metabolism, which is associated with somatic embryogenesis in various plants. Our study provides a comprehensive reference dataset for apomictic development and yields important new insights into the transcriptional basis underlying apomixis in relation to sexual reproduction. PMID:25010342

Schmidt, Anja; Schmid, Marc W.; Klostermeier, Ulrich C.; Qi, Weihong; Guthörl, Daniela; Sailer, Christian; Waller, Manuel; Rosenstiel, Philip; Grossniklaus, Ueli

2014-01-01

23

Sexual behavior in the bull: assessment by seminal vesicle size and response to gonadotropin releasing hormone  

E-print Network

. , 1987). The use of ultrasonography to assess male reproductive function has been limited. Studies of the genital organs and/or accessory sex glands of the stallion (Little and Woods, 1987; Weber and Woods, 1989), boar (Cartee et al. , 1980) and ram...SEXUAL BEHAVIOR IN THE BULL: ASSESSMENT BY SEMINAL VESICLE SIZE AND RESPONSE TO GONADOTROPIN RELEASING HORMONE A Thesis by ANTONIO MADUREIRA ROCHA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A%M University in partial fulfillment...

Rocha, Antonio Madureira

1990-01-01

24

Precocious sexual signalling and mating in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) sterile males achieved through juvenile hormone treatment and protein supplements  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sexual maturation of Anastrepha fraterculus is a long process. Methoprene (a mimic of juvenile hormone) considerably reduces the time for sexual maturation in males. However, in other Anastrepha species, this effect depends on protein intake at the adult stage. Here, we evaluated the mating competit...

25

Sexual Hearing: The influence of sex hormones on acoustic communication in frogs  

PubMed Central

The majority of anuran amphibians (frogs and toads) use acoustic communication to mediate sexual behavior and reproduction. Generally, females find and select their mates using acoustic cues provided by males in the form of conspicuous advertisement calls. In these species, vocal signal production and reception are intimately tied to successful reproduction. Research with anurans has demonstrated that acoustic communication is modulated by reproductive hormones, including gonadal steroids and peptide neuromodulators. Most of these studies have focused on the ways in which hormonal systems influence vocal signal production; however, here we will concentrate on a growing body of literature that examines hormonal modulation of call reception. This literature suggests that reproductive hormones contribute to the coordination of reproductive behaviors between signaler and receiver by modulating sensitivity and spectral filtering of the anuran auditory system. It has become evident that the hormonal systems that influence reproductive behaviors are highly conserved among vertebrate taxa, thus studying the endocrine and neuromodulatory bases of acoustic communication in frogs and toads can lead to insights of broader applicability to hormonal modulation of vertebrate sensory physiology and behavior. PMID:19272318

Arch, Victoria S.; Narins, Peter M.

2009-01-01

26

Building a scientific framework for studying hormonal effects on behavior and on the development of the sexually dimorphic nervous system  

EPA Science Inventory

There has been increasing concern that low-dose exposure to hormonally active chemicals disrupts sexual differentiation of the brain and peripheral nervous system. There also has been active drug development research on the therapeutic potential of hormone therapy on behaviors. T...

27

Sexual Functioning and Sex Hormones in Persons with Extreme Obesity and Seeking Surgical and Non-Surgical Weight Loss  

PubMed Central

Background Many individuals with obesity are motivated to lose weight to improve weight-related comorbidities or psychosocial functioning, including sexual functioning. Few studies have documented rates of sexual dysfunction in persons with obesity. Objectives This study investigated sexual functioning, sex hormones, and relevant psychosocial constructs in individuals with obesity who sought surgical and non-surgical weight loss. Setting University based health systems. Methods One hundred forty-one bariatric surgery patients (median BMI [25th percentile, 75th percentile] 44.6 [41.4, 50.1]) and 109 individuals (BMI = 40.0 [38.0, 44.0]) who sought nonsurgical weight loss participated. Sexual functioning was assessed by the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). Hormones were assessed by blood assay. Quality of life, body image, depressive symptoms and marital adjustment were assessed by validated questionnaires. Results Fifty-one percent of women presenting for bariatric surgery reported a sexual dysfunction; 36% of men presenting for bariatric surgery reported erectile dysfunction (ED). This is in contrast to 41% of women who sought nonsurgical weight loss and reported a sexual dysfunction and 20% of men who sought nonsurgical weight loss and reported ED. These differences were not statistically significant. Sexual dysfunction was strongly associated with psychosocial distress in women; these relationships were less strong and less consistent among men. Sexual dysfunction was unrelated to sex hormones, except for sex hormone binding globulin (SHGB) in women. Conclusion Women and men who present for bariatric surgery, as compared to individuals who sought non-surgical weight loss, were not significantly more likely to experience a sexual dysfunction. There were few differences in reproductive hormones and psychosocial constructs between candidates for bariatric surgery and individuals interested in non-surgical weight loss. PMID:24120985

Sarwer, David B.; Spitzer, Jacqueline C.; Wadden, Thomas A.; Rosen, Raymond C.; Mitchell, James E.; Lancaster, Kathy; Courcoulas, Anita; Gourash, William; Christian, Nicholas J.

2013-01-01

28

Sexual transfer of the steroid hormone 20E induces the postmating switch in Anopheles gambiae  

PubMed Central

Female insects generally mate multiple times during their lives. A notable exception is the female malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae, which after sex loses her susceptibility to further copulation. Sex in this species also renders females competent to lay eggs developed after blood feeding. Despite intense research efforts, the identity of the molecular triggers that cause the postmating switch in females, inducing a permanent refractoriness to further mating and triggering egg-laying, remains elusive. Here we show that the male-transferred steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) is a key regulator of monandry and oviposition in An. gambiae. When sexual transfer of 20E is impaired by partial inactivation of the hormone and inhibition of its biosynthesis in males, oviposition and refractoriness to further mating in the female are strongly reduced. Conversely, mimicking sexual delivery by injecting 20E into virgin females switches them to an artificial mated status, triggering egg-laying and reducing susceptibility to copulation. Sexual transfer of 20E appears to incapacitate females physically from receiving seminal fluids by a second male. Comparative analysis of microarray data from females after mating and after 20E treatment indicates that 20E-regulated molecular pathways likely are implicated in the postmating switch, including cytoskeleton and musculature-associated genes that may render the atrium impenetrable to additional mates. By revealing signals and pathways shaping key processes in the An. gambiae reproductive biology, our data offer new opportunities for the control of natural populations of malaria vectors. PMID:25368171

Gabrieli, Paolo; Kakani, Evdoxia G.; Mitchell, Sara N.; Mameli, Enzo; Want, Elizabeth J.; Mariezcurrena Anton, Ainhoa; Serrao, Aurelio; Baldini, Francesco; Catteruccia, Flaminia

2014-01-01

29

Hormonal basis of sexual dimorphism in birds: implications for new theories of sexual selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely assumed that the development of male secondary sexual traits in birds and mammals is testosterone-dependent. In birds, however, masculinity has dual origins. Male-type behaviour and morphology, such as spurs and wattles, are usually testosterone-dependent. However, showy male-type plumage is, generally, the neutral state of development. For example, castrating a peacock has no effect on his elaborate plumage

Ian P. F. Owens; Roger V. Short

1995-01-01

30

The benefits of androgens combined with hormone replacement therapy regarding to patients with postmenopausal sexual symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the benefits and risks of hormone,replacement,therapy (HRT) combined,with methyltestosterone (MT) in postmenopausal,women,with sexual dysfunction. Design: This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled and crossover trial. Eighty-five women using HRT were divided into four treatment groups: GI–HRT plus placebo for 4 months; GII–HRT plus MT 2.5 mg\\/day for 4 months; GIII–HRT plus placebo for 2 months,and then

Fernando J. f. De Paula; Jos E M. Soares; Mauro A. Haidar; Geraldo Rodrigues De Lima; Edmund C. Baracat

31

Sexual Dimorphism in Juvenile Hormone Synthesis by Corpora Allata and in Juvenile Hormone Acid Methyltransferase Activity in Corpora Allata and Accessory Sex Glands of Some Lepidoptera  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Corpora allata of adult Manduca sexta and Heliothis zea are sexually dimorphic in that females produce juvenile hormones (JH) while males lack JH acid methyltransferase and therefore produce JH acid. Male and female CA of Vanessa cardui contain JH acid methyltransferase.2. Male but not female reproductive tract tissues of M. sexta, H. zea, and V. cardui contain JH acid

Govindan Bhaskaran; Steven P. Sparagana; Karl H. Dahm; Punee Barrera; Kenneth Peck

1988-01-01

32

Cellular localization of steroid hormone-regulated proteins during sexual development in achlya  

SciTech Connect

In the fungus Achlya ambisexualis sexual development in the male strain E87 is controlled by the steroid hormone antheridiol. To investigate the effects of antheridiol on the synthesis and/or accumulation of specific cellular proteins we have analyzed (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled proteins from control and hormone-treated cells using both one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) PAGE. The addition of the hormone antheridiol to vegetatively growing cells of Achlya E87 was found to result in changes in the synthesis and/or accumulation of at least 16 specific proteins, which could be localized to the cytoplasmic, nuclear or cell was/cell membrane fractions. The most prominent changes observed in the hormone-treated cells included the appearance in the cytoplasmic fraction of labeled proteins at 28.4 and 24.3kD which were not detectable in control cells, and a significant enrichment in the labeling of a 24.3kD protein in the cell wall/cell membrane fraction. Quantitative changes in the (/sup 35/S)methionine labeling of several other proteins were noted in all three cell fractions.

Brunt, S.A.; Silver, J.C.

1986-01-01

33

At a Supra-Physiological Concentration, Human Sexual Hormones Act as Quorum-Sensing Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

N-Acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated quorum-sensing (QS) regulates virulence functions in plant and animal pathogens such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A chemolibrary of more than 3500 compounds was screened using two bacterial AHL-biosensors to identify QS-inhibitors (QSIs). The purity and structure of 15 QSIs selected through this screening were verified using HPLC MS/MS tools and their activity tested on the A. tumefaciens and P. aeruginosa bacterial models. The IC50 value of the identified QSIs ranged from 2.5 to 90 µg/ml, values that are in the same range as those reported for the previously identified QSI 4-nitropyridine-N-oxide (IC50 24 µg/ml). Under the tested culture conditions, most of the identified QSIs did not exhibit bacteriostatic or bactericidal activities. One third of the tested QSIs, including the plant compound hordenine and the human sexual hormone estrone, decreased the frequency of the QS-regulated horizontal transfer of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid in A. tumefaciens. Hordenine, estrone as well as its structural relatives estriol and estradiol, also decreased AHL accumulation and the expression of six QS-regulated genes (lasI, lasR, lasB, rhlI, rhlR, and rhlA) in cultures of the opportunist pathogen P. aeruginosa. Moreover, the ectopic expression of the AHL-receptors RhlR and LasR of P. aeruginosa in E. coli showed that their gene-regulatory activity was affected by the QSIs. Finally, modeling of the structural interactions between the human hormones and AHL-receptors LasR of P. aeruginosa and TraR of A. tumefaciens confirmed the competitive binding capability of the human sexual hormones. This work indicates potential interferences between bacterial and eukaryotic hormonal communications. PMID:24376718

Beury-Cirou, Amélie; Tannières, Mélanie; Minard, Corinne; Soulère, Laurent; Rasamiravaka, Tsiry; Dodd, Robert H.; Queneau, Yves; Dessaux, Yves; Guillou, Catherine; Vandeputte, Olivier M.; Faure, Denis

2013-01-01

34

Sexual dimorphism of rat liver nuclear proteins: regulatory role of growth hormone.  

PubMed

Many genes are expressed in mammalian liver in a sexually dimorphic manner. DNA microarray analysis has shown that growth hormone (GH) and its sex-dependent pattern of pituitary secretion play a major role in establishing the sexually dimorphic patterns of liver gene expression. However, GH may exert effects on protein post-translational modification and nuclear localization that are not reflected at the mRNA level. To investigate these potential effects of GH, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by LC-MS/MS to: 1) identify rat liver nuclear proteins whose abundance or state of post-translational modification displays sex-dependent differences; and 2) determine the role of the plasma GH profile in establishing these differences. Nuclear extracts prepared from livers of individual male (n=9) and female (n=5) adult rats, and from males given GH by continuous infusion for 7 days to feminize liver gene expression (n=5 rats), were resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Image analysis of SYPRO Ruby-stained gels revealed 165 sexually dimorphic protein spots that differ in normalized volume between male and female groups by >1.5-fold at p<0.05. Sixty of these proteins exhibited female-like changes in spot abundance following continuous GH treatment. Comparison of male and GH-treated male groups revealed 130 proteins that displayed >1.5-fold differences in abundance, with 60 of these GH-responsive spots being sexually dimorphic. Thus, GH plays an important role in establishing the sex-dependent differences in liver nuclear protein content. Twenty-eight of the sexually dimorphic and/or GH-regulated protein spots were identified by LC-MS/MS. Proteins identified include regucalcin, nuclear factor 45, and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A3, D-like, and K, in addition to proteins such as GST, normally associated with cytosolic extracts but also reported to be localized in the nucleus. PMID:15456855

Laz, Ekaterina V; Wiwi, Christopher A; Waxman, David J

2004-12-01

35

Linking steroid hormone levels to sexual maturity index and energy reserves in Nereis diversicolor from clean and polluted estuaries.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to compare seasonal variations of reproduction physiology of the ragworm Nereis diversicolor --a key species in estuarine ecosystems--originating from a clean (Authie) and multi-polluted (Seine) estuaries. A particular attention was carried out in female worms, on relationships between sexual maturity stages, energy reserves (glycogen and lipids) and steroid hormone levels (progesterone, 17beta-estradiol, and testosterone). Sexual maturity index (SMI), energy reserves and steroid hormones are clearly influenced by season in worms from both sites. Depleted steroid hormone levels were depicted in specimens exhibiting high sexual maturity stage and energy reserves. Intersite analysis has revealed all over the sampling period:--a sexual precocity in worms from Seine,--glycogen concentrations generally higher in worms from Authie,--no clear tendency for lipids,--no differences in steroid hormone levels. Sexual precocity and lower glycogen levels in Seine could be explained by a specific strategy above all devoted to reproduction in these worms. Chemical stress could be a possible explanation of these observations. PMID:16959253

Durou, C; Mouneyrac, C

2007-01-01

36

Sexually dimorphic effects of prenatal stress on cognition, hormonal responses, and central neurotransmitters.  

PubMed

Exposure to stress during gestation results in physiological and behavioral alterations that persist into adulthood. This study examined the effects of prenatal stress on the postnatal expression of sexually differentiated cognitive, hormonal, and neurochemical profiles in male and female rats. Pregnant dams were subjected to restraint stress three times daily for 45 min during d 14-21 of pregnancy. The offspring of control and prenatally stressed dams were tested for anxiety-related and cognitive behaviors, stress and gonadal steroid hormone levels, as well as monoamines and metabolite levels in selected brain regions. Postnatal testosterone levels (measured at 1 and 5 d) did not differ between controls and prenatally stressed animals. In adulthood, the serum corticosterone response to stress was attenuated in prenatally stressed females, eliminating the sex difference normally observed in this parameter. Prenatally stressed females exhibited higher anxiety levels, evidenced by longer open field entry latencies. Prenatal stress had no effect on object recognition memory, but eliminated the advantage normally seen in the male performance of a spatial memory task. Neurochemical profiles of prenatally stressed females were altered toward the masculine phenotype in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus. Thus, prenatal stress altered subsequent cognitive, endocrine, and neurochemical responses in a sex-specific manner. These data reinforce the view that prenatal stress affects multiple aspects of brain development, interfering with the expression of normal behavioral, neuroendocrine, and neurochemical sex differences. These data have implications for the effects of prenatal stress on the development of sexually dimorphic endocrine and neurological disorders. PMID:15142991

Bowman, Rachel E; MacLusky, Neil J; Sarmiento, Yessenia; Frankfurt, Maya; Gordon, Marisa; Luine, Victoria N

2004-08-01

37

Hormone replacement with 17?-estradiol plus dihydrotestosterone restores male sexual behavior in rats treated neonatally with clomipramine.  

PubMed

Male sexual behavior (MSB) in rodents, in both its consummatory and motivational components, is regulated by hormones such as testosterone, 17?-estradiol and 5-?-dihydrotestosterone. In experiments, neonatal treatment with clomipramine (CMI; a serotonin reuptake inhibitor) reproduces some of the signs of depression in adult age, including reduced sexual behavior manifested in a lower percentage of subjects that mount, intromit and ejaculate, although their testosterone levels were not altered. However, the effect of this treatment on estrogen levels and the consequences of hormone substitution using 17?-estradiol and 5-?-dihydrotestosterone on the expression of male sexual behavior are still unknown. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to analyze the effect of neonatal treatment with CMI on plasma testosterone and 17?-estradiol levels, and the role of testosterone, 17?-estradiol and 5-?-dihydrotestosterone in altering the consummatory and motivational components of sexual behavior in male rats. To this end, it analyzed the copulatory parameters and sexual incentive motivation (SIM) of rats treated with CMI under two conditions: basal and post-hormone replacements. Neonatal treatment with CMI did not affect plasma testosterone or 17?-estradiol concentrations, but did decrease both the consummatory component and sexual motivation according to the results of the SIM test. These aspects were recovered after administering 17?-estradiol +5-?-dihydrotestosterone, but not testosterone. PMID:25449595

Limón-Morales, Ofelia; Soria-Fregozo, Cesar; Arteaga-Silva, Marcela; González, Marisela Hernández; Vázquez-Palacios, Gonzalo; Bonilla-Jaime, Herlinda

2014-11-01

38

Hormones orchestrated pre- and post-copulatory sexual traits in male Mongolian gerbils.  

PubMed

Parker's sperm competition model predicts a negative relationship between pre-copulatory (social status) and post-copulatory (sperm quality and quantity) sexually selected traits, however, empirical studies have revealed considerable inconsistency in this relationship. We hypothesized that there was a trade-off between pre- and post-copulatory sexually selected traits, and hormones (corticosterone, CORT; testosterone, T) orchestrate this relationship. In this study, we measured energetic parameters in the dominant-subordinate Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus), whose relationship was established under chronic social encounters in a neutral arena, and then tested the relationship between their social status and sperm quality and quantity. Our results showed that dominant males initiated attack sooner and displayed more aggression, self-grooming and locomotion behaviors in daily social encounters across seven consecutive days. Dominant gerbils also had more and better quality of sperm than that of subordinate males, yet showed no significant differences in energy intake and RMR in comparison with subordinate individuals. In addition, dominant males had higher concentrations of serum T than subordinate males, whereas the concentrations of CORT showed a reverse pattern. The frequency and duration of aggression (indicative of social status) increased with elevated T concentrations. Sperm quality in terms of number and activity were associated with higher concentrations of serum T in dominant gerbils, whereas small sperm counts and poor-quality sperm were associated with relatively higher concentrations of serum CORT in subordinate gerbils. Together, our data indicated that there was no trade-off between pre- and post-copulatory sexually selected traits but hormones orchestrated the relationship between these traits in male Mongolian gerbils. PMID:25725121

Shen, Wei; Zhang, Xue-Ying; Liu, Ding-Zhen; Wang, De-Hua

2015-05-01

39

RNA interference of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone gene induces aggressive and sexual behaviors in birds.  

PubMed

Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) was originally identified in the Japanese quail as a hypothalamic neuropeptide inhibitor of pituitary gonadotropin synthesis and release. GnIH neuronal fibers not only terminate in the median eminence to control anterior pituitary function but also extend widely in the brain, suggesting multiple roles in the regulation of behavior. To identify the role of GnIH neurons in the regulation of behavior, we tested the effect of RNA interference (RNAi) of the GnIH gene on aggressive and sexual behaviors of white-crowned sparrows and Japanese quail. Administration of small interfering RNA against GnIH precursor mRNA (GnIH siRNA) into the third ventricle of white-crowned sparrows reduced resting time, spontaneous production of complex vocalizations, and stimulated brief agonistic vocalizations. These behaviors resembled those of breeding birds during territorial defense. Central administration of GnIH siRNA induced aggressive and sexual behaviors and GnIH administration suppressed GnIH RNAi induced aggressive and sexual behaviors in the male quail. In summary, GnIH may function as a central nervous system suppressor of social interaction, thus playing an important role in the control of reproductive behavior, general aggression and territorial defense. PMID:23046601

Ubuka, Takayoshi; Mizuno, Takanobu; Fukuda, Yujiro; Bentley, George E; Wingfield, John C; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

2013-01-15

40

Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone reduces sexual motivation but not lordosis behavior in female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).  

PubMed

Reproductive success is maximized when female sexual motivation and behavior coincide with the time of optimal fertility. Both processes depend upon coordinated hormonal events, beginning with signaling by the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal system. Two neuropeptidergic systems that lie upstream of GnRH, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH; also known as RFamide related peptide-3) and kisspeptin, are potent inhibitory and excitatory modulators of GnRH, respectively, that participate in the timing of the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge and ovulation. Whether these neuropeptides serve as neuromodulators to coordinate female sexual behavior with the limited window of fertility has not been thoroughly explored. In the present study, either intact or ovariectomized, hormone-treated female hamsters were implanted for fifteen days with chronic release osmotic pumps filled with GnIH or saline. The effect of GnIH on sexual motivation, vaginal scent marking, and lordosis was examined. Following mating, FOS activation was quantified in brain regions implicated in the regulation of female sexual behavior. Intracerebroventricular administration of GnIH reduced sexual motivation and vaginal scent marking, but not lordosis behavior. GnIH administration altered FOS expression in key neural loci implicated in female reproductive behavior, including the medial preoptic area, medial amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, independent of changes in circulating gonadal steroids and kisspeptin cell activation. Together, these data point to GnIH as an important modulator of female proceptive sexual behavior and motivation, independent of downstream alterations in sex steroid production. PMID:23827890

Piekarski, David J; Zhao, Sheng; Jennings, Kimberly J; Iwasa, Takeshi; Legan, Sandra J; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Kriegsfeld, Lance J

2013-08-01

41

The role of feeding regimens in regulating metabolism of sexually mature broiler breeders: hepatic lipid metabolism, plasma hormones and metabolites  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A trial was conducted to determine the effects of different rearing feed regimens on plasma hormone and metabolite levels and hepatic lipid metabolism on sexually mature broiler breeders. A flock of Cobb 500 birds was divided into two groups at 35 days of age and fed either everyday (ED) or skip-a-d...

42

Influence of a juvenile hormone analog and dietary protein on male Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera:Tephritidae) sexual success  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Juvenile hormone analog levels and adult diet have important effects on the sexual attractiveness and competitiveness of the male Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) (Caribbean fruit fly). Since the success of the sterile insect technique requires the release of males that can compete in the wild, these effe...

43

Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone Reduces Sexual Motivation But Not Lordosis Behavior In Female Syrian Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus)  

PubMed Central

Reproductive success is maximized when female sexual motivation and behavior coincide with the time of optimal fertility. Both processes depend upon coordinated hormonal events, beginning with signaling by the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal system. Two neuropeptidergic systems that lie upstream of GnRH, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH; also known as RFamide related peptide-3) and kisspeptin, are potent inhibitory and excitatory modulators of GnRH, respectively, participate in the timing of the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge and ovulation. Whether these neuropeptides serve as neuromodulators to coordinate female sexual behavior with the limited window of fertility has not been thoroughly explored. In the present study, either intact or ovariectomized, hormonetreated female hamsters were implanted for fifteen days with chronic release osmotic pumps filled with GnIH or saline. The effect of GnIH on sexual motivation, vaginal scent marking, and lordosis was examined. Following mating, FOS activation was quantified in brain regions implicated in the regulation of female sexual behavior. Intracerebroventricular administration of GnIH reduced sexual motivation and vaginal scent marking, but not lordosis behavior. GnIH administration altered FOS expression in key neural loci implicated in female reproductive behavior, including the medial preoptic area, medial amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, independent of changes in circulating gonadal steroids and kisspeptin cell activation. Together, these data point to GnIH as an important modulator of female proceptive sexual behavior and motivation, independent of downstream alterations in sex steroid production. PMID:23827890

Piekarski, David J.; Zhao, Sheng; Jennings, Kimberly J.; Iwasa, Takeshi; Legan, Sandra J.; Mikkelsen, Jens D.; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Kriegsfeld, Lance J.

2014-01-01

44

The relationship between circulating kisspeptin and sexual hormones levels in healthy females.  

PubMed

The kisspeptin (metastin) is an endogenous peptide, which regulates human reproduction by modulating gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion. Kisspeptin was detected in peripheral blood, although GnRH was not. Previously, we measured plasma kisspeptin levels in male healthy subjects and patients with hypogonadism using enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to elucidate a normal range in healthy males and clinical implications of kisspeptin in male hypogonadism. We suggested that the plasma kisspeptin levels were received feedback from testosterone. In this study, we focused female subjects and elucidated the relationship between menstrual cycle and plasma kisspeptin levels to understand kisspeptin-hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. We measured plasma kisspeptin levels in eight female volunteers. The plasma kisspeptin levels in female are significantly higher than those in male. There are no significant correlation between plasma kisspeptin levels and sexual hormones. We revealed that the kisspeptin might stimulate a start of menstruation as a trigger, and progress menstruation covered for weakened ovarian function. We suggest that kisspeptin may be closely related with menstrual cycle and that the measurement of plasma kisspeptin levels is useful for understanding of reproductive system. PMID:25684182

Katagiri, Fumihiko; Kotani, Masato; Hirai, Tsuyoshi; Kagawa, Jiro

2015-03-13

45

Transcriptomic Analyses of Sexual Dimorphism of the Zebrafish Liver and the Effect of Sex Hormones  

PubMed Central

The liver is one of the most sex-dimorphic organs in both oviparous and viviparous animals. In order to understand the molecular basis of the difference between male and female livers, high-throughput RNA-SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression) sequencing was performed for zebrafish livers of both sexes and their transcriptomes were compared. Both sexes had abundantly expressed genes involved in translation, coagulation and lipid metabolism, consistent with the general function of the liver. For sex-biased transcripts, from in addition to the high enrichment of vitellogenin transcripts in spawning female livers, which constituted nearly 80% of total mRNA, it is apparent that the female-biased genes were mostly involved in ribosome/translation, estrogen pathway, lipid transport, etc, while the male-biased genes were enriched for oxidation reduction, carbohydrate metabolism, coagulation, protein transport and localization, etc. Sexual dimorphism on xenobiotic metabolism and anti-oxidation was also noted and it is likely that retinol x receptor (RXR) and liver x receptor (LXR) play central roles in regulating the sexual differences of lipid and cholesterol metabolisms. Consistent with high ribosomal/translational activities in the female liver, female-biased genes were significantly regulated by two important transcription factors, Myc and Mycn. In contrast, Male livers showed activation of transcription factors Ppargc1b, Hnf4a, and Stat4, which regulate lipid and glucose metabolisms and various cellular activities. The transcriptomic responses to sex hormones, 17?-estradiol (E2) or 11-keto testosterone (KT11), were also investigated in both male and female livers and we found that female livers were relatively insensitive to sex hormone disturbance, while the male livers were readily affected. E2 feminized male liver by up-regulating female-biased transcripts and down-regulating male-biased transcripts. The information obtained in this study provides comprehensive insights into the sexual dimorphism of zebrafish liver transcriptome and will facilitate further development of the zebrafish as a human liver disease model. PMID:23349717

Zheng, Weiling; Xu, Hongyan; Lam, Siew Hong; Luo, Huaien; Karuturi, R. Krishna Murthy; Gong, Zhiyuan

2013-01-01

46

Neural mechanisms underlying sexual arousal in connection with sexual hormone levels: a comparative study of the postoperative male-to-female transsexuals and premenopausal and menopausal women.  

PubMed

This study compared the brain activation patterns associated with visual sexual arousal in connection with sexual hormone levels in postoperative male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals and normal premenopausal and menopausal women using 3.0 T functional MRI. A total of 30 volunteers including 10 premenopausal women, 10 menopausal women, and 10 postoperative MTF transsexuals who had undergone sex reassignment surgery participated in this study. Brain activity was measured while viewing erotic male and female nude pictures. The free testosterone and estradiol levels of the postoperative MTF transsexuals were not in the normal range seen in normal premenopausal women, but were in range seen in menopausal women. The postoperative MTF transsexuals showed significantly higher activities in the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdala, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, and head of caudate nucleus in response to erotic male nude pictures in contrast to female pictures (P<0.005). The predominant activation areas observed in the postoperative MTF transsexuals in contrast to the menopausal women when viewing male nude pictures included the insula, hippocampus, thalamus, and putamen (P<0.005). Similar to the postoperative MTF transsexuals, the premenopausal women showed significantly higher activities than menopausal women in the insula, hippocampus, thalamus, and parahippocampal gyrus (P<0.005). This study revealed that the brain activation patterns associated with visual sexual arousal in postoperative MTF transsexuals are similar to those in premenopausal women, although the sexual hormone levels in the postoperative MTF transsexuals are in the average range of those in menopausal women. PMID:24800986

Kim, Gwang-Won; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

2014-06-18

47

DEHP (DI-N-ETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE), WHEN ADMINISTERED DURING SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION, INDUCES DOSE DEPENDENT DECREASES IN FETAL TESTIS GENE EXPRESSION AND STEROID HORMONE SYNTHESIS  

EPA Science Inventory

DEHP (di-n-ethylhexyl phthalate), when administered during sexual differentiation, induces dose dependent decreases in fetal testis gene expression and steroid hormone synthesis. Vickie S. Wilson, Christy Lambright, Johnathan Furr, Kathy Bobseine, Carmen Wood, Gary Held, and ...

48

Hormones  

MedlinePLUS

Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

49

Enhancing male sexual success in a lekking fly ( Anastrepha suspensa Diptera: Tephritidae) through a juvenile hormone analog has no effect on adult mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

While defending lek-territories, male Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) produce chemical, acoustic and visual courtship signals. In the laboratory and under semi-natural conditions, topical application of the juvenile hormone analog methoprene doubles pheromone production and subsequently doubles sexual success. However, sexual signals and interactions are likely to be physiologically expensive and so result in higher male mortality. Comparison of males kept in

Rui Pereira; John Sivinski; Peter Teal; Jane Brockmann

2010-01-01

50

Elevated testosterone reduces choosiness in female dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis): evidence for a hormonal constraint on sexual selection?  

PubMed

Because testosterone (T) often mediates the expression of attractive displays and ornaments, in the absence of constraints sexual selection should lead to an evolutionary increase in male T levels. One candidate constraint would be a genetic correlation between the sexes that leads to a correlated response in females. If increased T in females were to have deleterious effects on mate choice, the effect of sexual selection on male T would be weakened. Using female dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), we tested whether experimentally enhancing female T would lead to a decrease in discrimination between two classes of males, one treated with T (T-males) and one control (C-males). The two female treatments (T-implanted and C-females) spent equal amounts of time with both classes of males, but T-treated females failed to show a preference for either male treatment, whereas C-females showed a significant preference, albeit in an unexpected direction (for C-males). T-females were less discriminating than C-females, irrespective of the direction of their preference. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that circulating hormones can alter female choosiness without reducing sexual motivation. Our results suggest that hormonal correlations between the sexes have the potential to constrain sexual selection on males. PMID:15306336

McGlothlin, Joel W; Neudorf, Diane L H; Casto, Joseph M; Nolan, Val; Ketterson, Ellen D

2004-07-01

51

Elevated testosterone reduces choosiness in female dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis): evidence for a hormonal constraint on sexual selection?  

PubMed Central

Because testosterone (T) often mediates the expression of attractive displays and ornaments, in the absence of constraints sexual selection should lead to an evolutionary increase in male T levels. One candidate constraint would be a genetic correlation between the sexes that leads to a correlated response in females. If increased T in females were to have deleterious effects on mate choice, the effect of sexual selection on male T would be weakened. Using female dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), we tested whether experimentally enhancing female T would lead to a decrease in discrimination between two classes of males, one treated with T (T-males) and one control (C-males). The two female treatments (T-implanted and C-females) spent equal amounts of time with both classes of males, but T-treated females failed to show a preference for either male treatment, whereas C-females showed a significant preference, albeit in an unexpected direction (for C-males). T-females were less discriminating than C-females, irrespective of the direction of their preference. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that circulating hormones can alter female choosiness without reducing sexual motivation. Our results suggest that hormonal correlations between the sexes have the potential to constrain sexual selection on males. PMID:15306336

McGlothlin, Joel W.; Neudorf, Diane L. H.; Casto, Joseph M.; Nolan, Val; Ketterson, Ellen D.

2004-01-01

52

Association of Hormonal Contraceptive Use With Reduced Levels of Depressive Symptoms: A National Study of Sexually Active Women in the United States  

PubMed Central

An estimated 80% of sexually active young women in the United States use hormonal contraceptives during their reproductive years. Associations between hormonal contraceptive use and mood disturbances remain understudied, despite the hypothesis that estrogen and progesterone play a role in mood problems. In this study, we used data from 6,654 sexually active nonpregnant women across 4 waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994–2008), focusing on women aged 25–34 years. Women were asked about hormonal contraceptive use in the context of a current sexual partnership; thus, contraceptive users were compared with other sexually active women who were using either nonhormonal contraception or no contraception. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. At ages 25–34 years, hormonal contraceptive users had lower mean levels of concurrent depressive symptoms (? = ?1.04, 95% confidence interval: ?1.73, ?0.35) and were less likely to report a past-year suicide attempt (odds ratio = 0.37, 95% confidence interval: 0.14, 0.95) than women using low-efficacy contraception or no contraception, in models adjusted for propensity scores for hormonal contraceptive use. Longitudinal analyses indicated that associations between hormonal contraception and depressive symptoms were stable. Hormonal contraception may reduce levels of depressive symptoms among young women. Systematic investigation of exogenous hormones as a potential preventive factor in psychiatric epidemiology is warranted. PMID:24043440

Keyes, Katherine M.; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Westhoff, Carolyn; Heim, Christine M.; Haloossim, Michelle; Walsh, Kate; Koenen, Karestan

2013-01-01

53

Association of hormonal contraceptive use with reduced levels of depressive symptoms: a national study of sexually active women in the United States.  

PubMed

An estimated 80% of sexually active young women in the United States use hormonal contraceptives during their reproductive years. Associations between hormonal contraceptive use and mood disturbances remain understudied, despite the hypothesis that estrogen and progesterone play a role in mood problems. In this study, we used data from 6,654 sexually active nonpregnant women across 4 waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994-2008), focusing on women aged 25-34 years. Women were asked about hormonal contraceptive use in the context of a current sexual partnership; thus, contraceptive users were compared with other sexually active women who were using either nonhormonal contraception or no contraception. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. At ages 25-34 years, hormonal contraceptive users had lower mean levels of concurrent depressive symptoms (? = -1.04, 95% confidence interval: -1.73, -0.35) and were less likely to report a past-year suicide attempt (odds ratio = 0.37, 95% confidence interval: 0.14, 0.95) than women using low-efficacy contraception or no contraception, in models adjusted for propensity scores for hormonal contraceptive use. Longitudinal analyses indicated that associations between hormonal contraception and depressive symptoms were stable. Hormonal contraception may reduce levels of depressive symptoms among young women. Systematic investigation of exogenous hormones as a potential preventive factor in psychiatric epidemiology is warranted. PMID:24043440

Keyes, Katherine M; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Westhoff, Carolyn; Heim, Christine M; Haloossim, Michelle; Walsh, Kate; Koenen, Karestan

2013-11-01

54

Differential neural responses to child and sexual stimuli in human fathers and non-fathers and their hormonal correlates  

PubMed Central

Despite the well-documented importance of paternal caregiving for positive child development, little is known about the neural changes that accompany the transition to fatherhood in humans, or about how changes in hormone levels affect paternal brain function. We compared fathers of children aged 1–2 with non-fathers in terms of hormone levels (oxytocin and testosterone), neural responses to child picture stimuli, and neural responses to visual sexual stimuli. Compared to non-fathers, fathers had significantly higher levels of plasma oxytocin and lower levels of plasma testosterone. In response to child picture stimuli, fathers showed stronger activation than non-fathers within regions important for face emotion processing (caudal middle frontal gyrus [MFG]), mentalizing (temporo-parietal junction [TPJ]) and reward processing (medial orbitofrontal cortex [mOFC]). On the other hand, non-fathers had significantly stronger neural responses to sexually provocative images in regions important for reward and approach-related motivation (dorsal caudate and nucleus accumbens). Testosterone levels were negatively correlated with responses to child stimuli in the MFG. Surprisingly, neither testosterone nor oxytocin levels predicted neural responses to sexual stimuli. Our results suggest that the decline in testosterone that accompanies the transition to fatherhood may be important for augmenting empathy toward children. PMID:24882167

Mascaro, Jennifer S.; Hackett, Patrick D.; Rilling, James K.

2015-01-01

55

Sociosexual investigation in sexually experienced, hormonally manipulated male leopard geckos: relation with phosphorylated DARPP-32 in dopaminergic pathways.  

PubMed

Dopaminergic activity is both associated with sociosexual exposure and modulated by sexual experience and hormonal state across vertebrate taxa. Mature leopard geckos, a reptile with temperature-dependent sex determination, have dopaminoceptive nuclei that are influenced by their embryonic environment and sensitive to adult hormonal manipulation. In this study, we exposed hormonally manipulated male leopard geckos from different incubation temperatures to conspecifics and measured their sociosexual investigation, as well as phosphorylated DARPP-32 at Threonine 34 (pDARPP-32) immunoreactivity as a marker for D1 dopamine receptor activity in the nucleus accumbens, striatum, and preoptic area. Social investigation time by males of different incubation temperatures was modulated in opposite directions by exogenous androgen treatment. Males exposed to novel stimuli spent a greater proportion of time investigating females of different incubation temperatures. The time spent investigating females was positively correlated to pDARPP-32 immunoreactivity in the preoptic area. This is the first study quantifying pDARPP-32 in a lizard species, and suggests the protein as a potential marker to measure differences in the dopaminergic pathway in a social setting with consideration of embryonic environment and hormonal state. PMID:25351686

Huang, Victoria; Hemmings, Hugh C; Crews, David

2014-12-01

56

Microbiome, sex hormones, and immune responses in the reproductive tract: challenges for vaccine development against sexually transmitted infections.  

PubMed

The female and male reproductive tracts are complex eco-systems where immune cells, hormones, and microorganisms interact. The characteristics of the reproductive tract mucosa are distinct from other mucosal sites. Reproductive tract mucosal immune responses are compartmentalized, unique, and affected by resident bacterial communities and sex hormones. The female and male genital microbiomes are complex environments that fluctuate in response to external and host-associated stimuli. The female vaginal microbiota play an important role in preventing colonization by pathogenic organisms. Sex hormones and their duration of exposure affect the composition and stability of the microbiome as well as systemic and mucosal immune responses. In addition to the characteristics of the pathogen they are targeting, successful vaccines against sexually transmitted pathogens must take into account the differences between the systemic and mucosal immune responses, the compartmentalization of the mucosal immune responses, the unique characteristics of the reproductive tract mucosa, the role of the mucosal bacterial communities, the impact of sex hormones, and the interactions among all of these factors. PMID:24135572

Brotman, Rebecca M; Ravel, Jacques; Bavoil, Patrik M; Gravitt, Patti E; Ghanem, Khalil G

2014-03-20

57

Hormonal regulation of brain circuits mediating male sexual behavior in birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male sexual behavior in both field and laboratory settings has been studied in birds since the 19th century. Birds are valuable for the investigation of the neuroendocrine mechanisms of sexual behavior, because their behavior can be studied in the context of a large amount of field data, well-defined neural circuits related to reproductive behavior have been described, and the avian

Gregory F. Ball; Jacques Balthazart

2004-01-01

58

Hormonal contraception and risk of sexually transmitted disease acquisition: Results from a prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To examine the relationship between use of oral contraceptive pills or depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and sexually transmitted disease acquisition. Study Design: Prospective cohort included 948 Kenyan prostitutes. Multivariate Andersen-Gill proportional hazards models were constructed, adjusting for sexual behavioral and demographic variables. Results: When compared with women who were using no contraception, users of oral contraceptive pills were at increased

Jared M. Baeten; Patrick M. Nyange; Barbra A. Richardson; Ludo Lavreys; Bhavna Chohan; Harold L. Martin; Kishorchandra Mandaliya; Jeckoniah O. Ndinya-Achola; Job J. Bwayo; Joan K. Kreiss

2001-01-01

59

Neoadjuvant hormonal therapy and older age are associated with adverse sexual health-related quality-of-life outcome after prostate brachytherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Brachytherapy is increasingly used as a treatment for localized prostate cancer but information regarding long-term, postimplantation, patient-reported sexual health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) is scant. Neoadjuvant hormonal therapy is commonly administered with brachytherapy, yet its potentially adverse effects on subsequent sexual health have not been described using a validated HRQOL instrument. We used a validated HRQOL survey to characterize the significance

Brent K Hollenbeck; Rodney L Dunn; John T Wei; Patrick W McLaughlin; Michael Han; Martin G Sanda

2002-01-01

60

In vivo and in vitro studies on the opioidergic control of the secretion of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone and luteinizing hormone in sexually immature and adult male rats.  

PubMed

In vivo and in vitro methods have been used to compare the effects of opioid receptor blockade on the functional activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis in adult (200 g) and sexually immature (50 g) male rats. In the adult, a single injection of the mu-receptor antagonist, naloxone (500 micrograms/100 g body weight, s.c.), produced hypersecretions of luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone. Maximal serum concentrations of the two hormones were attained within 20 and 60 min respectively. In contrast, neither ICI 174864 (100 micrograms/100 g body weight, s.c.) nor MR2266 (150 micrograms/100 g body weight, s.c.), which block delta- and kappa-receptors respectively, stimulated pituitary-gonadal activity; indeed, like the saline vehicle, both tended to depress the serum LH concentration. The injection procedure was sufficient to activate the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and, thus, the vehicle-treated controls exhibited significant increases in the plasma adrenocorticotrophin and serum corticosterone concentrations. These effects were enhanced by naloxone (500 micrograms/100 g body weight, s.c.) and by the kappa-opioid receptor (MR2266, 150 micrograms/100 g body weight, s.c.) but not by the delta-opioid receptor antagonist (ICI 174864, 30-100 micrograms/100 g body weight, s.c.). The increases in serum corticosterone and LH concentration induced by naloxone in adult rats were not apparent in the sexually immature (50 g) animals. To the contrary, in the young rats naloxone (250 and 500 micrograms/100 micrograms body weight, s.c.) attenuated, in a dose-dependent manner, the pronounced hypersecretion of corticosterone induced by the vehicle injection. The higher dose of the antagonist (500 micrograms/100 g body weight, s.c.) also overcame the significant reductions in serum LH evident 20 (p less than 0.05) and 40 (p less than 0.01) min after the saline injection but the lower dose (250 micrograms/100 g body weight, s.c.) was ineffective in this respect. In vitro, hypothalami from both adult and sexually immature rats responded to the addition of naloxone (10(-8)-10(-6) M) to the incubation medium with significant (p less than 0.01) concentration-dependent increases in the release of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH). In contrast, ICI 174864 (10(-7)-10(-6) M) and MR2266 (10(-7)-10(-6) M) had little effect on the secretion of the releasing hormone by hypothalami from rats of either group although, at the highest concentration tested, MR2266 (10(-6) M) precipitated a small increase in GnRH release from hypothalami from adult rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1652110

Leposavic, G; Cover, P O; Buckingham, J C

1991-06-01

61

Testosterone affects neural gene expression differently in male and female juncos: a role for hormones in mediating sexual dimorphism and conflict.  

PubMed

Despite sharing much of their genomes, males and females are often highly dimorphic, reflecting at least in part the resolution of sexual conflict in response to sexually antagonistic selection. Sexual dimorphism arises owing to sex differences in gene expression, and steroid hormones are often invoked as a proximate cause of sexual dimorphism. Experimental elevation of androgens can modify behavior, physiology, and gene expression, but knowledge of the role of hormones remains incomplete, including how the sexes differ in gene expression in response to hormones. We addressed these questions in a bird species with a long history of behavioral endocrinological and ecological study, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), using a custom microarray. Focusing on two brain regions involved in sexually dimorphic behavior and regulation of hormone secretion, we identified 651 genes that differed in expression by sex in medial amygdala and 611 in hypothalamus. Additionally, we treated individuals of each sex with testosterone implants and identified many genes that may be related to previously identified phenotypic effects of testosterone treatment. Some of these genes relate to previously identified effects of testosterone-treatment and suggest that the multiple effects of testosterone may be mediated by modifying the expression of a small number of genes. Notably, testosterone-treatment tended to alter expression of different genes in each sex: only 4 of the 527 genes identified as significant in one sex or the other were significantly differentially expressed in both sexes. Hormonally regulated gene expression is a key mechanism underlying sexual dimorphism, and our study identifies specific genes that may mediate some of these processes. PMID:23613935

Peterson, Mark P; Rosvall, Kimberly A; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Ziegenfus, Charles; Tang, Haixu; Colbourne, John K; Ketterson, Ellen D

2013-01-01

62

Testosterone Affects Neural Gene Expression Differently in Male and Female Juncos: A Role for Hormones in Mediating Sexual Dimorphism and Conflict  

PubMed Central

Despite sharing much of their genomes, males and females are often highly dimorphic, reflecting at least in part the resolution of sexual conflict in response to sexually antagonistic selection. Sexual dimorphism arises owing to sex differences in gene expression, and steroid hormones are often invoked as a proximate cause of sexual dimorphism. Experimental elevation of androgens can modify behavior, physiology, and gene expression, but knowledge of the role of hormones remains incomplete, including how the sexes differ in gene expression in response to hormones. We addressed these questions in a bird species with a long history of behavioral endocrinological and ecological study, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), using a custom microarray. Focusing on two brain regions involved in sexually dimorphic behavior and regulation of hormone secretion, we identified 651 genes that differed in expression by sex in medial amygdala and 611 in hypothalamus. Additionally, we treated individuals of each sex with testosterone implants and identified many genes that may be related to previously identified phenotypic effects of testosterone treatment. Some of these genes relate to previously identified effects of testosterone-treatment and suggest that the multiple effects of testosterone may be mediated by modifying the expression of a small number of genes. Notably, testosterone-treatment tended to alter expression of different genes in each sex: only 4 of the 527 genes identified as significant in one sex or the other were significantly differentially expressed in both sexes. Hormonally regulated gene expression is a key mechanism underlying sexual dimorphism, and our study identifies specific genes that may mediate some of these processes. PMID:23613935

Peterson, Mark P.; Rosvall, Kimberly A.; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Ziegenfus, Charles; Tang, Haixu; Colbourne, John K.; Ketterson, Ellen D.

2013-01-01

63

Food Restriction-Induced Changes in Gonadotropin-Inhibiting Hormone Cells are Associated with Changes in Sexual Motivation and Food Hoarding, but not Sexual Performance and Food Intake  

PubMed Central

We hypothesized that putative anorectic and orexigenic peptides control the motivation to engage in either ingestive or sex behaviors, and these peptides function to optimize reproductive success in environments where energy fluctuates. Here, the putative orexigenic peptide, gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone (GnIH, also known as RFamide-related peptide-3), and the putative anorectic hormones leptin, insulin, and estradiol were examined during the course of food restriction. Groups of female Syrian hamsters were restricted to 75% of their ad libitum food intake or fed ad libitum for 4, 8, or 12?days. Two other groups were food-restricted for 12?days and then re-fed ad libitum for 4 or 8?days. After testing for sex and ingestive behavior, blood was sampled and assayed for peripheral hormones. Brains were immunohistochemically double-labeled for GnIH and the protein product of the immediate early gene, c-fos, a marker of cellular activation. Food hoarding, the number of double-labeled cells, and the percent of GnIH-Ir cells labeled with Fos-Ir were significantly increased at 8 and 12?days after the start of food restriction. Vaginal scent marking and GnIH-Ir cell number significantly decreased after the same duration of restriction. Food hoarding, but not food intake, was significantly positively correlated with cellular activation in GnIH-Ir cells. Vaginal scent marking was significantly negatively correlated with cellular activation in GnIH-Ir cells. There were no significant effects of food restriction on plasma insulin, leptin, estradiol, or progesterone concentrations. In the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) of energetically challenged females, strong projections from NPY-Ir cells were found in close apposition to GnIH-Ir cells. Together these results are consistent with the idea that metabolic signals influence sexual and ingestive motivation via NPY fibers that project to GnIH cells in the DMH. PMID:22649396

Klingerman, Candice M.; Williams, Wilbur P.; Simberlund, Jessica; Brahme, Nina; Prasad, Ankita; Schneider, Jill E.; Kriegsfeld, Lance J.

2011-01-01

64

Food Restriction-Induced Changes in Gonadotropin-Inhibiting Hormone Cells are Associated with Changes in Sexual Motivation and Food Hoarding, but not Sexual Performance and Food Intake.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that putative anorectic and orexigenic peptides control the motivation to engage in either ingestive or sex behaviors, and these peptides function to optimize reproductive success in environments where energy fluctuates. Here, the putative orexigenic peptide, gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone (GnIH, also known as RFamide-related peptide-3), and the putative anorectic hormones leptin, insulin, and estradiol were examined during the course of food restriction. Groups of female Syrian hamsters were restricted to 75% of their ad libitum food intake or fed ad libitum for 4, 8, or 12?days. Two other groups were food-restricted for 12?days and then re-fed ad libitum for 4 or 8?days. After testing for sex and ingestive behavior, blood was sampled and assayed for peripheral hormones. Brains were immunohistochemically double-labeled for GnIH and the protein product of the immediate early gene, c-fos, a marker of cellular activation. Food hoarding, the number of double-labeled cells, and the percent of GnIH-Ir cells labeled with Fos-Ir were significantly increased at 8 and 12?days after the start of food restriction. Vaginal scent marking and GnIH-Ir cell number significantly decreased after the same duration of restriction. Food hoarding, but not food intake, was significantly positively correlated with cellular activation in GnIH-Ir cells. Vaginal scent marking was significantly negatively correlated with cellular activation in GnIH-Ir cells. There were no significant effects of food restriction on plasma insulin, leptin, estradiol, or progesterone concentrations. In the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) of energetically challenged females, strong projections from NPY-Ir cells were found in close apposition to GnIH-Ir cells. Together these results are consistent with the idea that metabolic signals influence sexual and ingestive motivation via NPY fibers that project to GnIH cells in the DMH. PMID:22649396

Klingerman, Candice M; Williams, Wilbur P; Simberlund, Jessica; Brahme, Nina; Prasad, Ankita; Schneider, Jill E; Kriegsfeld, Lance J

2011-01-01

65

Female hormone influences on sexual assaults in northern ireland from 2002 to 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Northern Ireland 1 in every 454 women of 13 years and over during 2008\\/09 reported to police that they had suffered a sexual assault.1,2 This study considered the possibility that women may be more likely to be victims of sexual assault during the fertile phase of their reproductive cycle. Evolutionary psychology suggests that women would have suffered more negative

Patricia Beirne; Janet Hall; Claire Grills; Tara Moore

2011-01-01

66

The effect of chronic ethanol ingestion on growth hormone secretion and hepatic sexual dimorphism in male rats  

SciTech Connect

The effect of chronic ethanol ingestion on the activities of several sexually dimorphic hepatic proteins was investigated in male rats by feeding a nutritionally adequate liquid diet supplemented with either ethanol or dextrimaltose. Two androgen-responsive proteins served as markers of masculine hepatic function. A high capacity, moderate affinity male estrogen-binding protein (MEB) is found only in male rat liver cytosol and this activity was significantly reduced in all animals consuming ethanol at a dose of 5% by volume. The estrogen metabolizing enzyme estrogen 2-hydroxylase was also significantly reduced in male rats fed ethanol. Two proteins having higher activity in female compared to male liver were chosen as indicators of feminization: ceruloplasmin and 5[alpha]-reductase. Ceruloplasmin activity was increased after long term feeding of ethanol, but not after shorter durations of alcohol consumption. The 5a-reductase activity was not significantly affected by any of the alcohol feeding studies. Serum testosterone levels were not significantly decreased after ethanol consumption. After 30 or 60 days of ethanol ingestion, serum estradiol was elevated 34% and 40%. The reversibility of ethanol effects was determined by a gradual withdrawal of alcohol from the diet. The effect of ethanol consumption on sex-specific patterns of growth hormone secretion was examined. The secretory pattern of alcohol-fed rats was not feminized; after ethanol ingestion, the frequency of growth hormone pulses was unchanged. An increase in pulse height and mean growth hormone concentration was observed after 60 days of ethanol consumption. This results constitutes a change away from rather than toward the characteristics of a female secretory pattern. The feminization of activities of the male estrogen binding protein and of estrogen 2-hydroxylase in male rat liver after chronic ethanol consumption are not apparently related to a feminization of growth hormone secretion pattern.

Lechner, P.S.

1992-01-01

67

Enhancing male sexual success in a lekking fly (Ananstrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) through a juvenile hormone analog has no effect on adult mortality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

While defending lek-territories, male Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) produce chemical, acoustic and visual courtship signals. In the laboratory and under semi-natural conditions, topical application of the juvenile hormone analog methoprene doubles pheromone production and subsequently doubles sexual su...

68

Advanced prostate cancer patients' ways of coping with the hormonal therapy's effect on body, sexuality, and spousal ties.  

PubMed

The authors examine the coping strategies employed by advanced prostate cancer patients receiving hormonal therapy to learn from their experience about potential solutions to their nonmedical needs. The study was based on in-depth interviews with 15 such patients and data analysis by the constant comparative method. The main psychosocial difficulties detected were patients' bodily feminization, sexual dysfunction, and disruption of spousal intimacy. Participants contended with these difficulties through disguise, diversion, and avoidance strategies applied in social interactions, and through self-redefining, self-distancing, and self-solacing cognitive tactics. The analysis of these coping techniques clarifies the motives behind their adoption by the participants, their changing patterns over time, their advantages and disadvantages, and the potential that understanding these issues possesses for improving interventions aimed at alleviating patients' difficulties. PMID:14658352

Navon, Liora; Morag, Amira

2003-12-01

69

A Genome-Wide Survey of Sexually Dimorphic Expression of Drosophila miRNAs Identifies the Steroid Hormone-Induced miRNA let-7 as a Regulator of Sexual Identity  

PubMed Central

MiRNAs bear an increasing number of functions throughout development and in the aging adult. Here we address their role in establishing sexually dimorphic traits and sexual identity in male and female Drosophila. Our survey of miRNA populations in each sex identifies sets of miRNAs differentially expressed in male and female tissues across various stages of development. The pervasive sex-biased expression of miRNAs generally increases with the complexity and sexual dimorphism of tissues, gonads revealing the most striking biases. We find that the male-specific regulation of the X chromosome is relevant to miRNA expression on two levels. First, in the male gonad, testis-biased miRNAs tend to reside on the X chromosome. Second, in the soma, X-linked miRNAs do not systematically rely on dosage compensation. We set out to address the importance of a sex-biased expression of miRNAs in establishing sexually dimorphic traits. Our study of the conserved let-7-C miRNA cluster controlled by the sex-biased hormone ecdysone places let-7 as a primary modulator of the sex-determination hierarchy. Flies with modified let-7 levels present doublesex-related phenotypes and express sex-determination genes normally restricted to the opposite sex. In testes and ovaries, alterations of the ecdysone-induced let-7 result in aberrant gonadal somatic cell behavior and non-cell-autonomous defects in early germline differentiation. Gonadal defects as well as aberrant expression of sex-determination genes persist in aging adults under hormonal control. Together, our findings place ecdysone and let-7 as modulators of a somatic systemic signal that helps establish and sustain sexual identity in males and females and differentiation in gonads. This work establishes the foundation for a role of miRNAs in sexual dimorphism and demonstrates that similar to vertebrate hormonal control of cellular sexual identity exists in Drosophila. PMID:25081570

Fagegaltier, Delphine; König, Annekatrin; Gordon, Assaf; Lai, Eric C.; Gingeras, Thomas R.; Hannon, Gregory J.; Shcherbata, Halyna R.

2014-01-01

70

A genome-wide survey of sexually dimorphic expression of Drosophila miRNAs identifies the steroid hormone-induced miRNA let-7 as a regulator of sexual identity.  

PubMed

MiRNAs bear an increasing number of functions throughout development and in the aging adult. Here we address their role in establishing sexually dimorphic traits and sexual identity in male and female Drosophila. Our survey of miRNA populations in each sex identifies sets of miRNAs differentially expressed in male and female tissues across various stages of development. The pervasive sex-biased expression of miRNAs generally increases with the complexity and sexual dimorphism of tissues, gonads revealing the most striking biases. We find that the male-specific regulation of the X chromosome is relevant to miRNA expression on two levels. First, in the male gonad, testis-biased miRNAs tend to reside on the X chromosome. Second, in the soma, X-linked miRNAs do not systematically rely on dosage compensation. We set out to address the importance of a sex-biased expression of miRNAs in establishing sexually dimorphic traits. Our study of the conserved let-7-C miRNA cluster controlled by the sex-biased hormone ecdysone places let-7 as a primary modulator of the sex-determination hierarchy. Flies with modified let-7 levels present doublesex-related phenotypes and express sex-determination genes normally restricted to the opposite sex. In testes and ovaries, alterations of the ecdysone-induced let-7 result in aberrant gonadal somatic cell behavior and non-cell-autonomous defects in early germline differentiation. Gonadal defects as well as aberrant expression of sex-determination genes persist in aging adults under hormonal control. Together, our findings place ecdysone and let-7 as modulators of a somatic systemic signal that helps establish and sustain sexual identity in males and females and differentiation in gonads. This work establishes the foundation for a role of miRNAs in sexual dimorphism and demonstrates that similar to vertebrate hormonal control of cellular sexual identity exists in Drosophila. PMID:25081570

Fagegaltier, Delphine; König, Annekatrin; Gordon, Assaf; Lai, Eric C; Gingeras, Thomas R; Hannon, Gregory J; Shcherbata, Halyna R

2014-10-01

71

Association of Sex Hormones With Sexual Function, Vitality, and Physical Function of Symptomatic Older Men With Low Testosterone Levels at Baseline in the Testosterone Trials  

PubMed Central

Context: The prevalence of sexual dysfunction, low vitality, and poor physical function increases with aging, as does the prevalence of low total and free testosterone (TT and FT) levels. However, the relationship between sex hormones and age-related alterations in older men is not clear. Objective: To test the hypotheses that baseline serum TT, FT, estradiol (E2), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels are independently associated with sexual function, vitality, and physical function in older symptomatic men with low testosterone levels participating in the Testosterone Trials (TTrials). Design: Cross-sectional study of baseline measures in the TTrials. Setting: The study was conducted at 12 sites in the United States. Participants: The 788 TTrials participants were ? 65 years and had evidence of sexual dysfunction, diminished vitality, and/or mobility disability, and an average of two TT < 275 ng/dL. Interventions: None. Main Outcome Measures: Question 4 of Psychosocial Daily Questionnaire (PDQ-Q4), the FACIT-Fatigue Scale, and the 6-minute walk test. Results: Baseline serum TT and FT, but not E2 or SHBG levels had small, but statistically significant associations with validated measures of sexual desire, erectile function, and sexual activity. None of these hormones was significantly associated within or across trials with FACIT-Fatigue, PHQ-9 Depression or Physical Function-10 scores, or gait speed. Conclusions: FT and TT levels were consistently, independently, and positively associated, albeit to a small degree, with measures of sexual desire, erectile function, and sexual activity, but not with measures of vitality or physical function in symptomatic older men with low T who qualified for the TTrials. PMID:25548978

Cunningham, Glenn R.; Stephens-Shields, Alisa J.; Rosen, Raymond C.; Wang, Christina; Ellenberg, Susan S.; Matsumoto, Alvin M.; Bhasin, Shalender; Molitch, Mark E.; Farrar, John T.; Cella, David; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Cauley, Jane A.; Cifelli, Denise; Crandall, Jill P.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Fluharty, Laura; Gill, Thomas M.; Lewis, Cora E.; Pahor, Marco; Resnick, Susan M.; Storer, Thomas W.; Swerdloff, Ronald S.; Anton, Stephen; Basaria, Shehzad; Diem, Susan; Tabatabaie, Vafa; Hou, Xiaoling

2015-01-01

72

Sexual and Hormonal Profiles of Infertile Subjects with Non-Obstructive Azoospermia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Recent advances in the field of male infertility has led to a better understanding about the etiologies and genetic basis of azoospermia, as well as the availability of surgical sperm retrieval methods and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) for its treatment. Nevertheless, the quality of life of these patients in general, and sexual function in particular, have not been explored

Behzad Ghorbani; Soltan Ghoraie

2009-01-01

73

Monoamines and ovarian hormone-linked sexual and emotional changes: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional upsets related to changes in ovarian hormones are highly prevalent and are responsible for psychiatric morbidity and mortality. Significant increases in acute psychiatric hospitalizations, suicidal activity, and other psychopathology occur during the premenstruum and during menstruation. This paper reviews evidence indicating that menstrual cycle psychopathology may be mediated by the effects of estrogen, progesterone, and possibly the renin—angiotensin—aldosterone system

David S. Janowsky; William E. Fann; John M. Davis

1971-01-01

74

Hormonal mechanisms underlying aberrant sexual differentiation in male rats prenatally exposed to alcohol, stress, or both.  

PubMed

The male offspring of rats exposed to restraint stress, alcohol, or both during late pregnancy show normally masculinized genitalia; however, sexual differentiation of behavior is dissociated from the external morphology. In contrast to controls, males exposed prenatally to stress, alcohol, or a combination of these factors exhibited the female lordotic pattern. Thus, all 3 prenatal treatments led to incomplete behavioral defeminization. Behavioral masculinization was not altered by fetal alcohol exposure alone, but a significant number of males that experienced prenatal stress alone failed to copulate. A more severe disruption of behavioral masculinization occurred when stress and alcohol were combined. Very few males exposed to the combination treatment mated with females. This study attempted to relate the effects of these treatments on sexual behavior to the postparturitional surge in plasma testosterone (T) that is known to influence the process of sexual differentiation. Prenatally stressed males, like control males showed a large, brief surge in plasma T that peaked 1 hr after delivery. Altered defeminization and masculinization were seen in prenatally stressed males, despite a normal postparturitional T surge. Fetal alcohol exposure, with or without concomitant stress, depressed T to the same extent right after birth and led to a similarly blunted T surge 1 hr later. Thus, equal disruption of the neonatal T pattern occurred in alcohol-alone males, who showed normal male copulatory behavior, and in alcohol-plus-stress males, whose behavior was severely attenuated. The results suggest that consideration of abnormal exposure to T during prenatal ontogeny may be required to understand the atypical sexual behaviors associated with these treatments. PMID:11910796

Ward, O Byron; Ward, Ingeborg L; Denning, John H; Hendricks, Shelton E; French, Jeffrey A

2002-02-01

75

[Level of gonadotropic hormones in the blood plasma of cows during the sexual cycle].  

PubMed

Studied was the level dynamics of the pituitary gonadotropic hormones (FSH and LH) in the blood plasma of five cows of the Bulgarian Brown breed. During the estrus cycle an average of 12 samples of 100-150 cu. cm citrate blood were taken from each cow. The determination of FSH was performed after Brown's method, and that of LH - after Parlow's method. It was concluded that both FSH and LH consistently enter the blood during the estrus cycle. Their concentration in the peripheral blood changes in accordance with the phase of the estrus cycle. During this period two peaks in the release of gonadotropic hormones in the peripheral blood are established: one at the time of estrus itself, and another after the first half of the heat cycle. PMID:1239850

Gospodinov, G

1975-01-01

76

Epigenetic contributions to hormonally-mediated sexual differentiation of the brain.  

PubMed

It has been long established that hormones exert enduring influences on the developing brain that direct the reproductive response in adulthood, although the cellular mechanisms by which organisational effects are maintained have not been determined satisfactorily. Recent interest in epigenetic modifications to the nervous system has highlighted the potential for hormone-induced changes to the genome that could endure for the lifespan but not be transmitted to the next generation. Preliminary evidence suggests that this is indeed possible because sex differences in the histone code and in the methylation of CpGs in the promoters of specific genes have been identified and, at times, functionally correlated with behaviour. The present review provides an overview of epigenetic processes and discusses the current state-of-the-art, and also identifies future directions. PMID:23919286

McCarthy, M M; Nugent, B M

2013-11-01

77

The Association between Nonylphenols and Sexual Hormones Levels among Pregnant Women: A Cohort Study in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Background Nonylphenol (NP) has been proven as an endocrine disrupter and had the ability to interfere with the endocrine system. Though the health effects of NP on pregnant women and their fetuses are sustained, these negative associations related to the mechanisms of regulation for estrogen during pregnancy need to be further clarified. The objective of this study is to explore the association between maternal NP and hormonal levels, such as estradiol, testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and progesterone. Methods A pregnant women cohort was established in North Taiwan between March and December 2010. Maternal urine and blood samples from the first, second, and third trimesters of gestation were collected. Urinary NP concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescent detection. A mixed-effects model using a generalised estimating equation (GEE) was applied to assess the associations between maternal NP concentration and plasma hormones throughout the three trimesters. Results In total, 162 singleton pregnant women completed this study through delivery. The geometric mean of creatinine-adjusted urinary NP concentrations were 4.27, 4.21, and 4.10 µg/g cre. in the first, second, and third trimesters respectively. A natural log-transformation of urinary NP concentrations were significantly associated with LH in the GEE model (??=??0.23 mIU/ml, p<0.01). Conclusion This perspective cohort study demonstrates that negative association occurs between maternal NP exposure and plasma LH levels. The estrogen-mimic effect of NP might influence the negative feedback on LH during pregnancy. PMID:25148048

Chang, Chia-Huang; Tsai, Ming-Song; Lin, Ching-Ling; Hou, Jia-Woei; Wang, Tzu-Hao; Tsai, Yen-An; Liao, Kai-Wei; Mao, I-Fang; Chen, Mei-Lien

2014-01-01

78

The influence of gender and sexual hormones on incidence and outcome of chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has long been known that the female sex is associated with a better clinical outcome in chronic renal diseases. Although\\u000a many experimental, clinical, and epidemiological studies in adults have attempted to explain the difference in disease progression\\u000a between females and males, a definitive understanding of the underlying mechanisms is still lacking. Hormone-modulating therapies\\u000a are being increasingly used for various

Sebastian Kummer; Gero von Gersdorff; Markus J. Kemper; Jun Oh

79

Sexual dimorphism on cytokines expression in the temporomandibular joint: the role of gonadal steroid hormones.  

PubMed

Temporomandibular joint pain-related conditions are generally characterized by local inflammation; however, little studies have focused on the role of gonadal hormones in the expression of inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines. Therefore, we asked whether gonadal steroid hormones affect formalin-induced cytokines expression in the rat temporomcandibular joint. The expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin (IL)-1?, and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1 was significantly higher in males than in diestrus and proestrus females and was decreased by orchiectomy and restored by testosterone replacement. The expression of IL-6 was significantly higher in diestrus and proestrus females than in males, and was decreased by ovariectomy and restored by estradiol or progesterone administration. We conclude that testosterone increases the expression of TNF-?, IL-1? and CINC-1, and estradiol and progesterone increase the expression of IL-6. New clinical approaches based on inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators are starting to supplant traditional immunosuppressive therapies and gonadal hormones may influence their effectiveness or clinical dosage. PMID:20865308

Torres-Chávez, Karla E; Fischer, Luana; Teixeira, Juliana Maia; Fávaro-Moreira, Nadia Cristina; Obando-Pereda, Gustavo Alberto; Parada, Carlos Amílcar; Tambeli, Claudia Herrera

2011-10-01

80

An enriched rearing environment calms adult male rat sexual activity: implication for distinct serotonergic and hormonal responses to females.  

PubMed

Early life events induce alterations in neural function in adulthood. Although rearing in an enriched environment (EE) has a great impact on behavioral development, the effects of enriched rearing on sociosexual behavior remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of rearing in an EE on male copulatory behavior and its underlying neurobiological mechanisms in Wistar-Imamichi rats. Three-week-old, recently weaned rats were continuously subjected to a standard environment (SE) or an EE comprised of a large cage with several objects, such as toys, tunnels, ladders, and a running wheel. After 6 weeks, rats reared in an EE (EE rats) showed decreased sexual activity compared with rats reared in a SE (SE rats). This included a lower number of ejaculations and longer latencies in three consecutive copulatory tests. In addition, EE rats showed decreased emotional responsiveness and less locomotor behavior in an open field. In a runway test, on the other hand, sexual motivation toward receptive females in EE males was comparable to that of SE males. Furthermore, following exposure to a female, increases in serotonin levels in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum were significantly suppressed in EE males, whereas dopaminergic responses were similar between the groups. Female-exposure-induced increases in the levels of plasma corticosterone and testosterone were also suppressed in EE rats compared to SE rats. These data suggest that rearing in an EE decreases male copulatory behavior, and serotonin and hormonal regulating systems may regulate the differences in sociosexual interactions that result from distinct rearing environments. PMID:24505330

Urakawa, Susumu; Mitsushima, Dai; Shimozuru, Michito; Sakuma, Yasuo; Kondo, Yasuhiko

2014-01-01

81

An Enriched Rearing Environment Calms Adult Male Rat Sexual Activity: Implication for Distinct Serotonergic and Hormonal Responses to Females  

PubMed Central

Early life events induce alterations in neural function in adulthood. Although rearing in an enriched environment (EE) has a great impact on behavioral development, the effects of enriched rearing on sociosexual behavior remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of rearing in an EE on male copulatory behavior and its underlying neurobiological mechanisms in Wistar-Imamichi rats. Three-week-old, recently weaned rats were continuously subjected to a standard environment (SE) or an EE comprised of a large cage with several objects, such as toys, tunnels, ladders, and a running wheel. After 6 weeks, rats reared in an EE (EE rats) showed decreased sexual activity compared with rats reared in a SE (SE rats). This included a lower number of ejaculations and longer latencies in three consecutive copulatory tests. In addition, EE rats showed decreased emotional responsiveness and less locomotor behavior in an open field. In a runway test, on the other hand, sexual motivation toward receptive females in EE males was comparable to that of SE males. Furthermore, following exposure to a female, increases in serotonin levels in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum were significantly suppressed in EE males, whereas dopaminergic responses were similar between the groups. Female-exposure-induced increases in the levels of plasma corticosterone and testosterone were also suppressed in EE rats compared to SE rats. These data suggest that rearing in an EE decreases male copulatory behavior, and serotonin and hormonal regulating systems may regulate the differences in sociosexual interactions that result from distinct rearing environments. PMID:24505330

Urakawa, Susumu; Mitsushima, Dai; Shimozuru, Michito; Sakuma, Yasuo; Kondo, Yasuhiko

2014-01-01

82

The kisspeptin system of the human hypothalamus: sexual dimorphism and relationship with gonadotropin-releasing hormone and neurokinin B neurons.  

PubMed

Kisspeptin signaling via the kisspeptin receptor G-protein-coupled receptor-54 plays a fundamental role in the onset of puberty and the regulation of mammalian reproduction. In this immunocytochemical study we addressed the (i) topography, (ii) sexual dimorphism, (iii) relationship to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons and (iv) neurokinin B content of kisspeptin-immunoreactive hypothalamic neurons in human autopsy samples. In females, kisspeptin-immunoreactive axons formed a dense periventricular plexus and profusely innervated capillary vessels in the infundibular stalk. Most immunolabeled somata occurred in the infundibular nucleus. Many cells were also embedded in the periventricular fiber plexus. Rostrally, they formed a prominent periventricular cell mass (magnocellular paraventricular nucleus). Robust sex differences were noticed in that fibers and somata were significantly less numerous in male individuals. In dual-immunolabeled specimens, fine kisspeptin-immunoreactive axon varicosities formed axo-somatic, axo-dendritic and axo-axonal contacts with GnRH neurons. Dual-immunofluorescent studies established that 77% of kisspeptin-immunoreactive cells in the infundibular nucleus synthesize the tachykinin peptide neurokinin B, which is known to play crucial role in human fertility; 56 and 17% of kisspeptin fibers in the infundibular and periventricular nuclei, respectively, contained neurokinin B immunoreactivity. Site-specific co-localization patterns implied that kisspeptin neurons in the infundibular nucleus and elsewhere contributed differentially to these plexuses. This study describes the distribution and robust sexual dimorphism of kisspeptin-immunoreactive elements in human hypothalami, reveals neuronal contacts between kisspeptin-immunoreactive fibers and GnRH cells, and demonstrates co-synthesis of kisspeptins and neurokinin B in the infundibular nucleus. The neuroanatomical information will contribute to our understanding of central mechanisms whereby kisspeptins regulate human fertility. PMID:20529119

Hrabovszky, E; Ciofi, P; Vida, B; Horvath, M C; Keller, E; Caraty, A; Bloom, S R; Ghatei, M A; Dhillo, W S; Liposits, Z; Kallo, I

2010-06-01

83

Role of gonadal hormones in programming developmental changes in thymopoietic efficiency and sexual diergism in thymopoiesis.  

PubMed

There is a growing body of evidence indicating the important role of the neonatal steroid milieu in programming sexually diergic changes in thymopoietic efficiency, which in rodents occur around puberty and lead to a substantial phenotypic and functional remodeling of the peripheral T-cell compartment. This in turn leads to an alteration in the susceptibility to infection and various immunologically mediated pathologies. Our laboratory has explored interdependence in the programming and development of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis and thymus using experimental model of neonatal androgenization. We have outlined critical points in the complex process of T-cell development depending on neonatal androgen imprinting and the peripheral outcome of these changes and have pointed to underlying mechanisms. Our research has particularly contributed to an understanding of the putative role of changes in catecholamine-mediated communications in the thymopoietic alterations in adult neonatally androgenized rats. PMID:22407539

Leposavic, Gordana; Perisic, Milica; Pilipovic, Ivan

2012-04-01

84

Sexual orientation and the 2nd to 4th finger length ratio: evidence for organising effects of sex hormones or developmental instability?  

PubMed

It has been proposed that human sexual orientation is influenced by prenatal sex hormones. Some evidence examining putative somatic markers of prenatal sex hormones supports this assumption. An alternative suggestion has been that homosexuality may be due to general developmental disruptions independent of hormonal effects. This study investigated the ratio of the 2nd to 4th finger digits (the 2D:4D ratio), a measure often ascribed to the organisational actions of prenatal androgens, and the fluctuating asymmetry (FA-a measure of general developmental disruption) of these features, in a sample of 240 healthy, right handed and exclusively heterosexual and homosexual males and females (N=60 per group). Homosexual males and females showed significantly lower 2D:4D ratios in comparison to heterosexuals, but sexual orientation did not relate to any measures of FA. The evidence may suggest that homosexual males and females have been exposed to non-disruptive, but elevated levels of androgens in utero. However, these data also draw attention to difficulties in the interpretation of results when somatic features are employed as biological markers of prenatal hormonal influences. PMID:12573297

Rahman, Q; Wilson, G D

2003-04-01

85

Mixture effects of levonorgestrel and ethinylestradiol: Estrogenic biomarkers and hormone receptor mRNA expression during sexual programming.  

PubMed

Synthetic progesterone (progestins) and estrogens are widely used pharmaceuticals. Given that their simultaneous unintentional exposure occurs in wildlife and also in human infants, data on mixture effects of combined exposures to these hormones during development is needed. Using the Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis test system we investigated mixture effects of levonorgestrel (LNG) and ethinylestradiol (EE2) on hormone sensitive endpoints. After larval exposure to LNG (0.1nM), or EE2 (0.1nM) singly, or in combination with LNG (0.01, 0.1, 1.0nM), the gonadal sex ratio was determined histologically and hepatic mRNA levels of genes encoding vitellogenin (vtg beta1) and the estrogen (esr1, esr2), progesterone (ipgr) and androgen (ar) receptors were quantified using quantitative PCR. All EE2-exposed groups showed female-biased sex ratios and increased vtg beta1 mRNA levels compared with the controls. Compared with the EE2-alone group (positive control) there were no significant alterations in vtg beta1 levels or in sex ratios in the co-exposure groups. Exposure to LNG-alone caused an increase in ar mRNA levels in females, but not in males, compared to the controls and the co-exposed groups, indicating that co-exposure to EE2 counteracted the LNG-induced ar levels. No treatment related impacts on the mRNA expression of esr1, esr2, and ipgr in female tadpoles were found, suggesting that these endpoints are insensitive to long-term exposure to estrogen or progestin. Due to the EE2-induced female-biased sex ratios, the mRNA expression data for the low number of males in the EE2-exposed groups were not statistically analyzed. In conclusion, our results suggest that induced vtg expression is a robust biomarker for estrogenic activity in exposure scenarios involving both estrogens and progestins. Developmental exposure to LNG caused an induction of hepatic ar mRNA expression that was antagonized by combined exposure to EE2 and LNG. To our knowledge this is the first study to report effects of combined exposures to EE2 and LNG during the period of sexual programming. PMID:25703176

Säfholm, Moa; Jansson, Erika; Fick, Jerker; Berg, Cecilia

2015-04-01

86

Sexual experience and testosterone during adolescence alter adult neuronal morphology and behavior  

E-print Network

birth provoke sexual differentiation of neural circuits. Further, steroid hormones secreted during. Introduction Steroid hormones released immediately before and after birth pro- voke sexual differentiation Sexual behavior Dendritic morphology Cytokines Steroid hormones released immediately before and after

Nelson, Randy J.

87

Sex Differences and Steroid Hormone Receptors  

E-print Network

Sex Differences and Steroid Hormone Receptors NEUS 501 October 24, 2014 #12;Sexual Differentiation of the Brain · Genetic sex determination · Steroid hormones · Sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior · Steroid hormone receptors and behavior · New genetic approaches to studying sexual differentiation

Alford, Simon

88

Regulation of Mucosal Immunity in the Female Reproductive Tract: The Role of Sex Hormones in Immune Protection Against Sexually Transmitted Pathogens  

PubMed Central

The immune system in the female reproductive tract (FRT) does not mount an attack against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or other sexually transmitted infections (STI) with a single endogenously produced microbicide or with a single arm of the immune system. Instead, the body deploys dozens of innate antimicrobials to the secretions of the FRT. Working together, these antimicrobials along with mucosal antibodies attack viral, bacterial, and fungal targets. Within the FRT, the unique challenges of protection against sexually transmitted pathogens coupled with the need to sustain the development of an allogeneic fetus, has evolved in such a way that sex hormones precisely regulate immune function to accomplish both tasks. The studies presented in this review demonstrate that estradiol (E2) and progesterone secreted during the menstrual cycle act both directly and indirectly on epithelial cells, fibroblasts and immune cells in the reproductive tract to modify immune function in a way that is unique to specific sites throughout the FRT. As presented in this review, studies from our laboratory and others demonstrate that the innate and adaptive immune systems are under hormonal control, that protection varies with the stage of the menstrual cycle and as such, is dampened during the secretory stage of the cycle to optimize conditions for fertilization and pregnancy. In doing so, a window of STI vulnerability is created during which potential pathogens including HIV enter the reproductive tract to infect host targets. PMID:24734774

Wira, Charles R.; Fahey, John V.; Rodriguez-Garcia, Marta; Shen, Zheng; Patel, Mickey V.

2015-01-01

89

Sex hormone receptors in the hypothalamus and their role in sexual differentiation of the male rat brain  

SciTech Connect

In this investigation, changes in the level of receptors for sex hormones in the hypothalamus and cerebral cortex of male rats were studied on the first through fifth days of postnatal life, and the results obtained were compared with the levels of luteinizing hormone and sex hormones in the peripheral blood in order to discover any correlation between these parameters. 2,4,6,7,-/sup 3/H-estradiol-17..beta.. and 1,2,6,7-/sup 3/H-testosterone were used as labeled hormones. The values of the association constant and concentration of specific binding sites for estradiol and testosterone in hypothalamus and cerebral cortex of male rats during neonatal development is shown. It is found that in male rats on the first day after birth, receptors for estradiol and testosterone are present and they enable the action both of the testicular hormone and that of estradiol to be realized.

Shishkina, I.V.; Babichev, V.N.; Ozol', L.Yu.

1986-09-01

90

Serum levels of reproductive steroid hormones in captive sand tiger sharks, Carcharias taurus (Rafinesque), and comments on their relation to sexual conflicts.  

PubMed

Levels of reproductively-related steroids were determined in captive male sand tiger sharks, Carcharias taurus, maintained at two institutions: SeaWorld Adventure Park Orlando and the National Aquarium in Baltimore. Sexual conflicts were absent at the former, but were documented at the latter. Serum titers of 17beta-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone were determined via radioimmunoassay in adult male sharks from 1988 to 2000. Sampling overlap between the two institutions occurred for 3 months of the year, but steroid concentrations were compared only for April due to the occurrence of sexual conflicts in the sharks at the National Aquarium in Baltimore in that month. For April, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone were significantly higher in the SeaWorld males, and progesterone was significantly higher in the National Aquarium in Baltimore males, while estradiol was not significantly different. Steroid levels were also determined from serial samples taken monthly over 17 months from three male sharks and one female shark at the National Aquarium in Baltimore in 2001-2002 and were compared with corresponding observed sexual conflicts. The steroid levels obtained showed distinct annual hormonal cycles in the male sharks and corroborated a biennial cycle for the single serially-sampled female shark. Furthermore, the steroid levels for individual males correlated with sexual conflicts as well as their position within the male dominance hierarchy. As this species is depleted in some regions globally, insight into the steroid profile of mature sand tiger sharks is important for a greater understanding of the relationship between their reproductive physiology and behavior, and may aid in captive management and reproduction. PMID:18958600

Henningsen, A D; Murru, F L; Rasmussen, L E L; Whitaker, B R; Violetta, G C

2008-12-01

91

[Endocrinological diseases, metabolic diseases, sexuality].  

PubMed

Sexuality is regularly evaluated in media surveys. Relations between sexual problems and some chronic pathologies as diabetes or metabolic syndrome have been brought to light. Androgen deficiency in the aging male has become a topic of increasing interest. Hormones play an important role in sexual function and relation between hormonal status and metabolic data are now well established. PMID:25239542

Lemaire, Antoine

2014-10-01

92

Perfil Ambiental de Guatemala  

E-print Network

Perfil Ambiental de Guatemala Informe sobre el estado del ambiente y bases para su evaluación de Agricultura, Recursos Naturales y Ambiente INSTITUTO DE INCIDENCIA AMBIENTAL #12;Perfil ambiental de Guatemala Informe sobre el estado del ambiente y bases para su evaluación sistemática ISBN: 99922

Lopez-Carr, David

93

Maintaining sexuality in menopause.  

PubMed

Sexual health in the menopause is a medical challenge because the progressive decline of sexual hormones interacts with the aging process and many psychosocial stressors modulate vulnerability for sexual symptoms (low sexual desire, poor arousal and lubrication, dyspareunia, orgasmic dysfunction and lack of satisfaction). In clinical practice, a coordinated approach is needed to optimally manage the risk for developing female sexual dysfunction (FSD), especially when chronic conditions are present. Biomedical and psychosocial interventions include general education, recognition of signs and symptoms, promotion of health, attention to the partner and individualization of treatment. Counselling to overcome personal and relational difficulties should be always combined with hormonal and non-hormonal strategies to maximize biological signals driving the sexual response. By enhancing women's abilities to cope with sexual changes at midlife, health care providers may significantly optimize healthy aging and partnership. PMID:24879777

Nappi, Rossella E; Martini, Ellis; Martella, Silvia; Capuano, Francesca; Bosoni, David; Giacomini, Sonia; Beraghi, Matteo; Spinillo, Arsenio

2014-03-13

94

Ovarian activity, circulating hormones and sexual behavior in the cat: relationships during pregnancy, parturition, lactation and the postpartum estrus  

E-print Network

for serum 'luteinizing hormone (LH), progesterone and estradiol-178 and laparoscopy was used to monitor follicle and corpus luteum (CL) development. Mean duration of the initial mated estrus was longer (P&0. 05) than the post- partum estrus. All cats (12... the first half of pregnancy, serum LH and estradiol-178 profiles mimicked patterns reported earlier in queens mated with a vasectomized male and experiencing a prolonged luteal phase (Wildt et al. , 1981). Both serum LH and estradiol-178 concentra- tions...

Schmidt, Patricia Mary

1985-01-01

95

Maternal endocrine adaptation throughout pregnancy to nutrient manipulation: Consequences for sexually dimorphic programming of thyroid hormones and development of their progeny.  

PubMed

Maternal nutrient restriction during critical windows of fetal development alters postnatal growth, often in a sexually dimorphic manner. Intrauterine growth restriction is frequently characterized by accelerated growth and increased adiposity in later life. Thyroid hormones are implicated as part of the mechanism involved in this scenario via their actions within the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. We fed high (H = 240%) and low (L = 70%) levels of recommended daily crude protein intake during the first and second trimesters of gestation to beef heifers to investigate effects to their progeny's plasma concentrations of free and total triiodothyronine (FT3 and TT3) and thyroxine (FT4 and TT4) from birth until weaning at 191 days of age (n = 68). The study design was a two-by-two factorial. For male progeny, exposure to maternal diets low in protein during the first trimester of gestation resulted in greater FT4 at birth (P < 0.05) which was subsequent to lower concentrations of leptin in maternal plasma at 271 days of gestation compared with their high-protein-exposed counterparts. These same animals went on to have greater milk intake during the latter half of the lactation period (P < 0.05) and exhibited faster rates of average daily gain (ADG) relative to birth weight during this time (P < 0.05). For all progeny, independent of sex, exposure to low-protein maternal diets during the second trimester of gestation resulted in greater FT3 relative to TT3 at birth. Because FT3 at birth and 29 days was positively associated with ADG (P < 0.05) and ADG relative to birth weight (P < 0.05), it is proposed that FT3 plays an integral role in catch-up growth in the bovine as per other species. Protein intake during the first and second trimesters of gestation has a sexually dimorphic effect on progeny plasma thyroid hormone concentrations, and these changes are associated with altered milk intake and postnatal growth pathway. PMID:25492373

Micke, G C; Sullivan, T M; Kennaway, D J; Hernandez-Medrano, J; Perry, V E A

2015-03-01

96

The Interaction between a Sexually Transferred Steroid Hormone and a Female Protein Regulates Oogenesis in the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae  

PubMed Central

Molecular interactions between male and female factors during mating profoundly affect the reproductive behavior and physiology of female insects. In natural populations of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae, blood-fed females direct nutritional resources towards oogenesis only when inseminated. Here we show that the mating-dependent pathway of egg development in these mosquitoes is regulated by the interaction between the steroid hormone 20-hydroxy-ecdysone (20E) transferred by males during copulation and a female Mating-Induced Stimulator of Oogenesis (MISO) protein. RNAi silencing of MISO abolishes the increase in oogenesis caused by mating in blood-fed females, causes a delay in oocyte development, and impairs the function of male-transferred 20E. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments show that MISO and 20E interact in the female reproductive tract. Moreover MISO expression after mating is induced by 20E via the Ecdysone Receptor, demonstrating a close cooperation between the two factors. Male-transferred 20E therefore acts as a mating signal that females translate into an increased investment in egg development via a MISO-dependent pathway. The identification of this male–female reproductive interaction offers novel opportunities for the control of mosquito populations that transmit malaria. PMID:24204210

Baldini, Francesco; Gabrieli, Paolo; South, Adam; Valim, Clarissa; Mancini, Francesca; Catteruccia, Flaminia

2013-01-01

97

Biology and Sexual Minority Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this chapter is to provide clinicians with an overview of current knowledge pertaining to the biology of sexual\\u000a minority status. Under the umbrella of sexual minority are included homosexuals, bisexuals, transgenders and intersexes. The\\u000a most developed biologic theory pertaining to sexual minority status is the prenatal hormonal\\u000a hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, prenatal hormones act (primarily during

William Byne

98

Effect of exercise intensity on weight changes and sexual hormones (androstenedione and free testosterone) in female rats with estradiol valerate-induced PCOS  

PubMed Central

Introduction Weight gain and fat accumulation are predisposing factors of PCOS. Life-style modification, including increasing physical activity, is the first line approach in managing PCOS. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of exercise intensity on weight changes, androstenedione and free testosterone level in female rats with estradiol valerate induced PCOS. Method and materials 40 female Wistar rats were selected (180?±?20 g). They had every 2 to 3 consecutive estrous cycles during 12 to 14 days. The study was approved by ethical committee of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences. The first two groups were divided into control (n?=?10) and polycystic (n?=?30) that were induced PCOS by estradiol valerate injection after 60 days. The polycystic groups were divided into three groups of sham (n?=?10), experiment group with low-intensity exercise (pco?+?l.exe) (n = 10) and experiment group with moderate intensity exercise (pco?+?m.exe) (n = 10). Exercises were performed during 6 sessions of 60 minutes per week for 8 weeks. (Moderate intensity: 28 m/min-70%–75%VO2Max. Low intensity (20 m/min-50%–55%VO2Max) running at 0 slope, 1 h/day, 6 days/week). ANOVA and LSD test were used for data analysis. Results In the present study, no significant differences were found in the decrease of total weights of rats. And also androstenedione level changes in experiment groups were higher compared to control group but no significant differences were found, also free testosterone level was significantly higher than the observer group. Conclusion According to weight changes and sexual hormones (Free testosterone and androstenedione) exercise training especially with low intensity may improve symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome. PMID:24708600

2014-01-01

99

Sex hormone profiles in pedophilic and incestuous men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty-eight pedophiles, 45 incest offenders, and 44 community controls with no history of sexual or violent crime were compared on eight hormones: androstenedione, cortisol, estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, and testosterone, and on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Results showed that sex offenders had elevated levels of four hormones: androstenedione, cortisol, estradiol and

Reuben A. Lang; Pierre Flor-Henry; Roy R. Frenzel

1990-01-01

100

MODELING HORMONAL CONTROL MENSTRUAL CYCLE  

E-print Network

of exogenous compounds on the sexual endocrine system of adult women, for testing hormonal methods of birth endocrine systems in both humans and animals. In particular, such compounds may be contributing of exogenous compounds on the sexual endocrine system of adult women. Simulations of this type may be helpful

101

Sexual Assault  

MedlinePLUS

... assault fact sheet Sexual assault fact sheet ePublications Sexual assault fact sheet Print this fact sheet Sexual assault ... assaulted? More information on sexual assault What is sexual assault? Sexual assault and abuse is any type of ...

102

Hormonal Control of Coloration rebecca t. kimball  

E-print Network

10 Hormonal Control of Coloration rebecca t. kimball Numerous studies have examined the evolution is ancestral; Kimball and Ligon 1999). 431 Preprint of: Kimball, R.T. 2006. Hormonal control of coloration. Pp, and environmental conditions, sexual dichromatism must be controlled by other factors. Hormones, which can vary

Kimball, Rebecca T.

103

Research Focus Stress hormones and mate choice  

E-print Network

Research Focus Stress hormones and mate choice Jerry F. Husak and Ignacio T. Moore Department suggested that glucocorticoid stress hormones can play a role in sexual selection. In terms of mate choice glucocorticoid levels. This appears to occur because stress hormones can be key mediators of many condition

Husak, Jerry F.

104

sexual Assault sexual Assault  

E-print Network

sexual Assault sexual Assault if You Are a Victim of a sexual Assault 1. Get to a safe place. 2. Call out for help. 3. DiAl 6111 or ask someone to ring for you and state "sEXUAl AssAUlT" giving exact. if You Witness a sexual Assault 1. Everyone is asked to assist in making the campus a safe place by being

Hickman, Mark

105

Sexual Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Parents can help their adolescent make healthy choices Sexual Health News & Information Understanding Sexual Health Public Health Reports ... infectious diseases, reproductive health and sexual violence prevention. Sexual Health Topics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Up-to-date information ...

106

PHTHALATE ESTER-INDUCED MALFORMATIONS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH CHANGES IN GENE EXPRESSION AND STEROID HORMONE PRODUCTION IN THE FETAL RAT TESTIS DURING SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Phthalate ester-induced gubernacular ligament lesions are associated with reduced Insl3 gene expression in the fetal rat testis during sexual differentiation. Vickie S Wilson, Christy Lambright, Johnathan Furr, Joseph Ostby, Carmen Wood, Gary Held, L.Earl Gray Jr. U.S. EPA,...

107

Zebra Finch Sexual Differentiation: The Aromatization Hypothesis Revisited  

E-print Network

Zebra Finch Sexual Differentiation: The Aromatization Hypothesis Revisited JULI WADE Departments State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 KEY WORDS steroid hormone; estradiol; aromatase and sexual partner preference, however, are not associated with known sex differences in anatomy. In many

Wade, Juli

108

The insulin-like androgenic gland hormone in crustaceans: From a single gene silencing to a wide array of sexual manipulation-based biotechnologies.  

PubMed

Due to the over-harvesting and deterioration of wild populations, the ever-growing crustacean market is increasingly reliant on aquaculture, driving the need for better management techniques. Since most cultured crustacean species exhibit sexually dimorphic growth patterns, the culture of monosex populations (either all-male or all-female) is a preferred approach for gaining higher yields, with the ecological benefit of reducing the risk of invasion by the cultured species. Sexual manipulations may also render sustainable solutions to the environmental problems caused by the presence of invasive crustacean species with detrimental impacts ranging from aggressive competition with native species for food and shelter, to affecting aquaculture facilities and harvests and causing structural damage to river banks. Recent discoveries of androgenic gland (AG)-specific insulin-like peptides (IAGs) in crustaceans and the ability to manipulate them and their encoding transcripts (IAGs) have raised the possibility of sexually manipulating crustacean populations. Sexual manipulation is already a part of sustainable solutions in fish aquaculture and in the bio-control of insect pest species, and attempts are also being made to implement it with crustaceans. As recently exemplified in a commercially important prawn species, IAG silencing, a temporal, non-genetically modifying and non-transmissible intervention, has enabled the production of non-breeding all-male monosex populations that are the progeny of sexually reversed males ('neo-females'). IAG manipulations-based biotechnologies therefore have the potential to radically transform the entire industry. We review here how this proof of concept could be broadened to meet both aquacultural and environmental needs. We include the major cultured decapod crustacean groups and suggest a sustainable solution for the management of invasive and pest crustacean species. We also review the key considerations for devising a biotechnological approach that specifically tailors the molecular technological abilities to the management of each target group. PMID:22561950

Ventura, Tomer; Sagi, Amir

2012-01-01

109

Serum levels of reproductive steroid hormones in captive sand tiger sharks, Carcharias taurus (Rafinesque), and comments on their relation to sexual conflicts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of reproductively-related steroids were determined in captive male sand tiger sharks, Carcharias\\u000a taurus, maintained at two institutions: SeaWorld Adventure Park Orlando and the National Aquarium in Baltimore. Sexual conflicts\\u000a were absent at the former, but were documented at the latter. Serum titers of 17?-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and\\u000a 5?-dihydrotestosterone were determined via radioimmunoassay in adult male sharks from 1988 to

A. D. Henningsen; F. L. Murru; L. E. L. Rasmussen; B. R. Whitaker; G. C. Violetta

2008-01-01

110

[Sexuality in the elderly].  

PubMed

Sustaining and strengthening the ability of the elderly to continue their sexual needs can be realized as part of improving their quality of life, health and well-being. There is no age at which ends the expression of sexuality and intimacy. Through education, quality of life and advances in medicine, the average life expectancy is still increasing. Sexual activity of older people society usually describe using pejorative terms as an inappropriate, bizarre or obscene, but these labels are different than reality. Hormonal changes and other physiological changes associated with aging affect sexual interest. Erectile dysfunction is a problem in men increasing with age. There is no evidence that premature ejaculation is more common in older age. Cross-sectional studies showed no difference in sexual dysfunction between older and younger women. Age is not a barrier to sexually transmitted diseases. The most common pathogenetic factors for male erectile dysfunction are vascular diseases. In women, the most important symptoms of sexual dysfunction are lack of emotional wellbeing and a sense of intimacy during sexual intercourse. PMID:25815611

Wilk, Bartosz

2015-02-25

111

Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bulllying  

MedlinePLUS

... Harassment and Sexual Bullying Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? What Are Sexual ... technology to harass someone sexually (like sending inappropriate text messages, pictures, or videos). Sometimes sexual harassment can ...

112

Psychology/Zoology 310: Human Sexuality Summer 2014 Lectures: ONLINE ONLY  

E-print Network

sexual anatomy Ch 3 & 4 Hormones Ch 5 Human menstrual cycle; Androgens Sexual differentiation of the body. Chapter 1 Sex and Human Evolution: Ch 2 What does sexual reproduction accomplish? Why is sexual. Ch 6 Gender Ch 7 Sexism and stereotypes; Cognitive sex differences; Cultural influences Sexual

Liu, Taosheng

113

SRIS: Sexuality Research Information Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Sexuality Research Information Service (SRIS), recently launched by The Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction, centralizes and disseminates current research findings related to four sexual well-being issues: Adolescent Sexual Behavior, High Risk Sexual Behavior, Male Sexual Response, and Reproductive Hormones and Women's Sexuality and Emotional Well-Being. For each of the four topics, SRIS provides researchers, policymakers, and health care professionals with a fully searchable bibliographic database of selected, current research citations. Many of the detailed citations also include abstracts and commentaries written by specialists at The Kinsey Institute. The databases support a complex search mode that allows users to tag citations and export them to a bibliographic management tool such as ProCite or EndNote (requires a free plug-in, RIS, available at the site).

114

[Migrant adolescents and sexuality].  

PubMed

Besides its emotional, hormonal and physical components, sexuality has also an important social function. Analyzing these interactions in immigrant adolescents who are challenged at the same time by developmental changes and modified cultural and social rules--especially if they differ from the rules assimilated during childhood--might help professionals to access better comprehension. Personal experience, individual and external resources, whether they are family oriented or professional, are prone to influence on behavior, perception and outcome related to sexual health. The subject is discussed on the base of scientific literature and medical practice. PMID:22787726

Renteria, Saira-Christine

2012-06-13

115

Sex hormones and male homosexuality in comparative perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal research has demonstrated the modifiability of sex-dimorphic mating behavior by hormone and brain manipulation, especially in subprimate mammals, and has led to radical attempts at treating human homosexuality by psychosurgery and to the suggestion of preventing homosexuality by prenatal hormone manipulation. This article reviews psychoendocrine studies of human homosexuality — the effects of hormone treatments on sexual orientation, the

Heino F. L. Meyer-Bahlburg

1977-01-01

116

Clinical and hormonal aspects of male hypogonadism in myotonic dystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study male hypergonadotropic hypogonadism as completely as possible, and to evaluate its possible effects on muscle atrophy and sexuality, RIA or IRMA methods were used to measure the levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin, total (T) and free (FT) testosterone, estradiol (E), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), androstenedione (A) and 17-OH-progesterone

I. Mastrogiacomo; G. Bonanni; E. Menegazzo; C. Santarossa; E. Pagani; M. Gennarelli; C. Angelini

1996-01-01

117

Sexual Assault  

MedlinePLUS

Indian Health Service The Federal Health Program for American Indians and Alaska Natives Feedback Employee Resources • A to ... Assault Sexual assault is a significant problem affecting American Indians and Alaska Natives. Sexual assault refers to sexual ...

118

Sexual Assault  

MedlinePLUS

Sexual assault is any sexual activity to which you haven't freely given your consent. This includes completed ... trust, a friend, an acquaintance, or a stranger. Sexual assault can affect your health in many ways. It ...

119

The importance of interactions among nutrition, seasonality and socio-sexual factors in the development of hormone-free methods for controlling fertility.  

PubMed

Around the world, consumers are demanding animal products that are produced to agreed standards for human health, environmental management and animal welfare. This has led to the development in Australia of the concept of 'clean, green and ethical' (CGE) animal production based on the manipulation of nutrition ('focus feeding') and the application of phenomena, such as the 'male effect', to provide 'natural' methods for managing small ruminant production systems. With respect to the management of fertility, CGE involves utilization of the inherited responses of animals to environmental factors to manipulate their reproductive processes. The successful development and implementation of this new generation of management tools depends on a thorough yet holistic understanding of the interactions among environmental factors and the ways these interactions affect reproductive physiology and behaviour of the animal. For sheep and goats, a central aspect of CGE management is the way in which ovarian function is affected by three major factors (nutrition, photoperiod and socio-sexual signals) and by interactions among them. Nutrition can exert two profound yet contrasting types of effect on ovarian activity: (i) the complete inhibition of reproduction by undernutrition through the hypothalamic mechanism that controls ovulation and (ii) the enhancement of fecundity by nutritional supplementation, through a direct ovarian mechanism, in females that are already ovulating. A similarly profound control over ovarian function in female sheep and goats is exerted by the well-known endocrine responses to photoperiod (seasonality) and to male socio-sexual signals. The 'male effect' already has a long history as a valuable technique for inducing a synchronized fertile ovulation during seasonal and post-partum anoestrus in sheep and goats. Importantly, experimentation has shown that these three major environmental factors interact, synergistically and antagonistically, but the precise nature of these interactions and their significance to reproductive outcomes are not well understood. Most research to date has been with small ruminants but CGE principles can be applied to any species in a managed environment. For example, a male effect has been reported for lactating cattle and, in the horse, the pattern of seasonality of oestrus can be altered by nutrition. Well-fed mares have a longer breeding season and some animals become non-seasonal. Similar observations have been reported for sheep and goats. By working towards a holistic perspective of the physiology, nutrition, genetics and behaviour of our animals, we will be able to formulate ways to manipulate the animals' environment that will improve management, productivity and profitability and, simultaneously, promote a CGE industry. PMID:18638114

Scaramuzzi, R J; Martin, G B

2008-07-01

120

The hotei mutation of medaka in the anti-Müllerian hormone receptor causes the dysregulation of germ cell and sexual development  

PubMed Central

We previously performed mutant screens in the medaka for defects in gonadal development and identified a mutant of interest in this regard, which was designated as hotei (hot). This mutant manifests a number of remarkable phenotypic abnormalities including: (i) excessive proliferation of germ cells that initiates at around the hatching stage regardless of the genetic sex of the fish; (ii) initiation of premature meiosis in phenotypically male hot homozygotes; (iii) one-half of the hot-homozygous XY fish undergo sex reversal, which accompanies the expression of the female-characteristic aromatase gene in the somatic cells of the gonad; and (iv) in phenotypically female homozygotes, follicular development is arrested at an early stage. We have also performed genetic mapping, chromosome walking, and candidate gene sequencing analysis of hot and demonstrate that the underlying mutation occurs in the recently identified medaka anti-Müllerian hormone (Amh) receptor type II (amhrII) gene. Moreover, this gene was found to be responsible for each of the hot phenotypes, as an amhrII transgene rescues these abnormalities. In addition, the amhrII gene is expressed in the somatic cells of the gonads of both sexes. The phenotypes of the hot homozygotes indicate that there are multiple regulatory functions of the AMH/AMHRII signaling system in the development of the gonad, including the sex-dependent regulation of germ cell proliferation and follicular development. These presumably represent the basic roles of Amh, which precede Müllerian duct evolution during phylogeny. PMID:17535919

Morinaga, Chikako; Saito, Daisuke; Nakamura, Shuhei; Sasaki, Takashi; Asakawa, Shuichi; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi; Mitani, Hiroshi; Furutani-Seiki, Makoto; Tanaka, Minoru; Kondoh, Hisato

2007-01-01

121

Sexual dimorphism and homosexual gender identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposes that the classification of homosexuality as hereditary or constitutional vs. acquired is outmoded. It is suggested that the differentiation should be between chronic, obligative, or essential vs. transient, facultative, or optional. Cytogenetics and statistical genetics do not elucidate etiology, but new research on fetal hormonal differentiation of sexual morphology, and especially of sexually dimorphic hypothalamic differentiation offers promising leads.

John Money

1970-01-01

122

From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has established the broad mammalian developmental plan that genes on the sex chromosomes influence gonad development which determines gonadal hormone production (or its absence) leading to modification of the genitalia and simultaneously biasing the nervous system to organize adult sexual behavior. This might be considered the “gonad to hormones to behavior” model. It is clear, however, that although this

Milton Diamond; Teresa Binstock; James V. Kohl

1996-01-01

123

Sexual Differentiation of the Central Nervous System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual differentiation of reproductive and behavior patterns is largely effected by hormones produced by the gonads. In many higher vertebrates, an integral part of this process is the induction of permanent and essentially irreversible sex differences in central nervous function, in response to gonadal hormones secreted early in development.

Neil J. Maclusky; Frederick Naftolin

1981-01-01

124

Prostate response to prolactin in sexually active male rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The prostate is a key gland in the sexual physiology of male mammals. Its sensitivity to steroid hormones is widely known, but its response to prolactin is still poorly known. Previous studies have shown a correlation between sexual behaviour, prolactin release and prostate physiology. Thus, here we used the sexual behaviour of male rats as a model for studying

Maria Elena Hernandez; Abraham Soto-Cid; Fausto Rojas; Luz I Pascual; Gonzalo E Aranda-Abreu; Rebeca Toledo; Luis I Garcia; Andres Quintanar-Stephano; Jorge Manzo

2006-01-01

125

Psychology/Zoology 310: Human Sexuality Summer 2011 Instructor: Marc Breedlove; 240 Giltner; 355-1749; breedsm@msu.edu  

E-print Network

sexual anatomy Ch 3 & 4 Hormones Ch 5 Human menstrual cycle; Androgens Sexual differentiation of the body. Chapter 1 Sex and Human Evolution: Ch 2 What does sexual reproduction accomplish? Why is sexual Ch 6 Gender Ch 7 Sexism and stereotypes; Cognitive sex differences; Cultural influences Sexual

Liu, Taosheng

126

Hormonal Programming Across the Lifespan  

PubMed Central

Hormones influence countless biological processes across the lifespan, and during developmental sensitive periods hormones have the potential to cause permanent tissue-specific alterations in anatomy and physiology. There are numerous critical periods in development wherein different targets are affected. This review outlines the proceedings of the Hormonal Programming in Development session at the US-South American Workshop in Neuroendocrinology in August 2011. Here we discuss how gonadal hormones impact various biological processes within the brain and gonads during early development and describe the changes that take place in the aging female ovary. At the cellular level, hormonal targets in the brain include neurons, glia, or vasculature. On a genomic/epigenomic level, transcription factor signaling and epigenetic changes alter the expression of hormone receptor genes across development and following ischemic brain insult. In addition, organizational hormone exposure alters epigenetic processes in specific brain nuclei and may be a mediator of sexual differentiation of the neonatal brain. During development of the ovary, exposure to excess gonadal hormones leads to polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Exposure to excess androgens during fetal development also has a profound effect on the development of the male reproductive system. In addition, increased sympathetic nerve activity and stress during early life have been linked to PCOS symptomology in adulthood. Finally, we describe how age-related decreases in fertility are linked to high levels of nerve growth factor (NGF), which enhances sympathetic nerve activity and alters ovarian function. PMID:22700441

Tobet, Stuart A; Lara, Hernan E; Lucion, Aldo B; Wilson, Melinda E; Recabarren, Sergio E; Paredes, Alfonso H

2013-01-01

127

A Multidimensional Model of Sexual Health and Sexual and Prevention Behavior Among Adolescent Women  

PubMed Central

Purpose Sexual health refers a state of lifespan well-being related to sexuality. Among young people, sexual health has multiple dimensions, including the positive developmental contributions of sexuality, as well as the acquisition of skills pertinent to avoiding adverse sexual outcomes such as unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Existing efforts to understand sexual health, however, have yet to empirically operationalize a multi-dimensional model of sexual health and to evaluate its association to different sexual/prevention behaviors. Methods Sexual health dimensions and sexual/prevention behaviors were drawn from a larger longitudinal cohort study of sexual relationships among adolescent women (N =387, 14–17 years). Second order latent variable modeling (AMOS/19.0) evaluated the relationship between sexual health and dimensions and analyzed the effect of sexual health to sexual/prevention outcomes. Results All first order latent variables were significant indicators of sexual health (?: 0.192 – 0.874, all p < .001). Greater sexual health was significantly associated with sexual abstinence, as well as with more frequent non-coital and vaginal sex, condom use at last sex, a higher proportion of condom-protected events, use of hormonal or other methods of pregnancy control and absence of STI. All models showed good fit. Conclusions Sexual health is an empirically coherent structure, in which the totality of its dimensions is significantly linked to a wide range of outcomes, including sexual abstinence, condom use and absence of STI. This means that, regardless of a young person’s experiences, sexual health is an important construct for promoting positive sexual development and for primary prevention. PMID:23332488

Hensel, Devon J.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

2013-01-01

128

Hormonal modulation of singing: hormonal modulation of the songbird brain and singing behavior.  

PubMed

During the past three decades research on the hormonal control of singing has fundamentally altered our basic concepts about how hormones modulate brain function and activate behavior. Exciting discoveries first documented in songbird brains have since been documented in a wide variety of vertebrate species, including humans. Circulating hormones organize sexual dimorphisms in brain structure during development, activate changes in brain structure during adulthood, and modulate the addition of new neurons in the adult brain. The brain has proved to be the primary source of estrogens in general circulation in adult male finches. Studies of the hormonal modulation of singing are complicated by multiple sites of hormone production, multiple sites of hormone action, hormone metabolism by different tissues, the involvement of a variety of hormones, and the effects of social context. This chapter provides a brief review of these topics, as well as a brief overview of techniques used to study endocrine mechanisms controlling behavior. PMID:15313793

Harding, Cheryl F

2004-06-01

129

Synergistic effect of the hydroalcoholic extract from Lepidium meyenii (Brassicaceae) and Fagara tessmannii (Rutaceae) on male sexual organs and hormone level in rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Lepidium meyenii is a plant, which has been used in folk medicine to treat infertility and to increase sexual desire. However, few reports have investigated the administration of this plant with other plants having the same properties. Objective: The present investigation was designed to evaluate whether the combination of Lepidium meyenii and Fagara tessmannii can improve spermatogenesis and testosterone level in rats. Materials and Method: Twenty male rats were treated daily for 2 weeks with the hydroalcoholic extract of Fagara tessmannii and Lepidium meyenii (Fag + MN) as follow: (vehicle), (0.01 g + 0.5 mg), (0.1 g + 5 mg) and (1 g+ 50 mg)/kg BW. Results: At doses Fag 0.01 g/MN 0.5 mg and Fag 0.1 g/MN 5 mg, the weight of seminal vesicle, prostate, and testis significantly decreased (P < 0.05) while at dose Fag 1 g/MN 50 mg, the weight of epididymis and testis significantly increased (P < 0.05) when compared to the control. We noticed a significant increase of the number of spermatids/test (P < 0.05), epididymis sperm count (P < 0.05), and DSP/test of the rats at dose Fag 1 g/MN 50 mg while at dose Fag 0.01 g/MN 0.5 mg and Fag 0.1 g/MN 5 mg, sperm count was reduced in male organs, particularly in vas deferens (P < 0.05) and epididymis (P < 0.001). The serum testosterone concentration significantly decreased (P < 0.05) at lowest dose Fag 0.01 g/MN 0.5 mg. However, at highest dose Fag 1 g/MN 50 mg, the serum testosterone concentration increased significantly (P < 0.05). The length of stage VII-VIII and IX-I of the seminiferous tubule significantly (P < 0.05) increased while the length of stage II-VI significantly (P < 0.05) decreased. Conclusion: The results indicated that the combination of Lepidium meyenii (Black Maca) with Fagara tessmannii can improve male reproductive organs activities. PMID:24497748

Lembè, Dieudonné Massoma; Gasco, Manuel; Gonzales, G. F.

2014-01-01

130

Influence of sexual hormone antagonists on the anticonvulsant action of conventional antiepileptic drugs against electrically- and pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in mice.  

PubMed

The present results refer to the action of three gonadal steroid antihormones, tamoxifen (TXF, an estrogen antagonist), cyproterone acetate (CYP, an antiandrogen) and mifepristone (MIF, a progesterone antagonist) on seizure phenomena in mice. TXF and CYP at their lowest protective dose in the electroconvulsive threshold test, enhanced the antiseizure efficacy of some antiepileptic drugs. TXF (20 mg/kg) potentiated the protective activity of valproate, diphenylhydantoin and clonazepam, but not that of carbamazepine or phenobarbital, against maximal electroshock-induced convulsions in female mice. CYP (40 mg/kg) enhanced the anticonvulsant action of valproate, carbamazepine, diphenylhydantoin and clonazepam, but not that of phenobarbital, against maximal electroshock in male animals. MIF failed to affect the electroconvulsive threshold or the efficacy of antiepileptic drugs in maximal electroshock. The effect of TXF or CYP upon the electroconvulsive threshold and on the action of antiepileptics was not reversed by sex steroid hormones (estradiol, testosterone, progesterone). However, the TXF-induced elevation of the electroconvulsive threshold was abolished by bicuculline, N-methyl-D-aspartic acid and kainic acid, and partially reversed by aminophylline, strychnine being ineffective in this respect. The action of CYP on the threshold for electroconvulsions was partially reversed by bicuculline and aminophylline. Both glutamatergic agonists and strychnine remained ineffective in this respect. Moreover, the action of TXF or CYP on the activity of antiepileptics was not influenced by strychnine, and reversed to various extents by the remaining convulsants. In contrast to maximal electroshock, none of the three antihormones affected the protective action of antiepileptic drugs against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in mice. Neither TXF nor CYP altered the free plasma levels of antiepileptic drugs, so a pharmacokinetic interaction is not probable. The combined treatment of the two antihormones with antiepileptic drugs, providing 50% protection against maximal electroshock, did not affect motor performance in mice, and did not result in significant long-term memory deficits. Our data indicate that steroid receptor-mediated events may be indirectly associated with seizure phenomena in the central nervous system and can modulate the protective activity of some conventional antiepileptic drugs. PMID:14659991

Borowicz, Kinga K; ?uszczki, Jarogniew; Swiader, Mariusz; Kleinrok, Zdzislaw; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J

2004-01-01

131

Internet Sexualities  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The term “internet sexuality” (or OSA, online sexual activities) refers to sexual-related content and activities observable\\u000a on the internet (cf. Adams, Oye, & Parker, 2003; Cooper, McLoughlin, & Campbell, 2000; Leiblum & Döring, 2002). It designates\\u000a a variety of sexual phenomena (e.g., pornography, sex education, sexual contacts) related to a wide spectrum of online services\\u000a and applications (e.g., websites, online

Nicola Döring

2010-01-01

132

Internet Sexualities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The term “internet sexuality” (or OSA, online sexual activities) refers to sexual-related content and activities observable on the internet (cf. Adams, Oye, & Parker, 2003; Cooper, McLoughlin, & Campbell, 2000; Leiblum & Döring, 2002). It designates a variety of sexual phenomena (e.g., pornography, sex education, sexual contacts) related to a wide spectrum of online services and applications (e.g., websites, online chat rooms, peer-to-peer networks). If an even broader range of computer networks - such as the Usenet or bulletin board systems - is included in this extensional definition, one speaks of “online sexuality” or “cybersexuality.”

Döring, Nicola

133

Stress hormone masculinizes female morphology and behaviour.  

PubMed

Sex steroids play major roles in vertebrate sexual differentiation. Unexpectedly, we now find that exposure to elevated levels of the naturally occurring stress hormone cortisol can also masculinize sexually dimorphic morphological characters and behaviour in adult female mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) in a dose-dependent manner. Females masculinized by cortisol developed elongated anal fins with distal tip features similar to those of mature males. Most masculinized females also attempted to copulate when placed with normal females. Although the mechanism of masculinization is currently unknown, we propose a role for an enzyme that both inactivates cortisol and catalyzes the final step in synthesis of a major teleost androgen. This mechanism may also help explain some previously reported effects of stress on sexual development across vertebrate taxa. Our findings underscore the need to understand the full range of chemicals, both naturally occurring hormones and human-produced endocrine disruptors, that can influence sexual differentiation and reproductive function. PMID:20659923

Knapp, Rosemary; Marsh-Matthews, Edie; Vo, Luanne; Rosencrans, Sarah

2011-02-23

134

Adolescent Sexuality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers a medical and psychosocial perspective of adolescent sexual development. Sub-types of sexual development are discussed as well as treatment implications for allied health providers. (Contains 38 references.) (Author)

Sharpe, Thomasina H.

2003-01-01

135

Sexual Health  

MedlinePLUS

... big part of being human. Love, affection and sexual intimacy all play a role in healthy relationships. ... both men and women. Factors that can affect sexual health include Fear of unplanned pregnancy Concerns about ...

136

Sexual Intimacy After Sexual Assault or Sexual Abuse1  

E-print Network

Sexual Intimacy After Sexual Assault or Sexual Abuse1 Many survivors find that their sexual attitudes and reactions are impacted after a sexual assault or sexual abuse. While these effects are not permanent, they can be very frustrating as they can decrease the enjoyment of one's sexual life and intimacy

Machel, Hans

137

Sexual conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual conflict occurs when the genetic interests of males and females diverge. Recent evidence supporting the view that male and female genomes are in conflict has now revolutionized the way in which we interpret interactions between the sexes, and suggests that sexual conflict is a potent force in male–female coevolution. Here, we consider the nature of sexual conflict and what

Tracey Chapman; Göran Arnqvist; Jenny Bangham; Locke Rowe

2003-01-01

138

Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause  

MedlinePLUS

... Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause Share: Fact Sheet Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause January, 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol ... take HT for symptom relief.) What are bioidentical hormones? Bioidentical hormones are identical to the hormones that ...

139

Effects of carbamazepine on male reproductive hormones  

PubMed Central

Background: Reproductive endocrine disorders and sexual dysfunction are common among men with epilepsy. We investigated sexual hormone serum levels among men with newly diagnosed epilepsy, before starting any antiepileptic drug (AED), and then after starting carbamazepine (CBZ), to determine the role and effects of epilepsy versus CBZ in creating reproductive endocrine disorders. Methods: In this prospective study, male patients 20 to 40 years of age who due to new-onset seizure(s) were referred to the outpatient epilepsy clinic at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences from 2009 through 2012 were studied. A blood sample was obtained to evaluate the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, testosterone, free-testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and sex hormone binding globulin. CBZ was started after blood works. After at least three months of taking CBZ, another blood sample was obtained to determine the serum levels of those hormones again. Results: Twenty patients were included. Their mean age (± standard deviation) was 28 years (± 5). The statistical analysis with paired sample tests did not show any significant changes in serum levels of sex hormones before and after CBZ therapy. Conclusion: Despite the fact that, sexual dysfunction and reproductive disorders are common among men with epilepsy, the exact pathophysiology of these problems is not clear yet. Further studies are required to determine the exact role of epilepsy itself, AEDs, and other possible determinants. PMID:25694997

Asadi-Pooya, Ali A.; Dabbaghmanesh, Mohammad Hossein; Ashjazadeh, Nahid

2014-01-01

140

Hormone therapy  

MedlinePLUS

... doctor will recommended one of the following schedules: Cyclic hormone therapy is often recommended when a woman ... 5 days. There may be monthly bleeding with cyclic therapy. Continuous, combined therapy involves taking estrogen and ...

141

SEXUAL ASSAULT AND SEXUAL HARASSMENT QUICK REFERENCE  

E-print Network

SEXUAL ASSAULT AND SEXUAL HARASSMENT QUICK REFERENCE Sexual Assault Definition ­ any form of sexual contact without both parties' voluntary consent. Contrary to what most people think, sexual assault. ­ Zvulony & Company ­ The Law of Sexual Assault in Canada. Sexual Harassment Definition ­ is comment

Thompson, Michael

142

Hormones and Behavior 30, 387406 (1996) Article No. 0044  

E-print Network

- ment in organizing sex differences in the brain. tem sexual differentiation was assessed in European song systems that more closely played by sex steroid hormones in the endocrine con- resemble thoseHormones and Behavior 30, 387­406 (1996) Article No. 0044 Early Administration of 17b

Casto, Joseph M.

143

HEALTH MATTERS Hormonal IUD  

E-print Network

HEALTH MATTERS Hormonal IUD What is the hormonal IUD? The hormonal IUD is one of two types. The hormonal IUD contains a hormone called progestin. It is easily and quickly inserted into your uterus by a health care provider to prevent pregnancy. How effective is the hormonal IUD? The hormonal IUD

Yener, Aylin

144

Sexual behaviour  

PubMed Central

Sexual health is not merely the absence of disease, but the ability to have informed, consensual, safe, respectful, and pleasurable sexual relationships. The majority of the population are sexually active, most with someone of the opposite sex. The frequency and range of sexual practices that people engage in declines with age, but for many, sexual activity continues well into later life. Different aspects of sexual health affect people at different times throughout their lives. As people in the UK tend to first have sex around the age of 16, but do not start living with a partner until much later, the avoidance of sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancy is necessary for many for a number of years. As people get older, their sexual health needs change and they become more concerned with the impact of their general health on their ability to have sex. Some people experience non-volitional sex (sex against their will); although this occurs typically in late teenage it may affect women and men at any age and so requires consideration throughout life. As many people find it difficult to talk about sex and sexual health matters, health professionals should make sexual health enquiry a component of their holistic healthcare. PMID:24966786

Mercer, Catherine H.

2014-01-01

145

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Developmental Changes in the Sexually Dimorphic Expression of Secretory  

E-print Network

Program, East Lansing, MI, USA. Steroid hormones play critical roles in sexual differentiation of brain a mechanism for sex chromosome gene expression to readily contribute to differentiation of brain and behaviour. Mechanisms regulating sexual differentiation likely include both direct genetic and hormonal processes

Wade, Juli

146

Sexual Dimorphism  

E-print Network

and "socially imposed monogamy" showed greater sexual differ- ences in stature than ones following what the authors described as "ecologically imposed" monogamous patterns, which led these authors to postulate that patterns of sexual dimorphism in humans... of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 1Order of the authors is alphabetical. INTRODUCTION That the human species exhibits sexual dimorphism in size, shape, and be- havior is an obvious conclusion from anyone?s simple participation...

Frayer, David W.; Wolpoff, Milford H.

1985-01-01

147

Hormones and the Regulation of Vocal Patterns in Amphibians: Xenopus laevis Vocalizations as a Model System  

E-print Network

for understanding how hormones shape sexual differentiation. Here we explore how vocal patterns are generated and the ability to produce a sex-specific vocal pattern is shaped by exposure to hormones both during development1 Hormones and the Regulation of Vocal Patterns in Amphibians: Xenopus laevis Vocalizations

Kelley, Darcy B.

148

Author's personal copy Sex differences in hormonal responses to social conflict in the monogamous  

E-print Network

or brain structure. Most previous studies examining sex differences in stress hormone responses have used relatively sexually dimorphic species such as rats. We examined the stress hormone responses of monogamous different photoperiods, because photoperiod has been shown to affect both aggression and stress hormone

Trainor, Brian

149

Effects of girls' hormonal status on depressive and aggressive symptoms over the course of one year  

Microsoft Academic Search

Associations between hormonal and physical status and girls' depressive affect, aggressive affect, and delinquent behavior were studied over the course of one year. Seventy-two White girls, aged 10–14 at initial data collection, were seen twice. Endocrinological status (estradiol, luteinizing hormone [LH], folicle stimulating hormone [FSH], testosterone, and dehydroepiandosterone sulfate [DHEAS] at Time 1, physical development (menarche, secondary sexual characteristics) and

Roberta L. Paikoff; Jeanne Brooks-Gunn; Michelle P. Warren

1991-01-01

150

Adolescent sexuality.  

PubMed

The consequences of adolescent sexual behavior are an enormous burden both for the adolescent and society. The problem is not that teens are sexually active but rather that they have little preparation and guidance in developing responsible sexual behavior. Developmentally, adolescents reach physical maturity before they are cognitively able to appreciate the consequences of their behavior. A teenager's primary source of information regarding sexuality is his or her peer group, all of whom are experiencing and reinforcing the same behaviors. The family, the major socializer of other behaviors, is not as powerful a force in shaping responsible sexual behavior because of parental discomfort with sex education and sexual discussions. This is the result of a social milieu in which sex is frequently portrayed but rarely linked with responsible behavior or accurate, nonjudgmental information. The pediatric practitioner is in an ideal position to intervene in these dynamics. In the office, the practitioner can provide accurate sexual information to both parents and adolescents, support parental-child communication on sexual issues, and provide appropriate services or referral. In the community, the practitioner can advocate for school-based sex education as well as act as an information resource. Finally, the practitioner can advocate for the health care needs for adolescents on a national level, supporting legislation that provides adolescents with information and access to services necessary to make responsible sexual decisions. PMID:3059299

Grant, L M; Demetriou, E

1988-12-01

151

Sexual dimorphism of the developing human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.1. Sexual dimorphism of human brain anatomy has not been well-studied between 4 and 18 years of age, a time of emerging sex differences in behavior and the sexually specific hormonal changes of adrenarche (the predominantly androgenic augmentation of adrenal cortex function occurring at approximately age 8) and puberty.2.2. To assess sex differences in brain structures during this developmental period

Jay N. Giedd; F. Xavier Castellanos; Jagath C. Rajapakse; A. Catherine Vaituzis; Judith L. Rapoport

1997-01-01

152

Hormone Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Hormone Foundation, the public education affiliate of The Endocrine Society, "is dedicated to serving as a resource for the public by promoting the prevention, treatment and cure of hormone-related conditions." Visitors to this Web site will find a rich resource of information on menopause, pituitary imbalances, polycystic ovary syndrome, testosterone and men's health, breast cancer, and much more. The site has recently added Web pages and downloadable publications addressing menopause management, the pros and cons of menopause treatment, and an explanation of what endocrinologists do. Visitors will also find the latest related news and events, fact sheets, an online physician referral database, and other useful features.

153

Hormones and Obesity  

MedlinePLUS

... Store Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health The Endocrine System What Do Hormones Do? Healthy Living Living Your ... Learn About Clinical Trials Hormones and Health The Endocrine System What Do Hormones Do? Healthy Living Living Your ...

154

Hormones and cancer 3  

SciTech Connect

This book contains the proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on Hormones and Cancer. Topics covered include: Hormone receptors; Antibodies to hormone receptors; Hormonal regulation of gene expression; Control of cell proliferation; Growth factor; Lung, kidney and gastrointestinal cancer.

Bresciani, F. (Institute of General Pathology and Oncology, First Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, Univ. of Naples, Naples (IT)); King, R.J.B. (Hormone Biochemistry Dept., Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London (GB)); Lippman, M.E. (Medicine Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (US)); Raynaud, J.P. (Roussel-UCLAF, 75 - Paris (France))

1988-01-01

155

Sexual Abuse  

MedlinePLUS

... diseases Behavioral indicators Inappropriate sex-role relationship between victim and suspect Inappropriate, unusual, or aggressive sexual behavior How can I learn more? "Speaking the unspeakable: An interview about elder sexual assault with Holly Ramsey-Klawsnik, Ph.D" in nexus , ...

156

Sexual Sadism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Definitions of sexual sadism in ICD-10 and DSM-IV will be presented as well as the historical routes of the concept. Today studies on differently selected clinical samples reveal a different distribution of sexual sadism versus masochism with masochism prevailing in general especially outpatient psychiatric facilities, and sadism prevailing in forensic settings, thus corroborating the concept of two separated diagnoses sadism

Wolfgang Berner; Peter Berger; Andreas Hill

2003-01-01

157

Sexual selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competition over mates takes many forms and has far-reaching consequences for many organisms. Recent work suggests that relative reproductive rates of males and females, sperm competition and quality variation among mates affect the strength of sexual selection. Song, other display, body size, visual ornaments and material resource offerings are often sexually selected. There is much empirical evidence of mate choice,

Malte Andersson; Yoh Iwasa

1996-01-01

158

Hormone impostors  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the accumulating evidence that some synthetic chemicals disrupt hormones in one way or another. Some mimic estrogen and others interfere with other parts of the body`s control or endocrine system such as testosterone and thyroid metabolism. Included are PCBs, dioxins, furans, atrazine, DDT. Several short sidebars highlight areas where there are or have been particular problems.

Colborn, T.; Dumanoski, D.; Myers, J.P.

1997-01-01

159

Sexual Differentiation of the Vertebrate Brain: Principles and Mechanisms  

E-print Network

Sexual Differentiation of the Vertebrate Brain: Principles and Mechanisms Bradley Cooke, Carol D the sexes, have been described in the brains of many vertebrate species, including humans. In animal models of neural sexual dimorphism, gonadal steroid hormones, specifically androgens, play a crucial role

Breedlove, Marc

160

Sexual Differentiation of the Vertebrate Brain: Principles and Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide variety of sexual dimorphisms, structural differences between the sexes, have been described in the brains of many vertebrate species, including humans. In animal models of neural sexual dimorphism, gonadal steroid hormones, specifically androgens, play a crucial role in engendering these differences by masculinizing the nervous system of males. Usually, the androgen must act early in life, often during

Bradley Cooke; Carol D. Hegstrom; Loic S. Villeneuve; S. Marc Breedlove

1998-01-01

161

Fetal exposure to prescription drugs and adult sexual orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to determine if prenatal exposure to therapeutic drugs contributes to variations in sexual orientation. Especially suspect were drugs that could affect the delicate balance of sex hormone levels that appear to guide the sexual differentiation of the fetal brain. The recollections of 5102 mothers concerning their use of therapeutic drugs during pregnancy were linked to reports

Lee Ellis; Jill Hellberg

2005-01-01

162

Sexual health  

PubMed Central

IN 2001 the government produced the first ever National strategy for sexual health and HIV.1 The strategy called for a broader role for general practice in the promotion of better sexual health. Surveys undertaken in the United Kingdom (UK) in recent years suggest that more people have more sexual partners than ever before. This has been associated with a rise in sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Screening and testing for Chlamydia trachomatis have become more widespread in the UK. Risk assessment and sexual history taking are described. They need to be carried out confidentially and non-judgmentally. Confidentiality training for all staff, including a requirement to sign confidentiality statements, is recommended. Partner notification can be done in a variety of different settings including general practice. A new course for those working in primary care has been devised, aiming to equip participants with the basic knowledge, skills, and attitudes for the effective management of STIs. PMID:15113524

Graham, Anna

2004-01-01

163

Sexual differentiation in three unconventional mammals: Spotted hyenas, elephants and tammar wallabies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present review explores sexual differentiation in three non-conventional species: the spotted hyena, the elephant and the tammar wallaby, selected because of the natural challenges they present for contemporary understanding of sexual differentiation. According to the prevailing view of mammalian sexual differentiation, originally proposed by Alfred Jost, secretion of androgen and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) by the fetal testes during critical

Stephen E. Glickman; Roger V. Short; Marilyn B. Renfree

2005-01-01

164

SEXUAL MATURATION IN GIRLS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF ESTROGEN-INDUCED  

E-print Network

SEXUAL MATURATION IN GIRLS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF ESTROGEN-INDUCED GONADOTROPIC HORMONE RELEASE J and pubertal girls to discover the stage of female sexual development at which the stimulatory estro- gen release. #12;MATERIALS AND METHODS The subjects were healthy girls. Each girl's sexual maturation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

165

Sexy thoughts: Effects of sexual cognitions on testosterone, cortisol, and arousal in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research suggests that sexual stimuli increase testosterone (T) in women and shows inconsistent effects of sexual arousal on cortisol (C), but effects of cognitive aspects of arousal, rather than behaviors or sensory stimuli, are unclear. The present study examined whether sexual thoughts affect T or C and whether hormonal contraceptive (HC) use moderated this effect, given mixed findings of

Katherine L. Goldey; Sari M. van Anders

2011-01-01

166

Growth Hormone  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Growth hormone (GH) is secreted by the anterior pituitary in a pulsatile pattern. Multiple GH isotypes and oligomers exist\\u000a in plasma in addition to the predominant 22 kD protein.Minor isoforms do not change uniquely in response to exercise. GH activates\\u000a cells by dimerizing receptors and triggering a cascade ofphosphorylation reactions that signal to the nucleus.

Arthur Weltman

167

Sexual Dysfunction in Women with Diabetic Kidney  

PubMed Central

Few studies address alteration of sexual function in women with diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Quality of life surveys suggest that discussion of sexual function and other reproductive issues are of psychosocial assessment and that education on sexual function in the setting of chronic diseases such as diabetes and CKD is widely needed. Pharmacologic therapy with estrogen/progesterone and androgens along with glycemic control, correction of anemia, ensuring adequate dialysis delivery, and treatment of underlying depression are important. Changes in lifestyle such as smoking cessation, strength training, and aerobic exercises may decrease depression, enhance body image, and have positive impacts on sexuality. Many hormonal abnormalities which occur in women with diabetes and CKD who suffer from chronic anovulation and lack of progesterone secretion may be treated with oral progesterone at the end of each menstrual cycle to restore menstrual cycles. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most common sexual problem reported by women with diabetes and CKD. Sexual function can be assessed in women, using the 9-item Female Sexual Function Index, questionnaire, or 19 items. It is important for nephrologists and physicians to incorporate assessment of sexual function into the routine evaluation protocols. PMID:25276130

Satta, Ersilia; Magno, Carlo; Galì, Alessandro; Inferrera, Antonino; Granese, Roberta; Aloisi, Carmela; Buemi, Michele; Bellinghieri, Guido; Santoro, Domenico

2014-01-01

168

Sexual dysfunction in women with diabetic kidney.  

PubMed

Few studies address alteration of sexual function in women with diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Quality of life surveys suggest that discussion of sexual function and other reproductive issues are of psychosocial assessment and that education on sexual function in the setting of chronic diseases such as diabetes and CKD is widely needed. Pharmacologic therapy with estrogen/progesterone and androgens along with glycemic control, correction of anemia, ensuring adequate dialysis delivery, and treatment of underlying depression are important. Changes in lifestyle such as smoking cessation, strength training, and aerobic exercises may decrease depression, enhance body image, and have positive impacts on sexuality. Many hormonal abnormalities which occur in women with diabetes and CKD who suffer from chronic anovulation and lack of progesterone secretion may be treated with oral progesterone at the end of each menstrual cycle to restore menstrual cycles. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most common sexual problem reported by women with diabetes and CKD. Sexual function can be assessed in women, using the 9-item Female Sexual Function Index, questionnaire, or 19 items. It is important for nephrologists and physicians to incorporate assessment of sexual function into the routine evaluation protocols. PMID:25276130

Satta, Ersilia; Magno, Carlo; Galì, Alessandro; Inferrera, Antonino; Granese, Roberta; Aloisi, Carmela; Buemi, Michele; Bellinghieri, Guido; Santoro, Domenico

2014-01-01

169

Sexuality and fertility in urologic cancer patients.  

PubMed

With the advent of effective treatment for urologic cancer, the preservation of sexual function and fertility has become an important goal. Some cancer treatments damage the physiological systems involved in reproduction. All have a psychological impact on sexuality. For men with prostate cancer, current issues in sexual rehabilitation include the debate on nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy, the role of vascular damage in causing erectile dysfunction after radiotherapy, and the need for a better understanding of hormonal effects on central and peripheral mechanisms of sexual function. In the treatment of men and women with bladder cancer, the sexual function morbidity of radical cystectomy is described in data from prospective interview studies. Sexual desire and orgasm remain normal after surgery despite disruption of the genital vasocongestion accompanying sexual arousal. Long-term follow-up studies of testicular cancer patients suggest that some increase in sexual dysfunction does occur. Infertility remains a concern for a subgroup of younger, childless men. Attempts to modify or eliminate retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy are discussed, as is recovery of spermatogenesis after chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Sexual function in patients with penile, urethral, or renal cell carcinoma is briefly reviewed. PMID:3036334

Schover, L R

1987-08-01

170

Sexual Health  

MedlinePLUS

... from a disease or health condition. The Most Common Types of Sexual Problems in Older Adults For women, age-related changes due to menopause include: lack of interest difficulty with lubrication inability to reach a climax ( ...

171

Healthy Sexuality  

MedlinePLUS

... about sexual function as described by Masters and Johnson in the mid-1960s. They described 4 stages, ... returns to its unstimulated state. Since Masters and Johnson, other researchers have modified the original concept with ...

172

Teenage Sexuality  

MedlinePLUS

... Books Four Stages of Coming Out Staying Out Late and Curfews Date Rape Healthy Children Radio: Acne and Common Skin Problems of Adolescents (Audio) Birth Control for Sexually Active Teens Dangers ...

173

Sexual Difficulties  

MedlinePLUS

... sex. Medicines: Many commonly prescribed drugs have sexual side effects. For instance, some drugs used to treat depression can suppress libido. Surgery: Women who have undergone breast cancer surgery, for example, may feel less desirable or ...

174

Sexuality and Sexual Rights in Muslim Societies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In August 2008, the Coalition for Sexual and Bodily Rights in Muslim Societies (CSBR) organized the CSBR Sexuality Institute, the first international Institute on sexuality and sexual rights in Muslim societies in Malaysia. Liz Amado presents how the Institute expanded the discourse, knowledge and thinking around sexuality in Muslim societies, as well as providing a unique space for the much

Liz Ercevik Amado

2009-01-01

175

Detecting sexual conflict and sexually antagonistic coevolution  

E-print Network

Detecting sexual conflict and sexually antagonistic coevolution Locke Rowe1,2,* and Troy Day3,4 1 by providing an operational definition of sexual conflict that applies to both inter- and intralocus conflict approaches for detecting interlocus sexual conflict and resultant sexually antagonistic coevolution. We

Day, Troy

176

SEXUAL MISCONDUCT/SEXUAL ASSAULT POLICY  

E-print Network

SEXUAL MISCONDUCT/SEXUAL ASSAULT POLICY Office of Equal Opportunity Purpose: To establish a work and educational environment at Tufts University that is free from Sexual Misconduct, which includes sexual harassment, sex/gender discrimination, sexual assault, rape and other gender-based misconduct, through

Dennett, Daniel

177

Prenatal endocrine influences on sexual orientation and on sexually differentiated childhood behavior  

PubMed Central

Both sexual orientation and sex-typical childhood behaviors, such as toy, playmate and activity preferences, show substantial sex differences, as well as substantial variability within each sex. In other species, behaviors that show sex differences are typically influenced by exposure to gonadal steroids, particularly testosterone and its metabolites, during early development (prenatally or neonatally). This article reviews the evidence regarding prenatal influences of gonadal steroids on human sexual orientation, as well as sex-typed childhood behaviors that predict subsequent sexual orientation. The evidence supports a role for prenatal testosterone exposure in the development of sex-typed interests in childhood, as well as in sexual orientation in later life, at least for some individuals. It appears, however, that other factors, in addition to hormones, play an important role in determining sexual orientation. These factors have not been well-characterized, but possibilities include direct genetic effects, and effects of maternal factors during pregnancy. Although a role for hormones during early development has been established, it also appears that there may be multiple pathways to a given sexual orientation outcome and some of these pathways may not involve hormones. PMID:21333673

Hines, Melissa

2012-01-01

178

Healthy Aging -- Sexual Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) Sexual health More information on sexual health Many older women ... Protecting yourself Return to top More information on Sexual health Read more from womenshealth.gov Sexually Transmitted Infections ...

179

Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility  

MedlinePLUS

... org • URL www.asrm.org PATIENT FACT SHEET Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility You probably don't realize ... of this, sexual problems can arise. What is sexual dysfunction? Doctors divide normal sexual function into 3 ...

180

Gene regulation by steroid hormones III  

SciTech Connect

In this book, the authors discuss the latest advances in molecular endocrinology: - steroid receptor binding to DNA sequences of hormonally controlled genes, - structure of genes controlled by steroid hormones, - heterogeneity of steroid receptors, - immunochemical approaches to receptor studies, and - the most recent approaches to steroid hormone action and biological response. The Contents discussed are: Biochemical Evidence for the Exclusive Nuclear Localization of the Estrogen Receptor. - Structure, Dynamics, and Cloning of the Estrogen Receptor. - Structure, Dynamics, and Cloning of the Estrogen Receptor - Physical and Functional Parameters of Isolated Estrogen Receptor - Type II Binding Sites: Cellular Origin and an Endogeneous Ligand. - The Two Phosphorylation Reactions of the Progesterone Receptor. - Receptor Mediated Action of the Vitamin D Hormone. - Characterization of the Nuclear Binding Sites (Acceptor Sites) for a Steroid Receptor. Antibodies in Estrogen, Progesterone, Glucocorticoid, Vitamin D Receptors and Autoantibodies to Antrogene Receptor. - Isolation and Characterization of cDNA probes for Human CBG and Rat ABP. Ornithine Decarboxy lase mRNAs in Murine Kidney: Structure and Regulation by Androgens - Glucocorticoid Receptors and the Control of Gene Expression. - Activation and Regulation of the Vitellogenin Gene Family. - Intra- and Intercellular Aspects of the Hormonal Regulation of the ..cap alpha..2..mu.. Globulin Gene Expression. - Hormonal Regulation of Sexually Differentiated Isozymes of Cytochrome P-450 in Rat Liver. - Interaction of Thyroid Hormone and Carbohydrates on Hepatic Gene Expression.

Roy, A.K.; Clark, J.H.

1987-01-01

181

Sexual sadism.  

PubMed

Definitions of sexual sadism in ICD-10 and DSM-IV will be presented as well as the historical routes of the concept. Today studies on differently selected clinical samples reveal a different distribution of sexual sadism versus masochism with masochism prevailing in general especially outpatient psychiatric facilities, and sadism prevailing in forensic settings, thus corroborating the concept of two separated diagnoses sadism versus masochism. In forensic settings the diagnosis of a sadistic character disorder (sadistic personality disorder [SPD] according DSM-III-R) is found to a much higher degree than in other clinical samples (50-fold). Our own follow-up study on a forensic sample implies that sadism as a paraphilia is of relevance for relapse-rates of sex-offenders. Symptoms of SPD can be combined with sexual sadism, or occur independently. This may corroborate arguments in favor of a dimensional concept of sexual sadism. Symptoms of SPD may then be a sign of generalization of sadistic traits at least in some cases. A concept of two factors contributing to sadistic pleasure is suggested, one taking the aspect of bodily gratification by sexual-aggressive stimuli as decisive, and the other taking inner representation of hostile objects into consideration (stressing the antisocial-anger-rage aspect). PMID:12971180

Berner, Wolfgang; Berger, Peter; Hill, Andreas

2003-08-01

182

Hormone Replacement Therapy  

MedlinePLUS

... before and during menopause, the levels of female hormones can go up and down. This can cause ... hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Some women take hormone replacement therapy (HRT), also called menopausal hormone therapy, ...

183

Thyroid Hormone Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

Thyroid Hormone Treatment Thyroid hormone is used in two situations: to replace the function of the thyroid gland, which ... working as they should. Definition, Therapy & Treatment Thyroid hormone replacement therapy Many people have a thyroid gland ...

184

Growth hormone test  

MedlinePLUS

... increased growth patterns called acromegaly in adults and gigantism in children. Too little growth hormone can cause ... high level of growth hormone may indicate: Acromegaly Gigantism Growth hormone resistance Pituitary tumor A low level ...

185

Adolescent sexual activity.  

PubMed

Adolescents are becoming sexually active at younger ages. One half of the adolescents in the United States are sexually active. This article reviews adolescent sexual activity, including rates of sexual activity, sexual practices, gay and lesbian youth, and factors affecting the initiation of sexual activity. In addition, adolescent pregnancy, with possible outcomes and effects on teen parents and their offspring, is discussed. PMID:8299296

Braverman, P K; Strasburger, V C

1993-11-01

186

Student Sexual Misconduct Policy  

E-print Network

Student Sexual Misconduct Policy 2014-2015 #12;1 BOSTON COLLEGE STUDENT SEXUAL MISCONDUCT POLICY INDEX I. INTRODUCTION II. BUILDING AN EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT FREE FROM SEXUAL MISCONDUCT III. PROHIBITED BEHAVIOR a. Definitions i. Sexual Misconduct ii. Sexual Harassment iii. Sexual Assault iv. Consent

Huang, Jianyu

187

Sexual assault.  

PubMed

Sexual assault continues to represent the most rapidly growing violent crime in America. Vital legal reforms are underway, but statistics prove a persistent rise in rape incidence with poor conviction rates. This knowledge, along with the vast multitude of emotional sequelae of rape and self-perceived inferior legal status of women, results in a high percentage of unreported cases. It is imperative that health care providers understand the horrific nature of sexual assault in order to provide appropriate care. All medical care personnel involved in the care of potential rape victims should be briefed in historic and modern legalities of sexual assault. Specific training in emergent and chronic care, both physical and mental, in conjunction with an understanding of rape legislation is vital if health care professionals are to appropriately care for victims of rape. PMID:8414312

Dupre, A R; Hampton, H L; Morrison, H; Meeks, G R

1993-09-01

188

Review: neuroestrogen regulation of socio-sexual behavior of males  

PubMed Central

It is thought that estrogen (neuroestrogen) synthesized by the action of aromatase in the brain from testosterone activates male socio-sexual behaviors, such as aggression and sexual behavior in birds. We recently found that gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), a hypothalamic neuropeptide, inhibits socio-sexual behaviors of male quail by directly activating aromatase and increasing neuroestrogen synthesis in the preoptic area (POA). The POA is thought to be the most critical site of aromatization and neuroestrogen action for the regulation of socio-sexual behavior of male birds. We concluded that GnIH inhibits socio-sexual behaviors of male quail by increasing neuroestrogen concentration beyond its optimal concentration in the brain for expression of socio-sexual behavior. On the other hand, it has been reported that dopamine and glutamate, which stimulate male socio-sexual behavior in birds and mammals, inhibit the activity of aromatase in the POA. Multiple studies also report that the activity of aromatase or neuroestrogen is negatively correlated with changes in male socio-sexual behavior in fish, birds, and mammals including humans. Here, we review previous studies that investigated the role of neuroestrogen in the regulation of male socio-sexual behavior and reconsider the hypothesis that neuroestrogen activates male socio-sexual behavior in vertebrates. It is considered that basal concentration of neuroestrogen is required for the maintenance of male socio-sexual behavior but higher concentration of neuroestrogen may inhibit male socio-sexual behavior. PMID:25352775

Ubuka, Takayoshi; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

2014-01-01

189

Review: neuroestrogen regulation of socio-sexual behavior of males.  

PubMed

It is thought that estrogen (neuroestrogen) synthesized by the action of aromatase in the brain from testosterone activates male socio-sexual behaviors, such as aggression and sexual behavior in birds. We recently found that gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), a hypothalamic neuropeptide, inhibits socio-sexual behaviors of male quail by directly activating aromatase and increasing neuroestrogen synthesis in the preoptic area (POA). The POA is thought to be the most critical site of aromatization and neuroestrogen action for the regulation of socio-sexual behavior of male birds. We concluded that GnIH inhibits socio-sexual behaviors of male quail by increasing neuroestrogen concentration beyond its optimal concentration in the brain for expression of socio-sexual behavior. On the other hand, it has been reported that dopamine and glutamate, which stimulate male socio-sexual behavior in birds and mammals, inhibit the activity of aromatase in the POA. Multiple studies also report that the activity of aromatase or neuroestrogen is negatively correlated with changes in male socio-sexual behavior in fish, birds, and mammals including humans. Here, we review previous studies that investigated the role of neuroestrogen in the regulation of male socio-sexual behavior and reconsider the hypothesis that neuroestrogen activates male socio-sexual behavior in vertebrates. It is considered that basal concentration of neuroestrogen is required for the maintenance of male socio-sexual behavior but higher concentration of neuroestrogen may inhibit male socio-sexual behavior. PMID:25352775

Ubuka, Takayoshi; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

2014-01-01

190

Psychology/Zoology 310: Human Sexuality Instructor: Marc Breedlove; 240 Giltner; 355-1749; breedsm@msu.edu  

E-print Network

Hormones Ch 5 Human menstrual cycle; Androgens Sexual differentiation of the body. Ch 6 Gender Ch 7 Sexism Scope of the course, warnings about explicit discussions in the course. Chapter 1 Sex and Human and stereotypes; Cognitive sex differences; Cultural influences Sexual attraction Ch 8 What is sexually attractive

Liu, Taosheng

191

Psychology/Zoology 310: Human Sexuality Summer 2013 Instructor: Marc Breedlove; 240 Giltner; 355-1749; breedsm@msu.edu  

E-print Network

Hormones Ch 5 Human menstrual cycle; Androgens Sexual differentiation of the body Ch 6 Gender Ch 7 Sexism Scope of the course, warnings about explicit discussions in the course. Chapter 1 Sex and Human and stereotypes; Cognitive sex differences; Cultural influences Sexual attraction Ch 8 What is sexually attractive

Liu, Taosheng

192

Cholesterol and the Adrenal Cortical Hormone  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE discovery that carbon atom C4 of the cholesterol molecule is the first point of attack by oxygen, leading to the formation of cis Delta5:6-cholestene-3 : 4-diol, suggested that this reactive primary oxidation product may play an important role in the metabolism of cholesterol and the sexual hormones. Experimental confirmation of this view was obtained by feeding experiments, which showed

O. Rosenheim; H. King

1937-01-01

193

The role of juvenile hormone in immune function and pheromone production trade-offs: a test of the immunocompetence handicap principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis postulates that secondary sexual traits are honest signals of mate quality because the hormones (e.g. testosterone) needed to develop secondary sexual traits have immunosuppressive effects. The best support for predictions arising from the immunocompetence handi- cap hypothesis so far comes from studies of insects, although they lack male-specific hormones such as testosterone. In our previous studies,

Markus J. Rantala; Anssi Vainikka; Raine Kortet

2003-01-01

194

TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY Sexual Misconduct Information Packet  

E-print Network

Assault, Sexual Violence, Sexual Harassment of Conduct, "Sexual Misconduct" is any of the following: SEXUAL HARASSMENT "Unwelcome verbal, written TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY Sexual Misconduct Information Packet Sexual

Zhuang, Yu

195

Sex differentiation of growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin neurons in the mouse hypothalamus: an immunohistochemical and morphological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine sexual dimorphism in growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), and somatostatin (SS) in the periventricular nucleus (PeN) of the hypothalamus, and investigate when it becomes evident. Using immunohistochemical staining and morphometry, we observed ARC GHRH-immunoreactive (ir) neurons, ARC SS-ir neurons and PeN SS-ir neurons in male and female mice at 5, 20, 30, 40 and

Y Nurhidayat; Yasuhiro Tsukamoto; Koeswinarning Sigit; Fumihiko Sasaki

1999-01-01

196

Sex Hormones and Macronutrient Metabolism  

PubMed Central

The biological differences between males and females are determined by a different set of genes and by a different reactivity to environmental stimuli, including the diet, in general. These differences are further emphasized and driven by the exposure to a different hormone flux throughout the life. These differences have not been taken into appropriate consideration by the scientific community. Nutritional sciences are not immune from this “bias” and when nutritional needs are concerned, females are considered only when pregnant, lactating or when their hormonal profile is returning back to “normal,” i.e., to the male-like profile. The authors highlight some of the most evident differences in aspects of biology that are associated with nutrition. This review presents and describes available data addressing differences and similarities of the “reference man” vs. the “reference woman” in term of metabolic activity and nutritional needs. According to this assumption, available evidences of sex-associated differences of specific biochemical pathways involved in substrate metabolism are reported and discussed. The modulation by sexual hormones affecting glucose, amino acid and protein metabolism and the metabolization of nutritional fats and the distribution of fat depots, is considered targeting a tentative starting up background for a gender concerned nutritional science. PMID:24915409

Comitato, Raffaella; Saba, Anna; Turrini, Aida; Arganini, Claudia; Virgili, Fabio

2015-01-01

197

Who, what, where, when (and maybe even why)? How the experience of sexual reward connects sexual desire, preference, and performance.  

PubMed

Although sexual behavior is controlled by hormonal and neurochemical actions in the brain, sexual experience induces a degree of plasticity that allows animals to form instrumental and Pavlovian associations that predict sexual outcomes, thereby directing the strength of sexual responding. This review describes how experience with sexual reward strengthens the development of sexual behavior and induces sexually-conditioned place and partner preferences in rats. In both male and female rats, early sexual experience with partners scented with a neutral or even noxious odor induces a preference for scented partners in subsequent choice tests. Those preferences can also be induced by injections of morphine or oxytocin paired with a male rat's first exposure to scented females, indicating that pharmacological activation of opioid or oxytocin receptors can "stand in" for the sexual reward-related neurochemical processes normally activated by sexual stimulation. Conversely, conditioned place or partner preferences can be blocked by the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. A somatosensory cue (a rodent jacket) paired with sexual reward comes to elicit sexual arousal in male rats, such that paired rats with the jacket off show dramatic copulatory deficits. We propose that endogenous opioid activation forms the basis of sexual reward, which also sensitizes hypothalamic and mesolimbic dopamine systems in the presence of cues that predict sexual reward. Those systems act to focus attention on, and activate goal-directed behavior toward, reward-related stimuli. Thus, a critical period exists during an individual's early sexual experience that creates a "love map" or Gestalt of features, movements, feelings, and interpersonal interactions associated with sexual reward. PMID:22402996

Pfaus, James G; Kippin, Tod E; Coria-Avila, Genaro A; Gelez, Hélène; Afonso, Veronica M; Ismail, Nafissa; Parada, Mayte

2012-02-01

198

Sexual desire and arousal disorders in women.  

PubMed

According to incentive motivation theory, sexual desire is the result of the interplay between a sensitive sexual response system and stimuli that activate the system. From this notion it follows that sexual desire is not a cause but a consequence of sexual arousal. The effects of hormones, somatic disease and medication on sexual arousability are discussed, as well as the influence of psychological factors - such as stimulus meaning, mood and cognition - and relational context on female sexual desire and arousal. At present, much attention is being paid to possible pharmacological treatments for decreased desire and arousal problems, even though desire and arousal seem more strongly associated with psychological and relational factors. Empirical evidence of the effect of psychological treatments for decreased desire and arousal problems in women is scarce. A cognitive-behavioral therapy approach with explicit attention to relational context and a focus on improving arousal and sexual satisfaction has shown to be effective. Knowledge about which treatment elements bring about change is still lacking. PMID:22005202

Laan, Ellen; Both, Stephanie

2011-01-01

199

Ivermectin reduces sexual behavior in female rats.  

PubMed

Ivermectin (IVM) is an antiparasitic drug that is widely used in domestic animals. In mammals, IVM acts as a ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor agonist. This neurotransmitter plays an important role in the regulation of female sexual behavior. The present study investigated the effects of therapeutic (0.2 mg/kg) and high (1.0 mg/kg) IVM doses on female sexual behavior in physiological and pharmacological conditions. Female rats in estrus or treated with estradiol valerate to induce sexual behavior 24 h before the experiments were used. Ivermectin was administered 15 min before the sexual observations. The number of lordosis events in 10 mounts was recorded to calculate the lordosis quotient. The intensity of lordosis (0 [no lordosis], 1 [low lordosis], 2 [normal lordosis] and 3 [exaggerated lordosis]) was scored. In estrus and hormonal treated female rats, both IVM doses decreased the intensity of the lordosis reflex and the percentage of females that presented high levels of lordosis (exaggerated lordosis). However, the number of females that presented lordosis was unaltered. We conclude that in both hormonal conditions, 0.2mg/kg IVM treatment reduced female sexual behavior and the execution of the lordosis reflex. The present results may be useful for avoiding the side effects of this drug in veterinary practice. PMID:24681284

Moreira, N; Bernardi, M M; Spinosa, H S

2014-01-01

200

Schultheiss, Schiepe, & Rawolle Hormone assays 1 Running head: HORMONE ASSAYS  

E-print Network

Schultheiss, Schiepe, & Rawolle Hormone assays 1 Running head: HORMONE ASSAYS Hormone assays Oliver: Schultheiss, O. C., Schiepe, A., & Rawolle, M. (2012). Hormone assays. In H. Cooper, P. M. Camic, D. L. Long Association. #12;Schultheiss, Schiepe, & Rawolle Hormone assays 2 Hormone assays Hormones can be assayed from

Schultheiss, Oliver C.

201

Sexuality and breast cancer: prime time for young patients  

PubMed Central

Sexuality and sexual functioning is a cardinal domain of health-related quality of life in breast cancer patients, namely in the younger population. Young women below 40 years of age go through a time in their lives where sexual self-identity has recently matured, their professional obligations are demanding and they bear interpersonal and childbearing expectations, all of which can suffer a devastating turnaround with cancer diagnosis and its physical and psychological aftermath. Although these women’s sexuality and directed interventions have remained largely unaddressed so far, concepts are evolving and treatment options are becoming diversified, chiefly on the field of non-hormonal pharmacological therapy of sexual dysfunction. This review will examine the definitions of female sexual dysfunction, the etiology of the disorders in young breast cancer patients, the assessment methods, the non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options and the challenges that lie ahead. PMID:23819031

2013-01-01

202

Hormonally functional ovarian neoplasms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hormonally functional ovarian neoplasms are those tumors that secrete one or more hormones that are clinically manifested\\u000a in the patient. The hormone production may have implications for the diagnosis, management, or treatment of the patient. Hormonally\\u000a functional ovarian neoplasms include tumors that belong to various histologic categories and produce a variety of hormonal\\u000a effects. Functional ovarian tumors most commonly produce

Lawrence M. Roth; Steven D. Billings

2000-01-01

203

Are hormonal contraceptive users more likely to misreport unprotected sex? Evidence from a biomarker validation study in Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

We analyzed biomarker validation data of unprotected sex from women in Zimbabwe to determine whether condom and sexual behavior misreporting differs between users of different contraceptive methods. Self-reported sexual behavior was compared with the presence of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in vaginal fluid, a biomarker of semen exposure. Of the 195 women who were PSA positive, 94 (48 %) reported no sex or only condom-protected sex. Hormonal contraceptive users misreported sexual behavior less than women using non-hormonal methods (45 vs. 67 %, P = 0.03). This misclassification pattern could have implications on the elevated risk of HIV infection associated with hormonal contraception in some studies. PMID:24619603

McCoy, Sandra I; Ralph, Lauren J; Padian, Nancy S; Minnis, Alexandra M

2014-12-01

204

Puberty and adolescent sexuality.  

PubMed

This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Sexuality emerges as a major developmental element of puberty and the adolescent years that follow. However, connecting the sexuality that emerges with puberty and elements of adult sexuality is difficult because much adolescent sexuality research addresses the transition to partnered sexual behaviors (primarily coitus) and consequences such as unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This review proposes a framework of an expanded understanding of puberty and adolescent sexuality from the perspective of four hallmarks of adult sexuality: sexual desire; sexual arousal; sexual behaviors; and, sexual function. This approach thus addresses important gaps in understanding of the ontogeny of sex and the continuum of sexuality development from adolescence through the adult lifespan. PMID:23998672

Fortenberry, J Dennis

2013-07-01

205

Female sexual swelling size, timing of ovulation, and male behavior in wild West African chimpanzees  

E-print Network

) direct size measures (from video captures) of female sexual swellings with (ii) urinary hormone data of conspicuous secondary sex traits in numerous animal spe- cies (Andersson, 1994; Darwin, 1871). Conspicuous

206

Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone receptor signaling and its impact on reproduction in chickens  

E-print Network

luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion from the pituitary gland. However review discusses the recent advances in GnIHR signal- ing at the level of the pituitary gland receptors. In the chicken pituitary gland, the GnRHR-II/GnIHR ratio changes during sexual maturation

Ramachandran, Ramesh

207

Sexuality and Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes normal aspects of sexuality during the early years, including masturbation and children's fanciful sexual ideas. Presents inappropriately mature sexual knowledge as a danger sign of abuse. Discusses whether and what teachers/caregivers should tell children about sexuality, and notes the importance of teaching staff about sexual identity…

Honig, Alice Sterling

2000-01-01

208

A broader perspective of sexual differentiation  

SciTech Connect

Human sexual differentiation is customarily depicted as a series of embryonic events that lead to male and female gonadal development and differential hormone expression that have behavioral as well as biological outcomes. The salient components of these events are the differential expression of two hormones - testosterone and Muellerian inhibiting substance - and the SRY gene, regulating, in turn, the transcription of other genes and culminating in male differentiation. Sex determination, then, is generally described as initially proceeding down a path toward female development unless the bipotential, indifferent gonad is modified toward male development by genes on the Y chromosome. 28 refs.

Fiddler, M. [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States)] [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); Pergament, E. [Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States)] [Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States)

1997-03-31

209

[Adolescent sexuality].  

PubMed

The social Adolescent features are insecurity, narcissism, eroticism, more impetuosity than reason. 1/3 of adolescents have risk behaviour for health. The pregnancy rate in adolescent are 9/1,000 (11,720, the abort about 50 %). The total abort (2009) were 114,480. Increase the rate of 8,4 (1990) to 14,6/ 1,000 (2009). The sexual education fails. The consulting about contraceptives get pregnancy of the OR 3,2, condom OR 2,7. The adolescent are influenced in his matter: oeer have 70-75 % of influence, mother 30-40 %, father 15 %, for yhe environment and education Cyberspace access to information: 33 % exposed to unwanted sexual materials, 1 in 7 solicited sexual online. The argument have 4 central topic: Morality and Responsibility, Desire (responsibility vs gratification), Danger (fear related to pregnancy and STD/VIH), and Victimization. The prevention of STD: so called safe sex, delayed, and abstinence, Prevention HPV vaccine. The information is not enough, are necessary personal integral formation in values as self control, abstinence, mutual respect, responsibility, reasonable decisions. PMID:21877398

Calero, Juan del Rey

2010-01-01

210

Hormonal mechanisms of sex differentiation of the liver: the modern conception and problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The level of thousands of genes expression in the liver is differentiated on the basis of sexual dimorphism that affects the\\u000a frequency of appearance of different pathological forms. The main hormonal factors of the liver’s sex differentiation are\\u000a sex steroids and growth hormone. The impulsive and close to continuous secretion character of growth hormone in male and female\\u000a individuals may

A. N. Smirnov

2009-01-01

211

Childhood sexual abuse, adolescent sexual behaviors and sexual revictimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aims of this study were to examine the extent to which exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was associated with increased rates of sexual risk taking behaviors and sexual revictimization during adolescence.Method: A birth cohort of 520 New Zealand born young women was studied at regular intervals from birth to the age of 18. At age 18 retrospective

David M. Fergusson; L. John Horwood; Michael T. Lynskey

1997-01-01

212

Hormonal Regulation of Hepatic Drug Metabolizing Enzyme Activity During Adolescence  

PubMed Central

Activities of drug metabolizing enzymes (DME) are known to change throughout the course of physical and sexual maturation with the greatest variability noted during infancy and adolescence. The mechanisms responsible for developmental regulation of DME are currently unknown. However, the hormonal changes of puberty/adolescence provide a theoretical framework for understanding biochemical regulation of DME activity during growth and maturation. Important information regarding potential influences of growth and sex hormones can also be extrapolated from studies evaluating changes in activities of DMEs occurring as a consequence of physiologic, pathologic and/or pharmacologic hormonal fluctuations. Collectively, current data support the hypothesis that isoform-specific alterations in DME activity during adolescence are mediated via sex and/or growth hormones. Characterization of the underlying biochemical alterations responsible for developmental changes in DME activity will require additional studies in which relationships between DME and important hormonal axes are evaluated during the course of pubertal development. PMID:18971926

Kennedy, M.J.

2009-01-01

213

Your Sexual Health  

MedlinePLUS

... during treatment of a sexual problem? • Glossary Your Sexual Health 4. Sexual pain disorder What are desire problems? ... by women. A lack of desire before having sex is normal for some women. They may not ...

214

Hormonal Factors in the Sex Differentiation of the Mammalian Foetus  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 Sex differentiates under genetic control during successive periods. Classical morphological and experimental data have shown the sexual bipotentiality of the developing structures. But, as a matter of fact, several observations indicate that both sexes are not equal or equipotential as to their developmental trends and mechanisms. 2 The developmental analysis of the body sex characteristics reveals a hormonal control.

D. Price; A. Jost; R. G. Edwards

1970-01-01

215

Sex differentiation and hormonal feminization in pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was conducted on the histological process of gonadal sex differentiation and the suitability of steroid hormone administration for sex control in pejerrey, Odontesthes bonariensis. Light histological examination of the gonads of larvae and juvenile fish revealed that the primordial gonads were already formed at hatching, but remained sexually undifferentiated until 49 days post-hatch (14.9 mm standard length). Germinal

Carlos Augusto Strüssmann; Fumio Takashima; Kunio Toda

1996-01-01

216

Early Hormonal Influences on Cognitive Functioning in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports the results of cognitive test performance and early childhood activities in individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, an autosomal recessive disorder associated with elevated prenatal adrenal androgen levels, demonstrating the effects of early exposure to excess androgenizing hormones on sexually dimorphic cognitive functioning.…

Resnick, Susan M.; And Others

1986-01-01

217

Hormonal Regulation of CREB Phosphorylation in the Anteroventral Periventricular Nucleus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) is a nodal point in neural circuits regulating secretion of gonadotropin and contains sexually dimorphic populations of hormonally regu- lated dopamine-, dynorphin-, and enkephalin-containing neu- rons. Because the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), prodynorphin (PDYN), and proenkephalin (PENK) genes contain cAMP re- sponse elements that control their expression in their promot- ers, we used histochemical methods to

Guibao Gu; Anthony A. Rojo; Michele C. Zee; Jianhua Yu; Richard B. Simerly

1996-01-01

218

This article was originally published in Hormones, Brain and Behavior 2nd edition, published by Elsevier, and the attached copy is provided by Elsevier  

E-print Network

.2 Diversity in Sex Determination, Sexual Differentiation, and Hormone­Behavior Relationships 773 23 23.4.2.4 Arginine vasotocin 803 23.5 Regulation of Sex Steroid Hormone Receptors 803 23.6 Conclusions hormones. temperature-dependent sex determination Pattern characteristic of many species of reptile in wh

Crews, David

219

Plant-Hormones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Long Ashton Research Station -- part of the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (UK) -- will close in March 2003, but its online resource Plant-Hormones will continue to provide general information and references on gibberellins, auxins, cytokinins, and other hormone groups. Additionally, this Web site provides a link to a listserver for plant hormone scientists, a discussion forum "intended to promote communication between professionals in the plant hormone field." Plant-Hormones also lists job vacancies, meetings announcements, and Web links for botany and molecular biology resources, while offering an online directory of plant hormone researchers searchable by country.

220

Brain sex differences and hormone influences: a moving experience?  

PubMed

Sex differences in the nervous system come in many forms. Although a majority of sexually dimorphic characteristics in the brain have been described in older animals, mechanisms that determine sexually differentiated brain characteristics often operate during critical perinatal periods. Both genetic and hormonal factors likely contribute to physiological mechanisms in development to generate the ontogeny of sexual dimorphisms in brain. Relevant mechanisms may include neurogenesis, cell migration, cell differentiation, cell death, axon guidance and synaptogenesis. On a molecular level, there are several ways to categorize factors that drive brain development. These range from the actions of transcription factors in cell nuclei that regulate the expression of genes that control cell development and differentiation, to effector molecules that directly contribute to signalling from one cell to another. In addition, several peptides or proteins in these and other categories might be referred to as 'biomarkers' of sexual differentiation with undetermined functions in development or adulthood. Although a majority of sex differences are revealed as a direct consequence of hormone actions, some may only be revealed after genetic or environmental disruption. Sex differences in cell positions in the developing hypothalamus, and steroid hormone influences on cell movements in vitro, suggest that cell migration may be one target for early molecular actions that impact brain development and sexual differentiation. PMID:19207813

Tobet, S; Knoll, J G; Hartshorn, C; Aurand, E; Stratton, M; Kumar, P; Searcy, B; McClellan, K

2009-03-01

221

Sexuality and Reproductive Issues (PDQ)  

MedlinePLUS

Sexuality and Reproductive Issues (PDQ®) Sexual Problems as a Side Effect of Cancer Factors Affecting Sexual Function in Cancer Patients Assessing Sexual Function in Cancer Patients Treatment of Sexual Problems in Cancer ...

222

Plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone growth hormone, oestradiol, testosterone  

E-print Network

Plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone growth hormone, oestradiol, testosterone of Hull, Hull, HU6 7RX, North Humberside, England. Summary. The concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH), growth hormone (GH), oestra- diol, testosterone and androstenedione were determined in weekly blood

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

223

Thoreau's sexuality.  

PubMed

Although Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) has often been described as lacking in sexual drive or at most a rather reluctant heterosexual, a close study of his life and writings indicates the presence of a pronounced vein of homoeroticism--although there seems to be no concrete evidence of any homosexual activity on his part. Cognizance of that homoeroticism helps one to understand many elements of his life and writings and suggests that his intense love of nature may have resulted from sublimation of that homoeroticism. PMID:1880400

Harding, W

1991-01-01

224

Sexual rights and sexual cultures: reflections on \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is divided into three sections. The first section focuses on the contested nature of the sexual politics that surrounded the Jacob Zuma rape trial. This sexual politics was not simply the background to the \\

Steven Robins

2006-01-01

225

Neuroendocrine contributions to sexual partner preference in birds Elizabeth Adkins-Regan  

E-print Network

imprinting Social experience Sexual differentiation Homosexual behavior a b s t r a c t A majority of birds preferences for opposite-sex partners where the sexes form extended affiliative relationships. Zebra finches animal. In this species, sexual partner preference can be partially or largely sex reversed with hormone

226

Disco clothing, female sexual motivation, and relationship status: Is she dressed to impress?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between a female's clothing choice, sexual motivation, hormone levels, and partnership status (single or not single, partner present or not present) was analyzed in 351 females attending Austrian discotheques. We digitally analyzed clothing choice to determine the amount of skin display, sheerness, and clothing tightness. Participants self?reported sexual motivation, and we assessed estradiol and testosterone levels through saliva

Karl Grammer; LeeAnn Renninger; Bettina Fischer

2004-01-01

227

Testosterone upregulates lipoprotein status to control sexual attractiveness in a colorful songbird  

Microsoft Academic Search

A salient feature of many secondary sexual characteristics in animals is that their expression is controlled by sex-steroid hormones. However, for only a few types of ornaments do we know the precise molecular mechanism by which androgens like testosterone (T) enhance trait production. We studied the red carotenoid-based beak of male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), which serves as a sexually

Kevin J. McGraw; Stephanie M. Correa; Elizabeth Adkins-Regan

2006-01-01

228

Menopause and Hormones  

MedlinePLUS

... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Menopause and Hormones: Common Questions Print and Share (PDF 102KB) En ... reproduction and distribution. Learn More about Menopause and Hormones Menopause--Medicines to Help You Links to other ...

229

Amelogenin genes and sexual dimorphism of teeth in humans and mice  

SciTech Connect

Mutant mice in which chromosomal complement and hormonal profile were discordant were studied. It appeared that the Y-chromosomally determined male-larger sexual dimorphism of tooth size seen in humans was not present in mice. It was concluded that the finding of smaller molars in males than in females was due to hormonal rather than chromosomal factors.

Blecher, S.R. (Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada))

1992-12-01

230

Lect. 15: Sexual selection Sexual dimorphism  

E-print Network

with reproduction) Selection for sexual dimorphism? · Fitness under natural selection: typically same for both sexes Survival ReproductionFitness Selection for sexual dimorphism? · Must act on sexes differently · Process Fitness Sexual selection · Differential reproductive success due to variation among individuals in ability

231

The Problem... ! Sexual Assault & Sexual Harassment are  

E-print Network

of rape or attempted rape between the age of 14 and 25 ! 9 out of 10 date rapes are not reported ! Women the Terms Sexual Assault #Sexual activity, including but not limited to rape, attempted rape or oral sex, guilt) $ Date rape, a form of sexual assault, is rape by someone the victim is dating. $ Acquaintance

VandeVord, Pamela

232

Assessment of Salivary Hormones  

E-print Network

and behavior are differentiated. "Organizational effects" are lasting influ- ences that hormones exert on an individual's sex hormones (e.g., Graham & Desjardins, 1980; Roney, Lukaszewski, & Simmons, 2007); or when17 3 Assessment of Salivary Hormones Oliver C. Schultheiss Steven J. Stanton A Primer on Concepts

Schultheiss, Oliver C.

233

Growth hormone deficiency - children  

MedlinePLUS

... the child's growth curve on a growth chart . Children with growth hormone deficiency have a slow or flat rate of ... Growth hormone therapy does not work for all children. Left untreated, growth hormone deficiency may lead to short stature and delayed ...

234

Sex hormones in pedophiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-six pedophiles and 16 nonviolent nonsex offenders were compared on baseline values of Luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, estradiol, dehydroenpiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and cortisol. Pedophiles had significantly higher levels of LH and FSH but lower levels of testosterone. There were no significant differences on the remaining hormones. When age and substance abuse were controlled, LH and FSH

J. Bain; R. Langevin; S. Hucker; R. Dickey; P. Wright; C. Schonberg

1988-01-01

235

Hormones and Migraines  

MedlinePLUS

Home » Hormones and Migraine Hormones and Migraine Submitted by Admin on Thu, 2007-10-25 16:06 Migraine occurs more often in women than in ... their menstrual cycle supports this link between female hormone changes and migraine headaches. Attacks may occur several ...

236

Hormonally active ovarian tumors.  

PubMed

Steroid-hormone-producing ovarian tumors include those in which the neoplastic cells secrete hormones as well as a wide variety of tumors in which the neoplastic cells stimulate the ovarian stroma or adjacent hilus cells to become hormonally active. PMID:9474877

Scully, R E

1997-01-01

237

Reframing sexual differentiation of the brain  

PubMed Central

In the twentieth century, the dominant model of sexual differentiation stated that genetic sex (XX versus XY) causes differentiation of the gonads, which then secrete gonadal hormones that act directly on tissues to induce sex differences in function. This serial model of sexual differentiation was simple, unifying and seductive. Recent evidence, however, indicates that the linear model is incorrect and that sex differences arise in response to diverse sex-specific signals originating from inherent differences in the genome and involve cellular mechanisms that are specific to individual tissues or brain regions. Moreover, sex-specific effects of the environment reciprocally affect biology, sometimes profoundly, and must therefore be integrated into a realistic model of sexual differentiation. A more appropriate model is a parallel-interactive model that encompasses the roles of multiple molecular signals and pathways that differentiate males and females, including synergistic and compensatory interactions among pathways and an important role for the environment. PMID:21613996

McCarthy, Margaret M; Arnold, Arthur P

2011-01-01

238

University of Alberta Sexual Assault Centre Acquaintance Sexual Assault  

E-print Network

University of Alberta Sexual Assault Centre Acquaintance Sexual Assault Sexual assault is any form of sexual contact without voluntary consent, and acquaintance sexual assault is sexual assault where the survivor knows the person who committed the sexual assault. The offending acquaintance may be someone

Machel, Hans

239

Policy on Sexual Harassment Policy on Sexual Harassment  

E-print Network

Policy on Sexual Harassment 09/19/2013 Policy on Sexual Harassment I. Purpose and Scope property. Definitions Sexual Harassment: Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature is sexual harassment when: Submission to such conduct

Sridhar, Srinivas

240

Corpus callosum: ovarian hormones and feminization.  

PubMed

The rat's corpus callosum is sexually dimorphic with the male's being larger. This difference appears to depend in part on the neonatal presence of testosterone in the male and ovarian hormones in the female. To further investigate the possibility that ovarian hormones participate in the differentiation of the rat's callosum, females received one of the following treatments on postnatal day 8, 12 or 16: (1) ovariectomy (Ovx); (2) 1 mg of testosterone propionate (TP); or (3) sham surgery. All animals were handled daily from birth until weaning. They were sacrificed at 110 days and a mid-sagittal section of the callosum was obtained. From this section measures of callosal area, perimeter, length, and 99 widths were derived. Widths were averaged into 7 factors as defined by prior factor analysis. Ovariectomy, whether on day 8, 12 or 16, enlarged callosal area and 3 of the callosal width factors. TP had no effect on any callosal variable when administered on day 8, 12 or 16. A comparison of control males and females replicated our prior findings of sexual dimorphism. We conclude that ovarian hormones act to feminize the female callosum, and that their removal results in defeminization. Furthermore, the fact that ovariectomy was effective as late as day 16, while TP treatment on day 8 or later had no effect, suggests that masculinization and feminization of this structure constitute separate processes with distinct sensitive periods. PMID:2029639

Fitch, R H; Cowell, P E; Schrott, L M; Denenberg, V H

1991-03-01

241

Effect of Androgens on Sexual Differentiation of Pituitary Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Receptor Subunit GABAB Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work demonstrated a sexually dimorphic ontogenic expression of ?-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABABR) in rat pituitary. As sex steroids determine sex-specific expression patterns, we now studied the effect of sex hormones on pituitary GABABR expression. GABABR subunits, measured by Western blot and by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone measured by RIA were determined in

María S. Bianchi; Paolo N. Catalano; María M. Bonaventura; Patricia Silveyra; Bernhard Bettler; Carlos Libertun; Victoria A. R. Lux-Lantos

2004-01-01

242

The Neurobiology of Sexual Partner Preferences in Rams  

PubMed Central

The question of what causes a male animal to seek out and choose a female as opposed to another male mating partner is unresolved and remains an issue of considerable debate. The most developed biologic theory is the perinatal organizational hypothesis, which states that perinatal hormone exposure mediates sexual differentiation of the brain. Numerous animal experiments have assessed the contribution of perinatal testosterone and/or estradiol exposure to the development of a male-typical mate preference, but almost all have used hormonally manipulated animals. In contrast, variations in sexual partner preferences occur spontaneously in domestic rams, with as many as 8% of the population exhibiting a preference for same-sex mating partners (male-oriented rams). Thus, the domestic ram is an excellent experimental model to study possible links between fetal neuroendocrine programming of neural mechanisms and adult sexual partner preferences. In this review, we present an overview of sexual differentiation in relation to sexual partner preferences. We then summarize results that test the relevance of the organizational hypothesis to expression of same-sex sexual partner preferences in rams. Finally, we demonstrate that the sexual differentiation of brain and behavior in sheep do not depend critically on aromatization of testosterone to estradiol. PMID:19446078

Roselli, Charles E.; Stormshak, Fred

2009-01-01

243

The Sexuality of Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors  

PubMed Central

In this grounded theory study, a theoretical framework that depicts the process by which childhood sexual abuse (CSA) influences the sexuality of women and men survivors was constructed. Data were drawn from interview transcripts of 95 men and women who experienced CSA. Using constant comparison analysis, the researchers determined that the central phenomenon of the data was a process labeled Determining My Sexual Being, in which survivors moved from grappling with questions related to the nature, cause, and sexual effects of the abuse to laying claim to their own sexuality. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:21785665

Roller, Cynthia; Martsolf, Donna S; Draucker, Claire Burke; Ross, Ratchneewan

2011-01-01

244

Sexual Problems of Counselees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approximately 50% of American marriages have some sexual dysfunction. Because sexuality is an important part of a person's life, counselors should be sensitive to sexual concerns of their clients. Taking an adequate sex history and highlighting problem areas may increase counseling efficiency. When counselors teach courses on human sexuality, they…

Heritage, Jeannette G.; West, W. Beryl

245

Sexual Risk Factors  

MedlinePLUS

... HIV Translate Text Size Print Lower Your Sexual Risk of HIV How Can I Reduce My Risk Of Getting HIV Through Sexual Contact? In the ... not infected with HIV. Sexual Practices And HIV Risk The risk of getting HIV through sexual contact ...

246

SEXUALITY AND GENDER IDENTITY  

E-print Network

LEARN TO UNDERSTAND SEXUALITY AND GENDER IDENTITY COUNSELLING AND PSYCHOLOGICAL SERVICES CAPS #12;CONTENTS 01 Questioning your sexuality or gender identity 02 Coming out 04 Sexual health 05 Harassment and discrimination 06 Types of support and information available 08 Useful resources Sexual orientation is about who

Viglas, Anastasios

247

Sexual Harassment in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three situations of sexual harassment, typical of the complaints received by various departments and offices on all Indiana University campuses, are presented. According to the National Advisory Council on Women's Educational Programs, "academic sexual harassment is the use of authority to emphasize the sexuality or sexual identity of a student in…

Brooks, Nancy A.

1988-01-01

248

Sexuality and Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author examines specific manifestations of violence in relation to sexuality: (1) forcible rape rate; (2) war atrocities; (3) sexual violence in prisons; and (4) pornography. Drawing much from Hannah Arendt's book on violence, he views sexual violence as symptomatic of a lack of sexual power, not a sign of its possession. The causes are seen…

Sanctuary, Gerald

249

Addressing Sexual Harassment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

2008-01-01

250

Sexuality and the law.  

PubMed

Federal, state, and local laws in the US now govern almost every aspect of sexuality. This includes sexuality at the workplace, sexuality education, adolescent sexuality, access to sexuality information and sexually explicit materials, sexual orientation, and sexually transmitted disease(STD)/HIV transmission. Almost 33% of the US Supreme Court's docket this past term concerned sexuality issues. In contrast to 50 years ago, when sexuality law was confined to the criminal arena, contemporary "sex crimes" primarily relate to nonconsensual and exploitative behaviors. It is time for lawmakers, judges, lawyers, policy analysts, lobbyists, and advocates to realize they cannot legislate or litigate how, when, or why people fall in love. Rather, the role of the law should be to create and preserve models of justice and equality that seek to preserve one's individual rights to privacy and freedom to choose in matters related to one's sexuality. This includes free access to age-appropriate sexuality information, the right to marriage and children regardless of sexual orientation, comprehensive sexuality education that encompasses information about avoiding unwanted pregnancies and HIV/STDs, access to contraception and abortion, protection from sexually abusive or exploitative relationships, and access to sexual health care. PMID:12295182

Portelli, C J

1998-01-01

251

Sexual and marital counseling with men treated for testicular cancer.  

PubMed

Testicular cancer patients are at risk for sexual and marital problems because their cancer and its treatment reduce their fertility and disrupt intimate relationships at a crucial life stage (age 15-34). Chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery have successfully increased survival rates, but at the price of infertility and sexual dysfunction. A survey of men treated for nonseminomatous tumors revealed that 20% had low levels of sexual activity, 10% had erectile dysfunction, 6% had difficulty reaching orgasm, and 38% reported decreased orgasmic pleasure. Sexual anxiety related to cancer treatment accounts for much of this dysfunction, but organic factors such as hormonal, vascular or neurologic damage may also contribute. Reactions of couples to infertility and marital conflicts common in this group are discussed. Suggestions for sexual and marital counseling are offered. PMID:6708114

Schover, L R; von Eschenbach, A C

1984-01-01

252

Was sind hormone?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically, the meaning of the term hormone has changed during the last decades. Morphological studies of secreting cells lead Feyrter to the concept of paracrine action of some hormones. While endocrine regulators are blood-borne, paracrine messengers reach their target cells through the diffusion in the intracellular space. Though it is rather difficult to draw a line between true hormones and hormone-like substances, valid definitions for endocrine and paracrine regulatory systems can be given. The term ‘hormonal control’ should be restricted to endocrine systems. For effectors acting by paracrine mechanisms, the term paramone is proposed in this article.

Karlson, P.

1982-01-01

253

Sexually transmitted organisms in sexually abused children  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To establish the prevalence of sexually transmitted organisms and other genital organisms in potentially sexually abused children.?DESIGN—Prospective study of children attending an inner London department of community paediatrics for evaluation of possible sexual abuse.?SUBJECTS—Children under 16 referred for evaluation of possible sexual abuse.?OUTCOME MEASURES—Prevalence of sexually transmitted organisms in relation to age, symptoms, and type of abuse.?RESULTS—Swabs were taken from 159 of 242 girls evaluated. The overall prevalence of sexually transmitted organisms was 3.7%: three girls were infected with gonorrhoea, four with Trichomonas vaginalis, and two with Chlamydia trachomatis. One girl had all three infections plus mycoplasmas. Mycoplasmas were identified in 22% of girls swabbed. Of 30 boys swabbed, none yielded a sexually transmitted organism.?CONCLUSIONS—There is a low prevalence of definitely sexually transmitted organisms in children who might have been abused. Other organisms possibly associated with sexual activity can be identified in this population. Screening for infection should be mandatory in presumed sexually abused girls with vaginal discharge and ideally should be undertaken in all children attending for evaluation of sexual abuse.?? PMID:9875049

Robinson, A; Watkeys, J; Ridgway, G

1998-01-01

254

Women’s Interest in Visual Sexual Stimuli Varies with Menstrual Cycle Phase at First Exposure and Predicts Later Interest  

PubMed Central

This study investigated whether women’s interest in visual sexual stimuli varied with their hormonal state. Viewing times of 30 women, 15 normal cycling (NC) and 15 oral contracepting (OC), to sexually explicit photos were measured at three different times. NC Women were tested during their menstrual, periovulatory, and luteal phases, and OC Women were tested at equivalent temporal intervals. Subjects viewed stimuli as long as desired, thus viewing time measured subject interest. Subjective ratings of stimulus sexual attractiveness were obtained on each test. There was no overall relationship between menstrual cycle phase and viewing time. However the participant’s menstrual cycle phase during first exposure to sexual stimuli predicted subsequent interest in sexual stimuli during the next two tests. NC Women who first viewed stimuli during their periovulatory phase looked longer at the sexual stimuli across all sessions than did women first tested in their luteal phase. OC Women first exposed to the sexual stimuli during menstruation looked longer at the stimuli across all sessions than did OC Women first exposed at other test phases. Neither current test phase nor initial cycle phase influenced subjective ratings. Women had increased interest in sexual stimuli across all sessions if first exposed to sexual stimuli when endogenous estrogens were most likely highest. These data suggest that women’s interest in visual sexual stimuli is modulated by hormones such that the hormonal condition at first exposure possibly determines the stimuli’s emotional valence, markedly affecting subsequent interest in sexual stimuli. PMID:20034495

Wallen, Kim; Rupp, Heather A.

2014-01-01

255

[Treatment of paraphilia and sexually aggressive impulsive behavior with the LHRH-agonist leuprolide acetate].  

PubMed

Up to now there are no published results of therapy of paraphilia (Pedophilia, Sadism) and sexual aggressive impulsiveness with LHRH-(luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone) Agonists in the Germanspeaking countries. In this report we describe 11 patients which were treated with the LHRH-Agonist Leuprolide Acetate in a period of 12 months. The patients showed no tendency of sexual aggressive behaviour and reported an evident reduction of penile erection, ejaculation, masturbation, sexual deviant impulsiveness and fantasies. One patient died from suicide. In combination with other treatments LHRH-Agonists seem to be a very promising alternative to cyproterone acetate and its possible carcinogene effects. PMID:10846713

Briken, P; Berner, W; Noldus, J; Nika, E; Michl, U

2000-05-01

256

Physiological measures of sexual arousal in the human  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews the physiological methods and findings of research on sexual arousal. The role of and changes in the CNS, autonomic nervous system, hormones, electrodermal potentials, cardiovascular system, respiration, penile erection, scrotum and testes, vaginal blood flow, uterine contractions, temperature, pupillary response, evoked cortical response, and biochemical determinations are discussed. Methodological difficulties in the selection of stimuli and in the assessment

Marvin Zuckerman

1971-01-01

257

Captivity affects behavioral physiology: Plasticity in signaling sexual identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Little is known about the link between captivity, physiology, and behavior in wild-caught vertebrates. Anecdotal evidence suggests that hormonal changes are responsible for behavioral changes in wild animals brought into captivity. Studying the effects of captivity on reproduction is hampered because wild animals often fail to exhibit sexual behavior under captive conditions. In weakly discharging electric fish, field studies

R. E. Landsman

1991-01-01

258

Sexual compatibility and the sexual desire-motivation relation in females with hypoactive sexual desire disorder.  

PubMed

Fifty-four female participants with hypoactive sexual desire disorder supplied daily reports of their sexual desire and motivation. The relation between desire and motivation remained statistically significant when controlling for sexual compatibility, sexual stress, sexual fantasy, and marital and sexual satisfaction. Findings suggest that (a) women higher in sexual compatibility experience greater sexual motivation regardless of their marital and sexual satisfaction, their sexual desire intensity, and depressive symptomatology; and (b) the relation between sexual compatibility and sexual desire is mediated by the propensity of those women high in sexual compatibility to have greater marital and sexual satisfaction. Within-subject analyses that controlled for autocorrelation and linear trends in the time series revealed that 40% of the women experienced significantly higher sexual motivation on greater sexual desire days. A discussion of these findings and evidence for the addition of sexual motivation as a distinct phase in the human sexual response cycle are explored. PMID:10881380

Hurlbert, D F; Apt, C; Hurlbert, M K; Pierce, A P

2000-07-01

259

UV-radiation-induced electron emission by hormones. Hypothesis for specific communication mechanisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The highlights of recently observed electron emission from electronically excited sexual hormones (17?-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone) and the phytohormone genistein in polar media are briefly reviewed. The electron yield, Q(e aq-), dependence from substrate concentration, hormone structure, polarity of solvent, absorbed energy and temperature are discussed. The hormones reactivity with e aq- and efficiency in electron transfer ensure them the ability to communicate with other biological systems in an organism. A hypothesis is presented for the explanation of the mechanisms of the distinct recognition of signals transmitted by electrons, originating from different types of hormones to receiving centres. Biological consequences of the electron emission in respect to cancer are mentioned.

Getoff, Nikola

2009-11-01

260

Maternal effects in quail and zebra finches: Behavior and hormones Elizabeth Adkins-Regan a,b,  

E-print Network

xxxx Keywords: Steroid hormones Stress Maternal effects Glucocorticoid receptors Sex determination and exogenous sex steroids have well established and long-lasting effects on sexual differentiation of behaviorReview Maternal effects in quail and zebra finches: Behavior and hormones Elizabeth Adkins-Regan a

261

PERCEPTION OF THE MOLTING HORMONE 20-HYDROXECDYSONE BY HOMARUS AMERICANUS: LOCALIZATION OF STEROID RECEPTORS AND EFFECT ON BEHAVIOR  

EPA Science Inventory

There is growing evidence that hormones, when released from an animal into the environment, act as chemical signals to other organisms. There is also evidence to suggest that hormones are released by lobsters during sexual and agonistic encounters to signal conspecifics. The go...

262

Alcohol Ingestion Inhibits the Increased Secretion of Puberty-Related Hormones in the Developing Female Rhesus Monkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol (ALC) use and abuse by adolescents has been rising at an alarming rate. Whether ALC consumption during prepubertal years affects specific hormones and the process of sexual maturation is not known. We used immature female rhesus macaques to assess the effects of ALC on circulating levels of hormones known to be critical for the pubertal process. Ten monkeys averaging

W. LES DEES; G. A. DISSEN; J. K. HINEY; F. LARA; S. R. OJEDA

2000-01-01

263

Nature Needs Nurture: The Interaction of Hormonal and Social Influences on the Development of Behavioral Sex Differences in Rhesus Monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty years of research on early social and hormonal environments and their relationship to the expression of behavioral sex differences in rhesus monkeys are reviewed. These studies demonstrate that whether aggressive and submissive behaviors are sexually dimorphic depends primarily on the social and not the hormonal environment. Early rearing environments without mothers or allowing brief periods of peer interaction produced

Kim Wallen

1996-01-01

264

Sexual narcissism and the perpetration of sexual aggression.  

PubMed

Despite indirect evidence linking narcissism to sexual aggression, studies directly examining this relationship have yielded inconsistent results. Likely contributing to such inconsistencies, prior research has used global measures of narcissism not sensitive to whether the components of narcissism are activated in sexual versus non-sexual domains. The current research avoided such problems by using a measure of sexual narcissism to predict sexual aggression. In a sample of 299 men and women, Study 1 validated the Sexual Narcissism Scale, a new sexuality research instrument with four subscales-Sexual Exploitation, Sexual Entitlement, Low Sexual Empathy, and Sexual Skill. Then, in a sample of 378 men, Study 2 demonstrated that sexual narcissism was associated with reports of the frequency of sexual aggression, three specific types of sexual aggression (unwanted sexual contact, sexual coercion, and attempted/completed rape), and the likelihood of future sexual aggression. Notably, global narcissism was unrelated to all indices of sexual aggression when sexual narcissism was controlled. That sexual narcissism outperformed global assessments of narcissism to account for variance in sexual aggression suggests that future research may benefit by examining whether sexual narcissism and other sexual-situation-specific measurements of personality can similarly provide a more valid test of the association between personality and other sexual behaviors and outcomes (e.g., contraceptive use, infidelity, sexual satisfaction). PMID:19130204

Widman, Laura; McNulty, James K

2010-08-01

265

Sexual differences of imprinted genes' expression levels  

PubMed Central

In mammals, genomic imprinting has evolved as a dosage-controlling mechanism for a subset of genes that play critical roles in their unusual reproduction scheme involving viviparity and placentation. As such, many imprinted genes are highly expressed in sex-specific reproductive organs. In the current study, we sought to test whether imprinted genes are differentially expressed between the two sexes. According to the results, the expression levels of the following genes differ between the two sexes of mice: Peg3, Zim1, Igf2, H19 and Zac1. The expression levels of these imprinted genes are usually greater in males than in females. This bias is most obvious in the developing brains of 14.5-dpc embryos, but also detected in the brains of postnatal-stage mice. However, this sexual bias is not obvious in 10.5-dpc embryos, a developmental stage before the sexual differentiation. Thus, the sexual bias observed in the imprinted genes is most likely attributable by gonadal hormones rather than by sex chromosome complement. Overall, the results indicate that several imprinted genes are sexually different in terms of their expression levels, and further suggest that the transcriptional regulation of these imprinted genes may be influenced by unknown mechanisms associated with sexual differentiation. PMID:24125951

Faisal, Mohammad; Kim, Hana; Kim, Joomyeong

2013-01-01

266

Sexually transmitted infections and older adults.  

PubMed

Older adults continue to be sexually active in their later years. A range of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV have been reported among older adults. Risk factors for STIs in older populations include (a) normal sexual changes associated with aging (e.g., increased time to attain an erection, decreased vaginal lubrication, decreases in sexual hormones); (b) psychosocial changes (e.g., loss of partner or spouse and re-entering the dating scene); and (c) risky sexual behaviors, including no or infrequent use of condoms. Screening of adults for STIs should occur regardless of age based on guidelines such as those from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. As discussed in this article, nurses can use assessment guides and engage in interventions such as counseling and education with older adults to reduce STI risk or refer for treatment. Numerous online resources exist for both nurses and older adults to increase knowledge of STIs. PMID:24066789

Johnson, Beverly K

2013-11-01

267

LH-RH agonists modulate amygdala response to visual sexual stimulation: A single case fMRI study in pedophilia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pedophilia is characterized by a persistent sexual attraction to prepubescent children. Treatment with anti-androgen agents, such as luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonists, reduces testosterone levels and thereby sexual drive and arousal. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare visual erotic stimulation pre- and on-treatment with the LH-RH agonist leuprolide acetate in the case of homosexual pedophilia. The pre-treatment

Benedikt Habermeyer; Nadja Händel; Patrick Lemoine; Markus Klarhöfer; Erich Seifritz; Volker Dittmann; Marc Graf

2011-01-01

268

Indian concepts on sexuality  

PubMed Central

India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality. PMID:23858263

Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha

2013-01-01

269

Indian concepts on sexuality.  

PubMed

India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality. PMID:23858263

Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha

2013-01-01

270

Causes of sexual dysfunction (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Female sexual dysfunction describes women who are indifferent or hostile to sexual intercourse, who have no response to sexual advances or stimulation, or who are unable to have an orgasm during sexual intercourse.

271

Reproductive Strategies Sexual vs. asexual  

E-print Network

Reproductive Strategies Sexual vs. asexual Selfing vs. outcrossing #12;Sexual vs. Asexual Sexual the metapopulation. Propagule loss (predators, inappropriate sites). #12;Sexual vs. Asexual Asexual reproduction reproduction. Recombination. Reduces genetic load. Breaks up adaptive gene combinations. Economics. Cost

Cruzan, Mitchell B.

272

Tell Someone Responding to sexual harassment and sexual violence  

E-print Network

1 of 5 Tell Someone Responding to sexual harassment and sexual violence in the School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) What is sexual harassment? Harvard University has adopted the following definition of sexual harassment: Sexual harassment is any unwelcome conduct of a sexual nature

Loncar, Marko

273

University of California Policy Sexual Harassment and Sexual Violence  

E-print Network

#12;University of California Policy Sexual Harassment and Sexual Violence 1 of 20 Academic Student prohibits sexual harassment and sexual violence, and that such behavior violates both law and University policy. The University will respond promptly and effectively to reports of sexual harassment and sexual

Jacobs, Lucia

274

[Female sexual function and chronic disease].  

PubMed

Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a multifactorial set of conditions associated with multiple anatomical, physiological, biological, medical and psychological factors that can have major impact on self-esteem, quality of life, mood and relationships. Studies indicate that FSD is commonly seen in women who report a low level of satisfaction with partner relationship and in women with male partners who have erectile dysfunction. This complexity of FSD is augmented by the presence of chronic disease. Negative sexual effects are widely reported in studies of women with chronic diseases (such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, cancer, spinal cord injury, lupus, rheumatic diseases, Parkinson's disease, fibromyalgia and chronic pain) as compared to a general healthy female population. Physical problems, emotional problems and partnership difficulties arising from disease-related stress contribute to less active and less enjoyable sex life. Chronic pain, fatigue, low self-esteem as well as use of medications might reduce sexual function. These effects of chronic diseases on female sexual function still remain largely unstudied. The study by Manor and Zohar published in this issue of Harefuah draws our attention to the sexual dysfunction of women with breast cancer and examines their needs for information regarding their sexual function. In the absence of definite treatment evidence, psychological counseling, improved vaginal lubrication, low dose of hormonal therapy can be used to relieve FSD. Physicians must consider integrating diagnosis of their female patients' sexual needs and dysfunction, especially women with chronic diseases. Patients' education and counseling may contribute to a better quality of life in spite of their chronic disease. PMID:16509415

Bronner, Gila

2006-02-01

275

Role of the gonads in sex differentiation of growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin neurons in the mouse hypothalamus during postnatal development  

Microsoft Academic Search

We clarify the mechanism of sexual dimorphism of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and somatostatin (SS) neurons in periventricular nucleus (PeN), by studying the role of the gonads during the neonatal period and after puberty using immunohistochemical and morphometric methods. As in our previous works the numbers of ARC GHRH-ir and PeN SS-ir neurons

Y Nurhidayat; Yasuhiro Tsukamoto; Fumihiko Sasaki

2001-01-01

276

Deciding about hormone therapy  

MedlinePLUS

HRT - deciding; Estrogen replacement therapy - deciding; ERT; Hormone replacement therapy - deciding ... doctor can prescribe other medicines to treat osteoporosis . Studies show that HT does not help treat: Heart ...

277

Headaches and hormones.  

PubMed

It is clear that hormones play an important role in modulating and exacerbating headaches. From an epidemiologic standpoint, we know that before puberty, incidence of new headache is similar for boys and girls. By age 18, however, most new cases of migraine occur in young women. The role of sex hormones in headache is described in the context of pubertal development. Obesity and Pseudotumor also impact headache through hormonal influences. Menstrual migraine will often present in the teenage years. Oral contraceptives may worsen or ameliorate headache. This article will introduce these concepts and help the reader become familiar with the role of hormones in headache. PMID:20541101

Pakalnis, Ann; Gladstein, Jack

2010-06-01

278

Hormone-related headache.  

PubMed

The normal female life cycle is associated with hormonal milestones including menarche, pregnancy, OC use, menopause, and the use of HRT. Menarche marks the onset of menses and cyclic changes in hormone levels. Pregnancy is associated with rising noncyclic levels of sex hormones. Menopause is associated with declining noncyclic levels. Hormonal OC use during the reproductive years and HRT in menopause are therapeutic hormonal interventions that alter the levels and cycling of sex hormones. These events and interventions may cause a change in the prevalence or intensity of headache. Headaches associated with OC use or menopausal HRT may be related, in part, to periodic discontinuation of oral sex hormone preparations. The treatment of migraine associated with changes in sex hormone levels is difficult, and patients often are refractory to therapy. Based on what is known of the pathophysiology of migraine, a logical approach to the treatment of headaches that are associated with menses, menopause, and OCs using abortive and preventive medications and hormonal manipulations has been presented. PMID:11480256

Silberstein, S D

2001-07-01

279

An Overview of Sexual Harassment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual harassment, according to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), is when any unwelcome sexual advances for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature takes place. For sexual harassment to take place there must be some type of behavior, language, or material of a sexual nature, which is offensive.…

Stier, William F., Jr.

2005-01-01

280

Immunoendocrinology: faulty hormonal imprinting in the immune system.  

PubMed

Hormonal imprinting is an epigenetic process which is taking place perinatally at the first encounter between the developing hormone receptors and their target hormones. The hormonal imprinting influences the binding capacity of receptors, the hormone synthesis of the cells, and other hormonally regulated functions, as sexual behavior, aggressivity, empathy, etc. However, during the critical period, when the window for imprinting is open, molecules similar to the physiological imprinters as synthetic hormone analogs, other members of the hormone families, environmental pollutants, etc. can cause faulty imprinting with life-long consequences. The developing immune system, the cells of which also have receptors for hormones, is very sensitive to faulty imprinting, which causes alterations in the antibody and cytokine production, in the ratio of immune cells, in the defense against bacterial and viral infections as well as against malignant tumors. Immune cells (lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes and mast cells) are also producing hormones which are secreted into the blood circulation as well as are transported locally (packed transport). This process is also disturbed by faulty imprinting. As immune cells are differentiating during the whole life, faulty imprinting could develop any time, however, the most decisive is the perinatal imprinting. The faulty imprinting is inherited to the progenies in general and especially in the case of immune system. In our modern world the number and amount of artificial imprinters (e.g. endocrine disruptors and drugs) are enormously increasing. The effects of the faulty imprinters most dangerous to the immune system are shown in the paper. The present and future consequences of the flood of faulty imprintings are unpredictable however, it is discussed. PMID:24939679

Csaba, György

2014-06-01

281

Ethnicity and sexuality  

E-print Network

for understanding ethnic relations, I review constructionist models of ethnicity and sexuality in the social sciences and humanities, and I discuss ethnosexual boundary processes in several historical and contemporary settings: the sexual policing of nationalism...

Nagel, Joane

2000-01-01

282

Military Sexual Trauma  

MedlinePLUS

... or with implied better treatment in exchange for sex), may have been unable to consent to sexual activities (for example, when intoxicated), or may have been physically forced into sexual activities. Other experiences that fall into ...

283

FAQ: Child Sexual Exploitation  

MedlinePLUS

... Law Enforcement Training Victim & Family Support FAQ: Child Sexual Exploitation What is child pornography? Federal law (18 ... in graphic bestiality, sadistic or masochistic abuse or sexual intercourse, including genital-genital, oral-genital, anal-genital ...

284

Female Sexual Dysfunction  

MedlinePLUS

What is female sexual dysfunction (FSD)? Many women have a low sex drive or trouble having an orgasm. Some women are not bothered ... this, but others are. A woman has female sexual dysfunction, also called FSD, when she is upset ...

285

Sexual Problems in Men  

MedlinePLUS

Many men have sexual problems. They become more common as men age. Problems can include Erectile dysfunction Reduced or lost interest in sex ... problems may also be factors. Occasional problems with sexual function are common. If problems last more than ...

286

Child Sexual Abuse  

MedlinePLUS

... print a PDF version of this document . Child sexual abuse has been reported up to 80,000 ... professional help . The long-term emotional damage of sexual abuse can be devastating to the child. Child ...

287

Sexuality in Older Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... feel good about yourself. As you age, your sexual health will change. But growing older doesn’t have ... life at any age. How does aging affect sexual health? Changes for women: As a woman approaches menopause, ...

288

Sexual Problems in Women  

MedlinePLUS

... results from past sexual trauma. Occasional problems with sexual function are common. If problems last more than a few months or cause distress for you or your partner, you should see your health care provider.

289

Understanding Sexual Violence  

MedlinePLUS

... engage in risky sexual activity. Why is sexual violence a public health problem? SV is a significant problem in the United States: • Among high school students surveyed nationwide, about 8% reported having been ...

290

Responding to Sexual Assault  

E-print Network

University will not tolerate sexual assault in any form, including acquaintance rape. Where there is probable assault, we think of rape. However, rape is not the only type of sexual assault. These words can be used

Ravikumar, B.

291

Serum Growth Hormone Concentrations after Growth Hormone or Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone in Cows1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single subcutaneous injection of 10, 50, or 100 mg bovine growth hormone into lactating Holstein cows increased concentrations of growth hormone, in- sulin, and glucose in serum above prein- jection baselines for at least 16 h. Growth hormone concentrations in serum after injection of growth hormone or thyro- tropin-releasing hormone were greater in cows during early (2 to 4

R. A. Bourne; H. Allen Tucker; E. M. Convey

1977-01-01

292

Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD) is diagnosed when an individual indicates persistent or recurrent blunted levels\\u000a of sexual desire and\\/or a lack of sexual fantasies that cause marked distress and\\/or interpersonal difficulties [1]. This\\u000a diagnosis is intended to include only individuals who experience dissatisfaction with their low levels of sexual desire. Women\\u000a with this condition will often report that they

Alessandra H. Rellini; Melissa A. Farmer; Gale H. Golden

293

Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... Sleep problems Decreased exercise performance Decreased energy Decreased well-being, mild depression, or moodiness What are the benefits of growth hormone therapy? Growth hormone treatment involves injections (shots) of growth hormone made in a laboratory. ...

294

Menopausal Hormone Therapy and Cancer  

Cancer.gov

A fact sheet about the results of research on menopausal hormone therapy. Includes information about the effect of menopausal hormone therapy on the body. Also outlines the benefits and risks of using menopausal hormones.

295

Schooling & Sexualities: Teaching for a Positive Sexuality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers contains a Foreword by Jane Kenway, an Introduction by Louise Laskey and Catherine Beavis, and four sections. Section 1, Schools and the Social Construction of Sexuality, contains 3 chapters: (1) Power and Partnership? Challenging the Sexual Construction of Schooling (D. Denborough); (2) Where Do You Draw the Line?…

Laskey, Louise, Ed.; Beavis, Catherine, Ed.

296

Loneliness and Sexual Dysfunctions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that sexual dysfunctions result from early childhood experiences which were originally nonsexual in nature. Contends that psychological difficulties centered around problems of loneliness tend to generate certain sexual dysfunctions. Extends and explores suggestion that genesis of sexual conflicts is in nonsexual infant separation anxiety…

Mijuskovic, Ben

1987-01-01

297

Sexuality Sensitive Schooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

American schools, especially their physical education and sport programs, provide some of the most hostile social geographies in all of society for gay youth. With the aim of transforming schools toward more democratic and sexuality sensitive institutions, this paper reviews the literature on sexuality and education. In the review, three themes, critical for educators pursuing sexuality sensitive change in schools,

Nate McCaughtry; Suzanna Rocco Dillon; Elizabeth Jones; Sara Smigell

2005-01-01

298

Sexuality in multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Sexuality and partnership have an important influence on the quality of life of every person and also on people with chronic disorders such as multiple sclerosis. The findings in literature show high evidence that people with multiple sclerosis experience high levels of sexual dysfunction, most of them with hypoactive sexual behaviour often associated with dissatisfaction in relationship, and also

E. Z. Schmidt; P. Hofmann; G. Niederwieser; H.-P. Kapfhammer; R. M. Bonelli

2005-01-01

299

Sexuality: A Human Condition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rehabilitation has too long ignored a vital concern for those who are disabled--their sexuality. The author describes the scope of the problem of sexual function in disability and its validity as a rehabilitation issue. Also explored is the rehabilitation professional's role in facilitating the client's sexual development. (Author/EA)

Berkman, Anne H.

1975-01-01

300

Sexual Harassment in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a recent BEST (Bureau of Evaluative Studies and Testing, Indiana University, Bloomington) survey, 10 percent of Indiana University women who responded had experienced some form of sexual harassment. Sexual harassment in education is any attention of a sexual nature from an instructor or professor which makes a student uncomfortable in class or…

Campbell, D'Ann

1986-01-01

301

Pathfinder Series Sexual Harassment  

E-print Network

Pathfinder Series Sexual Harassment Online Periodical Indexes (httpInfo Periodical Articles Byrne, John A. "Sexual Harassment at McKinsey?" Business Week 3505 (Dec. 9, 1996 in Worker's Attitudes Toward Sexual Harassment." Journal of Psychology 130:6 (Nov. 1996):627- . (BF1 .J67

Kearfott, R. Baker

302

Pathophysiology of gastrointestinal hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastrointestinal hormones (GI hormones) have received growing interest in endocrinology, gastroenterology and neuroendocrinology. Because of new methodological techniques, they can be measured in plasma and therefore be related to different pathophysiological conditions. In childhood, our present knowledge is as yet limited to the physiological rôle of gastrin at different ages and in some diseases (gastrinoma; Verner-Morrison syndrome) caused by humoral

Ivo Henrichs; Walter M. Teller

1980-01-01

303

Hormones and Menopause  

MedlinePLUS

Hormones and Menopause Tips from the National Institute on Aging NatioNal iNstitute oN agiNg NatioNal iNstitutes of ... her hot flashes. One was to use the hormone estrogen for a short time. He talked about ...

304

Sexual fantasies and sexual arousal in women with a history of childhood sexual abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatments of female sexual arousal dysfunction for childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivors could greatly benefit from more information on mechanisms to the sexual arousal problems specific to this population. In this study, 60 CSA survivors and 120 women with no history of CSA (NCSA) participated in an Internet-based survey on sexual arousal and sexual fantasies. Self-reported sexual arousal was measured

Julia Camuso; Alessandra H. Rellini

2010-01-01

305

ORIGINAL PAPER Sexual Self-Schemas, Sexual Dysfunction, and the Sexual Responses  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Sexual Self-Schemas, Sexual Dysfunction, and the Sexual Responses of Women with a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse Alessandra H. Rellini · Cindy M. Meston Received: 30 June 2009 / Revised to the mediating effects of sexual self-schemas on the sexual difficulties of women with a history of childhood

Meston, Cindy

306

Pituitary Growth Hormone and Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone Receptor Genes and Associations with Mammographic Measures and Serum Growth Hormone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer that is heritable and associated with blood levels of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). We tested single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in pituitary growth hormone (GH1) and growth hormone- releasing hormone receptor (GHRHR) genes for an associa- tion with mammographic density, hormones of the growth hormone\\/IGF-I axis, and

Cara Mulhall; Robert A. Hegele; Henian Cao; David Tritchler; Martin Yaffe; Norman F. Boyd

307

Prostate cancer and sexual function.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer is now ranked fifth in incidence among cancers in Korean adult males. This is attributable to the more Westernized dietary style which increases the morbidity of prostate cancer and the development of cancer diagnostic technologies, such as prostate-specific antigen and advanced medical systems, increasing the rate of prostate cancer diagnosis. Prostate cancer effects include not only erectile dysfunction caused by the disease itself, but also by psychiatric disorders caused by prostate cancer or its treatments. Prostate cancer by itself reduces sexual desire and the frequency of sexual intercourse. Additionally, surgery or hormonal therapy to block testosterone further increases the frequency of erectile dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction following radical prostatectomy is primarily attributable to nerve injury caused by intraoperative nerve traction, thermal injury, ischemic injury, and local inflammatory reactions. Additionally, the absence of nocturnal penile tumescence causes persistent hypoxia of the corpus cavernosum, which, secondarily, causes anatomical and functional changes in the corpus cavernosum. Preservation of erectile function is one of the most significant issues for patients with local prostate cancer. Erectile dysfunction following radical prostatectomy is known to have various prognoses, depending on preservation of the neurovascular bundle, patient age, and preoperative erectile status. Intracavernosal injections, PDE5 inhibitors, and penile rehabilitation therapy using a vacuum constriction device after radical prostatectomy are known to improve the recovery of erectile function. Recently, testosterone replacement therapy has also drawn attention as a treatment method. PMID:23596596

Hyun, Jae Saog

2012-08-01

308

Características del viento en estrellas Be derivadas del perfil H?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

El estudio teórico de perfiles H? y su variabilidad en estrellas Be ha sido frecuentemente desarrollado en base a modelos de envolturas circunestelares inhomogéneas, donde la geometría del material es responsable de la forma del perfil dependiendo de la dirección de observación. Nosotros damos una interpretación alternativa y proponemos que la mayoría de las propiedades de esta línea tienen origen en la base de un viento estelar y de una estructura cromosférica anexa a la fotósfera. Encontramos que típicos perfiles H? en Be, como son los llamados pole-on y winebottle, pueden ser reproducidos cualitativamente sin recurrir a la existencia de una envoltura asimétrica. Analizamos como la línea H? permite identificar la posible estructura del viento en la región donde éste se inicia.

Rohrmann, R.; Cidale, L.

309

Testosterone and behavior: involvement of the hormone in psychotropic effects of baclofen.  

PubMed

We studied the effect of baclofen (GABA(B) receptor agonist) on the behavior of male mice with different levels of anxiety in tests for social and sexual contact and on blood testosterone levels. The drug reduced testosterone level and behavioral reaction to an unknown male in intact animals and did not modulate the hormone level and social contacts in anxious mice. In the test with receptive female, baclofen reduced testosterone level and sexual motivation in intact males and did not modulate the hormone level and initial sexual interest in anxious mice. Parallelism in the development of behavioral and endocrine components of the reaction to social and sexual stimuli confirms possible involvement of testosterone in psychotropic effects of baclofen. PMID:17970216

Amikishieva, A V

2007-02-01

310

SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)  

MedlinePLUS

... as possible. Related Pages On This Site Conditions: PCOS , Infertility Elsewhere On The Web The Hormone Foundation: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) The Hormone Foundation: Low Testosterone and Men's ...

311

The sexual dimorphism of obesity.  

PubMed

The NIH has recently highlighted the importance of sexual dimorphisms and has mandated inclusion of both sexes in clinical trials and basic research. In this review we highlight new and novel ways sex hormones influence body adiposity and the metabolic syndrome. Understanding how and why metabolic processes differ by sex will enable clinicians to target and personalize therapies based on gender. Adipose tissue function and deposition differ by sex. Females differ with respect to distribution of adipose tissues, males tend to accrue more visceral fat, leading to the classic android body shape which has been highly correlated to increased cardiovascular risk; whereas females accrue more fat in the subcutaneous depot prior to menopause, a feature which affords protection from the negative consequences associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome. After menopause, fat deposition and accrual shift to favor the visceral depot. This shift is accompanied by a parallel increase in metabolic risk reminiscent to that seen in men. A full understanding of the physiology behind why, and by what mechanisms, adipose tissues accumulate in specific depots and how these depots differ metabolically by sex is important in efforts of prevention of obesity and chronic disease. Estrogens, directly or through activation of their receptors on adipocytes and in adipose tissues, facilitate adipose tissue deposition and function. Evidence suggests that estrogens augment the sympathetic tone differentially to the adipose tissue depots favoring lipid accumulation in the subcutaneous depot in women and visceral fat deposition in men. At the level of adipocyte function, estrogens and their receptors influence the expandability of fat cells enhancing the expandability in the subcutaneous depot and inhibiting it in the visceral depot. Sex hormones clearly influence adipose tissue function and deposition, determining how to capture and utilize their function in a time of caloric surfeit, requires more information. The key will be harnessing the beneficial effects of sex hormones in such a way as to provide 'healthy' adiposity. PMID:25578600

Palmer, Biff F; Clegg, Deborah J

2015-02-15

312

Effects of estrogen treatment on sexual behavior in male-to-female transsexuals: Experimental and clinical observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of oral estrogen treatment on sexual physiology and behavior were examined in seven presurgical male-to-female transsexuals engaged in cross-living. Subjects were studied prior to hormone treatment, during long-term hormone treatment, and during an experimental double-blind period in which the effects of their usual hormone regimen were compared to those of placebo during successive 4-week periods. Subjects maintained daily

Marie Kwan; Judly VanMaasdam; Julian M. Davidson

1985-01-01

313

Sexual self-schemas, sexual dysfunction, and the sexual responses of women with a history of childhood sexual abuse.  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence points to the mediating effects of sexual self-schemas on the sexual difficulties of women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The following study adds to the extant literature by investigating (1) sexual function and (2) sexual satisfaction utilizing validated measures, and reporting on the relationship between sexual self-schemas and physiological (vaginal photoplethysmography), subjective, and affective responses during laboratory exposure to sexual stimuli. In a community sample of women with (N = 48) and without (N = 48) a history of CSA, we tested (1) the mediation of negative affect on the relation between sexual self-schemas and sexual function/satisfaction, (2) the mediation of negative affect in the relation between CSA and sexual function/satisfaction, and (3) the mediation of sexual self-schemas in the relation between a history of CSA and negative affect prior to sexual stimuli. We found that more Embarrassed/Conservative and less Romantic/Passionate sexual self-schemas predicted negative affect prior to exposure to sexual stimuli which, in turn, predicted levels of sexual satisfaction. The lower sexual satisfaction of CSA survivors was partially mediated by higher reports of negative affect prior to sexual stimuli. However, negative affect prior to sexual stimuli was not mediated by the sexual self-schemas of CSA survivors. Thus, although sexual self-schemas predicted sexual satisfaction, they did not predict variance in negative affect prior to sexual videos experienced by women with a history of CSA. PMID:21140286

Rellini, Alessandra H; Meston, Cindy M

2011-04-01

314

THE DEVELOPMENT OF FEMALE SEXUAL BEHAVIOR REQUIRES PREPUBERTAL ESTRADIOL  

PubMed Central

The classic view of brain and behavioral sexual differentiation holds that the neural mechanisms controlling sexual behavior in female rodents develop in the absence of ovarian sex hormone actions. However, in a previous study, female aromatase knockout (ArKO) mice, which cannot convert testosterone to estradiol, showed deficient male-oriented partner preference and lordosis behaviors in response to adult ovarian hormones, raising the possibility that estradiol may contribute to the development of these female sexual behaviors. In the present experiments, administering estradiol prepubertally (between postnatal days P15–P25) significantly enhanced the ability of ArKO female mice to display lordosis behavior in response to ovarian hormones administered later in adulthood whereas treatment with estradiol over an earlier postnatal period (P5–P15) had no such effect. Treatment of ArKO females with estradiol between P15–P25 also rescued their later preference to approach distal cues from an intact male over an estrous female. ArKO females also displayed significantly less female-directed (male-typical) mounting behavior than wild type control females when treated with testosterone in adulthood. Prepubertal estradiol treatment failed to reverse this deficit in ArKO females whereas earlier postnatal estradiol augmented later mounting in both genotypes. Our results provide new evidence for an organizing role of prepubertal estradiol in the development of neural mechanisms that control female-typical sexual behavior. PMID:21490197

Brock, Olivier; Baum, Michael J.; Bakker, Julie

2011-01-01

315

Chronic stress and sexual function in women  

PubMed Central

Introduction Chronic stress is known to have negative effects on reproduction, but little is known about how it affects the sexual response cycle. The present study examined the relationship between chronic stress and sexual arousal and the mechanisms that mediate this relationship. Aim To test the relationship between chronic stress and sexual arousal and identify mechanisms that may explain this relationship. We predicted that women experiencing high levels of chronic stress would show lower levels of genital arousal & DHEAS and higher levels of cortisol and cognitive distraction compared to women with average levels of stress. Methods Women who were categorized as high in chronic stress (high stress group, n = 15) or average in chronic stress (average stress group; n = 15) provided saliva samples and watched an erotic film while having their genital and psychological arousal measured. Main Outcome Measures Main outcome measures were vaginal pulse amplitude, psychological arousal, salivary cortisol, salivary DHEAS, and heart rate and compared them between women with high and average levels of chronic stress. Results Women in the high stress group had lower levels of genital, but not psychological arousal, had higher levels of cortisol, and reported more distraction during the erotic film than women in the average stress group. The main predictor of decreased genital sexual arousal was participants’ distraction scores. Conclusions High levels of chronic stress were related to lower levels of genital sexual arousal. Both psychological (distraction) and hormonal (increased cortisol) factors were related to the lower levels of sexual arousal seen in women high in chronic stress, but distraction was the only significant predictor when controlling for other variables. PMID:23841462

Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Meston, Cindy M.

2014-01-01

316

Hormone levels in middle-aged and elderly men with and without erectile dysfunction in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The change in sexual hormones with age in middle-aged and elderly Chinese men, with and without erectile dysfunction (ED), was investigated. Total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were determined from fasting serum samples by radioimmunoassay in 627 middle-aged and elderly ethnic Chinese men with and without ED. Calculated FT was derived from

T I-S Hwang; G-D Juang; C-H Yeh; Y-H Chang; K-Y Chou; H-E Chen; TI-S Hwang

2006-01-01

317

Sexual differentiation of motivation: a novel mechanism?  

PubMed

Sex differences in motivation are apparent for the motivation to engage in sexual behavior, the motivation to take drugs of abuse, and the motivation to engage in parental behavior. In both males and females there is an increase in NAcc DA associated with motivated behaviors. Here it proposed that sex differences in the regulation of DA activity in the ascending mesolimbic projections may underlie sex differences in motivation. In particular, sex differences in the neuroendocrine regulation of this brain system play a role in the expression of sex differences in motivated behaviors. Here it is proposed that sexual differentiation of motivation is mediated, at least in part, by a novel mechanism in which ovarian hormones secreted at puberty in the female actively feminize the DA system. PMID:19446081

Becker, Jill B

2009-05-01

318

Hormone receptors and hormonal regulation of macrophage physiological functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interaction of hormones with their specific receptors is the first step in their biological activity in virtually every target tissue. Hormones may act directly or via second messengers to regulate functions of membranes and proteins and to induce differential gene expression. Thus identification and characterization of hormone receptors is essential in the analysis of molecular mechanisms of hormonal regulation of

Werb

1978-01-01

319

Plant Growth and Hormones 102 Plant Growth and Hormones  

E-print Network

Plant Growth and Hormones 102 Plant Growth and Hormones Because plants have so many repeating parts does your data compare to that of other groups in your lab? #12;Plant Growth and Hormones 103 Plant growth and development in higher plants. Some responses to hormones can be observed in seconds, while

Koptur, Suzanne

320

Semaphorin Signaling in the Development and Function of the Gonadotropin Hormone-Releasing Hormone System  

PubMed Central

The semaphorin proteins are among the best-studied families of guidance cues, contributing to morphogenesis and homeostasis in a wide range of tissue types. The major semaphorin receptors are plexins and neuropilins, however other receptors and co-receptors are capable to mediate signaling by semaphorins. These guidance proteins were originally identified as growth cone “collapsing factors” or as inhibitory signals, crucial for nervous system development. Since those seminal discoveries, the list of functions of semaphorins has rapidly grown. Over the past few years, a growing body of data indicates that semaphorins are involved in the regulation of the immune and vascular systems, in tumor growth/cancer cell metastasis and in neural circuit formation. Recently there has been increasing emphasis on research to determine the potential influence of semaphorins on the development and homeostasis of hormone systems and how circulating reproductive hormones regulate their expression and functions. Here, we focus on the emerging role of semaphorins in the development, differentiation and plasticity of unique neurons that secrete gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which are essential for the acquisition and maintenance of reproductive competence in all vertebrates. Genetic evidence is also provided showing that insufficient semaphorin signaling contributes to some forms of reproductive disorders in humans, characterized by the reduction or failure of sexual competence. Finally, we will review some studies with the goal of highlighting how the expression of semaphorins and their receptors might be regulated by gonadal hormones in physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:24065959

Messina, Andrea; Giacobini, Paolo

2013-01-01

321

e.hormone: Your Gateway to the Environment and Hormones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

e.hormone serves as a "a hub of scientific and media information about environmental signaling." Hosted by the Center for Biomedical Research at Tulane and Xavier Universities, e.hormone is an excellent resource for keeping up with environmental hormone news and research from estrogen-mimicking compounds to mercury contamination and more. e.hormone offers research summaries, links to related news stories, an events calendar, and even an introductory educational section about environmental hormones and the endocrine system in general. e.hormone has recently subsumed Environmental Estrogens and Other Hormones, its former sister site also from Tulane University.

322

The Effects of Sexual Assault on Sexual Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a means of studying the effects of sexual assault on sexual attitudes, two categories of sexual attitude measures taken from the National Health and Social Life Surveys were analyzed. One category contains measures of the appeal of various sexual acts to women; the other assesses general sexual attitudes such as approval of premarital sex. We proposed that women who

Ashley Anne Redfearn; Mary Riege Laner

2000-01-01

323

Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Sexual Education in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review of sexual education in the United States broadly defines the two most common approaches in sexual education seen in this country today. I cover the status of certain sexual behaviors and risks amongst the teenage population in the U.S. and specifically cover reported sexual activity in high school students and overall data on teen pregnancies and sexually transmitted

Therese B Orbea

2010-01-01

324

RESPONSE TO SEXUAL DISCRIMINATION/HARASSMENT Sexual Harassment  

E-print Network

RESPONSE TO SEXUAL DISCRIMINATION/HARASSMENT Sexual Harassment Sexual harassment is a form of discrimination, as defined in the university Discrimination and Harassment policy. Sexual harassment can include to engage in sexual behavior to further the student's education or employment; real or perceived threat

Mayfield, John

325

Effect of Centrally Administered Insulin on Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neuron Activity and Luteinizing Hormone Surge in the Diabetic Female Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetic female rats have decreased ovulation, sexual behavior, and luteinizing hormone (LH) surges. Peripheral insulin treatment restores the phenotype to normal. We administered central insulin and analyzed serum LH during the time of the LH surge in diabetic and non-diabetic animals to determine if central insulin was sufficient to normalize the phenotype. We assessed the activity and number of hypothalamic

Peter Kovacs; Albert F. Parlow; George B. Karkanias

2002-01-01

326

Thyroid Hormone and Leptin in the Testis  

PubMed Central

Leptin is primarily expressed in white adipose tissue; however, it is expressed in the hypothalamus and reproductive tissues as well. Leptin acts by activating the leptin receptors (Ob-Rs). Additionally, the regulation of several neuroendocrine and reproductive functions, including the inhibition of glucocorticoids and enhancement of thyroxine and sex hormone concentrations in human beings and mice are leptin functions. It has been suggested that thyroid hormones (TH) could directly regulate leptin expression. Additionally, hypothyroidism compromises the intracellular integration of leptin signaling specifically in the arcuate nucleus. Two TH receptor isoforms are expressed in the testis, TRa and TRb, with TRa being the predominant one that is present in all stages of development. The effects of TH involve the proliferation and differentiation of Sertoli and Leydig cells during development, spermatogenesis, and steroidogenesis. In this context, TH disorders are associated with sexual dysfunction. An endocrine and/or direct paracrine effect of leptin on the gonads inhibits testosterone production in Leydig cells. Further studies are necessary to clarify the effects of both hormones in the testis during hypothyroidism. The goal of this review is to highlight the current knowledge regarding leptin and TH in the testis. PMID:25505448

Ramos, Cristiane Fonte; Zamoner, Ariane

2014-01-01

327

Sexual dysfunction and infertility as late effects of cancer treatment  

PubMed Central

Sexual dysfunction is a common consequence of cancer treatment, affecting at least half of men and women treated for pelvic malignancies and over a quarter of people with other types of cancer. Problems are usually linked to damage to nerves, blood vessels, and hormones that underlie normal sexual function. Sexual dysfunction also may be associated with depression, anxiety, relationship conflict, and loss of self-esteem. Innovations in cancer treatment such as robotic surgery or more targeted radiation therapy have not had the anticipated result of reducing sexual dysfunction. Some new and effective cancer treatments, including aromatase inhibitors for breast cancer or chemoradiation for anal cancer also have very severe sexual morbidity. Cancer-related infertility is an issue for younger patients, who comprise a much smaller percentage of total cancer survivors. However, the long-term emotional impact of being unable to have a child after cancer can be extremely distressing. Advances in knowledge about how cancer treatments may damage fertility, as well as newer techniques to preserve fertility, offer hope to patients who have not completed their childbearing at cancer diagnosis. Unfortunately, surveys in industrialised nations confirm that many cancer patients are still not informed about potential changes to their sexual function or fertility, and all modalities of fertility preservation remain underutilised. After cancer treatment, many patients continue to have unmet needs for information about restoring sexual function or becoming a parent. Although more research is needed on optimal clinical practice, current studies suggest a multidisciplinary approach, including both medical and psychosocial treatment options.

Schover, Leslie R.; van der Kaaij, Marleen; van Dorst, Eleonora; Creutzberg, Carien; Huyghe, Eric; Kiserud, Cecilie E.

2014-01-01

328

[Hormonal imprinting in the central nervous system: causes and consequences].  

PubMed

The notion of the perinatal "hormonal imprinting" has been published at first in 1980 and since that time it spred expansively. The imprintig develops at the first encounter between the developing receptor and the target hormone - possibly by the alteration of the methylation pattern of DNA - and it is transmitted to the progeny generations of the cell. This is needed for the complete development of the receptor's binding capacity. However, molecules similar to the target hormone (hormone-analogues, drugs, chemicals, environmental pollutants) can also bind to the developing receptor, causing faulty imprinting with life-long consequences. This can promote pathological conditions. Later it was cleared that in other critical periods such as puberty, imprinting also can be provoked, even in any age in differentiating cells. The central nervous system (brain) also can be mistakenly imprinted, which durably influences the dopaminergic, serotonergic and noradrenergic system and this can be manifested - in animal experiments - in alterations of the sexual and social behavior. In our modern age the faulty hormonal imprintig is inavoidable because of the mass of medicaments, chemicals, the presence of hormone-like materials (e.g. soya phytosteroids) in the food, and environmental pollutants. The author especially emphasizes the danger of oxytocin, as a perinatal imprinter, as it is used very broadly and can basically influence the emotional and social spheres and the appearance of certain diseases such as auitism, schizophrenia and parkinsonism. The danger of perinatal imprinters is growing, considering their effects on the human evolution. PMID:23335722

Csaba, György

2013-01-27

329

Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children  

MedlinePLUS

... as right before puberty starts. A pediatric endocrinologist (children’s hormone specialist) or primary care doctor can help find ... into adulthood. FACT SHeeT growth hormone deficiency in children www.hormone.org Growth hormone Deficiency in children Fact sheet ...

330

El perfil de crecimiento de un fenómeno económico  

Microsoft Academic Search

EI perfil de crecimiento de un fenómeno económico que se observa mensualmente viene reflejado en la serie de crecimientos mensuales, que denominamos crecímíentos básicos. Esta serie en sí misma es de escasa utilidad como indicador ya que suele oscilar enormemente. Un buen indicador de crecimiento debe mostrar pocas oscilaciones, siempre relativo a la naturaleza del fenómeno, y no estar retrasado

Antoni Espasa

331

Hormonal effects in newborns  

MedlinePLUS

... a common concern among new parents. The breast swelling should go away by the second week after birth as the hormones leave the newborn's body. Do not squeeze or massage the newborn's breasts because this can cause an ...

332

Sex hormones and headache.  

PubMed

The normal female life cycle is associated with a number of hormonal milestones: menarche, pregnancy, contraceptive use, menopause, and the use of replacement sex hormones. Menarche marks the onset of menses and cyclic changes in hormone levels. Pregnancy is associated with rising noncyclic levels of sex hormones, and menopause with declining noncyclic levels. Hormonal contraceptive use during the reproductive years and hormone replacement in menopause are therapeutic hormonal interventions that alter the levels and cycling of sex hormones. These events and interventions may cause a change in the prevalence or intensity of headache. The menstrual cycle is the result of a carefully orchestrated sequence of interactions between the hypothalamus, pituitary, ovary, and endometrium, with the sex hormones acting as modulators and effectors at each level. Estrogen and progestins have potent effects on central serotonergic and opioid neurons, modulating both neuronal activity and receptor density. The primary trigger of Menstrually-related migraine (MM) appears to be the withdrawal of estrogen rather than the maintenance of sustained high or low estrogen levels. However, changes in the sustained estrogen levels with pregnancy (increased) and menopause (decreased) appear to affect headaches. Headaches associated with OC use or menopausal hormonal replacement therapy may be related, in part, to periodic discontinuation of oral sex hormone preparations. The treatment of migraine associated with changes in sex hormone levels is frequently difficult and the patients are often refractory to therapy. Based on what is known of the pathophysiology of migraine, we have attempted to provide a logical approach to the treatment of headaches that are associated with menses, menopause, and OCs using abortive and preventive medications and hormonal manipulations. Considerable evidence suggests a link between estrogen and progesterone, the female sex hormones, and migraine. (Silberstein and Merriam, 1997; Lipton and Stewart, 1993; Epstein et al., 1975; Goldstein and Chen, 1982; Selby and Lance, 1960) Although no gender difference is apparent in prepubertal children, with migraine occurring equally in 4p. 100 of boys and girls, (Goldstein and Chen, 1982, Waters and O'Connor, 1971) migraine occurs more frequently in adult women (18p. 100) than in men (6p. 100). (Lipton and Stewart, 1993) Migraine develops most frequently in the second decade, with the peak incidence occurring with adolescence. (Selby and Lance, 1960; Epstein et al., 1975) Menstrually-related migraine (MM) begins at menarche in 33p. 100 of affected women (Epstein et al. , 1975). MM occurs mainly at the time of menses in many migrainous women, and exclusively with menses (true menstrual migraine [TMM]) in some (Epstein et al., 1975). Menstrual migraine can be associated with other somatic complaints arising before and often persisting into menses, such as nausea, backache, breast tenderness, and cramps and like them appears to be the result of falling sex hormone levels (Silberstein and Merriam, 1997; American Psychiatric Association, 1994). In addition, premenstrual migraine can be associated with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PDD), also called "premenstrual syndrome" (PMS), which is distinct from the physical symptoms of the perimenstrual period and is probably not directly driven by declining progesterone levels (Mortola, 1998). Migraine occurring during (rather than prior to) menstruation is usually not associated with PMS (Silberstein and Merriam, 1997). Migraine may worsen during the first trimester of pregnancy and, although many women become headache-free during the last two trimesters, 25p. 100 have no change in their migraine (Silberstein, 1997). MM typically improves with pregnancy, perhaps due to sustained high estrogen levels (Silberstein, 1997). Hormonal replacement with estrogens can exacerbate migraine and oral contraceptives (OCs) can change its character and frequency PMID:11139745

Silberstein, S D

2000-01-01

333

LH (Luteinizing Hormone) Test  

MedlinePLUS

... disease Chronic failure to ovulate ( anovulation ) due to: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) Adrenal disease Thyroid disease Ovarian tumor In women ... Site Conditions: Infertility , Menopause , Pituitary Disorders , Endocrine Syndromes , PCOS Elsewhere On The Web Hormone Health Network: The ...

334

Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause  

MedlinePLUS

... There are two types of bioidentical hormone products: • Pharmaceutical products. These products have been approved by the ... made products. These are made in a compounding pharmacy (a pharmacy that mixes medications according to a ...

335

Hormonal influences on sex-linked sexual attitudes  

E-print Network

differences in human behavior, young girls with CAH show an increased interest in toys that are usually preferred by boys, such as cars, and decreased interest in toys that are usually preferred by girls, such as dolls. (Hines, 2004b). Girls with CAH also... with certain toys (e.g. guns), engaged in specific activities (e.g. ?playing house?), and displayed various characteristics (e.g. ?enjoys rough and tumble play?) when the participant was a pre-school-aged child. Though this questionnaire is typically given...

Charles, Nora

2009-05-15

336

The Effect of Camphor on Sex Hormones Levels in Rats  

PubMed Central

In some traditional therapies, it has been claimed that camphor (a crystalline ketone obtained from cinnamomum camphora) would be a suppressor of sexual behaviors and sex hormones. This study evaluated the effects of camphor on sex hormones, like luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone. In this experimental study, 56 male rats were divided into 5 groups, including control (n=12), sham (n=11) and three treatment groups (n=11) in three different doses. The sham groups received daily intra peritoneal (IP) injections of the vehicle (ethanol 10%) for 30 days. Three treatment groups received different daily IP injections of the camphor (1, 2 and 5 mg/Kg) for 30 days and the control groups didn’t received anything. Serums were used for assaying LH, FSH and testosterone. The level of LH significantly increased in all doses of camphor among the treatment groups as compared to the control (p<0.05), but camphor in doses 2 and 5 mg/Kg significantly reduced the FSH level as compared to control group (p<0.05). No significant changes were seen in testosterone levels. Camphor increased level of LH, decreased level of FSH, whereas it failed to change level of testosterone. The claim of inhibitory effect of camphor on sexual activity could not be confirmed by this study. More investigations in this field are suggested. PMID:24567939

Shahabi, Sima; Jorsaraei, Seyed Gholam Ali; Akbar Moghadamnia, Ali; Barghi, Effat; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Golsorkhtabar Amiri, Masoumeh; Maliji, Ghorban; Sohan Faraji, Alieh; Abdi Boora, Maryam; Ghazinejad, Neda; Shamsai, Hajar

2014-01-01

337

Women's Sexuality and Meaning Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the current study was to challenge depictions of traditionally oppressive female sexuality by explicitly exploring diverse women's positive experiences of sexuality and to capture the unique meanings women ascribe to their sexuality through the use of participant-generated metaphor. We interviewed 17 diverse women regarding the meaning of sexuality in their lives. Coding revealed that metaphors for sexuality

Debra Mollen; Sally D. Stabb

2010-01-01

338

Nonvolitional Sex and Sexual Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonvolitional sex is sexual behavior that violates a person's right to choose when and with whom to have sex and what sexual behaviors to engage in. The more extreme forms of this behavior include rape, forced sex, childhood sexual abuse, sex trafficking, and violence against people with nonconventional sexual identities. More nuanced forms of nonvolitional sex include engaging in sexual

Debra Kalmuss

2004-01-01

339

Cultural suppression of female sexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four theories about cultural suppression of female sexuality are evaluated. Data are reviewed on cross-cultural differences in power and sex ratios, reactions to the sexual revolution, direct restraining influences on adolescent and adult female sexuality, double standard patterns of sexual morality, female genital surgery, legal and religious restrictions on sex, prostitution and pornography, and sexual deception. The view that men

Roy F. Baumeister; Jean M. Twenge

2002-01-01

340

Compensating Differentials for Sexual Harassment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Workplace sexual harassment is illegal, but many workers report that they have been sexually harassed. Exposure to the risk of sexual harassment may decrease productivity, which would reduce wages. Alternatively, workers may receive a compensating differential for exposure to sexual harassment, which would increase wages. Data on claims of sexual harassment filed with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission are used

Joni Hersch

2011-01-01

341

Cultural indicators of sexual harassment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual harassment continues to be pervasive in the workplace. It is doubtful that organizations consciously encourage inappropriate social?sexual behavior, yet the prevalence of sexual harassment suggests that organizations may unofficially or informally sanction behaviors that facilitate or encourage sexual harassment. This study tests a cultural influence model of sexual harassment that explores how sex, victim status, perceptions of fair interpersonal

Joann Keyton; Pat Ferguson; Steven C. Rhodes

2001-01-01

342

Hormonal control of aging in rodents: The somatotropic axis  

PubMed Central

There is a growing body of literature focusing on the somatotropic axis and regulation of aging and longevity. Many of these reports derive data from multiple endocrine mutants, those that exhibit both elevated growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) or deficiencies in one or both of these hormones. In general, both spontaneous and genetically engineered GH and IGF-1 deficiencies have lead to small body size, delayed development of sexual maturation and age-related pathology, and life span extension. In contrast, characteristics of high circulating GH included larger body sizes, early puberty and reproductive senescence, increased cancer incidence and reduced life span when compared to wild-type animals with normal plasma hormone concentrations. This information, along with that found in multiple other species, implicates this anabolic pathway as the major regulator of longevity in animals. PMID:18674587

Brown-Borg, Holly M.

2015-01-01

343

Changes in fertility and hormone replacement therapy in kidney disease.  

PubMed

Infertility is common among men and women with CKD and fertility is usually restored with successful kidney transplantation. There are many causes of infertility in those on dialysis, including sexual dysfunction and impaired spermatogenesis and ovulation resulting from an altered hormonal milieu. There is little information about infertility in CKD, but it is clear that ESRD results in low rates of pregnancy in women. Early reports of increased pregnancy rates in women on nocturnal hemodialysis suggest that this modality may improve the abnormal reproductive hormonal milieu of ESRD; small studies of men on dialysis also suggest this. Just as the specific causes of infertility in men and women with CKD/ESRD are unknown, we also lack information about the appropriateness of hormone replacement in these patients. This paper reviews these linked issues, pointing out the lack of data upon which to base clinical decision-making about these quality-of-life issues in our CKD/ESRD patients. PMID:23928388

Holley, Jean L; Schmidt, Rebecca J

2013-05-01

344

Plant hormone mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The techniques used for the production and identification of plant hormone mutants are described. The properties used to classify\\u000a these mutants into the broad synthesis and response categories are discussed, and the genetic considerations needed to allow\\u000a their effective use in plant hormone research examined. A brief outline of significant work on gibberellin (GA), abscisic\\u000a acid (ABA), auxin, ethylene, cytokinin

James B. Reid

1993-01-01

345

Menopausal Hormone Therapy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) provides this compilation of Web links for important information on the risks and benefits of hormone replacement therapy. The links lead to relevant NIH Web pages, including the most current NIH research on the subject. Topics covered range from NIH's Women's Health Initiative estrogen/ progestin hormone therapy study to the use of black cohosh as an alternative therapy to osteoporosis and ovarian cancer. A useful and well-organized resource.

346

Detecting sexual conflict and sexually antagonistic coevolution  

PubMed Central

We begin by providing an operational definition of sexual conflict that applies to both inter- and intralocus conflict. Using this definition, we examine a series of simple coevolutionary models to elucidate fruitful approaches for detecting interlocus sexual conflict and resultant sexually antagonistic coevolution. We then use published empirical examples to illustrate the utility of these approaches. Three relevant attributes emerge. First, the dynamics of sexually antagonistic coevolution may obscure the conflict itself. Second, competing models of inter-sexual coevolution may yield similar population patterns near equilibria. Third, a variety of evolutionary forces underlying competing models may be acting simultaneously near equilibria. One main conclusion is that studies of emergent patterns in extant populations (e.g. studies of population and/or female fitness) are unlikely to allow us to distinguish among competing coevolutionary models. Instead, we need more research aimed at identifying the forces of selection acting on shared traits and sexually antagonistic traits. More specifically, we need a greater number of functional studies of female traits as well as studies of the consequences of both male and female traits for female fitness. A mix of selection and manipulative studies on these is likely the most promising route. PMID:16612887

Rowe, Locke; Day, Troy

2006-01-01

347

Using Digital Images of the Zebra Finch Song System as a Tool to Teach Organizational Effects of Steroid Hormones: A Free Downloadable Module  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Zebra finch song behavior is sexually dimorphic: males sing and females do not. The neural system underlying this behavior is sexually dimorphic, and this sex difference is easy to quantify. During development, the zebra finch song system can be altered by steroid hormones, specifically estradiol, which actually masculinizes it. Because of the…

Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A.; Beck McCauley, Lisa M.; Pham, Anh P.; Ruiz, Maureen L.; Fong, Michelle C.; Cui, Xinran

2011-01-01

348

The Relationship Between Sexual Function and Quality of Sleep in Caregiving Mothers of Sons with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Introduction The task of the caregiver, especially a caregiving mother of a son with a chronic and fatal disease, may interfere with their quality of sleep, sexuality, and some hormone levels. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the sexual function and the quality of sleep of caregiving mothers of sons with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Methods We evaluated 20 caregiving mothers of sons with DMD and 20 caregiving mothers of sons without any neuromuscular or chronic disease. All of them voluntarily responded to the evaluating questionnaires about their sexuality and their quality of sleep, and gave blood samples to evaluate their hormonal levels. Main Outcome Measures All mothers were evaluated using the questionnaire of Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and the Pittsburgh questionnaire (PSQI). The blood samples were tested to determine serum levels of testosterone, estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, progesterone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and cortisol. Results Caregiving mothers of sons with DMD had significantly lower scores in the FSFI questionnaire, suggesting a higher risk for sexual dysfunction. The PSQI demonstrated that these caregiving mothers present increased sleep latency, reduced sleep efficiency, daytime dysfunction, and poor sleep quality. Blood tests showed a rise in cortisol levels, which correlated with the compromised sexuality and quality of sleep. Conclusions This study indicates that caregiving mothers of sons with DMD show major risk for sexual dysfunction and a reduction in their quality of sleep mediated in part by the hormonal changes related to stress. Nozoe KT, Hachul H, Hirotsu C, Polesel DN, Moreira GA, Tufik S, and Andersen ML. The relationship between sexual function and quality of sleep in caregiving mothers of sons with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Sex Med 2014;2:133–140. PMID:25356310

Nozoe, Karen T; Hachul, Helena; Hirotsu, Camila; Polesel, Daniel N; Moreira, Gustavo A; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L

2014-01-01

349

[Impact on human health of hormonal additives used in animal production].  

PubMed

The establishment of the impact of environmental compounds or additives with hormone-like activity on human health still requires further investigation, as well as a reexamination of biologic models and experimental methodology employed so far. In 1988, the FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives Joint with the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) considered that sexual hormone residues usually present in meat do not represent a risk for human consumption. Nevertheless, this resolution seems to be uncertain since the scientific elements employed for this statement may not be adequate. In this review the principal objections to the evidence used to establish the innocuousness of growth promoter hormones are considered. PMID:17910413

Larrea, Fernando; Chirinos, Mayel

2007-01-01

350

Can Ayahuasca and sleep loss change sexual performance in male rats?  

PubMed

The ingestion of the beverage Ayahuasca usually occurs in religious ceremonies that are performed during the night leading to sleep deprivation. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the acute effects of Ayahuasca upon the sexual response of sleep deprived male rats. One group of sexually experienced male Wistar rats were submitted to a paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) protocol for 96h, while another group spent the same amount of time in the home cage (CTRL). After this period, either saline or Ayahuasca drink (250, 500 and 1000?gmL(-1)) was administered by gavage and sexual behavior and hormonal concentrations were measured. Ayahuasca alone significantly decreased sexual performance at all doses. However, in sleep deprived rats, the lower dose increased sexual performance while the intermediate dose produced a detrimental effect on sexual response compared to the CTRL rats at the same dose. Regarding the hormonal analyses, a lower testosterone concentration was observed in sleep-deprived saline rats in relation to the CTRL group. Progesterone was significantly lower only in PSD rats at the dose 500?gmL(-1) compared with CTRL-500?gmL(-1) group. Corticosterone was unchanged among the groups evaluated. Our results suggest that Ayahuasca intake markedly impaired sexual performance alone, but, when combined with sleep deprivation, had significant, but heterogeneous, effects on male sexual response. PMID:25256159

Alvarenga, T A; Polesel, D N; Matos, G; Garcia, V A; Costa, J L; Tufik, S; Andersen, M L

2014-10-01

351

[Sexuality and urological diseases].  

PubMed

Patients with lower urinary tract symptoms related to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) frequently suffer from sexual dysfunction (erectile dysfunction and ejaculatory dysfunction). Erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation are two times more common in men with chronic pelvic pain/chronic prostatitis. All treatments of prostate cancer are responsible for sexual dysfunctions. Sexual disorders frequently appear during the management of infertile couples. Information and support should be offered to couples. Women with urinary incontinence also suffer frequently from coital incontinence. PMID:25201599

Droupy, Stéphane

2014-10-01

352

Sexual dysfunction and prostatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a large number of reports exploring the links between diseases of the prostate and effects on sexuality, the relationship\\u000a between prostatitis and sexual dysfunction has not been as thoroughly investigated. A number of reports have focused on the\\u000a adverse effects of prostatitis on quality of life, with resultant indirect effects on sexuality. More detailed studies are\\u000a available on the

Hossein Sadeghi-Nejad; Allen Seftel

2006-01-01

353

ORIGINAL PAPER Sexual Self-Schemas, Sexual Dysfunction, and the Sexual Responses  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Sexual Self-Schemas, Sexual Dysfunction, and the Sexual Responses of Women with a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse Alessandra H. Rellini · Cindy M. Meston Received: 30 June 2009 / Revised access at Springerlink.com Abstract Accumulating evidence points to the mediating effects of sexual self

Meston, Cindy

354

Academic Sexual Correctness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This list on the subject of academic sexual correctness(ASC-L). ASC-L was an outgrowth of CASE (Consenting Academics for Sexual Equity), founded in early 1994 by both professors and students to combat a concerted "feminist" campaign against students and professors who had become involved in an intimate(romantic) relationship. CASE dealt with only one small area of the current emphasis on sexual correctness in academia. Consequently, the need for a network that focused on all aspects of academic sexual correctness became apparent; the ASC-L was a response to that need. ASC-L encompasses all aspects of campus sexual control issues -- irrespective of their ideological origins, such as sexual consent issues, sexual discrimination issues (irrespective of the subjects of the discrimination) and attempts to regulate sexual content of speech on campus or sexual content of course materials. The principles of consent, privacy and academic freedom are the core principles which have motivated the founding of ASC-L.

355

The evolution of neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating sexual behaviour in female primates.  

PubMed

The common marmoset is a small New World primate that lives in extended family groups. Female marmosets show rhythmic changes in proceptivity during their 28-Day ovarian cycle, but fluctuations in sexual receptivity are relatively subtle. Receptivity persists even after ovariectomy and adrenalectomy in the female marmoset. In the intact female, increases in proceptivity at mid cycle are due to the activational effects of oestradiol. Treatment of the ovariectomized female with oestradiol-17beta stimulates proceptivity and this effect is blocked by thermal or excitotoxic (neuronal cell body specific) lesions in the anterior or medial hypothalamus. Implantation of oestradiol into the anterior hypothalamus (via guide cannulae) also activates proceptivity. Luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) may also form part of the neuroendocrine mechanism controlling proceptivity in the intact female, given that exogenous LHRH stimulates proceptivity in ovariectomized, oestrogen-primed marmosets. These effects of oestradiol (and LHRH) on proceptive displays are much more pronounced than any effects involving sexual receptivity. Conversely, treatment of the ovariectomized female with progesterone, at doses sufficient to produce luteal phase concentrations of circulating hormone, causes a marked suppression of proceptivity, but only small decreases in sexual receptivity. These experiments on marmosets remain some of the very few studies to define how hormones influence the brain and sexual behaviour in female primates. They support the conclusion that sexual receptivity is not under rigid neuroendocrine control in female anthropoids, and that there is no peri-ovulatory period of oestrus, such as occurs in most non-primate mammals. PMID:11999311

Dixson, A

2001-01-01

356

Sexual Differentiation of the Human Brain and Male\\/Female Behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Once the differentiation of our sexual organs into male or female is settled, the next thing to be differentiated is the brain.\\u000a The difference in brain structures resulting from the interaction of sex hormones and developing brain cells, is thought to\\u000a be the basis of sex differences in behaviour, in gender identity, in gender roles, in our sexual orientation (hetero-,

Dick F. Swaab

357

[Gender identity disorder: challenges and specificity in the treatment of requests for sexual reassignment].  

PubMed

Gender identity disorder is defined as a permanent desire to relieve one's own sexual features to acquire the sexual features and line to life of the opposite sex. The diagnosis is based on the psychiatric evaluation and treatment on an interdisciplinary approach by endocrinologists, surgeons and psychiatrists, and can be conceptualized into distinct phases: diagnostic evaluation, real life experience, hormonal treatment and surgery. Multiples challenges have to be faced, especially by the psychiatrist who follows the patient during the whole process. PMID:21416867

Pécoud, P; Pralong, F; Bauquis, O; Stiefel, F

2011-02-16

358

Sexual Self-Schemas of Female Child Sexual Abuse Survivors: Relationships with Risky Sexual Behavior and Sexual Assault in Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood sexual trauma has been demonstrated to increase survivors’ risk for engaging in unrestricted sexual behaviors and\\u000a experiencing adolescent sexual assault. The current study used the sexual self-schema construct to examine cognitive representations\\u000a of sexuality that might drive these behavioral patterns. In Study 1 (N = 774), we attempted to improve the content validity of the Sexual Self Schema Scale for child

Ashley F. NiehausJoan; Joan Jackson; Stephanie Davies

2010-01-01

359

Sexual Self-Schemas, Sexual Dysfunction, and the Sexual Responses of Women with a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulating evidence points to the mediating effects of sexual self-schemas on the sexual difficulties of women with a history\\u000a of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The following study adds to the extant literature by investigating (1) sexual function and\\u000a (2) sexual satisfaction utilizing validated measures, and reporting on the relationship between sexual self-schemas and physiological\\u000a (vaginal photoplethysmography), subjective, and affective responses

Alessandra H. RelliniCindy; Cindy M. Meston

2011-01-01

360

Schemas, sexuality, and romantic attachment  

Microsoft Academic Search

One's self-views are powerful regulators of both cognitive processing and behavioral responding. Sexual self-schemas are cognitive generalizations about sexual aspects of the self. The bivariate sexual self-schema model, which posits independent effects of positive and negative components of women's sexual self-views, was tested. Three hundred eighteen female undergraduates completed anonymous questionnaires, including the Sexual Self-Schema Scale and assessments of sexual

Jill M. Cyranowski; Barbara L. Andersen

1998-01-01

361

Neuroendocrinology and sexual differentiation in eusocial mammals.  

PubMed

Sexual differentiation of the mammalian nervous system has been studied intensively for over 25 years. Most of what we know, however, comes from work on relatively non-social species in which direct reproduction (i.e., production of offspring) is virtually the only route to reproductive success. In social species, an individual's inclusive fitness may include contributions to the gene pool that are achieved by supporting the reproductive efforts of close relatives; this feature is most evident in eusocial organisms. Here, we review what is known about neuroendocrine mechanisms, sexual differentiation, and effects of social status on the brain and spinal cord in two eusocial mammals: the naked mole-rat and Damaraland mole-rat. These small rodents exhibit the most rigidly organized reproductive hierarchy among mammals, with reproduction suppressed in a majority of individuals. Our findings suggest that eusociality may be associated with a relative lack of sex differences and a reduced influence of gonadal hormones on some functions to which these hormones are usually tightly linked. We also identify neural changes accompanying a change in social and reproductive status, and discuss the implications of our findings for understanding the evolution of sex differences and the neuroendocrinology of reproductive suppression. PMID:19416733

Holmes, Melissa M; Goldman, Bruce D; Goldman, Sharry L; Seney, Marianne L; Forger, Nancy G

2009-10-01

362

Pueraria tuberosa DC Extract Improves Androgenesis and Sexual Behavior via FSH LH Cascade  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanolic extract of Pueraria tuberosa (PT) on sexual behaviour and androgenic activity. Male albino rats were divided into four groups of six animals each: control group 1 (2% acacia solution), PT-treated group 2 (50?mg/Kg), PT-treated group 3 (100?mg/Kg), and PT-treated group 4 (150?mg/Kg). Sexual behavior of male rats in the presence of a female rat was recorded. The treated groups were evaluated for sexual parameters. The extract was characterized using LC-MS. The effect of treatment on anabolic and weight of secondary sexual organs was determined. The histological changes in section of testis and epididymis after treatment were observed. Sperm count in epididymis and fructose content in seminal vesicles were also measured. Levels of hormones like FSH, LH, and T were determined. A dose-dependent increase in sexual behaviors was evidenced in the animals of extract treated groups. Increase in testis weight was recorded in PT. At the highest dose PT also affects the hormones level. The four compounds namely puerarin, daidzein, biochanin-A and formononetin were identified in ethanolic extract using LC-MS. It concluded that PT extract possesses androgenic effect and it significantly increased the sexual behaviour and hormones level. PMID:24489512

Chauhan, Nagendra Singh; Sharma, Vikas; Christine Helena Frankland Sawaya, Alexandra; Dixit, V. K.

2013-01-01

363

EFFECTS OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS (EDCS) ON FETAL TESTES HORMONE PRODUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Effects of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) on Fetal Testes Hormone Production CS Lambright, VS Wilson, JR Furr, CJ Wolf, N Noriega, LE Gray, Jr US EPA, ORD/NHEERL/RTD, RTP, NC 27711 Exposure to EDCs during critical periods of fetal sexual development can have...

364

Ultrastructural Evaluation of Gingival Glycosaminoglycans in Ovariectomized Rats: Effects of Steroid Hormone Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: To evaluate the behavior of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in rat gingiva and the effects of lack of sexual steroids and the hormonal therapy with estrogen and dexamethasone (DEX). Methods: 40 female rats were divided into four groups: GI: animals in permanent estrus; GII: ovariectomized (OVX) animals + vehicle; GIII: OVX animals treated with 17?-estradiol benzoate (10 ?g\\/kg), and GIV: OVX

Pedro Luiz Calió; Ricardo Santos Simões; Ricardo Martins Oliveira-Filho; Gustavo Arantes Rosa Maciel; Manuel de Jesus Simões; Edmund C. Baracat

2008-01-01

365

Organochlorines Affect the Major Androgenic Hormone, Testosterone, in Male Polar Bears (Ursus Maritimus) at Svalbard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal sexual development and subsequent reproductive function are dependent on appropriate testosterone production and action. The regulation of steroid hormones, including androgens, can be influenced by both biological and environmental factors, including environmental chemicals. Concentrations of organochlorines are considerably greater in Svalbard polar bears than in polar bears from other regions. Between 1995 and 1998, samples were collected from 121

Irma C. Oskam; Erik Ropstad; Ellen Dahl; Elisabeth Lie; Andrew E. Derocher; Stig Larsen; Richard Wiger; Janneche Utne Skaare

2003-01-01

366

Juvenile hormone III concentrations in female reproductives of Solenopsis invicta Buren  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Juvenile hormone (JH) III was identified and quantified from extracts of hemolymph from virgin and inseminated female sexuals of the red imported fire ant using gas chromatography-chemical ionization-mass spectroscopy (GC-CI-MS). Mated queens from established colonies had significantly higher amoun...

367

Sexual Dysfunction in Uremia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disturbances in sexual function are a common feature of chronic renal failure. Approximately 50% of uremic men com- plain of erectile dysfunction while an even greater percentage of both men and women complain of decreased libido and a marked decline in the frequency of intercourse (1,2). The genesis of sexual dysfunction is multifactorial and is primarily organic in origin. In

BIFF F. PALMER

368

Sexuality Sensitive Schooling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American schools, especially their physical education and sport programs, provide some of the most hostile social geographies in all of society for gay youth. With the aim of transforming schools toward more democratic and sexuality sensitive institutions, this paper reviews the literature on sexuality and education. In the review, three themes,…

McCaughtry, Nate; Dillon, Suzanna; Jones, Elizabeth; Smigell, Sara

2005-01-01

369

The Sexual Genogram.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The sexual genogram combines aspects of the sex history with the genogram/family journey to examine the impact of the partners' family loyalties, secrets, and "scripts" on their sexual functioning. The exploration process offers an opportunity for major change to occur. Technique for this method is discussed, along with relevant case…

Hof, Larry; Berman, Ellen

1986-01-01

370

Speciation and sexual conict  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review mathematical models that explicitly consider the dynamics of evolutionary change driven by sexual conict over mating rate. Overall, there are at least six dieren t dynamic regimes observed in models of sexual conict: (1) continuous coevolutionary chase between the sexes (which can result in allopatric speciation as a byproduct), (2) evolution towards an equilibrium, (3) cyclic evolution, (4)

Sergey Gavriletsy; Takehiko I. Hayashi

2005-01-01

371

BPH and Sexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality of life has become a very important parameter in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and one of the major concepts identified by the patients to be important is related to sexuality after BPH therapy. The impact on sexuality resulting from the various treatment modalities of BPH, either medical, surgical or instrumental has been too often neglected in the past and

Alexandre R. Zlotta; Claude C. Schulman

1999-01-01

372

Sexual Murderers' Implicit Theories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with 28 sexual murderers were subjected to grounded theory analysis. Five implicit theories (ITs) were identified: dangerous world, male sex drive is uncontrollable, entitlement, women as sexual objects, and women as unknowable. These ITs were found to be identical to those identified in the literature as being present in rapists. The…

Beech, Anthony; Fisher, Dawn; Ward, Tony

2005-01-01

373

Battling Sexual Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From costly lawsuits on behalf of victims to negative media coverage, districts can face potentially devastating consequences as a result of sexual abuse of their students by district employees. This article offers a few tips on how to battle sexual abuse particularly in school districts. The author stresses that by adopting strong policies that…

Dessoff, Alan

2010-01-01

374

Maternal Sexuality and Breastfeeding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the…

Bartlett, Alison

2005-01-01

375

Am I Sexually Normal?  

MedlinePLUS

Who hasn't compared her sex life with a friend's and wondered, "Why don't I have sex three times a day? Or five orgasms in one night? Is there something wrong with me or my partner? Am I sexually normal?" Even though I am a physician, I learned more about sexuality from friends, partners and ...

376

Maternal sexuality and breastfeeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the radical ideologies of the 1960s

Alison Bartlett

2005-01-01

377

Sexual dimorphism in animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many animals show sexual dimorphism, or differences between the males and females of that species. These are mostly physical differences, but other differences like songs in male and female birds can also be thought of as sexual dimorphism. Generally, males are more decorated and larger than females, but there are several species of animals in which the females are larger than the males.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

2008-05-23

378

Male rat sexual behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The male rat's sexual behavior constitutes a highly ordered sequence of motor acts involving both striate and smooth muscles. It is spontaneously displayed by most adult male rats in the presence of a sexually receptive female. Although the behavior is important for the survival of the species it is not necessary for survival of the individual. In that way it

Anders Ågmo

1997-01-01

379

Treating Sexually Aggressive Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although clinical and empirical data have been offered about sexually aggressive children, few have suggested the necessary components of clinical treatment protocols for them. This article reviews the plausible etiologies and the correlates of sexual aggression by children to delineate the necessary treatment elements for them and their families.…

Miranda, Alexis O.; Biegler, Bryan N.; Davis, Kathleen; Frevert, Vada S.; Taylor, Julie

2001-01-01

380

Sexual Reproduction and Breeding  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the second edition of Plant Propagation Concepts and Laboratory Exercises, we have combined the first edition chapters 36: Sexual Reproduction in Angiosperms and 37: Breeding Horticultural Plants into the present single chapter Sexual Reproduction and Breeding. These topics are so closely relate...

381

Sexual Issues (Concerns, Harassment,  

E-print Network

Sexual Issues (Concerns, Harassment, Assault, etc.) Student Survey Items (Survey names listed in blue) #12;Student Survey Feedback by Topical Area: Sexual Issues (Concerns, Harassment, Assault, etc of the following: Services for victims of crime and harassment Freedom from harassment on campus Rules governing

Baltisberger, Jay H.

382

Sexual Harassment in Nursing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual harassment in the workplace, specifically in nursing, is discussed. The impact of sexual harassment, characteristics of those commonly involved, the need for changing attitudes of men and women in the workplace, the factor of power in relationships, and ways to avoid legal suits are all examined. (CT)

Duldt, Bonnie W.

1982-01-01

383

Myths of Sexuality Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper suggests that sexuality education needs to take into account the myths by which teachers educate and students learn. Here myth is understood as a narrative, paradigm or vision. The paper does not argue against myth. Rather, it argues that myth or narrative provides a much needed depth dimension to sexuality education. It does argue, however, that the existing

Ronald Morris

1997-01-01

384

Sexual Orientation Related Differences in Cortical Thickness in Male Individuals  

PubMed Central

Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated sex and also sexual orientation related structural and functional differences in the human brain. Genetic information and effects of sex hormones are assumed to contribute to the male/female differentiation of the brain, and similar effects could play a role in processes influencing human's sexual orientation. However, questions about the origin and development of a person's sexual orientation remain unanswered, and research on sexual orientation related neurobiological characteristics is still very limited. To contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to compare regional cortical thickness (Cth) and subcortical volumes of homosexual men (hoM), heterosexual men (heM) and heterosexual women (heW). hoM (and heW) had thinner cortices primarily in visual areas and smaller thalamus volumes than heM, in which hoM and heW did not differ. Our results support previous studies, which suggest cerebral differences between hoM and heM in regions, where sex differences have been reported, which are frequently proposed to underlie biological mechanisms. Thus, our results contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation. PMID:25479554

Abé, Christoph; Johansson, Emilia; Allzén, Elin; Savic, Ivanka

2014-01-01

385

Sexual victimization, fear of sexual powerlessness, and cognitive emotion dysregulation as barriers to sexual assertiveness in college women.  

PubMed

The current study examined sexual victimization and two barriers to young women's sexual assertiveness: fear of sexual powerlessness and cognitive emotion dysregulation. College women (N = 499) responded to surveys and indicated that fear of sexual powerlessness and, to a lesser extent, cognitive emotion dysregulation were barriers to sexual assertiveness. Compared with nonvictims, sexually victimized women had greater problems with sexual assertiveness, fear of sexual powerlessness, and cognitive emotion dysregulation. Among victims, fear of sexual powerlessness and emotion dysregulation interacted to impede sexual assertiveness. Findings support targeting identified barriers in interventions to improve sexual assertiveness and reduce risk for unwanted sexual experiences and sexual victimization. PMID:24379216

Zerubavel, Noga; Messman-Moore, Terri L

2013-12-01

386

Sexual Desire Disorders  

PubMed Central

Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) and sexual aversion disorder (SAD) are an under-diagnosed group of disorders that affect men and women. Despite their prevalence, these two disorders are often not addressed by healthcare providers and patients due their private and awkward nature. As physicians, we need to move beyond our own unease in order to adequately address our patients’ sexual problems and implement appropriate treatment. Using the Sexual Response Cycle as the model of the physiological changes of humans during sexual stimulation and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition this article will review the current literature on the desire disorders focusing on prevalence, etiology, and treatment. PMID:19727285

Montgomery, Keith A.

2008-01-01

387

Hormone de croissance placentaire. Signification par rapport aux hormones de croissance et  

E-print Network

Hormone de croissance placentaire. Signification par rapport aux hormones de croissance et. Placentalgrowth hormone. Significance relative to pituitary growth hormo- nes and placental lactogen hormone growth hormone (PGH). This entity, agonist of pituitary GH, appears responsible for the elevated IGFI

Boyer, Edmond

388

University of Alberta Sexual Assault Centre Reporting a Sexual Assault  

E-print Network

University of Alberta Sexual Assault Centre Reporting a Sexual Assault When deciding whether or not to report a sexual assault, it is important to know what will be involved in the process so you can make a sexual assault to the Edmonton Police Service (EPS) or to University of Alberta Protective Services (UAPS

Machel, Hans

389

Outcomes of Sexual Behaviors among Sexual Minority Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Very little is known about outcomes of sexual behavior for sexual minority youth. In this chapter, I review relevant literature and draw on findings from my own research to initiate an inquiry into this important topic. I begin with a brief overview of the range of sexual behaviors of sexual minority adolescents and young adults. Next, I describe…

Morgan, Elizabeth M.

2014-01-01

390

Sexual Dissonances: or the ‘impossibility’ of sexuality education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the discursive formations around sexuality education with special reference to the contemporary period. It sketches the recent history of sexuality politics in Britain, understood in terms of the dynamic relation between New Right movements and sexual radicalisms. It then identifies four discursive clusters: those associated with Neo?Conservatism, ‘the family’ and conservative homophobia; neo?liberal views on sexuality and

Richard Johnson

1996-01-01

391

College Students' Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors: Implications for Sexuality Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study of sexual attitudes and behaviors of students in a large northeastern community college was undertaken in partial response to an outspoken community group's claims that the sexuality education courses being taught at the school were undermining the morality of its young adults and encouraging early sexual activity. Findings from 1,825 pretest respondents in human sexuality and general health

Rhona Feigenbaum; Estelle Weinstein; Efrem Rosen

1995-01-01

392

Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test  

MedlinePLUS

ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...

393

Side Effects of Hormone Therapy  

MedlinePLUS

... Men Living with Prostate Cancer Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects Urinary Dysfunction Bowel Dysfunction Erectile Dysfunction Loss of Fertility Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects of Chemotherapy Side Effects: When ...

394

Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer in Men  

MedlinePLUS

... Topic Targeted therapy for breast cancer in men Hormone therapy for breast cancer in men Hormone therapy ... fatigue, and pain at the injection site. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogs and anti-androgens LHRH ...

395

Sexual sadism and sadistic personality disorder in sexual homicide.  

PubMed

Controversies exist about the diagnostic validity of sexual sadism and its relation to sadistic personality disorder in sex offenders. The aim of this study was to investigate which diagnostic, developmental, and criminal characteristics differentiate sexual sadistic from non-sadistic sexual homicide perpetrators. Psychiatric court reports on 166 men who had committed a sexual homicide were evaluated regarding psychiatric, sexual and criminal history. Sixty-one offenders (36.7%) with sexual sadism (SeSd) were compared with 105 (63.3%) offenders without this diagnosis (NSeSd). Besides the sexual sadistic symptoms, there were seven factors that discriminated best between the two groups (sexual masochism, sadistic personality disorder, isolation in childhood, multiple sexual homicide, previous rape, previous tendencies for similar behavior, and long duration of the homicidal act). Sexual sadism is connected with circumscribed other characteristics and has to be considered in risk assessment and treatment of sex offenders. PMID:17192143

Hill, Andreas; Habermann, Niels; Berner, Wolfgang; Briken, Peer

2006-12-01

396

Mechanisms of crosstalk between endocrine systems: regulation of sex steroid hormone synthesis and action by thyroid hormones.  

PubMed

Thyroid hormones (THs) are well-known regulators of development and metabolism in vertebrates. There is increasing evidence that THs are also involved in gonadal differentiation and reproductive function. Changes in TH status affect sex ratios in developing fish and frogs and reproduction (e.g., fertility), hormone levels, and gonad morphology in adults of species of different vertebrates. In this review, we have summarized and compared the evidence for cross-talk between the steroid hormone and thyroid axes and present a comparative model. We gave special attention to TH regulation of sex steroid synthesis and action in both the brain and gonad, since these are important for gonad development and brain sexual differentiation and have been studied in many species. We also reviewed research showing that there is a TH system, including receptors and enzymes, in the brains and gonads in developing and adult vertebrates. Our analysis shows that THs influences sex steroid hormone synthesis in vertebrates, ranging from fish to pigs. This concept of crosstalk and conserved hormone interaction has implications for our understanding of the role of THs in reproduction, and how these processes may be dysregulated by environmental endocrine disruptors. PMID:24685768

Duarte-Guterman, Paula; Navarro-Martín, Laia; Trudeau, Vance L

2014-07-01

397

Clustering of sex hormone disruptors in Singapore's marine environment.  

PubMed Central

Abnormal sexual differentiation and other reproductive abnormalities in marine animals indicate the presence in seawater of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) that perturb the function of the sex hormone signaling pathways. However, most studies to date have reported on EDC effects in freshwater and sewage samples, and there is a paucity of bioassay data on the effects of EDCs in marine waters. Our aims in this study were to devise robust methodologies suitable for extracting potential EDCs and to measure their summated effects on activities of androgen receptors (ARs) and estrogen receptors (ER-alpha and ER-beta) in marine samples from Singapore's coastal waters. In this study, we examined the ability of C18, hydrophilic and lipophilic balance, and diol cartridges to extract potential EDCs from seawater samples. Extracts from C18 cartridges exhibited the highest sex hormone bioactivities in reporter gene assays based on a human cell line expressing AR, ER-alpha, and ER-beta. Examination of extracts from 20 coastal locations showed high androgenic and estrogenic agonist activities in confined clusters closest to the main island of Singapore. Sex hormone activity declined rapidly in clusters farther from the main coastline and in more open waters. Unexpectedly, surface and mid-depth samples from the confined high-activity clusters, in the presence of hormone, exhibited AR and ER-alpha activities that were 200-900% higher than those observed for the cognate hormone alone. This enhanced sex hormone activity suggests that analyses of complex seawater mixtures may uncover unusual bioactivities that may not be obvious by studying individual compounds. Our data present a "snapshot" of the sex hormone disruptor activity in Singapore's marine environment and indicate that C18 extraction for EDCs used in conjunction with reporter gene bioassays represents a robust and sensitive methodology for measuring summated androgenic and estrogenic activities in seawater. PMID:12948882

Gong, Yinhan; Chin, Hong Soon; Lim, Lis Sa Elissa; Loy, Chong Jin; Obbard, Jeffrey P; Yong, E L

2003-01-01

398

Sexual Identity Trajectories Among Sexual-Minority Youths: Gender Comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation explored gender differences in sexual identity development—first same-sex attractions, self-labeling, same-sex sexual contact, and disclosure—among 164 sexual-minority young adults. Based on interviews, results indicated the value of assessing gender differences in the context, timing, spacing, and sequencing of sexual identity milestones. Adolescent males had an earlier onset of all milestones except disclosure. The context for sexual identity

Ritch C. Savin-Williams; Lisa M. Diamond

2000-01-01

399

Drug-induced sexual dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug-induced sexual dysfunction is a relatively common yet poorly understood clinical problem. The mechanisms whereby various drug classes alter sexual function remain poorly documented. An attempt has been made, based on recent advances in sexual physiology, to clarify drug-induced sexual dysfunction on the basis of possible or probable mechanisms of action. It is hoped that this approach may ultimately allow

Irwin Goldstein; Robert J. Krane

1983-01-01

400

Human Sexuality: Responsible Life Choices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides a complete course in human sexuality. It can also be used to supplement a family living course. Text content provides current information for teaching high school students about sexuality issues. The text offers basic information on growth and development, sexual development, pregnancy, and birth. It explains the sexual decision…

Ryder, Verdene; Smith, Peggy B.

401

Research in Human Sexuality Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Medical students' attitudes towards concepts in sexuality before and after a five-day sexuality course were tested at the University of Miami School of Medicine and evaluated with Osgood's Semantic Differential. Concepts rated were "my sexuality,""masturbation,""homosexuality," and "my role in understanding sexual problems." (LBH)

Carmichael, Joan; And Others

1977-01-01

402

Sexual Assaults CRIME PREVENTION UNIT  

E-print Network

; to include forced sexual intercourse or any other sexual contact that's not wanted. California Law defines as physical force used to cause sexual contact are considered sexual assault money on a date gives you the right to have sex. ·Avoid excessive use of alcohol and drugs

de Lijser, Peter

403

Adolescent Sexuality and Public Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzed data from three national surveys of teenage sexual behavior. Defines sexually active teenager by frequency of sexual intercourse rather than one who has had intercourse. Found adolescents to be substantially less sexually active than has been previously reported. Uses finding to examine various policy decisions in areas of sex education,…

Olsen, Joseph A.; And Others

1991-01-01

404

Gynaecological conditions and sexual dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexuality forms an integral part of life. Consequently, serious change in a person's life influences their sexuality. The inverse is also true: disturbance in a person's sexual life can lead to problems in their daily life. Gynaecological treatment is an example of such a serious change which may affect sexual functioning and general functioning. Although the incidence of gynaecological treatment

W. C. M. Weijmar Schultz; J. Bouma; R. E. Lappöhn

1991-01-01

405

Sexual harassment proclivities in men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three studies were conducted to develop and validate a measure of sexual harassment proclivities in males. Previous studies of sexual harassment were reviewed and a gap in the current knowledge of the psychological characteristics of sexual harassers was revealed. A possible technique for studying sexual harassment proclivities was suggested by recent research on rape proclivities. Two initial studies using this

John B. Pryor

1987-01-01

406

Sexual Harassment Law in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1998 Israeli sexual harassment law prohibits sexual harassment as a discriminatory practice, a restriction of liberty, an offence to human dignity, a violation of every person's right to elementary respect, and an infringement of the right to privacy. Additionally, the law prohibits intimidation or retaliation that accommodates sexual harassment, referred to as ‘prejudicial treatment’.Sexual harassment and prejudicial treatment are

Orit Kamir

2005-01-01

407

Masculinities, Sexualities and Child Sexual Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical evidence shows that child sexual abuse is overwhelmingly a male activity in that the majority of child sex offenders are male irrespective of the sex of the children they abuse. This sex specificity raises both a sex and gender question, as well as the epistemological question of how to characterise the relationship between male offenders and this particular crime.

Annie Cossins

408

HORMONES, BRAIN AND STRESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stress system orchestrates body and brain responses to the environment. This action exerted by the mediators of the stress system has two modes of operation. The immediate response mode driven by corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) organises via CRH-1 receptors the behavioural, sympathetic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) responses to a stressor. In the other - slower - mode, which facilitates behavioural adaptation,

E. RONALD DE KLOET

2003-01-01

409

What is sexual addiction?  

PubMed

Married men labeled as sexual addicts seek help after being discovered to have had broken monogamy rules for sexual behavior through their use of masturbation, pornography, cybersex, commercial sex involvement, paraphilic pursuits, or affairs. This study analyzed the sexual patterns and dynamics of 30 men who presented to 1 clinician between 2005 and 2009. Their important differences were captured by a 6-category spectrum: (a) no sexual excess beyond breaking the spouse's restrictive rules (n = 2), (b) discovery of husband's longstanding sexual secrets (n = 5), (c) new discovery of the joys of commercial sex (n = 4), (d) the bizarre or paraphilic (n = 7), (e) alternate concept of normal masculinity (n = 5), and (f) spiraling psychological deterioration (n = 7). Only the men with a spiraling psychological deterioration-about 25% of the sample with sexual issues-could reasonably be described as having a sexual addiction. This group experienced significant psychological failures before the onset of their deterioration. Another 25% were adequately defined as paraphilic. Half of the sample was not adequately described using addiction, compulsivity, impulsivity, and relationship incapacity models. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for DSM-5 and treatment. PMID:20432125

Levine, Stephen B

2010-01-01

410

Sociosexual attitudes and dyadic sexual desire independently predict women's preferences for male vocal masculinity.  

PubMed

Research suggests that the desire to behave sexually with a partner (dyadic sexual desire) may reflect desire for intimacy whereas solitary sexual desire may reflect pleasure seeking motivations more generally. Because direct reproductive success can only be increased with a sexual partner, we tested whether dyadic sexual desire was a better predictor of women's preferences for lower pitched men's voices (a marker of relatively high reproductive success) than was solitary sexual desire. In Study 1, women (N = 95) with higher dyadic sexual desire scores on the Sexual Desire Inventory-2 preferred masculinized male voices more than did women with lower dyadic sexual desire scores. We did not find a significant relationship between women's vocal masculinity preferences and their solitary sexual desire scores. In Study 2, we tested whether the relationship between voice preferences and dyadic sexual desire scores was related to differences in sociosexual orientation. Women (N = 80) with more positive attitudes towards uncommitted sex had stronger vocal masculinity preferences regardless of whether men's attractiveness was judged for short-term or long-term relationships. Independent of the effect of sociosexual attitudes, dyadic sexual desire positively predicted women's masculinity preferences when assessing men's attractiveness for short-term but not long-term relationships. These effects were independent of women's own relationship status and hormonal contraceptive use. Our results provide further evidence that women's mate preferences may independently reflect individual differences in both sexual desire and openness to short-term relationships, potentially with the ultimate function of maximizing the fitness benefits of women's mate choices. PMID:24830906

O'Connor, Jillian J M; Jones, Benedict C; Fraccaro, Paul J; Tigue, Cara C; Pisanski, Katarzyna; Feinberg, David R

2014-10-01

411

Conservative Christianity, partnership, hormones, and sex in late life.  

PubMed

Using nationally representative data from the 2005-2006 U.S. National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, this study queried relationship, sexual, and sex hormone patterns among married evangelical women and men aged 57-85, relative to those in other religions. Results suggested that despite potentially more unequal gender roles, evangelical older women may have better marital quality, perhaps due to the recent transformation of their male counterparts into authoritative, yet-supportive, "soft patriarchs." Correspondingly, these women, especially those with greater subjective religiosity or more support from a spouse, reported consistently better sexual outcomes than their counterparts in other religions. In addition, they also had lower estradiol, whether due to psychobiological effects of their better relationships or self-selection of those with differential hormone levels into particular partnership patterns. While older men in these communities also experienced more satisfactory marriages, and had lower androgens (testosterone, DHEA), their relational assets were less uniformly matched by better sexual outcomes, perhaps reflecting a gender disparity in the linkage between these factors. PMID:24595917

Das, Aniruddha; Nairn, Stephanie

2014-10-01

412

The Mechanism of Action of Thyroid Hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thyroid hormone is essential for normal development, differentiation, and metabolic balance. Thyroid hormone action is mediated by multiple thyroid hor- mone receptor isoforms derived from two distinct genes. The thyroid hormone recep- tors belong to a nuclear receptor superfamily that also includes receptors for other small lipophilic hormones. Thyroid hormone receptors function by binding to specific thyroid hormone-responsive sequences in

Jinsong Zhang; Mitchell A. Lazar

2000-01-01

413

SEXUAL MISCONDUCT POLICY Case Western Reserve University  

E-print Network

1 SEXUAL MISCONDUCT POLICY Case Western Reserve University Table of Contents Page Introduction 3 Definition and Examples 4 Sexual Harassment 4 Sexual Exploitation 4 Non-Consensual Sexual Contact or Activity 5 Forced Sexual Contact or Activity 5 Non-Consensual Sexual Intercourse 5 Forced Sexual Intercourse

Yang, Sichun

414

Interactions of growth hormone secretagogues and growth hormone-releasing hormone\\/somatostatin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The class of novel synthetic compounds termed growth hormone secretagogues (GHSs) act in the hypothalamus through, as yet,\\u000a unknown pathways. We performed physiologic and histochemical studies to further understand how the GHS system interacts with\\u000a the well-established somatostatin (SRIF)\\/growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) neuroendocrine system for regulating pulsatile\\u000a GH secretion. Comparison of the GH-releasing activities of the hexapeptide growth hormone-releasing peptide-6

Gloria Shaffer Tannenbaum; Cyril Y. Bowers

2001-01-01

415

The pursuit of sexual pleasure  

Microsoft Academic Search

While people engage in sexual activities for a variety of reasons, one primary motivation is pleasure. Rather than disentangle\\u000a the various complications of human sexuality, this paper will focus on sexual pleasure. We begin with definitions of sex and\\u000a sexuality, and a consideration of the nature of sexual pleasure. To this end, we will discuss a wide variety of activities

B. J. Rye; Glenn J. Meaney

2007-01-01

416

Divergence in androgen sensitivity contributes to population differences in sexual dimorphism of electrocommunication behavior  

PubMed Central

Weakly-electric fish (Apteronotidae) produce highly diverse electrocommunication signals. Electric organ discharges (EODs) vary across species, sexes, and in the magnitude and direction of their sexual dimorphism. Gonadal steroid hormones can modulate EODs, and differences in androgen sensitivity are hypothesized to underlie variation in the degree of sexual dimorphism across species. In this study, we asked whether variation in androgen sensitivity explained variation in sexual dimorphism of EODs within species, at the population level. We examined two populations of black ghost knifefish (Apteronotus albifrons), one from the Orinoco and the other from the Amazon river basin. EOD frequency (EODf) and chirp rates were measured to characterize diversity in sexual dimorphism across populations. The magnitude of sexual dimorphism in EODf differed significantly across populations, and was more pronounced in the Orinoco population than in the Amazon population. Chirp rates were sexually monomorphic in both populations. 11-ketotestosterone (11-kT) was administered over a two-week period to assess population differences in sensitivity to androgens. 11-kT masculinized EODf significantly more in the population with the greater degree of sexual dimorphism. 11-kT had no effect on the sexually monomorphic chirping rates. We conclude that population divergence in androgen sensitivity contributes to variation in sexual dimorphism of EODf in A. albifrons. PMID:23142327

Ho, Winnie W.; Rack, Jessie M.; Smith, G. Troy

2013-01-01

417

Divergence in androgen sensitivity contributes to population differences in sexual dimorphism of electrocommunication behavior.  

PubMed

Weakly-electric fish (Apteronotidae) produce highly diverse electrocommunication signals. Electric organ discharges (EODs) vary across species, sexes, and in the magnitude and direction of their sexual dimorphism. Gonadal steroid hormones can modulate EODs, and differences in androgen sensitivity are hypothesized to underlie variation in the degree of sexual dimorphism across species. In this study, we asked whether variation in androgen sensitivity explained variation in sexual dimorphism of EODs within species, at the population level. We examined two populations of black ghost knifefish (Apteronotus albifrons), one from the Orinoco and the other from the Amazon River Basin. EOD frequency (EODf) and chirp rates were measured to characterize diversity in sexual dimorphism across populations. The magnitude of sexual dimorphism in EODf differed significantly across populations, and was more pronounced in the Orinoco population than in the Amazon population. Chirp rates were sexually monomorphic in both populations. 11-Ketotestosterone (11-kT) was administered over a two-week period to assess population differences in sensitivity to androgens. 11-kT masculinized EODf significantly more in the population with the greater degree of sexual dimorphism. 11-kT had no effect on the sexually monomorphic chirping rates. We conclude that population divergence in androgen sensitivity contributes to variation in sexual dimorphism of EODf in A. albifrons. PMID:23142327

Ho, Winnie W; Rack, Jessie M; Smith, G Troy

2013-01-01

418

Off-label use of hormones as an antiaging strategy: a review  

PubMed Central

Given demographic evolution of the population in modern societies, one of the most important health care needs is successful aging with less frailty and dependency. During the last 20 years, a multitude of anti-aging practices have appeared worldwide, aiming at retarding or even stopping and reversing the effects of aging on the human body. One of the cornerstones of anti-aging is hormone replacement. At present, women live one third of their lives in a state of sex-hormone deficiency. Men are also subject to age-related testosterone decline, but andropause remains frequently under-diagnosed and under-treated. Due to the decline of hormone production from gonads in both sexes, the importance of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in steroid hormone production increases with age. However, DHEA levels also decrease with age. Also, growth hormone age-associated decrease may be so important that insulin growth factor-1 levels found in elderly individuals are sometimes as low as those encountered in adult patients with established deficiency. Skin aging as well as decreases in lean body mass, bone mineral density, sexual desire and erectile function, intellectual activity and mood have all been related to this decrease of hormone production with age. Great disparities exist between recommendations from scientific societies and actual use of hormone supplements in aging and elderly patients. In this article, we review actual data on the effects of age related hormone decline on the aging process and age-related diseases such as sarcopenia and falls, osteoporosis, cognitive decline, mood disorders, cardiovascular health and sexual activity. We also provide information on the efficiency and safety of hormone replacement protocols in aging patients. Finally, we argue on future perspectives of such protocols as part of everyday practice. PMID:25092967

Samaras, Nikolaos; Papadopoulou, Maria-Aikaterini; Samaras, Dimitrios; Ongaro, Filippo

2014-01-01

419

Off-label use of hormones as an antiaging strategy: a review.  

PubMed

Given demographic evolution of the population in modern societies, one of the most important health care needs is successful aging with less frailty and dependency. During the last 20 years, a multitude of anti-aging practices have appeared worldwide, aiming at retarding or even stopping and reversing the effects of aging on the human body. One of the cornerstones of anti-aging is hormone replacement. At present, women live one third of their lives in a state of sex-hormone deficiency. Men are also subject to age-related testosterone decline, but andropause remains frequently under-diagnosed and under-treated. Due to the decline of hormone production from gonads in both sexes, the importance of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in steroid hormone production increases with age. However, DHEA levels also decrease with age. Also, growth hormone age-associated decrease may be so important that insulin growth factor-1 levels found in elderly individuals are sometimes as low as those encountered in adult patients with established deficiency. Skin aging as well as decreases in lean body mass, bone mineral density, sexual desire and erectile function, intellectual activity and mood have all been related to this decrease of hormone production with age. Great disparities exist between recommendations from scientific societies and actual use of hormone supplements in aging and elderly patients. In this article, we review actual data on the effects of age related hormone decline on the aging process and age-related diseases such as sarcopenia and falls, osteoporosis, cognitive decline, mood disorders, cardiovascular health and sexual activity. We also provide information on the efficiency and safety of hormone replacement protocols in aging patients. Finally, we argue on future perspectives of such protocols as part of everyday practice. PMID:25092967

Samaras, Nikolaos; Papadopoulou, Maria-Aikaterini; Samaras, Dimitrios; Ongaro, Filippo

2014-01-01

420

Sexual Esteem, Sexual Satisfaction, and Sexual Behavior Among People with Physical Disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the association between the severity and duration of physical disability and sexual esteem, sexual depression, sexual satisfaction, and the frequency of sexual behavior. A total of 1,196 participants completed the study. There were 748 participants (367 males, 381 females) who had a physical disability and 448 participants (171 males, 277 females) who were able-bodied. The age range

Marita P. McCabe; George Taleporos

2003-01-01

421

Sexual scripts and sexual risk behaviors among black heterosexual men: development of the sexual scripts scale.  

PubMed

Sexual scripts are widely shared gender and culture-specific guides for sexual behavior with important implications for HIV prevention. Although several qualitative studies document how sexual scripts may influence sexual risk behaviors, quantitative investigations of sexual scripts in the context of sexual risk are rare. This mixed methods study involved the qualitative development and quantitative testing of the Sexual Scripts Scale (SSS). Study 1 included qualitative semi-structured interviews with 30 Black heterosexual men about sexual experiences with main and casual sex partners to develop the SSS. Study 2 included a quantitative test of the SSS with 526 predominantly low-income Black heterosexual men. A factor analysis of the SSS resulted in a 34-item, seven-factor solution that explained 68 % of the variance. The subscales and coefficient alphas were: Romantic Intimacy Scripts (? = .86), Condom Scripts (? = .82), Alcohol Scripts (? = .83), Sexual Initiation Scripts (? = .79), Media Sexual Socialization Scripts (? = .84), Marijuana Scripts (? = .85), and Sexual Experimentation Scripts (? = .84). Among men who reported a main partner (n = 401), higher Alcohol Scripts, Media Sexual Socialization Scripts, and Marijuana Scripts scores, and lower Condom Scripts scores were related to more sexual risk behavior. Among men who reported at least one casual partner (n = 238), higher Romantic Intimacy Scripts, Sexual Initiation Scripts, and Media Sexual Socialization Scripts, and lower Condom Scripts scores were related to higher sexual risk. The SSS may have considerable utility for future research on Black heterosexual men's HIV risk. PMID:24311105

Bowleg, Lisa; Burkholder, Gary J; Noar, Seth M; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J; Tschann, Jeanne M

2015-04-01

422

Sexual Behavior, Sexual Knowledge, and Sexual Attitudes of Emerging Adult Women: Implications for Working with Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to examine the sexual behavior of emerging adult women in relation to their sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes, and perceptions of their parents' sexual attitudes; and second, to discuss the implications of this research in working with young adult women. Three hundred and sixty-four college-age women…

Byno, Lucy H.; Mullis, Ronald L.; Mullis, Ann K.

2009-01-01

423

Investigation of the mechanism for phthalate-induced toxicity during male sexual differentiation in the rat.  

EPA Science Inventory

Male rats exposed to phthalate esters during sexual differentiation (GDI4-GDI8) display various reproductive developmental abnormalities later in adult life which are associated with declines in fetal testicular testosterone (T) production and insulin-like three hormone (lnsl-3...

424

On the organization of individual differences in sexual behavior. by David Crews  

E-print Network

of individual differences in sociosexual behaviors involves more than just sex steroid hormones. © COPYRIGHT on the sexual differentiation of mating behavior has impeded progress in our understanding of the proximate from genetic contributions. Just as there are two levels of organization of sex, so, too, are there two

Crews, David

425

The Role of Feeding Regimens in Regulating Metabolism of Sexually Mature Broiler Breeders  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A trial was conducted to determine the effects of different rearing feed regimens on plasma hormone and metabolite levels and hepatic lipid metabolism and gene expression on sexually mature broiler breeders. Cobb 500 birds were divided into two groups at 4 weeks of age and fed either everyday (ED) ...

426

The riddle of sex: biological theories of sexual difference in the early twentieth-century.  

PubMed

At the turn of the twentieth century, biologists such as Oscar Riddle, Thomas Hunt Morgan, Frank Lillie, and Richard Goldschmidt all puzzled over the question of sexual difference, the distinction between male and female. They all offered competing explanations for the biological cause of this difference, and engaged in a fierce debate over the primacy of their respective theories. Riddle propounded a metabolic theory of sex dating from the late-nineteenth century suggesting that metabolism lay at the heart of sexual difference. Thomas Hunt Morgan insisted on the priority of chromosomes, Frank Lillie emphasized the importance of hormones, while Richard Goldschmidt supported a mixed model involving both chromosomes and hormones. In this paper, I will illustrate how the older metabolic theory of sex was displaced when those who argued for the relatively newer theories of chromosomes and hormones gradually formed an alliance that accommodated each other and excluded the metabolic theory of sex. By doing so, proponents of chromosomes and hormones established their authority over the question of sexual difference as they laid the foundations for the new disciplines of genetics and endocrinology. Their debate raised urgent questions about what constituted sexual difference, and how scientists envisioned the plasticity and controllability of this difference. These theories also had immediate political and cultural consequences at the turn of the twentieth century, especially for the eugenic and feminist movements, both of which were heavily invested in knowledge of sex and its determination, ascertainment, and command. PMID:21082219

Ha, Nathan Q

2011-01-01

427

HarassmentNO What is Sexual Assault as defined in the UCSC Policy on Sexual Assault?  

E-print Network

HarassmentNO What is Sexual Assault as defined in the UCSC Policy on Sexual Assault? Sexual assault sexual acts, and sexual ba ery. Sexual ba ery is the touching of an in mate part of a man or a women without her/his consent. " " What is Sexual Harassment as defined in the UC Policy on Sexual Harassment

Lee, Herbie

428

MSU Resource Guide on Sexual Assault as a Form of Sexual Harassment  

E-print Network

MSU Resource Guide on Sexual Assault as a Form of Sexual Harassment MSU Statement Regarding Sexual Assault as a form of Sexual Harassment Michigan State University is committed to maintaining. Sexual assault is a form of sexual harassment. The MSU Sexual Harassment Policy (www.inclusion.msu.edu/files/Sexual_Harassment

429

Multidimensional Characterization of Sexual Minority Adolescents’ Sexual Safety Strategies  

PubMed Central

Young adults have high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sexual minority youths’ risk for STIs, including HIV, is as high as or higher than sexual majority peers’. Sexual safety, while often treated as a single behavior such as condom use, can be best conceptualized as the result of multiple factors. We used latent class analysis to identify profiles based on ever-used sexual safety strategies and lifetime number of partners among 425 self-identified LGBTQ youth aged 14-19. Data collection took place anonymously online. We identified four specific subgroup profiles for males and three for females, with each subgroup representing a different level and type of sexual safety. Profiles differed from each other in terms of age and outness for males, and in outness, personal homonegativity, and amount of education received about sexual/romantic relationships for females. Youths’ sexual safety profiles have practice implications for sexuality educators, health care professionals, and parents. PMID:24011111

Masters, N. Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Morrison, Diane M.; Hoppe, Marilyn J.; Wells, Elizabeth A.

2013-01-01

430

Multidimensional characterization of sexual minority adolescents' sexual safety strategies.  

PubMed

Young adults have high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sexual minority youths' risk for STIs, including HIV, is as high as or higher than sexual majority peers'. Sexual safety, while often treated as a single behavior such as condom use, can be best conceptualized as the result of multiple factors. We used latent class analysis to identify profiles based on ever-used sexual safety strategies and lifetime number of partners among 425 self-identified LGBTQ youth aged 14-19. Data collection took place anonymously online. We identified four specific subgroup profiles for males and three for females, with each subgroup representing a different level and type of sexual safety. Profiles differed from each other in terms of age and outness for males, and in outness, personal homonegativity, and amount of education received about sexual/romantic relationships for females. Youths' sexual safety profiles have practice implications for sexuality educators, health care professionals, and parents. PMID:24011111

Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J; Wells, Elizabeth A

2013-10-01

431

Sexual Orientation (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... than those who hadn't. Back Continue How Parents Might Feel Adolescence is a time of transition not just for teens, but for their parents too. Many parents face their adolescent's emerging sexuality ...

432

Sexually Transmitted Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections that you can get from having sex with someone who has the infection. The causes ... is no cure. Sometimes medicines can keep the disease under control. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly ...

433

Men and Sexual Trauma  

MedlinePLUS

... in symptoms of adolescents reporting sexual assault. Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology, 33, 111-117. Etherington, K. (1995). ... Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 323-329. Gordon, M. (1990). Males and ...

434

Prevalence of Sexual Dysfunctions  

PubMed Central

Ten years of research that has provided data regarding the prevalence of sexual dysfunctions is reviewed. A thorough review of the literature identified 52 studies that have been published in the 10 years since an earlier review by Spector and Carey (1990). Community samples indicate a current prevalence of 0 - 3% for male orgasmic disorder, 0 - 5% for erectile disorder, and 0 - 3% for male hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Pooling current and 1-year figures provides community prevalence estimates of 7 - 10% for female orgasmic disorder and 4 - 5% for premature ejaculation. Stable community estimates of the current prevalence for the other sexual dysfunctions remain unavailable. Prevalence estimates obtained from primary care and sexuality clinic samples are characteristically higher. Although a relatively large number of studies have been conducted since Spector and Carey’s (1990) review, the lack of methodological rigor of many studies limits the confidence that can be placed in these findings. PMID:11329727

Simons, Jeffrey; Carey, Michael P.

2008-01-01

435

Child abuse - sexual  

MedlinePLUS

... child sexual abuse occurs, because it is more secret than physical abuse. Children are often scared to ... Prevention involves teaching children never to keep secrets and ... begin this work at home. Most schools now have programs to teach ...

436

Sexual Health and Reproduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity provides questions and Web sites to guide student investigation of birth control methods, fetal development, risks of alcohol and smoking during pregnancy, changes during puberty, and HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases.

Ingrid Waldron

437

Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson describes how meiosis makes sexual reproduction possible. Specifically, meiosis produces haploid cells and allows for genetic variation. Key terms in this lesson are hyperlinked so students can easily find definitions to new words.

2012-06-04

438

Women and sexual problems  

MedlinePLUS

... sex. Illnesses like cancer, bladder or bowel diseases, arthritis, and headaches may cause sexual problems. Some medicines can cause problems with sex. Medicine for blood pressure, depression, and chemotherapy can decrease your sex drive or make it hard to ...

439

Sexual Abuse of Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)

Csapo, Marg

1988-01-01

440

Sexuality and Dementia  

MedlinePLUS

... Awards Program Development PolicyDigest Newsletter Caregiver Connect SF Bay Area Services Family Care Navigator Research Registry Support ... recent conference of the Caregiver Resource Centers of California, the keynote presentation was on sexuality and intimacy. ...

441

The Implications of Sexual Narcissism for Sexual and Marital Satisfaction  

PubMed Central

There is theoretical reason to believe narcissism is associated with a number of sexual behaviors and outcomes that affect both sexual and relationship satisfaction. Nevertheless, research on the association between personality and behavior demonstrates that personality traits, such as narcissism, only predict behavior in domains that activate the components of the personality system. Given that global assessments of narcissism do not capture the extent to which the components of narcissism are activated in the sexual domain, we examined the extent to which the facets of a domain-specific measure of sexual narcissism accounted for the trajectories of own and partner sexual and marital satisfaction over the first five years of 120 new marriages. Three of the four facets of sexual narcissism (sexual exploitation, sexual entitlement, and low sexual empathy) were negatively associated with both trajectories. The fourth facet (sexual skill) was positively associated with both trajectories. Notably, sexual satisfaction mediated the effect of every facet of sexual narcissism on marital satisfaction. A global assessment of narcissism was not associated with either trajectory of satisfaction. These findings highlight (1) the importance of narcissistic tendencies for sexual processes, (2) the benefits of using domain-specific measures of personality in research on sexual behavior, and (3) the importance of examining the implications of the specific facets of personality constructs. PMID:23297145

McNulty, James K.; Widman, Laura

2013-01-01

442

Sexual dysfunctions in depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of sexual dysfunctions in a group of 51 drug-free depressed patients and in age- and sex-matched controls was studied. Three groups of sexual dysfunction were assessed: alterations of libido, genital symptoms, and menstrual irregularities. The Beck Rating Scale for Depression, the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were completed on each participant. Depressed patients obtained

Roy J. Mathew; Maxine L. Weinman

1982-01-01

443

Sexual Dysfunction Following Vulvectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. This is a pilot study to evaluate sexual dysfunction in women after vulvectomy.Methods. An 88-question survey was used to assess body image and the DSM IV criteria for sexual dysfunction on women who had undergone vulvectomy.Results. Forty-seven women agreed to participate in the study and 41 women (87%) returned the survey. There was a significant alteration of body image

Michael S. Green; R. Wendel Naumann; Mollie Elliot; James B. Hall; Robert V. Higgins; Jared H. Grigsby

2000-01-01

444

The Sexual Domain of Identity: Sexual Statuses of Identity in Relation to Psychosocial Sexual Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual identity has been substantially underinvestigated relative to other aspects of identity. The purpose of this study was to document the relationship between sexual psychosocial maturity, positive sexual self-concepts, and effective sexual decision-making\\/coping styles with the identity processes that college students choose to use in defining their sexual self. Participants in the study were 275 undergraduate male and female students

Sally L. Archer; Jeremy A. Grey

2009-01-01

445

Quality of Life and Sexual Health in the Aging of PCa Survivors  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy in elderly men. The progressive ageing of the world male population will further increase the need for tailored assessment and treatment of PCa patients. The determinant role of androgens and sexual hormones for PCa growth and progression has been established. However, several trials on androgens and PCa are recently focused on urinary continence, quality of life, and sexual function, suggesting a new point of view on the whole endocrinological aspect of PCa. During aging, metabolic syndrome, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and central obesity, can be associated with a chronic, low-grade inflammation of the prostate and with changes in the sex steroid pathways. These factors may affect both the carcinogenesis processes and treatment outcomes of PCa. Any treatment for PCa can have a long-lasting negative impact on quality of life and sexual health, which should be assessed by validated self-reported questionnaires. In particular, sexual health, urinary continence, and bowel function can be worsened after prostatectomy, radiotherapy, or hormone treatment, mostly in the elderly population. In the present review we summarized the current knowledge on the role of hormones, metabolic features, and primary treatments for PCa on the quality of life and sexual health of elderly Pca survivors. PMID:24744780

Gacci, Mauro; Tamburrino, Lara; Detti, Beatrice; Livi, Lorenzo; De Nunzio, Cosimo; Tubaro, Andrea; Gravas, Stavros; Carini, Marco; Serni, Sergio

2014-01-01

446

UCSC Policy on Sexual Assault University of California Policy on Sexual Harassment  

E-print Network

UCSC Policy on Sexual Assault University of California Policy on Sexual Harassment and Procedures for Reporting Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault December 1994 · Amended January 2005 · Amended August 2011 ...............................................................1 I. UCSC Policy on Sexual Assault

Lee, Herbie

447

Pain and thyroid hormones.  

PubMed

The role of endocrine systems in chronic pain mechanisms is slowly getting increasing experimental and clinical consideration. Many painful conditions appear to be directly and/or indirectly induced, reduced or, in some cases, modulated by hormones. We have done much work in trying to understand the relationship between hormones and pain, with particular attention to the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. To expand our knowledge of this field, we have directed our attention to another axis, the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT). The literature on thyroid functions is vast but very few studies have focused on the HPT axis and pain. The few available data are considered in the present review to stimulate interest in the possible interactions between the HPT axis and pain. PMID:23609461

Aloisi, Anna Maria; Vodo, Stella; Buonocore, Michelangelo

2013-09-01

448

The role of salivary cortisol and DHEA-S in response to sexual, humorous, and anxiety-inducing stimuli  

PubMed Central

Stress and anxiety are commonly thought to be detrimental to sexual function. Several studies in both the human and animal literature, however, have found that inducing anxiety can enhance sexual function in women. The mechanisms that explain a negative relationship between physical and psychological stress and sexual functioning are well documented, but little is known about how stress or anxiety might have a facilitatory effect on sexual arousal. As an initial step in exploring the relationship between anxiety and sexual arousal, the present study examined the role of the autonomic nervous system, and the adrenal hormones cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) in response to a sexual film, an anxiety-inducing film, and a humorous film. Nineteen premenopausal women (mean age 24.4 years) who were free from sexual difficulties came into the lab on three separate days. At each session they were shown an anxiety-inducing, sexually arousing, or humorous (control) film while their physiological arousal was measured. They also provided saliva samples before and after each film. Cortisol significantly decreased, while DHEA-S increased in the sexual and humorous conditions. Neither hormone changed significantly in the anxiety-inducing condition. Autonomic nervous system activity measured by heart rate and heart rate variability did not change in response to the sexual or anxiety-inducing films, but heart rate variability increased significantly in response to the humorous film. The cortisol/DHEA-S ratio at the post-sexual film time point was significantly negatively correlated with genital arousal (measured by vaginal pulse amplitude). Anxiety-inducing films did not result in a physiological stress response, which can explain why they do not impair sexual function. PMID:21195074

Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Meston, Cindy M.

2011-01-01

449

Growth hormone receptor modulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth hormone (GH) regulates somatic growth, substrate metabolism and body composition. Its actions are elaborated through\\u000a the GH receptor (GHR). GHR signalling involves the role of at least three major pathways, STATs, MAPK, and PI3-kinase\\/Akt.\\u000a GH receptor function can be modulated by changes to the ligand, to the receptor or by factors regulating signal transduction.\\u000a Insights on the physico-chemical basis

Vita Birzniece; Akira Sata; Ken KY Ho

2009-01-01

450

Growth hormone: Historical notes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief review of important contributions to our present knowledge of growth hormone is given. In 1887 it had been noted that\\u000a a pituitary tumor was present in most patients with acromegaly. Even at the beginning of the 20. Century relationship between\\u000a growth disorders and the pituitary was contested. From 1908 pituitary surgery became established treatment in GH hypersecretion.\\u000a In

J. Lindholm

2006-01-01

451

Growth hormone and surgery.  

PubMed

Growth hormone (GH) is a very potent anabolic agent released in the physiological situation in a pulsative manner from the pituitary gland. GH stimulates the protein synthesis and increases the intracellular transport of amino acids. When GH is administered to surgical patients, nitrogen retention is regularly seen, and in most situations fast mobilization takes place. The present data indicate that GH has a beneficial effect on the healing processes after surgery and trauma. PMID:8300057

Revhaug, A; Mjaaland, M

1993-01-01

452

Sexual dimorphism in immunity: improving our understanding of vaccine immune responses in men.  

PubMed

Weaker immune responses are often observed in males compared to females. Since female hormones have proinflammatory properties and androgens have potent immunomodulatory effects, this sexual dimorphism in the immune response seems to be hormone dependent. Despite our current knowledge about the effect of sex hormones on immune cells, definition of the factors driving the sex differences in immunoclinical outcomes, such as the diminished response to infection and vaccination observed in men or the higher rates of autoimmunity observed in females, remains elusive. Recently, systems approaches to immune function have started to suggest a way toward establishing this connection. Such studies promise to improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the sexual dimorphism observed in the human immune system. PMID:25278153

Furman, David

2015-03-01

453

Sexual coercion and the misperception of sexual intent?  

PubMed Central

Misperceiving a woman’s platonic interest as sexual interest has been implicated in a sexual bargaining process that leads to sexual coercion. This paper provides a comprehensive review of sexual misperception, including gender differences in perception of women’s sexual intent, the relationship between sexual coercion and misperception, and situational factors that increase the risk that sexual misperception will occur. Compared to women, men consistently perceive a greater degree of sexual intent in women’s behavior. However, there is evidence to suggest that this gender effect may be driven largely by a sub-group of men who are particularly prone to perceive sexual intent in women’s behavior, such as sexually coercive men and men who endorse sex-role stereotypes. Situational factors, such as alcohol use by the man or woman, provocative clothing, and dating behaviors (e.g., initiating the date or making eye contact), are all associated with increased estimates of women’s sexual interest. We also critique the current measurement strategies and introduce a model of perception that more closely maps on to important theoretical questions in this area. A clearer understanding of sexual perception errors and the etiology of these errors may serve to guide sexual-assault prevention programs toward more effective strategies. PMID:17462798

Farris, Coreen; Treat, Teresa A.; Viken, Richard J.; McFall, Richard M.

2010-01-01

454

Sex hormone replacement in disorders of sex development.  

PubMed

People with disorders of sex development (DSD) may have impaired sex steroid production or their gonads removed before, during or after adolescence, thus requiring hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to induce puberty and/or maintain secondary sexual characteristics, to optimize bone health, and to promote physical and social well-being. Oestrogens are usually used for this purpose in persons reared as females (eventually combined with progestins if a uterus is present) and androgens in those reared as males. An alternative therapy for women with ascertained complete androgen insensitivity syndrome could be testosterone, because this is the main sex steroid hormone secreted by their gonads, but this approach remains to be better explored. Few sound evidence-based data are available to guide HRT administration at puberty and in adulthood in individuals with DSD, but recent data and new formulations may give better perspectives for the future. PMID:25247652

Birnbaum, Wiebke; Bertelloni, Silvano

2014-01-01

455

Conservation of progesterone hormone function in invertebrate reproduction  

PubMed Central

Steroids play fundamental roles regulating mammalian reproduction and development. Although sex steroids and their receptors are well characterized in vertebrates and several arthropod invertebrates, little is known about the hormones and receptors regulating reproduction in other invertebrate species. Evolutionary insights into ancient endocrine pathways can be gained by elucidating the hormones and receptors functioning in invertebrate reproduction. Using a combination of genomic analyses, receptor imaging, ligand identification, target elucidation, and exploration of function through receptor knockdown, we now show that comparable progesterone chemoreception exists in the invertebrate monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas, suggesting an ancient origin of the signal transduction systems commonly associated with the development and integration of sexual behavior in mammals. PMID:20547846

Stout, E. Paige; La Clair, James J.; Snell, Terry W.; Shearer, Tonya L.; Kubanek, Julia

2010-01-01

456

Body Image, Relationships and Sexuality After Amputation  

MedlinePLUS

... honest conversations like these. Sexuality We are all sexual beings. This term refers to all the ways ... feelings and emotions. Our whole body responds to sexual attraction. Sexuality includes feelings of arousal (expressed by ...

457

SEXUAL HARASSMENT POLICY Office of Equal Opportunity  

E-print Network

SEXUAL HARASSMENT POLICY Office of Equal Opportunity Purpose: To establish uniform guidelines pertaining to sexual harassment. Revised: April 2014 Applicability: Sexual Harassment is a form and community members). This policy is summarized in the University's Sexual Misconduct/Assault Policy

Dennett, Daniel

458

Sexual Assault Prevention Workshop Final Report  

E-print Network

WGS 296A Sexual Assault Prevention Workshop Final Report Recommendations for Improving Sexual 14, 2009 #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS PART ONE: SEXUAL ASSAULT AT WASHINGTON AND LEE UNIVERSITY (W&L) ..............................1 CONTRIBUTING FACTORS FOR COLLEGE SEXUAL ASSAULT

Marsh, David

459

Sexual abuse in children - what to know  

MedlinePLUS

Sexual abuse - children ... boys are sexually abused before they turn 18. Sexual abuse of children is any activity that the ... anus or vagina Tongue kissing Oral sex Intercourse Sexual abuse can also happen without physical contact, such ...

460

Role of the Vomeronasal Organ in the Male-Induced Enhancement of Sexual Receptivity in Female Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the vomeronasal organ (VNO) in the male-induced enhancement of sexual receptivity in ovariectomized estrogen-primed rats was investigated. Removal of the VNO significantly reduced the enhancement of sexual receptivity following mating, as compared with the sham-operated controls. The sham-operated females exhibited a surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) following mating; however, LH release induced by pairing with males was

Gopalan Rajendren; Carol A. Dudley; Robert L. Moss

1990-01-01

461

Amelioration of sexual fantasies to sexual abuse cues in an adult survivor of childhood sexual abuse: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although sexual dysfunction of childhood sexual abuse survivors has received considerable attention, other sexual difficulties experienced by survivors of CSA, such as sexual fantasies to cues of sexual abuse, have received less attention. In this A–B design case study, a young adult female survivor of childhood sexual abuse presented for treatment at a Midwest rape crisis center. After successful treatment

Jane E. Wilson; Keith M. Wilson

2008-01-01

462

Perceptions of Sexuality as Related to Sexual Functioning and Sexual Risk in Women with Different Types of Childhood Abuse Histories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perceptions of one's sexuality, self-reported sexual functioning, and sexual risk were examined in a community sample of 148 women with histories of either childhood sexual abuse (n = 26), both childhood sexual and physical abuse (n = 44), and neither form of abuse (n = 78). Controlling for depression and anxiety, the groups did not differ on sexual desire, arousal\\/orgasm,

Kelly A. Schloredt; Julia R. Heiman

2003-01-01

463

The impact of sexual trauma on sexual desire and function.  

PubMed

The field of sexual trauma is one of the most controversial and value-laden in mental health. The three factors which most affect adult sexual desire and function are the type of sexual trauma, how the sexual incidents were dealt with at the time and, most important, whether the person views her/himself as a survivor or victim. The assessment and treatment program described focuses on couple sex therapy with a special focus on processing the sexual trauma, honoring the person's veto and being 'partners in healing'. The core therapeutic theme is valuing intimate, erotic sexuality, which reinforces being a proud survivor rather than a shameful, anxious or angry victim. It is crucial to create a relapse prevention program to ensure that the person with the sexual trauma history continues to experience the positive roles of adult couple sexuality. PMID:22005207

McCarthy, Barry; Farr, Emily

2011-01-01

464

Bushbaby Growth Hormone Is Much More Similar to Nonprimate Growth Hormones than to Rhesus Monkey and Human Growth Hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike other mammals, Old World primates have five growth hormone-like genes that are highly divergent at the amino acid level from the single growth hormone genes found in nonprimates. Additionally, there is a change in the interaction of growth hormone with its receptor in humans such that human growth hormone functions in nonprimates, whereas nonprimate growth hormone is ineffective in

Ronald M. Adkins; Anton Nekrutenko; Wen-Hsiung Li

465

The Impact of Sexual Orientation on Sexuality and Sexual Practices in North American Medical Students  

PubMed Central

Introduction There has been limited investigation of the sexuality and sexual dysfunction in non-heterosexual subjects by the sexual medicine community. Additional research in these populations is needed. Aims To investigate and compare sexuality and sexual function in students of varying sexual orientations. Methods An internet-based survey on sexuality was administered to medical students in North American between the months of February and July of 2008. Main Outcome Measures All subjects provided information on their ethnodemographic characteristics, sexual orientation, and sexual history. Subjects also completed a series of widely-utilized instruments for the assessment of human sexuality (International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF], Female Sexual Function Index [FSFI], Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool [PEDT], Index of Sex Life [ISL]). Results There were 2,276 completed responses to the question on sexual orientation. 13.2% of male respondents and 4.7% of female respondents reported a homosexual orientation; 2.5% of male and 5.7% of female respondents reported a bisexual orientation. Many heterosexual males and females reported same-sex sexual experiences (4% and 10%, respectively). Opposite-sex experiences were very common in the male and female homosexual population (37% and 44%, respectively). The prevalence of premature ejaculation (PEDT > 8) was similar among heterosexual and homosexual men (16% and 17%, P = 0.7, respectively). Erectile dysfunction (IIEF-EF < 26) was more common in homosexual men relative to heterosexual men (24% vs. 12%, P = 0.02). High risk for female sexual dysfunction (FSFI < 26.55) was more common in heterosexual and bisexual women compared with lesbians (51%, 45%, and 29%, respectively, P = 0.005). Conclusion In this survey of highly educated young professionals, numerous similarities and some important differences in sexuality and sexual function were noted based on sexual orientation. It is unclear whether the dissimilarities represent differing relative prevalence of sexual problems or discrepancies in patterns of sex behavior and interpretation of the survey questions. PMID:20384941

Breyer, Benjamin N.; Smith, James F.; Eisenberg, Michael L.; Ando, Kathryn A.; Rowen, Tami S.; Shindel, Alan W.

2013-01-01

466

Rooster feathering, androgenic alopecia, and hormone dependent tumor growth: What is in common?  

PubMed Central

Different epithelial organs form as a result of epithelial - mesenchymal interactions and share a common theme modulated by variations (Chuong edit. In Molecular Basis of Epithelial Appendage Morphogenesis, 1998). One of the major modulators is the sex hormone pathway that acts on the prototype signaling pathway to alter organ phenotypes. Here we focus on how the sex hormone pathway interfaces with epithelia morphogenesis related signaling pathways. We first survey these sex hormone regulated morphogenetic processes in various epithelial organs. Sexual dimorphism of hairs and feathers has implications in sexual selection. Diseases of these pathways result in androgenic alopecia, hirsutism, henny feathering, etc. The growth and development of mammary glands, prostate glands and external genitalia essential for reproductive function are also dependent on sex hormones. Diseases affecting these organs include congenital anomalies and hormone dependent type of breast and prostate cancers. To study the role of sex hormones in new growth in the context of system biology / pathology, an in vivo model in which organ formation starts from stem cells is essential. With recent developments (Yu et al., The morphogenesis of feathers. Nature 420:308–312, 2002), the growth of tail feathers in roosters and hens has become a testable model in which experimental manipulations are possible. We show exemplary data of differences in their growth rate, proliferative cell population and signaling molecule expression. Working hypotheses are proposed on how the sex hormone pathways may interact with growth pathways. It is now possible to test these hypotheses using the chicken model to learn fundamental mechanisms on how sex hormones affect organogenesis, epithelial organ cycling, and growth related tumorigenesis. PMID:15617560

Mayer, Julie Ann; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Widelitz, Randall

2015-01-01

467

Thyroid Hormone Upregulates Hypothalamic kiss2 Gene in the Male Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus  

PubMed Central

Kisspeptin has recently been recognized as a critical regulator of reproductive function in vertebrates. During the sexual development, kisspeptin neurons receive sex steroids feedback to trigger gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. In teleosts, a positive correlation has been found between the thyroid status and the reproductive status. However, the role of thyroid hormone in the regulation of kisspeptin system remains unknown. We cloned and characterized a gene encoding kisspeptin (kiss2) in a cichlid fish, the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Expression of kiss2 mRNA in the brain was analyzed by in situ hybridization. The effect of thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine, T3) and hypothyroidism with methimazole (MMI) on kiss2 and the three GnRH types (gnrh1, gnrh2, and gnrh3) mRNA expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. Expression of thyroid hormone receptor mRNAs were analyzed in laser-captured kisspeptin and GnRH neurons by RT-PCR. The kiss2 mRNA expressing cells were seen in the nucleus of the lateral recess in the hypothalamus. Intraperitoneal administration of T3 (5??g/g body weight) to sexually mature male tilapia significantly increased kiss2 and gnrh1 mRNA levels at 24?h post injection (P?hormone mRNA levels were insensitive to the thyroid hormone manipulations. Furthermore, RT-PCR showed expression of thyroid hormone receptor mRNAs in laser-captured GnRH neurons but not in kiss2 neurons. This study shows that GnRH1 may be directly regulated through thyroid hormone, while the regulation of Kiss2 by T3 is more likely to be indirect. PMID:24324459

Ogawa, Satoshi; Ng, Kai We; Xue, Xiaoyu; Ramadasan, Priveena Nair; Sivalingam, Mageswary; Li, Shuisheng; Levavi-Sivan, Berta; Lin, Haoran; Liu, Xiaochun; Parhar, Ishwar S.

2013-01-01

468

Adolescent sexuality and disability.  

PubMed

Regardless of what our beliefs about sex and disability may be, as health care providers we can promote the health and well being of our patients with disabilities in several ways. First and perhaps foremost, physical and programmatic barriers to accessing general health care including routine gynecologic care must be dramatically reduced. The promise of Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act must be aggressively extended to our health care system to ensure equal access to routine health care for all. Second, knowledge of community resources that can support the healthy development and exercise of responsible and satisfying sexuality is critical. For example, health care providers should know about adaptive and assistive technologies as well as the use of personal care assistants to support the healthy although sometimes nontypical expression of one's sexuality. Centers for Independent Living are community resources that are often underutilized by the medical profession. These centers--run by and for people with disabilities--are likely resources and allies for providing education, role models, and peer mentoring around relationships, intimacy, sexuality, sexual expression, and parenting with a disability. Finally, sex education is a must and should include the following: Basic facts of life, reproduction, and sexual intercourse; Human growth and development Human reproduction and anatomy Self-pleasuring/masturbation and the use of sexual aids Intimacy and privacy Pregnancy and child birth Contraception and abortion Family life and parenthood Sexual response and consensual sex Sexual orientation Sexual abuse HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. The question should not be whether sex education is provided to persons with disabilities, but rather how it is most effectively provided. Health sex education must include the development of effective communication skills, decision-making skills, assertiveness, and the ability to say "no." It must also include ways to create satisfying relationships. For more information about sex education as it relates to people with disabilities, the following abbreviated resource list may be helpful: http://www.sexualhealth.com http://www.lookingglass.com Ludwig S, Hingsburger, D. Being sexual: an illustrated series on sexuality and relationships. SIECCAN, 850 Coxwell, Aven., East York, Ontario, M4C 5R1 Tel: 416-466-5304; Fax: 416-778-0785. Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States (SIECUS), 130 West 42nd Street, Suite 350, New York, NY 10036. Tel: 212-819-9770. National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities (NICHCY), P.O. Box 1492, Washington, DC 20013; Tel/TTY: 800-695-0285; Fax: 202-884-8641; Internet: www.nichcy.org Non-Latex Supplies (Ask your pharmacist if not available) Trojan-Supra: http://www.trojancondoms.com Durex-Avanti: http://www.durex.com Female Health Company-FC Female Condom http://www.femalehealth.com Pasante--EzOn http://www.postalcondoms.co.uk (available in Canada and U.K.). PMID:12465564

Neufeld, Jacob A; Klingbeil, Fred; Bryen, Diane Nelson; Silverman, Brett; Thomas, Anila

2002-11-01

469

Gender, Religiosity, Sexual Activity, Sexual Knowledge, and Attitudes Toward Controversial Aspects of Sexuality.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to examine the role of gender, religiosity, sexual activity, and sexual knowledge in predicting attitudes toward controversial aspects of sexuality among Turkish university students. Participants were 162 female and 135 male undergraduate students who were recruited on a volunteer basis from an urban state university in Turkey. The SKAT-A Attitude Scale along with background information form, sexual activities inventory, and sexual knowledge scale were administered to the participants. Simultaneous multiple regression analyses revealed that religiosity, particularly attendance to religious services was the most significant predictor in explaining university students' attitudes toward masturbation, abortion, homosexuality, pornography, and sexual coercion. PMID:24510128

Sümer, Zeynep Hatipo?lu

2014-02-01

470

Body Composition Characteristics Predict Sexual Functioning in Obese Women With or Without PCOS.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome is frequently related to obesity and hyperandrogenism that potentially may impair sexual function. This case-control study aimed to determine the effect of the polycystic ovary syndrome on the sexual functioning of obese women and to determine which body measures can predict sexual functioning among 87 sexually active women obese women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome, 18-40 years old, divided in two groups; obese women (n = 44) or obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (n = 43). The groups were compared using the Sexual Quotient-Female version and Hospital Anxiety and Depression scales, and by serum tests. No significant difference between groups was observed in weight, waist-hip ratio, body mass index, serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, total testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, total Sexual Quotient-Female version score, and the total score of ? 60 for subjects (risk for sexual dysfunction) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression. Significant difference was observed in age, parity, and Free Androgen Index. Each unit increase in waist-hip ratio conferred a greater chance of score of ? 60. A height of less than 161 cm and the presence of depression were found to be risk factors with a score of ? 60. Women with a score of ? 60 had significantly smaller hip measurements and waist-hip ratio. The presence of polycystic ovary syndrome was not a risk factor for decreased sexual functioning. PMID:24274091

Zueff, Lucimara Nobre; Lara, Lúcia Alves da Silva; Vieira, Carolina Sales; Martins, Wellington de Paula; Ferriani, Rui Alberto

2015-01-01

471

The role of adrenoceptors in the central nervous system in male and female rat sexual behavior.  

PubMed

Three different phases can be distinguished in rats' sexual cycle, the introductory (precopulatory), the copulatory and the executive (ejaculatory) phases. In this review, a new analysis of existing pharmacological data is made, both in male and female rats, in which the different aspects of sexual behavior are taken into account. An effort is made to distinguish pharmacological effects on sexual behavior from a possible physiological role of noradrenaline. In addition, new data on the role of ?2-adrenoceptors on female sexual behavior is presented. The new analysis suggests that noradrenaline has a stimulatory role on the executive phase of male sexual behavior, while the introductory and copulatory phases remain unaffected. Adrenoceptors play a role in the regulation of sexual behavior in the medial preoptic area and the lateral septum. In female rats, noradrenaline also does not play a vital role in the introductory phase. Only the lordosis behavior of the copulatory phase is sometimes affected by adrenergic agents, but only under a certain hormonal condition. The medial preoptic area, the ventromedial nucleus, the arcuate ventromedial nucleus and median eminence are involved in the regulation of female sexual behavior. The new data suggest that ?2-adrenoceptors play no major role on any indices of female sexual behavior. PMID:25218984

Snoeren, Eelke M S

2015-04-15

472

Hormonal Interactions and Stomatal Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both environmental and hormonal factors and their interactions affect stomatal behavior. Methodologies for identifying hormonal\\u000a interactions affecting stomatal function are reviewed. Although there is abundant evidence that abscisic acid (ABA) closes\\u000a stomata, evidence that the other classical plant hormones (auxins, cytokinins, ethylene, gibberellins) in isolation alter\\u000a stomatal response often comes from exogenous applications to detached epidermes and leaves, rather than

Ian C. Dodd

2003-01-01

473

Developmental expression and hormonal regulation of glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors during  

E-print Network

Developmental expression and hormonal regulation of glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors to potentiate the actions of thyroid hormone in amphibian metamorphosis. Environmental modulation, and thus control the timing of metamorphosis. Thyroid hormone and corticosteroids act through struc

Denver, Robert J.

474

Anodyspareunia: a novel sexual dysfunction? An exploration into anal sexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mounting evidence suggests anal intercourse amongst both heterosexual and homosexual persons is an increasingly prevalent form of sexual expression, yet associated problems presenting to psychosexual services are a relative rarity. What constitutes ‘normal’ sexual satiety within the realms of anal sexuality remains an enigma to many, both therapists and clients alike. The term anodyspareunia has been proposed to denote a

Karl Hollows

2007-01-01

475

Sexual compulsion – Relationship with sex, attachment and sexual orientation  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Sexual addiction, also known as hypersexual disorder, is associated with serious psychosocial problems for many people. Methods This study used questionnaires to investigate the effects of gender, sexual orientation and attachment (avoidance and anxiety) on sexual compulsion among 100 heterosexual and homosexual men and women. Results A positive correlation was found between anxious attachment and sexual compulsivity (r = 0.46; p < 0.01) and a positive correlation between avoidant attachment and sexual compulsivity (r = 0.39; p ? 0.01) in all participants. Secondly, an analysis of covariance showed a gender by sexual orientation interaction effect [F(1, 103) = 6.39, p < 0.01] but no attachment effect on sexual compulsivity. A follow-up comparison showed that lesbian women had higher rates of sexual compulsivity than heterosexual women [t (2, 50) = 5.08, p < 0.001] whereas there was non-significant difference in sexual compulsivity between homosexual and heterosexual men [t (2, 50) = 1.30, p = N.S.]. Discussion The results provide preliminary evidence for an association between attachment and sexual compulsivity and the effects of gender and sexual orientation on sexual compulsivity. PMID:25786496

KATZ, LICHEN; EBERHARDT, HILA; COHEN, KOBY; LEJOYEUX, MICHEL

2015-01-01

476

ORIGINAL PAPER Sexual Victimization, Alcohol Intoxication, Sexual-Emotional  

E-print Network

in the past year, completed childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent/adult sexual assault(ASA) measures indicating that, compared to non- victimized counterparts, sexually victimized women respond differently, Gender, and Reproduction, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA J. Norris Alcohol and Drug Abuse

477

Cortisol, Sexual Arousal, and Affect in Response to Sexual Stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Theoretically, the physiological response to stress should inhibit the sexual response. This has been demonstrated experimentally in animal models, and correlationally in studies of human reproduction. It is reasonable to expect, then, that the stress response would be blunted during sexual arousal, and several researchers have found a pattern of decreasing cortisol during sexual arousal. Aim. In the present

Lisa Dawn Hamilton; Alessandra H. Rellini; Cindy M. Meston

2008-01-01

478

Sexual Abuse, Incest, and Sexual Exploitation: Mental Health Practitioners' Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a 33-item questionnaire based on Alexander G. Zaphiris's conceptualization of the terminology of sexual mistreatment. Results indicate that mental health counselors (N=300) who encountered sexual abuse, incest, and sexual exploitation agreed with Zaphiris's conceptualization but did not use this system of classification in actual…

Freet, Mary A.; Scalise, Joseph J.; Ginter, Earl J.

1996-01-01

479

Sexual victimization in the history of sexual abusers: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper reviews the empirical literature on the proportion of child sexual abusers who were themselves sexually victimized as children. While findings in individual studies ranged between 0% and 67%, on average about 28% of the offenders reported being sexually victimized as children. This rate is higher than the base rate for community samples of non-offending males (about 10%),

R. K. Hanson; S. Slater

1988-01-01

480

Sexual Coercion Content in 21 Sexuality Education Curricula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined adolescent sexuality-education curricula for information on coercion (date rape, stranger rape, pressure, incest, sexual harassment, unwanted/inappropriate touch, and exploitation/victimization). Exploitation/victimization and pressure received the greatest attention. Sexual harassment was not covered in any of the curricula. Results…

Beyer, Christine E.; Ogletree, Roberta J.

1998-01-01

481

Estimating sexual behavior parameters from routine sexual behavior data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mathematical models for predicting the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), the rate of acquisition of new sex partners and concurrency, the number of simultaneous sexual partnerships, are important parameters. Yet, information on these parameters is rarely obtained in routine sexual behavior surveys; instead, questions about the total number of sex partners during specific periods are often asked. We

Carina Van Vliet; Catharina P. B. Van der Ploeg; Nancy Kidula; Isaac M. Malonza; Mark Tyndall; Nico J. D. Nagelkerke

1998-01-01

482

Association of Sexual Revictimization with Sexuality and Psychological Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the associations of sexual revictimization (experiencing sexual abuse in childhood and adulthood) in a sample of 230 African American women who are low-income. Data indicate that women who experience sexual revictimization are more at risk for emotional stress and psychological pathology than women with no history of abuse. In…

Miner, Michael H.; Flitter, Jill M. Klotz; Robinson, Beatrice E.

2006-01-01

483

Mammalian sex hormones in plants.  

PubMed

The occurrence of mammalian sex hormones and their physiological role in plants is reviewed. These hormones, such as 17beta-estradiol, androsterone, testosterone or progesterone, were present in 60-80% of the plant species investigated. Enzymes responsible for their biosynthesis and conversion were also found in plants. Treatment of the plants with sex hormones or their precursors influenced plant development: cell divisions, root and shoot growth, embryo growth, flowering, pollen tube growth and callus proliferation. The regulatory abilities of mammalian sex hormones in plants makes possible their use in practice, especially in plant in vitro culture. PMID:16044944

Janeczko, Anna; Skoczowski, Andrzej

2005-01-01

484

Sexual functioning following renal transplantation.  

PubMed

This study describes the prevalence of and investigates variables associated with problems in sexual functioning for a sample of 347 individuals following renal transplantation. Sexual problem was conceptualized through three continuous variables: lack of interest in sex; lack of enjoyment of sex; and difficulty becoming sexually aroused. Between 50 percent and 55 percent of respondents reported no sexual difficulties. The remaining respondents indicated from mild to severe problems. Multiple regression was used to examine predictors of problems with sexual functioning. Variables in the final model associated with sexual problems were older age and lower patient perceptions of physical and mental well-being. Assessment of and education regarding sexual functioning must be a routine component of psychosocial intervention. Future research warrants investigation of the meaning of sexual function for this population. PMID:14679705

Raiz, Lisa; Davies, Elizabeth A; Ferguson, Ronald M

2003-11-01

485

Sexual Selection III: Intersexual Competition  

E-print Network

Promiscuity or Polygyny Intense Sexual Selection Mostly Intrasexual Monogamy Weak Sexual Selection Mostly Elephant Seal 100 8 Red Deer 24 14 Humans 888 69 Black-legged Kittiwake 26 28 Kittiwake is monogamous