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The data about chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger) reproduction are limited and in some cases discordant. The aim of this study was to monitor the sexualhormone fluctuation by fecal progesterone level and colpocytology analysis by vaginal smears in order to evaluate the different phases of the oestrus cycle. Twenty-four non pregnant chinchillas aged from 1 to 4 years old and subdivided in three groups were monitored. In contrast with findings reported in other study, the high values of progesterone recorded in autumn suggested the presence of a ciclicity also in this period. The data indicate that chinchilla presents a continuous cycle. PMID:23347544
Many people believe that sexual orientation (homosexuality vs. heterosexuality) is determined by education and social constraints. There are, however, a large number of studies indicating that prenatal factors have an important influence on this critical feature of human sexuality. Sexual orientation is a sexually differentiated trait (over 90% of men are attracted to women and vice versa). In animals and men, many sexually differentiated characteristics are organized during early life by sex steroids, and one can wonder whether the same mechanism also affects human sexual orientation. Two types of evidence support this notion. First, multiple sexually differentiated behavioral, physiological, or even morphological traits are significantly different in homosexual and heterosexual populations. Because some of these traits are known to be organized by prenatal steroids, including testosterone, these differences suggest that homosexual subjects were, on average, exposed to atypical endocrine conditions during development. Second, clinical conditions associated with significant endocrine changes during embryonic life often result in an increased incidence of homosexuality. It seems therefore that the prenatal endocrine environment has a significant influence on human sexual orientation but a large fraction of the variance in this behavioral characteristic remains unexplained to date. Genetic differences affecting behavior either in a direct manner or by changing embryonic hormone secretion or action may also be involved. How these biological prenatal factors interact with postnatal social factors to determine life-long sexual orientation remains to be determined.
The causes and consequences of sexual dimorphism are major themes in biology. Here we explore the endocrine regulation of sexual dimorphism in horned beetles. Specifically, we explore the role of juvenile hormone (JH) in regulating horn expression in females of two species with regular sexual dimorphism for pronotal horns (females have much shorter horns than males) and a third species
J. Andrew Shelby; Richard Madewell; Armin P. Moczek
Domestic rams display a naturally occurring variation in sexual partner preference, such that 6–10% of range-bred populations prefer male sexual partners (male-oriented) in contrast to the majority of rams that prefer female sexual partners (female-oriented). Male-oriented rams exhibit hormone profiles and stress responses distinctly different from their heterosexual counterparts. These differences include reduced circulating levels of testosterone that arise after
The inhibitory and facilitatory effect of serotonergic (5-HT) receptor agonists and antagonists on the female rat lordosis reflex is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the role of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptors. The effect of estrogen and progesterone on the lordosis response to 5-HT receptor-selective compounds is reviewed and potential mechanisms for hormonal modulation of the 5-HT system are suggested. Evidence
Purpose To study the gender assignment and hormonal treatment advocated for disorders of sexual differentiation (DSD).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods A study was done on patients who were reviewed in the Pediatric Intersex Clinic to evaluate the pattern of gender assignment\\u000a and hormonal treatment advocated.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results and conclusion The patients included male pseudohermaphrodite (MPH) 169; congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) 91; mixed gonadal dysgenesis\\u000a (MGD) 29; true
Testosterone is well known to regulate sexual behavior in males, but this is dependent upon prior sexual experience. Aging is associated with decreased libido and changes in testosterone, but the role of experience in these age-related processes has not been systematically studied. We examined effects of age and sexual experience on serum hormones (total testosterone, free testosterone, estradiol, LH) and
Abstract Objective To explore physicians’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to sexual and mood side effects of hormonal contraceptives, and to compare residents with practising doctors. Design A mixed-method study with faxed or e-mailed surveys and semistructured telephone interviews. Setting British Columbia. Participants A random sample of family doctors, all gynecologists, and all residents in family medicine and gynecology in the College of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia registry. A subsample was interviewed. Main outcome measures Estimates of rates of mood and sexual side effects of contraceptives in the practice population and how the physicians informed and advised patients about these side effects. Results There were 79 residents and 76 practising doctors who completed the questionnaires (response rates of 42.0% and 54.7% of eligible residents and physicians, respectively). The reference sources most physicians reported using gave the rates of sexual and mood side effects of hormonal contraceptives as less than 1%, and yet only 1 (0.6%) respondent estimated similar rates for mood side effects, and 12 (7.8%) for sexual effects among their patients. The most common answers were rates of 5% to 10%, with residents reporting similar rates to practising doctors. Practising doctors were more likely to ask about sexual and mood side effects than residents were (81.1% vs 24.1% and 86.3% vs 40.5%, respectively; P < .001). Practising doctors were also more likely to recommend switching to barrier methods (37.3% vs 16.5%; P = .003) or intrauterine devices (54.7% vs 38.0%; P = .038) than residents were and more likely to give more responses to the question about how they managed sexual and mood side effects (mean of 1.7 vs 1.1 responses, P = .001). In 14 of the 15 interviews, practising doctors discussed how they had learned about side effects mainly from their patients and how this had changed their practices. Conclusion Physicians’ perceived rates of mood and sexual side effects from hormonal contraception in the general population were higher than the rate of less than 1% quoted in the product monographs. Practising doctors reported that they learned about the type, frequency, and severity of side effects from their patients.
Women's sexual preferences can change over the hormonal cycle, as several studies, based on responses to questionnaires, diaries, and ratings of photographs, have indicated increased sexual interests around the time of ovulation. However, fewer studies have measured changes in attention or interest to sexually significant stimuli in terms of physiological responses that are not under voluntary control and measure sexual
The theoretical debate over the relative contributions of nature and nurture to sexual differentiation of behavior has increasingly moved towards an interactionist explanation requiring both influences. In practice, however, nature and nurture have often been seen as separable, influencing human clinical sex assignment decisions, sometimes with disastrous consequences. Decisions about sex assignment of children born with intersex conditions have been based almost exclusively on the appearance of the genitals and how other’s reactions to the gender role of the assigned sex affects individual gender socialization. Effects of the social environment and gender expectations in human cultures are ubiquitous, overshadowing potential underlying biological contributions in favor of the more observable social influences. Recent work in nonhuman primates showing behavioral sex differences paralleling human sex differences, including toy preferences, suggests that less easily observed biological factors also influence behavioral sexual differentiation in both monkeys and humans. We review research, including Robert W. Goy’s pioneering work with rhesus monkeys which manipulated prenatal hormones at different gestation times and demonstrated that genital anatomy and specific behaviors are independently sexually differentiated. Such studies demonstrate that for a variety of behaviors, including juvenile mounting and rough play, individuals can have the genitals of one sex but show the behavior more typical of the other sex. We describe another case, infant distress vocalizations, where maternal responsiveness is best accounted for by the mother’s response to the genital appearance of her offspring. Together these studies demonstrate that sexual differentiation arises from complex interactions where anatomical and behavioral biases, produced by hormonal and other biological processes, are shaped by social experience into the behavioral sex differences that distinguish males from females.
While a good deal of information has been garnered in the last few decades regarding the neural and hormonal control of female sexual behavior, literature elucidating these mechanisms with respect to female sexual motivation has been scarce. We believe that one reason for this is the lack of a standardized paradigm that will quantify female sexual motivation while allowing for sexual interaction to occur. Here we describe a two-chambered apparatus that utilizes operant responding (nose poking) to quantify female sexual motivation. During the test, the female exhibits nose pokes to gain access to a sexually active male, with whom she is allowed to mate. Therefore, this apparatus allows for examination of sexual behavior as well as quantification of sexual motivation by assessing the number of nose pokes the female will exhibit within a fixed interval to gain access to the male. We report that hormone priming significantly increases sexual motivation in the female as indicated by the number of nose pokes she will exhibit to gain access to the male. Additionally, hormone primed females enter the male compartment after a shorter period and spend more time in direct contact with the male compared to when they are not hormone primed. In contrast, when females are not hormone primed they spend more time in view, but out of reach, of the male. This paradigm will help to advance the study of female sexual motivation, providing a method for quantifiable assessment of female sexual motivation while allowing for sexual activity to occur.
|Adolescent sexual maturation is staged using Tanner criteria assessed by clinicians, parents, or adolescents. The physiology of sexual maturation is driven by gonadal hormones. We investigate Tanner stage progression as a function of increasing gonadal hormone concentration and compare performances of different raters. Fifty-six boys (mean age,…
Huang, Bin; Hillman, Jennifer; Biro, Frank M.; Ding, Lili; Dorn, Lorah D.; Susman, Elizabeth J.
The role of sex hormones in sexuality and mood across the menstrual cycle was investigated. Twenty-one normal healthy women were followed for one menstrual cycle. Blood samples were taken frequently, and analyzed for estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, cortisol, and sex hormone-binding globulin. A diary concerning sexual interest and behavior, and different moods, was completed daily. Although the sample
Stephanie H. M. Van Goozen; Victor M. Wiegant; Erik Endert; Frans A. Helmond; Nanne E. Van de Poll
BACKGROUND: Although research suggests that socio-sexual behavior changes in conjunction with the menstrual cycle, several potential factors are rarely taken into consideration. We investigated the role of changing hormone concentrations on self-reported physical discomfort, sleep, exercise and socio-sexual interest in young, healthy women. METHODS: Salivary hormones (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate-DHEAS, progesterone, cortisol, testosterone, estradiol and estriol) and socio-sexual variables were measured in
Chrisalbeth J. Guillermo; Heidi A. Manlove; Peter B. Gray; David T. Zava; Chandler R. Marrs
sexual brain organization; genetic and epigenetic effects; enzyme defi ciencies Abstract Alterations of sex hormone levels during pre- or perinatal sexual brain organiza- tion - responsible for long-term changes of gonadotropin secretion, sexual ori- entation, and gender role behavior - can be caused by: 1. Genetic effects, i.e. mutations or polymorphisms of a) 21-hydroxylase genes on chromosome 6, b) 3?-hydro
Günter Dörner; Franziska Götz; Wolfgang Rohde; Andreas Plagemann; Rolf Lindner; Hartmut Peters; Zhara Ghanaati
A classical conditioning paradigm was used to demonstrate that male rats can learn to secrete luteinizing hormone and testosterone in anticipation of sexual activity. Sexually naive males were exposed to a neutral stimulus and then to a sexually receptive female once daily. After exposure to the paired stimuli for 14 trials, the neutral stimulus was as effective as the female
Eight men with hypoxia associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis were studied. Serum testosterone concentrations were low in two subjects and fell to subnormal levels in two others as the clinical condition and arterial oxygen tension deteriorated. There was a significant correlation between serum testosterone concentrations and arterial oxygen tensions (p less than 0.05). Three patients showed evidence of suppression of luteinising hormone secretion at the pituitary level. Only occasional abnormalities of thyroid and prolactin concentrations were noted. Most of the men suffered from organic sexual impotence, which is considered to be due at least in part to endocrine disturbance. These findings are similar to observations in patients with hypoxic chronic obstructive airways disease and support the hypothesis that hypoxia of lung disease suppresses the hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular axis.
Semple, P D; Beastall, G H; Brown, T M; Stirling, K W; Mills, R J; Watson, W S
Mood and sexual interest changes are commonly cited reasons for discontinuing hormonal contraceptives. Data, however, are\\u000a inconsistent and limited to adult users. We examined associations of hormonal contraceptive use with mood and sexual interest\\u000a among adolescents. We recruited 14–17-year-old women from primary care clinics and followed them longitudinally for up to\\u000a 41 months. Participants completed face-to-face interviews quarterly and two 12-week
Mary A. Ott; Marcia L. Shew; Susan Ofner; Wanzhu Tu; J. Dennis Fortenberry
The dependence of exercise-induced hormone responses on sexual maturation was tested in a 3-year longitudinal experiment\\u000a on 34 girls (aged 11–12 years at the beginning). Sexual maturation was evaluated by Tanners five-stage scale. Children cycled\\u000a for 20-min at 60% maximal oxygen uptake once a year. Cortisol, insulin, growth hormone, ?-oestradiol, progesterone and testosterone\\u000a concentrations in venous blood were determined by
Atko Viru; Livian Laaneots; Kalle Karelson; Tamara Smirnova; Mehis Viru
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is largely responsible for the initiation of sexual behaviors; one form of GnRH activates a physiological cascade causing gonadal growth and gonadal steroid feedback to the brain, and another form is thought to act as a neurotransmitter to enhance sexual receptivity. In contrast to GnRH, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) inhibits gonadotropin release. The distribution of GnIH in the
George E. Bentley; Jay P. Jensen; Gurpinder J. Kaur; Douglas W. Wacker; Kazuyoshi Tsutsui; John C. Wingfield
Previous studies have demonstrated variable influences of sexualhormonal states on female brain activation and the necessity to control for these in neuroimaging studies. However, systematic investigations of these influences, particularly those of hormonal contraceptives as compared to the physiological menstrual cycle are scarce. In the present study, we investigated the hormonal modulation of neural correlates of erotic processing in a group of females under hormonal contraceptives (C group; N?=?12), and a different group of females (nC group; N?=?12) not taking contraceptives during their mid-follicular and mid-luteal phases of the cycle. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure hemodynamic responses as an estimate of brain activation during three different experimental conditions of visual erotic stimulation: dynamic videos, static erotic pictures, and expectation of erotic pictures. Plasma estrogen and progesterone levels were assessed in all subjects. No strong hormonally modulating effect was detected upon more direct and explicit stimulation (viewing of videos or pictures) with significant activations in cortical and subcortical brain regions previously linked to erotic stimulation consistent across hormonal levels and stimulation type. Upon less direct and less explicit stimulation (expectation), activation patterns varied between the different hormonal conditions with various, predominantly frontal brain regions showing significant within- or between-group differences. Activation in the precentral gyrus during the follicular phase in the nC group was found elevated compared to the C group and positively correlated with estrogen levels. From the results we conclude that effects of hormonal influences on brain activation during erotic stimulation are weak if stimulation is direct and explicit but that female sexualhormones may modulate more subtle aspects of sexual arousal and behaviour as involved in sexual expectation. Results may provide a basis for future imaging studies on sexual processing in females, especially in the context of less explicit erotic stimulation. PMID:23418428
Previous studies have demonstrated variable influences of sexualhormonal states on female brain activation and the necessity to control for these in neuroimaging studies. However, systematic investigations of these influences, particularly those of hormonal contraceptives as compared to the physiological menstrual cycle are scarce. In the present study, we investigated the hormonal modulation of neural correlates of erotic processing in a group of females under hormonal contraceptives (C group; N?=?12), and a different group of females (nC group; N?=?12) not taking contraceptives during their mid-follicular and mid-luteal phases of the cycle. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure hemodynamic responses as an estimate of brain activation during three different experimental conditions of visual erotic stimulation: dynamic videos, static erotic pictures, and expectation of erotic pictures. Plasma estrogen and progesterone levels were assessed in all subjects. No strong hormonally modulating effect was detected upon more direct and explicit stimulation (viewing of videos or pictures) with significant activations in cortical and subcortical brain regions previously linked to erotic stimulation consistent across hormonal levels and stimulation type. Upon less direct and less explicit stimulation (expectation), activation patterns varied between the different hormonal conditions with various, predominantly frontal brain regions showing significant within- or between-group differences. Activation in the precentral gyrus during the follicular phase in the nC group was found elevated compared to the C group and positively correlated with estrogen levels. From the results we conclude that effects of hormonal influences on brain activation during erotic stimulation are weak if stimulation is direct and explicit but that female sexualhormones may modulate more subtle aspects of sexual arousal and behaviour as involved in sexual expectation. Results may provide a basis for future imaging studies on sexual processing in females, especially in the context of less explicit erotic stimulation.
Androgens, the male sex hormones, play an essential role in male sexual differentiation and development. However, the influence of these sex hormones extends beyond their roles in sexual differentiation and development. In many animal species, sex hormones have been shown to be essential for sexual differentiation of the brain during development and for maintaining sexually dimorphic behavior throughout life. The principals of sex determination in humans have been demonstrated to be similar to other mammals. However, the hormonal influence on sexual dimorphic differences in the nervous system in humans, sex differences in behaviors, and its correlations with those of other mammals is still an emerging field. In this review, the roles of androgens in gender and cognitive function are discussed with the emphasis on subjects with androgen action defects including complete androgen insensitivity due to androgen receptor mutations and 5alpha-reductase-2 deficiency syndromes due to 5alpha-reductase-2 gene mutations. The issue of the complex interaction of nature versus nurture is addressed. PMID:16706106
Hormonal factors are important in multifactorial theories of sexual offending. The relationship between hormones and aggression in nonhumans is well established, but the putative effect in humans is more complex, and the direction of the effect is usually unclear. In this study, a large sample (N = 771) of adult male sex offenders was assessed between 1982 and 1996. Gonadotrophic (follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone) and androgen hormone (total and free testosterone; T) levels were assessed at Time 1, along with indicators of sex drive and hostility. Individuals were observed up to 20 years in the community, with an average time at risk of 10.9 years (SD 4.6). Gonadotrophic hormones correlated positively with self-reported hostility and were better predictors of recidivism than was T (area under the curve (AUC), 0.58-0.63). Self-reported hostility emerged as a partial mediator of this relationship between gonadotrophic hormones and recidivism. These results point to a potentially new area of investigation for hormones and sexual aggression. PMID:23233468
Kingston, Drew A; Seto, Michael C; Ahmed, Adekunle G; Fedoroff, Paul; Firestone, Philip; Bradford, John M
Background Data on the effect of contraceptive methods, other than the condom, on HIV acquisition is not clear. The aim of this study was to describe hormonal contraceptive use, sexual behaviour and HIV prevalence among women in Cameroon in order to provide baseline information for future analytical studies. Methods This is a cross-sectional descriptive study based a nationally representative sample of 4486 sexually active women aged 15–49 years who participated in the 2004 Cameroon Demographic and Health Survey. Results The overall HIV prevalence was 7.4% (332/4486). The HIV prevalence was higher in the 25–35 year age group (10.03%), urban residents (9.39%), and formerly married (18.48%), compared to their compatriots. The prevalence was lower in women with five or more living child (3.67%), women in the low wealth index category (3.79%) and women who had no formal education (3.37%). The HIV prevalence was higher among women who had two or more partners in the last 12 months (10.26%) and women who reported to have had four or more partners in their lifetime (12.40%). The prevalence of HIV was higher among current hormonal contraceptive users (6.63%) compared to the current non-users (3.06%), among ever users of hormonal contraception (13.27%) compared to the never users (7.11%). Conclusion We conclude that the prevalence of HIV among sexually active women in Cameroon varies according to sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behaviour and hormonal contraceptive use. Our findings underscore the need to counsel women using hormonal contraception to be aware that hormonal methods do not protect against HIV infection. Given the biologic plausibility of the link between hormonal contraception and HIV infection, future research should focus on carefully designed prospective studies to establish the temporal relationship and estimate the incidence of HIV infection among women using and not using hormonal contraceptive methods.
\\u000a In both sexes, diagnosis and treatment of cancer have a crucial impact on each dimension of quality of life and well-being,\\u000a including sexuality . Facing a cancer is a major distress and it is absolutely normal that sexual difficulties may occur\\u000a during the early course of the disease. However, the strong improvement of the survival rate raises the issue of
Rossella E. Nappi; Francesca Albani; Maria Rosa Strada; Emmanuele Jannini
|Objective: To explore the relationships between psychological symptoms and thyroid hormone levels in adolescent girls who had experienced the traumatic stress of sexual abuse. Method: The study design was cross-sectional/correlational. Subjects ("N"=22; age range=12-18 years) had their blood drawn, and they completed 2 psychological tests…
Haviland, Mark G.; Sonne, Janet L.; Anderson, Donald L.; Nelson, Jerald C.; Sheridan-Matney, Clare; Nichols, Joy G.; Carlton, Esther I.; Murdoch, William G. C.
|This study examined the effect of hormonal fluctuations on women's performance on sexually dimorphic cognitive tasks. Thirty-six participants were recruited through introduction to psychology courses at three colleges. Participants were assessed using the Woodcock-Johnson Test of Cognitive Ability III (WJ III COG), which is a commonly-used,…
BACKGROUND: Data on the effect of contraceptive methods, other than the condom, on HIV acquisition is not clear. The aim of this study was to describe hormonal contraceptive use, sexual behaviour and HIV prevalence among women in Cameroon in order to provide baseline information for future analytical studies. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study based a nationally representative sample
Objective: To explore the relationships between psychological symptoms and thyroid hormone levels in adolescent girls who had experienced the traumatic stress of sexual abuse. Method: The study design was cross-sectional/correlational. Subjects ("N"=22; age range=12-18 years) had their blood drawn, and they completed 2 psychological tests…
Haviland, Mark G.; Sonne, Janet L.; Anderson, Donald L.; Nelson, Jerald C.; Sheridan-Matney, Clare; Nichols, Joy G.; Carlton, Esther I.; Murdoch, William G. C.
This was a cross-sectional study to examine the different associations of age and sleep duration with sex steroid hormones and sexual activities in 531 Asian Chinese men aged between 29 and 72 years old. Sleep duration and sexual activities were evaluated through a self-administered questionnaire, and total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), estradiol (E2), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) were measured by established immunoassay methods in a single blood sample collected between 8:00 and 11:00 am. Bioavailable T (BioT) was calculated using the Vermeulen formula. Age was a major determinant of sleep, sex steroid hormones, and sexual activities in men. BioT, DHEAS, coital frequency, masturbation, and sleep duration declined with age. On the other hand, SHBG and E2 increased with age. Sleep duration, independently of age, aerobic exercise, and body fat, was positively associated with T and BioT, but not with DHEAS, E2, or any of the sexual activities studied. Men who masturbated had higher levels of both T and BioT. DHEAS was significantly associated with coital frequency and desire for sex. The present study showed that besides age, sleep duration was associated with androgen concentrations in men, and thus the evaluation of sleep hygiene may be beneficial in the management of men with low androgen concentrations. DHEAS may be independently associated with some sexual functions in men. PMID:19684340
Background Although research suggests that socio-sexual behavior changes in conjunction with the menstrual cycle, several potential factors are rarely taken into consideration. We investigated the role of changing hormone concentrations on self-reported physical discomfort, sleep, exercise and socio-sexual interest in young, healthy women. Methods Salivary hormones (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate-DHEAS, progesterone, cortisol, testosterone, estradiol and estriol) and socio-sexual variables were measured in 20 women taking oral contraceptives (OC group) and 20 not using OCs (control group). Outcome measures were adapted from questionnaires of menstrual cycle-related symptoms, physical activity, and interpersonal relations. Testing occurred during menstruation (T1), mid-cycle (T2), and during the luteal phase (T3). Changes in behavior were assessed across time points and between groups. Additionally, correlations between hormones and socio-behavioral characteristics were determined. Results Physical discomfort and sleep disturbances peaked at T1 for both groups. Exercise levels and overall socio-sexual interest did not change across the menstrual cycle for both groups combined. However, slight mid-cycle increases in general and physical attraction were noted among the control group, whereas the OC group experienced significantly greater socio-sexual interest across all phases compared to the control group. Associations with hormones differed by group and cycle phase. The estrogens were correlated with socio-sexual and physical variables at T1 and T3 in the control group; whereas progesterone, cortisol, and DHEAS were more closely associated with these variables in the OC group across test times. The direction of influence further varies by behavior, group, and time point. Among naturally cycling women, higher concentrations of estradiol and estriol are associated with lower attraction scores at T1 but higher scores at T3. Among OC users, DHEAS and progesterone exhibit opposing relationships with attraction scores at T1 and invert at T3. Conclusions Data from this study show no change across the cycle in socio-sexual interest among healthy, reproductive age women but higher social and physical attraction among OC users. Furthermore, a broader range of hormones may be associated with attraction than previously thought. Such relationships differ by use of oral contraceptives, and may either reflect endogenous hormone modulation by OCs and/or self-selection of sexually active women to practice contraceptive techniques.
Adolescent sexual maturation is staged using Tanner criteria assessed by clinicians, parents, or adolescents. The physiology of sexual maturation is driven by gonadal hormones. We investigate Tanner stage progression as a function of increasing gonadal hormone concentration and compare performances of different raters. Fifty-six boys (mean age, 12.7±1.3 years) and 52 girls (mean age, 12.0±1.6 years) were seen at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Estradiol and testosterone concentrations were determined from 3 morning serum samples and Tanner stage by three different raters (clinician, parent, adolescent). Results confirm that Tanner criteria reflect gonadal hormone concentrations, and clinician rating provides optimal assessment. Detailed insight about the strengths and limitations of different raters is provided, augmenting the scientific understanding of pubertal development.
Huang, Bin; Hillman, Jennifer; Biro, Frank M.; Ding, Lili; Dorn, Lorah D.; Susman, Elizabeth J.
Genetic influences on lordosis, a mammalian social behavior, are amenable for study because of the relative simplicity of both stimuli and response. The neural circuit for lordosis involves a supraspinal loop, which is controlled by an estrogen- and progesterone-dependent signal from the medial hypothalamus and results in heightened sexual motivation. In turn, this involves elevated states of arousal, defined by
Determined the concentrations of the ovarian steroids, estradiol and progesterone, in the systemic plasma of 8 female pigtailed macaques and the correlations with sexual behavior and measurements of perineal swelling during the intermenstrual period. Estradiol peaked the day before maximum swelling of the perineum at the end of the 20.7-day follicular phase. Maximum titers of progesterone were recorded during the
This review higlghts key aspects of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) biology of potential relevance to the sexual dimorphism of the stress response and immune/inflammatory reaction, and introduces two important new concepts based on the regulatory potential of the human (h) CRH gene: (1) a proposed mechanism to account for the tissue-specific antithetical responses of hCRH gene expression to glucocorticolds, that may also explain the frequently observed antithetical effects of chronic glucocorticoid administration in clinical practice and (2) a heuristic diagram to illustrate the proposed modulation of the stress response and immune/ inflammatory reaction by steroid hormones, from the perspective of the CRH system.
During reproductive maturation of female insects, the acquisition of sexual receptivity is coordinated with ovarian development. Juvenile homone regulates vitellogenesis in the ovaries, but the action of this hormone in the development of sexual behavior is less well-understood. A strain ofDrosophila melanogaster carrying a mutation in theapterous gene(ap4) was known to exhibit arrested vitellogenesis (rescuable by applying exogenous juvenile hormone),
John Ringo; Ruth Werczberger; Michal Altaratz; Daniel Segal
Sexual maturation of Anastrepha fraterculus is a long process. Methoprene (a mimic of juvenile hormone) considerably reduces the time for sexual maturation in males. However, in other Anastrepha species, this effect depends on protein intake at the adult stage. Here, we evaluated the mating competit...
The present investigation gives a comprehensive overview of the naturally occurring steroid hormones, their precursors and\\u000a metabolites in the food-stuff beef. Thus, comparison values have been established using modern analytical techniques for the\\u000a evaluation of the alimentary administration of hormones via beef and for the evaluation of detected residues. The utilization\\u000a of hormone patterns in meat samples enables the sexual
Studies in mammals have shown that synthetic Met-enkephalin derivatives, called growth hormone-releasing peptides (GHRPs),\\u000a stimulate growth hormone (GH) release. In the present study, GHRP-6 action on GH secretion was examined in vivo and in vitro in sexually immature grass carp. GHRP-6 injected intraperitoneally had no influences on serum GH levels in juvenile grass\\u000a carp. Following intraperitonal injection of GHRP-6 and dopamine
There are well-recognized sex differences in many pituitary endocrine axes, usually thought to be generated by gonadal steroid imprinting of the neuroendocrine hypothalamus. However, the recognition that growth hormone (GH) cells are arranged in functionally organized networks raises the possibility that the responses of the network are different in males and females. We studied this by directly monitoring the calcium responses to an identical GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) stimulus in populations of individual GH cells in slices taken from male and female murine GH-eGFP pituitary glands. We found that the GH cell network responses are sexually dimorphic, with a higher proportion of responding cells in males than in females, correlated with greater GH release from male slices. Repetitive waves of calcium spiking activity were triggered by GHRH in some males, but were never observed in females. This was not due to a permanent difference in the network architecture between male and female mice; rather, the sex difference in the proportions of GH cells responding to GHRH were switched by postpubertal gonadectomy and reversed with hormone replacements, suggesting that the network responses are dynamically regulated in adulthood by gonadal steroids. Thus, the pituitary gland contributes to the sexually dimorphic patterns of GH secretion that play an important role in differences in growth and metabolism between the sexes.
Sanchez-Cardenas, Claudia; Fontanaud, Pierre; He, Zhenhe; Lafont, Chrystel; Meunier, Anne-Cecile; Schaeffer, Marie; Carmignac, Danielle; Molino, Francois; Coutry, Nathalie; Bonnefont, Xavier; Gouty-Colomer, Laurie-Anne; Gavois, Elodie; Hodson, David J.; Le Tissier, Paul; Robinson, Iain C. A. F.; Mollard, Patrice
Objective The purpose of the present study was to investigate the predictive power of sexualhormones and tumor markers in endometrial\\u000a cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods A total of 135 healthy women were prospectively compared with 135 women who had histopathologically confirmed endometrial\\u000a cancer. Both the groups of women were matched by age and body mass index.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results When compared with healthy controls, women with endometrial
The establishment of sex-specific neural morphology, which underlies sex-specific behaviors, occurs during a perinatal sensitive window in which brief exposure to gonadal steroid hormones produces permanent masculinization of the brain. In the rodent, estradiol derived from testicular androgens is a principle organizational hormone. The mechanism by which transient estradiol exposure induces permanent differences in neuronal anatomy has been widely investigated, but remains elusive. Epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, allow environmental influences to alter long-term gene expression patterns and therefore may be a potential mediator of estradiol-induced organization of the neonatal brain. Here we review data that demonstrate sex and estradiol-induced differences in DNA methylation on the estrogen receptor ? (ER?), estrogen receptor ? (ER?), and progesterone receptor (PR) promoters in sexually dimorphic brain regions across development. Contrary to the overarching view of DNA methylation as a permanent modification directly tied to gene expression, these data demonstrate that methylation patterns on steroid hormone receptors change across the life span and do not necessarily predict expression. Although further exploration into the mechanism and significance of estradiol-induced alterations in DNA methylation patterns in the neonatal brain is necessary, these results provide preliminary evidence that epigenetic alterations can occur in response to early hormone exposure and may mediate estradiol-induced organization of sex differences in the neonatal brain.
Nugent, Bridget M.; Schwarz, Jaclyn M.; McCarthy, Margaret M.
Astrocytic gap junctional communication is important in steroid hormone regulation of reproductive processes at the level of the hypothalamus, including estrous cyclicity and sexual behavior. We examined the effects of estradiol and progesterone on the abundance of the gap junctional protein, connexin 43 (CX43), which is highly expressed in astrocytes. Gonadectomized rats received hormone treatments that induce maximal sexual behavior
Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) was originally identified in the Japanese quail as a hypothalamic neuropeptide inhibitor of pituitary gonadotropin synthesis and release. GnIH neuronal fibers not only terminate in the median eminence to control anterior pituitary function but also extend widely in the brain, suggesting multiple roles in the regulation of behavior. To identify the role of GnIH neurons in the regulation of behavior, we tested the effect of RNA interference (RNAi) of the GnIH gene on aggressive and sexual behaviors of white-crowned sparrows and Japanese quail. Administration of small interfering RNA against GnIH precursor mRNA (GnIH siRNA) into the third ventricle of white-crowned sparrows reduced resting time, spontaneous production of complex vocalizations, and stimulated brief agonistic vocalizations. These behaviors resembled those of breeding birds during territorial defense. Central administration of GnIH siRNA induced aggressive and sexual behaviors and GnIH administration suppressed GnIH RNAi induced aggressive and sexual behaviors in the male quail. In summary, GnIH may function as a central nervous system suppressor of social interaction, thus playing an important role in the control of reproductive behavior, general aggression and territorial defense. PMID:23046601
Ubuka, Takayoshi; Mizuno, Takanobu; Fukuda, Yujiro; Bentley, George E; Wingfield, John C; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi
Reproductive success is maximized when female sexual motivation and behavior coincide with the time of optimal fertility. Both processes depend upon coordinated hormonal events, beginning with signaling by the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal system. Two neuropeptidergic systems that lie upstream of GnRH, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH; also known as RFamide related peptide-3) and kisspeptin, are potent inhibitory and excitatory modulators of GnRH, respectively, that participate in the timing of the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge and ovulation. Whether these neuropeptides serve as neuromodulators to coordinate female sexual behavior with the limited window of fertility has not been thoroughly explored. In the present study, either intact or ovariectomized, hormone-treated female hamsters were implanted for fifteen days with chronic release osmotic pumps filled with GnIH or saline. The effect of GnIH on sexual motivation, vaginal scent marking, and lordosis was examined. Following mating, FOS activation was quantified in brain regions implicated in the regulation of female sexual behavior. Intracerebroventricular administration of GnIH reduced sexual motivation and vaginal scent marking, but not lordosis behavior. GnIH administration altered FOS expression in key neural loci implicated in female reproductive behavior, including the medial preoptic area, medial amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, independent of changes in circulating gonadal steroids and kisspeptin cell activation. Together, these data point to GnIH as an important modulator of female proceptive sexual behavior and motivation, independent of downstream alterations in sex steroid production. PMID:23827890
Juvenile hormone levels and adult diet have important effects on the attractiveness and competitiveness of male Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) (Caribbean fruit fly). Because the success of the sterile insect technique requires the release of males that can compete in the wild, these effects are of crucial importance. Laboratory and field cage experiments were conducted to compare male sexual performance on a lifetime basis and daily basis when submitted to four different treatments: (M+P+) application of the juvenile hormone analog, methoprene (M) and sugar and hydrolyzed yeast as adult food; (M+P-) application of M and sugar as adult food; (M-P+) no application of M and sugar and hydrolyzed yeast as adult food; and (M-P-) no application of M and sugar as adult food. On a daily basis, M+P+ males always performed better sexually, and 10% of these individuals were able to mate three consecutive times in the same day. However, the copula duration decreased with the increased number of matings on same day. In addition, M caused earlier maturation. On a lifetime basis, M+P+ males had significantly greater sexual success than other flies. The substantial improvement in male sexual performance because of the hormone application, protein supply, and interaction of hormone and protein has the potential of producing more efficacious sterile males. PMID:20214366
Cortical asymmetry varies in degree and direction. Sex differences exist for both dimensions of asymmetry: males tend to exhibit more accentuated asymmetries and stronger right hemisphere dominance compared with females, while females typically exhibit more diffuse lateralization patterns and greater left hemisphere bias compared with males. The following review considers the effects of sex steroid hormones on the sexual dimorphism
SUMMARY Postweaning growth and pubertal traits were studied in Hereford, Angus, Red Poll, Brown Swiss, Hereford-Angus crossbred (HXA) and Angus-Hereford crossbred (AX H) bulls from 7 through 13 months of age. Pubertal factors characterized included body weight, testicular size, hormone concentrations, sexual aggressive- ness and sperm production. Puberty was de- fined as the age at which a bull first produced
A trial was conducted to determine the effects of different rearing feed regimens on plasma hormone and metabolite levels and hepatic lipid metabolism on sexually mature broiler breeders. A flock of Cobb 500 birds was divided into two groups at 35 days of age and fed either everyday (ED) or skip-a-d...
Males and females of most mammalian species depend on chemosignals to find, attract and evaluate mates and, in most cases, these appetitive sexual behaviors are strongly modulated by activational and organizational effects of sex steroids. The neural circuit underlying chemosensory-mediated pre- and peri-copulatory behavior involves the medial amygdala (MA), the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), medial preoptic area (MPOA) and ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), each area being subdivided into interconnected chemoreceptive and hormone-sensitive zones. For males, MA-BNST connections mediate chemoinvestigation whereas the MA-MPOA pathway regulates copulatory initiation. For females, MA-MPOA/BNST connections also control aspects of precopulatory behavior whereas MA-VMH projections control both precopulatory and copulatory behavior. Significant gaps in understanding remain, including the role of VMH in male behavior and MPOA in female appetitive behavior, the function of cortical amygdala, the underlying chemical architecture of this circuit and sex differences in hormonal and neurochemical regulation of precopulatory behavior. PMID:23911848
Antipsychotic-induced sexual dysfunction is a common problem in patients with schizophrenia. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of switching to aripiprazole on sexual dysfunction and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in male patients with schizophrenia. In this prospective, open-label study, the participants were 10 male schizophrenia patients treated with atypical antipsychotics, risperidone, amisulpride, and olanzapine. Before and after switching to aripiprazole, they were assessed on the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale, and hormonal levels were measured. Our results showed a significant improvement in the severity of sexual dysfunction, especially in 'ease of sexual arousal' and 'penile erection,' as measured by the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale total scores after switching to aripiprazole (?(2) = 12.45 and P = 0.002). The serum prolactin level decreased significantly after switching to aripiprazole (?(2) = 11.14 and P = 0.004), but the changes in the total testosterone level were not significant (?(2) = 4.75 and P = 0.93). Our results suggest that sexual dysfunction in schizophrenia patients seems to improve after switching to aripiprazole from other atypical antipsychotics (risperiodone, amisulpride, or olanzapine). This may be associated with a change in dopamine and serotonin transmissions and a decrease in the serum prolactin concentration. PMID:22407277
Gonadotrophin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), a hypothalamic RFamide, has been found to inhibit gonadotrophin secretion from the anterior pituitary gland originally in birds and, subsequently, in mammalian species. The gene encoding a transmembrane receptor for GnIH (GnIHR) was recently identified in the brain, pituitary gland and gonads of song bird, chicken and Japanese quail. The objectives of the present study are to characterise the expression of GnIHR mRNA and protein in the chicken pituitary gland, and to determine whether sexual maturation and gonadal steroids influence pituitary GnIHR mRNA abundance. GnIHR mRNA quantity was found to be significantly higher in diencephalon compared to either anterior pituitary gland or ovaries. GnIHR mRNA quantity was significantly higher in the pituitaries of sexually immature chickens relative to sexually mature chickens. Oestradiol or a combination of oestradiol and progesterone treatment caused a significant decrease in pituitary GnIHR mRNA quantity relative to vehicle controls. GnIHR-immunoreactive (ir) cells were identified in the chicken pituitary gland cephalic and caudal lobes. Furthermore, GnIHR-ir cells were found to be colocalised with luteinising hormone (LH)beta mRNA-, or follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)beta mRNA-containing cells. GnIH treatment significantly decreased LH release from anterior pituitary gland slices collected from sexually immature, but not from sexually mature chickens. Taken together, GnIHR gene expression is possibly down regulated in response to a surge in circulating oestradiol and progesterone levels as the chicken undergoes sexual maturation to allow gonadotrophin secretion. Furthermore, GnIHR protein expressed in FSHbeta or LHbeta mRNA-containing cells is likely to mediate the inhibitory effect of GnIH on LH and FSH secretion. PMID:18638025
Maddineni, S; Ocón-Grove, O M; Krzysik-Walker, S M; Hendricks, G L; Proudman, J A; Ramachandran, R
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that changes in the levels of sexualhormones during the menstrual cycle influence the concentration of nitric oxide in the exhaled air (FeNO) and alveolar exhaled nitric oxide (CANO). METHODS: Twelve healthy, non allergic women in their reproductive age (age range 25-37 years) were recruited. Subjects were studied, on alternate days, over the course of their menstrual cycle. At each visit, measurements of FeNO and CANO were performed. Progesterone and 17-?-estradiol concentrations were measured in salivary samples. RESULTS: Eight subjects completed the study. The levels of FeNO and CANO were 13 ± 4.7 pbb and 3.5 ± 1.9 pbb, respectively (mean ± SD). The mean salivary concentration of progesterone was 65.1 ± 16.2 pg/ml (mean ± SD), with a range of 32.4-107.7 pg/ml, and the concentration of 17 ?-estradiol was 6.0 ± 1.6 pg/ml, with a range of 3.1-12.9 pg/ml. The Generalized Estimating Equations procedure demonstrated that levels of progesterone influenced both FeNO and CANO (Wald ?2 = 11.60, p = 0.001; and Wald ?2 = 87.55, p = 0.001, respectively). On the contrary, the salivary levels of 17 ?-estradiol were not significantly associated with FeNO (Wald ?2 = 0.087, p = 0.768) or CANO (Wald ?2 = 0.58, p = 0.448). CONCLUSION: In healthy women, the menstrual cycle-associated hormonal fluctuations selectively influence the levels of bronchial and alveolar NO. The current findings may have important clinical implications for the interpretation of eNO levels, by identifying a patient-related factor that influences the eNO measurements. PMID:23665049
The sexually dimorphic extrahypothalamic arginine-vasopressin (AVP) projections from the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis to the lateral septum (LS) and lateral habenula (LHb) are denser in males than females and, in rats, require males' perinatal exposure to gonadal hormones but the absence of such exposure in females. We examined perinatal hormone effects on development of this sex difference in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster), which show atypical effects of hormones on sexual differentiation of some reproductive behaviors. Neonatal castration reduced the number of AVP mRNA-expressing cells in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and AVP immunoreactivity (ir) in the LS and LHb. Surprisingly, daily injections of 1000 ?g of testosterone propionate (TP) during the first postnatal week did not maintain high levels of AVP-ir in neonatally castrated males. Furthermore, perinatal treatments with TP (75, 500, or 1000 ?g), testosterone (100 ?g), or dihydrotestosterone (200 ?g) did not masculinize AVP-ir in the female LS or LHb. In fact, 1000 ?g TP reduced it in some cases. However, 1000 ?g TP lengthened anogenital distance, indicating that TP was biologically active. Neonatal estrogen receptor antagonism with tamoxifen reduced AVP-ir in the male LS, whereas treating neonatal females with the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol increased septal AVP-ir. Tamoxifen and diethylstilbestrol had no effects in the LHb. Similar to rats, therefore, postnatal estrogen influences some components of the extrahypothalamic AVP system in prairie voles, but this developing system appears to be insensitive to exogenous androgens, including aromatizable androgens. Such insensitivity is atypical for a sexually dimorphic neural system in a rodent and may reflect the unusual effects of hormones on sexual differentiation of some behaviors in prairie voles.
Lonstein, Joseph S.; Rood, Benjamin D.; De Vries, Geert J.
Objective. To investigate changes in serum pituitary-gonadal hormones and restoration of sexual and reproductive functions after successful kidney transplantation. Patients and Methods. Serum pituitary-gonadal hormones before and after kidney transplantation were measured in 78 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and in 30 healthy adults. Pre- and postoperative semen specimens of 46 male recipients and 15 male controls were collected and compared. Additional 100 married kidney transplant recipients without children were followed up for 3 years to observe their sexual function and fertility. Results. Serum PRL, LH, and T or E2 levels gradually restored to the normal ranges in all kidney transplant recipients, and sperm density, motility, viability, and morphology significantly improved in the male recipients 4 months after successful kidney transplantation (P < .05). Thirty-three male recipients (55.93%) reobtained normal erectile function, and 49 kidney transplant recipients (61.25%) had children within the 3-year follow-up period. Conclusion. Successful kidney transplantation could effectively improve pituitary-gonadal hormone disturbance and sexual and reproductive dysfunctions of ESRD patients.
The XX male syndrome - Testicular Disorder of Sexual Differentiation (DSD) is a rare condition characterized by a spectrum of clinical presentations, ranging from ambiguous to normal male genitalia. We report hormonal, molecular and cytogenetic evaluations of a boy presenting with this syndrome. Examination of the genitalia at age of 16 months, showed: penis of 3.5 cm, proximal hypospadia and scrotal testes. Pelvic ultrasound did not demonstrate Mullerian duct structures. Karyotype was 46,XX. Gonadotrophin stimulation test yielded insufficient testosterone production. Gonadal biopsy showed seminiferous tubules without evidence of Leydig cells. Molecular studies revealed that SRY and TSPY genes and also DYZ3 sequences were absent. In addition, the lack of deletions or duplications of SOX9, NR5A1, WNT4 and NROB1 regions was verified. The infant was heterozygous for all microsatellites at the 9p region, including DMRT1 gene, investigated. Only 10% of the patients are SRY-negative and usually they have ambiguous genitalia, as the aforementioned patient. The incomplete masculinization suggests gain of function mutation in one or more genes downstream to SRY gene. PMID:21340153
An estimated 80% of sexually active young women in the United States use hormonal contraceptives during their reproductive years. Associations between hormonal contraceptive use and mood disturbances remain understudied, despite the hypothesis that estrogen and progesterone play a role in mood problems. In this study, we used data from 6,654 sexually active nonpregnant women across 4 waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994-2008), focusing on women aged 25-34 years. Women were asked about hormonal contraceptive use in the context of a current sexual partnership; thus, contraceptive users were compared with other sexually active women who were using either nonhormonal contraception or no contraception. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. At ages 25-34 years, hormonal contraceptive users had lower mean levels of concurrent depressive symptoms (? = -1.04, 95% confidence interval: -1.73, -0.35) and were less likely to report a past-year suicide attempt (odds ratio = 0.37, 95% confidence interval: 0.14, 0.95) than women using low-efficacy contraception or no contraception, in models adjusted for propensity scores for hormonal contraceptive use. Longitudinal analyses indicated that associations between hormonal contraception and depressive symptoms were stable. Hormonal contraception may reduce levels of depressive symptoms among young women. Systematic investigation of exogenous hormones as a potential preventive factor in psychiatric epidemiology is warranted. PMID:24043440
Keyes, Katherine M; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Westhoff, Carolyn; Heim, Christine M; Haloossim, Michelle; Walsh, Kate; Koenen, Karestan
Brain sexual differentiation is a present focus in sexuality research. Within the process, the alpha-fetoprotein gene (AFP) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) are found to be interacted and cause several effect on the sexual differentiation in animal model. However, the actual mechanism and interaction in human has never been clarified. Here, the author used a new gene ontology technology to predict
|The psychosocial impact of puberty on changes in girls' feelings about their bodies and their sexuality is discussed. We present a model of girls' sexuality development that incorporates puberty, self, and peer systems. (Contains 2 figures.)|
We investigated whether performance on a visuospatial line judgment task, the Judgment of Line Angle and Position-15 test (JLAP-15), showed evidence of sensitivity to early sex steroid exposure by examining how it related to sex, as well as to sexual orientation and 2D:4D digit ratios. Participants were drawn from a large Internet study with over 250,000 participants. In the main sample (ages 12-58 years), males outperformed females on the JLAP-15, showing a moderate effect size for sex. In agreement with a prenatal sex hormone hypothesis, line judgment accuracy in adults related to 2D:4D and sexual orientation, both of which are postulated to be influenced by early steroids. In both sexes, better visuospatial performance was associated with lower (more male-typical) digit ratios. For men, heterosexual participants outperformed homosexual/bisexual participants on the JLAP-15 and, for women, homosexual/bisexual participants outperformed heterosexual participants. In children aged 8-10 years, presumed to be a largely prepubertal group, boys also outperformed girls. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that visuospatial ability is influenced by early sex steroids, although they do not rule out alternative explanations or additional influences. More broadly, such results support a prenatal sex hormone hypothesis that degree of androgen exposure may influence the neural circuitry underlying cognition (visuospatial ability) and sexual orientation as well as aspects of somatic (digit ratio) development. PMID:17380373
Collaer, Marcia L; Reimers, Stian; Manning, John T
In order to determine the changes in gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) and dopaminergic activity within the brain during the onset of sexual precocity, a Halasz-like knife was developed to produce discrete parasagittal cuts in 2-week-old male broiler chicks. At 5 weeks of age, sexually precocious respondents were selected on the basis of advanced secondary sex characteristics and randomly paired with
Despite sharing much of their genomes, males and females are often highly dimorphic, reflecting at least in part the resolution of sexual conflict in response to sexually antagonistic selection. Sexual dimorphism arises owing to sex differences in gene expression, and steroid hormones are often invoked as a proximate cause of sexual dimorphism. Experimental elevation of androgens can modify behavior, physiology, and gene expression, but knowledge of the role of hormones remains incomplete, including how the sexes differ in gene expression in response to hormones. We addressed these questions in a bird species with a long history of behavioral endocrinological and ecological study, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), using a custom microarray. Focusing on two brain regions involved in sexually dimorphic behavior and regulation of hormone secretion, we identified 651 genes that differed in expression by sex in medial amygdala and 611 in hypothalamus. Additionally, we treated individuals of each sex with testosterone implants and identified many genes that may be related to previously identified phenotypic effects of testosterone treatment. Some of these genes relate to previously identified effects of testosterone-treatment and suggest that the multiple effects of testosterone may be mediated by modifying the expression of a small number of genes. Notably, testosterone-treatment tended to alter expression of different genes in each sex: only 4 of the 527 genes identified as significant in one sex or the other were significantly differentially expressed in both sexes. Hormonally regulated gene expression is a key mechanism underlying sexual dimorphism, and our study identifies specific genes that may mediate some of these processes.
Peterson, Mark P.; Rosvall, Kimberly A.; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Ziegenfus, Charles; Tang, Haixu; Colbourne, John K.; Ketterson, Ellen D.
Despite sharing much of their genomes, males and females are often highly dimorphic, reflecting at least in part the resolution of sexual conflict in response to sexually antagonistic selection. Sexual dimorphism arises owing to sex differences in gene expression, and steroid hormones are often invoked as a proximate cause of sexual dimorphism. Experimental elevation of androgens can modify behavior, physiology, and gene expression, but knowledge of the role of hormones remains incomplete, including how the sexes differ in gene expression in response to hormones. We addressed these questions in a bird species with a long history of behavioral endocrinological and ecological study, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), using a custom microarray. Focusing on two brain regions involved in sexually dimorphic behavior and regulation of hormone secretion, we identified 651 genes that differed in expression by sex in medial amygdala and 611 in hypothalamus. Additionally, we treated individuals of each sex with testosterone implants and identified many genes that may be related to previously identified phenotypic effects of testosterone treatment. Some of these genes relate to previously identified effects of testosterone-treatment and suggest that the multiple effects of testosterone may be mediated by modifying the expression of a small number of genes. Notably, testosterone-treatment tended to alter expression of different genes in each sex: only 4 of the 527 genes identified as significant in one sex or the other were significantly differentially expressed in both sexes. Hormonally regulated gene expression is a key mechanism underlying sexual dimorphism, and our study identifies specific genes that may mediate some of these processes. PMID:23613935
Peterson, Mark P; Rosvall, Kimberly A; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Ziegenfus, Charles; Tang, Haixu; Colbourne, John K; Ketterson, Ellen D
Plasma concentrations of metabolic hormones were determined in broiler breeders fed on three quantitatively different food regimes in the period prior to sexual maturity. The first group was fedad libitum,the second group was fed a restricted quantity of food, and the third group was restricted to obtain an intermediate body weight between those of the first two groups. In food-restricted
V. Bruggeman; D. Vanmontfort; R. Renaville; D. Portetelle; E. Decuypere
We hypothesized that putative anorectic and orexigenic peptides control the motivation to engage in either ingestive or sex behaviors, and these peptides function to optimize reproductive success in environments where energy fluctuates. Here, the putative orexigenic peptide, gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone (GnIH, also known as RFamide-related peptide-3), and the putative anorectic hormones leptin, insulin, and estradiol were examined during the course of food restriction. Groups of female Syrian hamsters were restricted to 75% of their ad libitum food intake or fed ad libitum for 4, 8, or 12?days. Two other groups were food-restricted for 12?days and then re-fed ad libitum for 4 or 8?days. After testing for sex and ingestive behavior, blood was sampled and assayed for peripheral hormones. Brains were immunohistochemically double-labeled for GnIH and the protein product of the immediate early gene, c-fos, a marker of cellular activation. Food hoarding, the number of double-labeled cells, and the percent of GnIH-Ir cells labeled with Fos-Ir were significantly increased at 8 and 12?days after the start of food restriction. Vaginal scent marking and GnIH-Ir cell number significantly decreased after the same duration of restriction. Food hoarding, but not food intake, was significantly positively correlated with cellular activation in GnIH-Ir cells. Vaginal scent marking was significantly negatively correlated with cellular activation in GnIH-Ir cells. There were no significant effects of food restriction on plasma insulin, leptin, estradiol, or progesterone concentrations. In the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) of energetically challenged females, strong projections from NPY-Ir cells were found in close apposition to GnIH-Ir cells. Together these results are consistent with the idea that metabolic signals influence sexual and ingestive motivation via NPY fibers that project to GnIH cells in the DMH. PMID:22649396
Sexual maturation of Anastrepha fraterculus is a long process. Methoprene (a mimic of juvenile hormone) considerably reduces the time for sexual maturation in males. However, in other Anastrepha species, this effect depends on protein intake at the adult stage. Here, we evaluated the mating competitiveness of sterile laboratory males and females that were treated with methoprene (either the pupal or adult stage) and were kept under different regimes of adult food, which varied in the protein source and the sugar:protein ratio. Experiments were carried out under semi-natural conditions, where laboratory flies competed over copulations with sexually mature wild flies. Sterile, methoprene-treated males that reached sexual maturity earlier (six days old), displayed the same lekking behaviour, attractiveness to females and mating competitiveness as mature wild males. This effect depended on protein intake. Diets containing sugar and hydrolyzed yeast allowed sterile males to compete with wild males (even at a low concentration of protein), while brewer´s yeast failed to do so even at a higher concentration. Sugar only fed males were unable to achieve significant numbers of copulations. Methoprene did not increase the readiness to mate of six-day-old sterile females. Long pre-copulatory periods create an additional cost to the management of fruit fly pests through the sterile insect technique (SIT). Our findings suggest that methoprene treatment will increase SIT effectiveness against A. fraterculus when coupled with a diet fortified with protein. Additionally, methoprene acts as a physiological sexing method, allowing the release of mature males and immature females and hence increasing SIT efficiency. PMID:22929968
Liendo, M C; Devescovi, F; Bachmann, G E; Utgés, M E; Abraham, S; Vera, M T; Lanzavecchia, S B; Bouvet, J P; Gómez-Cendra, P; Hendrichs, J; Teal, P E A; Cladera, J L; Segura, D F
The effect of chronic ethanol ingestion on the activities of several sexually dimorphic hepatic proteins was investigated in male rats by feeding a nutritionally adequate liquid diet supplemented with either ethanol or dextrimaltose. Two androgen-responsive proteins served as markers of masculine hepatic function. A high capacity, moderate affinity male estrogen-binding protein (MEB) is found only in male rat liver cytosol and this activity was significantly reduced in all animals consuming ethanol at a dose of 5% by volume. The estrogen metabolizing enzyme estrogen 2-hydroxylase was also significantly reduced in male rats fed ethanol. Two proteins having higher activity in female compared to male liver were chosen as indicators of feminization: ceruloplasmin and 5[alpha]-reductase. Ceruloplasmin activity was increased after long term feeding of ethanol, but not after shorter durations of alcohol consumption. The 5a-reductase activity was not significantly affected by any of the alcohol feeding studies. Serum testosterone levels were not significantly decreased after ethanol consumption. After 30 or 60 days of ethanol ingestion, serum estradiol was elevated 34% and 40%. The reversibility of ethanol effects was determined by a gradual withdrawal of alcohol from the diet. The effect of ethanol consumption on sex-specific patterns of growth hormone secretion was examined. The secretory pattern of alcohol-fed rats was not feminized; after ethanol ingestion, the frequency of growth hormone pulses was unchanged. An increase in pulse height and mean growth hormone concentration was observed after 60 days of ethanol consumption. This results constitutes a change away from rather than toward the characteristics of a female secretory pattern. The feminization of activities of the male estrogen binding protein and of estrogen 2-hydroxylase in male rat liver after chronic ethanol consumption are not apparently related to a feminization of growth hormone secretion pattern.
The effects of broiler breeder BW and nutrient intake on ovary morphology and plasma reproductive hormone profiles were examined at pho- tostimulation (PS) (21 wk) and at sexual maturity (SM) in standard (STD) and low (LOW), or high (HIGH) BW birds provided either restricted (RF) or ad libitum (AL) access to feed between PS and SM. At PS, 30 Shaver
R. A. RENEMA; F. E. ROBINSON; J. A. PROUDMAN; M. NEWCOMBE; R. I. McKAY; Shaver Poultry
The sexual behavior of rhesus monkeys in 15 male-female pairings was observed in both a large and a small area during the follicular and luteal phases of the female's cycle. Males ejaculated in all tests at the follicular phase of the female's cycle and in 53 percent of tests at the luteal phase. However, a significant decline in ejaculation during
... of menopause include hot flashes, vaginal dryness, mood swings, sleep disorders, and decreased sexual desire. Hormone therapy ... therapy may have: Bloating Breast soreness Headaches Mood swings Nausea Water retention Changing the dose or form ...
Estrogen and progesterone modulate gene expression in rodents by activation of intracellular receptors in the hypothalamus, which regulate neuronal networks that control female sexual behavior. However, the neurotransmitter dopamine has been shown to activate certain steroid receptors in a ligand-independent manner. A dopamine receptor stimulant and a D_1 receptor agonist, but not a D_2 receptor agonist, mimicked the effects of progesterone in facilitating sexual behavior in female rats. The facilitatory effect of the neurotransmitter was blocked by progesterone receptor antagonists, a D_1 receptor antagonist, or antisense oligonucleotides to the progesterone receptor. The results suggest that in rodents neurotransmitters may regulate in vivo gene expression and behavior by means of cross-talk with steroid receptors in the brain.
Mani, S. K.; Allen, J. M. C.; Clark, J. H.; Blaustein, J. D.; O'Malley, B. W.
In rodents, the sexually dimorphic pattern of pulsatile GH secre- tion is an important determinant of growth, liver enzyme function and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) expression. Whether this differ- ence is present in humans at different ages is unclear. We studied GH secretory patterns in the elderly by constructing 24-h serum GH profiles in 45 male and 38 female
P. C. HINDMARSH; E. DENNISON; S. M. PINCUS; C. COOPER; C. H. D. FALL; D. R. MATTHEWS; P. J. PRINGLE; C. G. D. BROOK
In order to help elucidate how general the role of dopamine (DA) release in the medial preoptic area (mPOA) is for the activation of male sexual behavior in vertebrates, we recently developed an in vivo microdialysis procedure in the mPOA of Japanese quail. Using these techniques in the present experiment, the temporal pattern of DA release in relation to the pre-copulatory exposure to a female and to the expression of both appetitive and consummatory aspects of male sexual behavior was investigated. Extracellular samples from the mPOA of adult sexually-experienced male quail were collected every six minutes before, while viewing, while in physical contact with, and after exposure to a female. In the absence of a pre-copulatory rise in DA, males failed to copulate when the barrier separating them from the female was removed. In contrast, males that showed a substantial increase in mPOA DA during pre-copulatory interactions behind the barrier, copulated with females after its removal. However, there was no difference in DA during periods when the quail were copulating as compared to when the female was present but the males were not copulating. In addition, we show that pre-copulatory DA predicts future DA levels and copulatory behavior frequency. Furthermore, the size of the cloacal gland, an accurate indicator of testosterone action, is positively correlated with pre-copulatory DA. Taken together, these results provide further support for the hypothesis that DA action in the mPOA is specifically linked to sexual motivation as compared to copulatory behavior per se.
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of parathyroid hormone (PTH), the antiresorptive agents estrogen and bisphosphonate (risedronate), and also the combination of PTH with these antiresorptive drugs on femoral cortical bone mass, dimensions and strength in a sexually mature, ovariectomized rat model. A total of 138, 3-month-old SpragueDawley rats were randomized into seven groups: 1—sham operated
Li. Mosekilde; C. C. Danielsen; C. H. Søgaard; J. E. McOsker; T. J. Wronski
Theories of sexuality, culture and modern personhood rarely take account of differences in the construction of sexuality between advanced industrial nations. This article reveals different conceptions and management of adolescent sexuality among white, middle-class American and Dutch parents of teenagers. The American parents describe adolescent sexuality as a biologically driven, individually based activity which causes disruption to the teenager as
The evolutionary processes that result in reliable links between male signals and fighting capacity have received a great deal of attention, but the proximate mechanisms underlying such connections remain understudied. We studied a large sample of male green anole lizards (Anolis carolinensis) to determine whether testosterone or corticosterone predicted dewlap size and/or bite-force capacity, as dewlap size is known to be a reliable predictor of bite-force capacity in territorial males. We also examined whether these relationships were consistent between previously described body size classes ("lightweights" and "heavyweights"). Heavyweights had 50% higher testosterone concentrations than lightweights during the breeding season, suggesting a mechanism for the disproportionately larger heads and dewlaps and higher bite-forces of heavyweights. Plasma testosterone concentrations were positively correlated with dewlap size and bite-force performance in lightweights (but not heavyweights) but only because of mutual intercorrelation of all three variables with body size. We suggest two possibilities for the relationship between testosterone levels and body size: (1) testosterone promotes growth in this species or (2) smaller sexually mature males are unable to compete with larger males such that the benefits of elevated testosterone do not outweigh the costs. Corticosterone levels did not differ between the male morphs, and lightweights, but not heavyweights, showed an inverse relationship between testosterone levels and corticosterone levels. Our results suggest that testosterone is important for traits related to dominance in adult male green anoles and may influence the ability to compete with rivals via fighting ability or through the use of signals. PMID:17612540
Husak, Jerry F; Irschick, Duncan J; Meyers, Jay J; Lailvaux, Simon P; Moore, Ignacio T
Pituitary gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) are, in teleosts as in mammals, under the control of hypothalamic factors and steroid feedbacks. In teleosts, feedback regulations largely vary depending on species and physiological stage. In the present study the regulation of FSH and LH expression was investigated in the European eel, a fish of biological and phylogenetical interest
Monika Schmitz; Salima Aroua; Bernadette Vidal; Nadine Le Belle; Pierre Elie; Sylvie Dufour
Recent studies have suggested that the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is involved in gonadal sex change in sex-changing teleosts. However, its underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. In this study, we focused on the distinct roles of two gonadotropins (GTHs), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), in the protogynous hermaphrodite teleost, honeycomb grouper (Epinephelus merra). First, we investigated the expression pattern of mRNAs for GTH subunits (cga, fshb, and lhb) in the pituitaries from fish at the different sexual phases. Real-time RT-PCR analyses showed that fhsb mRNA levels in the female pituitary were low. However, fshb transcripts increased dramatically in association with testis development. In contrast, levels of cga and lhb mRNAs did not significantly vary during sex change. In addition, immunohistochemical observations of Fshb- and Lhb-producing cells in the pituitary, through the use of specific antibodies for detections of teleost GTH subunits, were consistent with sexually dimorphic expression of Fshb. In order to identify the role of GTH in gonad of honeycomb grouper, we treated females with bovine FSH (50 or 500 ng/fish) or LH (500 ng/fish) in vivo. After 3 wk, FSH treatments induced female-to-male sex change and up-regulated endogenous androgen levels and fshb transcripts, whereas LH treatment had no effect on sex change. These results suggest that FSH may trigger the female-to-male sex change in honeycomb grouper. PMID:20147735
Little is known about the hormonal regulation of sexual behavior and about the pattern of expression in the brain of sex-steroid receptors in the BALB\\/c AnN strain of mice (Mus musculus). In this study, 8-week old male BALB\\/c AnN mice were castrated and the temporal course of decline of sexual behavior was studied, as well as the effects of daily
Hormones play a crucial role in mediating genetic and environmental effects into morphological and behavioral phenotypes. In systems with alternative reproductive tactics (ART) shifts between tactics are hypothesized to be under proximate hormonal control. Most studies of the underlying endocrine changes behind ART have focused on fish and amphibians rather than mammals and few have investigated the potential interaction between
Henrik B. Rasmussen; Andre Ganswindt; Iain Douglas-Hamilton; Fritz Vollrath
In this investigation, changes in the level of receptors for sex hormones in the hypothalamus and cerebral cortex of male rats were studied on the first through fifth days of postnatal life, and the results obtained were compared with the levels of luteinizing hormone and sex hormones in the peripheral blood in order to discover any correlation between these parameters. 2,4,6,7,-/sup 3/H-estradiol-17..beta.. and 1,2,6,7-/sup 3/H-testosterone were used as labeled hormones. The values of the association constant and concentration of specific binding sites for estradiol and testosterone in hypothalamus and cerebral cortex of male rats during neonatal development is shown. It is found that in male rats on the first day after birth, receptors for estradiol and testosterone are present and they enable the action both of the testicular hormone and that of estradiol to be realized.
The present study was undertaken to determine whether T3, es- trogen, and 11-ketotestosterone could alter a specific population of GnRH-containing neurons, as indicated by a change in messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in sexually immature male tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Two weeks after castration, fish were assigned to four treat- ment groups. One group served as the control (sesame oil); a single
Plasma concentrations of metabolic hormones were determined in broiler breeders fed on three quantitatively different food regimes in the period prior to sexual maturity. The first group was fed ad libitum, the second group was fed a restricted quantity of food, and the third group was restricted to obtain an intermediate body weight between those of the first two groups. In food-restricted birds, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) reached the highest plasma concentrations at 8 and 14 weeks of age in contrast with levels in the fully fed animals, in which only one maximum value was observed at 10 weeks. From 14 weeks on, IGF-I concentrations remained higher in the restricted groups compared to the ad libitum group. Three IGF-binding proteins with molecular masses of 28, 34, and 40.5 kDa were detected in the plasma of broiler breeders after Western ligand blotting. The concentrations of the 28- and 34-kDa IGF-binding protein bands showed an age-related pattern in all groups. The intensity of these bands was higher in the restricted groups compared to that of the bands for the fully fed animals. No significant differences between the groups could be observed in the intensity of the 40.5-kDa band. Food restriction resulted in higher plasma concentrations of GH and T4 compared with levels in the fully fed animals. T3 plasma concentrations were higher in the ad libitum fed group than in the restricted groups. In all groups, GH and T3 concentrations decreased with advancing age, whereas T4 increased during the same period. This is the first description of the effects of long-term food restriction prior to the onset of sexual maturity on circulating levels of hormones of the somatotrophic and the thyrotrophic axes in female broiler breeders. The interrelationship between GH, IGF-I, IGFBPs, and thyroid hormone concentrations and differences in subsequent reproductive performance of differently fed broiler breeders requires further investigation. PMID:9245529
Bruggeman, V; Vanmontfort, D; Renaville, R; Portetelle, D; Decuypere, E
The objective of this study was to examine the expression of receptors for androgen, estrogen, and progesterone in the fetal sheep brain during the critical period for sexual differentiation. We isolated mRNA from the hypothalamus–preoptic area (HPOA), amygdala (AMYG), medulla (MD), frontal cortex (FCTX) and olfactory bulbs (OB) of fetal sheep that were delivered on day 64 of gestation. Using
This study was designed to characterize potential sexually dimorphic stress and immunological responses following a corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) challenge in beef cattle. Six female (heifers) and six male (bulls) Brahman calves (264?±?12?d of age) were administered CRH intravenously (0.5?µg of CRH/kg body mass) after which serum concentrations of cortisol increased from 0.5?h to 4?h. From 1?h to 4?h after CRH administration, serum cortisol concentrations were greater in heifers than in bulls. In all cattle, increased serum concentrations of TNF-?, IL-6 and IFN-? were observed from 2.5?h to 3?h after CRH, with greater concentrations of IFN-? and IL-6 in heifers than bulls. Heifer total leukocyte counts decreased 1?h after CRH administration, while bull leukocyte counts and percent neutrophils decreased 2?h after CRH administration. Heifers had greater rectal temperatures than bulls, yet rectal temperatures did not change following administration of CRH. There was no effect of CRH administration on heart rate. However, bulls tended to have increased heart rate 2?h after CRH administration than before CRH. Heifer heart rate was greater than bulls throughout the study. These data demonstrate that acute CRH administration can elicit a pro-inflammatory response, and cattle exhibit a sexually dimorphic pro-inflammatory cytokine and cortisol response to acute CRH administration. PMID:23112011
Hulbert, Lindsey E; Carroll, Jeffery A; Ballou, Michael A; Burdick, Nicole C; Dailey, Jeffery W; Caldwell, Lisa C; Loyd, Andrea N; Vann, Rhonda C; Welsh, Thomas H; Randel, Ronald D
|Examined hormonal influences on activity and playmate preferences in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) age 2.5 to 12 years and their relatives. Found that girls with CAH preferred boys' toys and activities, whereas boys with CAH did not differ significantly from controls. Activity and playmate preferences were not related. (MDM)|
Sexually mature Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) males were allowed to interact in pairs for 4 days in the absence of females. Agonistic behavior was quantified, and at the end of the experiment, plasma levels of glucose, cortisol, testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), and 17?,20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17?,20?-P) were determined alongside brain concentrations of serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA, the major 5-HT metabolite), dopamine
Ulf O. E. Elofsson; Ian Mayer; Børge Damsgård; Svante Winberg
We investigated whether performance on a visuospatial line judgment task, the Judgment of Line Angle and Position-15 test\\u000a (JLAP-15), showed evidence of sensitivity to early sex steroid exposure by examining how it related to sex, as well as to\\u000a sexual orientation and 2D:4D digit ratios. Participants were drawn from a large Internet study with over 250,000 participants.\\u000a In the main
Gonadotrophin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), a hypothalamic RFamide, has been found to inhibit gonadotrophin secretion from the anterior pituitary gland originally in birds and, subsequently, in mammalian species. The gene encoding a transmembrane receptor for GnIH (GnIHR) was recently identified in the brain, pituitary gland and gonads of song bird, chicken and Japanese quail. The objectives of the present study are to
S. Maddineni; O. M. Ocón-Grove; S. M. Krzysik-Walker; G. L. Hendricks III; J. A. Proudman; R. Ramachandran
Rapid colour changes in vertebrates have fascinated biologists for centuries, herein we demonstrate dynamic colour change in an anuran amphibian, the stony creek frog (Litoria wilcoxii), which turns from brown to bright (lemon) yellow during amplexus. We show this by comparing the colour of baseline (unpaired males) and amplecting (paired) males. We also investigate the possible role of stress and stress hormones on this colour change. Frogs were subjected to four different levels of stressors (handling, toe-clipping, saline injection and adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH] injection) and the colour change was measured using digital photography. A comparison of baseline colour and stress hormone (corticosterone) levels was also conducted to give further insight to this topic. From the images, the Red Blue Green (RGB) colour values were calculated, and a principal components analysis (PCA) was used to create a single colour metric (the major axis) as an index of colour in the visible spectrum. A moderate stressor (toe-clipping) led to a significant change in colour (within 10 min) similar to that of amplecting males. Surprisingly, neither a mild stressor (handling and saline injection) nor the maximum stressor (handling and ACTH injection) led to a lightening response. This study confirms that the dynamic male colour change in this species in response to medium stressors adds new knowledge to the understanding of the functional mechanisms of dynamic colour change in amphibians. PMID:23507571
Steroid hormones play an important role in regulating vertebrate sexual behavior. In frogs and toads, injections of exogenous gonadotropins, which stimulate steroid hormone production, are often used to induce reproductive behavior, but steroid hormones alone are not always sufficient. To determine which hormonal conditions promote sexual behavior in female túngara frogs, we assessed the effect of hormone manipulation on the
We examined the expression profiles of tDMRT1 and Sox9a during gonadal sex differentiation and hormone-induced sex reversal. tDMRT1 was detected in the gonial germ-cell-surrounding cells in XY fry specifically before the appearance of any signs of morphological sex differentiation, that is, sex differences in germ cell number and histogenesis, such as differentiation into intratesticular efferent duct or ovarian cavity. The signals became localized in the Sertoli and epithelial cells comprising the efferent duct during gonadal differentiation. After the induction of XY sex reversal with estrogen, tDMRT1 decreased and then disappeared completely. In contrast, tDMRT1 was expressed in the germ-cell-surrounding cells in XX sex reversal with androgen. On the other hand, Sox9a did not show sexual dimorphism before the appearance of sex differences in histogenesis and was not expressed in the efferent duct in the testis. These results suggest that tDMRT1 is a superior testicular differentiation marker in tilapia. PMID:18095345
Synopsis The interactions between hormones, epilepsy, and the medications used to treat epilepsy are complex, with tridirectional interactions which affect both men and women in various ways. Abnormalities of baseline endocrine status occur more commonly in people with epilepsy, and are most often described for the sex steroid hormone axis. Common symptoms include sexual dysfunction, decreased fertility, premature menopause, and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Antiepileptic drugs and hormones have a bidirectional interaction, with a decrease in the efficacy of hormonal contraceptive agents with some AEDs and a decrease in the concentration and efficacy of other AEDs with hormonal contraceptives. Endogenous hormones can influence seizure severity and frequency, resulting in catamenial patterns of epilepsy. However, this knowledge can be used to develop hormonal strategies to improve seizure control in people with epilepsy.
Sexual problems are widespread among female cancer patients and survivors. Dysfunction may result from various oncologic therapies such as surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormonal manipulation, and cytostatic medication. Additionally, psychologic distress that the patient or her partner experiences during diagnosis and treatment of malignancy can impair a healthy female sexual response cycle. A sexual rehabilitation program in an oncology setting
Michael L. Krychman; Leanne Pereira; Jeanne Carter; Alison Amsterdam
The purpose of this chapter is to provide clinicians with an overview of current knowledge pertaining to the biology of sexual\\u000a minority status. Under the umbrella of sexual minority are included homosexuals, bisexuals, transgenders and intersexes. The\\u000a most developed biologic theory pertaining to sexual minority status is the prenatal hormonal\\u000a hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, prenatal hormones act (primarily during
Investigation into the hormonal control of sexual behavior has a rich and extensive history. For many researchers currently active in the field, the physiological psychologist Frank A. Beach is recognized as the modern father of the study of hormones and behavior. His publication of the seminal book Hormones and Behavior—A Survey of Interrelationships Between Endocrine Secretions and Patterns of Overt
Simultaneous measurement of plasma hormone levels, affect score, clinical ratings of sexual behavior, and social interaction scores in longitudinal fashion were studied. The most important finding is that three variables related significantly to couples' ...
Blood or urine tests can determine the levels of various hormones in the body. This includes reproductive hormones, thyroid hormones, adrenal hormones, pituitary hormones, and many others. For more information, see: ...
... Exams Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Sexual Attraction and Orientation Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying Talking to Your Partner About ... Normal? Male Reproductive System Sexual Attraction and Orientation Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying Talking to Your Partner About ...
Steroid treatment of fish species prior to sexual differentiation changes the developing gonad. Administration of steroids via the diet produces a higher percentage of sexually inverted individuals than other methods. However, hormone-enriched commercial diets are unsuitable for larvae of fish species, such as yellow perch, that require live diets (such as Artemia) during the time of sexual differentiation. Steroids have
A. B Stewart; A. V Spicer; E. K Inskeep; R. A Dailey
The proper development of fruits is important for the sexual reproduction and propagation of many plant species. The fruit of Arabidopsis derives from the fertilized gynoecium, which initiates at the center of the flower and obtains its final shape, size, and functional tissues through progressive stages of development. Hormones, specially auxins, play important roles in gynoecium and fruit patterning. Cytokinins, which act as counterparts to auxins in other plant tissues, have been studied more in the context of ovule formation and parthenocarpy. We recently studied the role of cytokinins in gynoecium and fruit patterning and found that they have more than one role during gynoecium and fruit patterning. We also compared the cytokinin response localization to the auxin response localization in these organs, and studied the effects of spraying cytokinins in young flowers of an auxin response line. In this addendum, we discuss further the implications of the observed results in the knowledge about the relationship between cytokinins and auxins at the gynoecium.
Marsch-Martinez, Nayelli; Reyes-Olalde, J. Irepan; Ramos-Cruz, Daniela; Lozano-Sotomayor, Paulina; Zuniga-Mayo, Victor M.; de Folter, Stefan
Inducement of estrus in sheep for obtaining early lambs out of seasons still represents a problem despite much research due to very different and frequently unsatisfactory results. A study was undertaken to establish how different combinations of sexual a...
The menopausal transition is associated with significant psychosocial changes and dramatic alterations in the internal hormonal milieu, which may be associated with negative affects on sexual interest and activity. While one-third of women report sexual activity for nonsexual reasons, two-thirdsmaintain sexual interest and satisfaction through the menopausal transition. Although the percentage of women with low desire increases with age, because
Background: Not only the most frequent causes of endocrine sexual dysfunction, such as hypogonadism and hyperprolactinemia, but almost all extragonadal endocrinopathies (hyper- and hypothyroidism, hyper- and hypocortisolism, steroidal secreting tumors, etc.) may have a greater or lesser effect on sexual function. Methods: We analyzed scientific literature on the correlations between hormones and sexual behavior, analyzing the most important issue from
Giancarlo Balercia; Marco Boscaro; Francesco Lombardo; Eleonora Carosa; Andrea Lenzi; Emmanuele A. Jannini
The widely used herbicide, atrazine, has been reported to exhibit reproductive toxicity in rats and amphibians. The present studies investigate toxicity of atrazine in Japanese quail and its ability to influence reproduction in sexually immature females. Atrazine was administered in the diet at co...
Phthalate ester-induced gubernacular ligament lesions are associated with reduced Insl3 gene expression in the fetal rat testis during sexual differentiation. Vickie S Wilson, Christy Lambright, Johnathan Furr, Joseph Ostby, Carmen Wood, Gary Held, L.Earl Gray Jr. U.S. EPA,...
Theoretical and empirical linkages of adult women’s sexual interest and sexual behaviors are relatively well-established, but few data address similar issues in adolescent women. This paper reviews data from published reports of associations of adolescent women’s sexual interest and various sexual behaviors. All of the papers reported data collected from a single longitudinal cohort of young women. The primary source of data collection was daily diaries, allowing close temporal pairing of sexual interest with sexual behaviors. Young women’s sexual interest on a given day was consistently and independently associated with sexual activity on that day, whether the behavior was first lifetime coitus, coitus, fellatio, cunnilingus, anal intercourse, or coitus during menses. We also found no evidence of influence of hormonal contraceptives on young women’s sexual interest. Taken together, these data demonstrate the relevance of sexual interest as a key factor in young women’s sexuality and sexual behavior.
When administered to postpubescent male rats, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) decreases plasma androgen concentrations. If such an androgenic deficiency were produced prenatally and/or early postnatally it could impair sexual differentiation of the central nervous system (CNS) and thereby alter male reproductive function. To examine this possibility, sexually dimorphic functions were assessed in male rats born to dams given TCDD (0.064, 0.16, 0.40, and 1.0 micrograms/kg, po) or vehicle on Day 15 of gestation. Masculine sexual behavior was assessed at approximately 60, 75, and 115 days of age. When TCDD-exposed males were caged with receptive control females their mount, intromission, and ejaculation latencies were far longer than normal; these effects were dose-related and were statistically significant at maternal doses as low as 0.16, 0.064, and 0.16 micrograms TCDD/kg, respectively. The numbers of mounts and intromissions to ejaculation were slightly increased by TCDD, while copulatory rates [(mounts+intromissions)/min] were significantly decreased at the three highest maternal doses. Except for a modest increase at the higher doses, TCDD had little effect on the postejaculatory interval. Following assessment of their masculine sexual behavior, the males were castrated and 6 weeks later tested for feminine sexual behavior (lordosis). After being primed with estradiol benzoate and treated with progesterone, males displayed dose-related increases in lordosis quotient and lordosis intensity in response to being mounted by another male. These effects were statistically significant at maternal doses as low as 0.16 and 0.40 micrograms TCDD/kg, respectively. To determine if perinatal TCDD exposure alters the sexually dimorphic regulation of luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion, the LH secretory responsiveness of the hypothalamic/pituitary axis to ovarian steroids was assessed. In unexposed, gonadectomized female rats primed with estradiol benzoate, progesterone injection produced a surge in plasma LH concentrations, whereas in similarly treated control males, plasma LH concentrations were unaffected by progesterone. In castrated, estradiol benzoate-primed male rats that were perinatally exposed to TCDD, progesterone treatment produced dose-related increases in plasma LH concentrations that were statistically significant at the two highest maternal doses. We conclude that in utero and lactational exposure to small amounts of TCDD demasculinizes and feminizes male rats. These effects cannot be accounted for by TCDD-induced hypophagia, modest reductions in adult plasma androgen concentrations, possible nonspecific changes in motor activity, or possible reductions in penile sensitivity to sexual stimulation. The altered sexual behaviors and LH secretion were observed when nearly all TCDD had been excreted (as evidenced by uninduced hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1585363
4-MBC and 3-BC were found to be preferential estrogen receptor beta ligands (in collab. with H. Jarry and W. Wuttke). Both chemicals delayed the onset of puberty in males. In adult rat offspring, the expression of estrogen target genes was altered in uterus and prostate at mRNA and protein levels. The sensitivity of target genes to the natural hormone, estradiol,
Many men, especially as they age, have sexual problems. These can include Erectile dysfunction Reduced or lost interest in sex Problems with ejaculation Failure of the testicles to make the normal amount of male sex hormones Stress, illness, medications, or emotional ...
Sexual dysfunction is defined as a disturbance in the sexual response cycle or as a pain with sexual intercourse. The prevalence of sexual dysfunctions is approximately 40% in the female population. The disorders affecting sexual desire are the most common sexual dysfunctions encountered in women. Whereas recent studies have demonstrated clear influences of hormones on sexual dysfunctions, no pharmacological treatment has been approved for that indication. We will review here several pharmacological treatment strategies proposed in case of sexual dysfunction, underlying the fact that they are effective only to treat specific cases of sexual disorders but cannot replace the sex therapies. PMID:15856845
Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco; De Ziegler, Dominique
... experiences, free of coercion, discrimination and violence.  Sexual Health News & Information HHS Statement on LGBT Health Awareness ... infectious diseases, reproductive health and sexual violence prevention. Sexual Health Topics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Up-to-date information ...
Sexuality and its resultant consequences continue to be major issues for adolescents and for those who provide their health care. This article discusses current sexual behavior in adolescents and describes the various forms of hormonal contraception that sexually active adolescents should use. PMID:9400578
Steroid hormones substantially influence brain development, reproduction sexual differentiation and emotion. These effects are mediated by steroid hormone receptors and cofactors, which directly regulate gene expression. Deciphering how and where these transcriptional activators occur in a cell provides the groundwork for elucidating the influence of these small hydrophobic signal molecules on various brain functions. This paper describes some of the
The Sexuality Research Information Service (SRIS), recently launched by The Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction, centralizes and disseminates current research findings related to four sexual well-being issues: Adolescent Sexual Behavior, High Risk Sexual Behavior, Male Sexual Response, and Reproductive Hormones and Women's Sexuality and Emotional Well-Being. For each of the four topics, SRIS provides researchers, policymakers, and health care professionals with a fully searchable bibliographic database of selected, current research citations. Many of the detailed citations also include abstracts and commentaries written by specialists at The Kinsey Institute. The databases support a complex search mode that allows users to tag citations and export them to a bibliographic management tool such as ProCite or EndNote (requires a free plug-in, RIS, available at the site).
The importance of brain pathology, sex hormones, sadism, alcohol/drug abuse and history of aggression in predicting dangerousness in sexually aggressive offenders was studied. Subjects included 16 patients charged with rape and 16 normal controls. It was ...
Animal research has demonstrated the modifiability of sex-dimorphic mating behavior by hormone and brain manipulation, especially in subprimate mammals, and has led to radical attempts at treating human homosexuality by psychosurgery and to the suggestion of preventing homosexuality by prenatal hormone manipulation. This article reviews psychoendocrine studies of human homosexuality — the effects of hormone treatments on sexual orientation, the
Sex hormones such as estrogen and testosterone are essential for sexually dimorphic behaviors in vertebrates. However, the hormone-activated molecular mechanisms that control the development and function of the underlying neural circuits remain poorly defined. We have identified numerous sexually dimorphic gene expression patterns in the adult mouse hypothalamus and amygdala. We find that adult sex hormones regulate these expression patterns in a sex-specific, regionally restricted manner, suggesting that these genes regulate sex typical behaviors. Indeed, we find that mice with targeted disruptions of each of four of these genes (Brs3, Cckar, Irs4, Sytl4) exhibit extremely specific deficits in sex specific behaviors, with single genes controlling the pattern or extent of male sexual behavior, male aggression, maternal behavior, or female sexual behavior. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that various components of sexually dimorphic behaviors are governed by separable genetic programs. PMID:22304924
Xu, Xiaohong; Coats, Jennifer K; Yang, Cindy F; Wang, Amy; Ahmed, Osama M; Alvarado, Maricruz; Izumi, Tetsuro; Shah, Nirao M
SUMMARY Sex hormones such as estrogen and testosterone are essential for sexually dimorphic behaviors in vertebrates. However, the hormone-activated molecular mechanisms that control the development and function of the underlying neural circuits remain poorly defined. We have identified numerous sexually dimorphic gene expression patterns in the adult mouse hypothalamus and amygdala. We find that adult sex hormones regulate these expression patterns in a sex-specific, regionally-restricted manner, suggesting that these genes regulate sex typical behaviors. Indeed, we find that mice with targeted disruptions of each of four of these genes (Brs3, Cckar, Irs4, Sytl4) exhibit extremely specific deficits in sex specific behaviors, with single genes controlling the pattern or extent of male sexual behavior, male aggression, maternal behavior, or female sexual behavior. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that various components of sexually dimorphic behaviors are governed by separable genetic programs.
Xu, Xiaohong; Coats, Jennifer K.; Yang, Cindy F.; Wang, Amy; Ahmed, Osama M.; Alvarado, Maricruz; Izumi, Tetsuro; Shah, Nirao M.
Hormones are produced and released from endocrine glands directly into the bloodstream and transported to distant tissues. They direct physiological processes to maintain homeostasis and direct growth, developmental, and reproduction. Hormone secretion is regulated by genetic and environmental inp...
A person’s sex can be considered across various levels. To illustrate, genes, hormones, and genitalia can all be considered physical markers of a person’s sex. In addition to physical markers, behaviors such as gender role, gender identity and sexual orientation can be perceived as stereotypically male or female. The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge of sexual
In the twentieth century, the dominant model of sexual differentiation stated that genetic sex (XX versus XY) causes differentiation of the gonads, which then secrete gonadal hormones that act directly on tissues to induce sex differences in function. This serial model of sexual differentiation was simple, unifying and seductive. Recent evidence, however, indicates that the linear model is incorrect and
Proposes that the classification of homosexuality as hereditary or constitutional vs. acquired is outmoded. It is suggested that the differentiation should be between chronic, obligative, or essential vs. transient, facultative, or optional. Cytogenetics and statistical genetics do not elucidate etiology, but new research on fetal hormonal differentiation of sexual morphology, and especially of sexually dimorphic hypothalamic differentiation offers promising leads.
Drawing on physiological research, this study explores disclosures after sexual activity, or “pillow talk.” Oxytocin, better known as the “bonding hormone,” has been associated with physical affection and intimacy. While the hormone was originally studied for its role in childbirth, recent work has started to explore oxytocin's other effects, such as decreasing stress, decreasing perceptions of social threat, increasing bonding,
In this paper I explpore what is currently known about sexual dimorphisms of the human brain and the developmental processes that produce them. Specifically, I focus on how genetic information brings about changes in the prenatal and neonatal hormonal environment, how that hormonal environment aects developing neural structures, and what the ultimate results of those changes are.
Sexual differentiation of reproductive and behavior patterns is largely effected by hormones produced by the gonads. In many higher vertebrates, an integral part of this process is the induction of permanent and essentially irreversible sex differences in central nervous function, in response to gonadal hormones secreted early in development.
Purpose Sexual health refers a state of lifespan well-being related to sexuality. Among young people, sexual health has multiple dimensions, including the positive developmental contributions of sexuality, as well as the acquisition of skills pertinent to avoiding adverse sexual outcomes such as unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Existing efforts to understand sexual health, however, have yet to empirically operationalize a multi-dimensional model of sexual health and to evaluate its association to different sexual/prevention behaviors. Methods Sexual health dimensions and sexual/prevention behaviors were drawn from a larger longitudinal cohort study of sexual relationships among adolescent women (N =387, 14–17 years). Second order latent variable modeling (AMOS/19.0) evaluated the relationship between sexual health and dimensions and analyzed the effect of sexual health to sexual/prevention outcomes. Results All first order latent variables were significant indicators of sexual health (?: 0.192 – 0.874, all p < .001). Greater sexual health was significantly associated with sexual abstinence, as well as with more frequent non-coital and vaginal sex, condom use at last sex, a higher proportion of condom-protected events, use of hormonal or other methods of pregnancy control and absence of STI. All models showed good fit. Conclusions Sexual health is an empirically coherent structure, in which the totality of its dimensions is significantly linked to a wide range of outcomes, including sexual abstinence, condom use and absence of STI. This means that, regardless of a young person’s experiences, sexual health is an important construct for promoting positive sexual development and for primary prevention.
Sexual health Basics In-Depth Multimedia Expert Answers Resources What's New Sexual health By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http://www. ... not share your e-mail address Sign up Sexual health basics Sexuality is part of being human. Love, ...
|This paper sets out the legal grounds for sexual harassment claims in education settings, and notes a number of pertinent cases that are illustrative of common legal and factual issues. Sexual harassment, including sexual abuse, is prohibited by federal and state statutes. Sexual harassment in the context of employment constitutes employment…
Sexual dysfunction is a complaint of 30-50% of American women. Aside from hormone replacement therapy, there are no current FDA-approved medical treatments for female sexual complaints. The goal of this pilot study was to determine safety and efficacy of sildenafil for use in women with sexual arousal disorder (SAD). Evaluations were completed on 48 women with complaints of SAD. Physiologic
Jennifer R. Berman; Laura A. Berman; H. Lin; E. Flaherty; N. Lahey; Irwin Goldstein; Jean Cantey-Kiser
\\u000a Hormone transport in plants is a fundamental process governing all aspects of plant development. Identification and functional\\u000a analysis of plasma membrane proteins, which regulate the import and export of plant hormones, is a requirement if we are to\\u000a develop a systems biology level understanding of these processes. For several plant hormones, the characterization of the\\u000a transporters has produced remarkable steps
The term “internet sexuality” (or OSA, online sexual activities) refers to sexual-related content and activities observable on the internet (cf. Adams, Oye, & Parker, 2003; Cooper, McLoughlin, & Campbell, 2000; Leiblum & Döring, 2002). It designates a variety of sexual phenomena (e.g., pornography, sex education, sexual contacts) related to a wide spectrum of online services and applications (e.g., websites, online chat rooms, peer-to-peer networks). If an even broader range of computer networks - such as the Usenet or bulletin board systems - is included in this extensional definition, one speaks of “online sexuality” or “cybersexuality.”
Despite the high prevalence of sexual problems in women, relatively few clinical trials have been conducted to date of either vasoactive drugs (e.g., sildenafil, apomorphine) or hormone replacement therapy or a combination of the two on sexual function problems in women. This article addresses the key conceptual and methodological issues to be addressed in clinical trials, particularly in the area
Sex in birds is determined genetically, as in mammals. However, in birds, female is the heterogametic sex (ZW), while the male is homogametic (ZZ). Although the exact mechanism of avian sex determination is still unclear, genes on one or both of the sex chromosomes must control sexual differentiation of the embryonic gonads into testes or ovaries, and eventually all other sexually dimorphic features. In this review of disorders of sexual development in poultry, we focus upon the gonads and external dimorphisms. Abnormalities of sexual development in poultry can be broadly divided into 2 types: those due to disturbances in sex hormone production by the gonads, and those due to abnormal inheritance of sex chromosomes. Recent studies on gynandromorphic chickens (half male, half female) point to the importance of genetic over hormonal factors in controlling sexual development in fowl. PMID:22094263
Premature menopause, that is, menopause - spontaneous or iatrogenic - occurring at or before the age of 40 years, affects sexual identity, sexual function and sexual relationships. The woman's health, wellbeing and achievement of life's goals may be variably impaired. Factors modulating the individual's sexual outcome after premature menopause include: etiological heterogeneity of premature menopause and associated medical and sexual comorbidities; psychosexual vulnerability to premature menopause and associated infertility in survivors of childhood and adolescent cancers; impact of premature menopause on women's sexual identity, sexual function - particularly the biological basis of desire, arousal, orgasm and vaginal receptivity - and sexual relationships; partner-related factors; fertility issues; and preventive/therapeutic measures. Hormone therapy is indicated but long-term safety data are lacking. An interdisciplinary medical and psychosexual approach comprises appropriate counseling, fertility protection, when feasible, individualized hormone therapy and specific psychosexual treatment(s). Further research on fertility protection and the safety of long-term hormone therapy after premature menopause is needed. PMID:19804022
Sex steroids play major roles in vertebrate sexual differentiation. Unexpectedly, we now find that exposure to elevated levels of the naturally occurring stress hormone cortisol can also masculinize sexually dimorphic morphological characters and behaviour in adult female mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) in a dose-dependent manner. Females masculinized by cortisol developed elongated anal fins with distal tip features similar to those of mature males. Most masculinized females also attempted to copulate when placed with normal females. Although the mechanism of masculinization is currently unknown, we propose a role for an enzyme that both inactivates cortisol and catalyzes the final step in synthesis of a major teleost androgen. This mechanism may also help explain some previously reported effects of stress on sexual development across vertebrate taxa. Our findings underscore the need to understand the full range of chemicals, both naturally occurring hormones and human-produced endocrine disruptors, that can influence sexual differentiation and reproductive function.
Knapp, Rosemary; Marsh-Matthews, Edie; Vo, Luanne; Rosencrans, Sarah
Sex steroids play major roles in vertebrate sexual differentiation. Unexpectedly, we now find that exposure to elevated levels of the naturally occurring stress hormone cortisol can also masculinize sexually dimorphic morphological characters and behaviour in adult female mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) in a dose-dependent manner. Females masculinized by cortisol developed elongated anal fins with distal tip features similar to those of mature males. Most masculinized females also attempted to copulate when placed with normal females. Although the mechanism of masculinization is currently unknown, we propose a role for an enzyme that both inactivates cortisol and catalyzes the final step in synthesis of a major teleost androgen. This mechanism may also help explain some previously reported effects of stress on sexual development across vertebrate taxa. Our findings underscore the need to understand the full range of chemicals, both naturally occurring hormones and human-produced endocrine disruptors, that can influence sexual differentiation and reproductive function. PMID:20659923
Knapp, Rosemary; Marsh-Matthews, Edie; Vo, Luanne; Rosencrans, Sarah
... can affect the ability to have or enjoy sex in both men and women. Concerns about infertility ... addition, a number of diseases and disorders affect sexual health. These include sexually transmitted diseases and cancer. In ...
Species that employ sexual reproduction must synchronize gamete maturity with behavior within and between genders. Teleost\\u000a fishes solve this challenge by using reproductive hormones both as endogenous signals to synchronize sexual behavior with\\u000a gamete maturation, and as exogenous signals (pheromones) to synchronize spawning interactions between fish. This dual role\\u000a of hormonal products is best understood in the goldfish, an external
Makito Kobayashi; Peter W. Sorensen; Norm E. Stacey
Sexual conflict occurs when the genetic interests of males and females diverge. Recent evidence supporting the view that male and female genomes are in conflict has now revolutionized the way in which we interpret interactions between the sexes, and suggests that sexual conflict is a potent force in male–female coevolution. Here, we consider the nature of sexual conflict and what
The number of persons with drug induced sexual dysfunction has risen simultaneously with the unending increase in the number of commercially available drugs. Sexual dysfunction may seriously impair the human psyche. Patients do not often admit to sexual dysfunction, however, so physicians often miss the symptoms entirely. In addition, they may attribute them to other causes, such as depression. Drugs disrupt all 3 neurophysiologic phases of sexual response (desire, excitement, and orgasm), especially in men, either causing a decrease or loss of libido, impotence (the most common symptom), or failure of ejaculation or anorgasmia. The mechanisms involved are not well understood. Researchers do know, however, that the drug cimetidine (Tagamet) blocks androgen receptors, decreases testosterone synthesis, and induces higher circulating levels of estradiol resulting in impotence and breast enlargement in men. Antihypertensive drugs have a higher frequency of causing sexual dysfunction, particularly impotence, than other drugs. Some also induce or worsen depression that can in turn cause or intensify sexual dysfunction. Both legal and illegal psychoactive drugs act on multiple sites thus often stimulating sexual dysfunction. Further, some hormonal drugs also induce sexual side effects, such as norethindrone and progesterone. Physicians who prescribe a drug associated with sexual side effects should inform patients about their possible occurrence and recommend that they be aware of the symptoms. They should ask these patients do not usually offer this information themselves. If sexual dysfunction develops, physicians can reduce the dosage or switch to an alternative drug. At that time, they should express optimism that the sexual dysfunction will cease. PMID:12316940
Hypoactive sexual desire disorder is the most common cause of sexual dysfunction in women. According to a national survey, approximately a third of all women experience low sexual desire. The etiology of the disorder is often multifactorial. Research in treatment options for hypoactive sexual desire disorder is limited. In this article, treatment options including sex therapy, hormone therapy (estrogen, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, tibolone), non-hormonal medical therapies (buproprion, buspirone, phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, amantadine and apomorphine) and herbal therapies (Avlimil(R), Arginmax(R), Zestra(R), yohimbine and Ginkgo biloba) are reviewed. PMID:19803843
For several decades, hormone replacement therapies have been prescribed to women, not only to prevent disease but to improve the sexual functioning of menopausal women. The medical promotion of continued sexual activity in a woman's post?reproductive years is exported to locations outside of North America and Europe, which provides an opportunity to critically examine the cultural roots that have informed
It is noticeable that he always had an interest in sexuality Marañón. It must be noted that at the time this included a series of processes that now have become separated from it, as all human reproduction, both from a social standpoint as a scientist or political issues and problems in speaking so very active. But specifically, referring to the current concept of sexuality, much to Marañón investigated because, following the ideas of Freud, then in vogue, I wanted to know the importance that the hormones, newly discovered, had on the brain and the human personality. It is quite possible to believe that there is a brain chemistry that modulate the individual's character, against the prevailing idea among psychiatrists of his time. So his research with adrenaline on the behavior had a huge impact. Interested in the morphological evolution of sex and sexuality from birth to old age, remain valid provided knowledge about the process of sexual maturation and decline, menopause, or rather the climacteric, as rightly he called that period of time. He also made a deep study and systematization of the pathology adel origin and evolution of sex, in which he listed as intersex, both anatomically and functionally and psychic. Because he was always interested in the relationship of human behavior, the development of your body or endocrine constitution and personality. This is reflected in their psychobiographies as the paradigm "Bioassay of Henry IV of Castile and his time". PMID:21877403
... on your cancer type, your doctor may prescribe estrogen replacement therapy — also called hormone therapy for menopause — to reduce the sexual side effects you experience. Topical estrogen creams applied to the vaginal area can also ...
\\u000a Chapter 3 provides readers with an explanation of the issues related to sexuality in schools. The first section defines sexual\\u000a orientation, behavior, and identity and several related terms that are important for education professionals to understand.\\u000a The second section explores contemporary youth sexualities and some of the various identities embraced by youth today. The\\u000a third section gives a brief history
\\u000a Human growth hormone (hGH) is a proteohormone secreted by the pituitary gland. It acts through binding to the hGH receptor,\\u000a inducing either direct effects or initiating the production of insulin-like growth-factor I (IGF-I), the most important mediator\\u000a of hGH effects. Growth hormone is primarily known to promote longitudinal growth in children and adolescents, but has also\\u000a various important metabolic functions
The potential adverse consequences, personal distress, shame and guilt presented by patients who suffer from sexual addiction require a more in-depth understanding of the phenomenology and psychobiology of this disorder. Methods: A bibliographic review was conducted using MEDLINE and EBSCO databases with the following keywords: "sexual addiction," "hypersexuality," "compulsive sexual behavior," "behavioural addiction," "treatment," and "addiction." Results: Several conceptualizations of excessive nonparaphilic sexual disorder have been proposed based on the models of, respectively, obsessive compulsive disorder, impulse control disorder, out of control excessive sexual disorder, and addictive disorder. Despite the lack of robust scientific data, a number of clinical elements, such as the frequent preoccupation with this type of behavior, the time spent in sexual activities, the continuation of this behavior despite its negative consequences, the repeated and unsuccessful efforts made to reduce the behavior, are in favor of an addictive disorder. In addition there is a high comorbidity between excessive sexual behavior and other addictive behaviors. Conclusion: The phenomenology of excessive nonparaphilic sexual disorder favors its conceptualization as an addictive behavior, rather than an obsessive-compulsive, or an impulse control disorder. Moreover, the criteria that are quite close to those of addictive disorders were recently proposed for the future DSM-V in order to improve the characterization of this condition. Finally, controlled studies are warranted in order to establish clear guidelines for treatment of sexual addiction. PMID:20666699
Male hormonal contraception has been shown to confer reversible infertility for at least one year; however, while clinical trials refine hormonal regimens, their acceptability, cultural meanings, and implications for study of men's sexualities remain under examined. This paper presents findings from interviews conducted with men and their female partners in a male hormonal contraception clinical trial in Jakarta and Palembang,
Harris Solomon; Kathryn M. Yount; Michael T. Mbizvo
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists are underutilized in patients seeking diminution of problematic sexual drives. This chapter reviews the literature on surgical castration of sex offenders, anti-androgen use and the rationale for providing androgen deprivation therapy, rather than selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or more conservative interventions, for patients with paraphilias and excessive sexual drive. Discussions of informed consent, side effects, contraindications and case examples are provided. PMID:22005210
Houts, Frederick W; Taller, Inna; Tucker, Douglas E; Berlin, Fred S
1.1. Sexual dimorphism of human brain anatomy has not been well-studied between 4 and 18 years of age, a time of emerging sex differences in behavior and the sexually specific hormonal changes of adrenarche (the predominantly androgenic augmentation of adrenal cortex function occurring at approximately age 8) and puberty.2.2. To assess sex differences in brain structures during this developmental period
Jay N. Giedd; F. Xavier Castellanos; Jagath C. Rajapakse; A. Catherine Vaituzis; Judith L. Rapoport
Aim: We describe the clinical features of a 6-year-old boy with sexual precocity caused by a somatic activating mutation of the luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor gene preceding gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-dependent sexual precocity. Study Design: Genomic DNA was extracted from the right testis and from the peripheral leukocytes followed by DNA amplification and sequencing of the LH receptor gene. We described
Daniela Kiepe; Annette Richter-Unruh; Frank Autschbach; Markus Kessler; Jens Peter Schenk; Markus Bettendorf
MENU Return to Web version Menopause | Hormone Replacement Therapy What is hormone replacement therapy? Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is a type of treatment where the body is given hormones to prevent ...
... to experiences of sexual assault or repeated, threatening sexual harassment that a Veteran experienced during his or her ... sexual nature, battery of a sexual nature, or sexual harassment which occurred while the Veteran was serving on ...
This article discusses the accumulating evidence that some synthetic chemicals disrupt hormones in one way or another. Some mimic estrogen and others interfere with other parts of the body`s control or endocrine system such as testosterone and thyroid metabolism. Included are PCBs, dioxins, furans, atrazine, DDT. Several short sidebars highlight areas where there are or have been particular problems.
Female sexual complaints are common, occurring in approximately 40 percent of women. Decreased desire is the most common complaint. Normal versus abnormal sexual functioning in women is poorly understood, although the concept of normal female sexual function continues to develop. A complete history combined with a physical examination is warranted for the evaluation of women with sexual complaints or concerns. Although laboratory evaluation is rarely helpful in guiding diagnosis or treatment, it may be indicated in women with abnormal physical examination findings or suspected comorbidities. The PLISSIT (Permission, Limited Information, Specific Suggestions, Intensive Therapy) or ALLOW (Ask, Legitimize, Limitations, Open up, Work together) method can be used to facilitate discussions about sexual concerns and initiation of treatment. Developments in the treatment of male erectile dysfunction have led to investigation of pharmacotherapy for the treatment of female sexual dysfunction. Although sexual therapy and education (e.g., cognitive behavior therapy, individual and couple therapy, physiotherapy) form the basis of treatment, there is limited research demonstrating the benefit of hormonal and nonhormonal drugs. Testosterone improves sexual function in postmenopausal women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder, although data on its long-term safety and effectiveness are lacking. Estrogen improves dyspareunia associated with vulvovaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors have been shown to have limited benefit in small subsets of women with sexual dysfunction. PMID:18350761
Frank, Jennifer E; Mistretta, Patricia; Will, Joshua
Competition over mates takes many forms and has far-reaching consequences for many organisms. Recent work suggests that relative reproductive rates of males and females, sperm competition and quality variation among mates affect the strength of sexual selection. Song, other display, body size, visual ornaments and material resource offerings are often sexually selected. There is much empirical evidence of mate choice,
Despite shifts toward greater acceptance in U.S. public opinion and policy, lesbian, gay, and bisexual people remain widely stigmatized. This article reviews empirical research on sexual prejudice, that is, heterosexuals' internalization of cultural stigma, manifested in the form of negative attitudes toward sexual minorities and same-sex desires and behaviors. After briefly reviewing measurement issues, we discuss linkages between sexual prejudice and religion, gender, sexuality, and related variables, and consider how the cultural institutions encompassing these domains create a social context within which individual expressions of prejudice can meet important psychological needs. These include needs for securing social acceptance, affirming values that are central to one's self-concept, and avoiding anxiety and other negative emotions associated with threats to self-esteem. We conclude by discussing factors that may motivate heterosexuals to reduce their own sexual prejudice, including intergroup contact, as well as avenues for future empirical inquiry. PMID:22994920
Recent studies from our laboratory have investigated the hormonal response to various forms of sexual stimulation, including film, masturbation, and coitus in both men and women. This series of studies clearly demonstrated that plasma prolactin (PRL) concentrations are substantially increased for over 1h following orgasm (masturbation and coitus conditions) in both men and women, but unchanged following sexual arousal without
Tillmann H. C Krüger; Philip Haake; Uwe Hartmann; Manfred Schedlowski; Michael S Exton
A wide variety of sexual dimorphisms, structural differences between the sexes, have been described in the brains of many vertebrate species, including humans. In animal models of neural sexual dimorphism, gonadal steroid hormones, specifically androgens, play a crucial role in engendering these differences by masculinizing the nervous system of males. Usually, the androgen must act early in life, often during
Bradley Cooke; Carol D. Hegstrom; Loic S. Villeneuve; S. Marc Breedlove
Sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior occurs as the result of prenatal hormonal influences. The fact that the brain is gendered from before birth means that psychodynamic paradigms of women's development must be modernized. This article discusses extra-analytic observations that we need to consider in constructing an up-to-date psychodynamic theory of women's sexuality. PMID:19591560
Introduction. Sleep disturbances are a frequent complaint in women and are often attributed to hormonal fluctua- tions during the menstrual cycle. Rodents have been used as models to examine the effects of sleep deprivation on hormonal and behavioral changes. Among the many comorbidities common to sleep disorders, sexual behavior remains the least well studied. Aim. To determine whether paradoxical sleep
Monica L. Andersen; Tathiana A. F. Alvarenga; Camila Guindalini; Juliana C. Perry; Andressa Silva; Adriano Zager; Sergio Tufik
Previous research suggests that sexual stimuli increase testosterone (T) in women and shows inconsistent effects of sexual arousal on cortisol (C), but effects of cognitive aspects of arousal, rather than behaviors or sensory stimuli, are unclear. The present study examined whether sexual thoughts affect T or C and whether hormonal contraceptive (HC) use moderated this effect, given mixed findings of
Beyond the usual perversions Freud described and psychiatric nosography, some new sexual behaviours are nowadays coming to light, with a view to overstepping limits, and this in a mood for provoking, if not transgressing! As with classic perversions, the very play, the ambiguity with sexual difference, seems to be the very game and not the classic denial of this difference. PMID:15123102
Phytohormones are low molecular weight compounds that are produced by plants to regulate growth and development and also in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. The quantitative analysis of these molecules, which is essential for a better understanding of their physiological functions, is still particularly challenging due to their very low abundance in plant tissues. In this chapter, a rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for the quantification of acidic plant hormones is described. A fast and simple extraction procedure without purification or derivatization was devised, followed by optimized ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis. The analytical procedure was validated in terms of selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, precision, recovery, and matrix effects. This protocol facilitates the high-throughput analysis of the main plant hormones and is applicable as a routine tool for a wide range of research fields such as plant-pathogen interactions, mutant screening, or plant development. PMID:24057388
\\u000a Growth hormone (GH) is secreted by the anterior pituitary in a pulsatile pattern. Multiple GH isotypes and oligomers exist\\u000a in plasma in addition to the predominant 22 kD protein.Minor isoforms do not change uniquely in response to exercise. GH activates\\u000a cells by dimerizing receptors and triggering a cascade ofphosphorylation reactions that signal to the nucleus.
With the progressive increase in the proportion of older people, there is an increasing interest in characterizing the modifications of sexual health and the effect of its perturbations as a function of the aging process. The aim of this review is to summarize the available evidence regarding the age-dependent modifications of male sexual function and their interaction with general health and age-dependent modification of endocrine function. Elderly patients are often affected by multiple organic diseases which can interfere with sexual function. Despite this evidence, several studies have indicated that, with advancing age, normal erections are not an absolute prerequisite to remain sexually active. Good physical health, the availability of a partner, and a regular and stable pattern of sexual activity earlier in life predict the maintenance of sexual activity in old age. Conversely, there are no convincing data that hormonal changes, associated with aging, have a primary role in underlying changes in sexual function in healthy aging men. Nonetheless, sexual dysfunctions especially in elderly people are poor investigated. Asking about sexual health remains difficult or embarrassing for many primary care physicians. In addition, many patients find it difficult to raise sexual issues with their doctor. This situation often results in sexual issues not being adequately addressed thus resulting in depression, social withdrawal and delayed diagnosis of underlying medical conditions often resulting in forthcoming cardiovascular events. Education and permission from a health care professional may help to alter such misconceptions. Information from physicians regarding normal age-related changes in sexuality and encouragement, together with advice on how to continue meaningful sexual relations, may play a key role in altering such negative attitudes. PMID:24054932
Corona, Giovanni; Rastrelli, Giulia; Maseroli, Elisa; Forti, Gianni; Maggi, Mario
Male sexual dysfunction (MSD) is a common disorder associated with a wide range of physical and psychological conditions. Erectile dysfunction, the most commonly studied aspect of MSD, is common and increases with age and with certain comorbid conditions. The pathophysiology of ED and other forms of MSD can be traced to a variety of etiologies, including vascular, hormonal, psychiatric, iatrogenic
Homework assignments continue to be the most effective way of optimizing therapeutic gains in the treatment of sexual dysfunctions.\\u000a Some of the treatments for sexual dysfunctions, including the use of homework, have been scientifically supported. Other treatments\\u000a have been used with varying degrees of reported efficacy but have not been empirically validated. Nonetheless, sex therapy\\u000a homework typically involves a combination
Intralocus sexual conflict occurs when a trait encoded by the same genetic locus in the two sexes has different optima in males and females. Such conflict is widespread across taxa, however, the shared phenotypic traits that mediate the conflict are largely unknown. We examined whether the sex hormone, testosterone (T), that controls sexual differentiation, contributes to sexually antagonistic fitness variation in the bank vole, Myodes glareolus. We compared (opposite-sex) sibling reproductive fitness in the bank vole after creating divergent selection lines for T. This study shows that selection for T was differentially associated with son versus daughter reproductive success, causing a negative correlation in fitness between full siblings. Our results demonstrate the presence of intralocus sexual conflict for fitness in this small mammal and that sexually antagonistic selection is acting on T. We also found a negative correlation in fitness between parents and their opposite-sex progeny (e.g. father–daughter), highlighting a dilemma for females, as the indirect genetic benefits of selecting reproductively successful males (high T) are lost with daughters. We discuss mechanisms that may mitigate this disparity between progeny quality.
Both sexual orientation and sex-typical childhood behaviors, such as toy, playmate and activity preferences, show substantial sex differences, as well as substantial variability within each sex. In other species, behaviors that show sex differences are typically influenced by exposure to gonadal steroids, particularly testosterone and its metabolites, during early development (prenatally or neonatally). This article reviews the evidence regarding prenatal influences of gonadal steroids on human sexual orientation, as well as sex-typed childhood behaviors that predict subsequent sexual orientation. The evidence supports a role for prenatal testosterone exposure in the development of sex-typed interests in childhood, as well as in sexual orientation in later life, at least for some individuals. It appears, however, that other factors, in addition to hormones, play an important role in determining sexual orientation. These factors have not been well-characterized, but possibilities include direct genetic effects, and effects of maternal factors during pregnancy. Although a role for hormones during early development has been established, it also appears that there may be multiple pathways to a given sexual orientation outcome and some of these pathways may not involve hormones.
Background Atrazine (ATR), a commonly used herbicide in the United States, is widely distributed in water and soil because of its mobility through ecosystems and its persistence in the environment. ATR has been associated with defects in sexual development in animals, but studies on mammalian systems have failed to clearly identify a cellular target. Objectives Our goal in this study was to identify a ligand-binding receptor for ATR in pituitary cells that may explain the mechanism of action at the gene expression level. Methods We used pituitary cells from postnatal day 7 male rats and pituitary cell lines to study the effect of ATR on gene expression of growth hormone (GH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and prolactin (PRL) at RNA and protein levels. 14C-ATR was used to determine its specific binding to the growth hormone–releasing hormone receptor (GHRHR). The effect of ATR on structural proteins was visualized using immunofluorescent in situ staining. Results The treatment of rat pituitary cells with ATR, at environmentally relevant concentrations (1 ppb and 1 ppm), resulted in a reduction of GH expression. This effect appeared to result from the inhibition of GH gene transcription due to ATR binding to the GHRHR of the pituitary cells. Conclusions Identification of GHRHR as the target of ATR is consistent with the myriad effects previously reported for ATR in mammalian systems. These findings may lead to a better understanding of the hazards of environmental ATR contamination and inform efforts to develop guidelines for establishing safe levels in water systems.
Fakhouri, Walid D.; Nunez, Joseph L.; Trail, Frances
Incretin hormones are peptides that are secreted from endocrine cell of gastrointestinal tract after nutrient ingestion and stimulate insulin secretion. Glucosodependent Insulinotropic Peptide--GIP is released from K-cells of duodenum and proximal jejunum, recently GIP synthesis has been proved in pancreatic alpha cells. Besides the incretin effect causes GIP increased lipogenesis and decreased lipolysis in fat tissue, increased bone formation and decreased resorption and has protective and proliferative effect on CNS neurons. Both GIP agonists (to treat diabetes) and antagonist (to treat obesity) are being studied. Another incretin hormone is derived in intestinal I-cells by posttranslational processing of proglucagon--glucagon-like peptides 1 and 2 (GLP-1 and GLP-2). GLP-1 stimulates insuline production and inhibits glucagon secretion, exerts proliferative and antiapoptotic effect on beta-cells. Via receptors on vagal nerve and central mechanisms decreases food intake and decreases body weight. By deceleration of gastric emptying it attenuates increases in meal-associated blood glucose levels. It exerts cardioprotective effects. GLP-1 receptors have been proved in liver recently but decreased liver glucose production and increased glucose uptake by liver and muscle are mediated indirectly by altering insulin and glucagons levels. GLP-2 stimulates enterocytes proliferation, up-regulates intestinal nutrient transport, improves intestinal barrier function, and inhibits gastric and intestinal motility. GLP-2 also reduces bone resorption. PMID:21612069
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The factor structure and reliability of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) was evaluated in a Finnish population based\\u000a sample of 2,081 women, age 33–43 years. In addition, associations between female sexual function and age, psychological distress,\\u000a alcohol use, hormone based contraceptives, child sexual abuse (CSA), and adult sexual abuse were examined. The results supported\\u000a a six factor solution for the
Katarina Witting; Pekka Santtila; Patrick Jern; Markus Varjonen; Ingrid Wager; Maria Höglund; Ada Johansson; Nina Vikström; N. Kenneth Sandnabba
The hypothalamus is an area of the brain that produces the "controlling" hormones. These hormones regulate body processes such as metabolism, and control the release of hormones from glands like the thyroid, the adrenals and the gonads (testes or ovaries).
... abnormal growth patterns called acromegaly in adults and gigantism in children. Too little growth hormone can cause ... High levels of growth hormone may indicate: Acromegaly Gigantism Growth hormone resistance Pituitary tumor Low levels of ...
We examined the effects of GH and\\/or testosterone (T) admin- istration on body composition, performance, mood, sexual function, bone turnover, and muscle-gene expression in healthy older men. Ten men (mean (SEM) age, 68 (2.5) yr; height, 171.5 (2.4) cm; and weight, 80 (3.0) kg) completed each of the following 1-month, double-blind interventions after a baseline (B) study in randomized order
KIMBERLY T. BRILL; ARTHUR L. WELTMAN; ANGELA GENTILI; JAMES T. PATRIE; DAVID A. FRYBURG; JOHN B. HANKS; RANDALL J. URBAN; JOHANNES D. VELDHUIS
Distinguishes five interpretations of sexual education including factual knowledge; self-control; stressing love; sexual training; and sexual morality. Suggests that sexual education should be understood as teaching children the moral tendencies relevant to sexual conduct. Argues that infantile sexual desire is based on a contradiction in terms…
Adolescents are becoming sexually active at younger ages. One half of the adolescents in the United States are sexually active. This article reviews adolescent sexual activity, including rates of sexual activity, sexual practices, gay and lesbian youth, and factors affecting the initiation of sexual activity. In addition, adolescent pregnancy, with possible outcomes and effects on teen parents and their offspring,
Previous research suggests that sexual stimuli increase testosterone (T) in women and shows inconsistent effects of sexual arousal on cortisol (C), but effects of cognitive aspects of arousal, rather than behaviors or sensory stimuli, are unclear. The present study examined whether sexual thoughts affect T or C and whether hormonal contraceptive (HC) use moderated this effect, given mixed findings of HC use confounding hormone responses. Participants (79 women) provided a baseline saliva sample for radioimmunoassay. We created the Imagined Social Situation Exercise (ISSE) to test effects of imagining social interactions on hormones, and participants were assigned to the experimental (sexual) or one of three control (positive, neutral, stressful) conditions. Participants provided a second saliva sample 15 min post-activity. Results indicated that for women not using HCs, the sexual condition increased T compared to the stressful or positive conditions. In contrast, HC using women in the sexual condition had decreased T relative to the stressful condition and similar T to the positive condition. The effect was specific to T, as sexual thoughts did not change C. For participants in the sexual condition, higher baseline T predicted larger increases in sexual arousal but smaller increases in T, likely due to ceiling effects on T. Our results suggest that sexual thoughts change T but not C, baseline T levels and HC use may contribute to variation in the T response to sexual thoughts, and cognitive aspects of sexual arousal affect physiology. PMID:21185838
Sexual rehabilitation begins with an awareness of the potential for sex difficulties following any disruption in health. A thorough sex-functioning history and an exploration of the patient's (and partner's) expectations, limitations and potentials will enable the professional to understand the reasons why sex activity has not resumed after illness, accident or surgery and to offer appropriate therapy. Acceptance, validation, appropriate reassurance, accurate information and specific suggestion: these forms of “sex therapy” fall within the capabilities of every family physician. When applied early in the course of an illness, such interventions will initiate the process of sexual rehabilitation and may well prevent more severe dysfunction.
THE discovery that carbon atom C4 of the cholesterol molecule is the first point of attack by oxygen, leading to the formation of cis Delta5:6-cholestene-3 : 4-diol, suggested that this reactive primary oxidation product may play an important role in the metabolism of cholesterol and the sexualhormones. Experimental confirmation of this view was obtained by feeding experiments, which showed
The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis postulates that secondary sexual traits are honest signals of mate quality because the hormones (e.g. testosterone) needed to develop secondary sexual traits have immunosuppressive effects. The best support for predictions arising from the immunocompetence handi- cap hypothesis so far comes from studies of insects, although they lack male-specific hormones such as testosterone. In our previous studies,
Because of their protective effects in age-related diseases and hormone-dependent cancers, the use of phytoestrogens (isoflavones) as 'natural' remedies has gained prominence. Isoflavones are estrogen mimics that bind estrogen receptors and act like natural selective estrogen receptors modulators. However, limited data exists regarding the influence of soy-derived dietary isoflavones in brain. This brief review will address these topics and examine the influence of dietary isoflavones on sexually dimorphic hypothalamic nuclei. We have observed that altering the isoflavone content within diet significantly affects both the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (a structure that is larger in males than in females) and the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (a structure that is larger in females than in males). Specifically, when animals were switched from phytoestrogen-rich to a phytoestrogen-free diet the volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area was decreased in males (no alterations were detected in females). Conversely, when the anteroventral periventricular nucleus was examined, volume changes were recorded in males and females opposite to the patterns observed for the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area. Given the practical limitations of examining the effects of dietary phytoestrogens in the human brain, it is important to establish comparative data sets to elucidate phytoestrogen's hormone action and potentially its beneficial brain health effects. PMID:15811581
Lephart, Edwin D; Setchell, Kenneth D R; Lund, Trent D
A sensitive analytical method is presented for the simultaneous determination of four synthetic estrogens and six steroid hormones in sludge-amended soil. The method employs matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by isotope dilution gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry injecting a large volume sample (10?L) after trimethylsilyl derivatization, using the solvent vent mode. It affords good resolution, high sensitivity and reproducibility and freedom from interferences even from complex matrices as soil amended with sewage sludge. The limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 10 to 300pgg(-1) with testosterone and progesterone having the highest limits. Soil amended with sewage sludge was spiked at 2, 10, 25 and 50ngg(-1) and the recoveries after MSPD with acetonitrile:methanol (90:10, v/v), ranged from 80 to 110% with relative standard deviations ?9%. The method was applied to the analysis of six soil samples collected from agricultural plots and forested fields that had been amended with sewage sludge using isotopically labeled surrogates. Three of the synthetic estrogens studied were found at least in one of the six samples analyzed and trans-androsterone and estrone were the only natural hormones detected, although at very low levels (?0.4ngg(-1)). PMID:23465128
Albero, Beatriz; Sánchez-Brunete, Consuelo; Miguel, Esther; Pérez, Rosa A; Tadeo, José L
Familial idiopathic gonadotropin deficiency (FIGD) is an autosomal recessive disorder which results in failure to develop secondary sexual characteristics. The origin is a hypothalamic defect resulting in insufficient secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone GnRH (also called LHRH, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone) and follicle-stimuating hormone (FSH). FIGD has been determined to be a separate entity from Kallmann syndrome which presents with hypogonadism
This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Sexuality emerges as a major developmental element of puberty and the adolescent years that follow. However, connecting the sexuality that emerges with puberty and elements of adult sexuality is difficult because much adolescent sexuality research addresses the transition to partnered sexual behaviors (primarily coitus) and consequences such as unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This review proposes a framework of an expanded understanding of puberty and adolescent sexuality from the perspective of four hallmarks of adult sexuality: sexual desire; sexual arousal; sexual behaviors; and, sexual function. This approach thus addresses important gaps in understanding of the ontogeny of sex and the continuum of sexuality development from adolescence through the adult lifespan. PMID:23998672
Describes normal aspects of sexuality during the early years, including masturbation and children's fanciful sexual ideas. Presents inappropriately mature sexual knowledge as a danger sign of abuse. Discusses whether and what teachers/caregivers should tell children about sexuality, and notes the importance of teaching staff about sexual identity…
Breast cancer (BC) may affect three main domains of women's sexuality: sexual identity, sexual function and sexual relationship. Age, lymphedema, side-effects of surgery, radio-, chemo- and hormonotherapy, pregnancy-related problems, infertility, iatrogenic premature menopause, with its cohort of symptoms secondary to the chronic loss of estrogens on the brain, on the sensory organs, on the pathophysiology of sexual response and on
A Phytophthora mating hormone with an array of 1,5-stereogenic centers has been synthesized by using our recently developed methodology of catalytic enantioselective conjugate addition of Grignard reagents. We applied this methodology in a diastereo- and enantioselective iterative route and obtained two of the 16 possible stereoisomers of Phytophthora hormone ¿1. These synthetic stereoisomers induced the formation of sexual spores (oospores)
Syuzanna R. Harutyunyan; Zhijian Zhao; Tim den Hartog; Klaas Bouwmeester; Adriaan J. Minnaard; Ben L. Feringa; Francine Govers
TRIMETHYLAMINE is known to accumulate in the sexual organs of many plants and animals1. Its action as an aphrodisiac has also been observed. Some connexion of trimethylamine with sex hormones appeared therefore possible. On the other hand, the effects of animal sex hormones on flowering2 and on the development of `phytocarcinomata'3 having been demonstrated, a further association of ideas concerning
Steroid hormones regulate diverse physiological functions such as reproduction, blood salt balance, maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics, response to stress, neuronal function and various metabolic processes. They are synthesized from cholesterol mainly in the adrenal gland and gonads in response to tissue-specific tropic hormones. These steroidogenic tissues are unique in that they require cholesterol not only for membrane biogenesis, maintenance
Jie Hu; Zhonghua Zhang; Wen-Jun Shen; Salman Azhar
Human sexual differentiation is customarily depicted as a series of embryonic events that lead to male and female gonadal development and differential hormone expression that have behavioral as well as biological outcomes. The salient components of these events are the differential expression of two hormones - testosterone and Muellerian inhibiting substance - and the SRY gene, regulating, in turn, the transcription of other genes and culminating in male differentiation. Sex determination, then, is generally described as initially proceeding down a path toward female development unless the bipotential, indifferent gonad is modified toward male development by genes on the Y chromosome. 28 refs.
Fiddler, M. [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); Pergament, E. [Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States)
SEXUAL differentiation in the male and female strains of the water mould Achlya ambisexualis occurs through a series of stages mediated by steroid hormones1. The species-specific and sex-specific hormones, antheridiol and oogoniol2, initiate the development of the male and female sex organs, respectively. Because antheridiol induction depends on RNA and protein synthesis3 and steroid hormones are thought to influence the
Bernd Groner; Nancy Hynes; Albrecht E. Sippel; Gunther Schutz
Objective: The aims of this study were to examine the extent to which exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was associated with increased rates of sexual risk taking behaviors and sexual revictimization during adolescence.Method: A birth cohort of 520 New Zealand born young women was studied at regular intervals from birth to the age of 18. At age 18 retrospective
David M. Fergusson; L. John Horwood; Michael T. Lynskey
As adolescents progress through puberty, many biological changes occur and, for young women, this includes the onset of menses and the capability for reproduction. During this time, sexual identity is developed and expressions of sexuality become more frequent. Adolescent women engage in a variety of sexual behaviours, both non-coital and coital. As teens begin dating relationships, they are at risk
... during treatment of a sexual problem? • Glossary Your Sexual Health 4. Sexual pain disorder What are desire problems? ... by women. A lack of desire before having sex is normal for some women. They may not ...
... of this website will be limited. Search Help? Sexually Transmitted Diseases Share this page: Was this page helpful? Overview | Related Pages Also known as: STDs; Sexually transmitted infections; STIs; Venereal diseases What are sexually transmitted diseases? ...
... also cause sexual dysfunction. You may have less sexual desire during pregnancy, right after childbirth or when you are breastfeeding. After menopause many women feel less sexual desire, have vaginal dryness or have pain during sex ...
A majority of birds are socially monogamous, providing exceptional opportunities to discover neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying preferences for opposite-sex partners where the sexes form extended affiliative relationships. Zebra finches have been the focus of the most systematic program of research to date in any socially monogamous animal. In this species, sexual partner preference can be partially or largely sex reversed with hormone manipulations during early development, suggesting a role for organizational hormone actions. This same conclusion emerges from research with Japanese quail, which do not form long-term pairs. In zebra finches, social experience manipulations during juvenile development also can sex reverse partner preference, either alone or in combination with an early hormone manipulation. Although there are several candidate brain regions where neural mechanisms could underlie these effects of hormones or social experience, the necessary research has not yet been done to determine their involvement. The neuroendocrinology of avian sexual partner preference is still frontier territory. PMID:21277320
Long Ashton Research Station -- part of the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (UK) -- will close in March 2003, but its online resource Plant-Hormones will continue to provide general information and references on gibberellins, auxins, cytokinins, and other hormone groups. Additionally, this Web site provides a link to a listserver for plant hormone scientists, a discussion forum "intended to promote communication between professionals in the plant hormone field." Plant-Hormones also lists job vacancies, meetings announcements, and Web links for botany and molecular biology resources, while offering an online directory of plant hormone researchers searchable by country.
In addition to their effects on sexual differentiation and reproduction, sex hormones influence the immune system. This results in a gender dimorphism in the immune function with females having higher immunoglobulin levels and mounting stronger immune responses following immunization or infection than males. The greater immune responsiveness in females is also evident in their increased susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. However,
The presence of a sufficient amount of androgens is essential for adequate sexual function in men. Gonadal hormones profoundly\\u000a affect cognitive functions and, therefore, are fundamental in maintaining sexual desire. The earliest manifestation of hypogonadism\\u000a is diminished libido. Furthermore, androgens also act peripherally, maintaining the integrity of penile structures and facilitating\\u000a the erectile mechanisms. Severe androgen deficiency results in anatomical
The Cancergram covers all nonsteroid hormones, including circulating protein and protein-derived hormones and hypothalamic peptide inhibitory and releasing factors. Other hormones of interest are placental hormones and specific organ effectors, such as th...
Objective: The larynx is considered a secondary sexual organ. To demonstrate that sex hormones can directly influence laryngeal function, specific receptors in the vocal cord must be identified. Materials and Methods: We searched for estrogen, progesterone and androgen receptors, using an immunohistochemical method, in normal human vocal cords (from 3 cadavers) and in samples of healthy vocal cords and of
Andrea Nacci; Bruno Fattori; Fabio Basolo; Maria E. Filice; Katia De Jeso; Luca Giovannini; Luca Muscatello; Fabio Matteucci; Francesco Ursino
Sexual behavior is variable between individuals, ranging from celibacy to sexual addictions. Within normal populations of individual men, ranging from young to middle aged, testosterone levels do not correlate with libido. To study the genetic mechanisms that contribute to individual differences in male sexual behavior, we used hybrid B6D2F1 male mice, which are a cross between two common inbred strains (C57BL/6J and DBA/2J). Unlike most laboratory rodent species in which male sexual behavior is highly dependent upon gonadal steroids, sexual behavior in a large proportion of these hybrid male mice after castration is independent of gonadal steroid hormones and their receptors; thus, we have the ability to discover novel genes involved in this behavior. Gene expression arrays, validation of gene candidates, and transgenic mice that overexpress one of the genes of interest were used to reveal genes involved in maintenance of male sexual behavior. Several genes related to neuroprotection and neurodegeneration were differentially expressed in the hypothalamus of males that continued to mate after castration. Male mice overexpressing the human form of one of these candidate genes, amyloid beta precursor protein (APP), displayed enhanced sexual behavior before castration and maintained sexual activity for a longer duration after castration compared with controls. Our results reveal a novel and unexpected relationship between APP and male sexual behavior. We speculate that declining APP during normal aging in males may contribute to the loss of sexual function. PMID:20668181
Park, Jin Ho; Bonthius, Paul J; Tsai, Houng-Wei; Bekiranov, Stefan; Rissman, Emilie F
This article reviews what is currently known about how men and women respond to the presentation of visual sexual stimuli. While the assumption that men respond more to visual sexual stimuli is generally empirically supported, previous reports of sex differences are confounded by the variable content of the stimuli presented and measurement techniques. We propose that the cognitive processing stage of responding to sexual stimuli is the first stage in which sex differences occur. The divergence between men and women is proposed to occur at this time, reflected in differences in neural activation, and contribute to previously reported sex differences in downstream peripheral physiological responses and subjective reports of sexual arousal. Additionally, this review discusses factors that may contribute to the variability in sex differences observed in response to visual sexual stimuli. Factors include participant variables, such as hormonal state and socialized sexual attitudes, as well as variables specific to the content presented in the stimuli. Based on the literature reviewed, we conclude that content characteristics may differentially produce higher levels of sexual arousal in men and women. Specifically, men appear more influenced by the sex of the actors depicted in the stimuli while women’s response may differ with the context presented. Sexual motivation, perceived gender role expectations, and sexual attitudes are possible influences. These differences are of practical importance to future research on sexual arousal that aims to use experimental stimuli comparably appealing to men and women and also for general understanding of cognitive sex differences.
A Phytophthora mating hormone with an array of 1,5-stereogenic centers has been synthesized by using our recently developed methodology of catalytic enantioselective conjugate addition of Grignard reagents. We applied this methodology in a diastereo- and enantioselective iterative route and obtained two of the 16 possible stereoisomers of Phytophthora hormone ?1. These synthetic stereoisomers induced the formation of sexual spores (oospores) in A2 mating type strains of three heterothallic Phytophthora species, P. infestans, P. capsici, and P. nicotianae but not in A1 mating type strains. The response was concentration-dependent, and the oospores were viable. These results demonstrate that the biological activity of the synthetic hormone resembles that of the natural hormone ?1. Mating hormones are essential components in the sexual life cycle of a variety of organisms. For plant pathogens like Phytophthora, sexual reproduction is important as a source of genetic variation. Moreover, the thick-walled oospores are the most durable propagules that can survive harsh environmental conditions. Sexual reproduction can thus greatly affect disease epidemics. The availability of synthetic compounds mimicking the activity of Phytophthora mating hormone will be instrumental for further unravelling sexual reproduction in this important group of plant pathogens.
Harutyunyan, Syuzanna R.; Zhao, Zhijian; den Hartog, Tim; Bouwmeester, Klaas; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Ben L.; Govers, Francine
Although Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) has often been described as lacking in sexual drive or at most a rather reluctant heterosexual, a close study of his life and writings indicates the presence of a pronounced vein of homoeroticism--although there seems to be no concrete evidence of any homosexual activity on his part. Cognizance of that homoeroticism helps one to understand many elements of his life and writings and suggests that his intense love of nature may have resulted from sublimation of that homoeroticism. PMID:1880400
The present study evaluated the effects of methamphetamine (MA) on sexual behavior in female rats. In Experiment 1, ovariectomized, hormone-primed rats were injected with MA (1.0mg\\/kg, i.p.) or saline prior to a test for mate choice wherein females could mate with two males simultaneously. Female rats treated with saline returned to their preferred mate faster after receiving intromissions and visited
Carissa Winland; Charles Haycox; Jessica L. Bolton; Sumith Jampana; Benjamin J. Oakley; Brittany Ford; Laura Ornelas; Alexandra Burbey; Amber Marquette; Russell J. Frohardt; Fay A. Guarraci
The important physiological actions of the thyroid hormones are mediated by binding to nuclear thyroid hormone receptors (TRs), encoded by two genes TRalpha and TRbeta. These receptors act as hormone-dependent transcription factors by binding to DNA motifs located in the regulatory regions of target genes and recruiting coregulators (coactivators and corepresors), which alter chromatin structure. Novel thyromimetics have been developed that bind preferentially TRbeta could be used for treatment of hyperlipidemia and obesity. TRbeta gene mutations cause resistance to thyroid hormones (RTH), characterized by inappropriately high thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels due to lack of feedback inhibition of thyroid hormones on the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, and to reduced sensitivity of other TRbeta target tissues to thyroid hormones. Very recently, patients heterozygous for TRalpha mutations have been identified. These patients exhibit clinical symptoms of hypothyroidism in TRalpha target tissues such as intestine or hearth and near normal circulating TSH and thyroid hormone levels. PMID:24079074
Aranda, Ana; Alonso-Merino, Elvira; Zambrano, Alberto
... biologic processes such as muscle growth, heart rate, hunger and menstrual cycle. Steroid hormones include the three major sex hormone groups: estrogens, androgens, and progestogens. All three are present in both men and women, but in different amounts. ...
There is a well-established relationship between alterations of various hormonal systems and psychiatric disorders, both in endocrine and psychiatric patients. This has led to clinical and research studies examining the efficacy of the different hormones for treatment of depression. These data will be reviewed with particular regard to the thyroid, gonadal, pineal, and adrenal cortex hormones. The data generally provide limited, but varying evidence for the antidepressant efficacy of these hormones.
1. Ovarian morphology, serum hormone concentrations of 17-?-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, tri-iodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and triacylglycerol (TAG) were investigated at 23 and 26 weeks of age in broiler breeder hens provided with ad libitum access to feed. Progesterone, oestrogen-?, thyroid-? and -? receptor mRNAs were also quantified in the infundibulum at the same ages. 2. A large variation in the ovarian morphology was observed at 23 weeks of age including hens with undeveloped ovaries, non-laying hens with post ovulatory follicles (POF) and a predominance of non-laying hens without a POF. 3. Serum concentrations of triglyceride, 17-?-estradiol and progesterone at 23 weeks of age were lower in hens with an undeveloped ovary compared with other groups of hens, whereas testosterone, triiodothyronine and thyroxin were higher. 4. At 26 weeks of age, the average number of hierarchical yellow follicles in normal layers was 7.64?±?0·41 whereas in internal layers, the follicular numbers were significantly greater at 8.66?±?0·53. The higher follicular numbers in internal layers were associated with higher serum triglyceride and progesterone concentrations. 5. Oestrogen receptor-? and thyroid receptor-? mRNA was up regulated in the infundibulum of internal layers compared with normal laying hens at 26 weeks of age. PMID:23444865
Singh, R P; Moudgal, R P; Agarwal, R; Sirajuddin, M; Mohan, J; Sastry, K V H; Tyagi, J S
The relationship between a female's clothing choice, sexual motivation, hormone levels, and partnership status (single or not single, partner present or not present) was analyzed in 351 females attending Austrian discotheques. We digitally analyzed clothing choice to determine the amount of skin display, sheerness, and clothing tightness. Participants self?reported sexual motivation, and we assessed estradiol and testosterone levels through saliva
A salient feature of many secondary sexual characteristics in animals is that their expression is controlled by sex-steroid hormones. However, for only a few types of ornaments do we know the precise molecular mechanism by which androgens like testosterone (T) enhance trait production. We studied the red carotenoid-based beak of male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), which serves as a sexually
Kevin J. McGraw; Stephanie M. Correa; Elizabeth Adkins-Regan
Exposure to gonadal hormones during perinatal life influences later behavior. The finding that sex differences exist in progestin receptor expression in the perinatal rat brain suggests differential sensitivity of male and female brains to progesterone (C. K. Wagner, A. N. Nakayama, & G. J. De Vries, 1998). Because these sex differences are in neural sites that influence sexually differentiated sexual,
Joseph S. Lonstein; Princy S. Quadros; Christine K. Wagner
In the traditional model for sexual differentiation in mammals, the female phenotype is the default condition. That is, the female-typical pattern will persist unless acted upon by hormones early in development. The frequency of play fighting in rats, as in most other mammals, is sexually differentiated, and conforms to the traditional model. Males engage in more play fighting than females,
Data regarding the neuroendocrine response pattern to sexual arousal and orgasm in man are inconsistent. In this study, ten healthy male volunteers were continuously monitored for their cardiovascular and neuroendocrine response to sexual arousal and orgasm. Blood was continuously drawn before, during and after masturbation-induced orgasm and analyzed for plasma concentrations of adrenaline, noradrenaline, cortisol, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating
Tillmann Krüger; Michael S Exton; Cornelius Pawlak; Alexander von zur Mühlen; Uwe Hartmann; Manfred Schedlowski
Proper functioning of the mammalian testis is dependent upon an array of hormonal messengers acting through endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine pathways. Within the testis, the primary messengers are the gonadotrophins, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, and the androgens. Abundant evidence indicates that the role of the gonadotrophins is to maintain proper functioning of testicular somatic cells. It is the
Because of their central role in the regulation of energy-transduction, mitochondria, the major site of oxidative processes within the cell, are considered a likely subcellular target for the action that thyroid hormones exert on energy metabolism. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of basal metabolic rate (BMR) by thyroid hormones still remains unclear. It has been suggested that these hormones
Mutant mice in which chromosomal complement and hormonal profile were discordant were studied. It appeared that the Y-chromosomally determined male-larger sexual dimorphism of tooth size seen in humans was not present in mice. It was concluded that the finding of smaller molars in males than in females was due to hormonal rather than chromosomal factors.
Sexual dimorphism of the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) has been widely documented. Morphological sex differences in brain areas underlie sex differences in function. To distinguish sex differences in physiological function from underlying sexual dimorphisms, we use the term, sexual diergism, to encompass differences in function between males and females. Whereas the influence of sex hormones on CNS morphological characteristics
The human dentition is a complex adaptive system that is influenced by genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. Within this system, is sexual dimorphism related to the growth promotion of the Y chromosome, or to hormonal influences, or both? This study is the first to investigate both primary and permanent tooth sizes in females from opposite-sex dizygotic (DZOS) twin pairs compared with females from dizygotic same-sex (DZSS) and monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs to indicate the influence of intrauterine male hormone, including the initial testosterone surge, on dental development. Serial dental models of the primary, mixed, and permanent dentitions of 134 females from DZOS, DZSS, and MZ twins were examined. Mesiodistal, buccolingual, crown height, and intercuspal dimensions of all primary teeth and selected permanent teeth were determined by image analysis. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed statistically significantly larger crown size in DZOS females in both dentitions, with the crown height dimensions displaying the greatest increase in size. These findings strongly support the Twin Testosterone Transfer (TTT) hypothesis. We propose that the growth-promoting effects of the Y chromosome and intrauterine male hormone levels influence different tooth dimensions and contribute differentially to the sexual dimorphism of human teeth. PMID:23549090
Ribeiro, D C; Brook, A H; Hughes, T E; Sampson, W J; Townsend, G C
The study of sex differences has produced major insights into the organization of animal phenotypes and the regulatory mechanisms generating phenotypic variation from similar genetic templates. Teleost fishes display the greatest diversity of sexual expression among vertebrate animals. This diversity appears to arise from diversity in the timing of sex determination and less functional interdependence among the components of sexuality relative to tetrapod vertebrates. Teleost model systems therefore provide powerful models for understanding gonadal and non-gonadal influences on behavioral and physiological variation. This review addresses socially controlled sex change and alternate male phenotypes in fishes. These sexual patterns are informative natural experiments that illustrate how variation in conserved neuroendocrine pathways can give rise to a wide range of reproductive adaptations. Key regulatory factors underlying sex change and alternative male phenotypes that have been identified to date include steroid hormones and the neuropeptides GnRH and arginine vasotocin, but genomic approaches are now implicating a diversity of other influences as well.
Misperceiving a woman's platonic interest as sexual interest has been implicated in a sexual bargaining process that leads to sexual coercion. This paper provides a comprehensive review of sexual misperception, including gender differences in perception of women's sexual intent, the relationship between sexual coercion and misperception, and situational factors that increase the risk that sexual misperception will occur. Compared to
Coreen Farris; Teresa A. Treat; Richard J. Viken; Richard M. McFall
Estrogen exposure during critical periods of development promotes androgenization of the brain, which is reflected in altered morphology, behavior, and cyclic hormone secretion in females. Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated that neonatal female rats injected with pharmaceutical or naturally occurring estrogens had decreased GnRH-induced LH secretion and increased volume of the SDN-POA as 42 day castrates. The current experiment defines the dose-response characteristics of neonatal exposure to the isoflavonoid phytoestrogen genistein (G) on pituitary sensitivity to GnRH and SDN-POA volume. Litters of rat pups received subcutaneous injections of either corn oil, 1, 10, 100, 200, 400, 500, or 1000 micrograms of G on days 1 to 10 of life. The litters were ovariectomized and weaned on day 21. On day 42 blood was drawn from right atrial catheters immediately prior to, 5, 10, 15, and 30 min following a single injection of 50 ng/kg of GnRH. Only the 10 micrograms dose of G was associated with increased pituitary response to GnRH, while progressive increases in exposure levels of G were associated with decreasing LH secretion. The SDN-POA volume was increased in only the 500 micrograms and 1000 micrograms exposure groups compared to controls. The results confirm that low doses of G have nonandrogenizing, pituitary-sensitizing effects, while higher doses of G mimic the more typical effects of estrogens. The use of both morphologic and physiologic end points more completely defines the reproductive consequences of environmental estrogen exposure during critical periods of CNS development. PMID:8448414
Resistance to thyroid hormone is a syndrome involving reduced responsiveness of target tissues to thyroid hormone. Most cases involve mutations of the thyroid hormone receptor beta gene. Since many patients demonstrate tachycardia, goiter and elevated serum thyroid hormone levels, some patients have been misdiagnosed with Graves' disease, and nearly one third of patients are being treated inappropriately. It is important to keep this diagnosis in mind when a patient with elevated thyroid hormone level accompanied by normal or slightly increased TSH levels (SITSH) is encountered. Therapy with TRIAC has been used in several patients. PMID:17154085
In this grounded theory study, a theoretical framework that depicts the process by which childhood sexual abuse (CSA) influences the sexuality of women and men survivors was constructed. Data were drawn from interview transcripts of 95 men and women who experienced CSA. Using constant comparison analysis, the researchers determined that the central phenomenon of the data was a process labeled Determining My Sexual Being, in which survivors moved from grappling with questions related to the nature, cause, and sexual effects of the abuse to laying claim to their own sexuality. Clinical implications are discussed.
Roller, Cynthia; Martsolf, Donna S; Draucker, Claire Burke; Ross, Ratchneewan
This study retells key aspects of the history of the idea of hormone-based classification and therapy concepts in psychiatry. Different contributions to the history are not only represented from a historical, but also from a current medico-scientific perspective. One of the oldest, yet ethically most problematic, indications concerning hormonal methods to modify undesirable behaviour and sexuality was castration, which was widely used in the 20th century to "cure" homosexuality. Felix Platter, whose concept was humoral-pathological in nature, documented the first postpartum psychosis in the German-speaking countries, the pathogenesis of which according to present-day expertise is brought about by changes in female hormones. The concept of an "endocrine psychiatry" was developed at the beginning of the 20th century. Some protagonists for neuroendocrinology are highlighted, such as Paul Julius Möbius around 1900 or, in the 1950s, Manfred Bleuler, the nestor of this new discipline. Only the discovery of the hormones as such and the development of technologies like radioimmunassay to measure and quantify these hormone changes in mental illnesses allowed investigating these conditions properly. Ever since hormone-based therapeutic and classification concepts have played an important role, above all, in sexual, affective and eating disorders as well as alcohol dependence. PMID:21271499
A model of how adolescents choose, interpret, and interact with the mass media is discussed in the context of sexual development. The Media Practice Model suggests that adolescents select and react to sexual media diets that speak to an emerging sense of themselves as sexual human beings. Relatively little is known about how the sexual content adolescents attend to in
Conservative estimates of sexual assault prevalence suggest that 25 percent of American women have experienced sexual assault, including rape. Approximately one-half of those cases involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, victim, or both. Alcohol contributes to sexual assault through multiple pathways, often exacerbating existing risk factors. Beliefs about alcohol's effects on sexual and aggressive behavior, stereotypes about drinking women, and
Antonia Abbey; Tina Zawacki; Philip O. Buck; A. Monique Clinton; Pam McAuslan
|Three situations of sexual harassment, typical of the complaints received by various departments and offices on all Indiana University campuses, are presented. According to the National Advisory Council on Women's Educational Programs, "academic sexual harassment is the use of authority to emphasize the sexuality or sexual identity of a student…
|This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…
In this article the concept of sexual addiction is defined and briefly illustrated. It is argued that this is a viable concept for understanding the sexual misconduct, including abusive and exploitive activity, of some clergy. The author believes that sexual addiction becomes intertwined with the role of pastor to form the identity of the sexually addicted clergy. A typology of
The question of what causes a male animal to seek out and choose a female as opposed to another male mating partner is unresolved and remains an issue of considerable debate. The most developed biologic theory is the perinatal organizational hypothesis, which states that perinatal hormone exposure mediates sexual differentiation of the brain. Numerous animal experiments have assessed the contribution of perinatal testosterone and/or estradiol exposure to the development of a male-typical mate preference, but almost all have used hormonally manipulated animals. In contrast, variations in sexual partner preferences occur spontaneously in domestic rams, with as many as 8% of the population exhibiting a preference for same-sex mating partners (male-oriented rams). Thus, the domestic ram is an excellent experimental model to study possible links between fetal neuroendocrine programming of neural mechanisms and adult sexual partner preferences. In this review, we present an overview of sexual differentiation in relation to sexual partner preferences. We then summarize results that test the relevance of the organizational hypothesis to expression of same-sex sexual partner preferences in rams. Finally, we demonstrate that the sexual differentiation of brain and behavior in sheep do not depend critically on aromatization of testosterone to estradiol.
Previous work demonstrated a sexually dimorphic ontogenic expression of ?-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABABR) in rat pituitary. As sex steroids determine sex-specific expression patterns, we now studied the effect of sex hormones on pituitary GABABR expression. GABABR subunits, measured by Western blot and by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone measured by RIA were determined in
María S. Bianchi; Paolo N. Catalano; María M. Bonaventura; Patricia Silveyra; Bernhard Bettler; Carlos Libertun; Victoria A. R. Lux-Lantos
\\u000a This chapter considers concepts of sexuality and gynecological care for children and adolescents with neurodevelopmental disabilities.\\u000a Issues reviewed include normal human sexuality, sexuality education, sexual abuse, contraception, gynecological care, and\\u000a sexual dysfunction. It is important for all children and youth including those with disabilities to have access to such important\\u000a education and health care. All humans deserve optimum quality of
Alcohol consumption increases subjective sexual desire, arousal, and pleasure for many women, although it lowers physiological\\u000a arousal. Despite the general belief that alcohol disinhibits female sexual behaviors, alcohol leads to changes in sexual behavior\\u000a only for a minority of women. Expectancies about the effects of alcohol on sexual behavior may be important mediators of the\\u000a alcohol-sexual behavior linkage. There also
Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRF) is a neuropeptide, synthesized primarily by the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus in the mammalian brain. CRF plays a central role in regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, both in the maintenan...
This paper deals with three major questions: (1) What are the sexual norms defined by the sacred texts (Koran and Sunna)? (2) What are the sexual practices currently observed among Moslems? (3) To which extent are current sexual practices of Moslems dissociated from Islamic sexual norms? Sexual standards in Islam are paradoxical: on the one hand, they allow and actually are an enticement to the exercise of sexuality but, on the other hand, they discriminate between male and female sexuality, between marital and pre- or extramarital sexuality, and between heterosexuality and homosexuality. Men are given more rights with regard to the expression of their sexuality; women are forbidden to have extramarital sex (with their slaves) and both genders to have homosexual relationships. The combination of these paradoxical standards with modernisation leads to the current back and forth swing of sexual practices between repression and openness. Partial modernisation leads to greater sexual tolerance. But restrictive sexual standards have gathered strength and have become idealised as a result of the current radicalisation of Islam. This swing of the pendulum between repression and openness is illustrated by phenomena such as public harassment, premarital sexuality, female pleasure, prostitution, and homosexuality. Currently, Islam is not any more the only reference which provides guidance concerning sexual practices but secularisation of sexual laws is still politically unthinkable today. So the only solution is to achieve reform in the name of Islam, through the reinterpretation of repressive holy texts. PMID:20441406
|Examines traditional sexual orientation theories, cultural understandings of sexuality, and the emergence of queer theory. Discusses how sexual identity can open new learning pathways for adults. (SK)|
During normal development there is a perinatal sensitive period during which the male brain is exposed to high levels of gonadal steroids, resulting in permanent differentiation of neural substrates. The cellular mechanisms mediating hormonally induced sexual differentiation remain largely unknown. In the adult brain, steroids exert profound influences on the amino acid transmitters, GABA, and glutamate. We have found steroid
Margaret M McCarthy; Aline M Davis; Jessica A Mong
The results of these experiments has led us to conclude that light is a primary factor in inducing sexual activity in pheasants, quail and grouse, through the mediation of the hypophysis. Once this hypophysealgonad reaction is started it can not continue indefinitely with adequate light but only until the hypophysis falters in the production of the gonad-stimulating hormone through causes
Leonard B. Clark; Samuel L. Leonard; Gardiner Bump
Gonadal differentiation in amniote vertebrates is controlled by one of two mechanisms: genotypic sex determination (GSD) or environmental sex determination (ESD)1. After differentiation the fetal gonad produces sex steroid hormones which govern the development of other components of sexuality2,3. Thus, the primary sex determiner is thought to operate solely as a trigger that initiates a cascade of events culminating in
Steroid sex hormones play an important role in the sexual differentiation of fish. Thus, it is not surprising that chemical contaminants with steroid-like activities were considered as responsible for the unusual occurrence of gonadal intersex conditions and other gonadal aberrations in feral fish. In this review, we give an overview about field data and summarise and categorise experimental evidence that
Newly hatched chickens were imprinted to one of two moving objects. From the fifth day of life on, the chickens were injected with male sex hormone. When later presented with a choice between the two objects, they addressed induced sexual responses to the object to which they were imprinted.
Sexual dysfunction is a complaint of 30-50% of American women. Aside from hormone replacement therapy, there are no current FDA-approved medical treatments for female sexual complaints. The goal of this pilot study was to determine safety and efficacy of sildenafil for use in women with sexual arousal disorder (SAD). Evaluations were completed on 48 women with complaints of SAD. Physiologic measurements, including genital blood flow, vaginal lubrication, intravaginal pressure-volume changes, and genital sensation were recorded pre- and postsexual stimulation at baseline and following 100 mg sildenafil. Subjective sexual function was assessed using a validated sexual function inventory at baseline and following 6 weeks of home use of sildenafil. At termination of the study patients also completed an intervention efficacy index (FIEI). Following sildenafil, poststimulation physiologic measurements improved significantly compared to baseline. Baseline subjective sexual function complaints, including low arousal, low desire, low sexual satisfaction, difficulty achieving orgasm, decreased vaginal lubrication, and dyspareunia also improved significantly following 6 weeks home use of sildenafil. Sildenafil appears to significantly improve both subjective and physiologic parameters of the female sexual response. Double-blind, placebo-controlled studies are currently in progress to further determine efficacy of this medication for treatment of female sexual dysfunction complaints in different populations of women. PMID:11554201
Sexual dimorphism of astrocytes and neurons is well documented in many brain and spinal cord structures. Sexual dimorphism of oligodendrocytes (Olgs) and myelin has received less attention. We recently showed that density of Olgs in corpus callosum, fornix, and spinal cord of wild-type male rodents are more densely packed than in females; myelin proteins and myelin gene expression is likewise greater in males than in female rodents. However, glial cell proliferation and cell death were two times greater in female corpus callosum. Endogenous sex hormones, specifically lack of androgens, produce an Olg female phenotype in castrated male mouse. In vitro studies using Olgs culture also showed differences between males and females Olg survival and signaling pathways in response to sexualhormones. Sexual dimorphism of white matter tracts and glia in rodents indicates the necessity for controlling gender in experimental studies of neurodegenerative disorders. Most importantly, our studies suggest that hormones may contribute to sexual dimorphism observed in certain human diseases including multiple sclerosis.
Cerghet, Mirela; Skoff, Robert P.; Swamydas, Muthulekha; Bessert, Denise
Despite indirect evidence linking narcissism to sexual aggression, studies directly examining this relationship have yielded inconsistent results. Likely contributing to such inconsistencies, prior research has used global measures of narcissism not sensitive to whether the components of narcissism are activated in sexual versus non-sexual domains. The current research avoided such problems by using a measure of sexual narcissism to predict sexual aggression. In a sample of 299 men and women, Study 1 validated the Sexual Narcissism Scale, a new sexuality research instrument with four subscales-Sexual Exploitation, Sexual Entitlement, Low Sexual Empathy, and Sexual Skill. Then, in a sample of 378 men, Study 2 demonstrated that sexual narcissism was associated with reports of the frequency of sexual aggression, three specific types of sexual aggression (unwanted sexual contact, sexual coercion, and attempted/completed rape), and the likelihood of future sexual aggression. Notably, global narcissism was unrelated to all indices of sexual aggression when sexual narcissism was controlled. That sexual narcissism outperformed global assessments of narcissism to account for variance in sexual aggression suggests that future research may benefit by examining whether sexual narcissism and other sexual-situation-specific measurements of personality can similarly provide a more valid test of the association between personality and other sexual behaviors and outcomes (e.g., contraceptive use, infidelity, sexual satisfaction). PMID:19130204
Steroid hormones play an important role in regulating vertebrate sexual behavior. In frogs and toads, injections of exogenous gonadotropins, which stimulate steroid hormone production, are often used to induce reproductive behavior, but steroid hormones alone are not always sufficient. To determine which hormonal conditions promote sexual behavior in female túngara frogs, we assessed the effect of hormone manipulation on the probability of phonotaxis behavior toward conspecific calls in post-reproductive females. We injected females with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), estradiol, estradiol plus progesterone, saline, or HCG plus fadrozole (an aromatase blocker) and tested their responses to mating calls. We found that injections of HCG, estradiol, and estradiol plus progesterone all increased phonotaxis behavior, whereas injections of saline or HCG plus fadrozole did not. Since injections of estradiol alone were effective at increasing phonotaxis behavior, we concluded that estradiol is sufficient for the expression of phonotaxis behavior. Next, to determine if estradiol-injected females display the same behavioral preferences as naturally breeding females, we compared mating call preferences of naturally breeding females to those of post-reproductive females injected with estradiol. We found that, when injected with estradiol, females show similar call preferences as naturally breeding females, although they were less likely to respond across multiple phonotaxis tests. Overall, our results suggest that estradiol is sufficient for the expression of sexual responses to mating calls in túngara frogs. To our knowledge, ours is the only study to find that estradiol alone is capable of promoting phonotaxis behavior in a frog. PMID:18840446
"The Estrogen elixir: A history of hormone replacement therapy in America" by Elizabeth Siegel Watkins is a thoroughly documented cautionary tale of the information and advice offered to women in the perimenopausal period of their life, and the consequences of exposure to sexualhormones on their health and wellbeing.
Thirty years of research on early social and hormonal environments and their relationship to the expression of behavioral sex differences in rhesus monkeys are reviewed. These studies demonstrate that whether aggressive and submissive behaviors are sexually dimorphic depends primarily on the social and not the hormonal environment. Early rearing environments without mothers or allowing brief periods of peer interaction produced
There is growing evidence that hormones, when released from an animal into the environment, act as chemical signals to other organisms. There is also evidence to suggest that hormones are released by lobsters during sexual and agonistic encounters to signal conspecifics. The go...
|Examined the relationship between young Hispanic and African American womens' hormonal contraceptive use and condom use. Surveys of women at an inner-city health clinic investigated demographics, contraceptive practices, sexual behavior, condom use, and communication skills. Hormonal contraceptive use related to decreased condom use. Discussion…
Alcohol (ALC) use and abuse by adolescents has been rising at an alarming rate. Whether ALC consumption during prepubertal years affects specific hormones and the process of sexual maturation is not known. We used immature female rhesus macaques to assess the effects of ALC on circulating levels of hormones known to be critical for the pubertal process. Ten monkeys averaging
W. LES DEES; G. A. DISSEN; J. K. HINEY; F. LARA; S. R. OJEDA
TBG, TTR, and albumin are quantitatively the most important thyroid hormone binding proteins in humans. Only a minute fraction of T3 and T4 circulates unbound, but it is this free hormone that is metabolically active at the tissue level, and, therefore, responsible for thyroid status. Inherited or acquired variations in the concentration or affinity of these proteins may produce substantial changes in serum total thyroid hormone levels but do not affect serum free thyroid hormone concentrations and, therefore, do not influence actual thyroid status. Thus, thyroid hormone-binding protein abnormalities must be suspected when abnormally elevated or diminished total thyroid hormone concentrations are encountered in clinically euthyroid subjects. This is crucial to avoid erroneous and potentially detrimental treatments for hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. PMID:8222576
Older adults continue to be sexually active in their later years. A range of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV have been reported among older adults. Risk factors for STIs in older populations include (a) normal sexual changes associated with aging (e.g., increased time to attain an erection, decreased vaginal lubrication, decreases in sexualhormones); (b) psychosocial changes (e.g., loss of partner or spouse and re-entering the dating scene); and (c) risky sexual behaviors, including no or infrequent use of condoms. Screening of adults for STIs should occur regardless of age based on guidelines such as those from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. As discussed in this article, nurses can use assessment guides and engage in interventions such as counseling and education with older adults to reduce STI risk or refer for treatment. Numerous online resources exist for both nurses and older adults to increase knowledge of STIs. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 39(11), 53-60.]. PMID:24066789
Inappropriate sexual behavior, or sexually aggressive behavior, is a term which encompasses a variety of behaviors, including obscene gesturing, touching or hugging another person, exposing body parts or disrobing, and masturbating in public. Inappropriate sexual behavior often elicits feelings of anxiety, embarrassment, or unease in the caregiver and the result is often disruption in continuity of care for the patient. The cause of inappropriate sexual behavior varies among individuals and careful assessment of the etiology of the behavior is the first essential step in intervening. Nursing interventions focus upon providing opportunities for expression of appropriate sexual behavior while attempting to extinguish inappropriate sexual behavior. PMID:8954388
Female sexual dysfunction describes women who are indifferent or hostile to sexual intercourse, who have no response to sexual advances or stimulation, or who are unable to have an orgasm during sexual intercourse.
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UP to the present, the physiological classification and terminology of steroid hormones was based either on one of their outstanding actions (`oestrogens', `progestins') or on their source of origin (`corpus luteum hormone', `adrenal cortical hormone', `testis hormone'). Such a classification is no longer possible, since we know, for example, that `testis hormones' may originate in the adrenal cortex and may
This paper presents a critical review of the concept of sexual socialization. A reformulation of conceptions of sexual socialization identifies five components of the developmental process (development of sex-object preference; development of gender roles; development of a gender identity; acquisition of sexual skills, knowledge, and values; and development of sexual attitudes). Sexual socialization, also referred to as sexualization, is defined
|Sexual harassment, according to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), is when any unwelcome sexual advances for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature takes place. For sexual harassment to take place there must be some type of behavior, language, or material of a sexual nature, which is offensive.…
Asexual worms of an exclusively fissiparous strain (the OH strain) of the planarian Dugesia ryukyuensis keep developing hermaphroditic reproductive organs and eventually undergo sexual reproduction instead of asexual reproduction, namely fission, if they are fed with sexually mature worms of an exclusively oviparous planarian, Bdellocephala brunnea, suggesting that the sexually mature worms has a sexualizing substance(s). The fully sexualized worms no longer need the feeding on sexual worms to maintain the sexuality. Here, we demonstrate that the sexualized worms produce enough of their own sexualizing substance similar to that contained in B. brunnea. In case of surgical ablation of the sexualized worms, the fragments with sexual organs regenerate to become sexual, while those without sexual organs, namely head fragments, regenerate to return to the asexual state. The asexual regenerants from the sexualized worms are also fully sexualized by being fed with B. brunnea. Additionally, it was reported that head region in sexually mature worms lacks the putative sexualizing substance necessary for complete sexualization (Sakurai, 1981). These results suggest that the fragments without sexual organ lack enough of an amount of the putative sexualizing substance and the sexuality is maintained by the sexualizing substance contained in the sexualized worms. PMID:12130794
Steroids play fundamental roles regulating mammalian reproduction and development. Although sex steroids and their receptors are well characterized in vertebrates and several arthropod invertebrates, little is known about the hormones and receptors regulating reproduction in other invertebrate species. Evolutionary insights into ancient endocrine pathways can be gained by elucidating the hormones and receptors functioning in invertebrate reproduction. Using a combination of genomic analyses, receptor imaging, ligand identification, target elucidation, and exploration of function through receptor knockdown, we now show that comparable progesterone chemoreception exists in the invertebrate monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas, suggesting an ancient origin of the signal transduction systems commonly associated with the development and integration of sexual behavior in mammals.
Stout, E. Paige; La Clair, James J.; Snell, Terry W.; Shearer, Tonya L.; Kubanek, Julia
The changes in the relationships between circulating antimüllerian hormone, the size of the primordial follicle pool, and follicular recruitment before and through the reproductive years have now been clarified, and show dynamic changes through sexual development. The constant relationship between the number of follicles and circulating antimüllerian hormone exists only after the age of 25 years, implying that the association between follicular recruitment and follicular survival to the later stages of development is not constant across the reproductive life course. This commentary assesses the factors that may underlie these relationships and their clinical implications for reproductive health. PMID:22921077
Fleming, Richard; Kelsey, Tom W; Anderson, Richard A; Wallace, W Hamish; Nelson, Scott M
... to Women - Return from War - PTSD and Communities - PTSD Research - Mobile Apps - Páginas en Español - Videos - Web Links PROFESSIONAL ABOUT US PTSD Awareness Month Sexual Assault against Females Sexual Assault ...
... common sexual problems and their solutions Changes in sex drive, mismatched desire Fatigue or feeling ill can ... is essential to working through these problems. Discussing sexual health Because our sex lives are usually private, talking ...
... Living with Diabetes > Complications > Men's Health > Sexual Health Sexual Health Listen Sex is an important part of life and relationships. But diabetes can affect a man's sex life. It is important to understand that there ...
... Review all medications, both prescription and over-the-counter, for possible side effects that relate to sexual dysfunction. Avoiding drug and alcohol abuse will also help prevent sexual dysfunction. Couples who ...
The purpose of this paper is to review the current state of the science regarding sexual violence occurring in adolescent dating and acquaintance relationships. Sexual violence occurring at the hand of a family member, family friend, or stranger will not ...
... normal operations can be found at USA.gov . Sexuality in Later Life Many people want and need ... Depression can be treated. What Else May Cause Sexuality Problems? Surgery. Many of us worry about having ...
Many aspects of sexual health relate to either preventative medicine (contraception) or managing normal physiological states (pregnancy, menopause). This article looks at some of the emergency aspects of female sexual health including genital tract trauma and genital infections. PMID:12786642
... and drugs (3) Bioidentical hormones: Are they safer? Hormone replacement therapy: Cause of vaginal bleeding? Testosterone therapy in women: ... compounds over common commercially produced preparations. Next question Hormone replacement therapy: Cause of vaginal bleeding? Mayo Clinic products and ...
Methods have been developed for preparing steroid hormones (including estrogens, anabolics, contraceptives, and provitamins of the D group), which are important in medicine and veterinary practice, and also insect ecdysis hormones, which are promising materials for use in combating insects that are harmful to crops. A scheme of total synthesis has been developed into a process flow plan and has
Metamorphosis of insects is controlled and regulated by effector hormones that are controlled by neurosecretory peptide hormones in the brain. Complete metamorphosis of an insect consists of an egg and the larvae emerges from the egg and usually molts 5 times, loses the cytoskeleton that it has out grown and produces a new one, and spins a cocoon and enters
Female sexual dysfunction is a common problem with detrimental effects on woman’s quality of life. It also has an economical\\u000a and societal impact. It is defined as disorders of sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and sexual pain, which lead to personal\\u000a distress. The etiology of sexual dysfunction is frequently multifactorial as it relates to general physical and mental well-being,\\u000a quality of
This chapter discusses the historical definitional origins of sexual homicide (lust murder), the dynamics of sexual homicide\\u000a injury, offense definition constructs and their limitations, and key presumptions of injuries associated with sexual homicide\\u000a offense models. The chapter concludes by arguing for the clarification of concepts, characterizations, linkages, and research\\u000a into the offense dynamics and offender motivations of sexual (lust) homicides.
\\u000a Criminal profiling attempts to understand the behavioral and personality characteristics of an offender and has gained increasing\\u000a recognition as a valuable investigative procedure. This chapter investigates sexual fantasy within the context of sexual crimes.\\u000a It opens by providing an account of sexual fantasy, its nexus with sexually aberrant behavior, and how it has been utilized\\u000a within the domain of criminal
Sexual dysfunction takes place in the context of women's lives and affects their sexuality and self-esteem. Awareness of these influences are vital to the management of the dysfunction and the promotion of positive sexuality. The family physician's contribution to both the prevention and management of sexual concerns includes an awareness of societal influences and facilitation of a woman's sense of her own power and control over her life.
This study of sexually oriented relationships between educators\\/field instructors and their students\\/supervisees was conceptualized to add to existing knowledge of the incidence and impact on master of social work students of sexually intimate relationships, sexual advances, and first-hand knowledge of such relationships. The present study gathers data from male and female subjects regarding sexual contact experiences with educators\\/field instructors during
The purpose of this study was to determine whether religiosity, spirituality, and sexual attitudes accounted for differences in sexual behaviors among college students. The sample included 960 college students enrolled at four northeastern colleges. Results indicated differences in sexual attitudes, religiosity, and spirituality by gender. Moreover, sexual attitudes, religiosity, and spirituality were associated with sexual behaviors among college students. Sexual behaviors among males were influenced by their sexual attitudes, religiosity, and spirituality, while for females, their sexual behaviors were mostly influenced by their sexual attitudes. College health professionals can use these findings when discussing sexual practices with students. PMID:21822743
Luquis, Raffy R; Brelsford, Gina M; Rojas-Guyler, Liliana
|This collection of papers contains a Foreword by Jane Kenway, an Introduction by Louise Laskey and Catherine Beavis, and four sections. Section 1, Schools and the Social Construction of Sexuality, contains 3 chapters: (1) Power and Partnership? Challenging the Sexual Construction of Schooling (D. Denborough); (2) Where Do You Draw the Line?…
This collection of papers contains a Foreword by Jane Kenway, an Introduction by Louise Laskey and Catherine Beavis, and four sections. Section 1, Schools and the Social Construction of Sexuality, contains 3 chapters: (1) Power and Partnership? Challenging the Sexual Construction of Schooling (D. Denborough); (2) Where Do You Draw the Line?…
A review of the present status of various hormonal substances is presented. The pituitary preparations include various growth hormones (human and beef), still used only experimentally, thyrotropic hormone, used mainly for testing thyroid function, corticotropin—widely used—and gonadotropic hormone. Thyroid, thyroxin and triiodothyronine preparations are considered, with USP thyroid still being most useful. Glucagon may be of some use in terminating hypoglycemia — tolbutamide is now used in many older diabetic persons. New adrenal cortical steroids are still appearing and show variation in effects; cortisone or hydrocortisone remain relatively inexpensive. Many combinations are available. The newest addition to available male hormone preparations is fluoxymesterone which is anabolic in smaller dosage than the older forms. Several new long acting preparations of androgens, estrogens and progesterone are available, and many ingenious combinations are presented.
Sexually transmitted infections such as chlamydia, gonorrhoea, herpes simplex virus and syphilis commonly present with rectal symptoms. Recent outbreaks of lymphogranuloma venereum among homosexual men throughout Europe highlight the need to consider sexually transmitted infections in the differential diagnosis of proctitis. This article examines the causative organisms, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted proctitis.
Summary. Sexuality and partnership have an important influence on the quality of life of every person and also on people with chronic disorders such as multiple sclerosis. The findings in literature show high evidence that people with multiple sclerosis experience high levels of sexual dysfunction, most of them with hypoactive sexual behaviour often associated with dissatisfaction in relationship, and also
E. Z. Schmidt; P. Hofmann; G. Niederwieser; H.-P. Kapfhammer; R. M. Bonelli
Surveys conducted between the 1930's and 1970's on the sexual behavior of adolescents indicate the following: (1) older adolescents are more sexually experienced now than in earlier generations; (2) there has been a greater increase in incidence of premarital sex for females than males; and (3) there is a trend toward earlier sexual experience for…
|This publication is designed to educate men and women about sexual assault. The goals are to encourage people to become involved in their own protection and to make them better informed and able to deal with sexual assaults when they do occur. Facts about sexual assault are presented, including descriptions of rapists, rape victims, and rape…
Missouri Governor's Commission on Crime, Jefferson.
Anyone who is passionate about women, gender and development in African contexts needs to interrogate discourses about African sexuality. These dis- courses have long histories of academic authority that have assisted in ensuring that hegemonic discourses about sexuality were at the heart of the continent's underdevelopment during colonialism. And as contributors to Feminist Africa 5 (on Sexual Cultures) point out,
|In a recent BEST (Bureau of Evaluative Studies and Testing, Indiana University, Bloomington) survey, 10 percent of Indiana University women who responded had experienced some form of sexual harassment. Sexual harassment in education is any attention of a sexual nature from an instructor or professor which makes a student uncomfortable in class or…
Most discussions of sexuality in the work of Dostoevsky have been framed in Freudian terms. But Dostoevsky himself wrote about sexuality from a decidedly pre-Freudian perspective. By looking at the views of human sexual development that were available in Dostoevsky's time and that he, an avid reader and observer of his own social context, absorbed and reacted to, Susanne Fusso
Sexual homicide is a crime that receives much media attention, but one that still has a relatively small research base compared to other crimes. Although the idea of someone deriving sexual gratification from or during the killing of another is an anathema to many, forensic professionals need to understand sexual homicide and the range of circumstances and motivations that lie
Al though we have legislation that, at least in theory, protects employees from discrimination, discrimination still occurs. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits discrimination in all areas of employment on the basis of race, colour, religion, sex or national origin. This includes sexual harassment, a form of discrimination which involves “unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual
Adequate sexual expression is an essential part of many human relationships, and may enhance quality of life and provide a sense of physical, psychological and social well-being. Epidemiological and clinical studies show that depression is associated with impairments of sexual function and satisfaction, even in untreated patients. Most antidepressant drugs have adverse effects on sexual function, but accurate identification of
Married men labeled as sexual addicts seek help after being discovered to have had broken monogamy rules for sexual behavior through their use of masturbation, pornography, cybersex, commercial sex involvement, paraphilic pursuits, or affairs. This study analyzed the sexual patterns and dynamics of 30 men who presented to 1 clinician between 2005 and 2009. Their important differences were captured by
Despite an abundance of research on calorie restriction (CR) altering gonadal and appetite regulating hormones, the sexual behavioural consequences of CR remain to be examined systematically. This study compared the sexual behaviour, partner preference, serum testosterone and leptin levels of male adult Hooded Wistar rats administered a CR (continuous 25%, 50% CR or a temporary restriction) with ad libitum fed
Antonina Govic; Elizabeth A. Levay; Agnes Hazi; Jim Penman; Stephen Kent; Antonio G. Paolini
Treatments of female sexual arousal dysfunction for childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivors could greatly benefit from more information on mechanisms to the sexual arousal problems specific to this population. In this study, 60 CSA survivors and 120 women with no history of CSA (NCSA) participated in an Internet-based survey on sexual arousal and sexual fantasies. Self-reported sexual arousal was measured
INTRODUCTION Sexual dysfunction symptoms in patients with HIV have not been fully investigated in Brazil. OBJECTIVES To investigate the association between sexual dysfunction symptoms and AIDS among participants in the Brazilian Sex Life Study. METHODS The Brazilian Sex Life Study is a cross-sectional population study. The participants answered an anonymous self-responsive inquiry. It was applied to a population sample in 18 large Brazilian cities. Answers given by those who reported having AIDS (75) were compared with those who reported not having AIDS (control; 150). This was a case-control study nested in a cross-sectional population study. RESULTS In females, AIDS was associated with “sexual inactivity over the last 12 months” and “does not maintain sexual arousal until the end of the sex act” (P < 0.05) after adjusting for race and thyroid disease. Compared to the control group, men with AIDS had more difficulty becoming sexually aroused (they required more help from their partner to begin the sex act, they required longer foreplay than they wished, they reported losing sexual desire before the end of the sex act, and they required longer to ejaculate than they desired) (P < 0.05). After adjusting for sexual orientation, sex hormone deficiency, depression, and alcoholism, only “does not have sexual desire,” “have longer foreplay,” and dyspareunia were associated with AIDS. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS The results support the hypothesis that sexual dysfunctions are associated with AIDS. Men with AIDS need more time and stimulation to develop a sexual response, and a significant portion (37%) of women with AIDS reported sexual inactivity over the last 12 months.
de Tubino Scanavino, Marco; Abdo, Carmita Helena Najjar
Prostate cancer is now ranked fifth in incidence among cancers in Korean adult males. This is attributable to the more Westernized dietary style which increases the morbidity of prostate cancer and the development of cancer diagnostic technologies, such as prostate-specific antigen and advanced medical systems, increasing the rate of prostate cancer diagnosis. Prostate cancer effects include not only erectile dysfunction caused by the disease itself, but also by psychiatric disorders caused by prostate cancer or its treatments. Prostate cancer by itself reduces sexual desire and the frequency of sexual intercourse. Additionally, surgery or hormonal therapy to block testosterone further increases the frequency of erectile dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction following radical prostatectomy is primarily attributable to nerve injury caused by intraoperative nerve traction, thermal injury, ischemic injury, and local inflammatory reactions. Additionally, the absence of nocturnal penile tumescence causes persistent hypoxia of the corpus cavernosum, which, secondarily, causes anatomical and functional changes in the corpus cavernosum. Preservation of erectile function is one of the most significant issues for patients with local prostate cancer. Erectile dysfunction following radical prostatectomy is known to have various prognoses, depending on preservation of the neurovascular bundle, patient age, and preoperative erectile status. Intracavernosal injections, PDE5 inhibitors, and penile rehabilitation therapy using a vacuum constriction device after radical prostatectomy are known to improve the recovery of erectile function. Recently, testosterone replacement therapy has also drawn attention as a treatment method.
This study examined dating individuals' self?disclosure about their sexual likes and dislikes to their partner. Forty?seven college men and 52 college women in a dating relationship of 3 to 36 months completed a questionnaire measuring sexual exchange variables, sexual satisfaction, relationship satisfaction, sexual communication satisfaction, and sexual and non?sexual self?disclosure with their partner. Both sexual and nonsexual self?disclosure were at
Testosterone has been the focus of several investigations and review studies in males, but few have addressed its effects on sleep and sexual function, despite evidence of its androgenic effects on circadian activity in both sexes. Studies have been conducted to understand how sleeping increases (and how waking decreases) testosterone levels and how this rhythm can be related to sexual function. This review addresses the inter-relationships among testosterone, sexual function and sleep, including sleep-disordered breathing in both sexes, specifically its effects related to sleep deprivation. In addition, hormonal changes in testosterone that occur in the gonadal and adrenal axis with obstructive sleep apnea and other conditions of chronic sleep deprivation, and which consequently affect sexual life, have also been explored. Nevertheless, hormone-associated sleep disruptions occur across a lifetime, particularly in women. The association between endogenous testosterone and sex, sleep and sleep disturbances is discussed, including the results of clinical trials as well as animal model studies. Evidence of possible pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this relationship is also described. Unraveling the associations of sex steroid hormone concentrations with sleep and sexual function may have clinical implications, as sleep loss reduces testosterone levels in males, and low sex steroid hormone concentrations have been associated with sexual dysfunction. PMID:21890115
A closed case-file review of 211 sexual homicides identified 16 cases of necrophilia. The results of this unique descriptive study of necrophilia associated with sexual homicide provide information on crime-scene locations, methods of killing, body disposition, premortem sexual assault, specifics of the necrophilic acts, methods of victim abduction, and motivational dynamics. The findings suggest that the most common explanation for necrophilia-the offender's desire to have an unresisting partner-may not always be applicable in cases where this rare paraphilia is connected to sexual murder. The possibility of using crime-scene behaviors in these cases to investigate serial sexual murders is offered. PMID:20102474
Stein, Michelle L; Schlesinger, Louis B; Pinizzotto, Anthony J
Sexual misconduct remains a significant problem in the behavioral health professions. Although it is tempting to view sexual misconduct as perpetrated by "bad" clinicians against patients who are "victims," this is an oversimplification of a complex problem. In this article, the author explores the psychoanalytic concept of enactment as a mechanism that can lead well-meaning clinicians to engage in sexual misconduct; defines enactment and differentiates it from near neighbor phenomena; uses case examples to illustrate how enactments may lead to sexual misconduct or may offer opportunities to deepen and enhance psychotherapeutic work; and offers recommendations for prevention of sexual misconduct. PMID:10523431
Sexual misconduct remains a significant problem in the behavioral health professions. Although it is tempting to view sexual misconduct as perpetrated by “bad” clinicians against patients who are “victims,” this is an oversimplification of a complex problem. In this article, the author explores the psychoanalytic concept of enactment as a mechanism that can lead well-meaning clinicians to engage in sexual misconduct; defines enactment and differentiates it from near neighbor phenomena; uses case examples to illustrate how enactments may lead to sexual misconduct or may offer opportunities to deepen and enhance psychotherapeutic work; and offers recommendations for prevention of sexual misconduct.
The developing brain is highly sensitive to the organizing effects of steroids of gonadal origin in a process referred to as sexual differentiation. Early hormone effects prime the brain for adult sensitivity to the appropriate hormonal milieu, maximizing reproductive fitness via coordinated physiology and behavior. Animal models, in particular rodents, have provided insight into general principles and the cellular and molecular mechanisms of brain differentiation. Cellular endpoints influenced by steroids in the developing brain include neurogenesis, migration, apoptosis, dendritic growth, and synaptic patterning. Important roles for prostaglandins, endocanabinoids, and epigenetics are among the many cellular mediators of hormonal organization. Transference of general principles of brain sexual differentiation to humans relies on observations of individuals with genetic anomalies that either increase or decrease hormone exposure and sensitivity. The physiology and behavior of individuals with XXY (Klinefelter syndrome) has not been considered in the context of sexual differentiation of the brain, most likely due to the delay in diagnoses and highly variable presentation. The behavioral phenotype and impairments in the domains of speech and language that are characteristic of individuals with XXY is consistent with the reduced androgen production associated with the syndrome. Hormone replacement appears effective in restoring some deficits and impact may be further improved by increased understanding of the hormonally mediated sexual differentiation of the brain. PMID:23335108
This study investigated the association between drugs and sexual behavior in a sample of polydrug substance abusers recruited from several Italian therapeutic communities; participants were 90 polydrug substance abusers (opiates, cocaine, amphetamine, inhalants, marijuana/sedatives or hallucinogens abusers) who were compared with 90 nonsubstance-abusing individuals. Sexual behavior was measured by the Italian version of the Sex and the Average Woman (or Man; SAWM), a questionnaire that assesses different kind of sexual attitudes. Results showed that drug-abusing individuals are particularly inclined to search for sexual intercourse and are open to different kinds of sexual experiences; however, they have difficulties in establishing committed and deep relationships with their partners, showing signs of inhibition, affective detachment or anger. Their sexual lives are also surrounded by negative emotions, disturbing thoughts and maladjusted behaviors. The importance of integrating sexual problems into therapeutic strategies is discussed. PMID:23457886
Bruno, Antonio; Scimeca, Giuseppe; Marino, Antonio G; Mento, Carmela; Micò, Umberto; Romeo, Vincenzo M; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Zoccali, Rocco; Muscatello, Maria R A
Sexual violence is multi-faceted. Three (overlapping) categories can be distinguished: violence that is sexual in nature, gender-based violence, and sexuality-based violence. The latter refers to violence against persons because of their sexuality and\\/or their (presumed) sexual behavior. Being female, young, poor, and living in a sexually conservative culture and\\/or in conflict areas appear to be important risk factors for sexual
Although female use of hormonal contraceptives (HCs) has been associated with a variety of physical side effects, the psychological and behavioral side effects have received comparatively little attention until recently. Indeed, the long-term impact of HC use on human psychology has been vastly under-researched and has only recently become a focus for mainstream scholars. Women who use HCs report higher rates of depression, reduced sexual functioning, and higher interest in short-term sexual relationships compared to their naturally-cycling counterparts. Also, HC use may alter women's ability to attract a mate, as well as the mate retention behaviors in both users and their romantic partners. Some evidence even suggests that HC use alters mate choice and may negatively affect sexual satisfaction in parous women, with potential effects on future offspring. Interestingly, HCs have become a standard method of population control for captive nonhuman primates, opening up exciting avenues for potential comparative research. Here, the existing literature on the psychobehavioral effects of HCs in humans and nonhuman primates is reviewed and discussed. The potential resulting downstream consequences for the path of human evolution and recommendations for how future research could tease apart the underlying causes of these psychobehavioral effects of HC use are discussed, including suggestions for research involving nonhuman primates. PMID:23864301
e.hormone serves as a "a hub of scientific and media information about environmental signaling." Hosted by the Center for Biomedical Research at Tulane and Xavier Universities, e.hormone is an excellent resource for keeping up with environmental hormone news and research from estrogen-mimicking compounds to mercury contamination and more. e.hormone offers research summaries, links to related news stories, an events calendar, and even an introductory educational section about environmental hormones and the endocrine system in general. e.hormone has recently subsumed Environmental Estrogens and Other Hormones, its former sister site also from Tulane University.
Sex differences in motivation are apparent for the motivation to engage in sexual behavior, the motivation to take drugs of abuse, and the motivation to engage in parental behavior. In both males and females there is an increase in NAcc DA associated with motivated behaviors. Here it proposed that sex differences in the regulation of DA activity in the ascending mesolimbic projections may underlie sex differences in motivation. In particular, sex differences in the neuroendocrine regulation of this brain system plays a role in the expression of sex differences in motivated behaviors. Here it is proposed that sexual differentiation of motivation is mediated, at least in part, by a novel mechanism in which ovarian hormones secreted at puberty in the female actively feminize the DA system.
In our laboratory the domestic ram is used as an experimental model to study the early programming of neural mechanisms underlying same-sex partner preference. This interest developed from the observation that ?8% of domestic rams are sexually attracted to other rams (male-oriented) in contrast to the majority of rams that are attracted to oestrous ewes (female-oriented). One prominent feature of sexual differentiation in many species is the presence of a sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN) in the preoptic/anterior hypothalamus that is larger in males than in females. Lesion studies in rats and ferrets implicate the SDN in the expression of sexual preferences. We discovered an ovine SDN (oSDN) in the preoptic/anterior hypothalamus that is smaller in male- than in female-oriented rams and similar in size to the oSDN of ewes. Neurons of the oSDN show abundant aromatase expression that is also reduced in male-oriented compared to female-oriented rams. This observation suggests that sexual partner preferences are neurologically hard-wired and could be influenced by hormones. Aromatase-containing neurons constitute a nascent oSDN as early as d 60 of gestation, which becomes sexually dimorphic by d 135 of gestation when it is 2 times larger in males than in females. Exposure of fetal female lambs to exogenous testosterone from d 30 to 90 of gestation resulted in a masculinised oSDN. These data demonstrate that the oSDN develops prenatally and may influence adult sexual preferences. Surprisingly, inhibition of aromatase activity in the brain of ram fetuses during the critical period did not interfere with defeminisation of adult sexual partner preference or oSDN volume. These results fail to support an essential role for neural aromatase in the sexual differentiation of sheep brain and behaviour. Thus, we propose that oSDN morphology and male-typical partner preferences may instead be programmed through an androgen receptor mechanism not involving aromatisation.
To date, biological explanations of sexual orientation have broadly focused on genes and/or prenatal hormonal environments which are thought to act on the brain to provide the neural circuitry on which sexual orientation is inscribed. The proposed models are open to criticism when applied to a healthy population at large because of the implied reference to developmental anomalies. For this reason the present paper challenges the traditional viewpoint and hypothesizes that the foundation of adult sexual orientation may be the result of adaptive programming beginning before conception. According to this hypothesis the continuum spanning human sexuality has its etiology defined in terms of male and female-mediated forms of selective preconceptual marking. The hypothesis also assumes that, via the mechanism of genomic imprinting, the imprinted gene is able to switch through different states of potential activity from the incomplete to the fully penetrant state resulting in a continuum of orientations ranging from asexual, through graded bisexual to homosexual. An adaptive preconceptual program has biological significance as it ensures a generational preparedness for the prevailing conditions. The physiological aspects and circumstantial evidences which were important in developing the new hypothesis are also described. PMID:8762337
Patients with heart failure (HF) face significant challenges in maintaining quality of life (QOL), particularly for sexual intimacy. Although recommended for all cardiac patients, it has been suggested that few HF patients receive sexual counseling. This study explored sexual counseling needs, sexual concerns, and sexual activity using a descriptive survey with HF patients (n = 45), recruited from a HF
Mary Medina; Cynthia Walker; Elaine E. Steinke; David W. Wright; Victoria Mosack; Mohammad Hussam Farhoud
|The present study investigated sexual at-risk behaviors of sexually abused adolescent girls. Variables of interest were presence of consensual sexual activity, age at first consensual intercourse, number of sexual partners, condom use, and pregnancies. Participants were 125 sexually abused adolescent girls aged 12 to 17 years. Results showed that…
Cinq-Mars, Caroline; Wright, John; Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre
The operational sex ratio (OSR) is believed to play a major role in determining the opportunity for sexual selection. Most studies that investigate the effects of OSR on the opportunity for sexual selection, however, ignore the important effects that OSR has on sexual coercion. Sexually coercive behaviour by males, in- cluding forceful or subversive mating tactics and sexual harassment, may
|This study presented and tested a model of sexual satisfaction for late adolescent girls. In this model, sexual self-concept and approach sexual motives were tested as predictors of adolescent girls' sexual satisfaction with their most recent experience of sexual intercourse. A total of 116 girls in 12th grade (ages 16-19) completed measures of…
Although the phenomenon of sexual fantasy has been extensively researched, little contemporary inquiry has investigated the content of sexual fantasy within the context of sexual offending. In this study, a qualitative analysis was used to develop a descriptive model of the phenomena of sexual fantasy during the offence process. Twenty-four adult males convicted of sexual offences provided detailed retrospective descriptions
Cognitive models suggest that attention processes maintain sexual dysfunction. However, few published studies have examined attention bias, and even fewer have studied female participants with sexual dysfunction. Using the Female Sexual Function Index, the authors classified undergraduates as experiencing sexual dysfunction (n = 28) or not (n = 28). The authors assessed whether participants showed attention bias for sexual words
The purpose of this study was to investigate the sexual positions and sexual satisfaction of women during pregnancy. The authors sampled pregnant women (N = 215) from outpatients registered at the antepartum clinic of a medical center in northern Taiwan. The authors gathered data on recent sexual satisfaction, general sexual satisfaction, and sexual position using a self-report, structured questionnaire. The
|This book examines the issue of sexuality education in the schools. Chapter 1, "Sexuality and Sexuality Education: Implications for the Nature of Society," discusses the controversy over the issue. Chapter 2, "Restrictive and Permissive Sexual Ideologies," provides an analytical framework for clarifying conflicts around human sexuality that…
Diabetic female rats have decreased ovulation, sexual behavior, and luteinizing hormone (LH) surges. Peripheral insulin treatment restores the phenotype to normal. We administered central insulin and analyzed serum LH during the time of the LH surge in diabetic and non-diabetic animals to determine if central insulin was sufficient to normalize the phenotype. We assessed the activity and number of hypothalamic
Peter Kovacs; Albert F. Parlow; George B. Karkanias
The effects of human growth hormone treatment for five years on sitting height and subischial leg length of 35 prepubertal children with isolated growth hormone deficiency were investigated. Body segments reacted equally to treatment with human growth hormone; this is important when comparing the effect of growth hormone on the growth of children with skeletal dysplasias or after spinal irradiation.
Calcium homeostasis in the extracellular fluid is tightly controlled and defended physiologically. Hypercalce- mia always represents considerable underlying pathol- ogy and occurs when the hormonal control of calcium homeostasis is overwhelmed. The major hormones that are responsible for normal calcium homeostasis are parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D; these hormones control extracellular fluid calcium on a chronic basis. Over- or underproduction
... deficiency . In adults, it may be associated with panhypopituitarism or adult growth hormone deficiency. ... Parks JS, Felner EI. Hypopituitarism. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, ... of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; ...
... There are two types of bioidentical hormone products: • Pharmaceutical products. These products have been approved by the ... made products. These are made in a compounding pharmacy (a pharmacy that mixes medications according to a ...
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) provides this compilation of Web links for important information on the risks and benefits of hormone replacement therapy. The links lead to relevant NIH Web pages, including the most current NIH research on the subject. Topics covered range from NIH's Women's Health Initiative estrogen/ progestin hormone therapy study to the use of black cohosh as an alternative therapy to osteoporosis and ovarian cancer. A useful and well-organized resource.
The techniques used for the production and identification of plant hormone mutants are described. The properties used to classify\\u000a these mutants into the broad synthesis and response categories are discussed, and the genetic considerations needed to allow\\u000a their effective use in plant hormone research examined. A brief outline of significant work on gibberellin (GA), abscisic\\u000a acid (ABA), auxin, ethylene, cytokinin
Abstract—Exogenous,hormones,are used by more than a hundred million women,worldwide,as oral contraceptives or for postmenopausal hormone replacement. Oral contraceptives increase the risk of venous thrombosis, of myocardial infarction, and of stroke. The risk is highest during the first year of use. The venous thrombotic risk of oral contraceptives is high among,women,with coagulation abnormalities and with so-called third-generation contraceptives (containing desogestrel or
F. R. Rosendaal; F. M. Helmerhorst; J. P. Vandenbroucke
Hypogonadism is a problem that has been known about for millennia, both as an endocrine disease and as an age-related phenomenon.\\u000a Normal aging results in changes in androgen status and alterations in feedback sensitivities, decline in synthetic capacity,\\u000a changes in serum availability, aging of responder cells, and interaction with other hormone and regulatory systems (e.g.,\\u000a dihydroepiandrosterone, growth hormone, melatonin, leptin).
Thyroid hormone is essential for the development of the brain and the nervous system. Cellular entry is required for conversion of thyroid hormones by the intracellular deiodinases and for binding of T(3) to its nuclear receptors. Several transporters capable of thyroid hormone transport have been identified. Functional expression studies using Xenopus laevis oocytes have so far identified two categories of transporters involved in thyroid hormone uptake (i.e., organic anion transporters and amino acid transporters). Among the organic anion transporters, both Na(+) taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) and various members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) family mediate transport of iodothyronines. Because iodothyronines are a particular class of amino acids derived from tyrosine residues, it is no surprise that some amino acid transporters have been shown to be involved in thyroid hormone transport. We have characterized monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) as a very active and specific thyroid hormone transporter, the gene of which is located on the X chromosome. MCT8 is highly expressed in liver and brain but is also widely distributed in other tissues. MCT8 shows 50% amino acid identity with a system T amino acid transporter 1 (TAT1). TAT1, also called MCT10, has been characterized to transport aromatic amino acids but no iodothyronines. We have also found that mutations in MCT8 are associated with severe X-linked psychomotor retardation and strongly elevated serum T(3) levels in young boys. PMID:15727804
Friesema, Edith C H; Jansen, Jurgen; Milici, Carmelina; Visser, Theo J
Four theories about cultural suppression of female sexuality are evaluated. Data are reviewed on cross-cultural differences in power and sex ratios, reactions to the sexual revolution, direct restraining influences on adolescent and adult female sexuality, double standard patterns of sexual morality, female genital surgery, legal and religious restrictions on sex, prostitution and pornography, and sexual deception. The view that men
Nonvolitional sex is sexual behavior that violates a person's right to choose when and with whom to have sex and what sexual behaviors to engage in. The more extreme forms of this behavior include rape, forced sex, childhood sexual abuse, sex trafficking, and violence against people with nonconventional sexual identities. More nuanced forms of nonvolitional sex include engaging in sexual
The purpose of the current study was to challenge depictions of traditionally oppressive female sexuality by explicitly exploring diverse women's positive experiences of sexuality and to capture the unique meanings women ascribe to their sexuality through the use of participant-generated metaphor. We interviewed 17 diverse women regarding the meaning of sexuality in their lives. Coding revealed that metaphors for sexuality
Patients with depressive disorders frequently have concurrent sexual problems. The sexual dysfunction is often masked by the mood disorder, and many patients have difficulty discussing these problems openly. Thus, sexual dysfunction often is detectable only by careful inquiry. The relationship between sexual dysfunction and depressive disorders is further complicated by antidepressant therapy, which itself may cause sexual dysfunction, increasing the
Four theories about cultural suppression of female sexuality are evaluated. Data are reviewed on cross-cultural differences in power and sex ratios, reactions to the sexual revolution, direct restraining influences on adolescent and adult female sexuality, double standard patterns of sexual morality, female genital surgery, legal and religious restrictions on sex, prostitution and pornography, and sexual deception. The view that men
In several anonymous questionnaire studies of college students, marijuana use has been reported to affect sexual behavior. In general, these studies show that marijuana smoking enhances sexual pleasure and increases sexual desire. Marijuana use has also been associated with more frequent sexual activity and an increased number of sexual partners. The purpose of this study was to determine the perceived
Sexual pleasure is an innate component of human sexuality. Although disdained throughout history by religious groups and variably explained by theories, philosophers, and societies, sexual pleasure permeates human experience. Traditional evolutionists explain this preoccupation via the development of sexual mating strategies and the human desire to propagate one's genes; however, here I will argue that the saturation of sexual pleasure
Although some studies have reported substantial correlations between clinical depression and hypoactive sexual desire, thus far only a few studies have addressed the association between depressed mood and different facets of sexuality (such as sexual satisfaction, sexual activity and level of sexual problems) in close relationships. This study sought to fill this gap by examining 198 couples recruited through advertisement.
Patients with heart failure (HF) face significant challenges in maintaining quality of life (QOL), particularly for sexual intimacy. Although recommended for all cardiac patients, it has been suggested that few HF patients receive sexual counseling. This study explored sexual counseling needs, sexual concerns, and sexual activity using a descriptive survey with HF patients (n = 45), recruited from a HF clinic or cardiology office. Most (77%) had not discussed sexual concerns with a health care professional (HCP). Sexual concerns that were rated as occurring 'occasionally/frequently' included partner overprotectiveness (63%), partner fear of sex (36%), lack of sexual interest (42%), erectile problems (74%), orgasmic difficulties (51%). Frequency of sexual intercourse before HF to present was striking, with 53% reporting no sexual activity in the last 2 months compared with 11% before diagnosis of HF. HCPs must provide sexual counseling to HF patients and partners to enhance QOL and to assist in any adaptations to sexual activity. PMID:20002338
Medina, Mary; Walker, Cynthia; Steinke, Elaine E; Wright, David W; Mosack, Victoria; Farhoud, Mohammad Hussam
Sexual health Basics In-Depth Multimedia Expert Answers Resources What's New Reprints A single copy of this article ... be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Women's sexual health: Talking about your sexual needs By Mayo Clinic ...
|Zebra finch song behavior is sexually dimorphic: males sing and females do not. The neural system underlying this behavior is sexually dimorphic, and this sex difference is easy to quantify. During development, the zebra finch song system can be altered by steroid hormones, specifically estradiol, which actually masculinizes it. Because of the…
Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A.; Beck McCauley, Lisa M.; Pham, Anh P.; Ruiz, Maureen L.; Fong, Michelle C.; Cui, Xinran
Sex remains an important contributor to quality of life in many patients with chronic illness and their partners. The effects of chronic illness on sexuality are multifactorial and can impact on all phases of sexual response. Sexual dysfunction and dissatisfaction in chronically ill patients are underdetected and undertreated because of barriers to doctor-patient discussion about sex and lack of medical training in human sexuality. For doctors to become more motivated to broach the topic of sex, they need to recognise that people may be sexually interested even though they are old, ill or disabled. The PLISSIT model provides a graded counselling approach that allows doctors to deal with sexual issues at their own level of expertise and comfort. PMID:12924976
This study describes sexual activity, nocturnal penile erections, and mood states as a function of serum levels of androgens in previously untreated hypogonadal men before and during hormone replacement, selected infertile men (elevated serum follicle-stimulating hormone levels), and normal men. Nocturnal penile tumescence and rigidity were measured with a portable monitor, and sexual activity and mood were assessed by prospective, self-reported written forms. Nocturnal erections were absent or of very low amplitude and duration in the untreated hypogonadal men compared to the infertile and normal men. Nocturnal erections increased steadily during hormone replacement and were in the normal range within 6 to 12 months of treatment. In contrast, serum testosterone concentration rapidly reached the upper range of normal. During treatment, the hypogonadal men reported increases in several aspects of sexual activity, including sexual interest and the number of spontaneous erections. On mood inventories, the untreated hypogonadal men scored significantly higher in ratings of depression, anger, fatigue, and confusion than did infertile and normal men. During hormonal replacement therapy these scores decreased, although the hypogonadal men continued to score higher in "depression" than did infertile and normal men. In most instances, the men with infertility and the normal men were statistically indistinguishable in nocturnal penile tumescence and rigidity parameters, self-reported sexual activity, and mood state. These data support the hypothesis that androgen treatment increases nocturnal and spontaneous erections, and sexual interest, and has some capacity to improve mood. PMID:1399830
Burris, A S; Banks, S M; Carter, C S; Davidson, J M; Sherins, R J
The purpose of this study was to determine whether religiosity, spirituality, and sexual attitudes accounted for differences\\u000a in sexual behaviors among college students. The sample included 960 college students enrolled at four northeastern colleges.\\u000a Results indicated differences in sexual attitudes, religiosity, and spirituality by gender. Moreover, sexual attitudes, religiosity,\\u000a and spirituality were associated with sexual behaviors among college students. Sexual
Raffy R. Luquis; Gina M. Brelsford; Liliana Rojas-Guyler
The focus of this book is men and their sexual function and dysfunction, however, many women will also develop some degree\\u000a of sexual health problems concerned with sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and\\/or pain. The goal is to make relevant evidence-based\\u000a clinical information to help identify and treat specific biologically based pathophysiologies available to the motivated health\\u000a care professional. The prevalence
Objective: To document the frequency and types of genital injuries in adolescent women examined acutely following a sexual assault, and determine any historical correlates of injury.Design: Retrospective chart review.Setting: Sexual Assault Response Team services at a community hospital in an urban setting.Patients: All female patients aged 14–19 yr who were referred by law enforcement for an acute sexual assault examination
Sexual health encompasses 'sexual development and reproductive health, as well as the ability to develop and maintain meaningful interpersonal relationships; appreciate one's own body; interact with both genders in respectful and appropriate ways; express affection, love and intimacy in ways consistent with one's own values'. The 2008 WHO Consensus Statement additionally noted that 'responsible adolescent intimate relationships' should be 'consensual, non-exploitative, honest, pleasurable and protected against unintended pregnancy and STDs if any type of intercourse occurs'. Young people (YP) must, therefore, be able to access sexual health information and services that meet their needs.For most YP, interest in sexual activity begins with puberty, and this is associated with increasingly sexualised behaviour, including exploration of themselves and others.Most YP find this a confusing time, and so it is important that health professionals are able to offer advice regarding the wide range of sexual health issues, including sexuality, choice of partner, contraception, risk and management of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in a confident and approachable manner. YP have never had so much choice or information available to them, and this can be confusing for them. There is good evidence that YP who get information from their parents are likely to initiate sexual activity later than their peers who access information from their friends. However, there is also evidence that some YP would prefer to get sexual health information from health professionals. It is therefore imperative that all health professionals who see YP have an awareness of sexual health issues, and know where to signpost YP should they need more specialist sexual health advice and/or treatment.Where appropriate, one-to-one sexual health advice should be provided to YP on how to prevent and get tested for STIs, and how to prevent unwanted pregnancies. Advice should also be given on all methods of reversible contraception, including long-acting reversible contraception, emergency contraception and other reproductive issues. PMID:22843336
Sexual health encompasses 'sexual development and reproductive health, as well as the ability to develop and maintain meaningful interpersonal relationships; appreciate one's own body; interact with both genders in respectful and appropriate ways; express affection, love and intimacy in ways consistent with one's own values'. The 2008 WHO Consensus Statement additionally noted that 'responsible adolescent intimate relationships' should be 'consensual, non-exploitative, honest, pleasurable and protected against unintended pregnancy and STDs if any type of intercourse occurs'. Young people (YP) must, therefore, be able to access sexual health information and services that meet their needs. For most YP, interest in sexual activity begins with puberty, and this is associated with increasingly sexualised behaviour, including exploration of themselves and others. Most YP find this a confusing time, and so it is important that health professionals are able to offer advice regarding the wide range of sexual health issues, including sexuality, choice of partner, contraception, risk and management of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in a confident and approachable manner. YP have never had so much choice or information available to them, and this can be confusing for them. There is good evidence that YP who get information from their parents are likely to initiate sexual activity later than their peers who access information from their friends. However, there is also evidence that some YP would prefer to get sexual health information from health professionals. It is therefore imperative that all health professionals who see YP have an awareness of sexual health issues, and know where to signpost YP should they need more specialist sexual health advice and/or treatment. Where appropriate, one-to-one sexual health advice should be provided to YP on how to prevent and get tested for STIs, and how to prevent unwanted pregnancies. Advice should also be given on all methods of reversible contraception, including long-acting reversible contraception, emergency contraception and other reproductive issues. PMID:22983512
When viewed through a popular cultural lens, male-to-female transsexuals' sexual biographies can appear to indicate male transvestitism,\\u000a heterosexuality, or homosexuality rather than transsexuality. How do transsexuals subvert such implications and construct\\u000a transsexual identities? Drawing on K. Plummer's (1995) approach to sexual stories, we examine how nine male-to-female transsexuals\\u000a construct their sexual pasts to accomplish what sociologists call “identity work.” Interviewees
A role for serotonin in male sexual preference was recently uncovered by our finding that male mutant mice lacking serotonin have lost sexual preference. Here we show that female mouse mutants lacking either central serotonergic neurons or serotonin prefer female over male genital odors when given a choice, and displayed increased female-female mounting when presented either with a choice of a male and a female target or only with a female target. Pharmacological manipulations and genetic rescue experiments showed that serotonin is required in adults. Behavioral changes caused by deficient serotonergic signaling were not due to changes in plasma concentrations of sex hormones. We demonstrate that a genetic manipulation reverses sexual preference without involving sex hormones. Our results indicate that serotonin controls sexual preference. PMID:23716677
The study explores the link between remembered non-verbal sexual communication in the home, current sexual behaviours and feelings of sexual guilt, among a sample of young British men and women. Non-verbal sexual communication encapsulates: openness about nudity in the home; the showing of affection between parents; signs of parental sexual activity and contraceptive use; and intimation of mother's menstruation. One
Although the idea that sexuality is a lifelong need is gaining greater research support and greater acceptability to the general public, few consider the institutionalized aged as having sexual needs or being able to benefit from sexual intimacy. The research presented here indicates that sexual activity in the institutionalized aged is related to their attitudes and behavior to ward sexuality
The establishment of the impact of environmental compounds or additives with hormone-like activity on human health still requires further investigation, as well as a reexamination of biologic models and experimental methodology employed so far. In 1988, the FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives Joint with the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) considered that sexualhormone residues usually present in meat do not represent a risk for human consumption. Nevertheless, this resolution seems to be uncertain since the scientific elements employed for this statement may not be adequate. In this review the principal objections to the evidence used to establish the innocuousness of growth promoter hormones are considered. PMID:17910413
This list on the subject of academic sexual correctness(ASC-L). ASC-L was an outgrowth of CASE (Consenting Academics for Sexual Equity), founded in early 1994 by both professors and students to combat a concerted "feminist" campaign against students and professors who had become involved in an intimate(romantic) relationship. CASE dealt with only one small area of the current emphasis on sexual correctness in academia. Consequently, the need for a network that focused on all aspects of academic sexual correctness became apparent; the ASC-L was a response to that need. ASC-L encompasses all aspects of campus sexual control issues -- irrespective of their ideological origins, such as sexual consent issues, sexual discrimination issues (irrespective of the subjects of the discrimination) and attempts to regulate sexual content of speech on campus or sexual content of course materials. The principles of consent, privacy and academic freedom are the core principles which have motivated the founding of ASC-L.
\\u000a Once the differentiation of our sexual organs into male or female is settled, the next thing to be differentiated is the brain.\\u000a The difference in brain structures resulting from the interaction of sex hormones and developing brain cells, is thought to\\u000a be the basis of sex differences in behaviour, in gender identity, in gender roles, in our sexual orientation (hetero-,
Treatment modalities for prostate cancer include surgery, radiation therapy, and hormonal manipulation. Sexual dysfunction is a potential sequela of these treatments. Ideally, nursing interventions are begun before treatment is initiated. Pertinent questions enable nurses to elicit specific information needed to develop the patient's care plan. Sexual assessment strategies and interventions, such as the PLISSIT model, that can be implemented when caring for these patients are presented. PMID:8278282
There is growing concern that naturally occurring and chemically manufactured endocrine-active compounds (EACs) may disrupt hormone-dependent events during central nervous system development. We examined whether postnatal exposure to the phytoestrogen genistein (GEN) or the plastics component bisphenol-A (BIS) affected sexual differentiation of the anteroventral periventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (AVPV) in rats. The AVPV is sexually differentiated in rodents. The
Heather B. Patisaul; Anne E. Fortino; Eva K. Polston
WINKLER, S. AND J. WADE. Aromatase activity and the regulation of sexual behaviors in the green anole lizard. PHYSIOL BEHAV 64(5) 723–731, 1998.—Sexual behaviors in green anoles are regulated by steroid hormones. Androgens activate the display of masculine courtship and copulatory behaviors, and estradiol activates feminine receptivity. Testosterone can also facilitate receptivity in females. The present study was conducted to
This current study examined the effect of a 3-week period of sexual abstinence on the neuroendocrine response to masturbation-induced\\u000a orgasm. Hormonal and cardiovascular parameters were examined in ten healthy adult men during sexual arousal and masturbation-induced\\u000a orgasm. Blood was drawn continuously and cardiovascular parameters were constantly monitored. This procedure was conducted\\u000a for each participant twice, both before and after a
Michael S. Exton; Tillmann H. C. Krüger; Norbert Bursch; Philip Haake; Wolfram Knapp; Manfred Schedlowski; Uwe Hartmann
One's self-views are powerful regulators of both cognitive processing and behavioral responding. Sexual self-schemas are cognitive generalizations about sexual aspects of the self. The bivariate sexual self-schema model, which posits independent effects of positive and negative components of women's sexual self-views, was tested. Three hundred eighteen female undergraduates completed anonymous questionnaires, including the Sexual Self-Schema Scale and assessments of sexual
Accumulating evidence points to the mediating effects of sexual self-schemas on the sexual difficulties of women with a history\\u000a of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The following study adds to the extant literature by investigating (1) sexual function and\\u000a (2) sexual satisfaction utilizing validated measures, and reporting on the relationship between sexual self-schemas and physiological\\u000a (vaginal photoplethysmography), subjective, and affective responses
Separate genes encode thyroid hormone receptor subtypes TRalpha (NR1A1) and TRbeta (NR1A2). Products from each of these contribute to hormone action, but the subtypes differ in tissue distribution and physiological response. Compounds that discriminate between these subtypes in vivo may be useful in treating important medical problems such as obesity and hypercholesterolemia. We previously determined the crystal structure of the rat (r) TRalpha ligand-binding domain (LBD). In the present study, we determined the crystal structure of the rTRalpha LBD in a complex with an additional ligand, Triac (3,5, 3'-triiodothyroacetic acid), and two crystal structures of the human (h) TRbeta receptor LBD in a complex with either Triac or a TRbeta-selective compound, GC-1 [3,5-dimethyl-4-(4'-hydroy-3'-isopropylbenzyl)-phenoxy acetic acid]. The rTRalpha and hTRbeta LBDs show close structural similarity. However, the hTRbeta structures extend into the DNA-binding domain and allow definition of a structural "hinge" region of only three amino acids. The two TR subtypes differ in the loop between helices 1 and 3, which could affect both ligand recognition and the effects of ligand in binding coactivators and corepressors. The two subtypes also differ in a single amino acid residue in the hormone-binding pocket, Asn (TRbeta) for Ser (TRalpha). Studies here with TRs in which the subtype-specific residue is exchanged suggest that most of the selectivity in binding derives from this amino acid difference. The flexibility of the polar region in the TRbeta receptor, combined with differential recognition of the chemical group at the 1-carbon position, seems to stabilize the complex with GC-1 and contribute to its beta-selectivity. These results suggest a strategy for development of subtype-specific compounds involving modifications of the ligand at the 1-position. PMID:11222741
Wagner, R L; Huber, B R; Shiau, A K; Kelly, A; Cunha Lima, S T; Scanlan, T S; Apriletti, J W; Baxter, J D; West, B L; Fletterick, R J
Background: Gonadotropin releasing hormone conjugate (GnRH-BSA) raises antibodies against biologically active gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) which affects body weight, gonadosomatic indices (GSI) and sperm quality in male mice. Objective: The objective of this experimental investigation is to develop an effective and reliable hormonal immunocontraceptive vaccine to suppress spermatogenesis by using GnRH-BSA conjugate. Materials and Methods: Forty sexually mature mice, Mus
A patient with a 46,XX chromosome constitution showed the following main characteristics: lack of secondary sexual development, female external genitalia with absence of vagina, no gonadal structures, and complete lack of internal genitalia. This is a variant of the gonadal agenesis syndrome so far only described in association with and XY chromosome component. Endrocinology demonstrated that in the absence of gonadal feedback the pituitary responsiveness to synthetic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone was increased. Images
Levinson, G; Zarate, A; Guzman-Toledano, R; Canales, E S; Jimenez, M
Reproductive behavior in male rodents is made up of anticipatory and consummatory elements which are regulated in the brain by sensory systems, reward circuits and hormone signaling. Gonadal steroids play a key role in the regulation of male sexual behavior via steroid receptors in the hypothalamus and preoptic area. Typical patterns of male reproductive behavior have been characterized, however these are not fixed but are modulated by adult experience. We assessed the effects of repeated sexual experience on male reproductive behavior of C57BL/6 mice; including measures of olfactory investigation of females, mounting, intromission and ejaculation. The effects of sexual experience on the number of cells expressing either androgen receptor (AR) or estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) in the primary brain nuclei regulating male sexual behavior was also measured. Sexually experienced male mice engaged in less sniffing of females before initiating sexual behavior and exhibited shorter latencies to mount and intromit, increased frequency of intromission, and increased duration of intromission relative to mounting. No changes in numbers of ER?-positive cells were observed, however sexually experienced males had increased numbers of AR-positive cells in the medial preoptic area (MPOA); the primary regulatory nucleus for male sexual behavior. These results indicate that sexual experience results in a qualitative change in male reproductive behavior in mice that is associated with increased testosterone sensitivity in the MPOA and that this nucleus may play a key integrative role in mediating the effects of sexual experience on male behavior.
Swaney, William T.; Dubose, Brittany N.; Curley, James P.; Champagne, Frances A.
Sexual differentiation of the mammalian nervous system has been studied intensively for over 25 years. Most of what we know, however, comes from work on relatively non-social species in which direct reproduction (i.e., production of offspring) is virtually the only route to reproductive success. In social species, an individual’s inclusive fitness may include contributions to the gene pool that are achieved by supporting the reproductive efforts of close relatives; this feature is most evident in eusocial organisms. Here, we review what is known about neuroendocrine mechanisms, sexual differentiation, and effects of social status on the brain and spinal cord in two eusocial mammals: the naked mole-rat and Damaraland mole-rat. These small rodents exhibit the most rigidly organized reproductive hierarchy among mammals, with reproduction suppressed in a majority of individuals. Our findings suggest that eusociality may be associated with a relative lack of sex differences and a reduced influence of gonadal hormones on some functions to which these hormones are usually tightly linked. We also identify neural changes accompanying a change in social and reproductive status, and discuss the implications of our findings for understanding the evolution of sex differences and the neuroendocrinology of reproductive suppression.
Holmes, Melissa M.; Goldman, Bruce D.; Goldman, Sharry L.; Seney, Marianne L.; Forger, Nancy G.
Activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) are known to change throughout the course of physical and sexual maturation, with the greatest variability noted during infancy and adolescence. The mechanisms responsible for developmental regulation of DME are currently unknown. However, the hormonal changes associated with puberty\\/adolescence provide a theoretical framework for understanding the biochemical regulation of DME activity during growth and maturation.
Normal sexual development and subsequent reproductive function are dependent on appropriate testosterone production and action. The regulation of steroid hormones, including androgens, can be influenced by both biological and environmental factors, including environmental chemicals. Concentrations of organochlorines are considerably greater in Svalbard polar bears than in polar bears from other regions. Between 1995 and 1998, samples were collected from 121
Irma C. Oskam; Erik Ropstad; Ellen Dahl; Elisabeth Lie; Andrew E. Derocher; Stig Larsen; Richard Wiger; Janneche Utne Skaare
Background\\/Aims: To evaluate the behavior of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in rat gingiva and the effects of lack of sexual steroids and the hormonal therapy with estrogen and dexamethasone (DEX). Methods: 40 female rats were divided into four groups: GI: animals in permanent estrus; GII: ovariectomized (OVX) animals + vehicle; GIII: OVX animals treated with 17?-estradiol benzoate (10 ?g\\/kg), and GIV: OVX
Pedro Luiz Calió; Ricardo Santos Simões; Ricardo Martins Oliveira-Filho; Gustavo Arantes Rosa Maciel; Manuel de Jesus Simões; Edmund C. Baracat
The influence of isoflavone - genistein on some hormones and metabolic parameters in sexually immature, female rats was studied. Rats (34 days old) were divided into three groups: control (receiving no genistein), receiving 1 or 5 mg of genistein\\/kg body weight (BW). The tested compound was administered intragastrically, i.e. by using a cannula inserted via oesophagus into the stomach once
L. Nogowski; E. Nowicka; T. Szkudelski; K. Szkudelska
Experimental studies in animals indicate that androgen exposure in fetal or neonatal life largely accounts for known sex differences in brain structure and behavior. Clinical research in humans suggests similar influences of early androgen concentrations on some behaviors that show sex differences, including play behavior in childhood and sexual orientation in adulthood. Available research also suggests that sex steroid hormone
Due to their chemical properties, steroid hormones cross the blood-brain barrier where they have profound effects on neuronal development and reorganization both in invertebrates and vertebrates, including humans mediated through their receptors. Steroids play a crucial role in the organizational actions of cellular differentiation representing sexual dimorphism and apoptosis, and in the activational effects of phenotypic changes in association with
Sex hormone effects on hypothalamic neurons have been worked out to a point where receptor mechanisms are relatively well understood, a neural circuit for a sex steroid-dependent behavior has been determined, and several functional genomic regulations have been discovered and conceptualized. With that knowledge in hand, we approach deeper problems of explaining sexual arousal and generalized CNS arousal. After a
Anna W. Lee; Nino Devidze; Donald W. Pfaff; Jin Zhou
Brain organization theory suggests that steroid hormones during fetal development permanently organize the brain for gender, including patterns of sexuality, cognition, temperament, and interests that differ by sex. This widely-accepted theory has important implications for health, ranging from medical management of infants with intersex conditions to suggested etiologies for sex differences in autism, depression, and other mental health problems. Studies
Partner preference behavior can be viewed as the outcome of a set of hierarchical choices made by an individual in anticipation of mating. The first choice involves approaching a conspecific verses an individual of another species. As a rule, a conspecific is picked as a mating partner, but early life experiences can alter that outcome. Within a species, an animal then has the choice between a member of the same sex or the opposite sex. The final choice is for a specific individual. This review will focus on the middle choice, the decision to mate with either a male or a female. Available data from rats, mice, and ferrets point to the importance of perinatal exposure to steroid hormones in the development of partner preferences, as well as the importance of activational effects in adulthood. However, the particular effects of this hormone exposure show species differences in both the specific steroid hormone responsible for the organization of behavior and the developmental period when it has its effect. Where these hormones have an effect in the brain is mostly unknown, but regions involved in olfaction and sexual behavior, as well as sexually dimorphic regions, seem to play a role. One limitation of the literature base is that many mate or 'partner preference studies' rely on preference for a specific stimulus (usually olfaction) but do not include an analysis of the relation, if any, that stimulus has to the choice of a particular sexual partner. A second limitation has been the almost total lack of attention to the type of behavior that is shown by the choosing animal once a 'partner' has been chosen, specifically, if the individual plays a mating role typical of its own sex or the opposite sex. Additional paradigms that address these questions are needed for better understanding of partner preferences in rodents. PMID:21377487
Background Invasive cervical cancer is the commonest cause of cancer morbidity and mortality in South African women. This study provides information on adult women's sexual activity and cervical cancer risk in South Africa. Methods The data were derived from a case-control study of hormonal contraceptives and cervical cancer risk. Information on age of sexual debut and number of lifetime sexual partners was collected from 524 incident cases and 1541 hospital controls. Prevalence ratios and adjusted prevalence ratios were utilised to estimate risk in exposures considered common. Crude and adjusted relative risks were estimated where the outcome was uncommon, using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results The median age of sexual debut and number of sexual partners was 17 years and 2 respectively. Early sexual debut was associated with lower education, increased number of life time partners and alcohol use. Having a greater number of sexual partners was associated with younger sexual debut, being black, single, higher educational levels and alcohol use. The adjusted odds ratio for sexual debut < 16 years and ? 4 life-time sexual partners and cervical cancer risk were 1.6 (95% CI 1.2 – 2.2) and 1.7 (95% CI 1.2 – 2.2), respectively. Conclusion Lower socio-economic status, alcohol intake, and being single or black, appear to be determinants of increased sexual activity in South African women. Education had an ambiguous effect. As expected, cervical cancer risk is associated with increased sexual activity. Initiatives to encourage later commencement of sex, and limiting the number of sexual partners would have a favourable impact on risk of cancer of the cervix and other sexually transmitted infections
Radioimmunoassay for Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Hormone (LRH) has been established, tested and applied. Optimal conditions for the performance with regards to incubation time, incubation temperature, concentration of antiserum and radiolabelled LRH hav...
|In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the…
In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the…
|Calls for more attention to literacy teaching practices and teacher education that acknowledge sexual identity and orientation as key aspects of youth identity development. Discusses experience-based pedagogy and classroom interactions around sexual identities and texts. Notes the need for research and scholarship in the field of literacy and…
Low-libido disorders are highly prevalent, may be extremely distressful to patients and their partners, and influence the course and prognosis of therapy. This paper focuses on this important aspect of human sexuality. Some clinical features of hypoactive sexual desire are described, and some hypotheses about etiology and prognosis are presented.…
Previous "School Law" columns discussed developments under Title IX (Educational Amendments of 1970), noting a trend among federal courts to apply Title IX's prohibition against sexual harassment to peer and employee-to-student sexual harassment. A recent Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals decision against the Santa Rosa City School District…
Young people's age expectations for the Initiation by boys and girls of a range of sexual practices were elicited from a sample of 522 15- and 16-year-olds. As expected, there was a progression in the modal ages nominated from the least intimate (kissing) to more intimate behaviors (sexual intercourse). There were few gender differences, either for age expectations of the
For physicians involved in the care of female patients, the issue of sexual assault is one that presents frequently, but is often unrecognized. The prevalence among adult females of sexual abuse or frank assault is 20%. For most patients, the damage is not limited to the event and the time immediately after the assault, but it can last for years,
In recent years clinicians report a great deal of concern about definition, diagnostic assessment, and treatment modalities when dealing with what might be called out-of-control sexual behavior. Many terms have been used to describe the phenomenon of problematic sexual behavior. Many of these concepts overlap, some are no longer popular, and some…
The video features a discussion of sexual abuse in children by a physician, social worker, and a psychologist. The program involves a role play by professionals of interviewing a child sexual victim and her family in an emergency room setting. The primary...
The study examined the relationships between three types of religiosity (Intrinsic, Extrinsic, and Quest) and sexual concerns in two diverse samples. Three hundred sixty-five participants were drawn from a Washington, DC area community college and a historically Black state university in North Carolina. Participants completed measures of religiosity along with the Attitudes Related to Sexual Concerns Scale (ASC; Koch &
Although clinical and empirical data have been offered about sexually aggressive children, few have suggested the necessary components of clinical treatment protocols for them. This article reviews the plausible etiologies and the correlates of sexual aggression by children to delineate the necessary treatment elements for them and their families.…
Growth hormone regulates several other hormonal systems and vice versa. The present review focusses on the effect of GH administration in adults on selected hormonal systems. Growth hormone treatment has been linked to development of central hypothyroidism in hypopituitary children. We now know that GH enhances the extra-thyroidal conversion of T4 to T3. Lowering of T4 during GH treatment therefore
J. O. L. Jørgensen; P. Ovesen; A. Juul; T. K. Hansen; N. E. Skakkebæk; J. S. Christiansen
Recently, the "discovery" of so called "rejuvenating" pills, has attracted much interest in the media and has raised irrational expectations among the elderly population. These so called "rejuvenating drugs" are dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex, and melatonin, an indol derivative, secreted by the pineal gland, both known since many years. Dehydroepiandrosterone is quantitatively by far the most important steroid in the human organism; it is a weak androgen, a small fraction of which is aromatized to estrogens in peripheral tissues. Plasma levels of DHEA decrease with age and some authors consider these levels as a reliable parameters of biological age, the more so that some studies seem to indicate that low levels are accompanied by increased morbidity and mortality. This could not be confirmed, however, by other authors. In in vitro experiments, DHEA has anti-oxidative effects, inhibits platelet aggregation and, possibly, stimulates the immunological system. In animal experiments DHEA has some antitumoral effects. These effects were, however, observed in animal species which do not secrete DHEA. It should, moreover, be mentioned that administration of DHEA in a high dosage, induced the development of hepatic carcinoma in 14 out of 16 rats. Preliminary controlled studies, performed in 30 elderly persons, showed an improvement of general wellbeing with an increase in plasma IGF-1 levels; in women a moderate increase in plasma testosterone and estradiol was observed. Hence these studies show a moderately beneficial effect of DHEA therapy. They need to be confirmed and they warrant further well controlled studies. Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland, the releasing stimulus of which is darkness. It synchronizes the biological rhythms as well as the seasonal biological changes induced by the photoperiod. It induces sleep and is an euphoretic. Melatonin plasma concentrations decrease with age and this decrease has been related to the impaired sleep induction in elderly. Melatonin levels are also decreased in depression. In mice, transplantation of the pineal gland of young animals to old animals increases life expectancy by +/-20%. In in vitro experiments, melatonin appears to have some anti-oxidative effects, which led to the hypothesis that it might retard the ageing process and inhibit the growth of tumor cells. In man, melatonin has been shown to be effective in preventing jet lag and in improving sleep induction in the elderly as well as disturbances of the nycthemeral rhythms in blind persons. One research group even reported favourable effects of a combined melatonin-IGF-1 treatment of metastatic carcinomas; these results were not confirmed up to now. As to the advertised effects on sexuality, it is well known that melatonin inhibits gonadotropin secretion, which causes gonadal atrophy. Hence it is evident that we can not expect a stimulation of sexuality by melatonin administration. As to prolongation of life expectancy, there are, so far, no indications for such an effect in man. PMID:9221619
In line with the fact that there is little information regarding drug facilitated sexual assault in national medical literature, the authors aimed to prepare a review of the phenomenon based on available international references. Therefore we offered a definition of the concept of sexual assault, and rape in particular. Consent and ability for valid consent for sexual intercourse were defined as well. A review contains discussion about the basic elements of a concept of drug-facilitated sexual assault. There is also available information in regard to pharmacology of common data rape drugs, i.e. flunitrazepam, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), and ketamine. We indicate the utmost importance of prompt collecting of biological samples for toxicological screening in patients who are suspected victims of drug facilitated sexual assault. PMID:17642470
The sexual consequences of breast cancer and its treatments are well known and previously reviewed. Alterations in body image, with or without breast reconstruction, changes in sexual self-esteem and self-efficacy, vulvovaginal atrophy as a result of chemotherapy and/or adjuvant hormone therapy, and loss of libido secondary to dyspareunia and body image issues are common in survivors of breast cancer. Medications that are prescribed for long-term use including those in the class of aromatase inhibitors can have far-reaching implications on quality of life by contributing to vulvar and vaginal atrophic changes. While this is an important issue, there are few widely accepted treatments that have been evaluated for efficacy and safety for these sexual challenges in the breast cancer population. However, progress is being made in finding new and innovative solutions for many of the sexual problems faced by breast cancer survivors and their partners. Many institutions are now compelled to address survivorship concerns and addressing sexuality and intimacy are paramount issues in survivorship care. In this article, we present the evidence for the multimodal approach to the management of sexuality concerns in the breast cancer survivor. Pharmacologic, nonpharmacologic, and psychosocial interventions will be reviewed. PMID:22151953
Pluripotent and multipotent stem cells with differentiation potential to neural phenotypes have been described and characterized in the last decades. Embryonic stem cells, as well as neural stem cells from developing and adult nervous system, can differentiate into different types of neurons, astrocytes or oligodendrocytes. Although the initially identified actions of estradiol, progesterone and testosterone are related to sexual reproductive functions, recent evidence shows that these steroid hormones modulate development, physiology and survival of nerve cells. Furthermore, neurosteroids can be synthesized in the developing and adult nervous system. A description of the molecular modulatory actions of sex steroid hormones on the Central Nervous System is presented. The main focus of this review is to summarize the described effects of steroid hormones (progesterone, allopregnanolone, dehydroepiandrosterone, estradiol and androgens) on cell parameters relevant to stem cells, both in vitro and in vivo. The overall conclusion is that steroid hormones influence stem cell behavior by several mechanisms, namely regulation of gene expression by binding to their cognate receptors, activation of intracellular pathways involving kinases or intracellular calcium signaling, and modulation of receptors for neurotransmitters; in some instances, these hormones can substitute or modulate the action of growth factors, and also directly influence self-renewal, proliferation, differentiation or cell death of neurogenic stem cells. PMID:21463247
Little research has been conducted to examine the influence of exposure to televised sexual content on adolescent sexuality or how parental intervention may reduce negative effects of viewing such content. This study uses self-report data from 1,012 adolescents to investigate the relations among exposure to sexually suggestive programming, parental mediation strategies, and three types of adolescent sexuality outcomes: participation in
Deborah A. Fisher; Douglas L. Hill; Joel W. Grube; Melina M. Bersamin; Samantha Walker; Enid L. Gruber
Background Interpersonal violence has increasingly been identified as a risk factor for sexually transmitted infections. Understanding the pathways between violence and sexually transmitted infections is essential to designing effective interventions. Objective To examine dissociative symptoms, alcohol use, and intimate partner physical violence and sexual coercion as mediators of child sexual abuse and lifetime sexually transmitted infection diagnosis among a sample of women. Method A convenience sample of 202 women was recruited from health care settings, with 189 complete cases for analysis. A multiple mediation model tested the proposed mediators of child sexual abuse and lifetime sexually transmitted infection diagnosis. Bootstrapping, a resampling method, was used to test for mediation. Key variables included child sexual abuse, dissociative symptoms, alcohol use, and intimate partner violence. Results Child sexual abuse was reported by 46% of the study participants (n = 93). Child sexual abuse was found to have an indirect effect on lifetime sexually transmitted infection diagnosis, with the effect occurring through dissociative symptoms (95% CI = 0.0033, 0.4714) and sexual coercion (95% CI = 0.0359, 0.7694). Alcohol use and physical violence were not found to be significant mediators. Discussion This study suggests dissociation and intimate partner sexual coercion are important mediators of child sexual abuse and sexually transmitted infection diagnosis. Therefore, interventions that consider the roles of dissociative symptoms and interpersonal violence may be effective in preventing sexually transmitted infections among women.
The current research explores how ethnicity influences sexual identity development. Among 139 sexual-minority male youths, measures of sexual identity development assessed the timing and sequencing of developmental milestones, disclosure of sexual identity to others, internalized homophobia, and same- and opposite-sex relationship histories. Findings demonstrated that participants, regardless of ethnicity, experienced most identity milestones at developmentally appropriate ages, had moderately low
Sexual activity is an important dimension of quality of life. Therefore it is important to assess the impact that any treatment may have on sexual functioning so that patients can be warned of possible side effects and interventions offered to help ameliorate these. The Sexual Activity Questionnaire (SAQ) was developed to investigate the impact of long-term tamoxifen on the sexual
The Cancergram covers all nonsteroid hormones, including circulating protein and protein-derived hormones and hypothalamic peptide inhibitory and releasing factors. Other hormones of interest are placental hormones and specific organ effectors, such as th...
... Estrogen and progestin are two female sex hormones. Hormone replacement therapy works by replacing estrogen hormone that is no ... menopausal women. Progestin is added to estrogen in hormone replacement therapy to reduce the risk of uterine cancer in ...
Not all hormone receptor (HR)-positive tumors respond to hormone therapy, although hormone therapy has brought significant\\u000a benefits to breast cancer patients. In order to improve the efficacy of hormone therapy, a variety of new approaches are currently\\u000a being tested in such as extended adjuvant therapy, selection of responders using array-based techniques and combination therapy\\u000a with signal transduction inhibitors. It is
\\u000a Sex hormones play an important role in the development and growth of cancer, especially in breast and prostate cancer. The\\u000a mode of action of these sex hormones is activation of the corresponding hormone receptor in tumor cells. The hormone-bound\\u000a receptor acts as a transcription factor and activates signaling pathways that induce proliferation and tumor growth. Because\\u000a of the pivotal role
Erik F. J. Vries; Andor W. J. M. Glaudemans; Caroline P. Schröder; Geke A. P. Hospers
Gonad function and sexual activity were evaluated in 44 young male adults who received a kidney shortly before or during adolescence. All patients were growth-retarded (-2.2 SD). Volume of the testes was decreased less than 12 ml, i.e, less than 10th centile) in 47% of patients, whereas hormone levels (testosterone, FSH, LH, and prolactin) were within the normal range. Oligospermia or azoospermia was found in 10 of 11 tested patients. Testicular function and sperm count were negatively correlated with renal function. Age at first ejaculation was increased and 57% of patients had never had sexual intercourse, although all patients reported normal sexual drive and normal erections. PMID:1929106
A novel and critical function of ethylene, a potent plant hormone, has been well documented in Dictyostelium, because it leads cells to the sexual development (macrocyst formation) by inducing zygote formation. Zygote formation (sexual cell fusion) and the subsequent nuclear fusion are the characteristic events occurring during macrocyst formation. A novel gene, zyg1 was found to be predominantly expressed during the sexual development, and its enforced expression actually induces zygote formation. As expected, the zygote inducer, ethylene enhances the expression of zyg1. Thus the function of ethylene has been verified at all of individual (macrocyst formation), cellular (zygote formation), and molecular levels (zyg1 expression). Based on our recent studies concerning the behavior and function of the zyg1 product (ZYG1 protein), the signal transduction pathways involved in zygote formation are proposed in this review. PMID:21585363
The stress system orchestrates body and brain responses to the environment. This action exerted by the mediators of the stress system has two modes of operation. The immediate response mode driven by corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) organises via CRH-1 receptors the behavioural, sympathetic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) responses to a stressor. In the other - slower - mode, which facilitates behavioural adaptation,
Thyroid hormone resistance (THR) is a rare syndrome of reduced end organ sensitivity. Patients with THR have elevated serum free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), but normal or slightly elevated serum thyrotropin values. The characteristic clinical feature is goitre without symptoms and metabolic consequences of thyroid hormone excess. THR can be classified on the basis of tissue resistance into pituitary, peripheral or generalised (both pituitary and peripheral) types. Mutations in the TRbeta gene, cell membrane transporter and genes controlling intracellular metabolism of thyroid hormone have been implicated. THR is differentiated from thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) secreting pituitary adenoma by history of THR in the family. No specific treatment is often required for THR; patients with features of hypo- or hyperthyroidism are appropriately treated with levo-triiodothyronine (L-T3), levo-thyroxine (L-T4), dextro-thyroxine(D-T4) or 3,3,5 triiodo-thyroacetic acid (TRIAC). The diagnosis helps in appropriate genetic counselling of the family. PMID:18940949
Agrawal, N K; Goyal, R; Rastogi, A; Naik, D; Singh, S K
Osteoporosis, now defined as a disease characterized by low bone mass and a microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue leading to enhanced bone fragility and fracture risk, is a major public health problem. Classic hormonal therapies to prevent and treat osteoporosis associated with menopause have recently been questioned due to the risk\\/benefit ratio of prolonged treatment. There is a critical need
Leptin is the protein product encoded by the obese (ob) gene. It is a circulating hormone produced primarily by the adipose tissue. ob\\/ob mice with mutations of the gene encoding leptin become morbidly obese, infertile, hyperphagic, hypothermic, and diabetic. Since the cloning of leptin in 1994, our knowledge in body weight regulation and the role played by leptin has increased
The nigrostriatal dopaminergic (NSDA) pathway degenerates in Parkinson’s disease (PD), which occurs with approximately twice the incidence in men than women. Studies of the influence of systemic estrogens in females suggest sex hormones contribute to these differences. In this review we analyze the evidence revealing great complexity in the response of the healthy and injured NSDA system to hormonal influences, and emphasize the importance of centrally generated estrogens. At physiological levels, circulating estrogen (in females) or estrogen precursors (testosterone in males, aromatized to estrogen centrally) have negligible effects on dopaminergic neuron survival in experimental PD, but can modify striatal dopamine levels via actions on the activity or adaptive responses of surviving cells. However, these effects are sexually dimorphic. In females, estradiol promotes adaptive responses in the partially injured NSDA pathway, preserving striatal dopamine, whereas in males gonadal steroids and exogenous estradiol have a negligible or even suppressive effect, effectively exacerbating dopamine loss. On balance, the different effects of gonadal factors in males and females contribute to sex differences in experimental PD. Fundamental sex differences in brain organization, including the sexually dimorphic networks regulating NSDA activity are likely to underpin these responses. In contrast, estrogen generated locally appears to preserve striatal dopamine in both sexes. The available data therefore highlight the need to understand the biological basis of sex-specific responses of the NSDA system to peripheral hormones, so as to realize the potential for sex-specific, hormone-based therapies in PD. Furthermore, they suggest that targeting central steroid generation could be equally effective in preserving striatal dopamine in both sexes. Clarification of the relative roles of peripheral and central sex steroid hormones is thus an important challenge for future studies.
|Summarizes recent research on hormonal control of fetal growth, presenting data obtained using a new method for studying the area. Effects of endocrine ablations and congenital deficiencies, studies of hormone/receptor levels, in-vitro techniques, hormones implicated in promoting fetal growth, problems with existing methodologies, and growth of…
BACKGROUND Progesterone creams and natural or bioidentical compounded estrogen preparations are being promoted to consumers as safe alternatives to conventional menopausal hormone therapy and as health-promoting tonics. No reliable data support these claims. SAFETY Natural hormones, including estradiol, estriol, estrone, and progesterone, can be expected to have the same adverse event profile as conventional menopausal hormone regimens. SALIVARY HORMONE TESTS Salivary tests may be used to persuade asymptomatic consumers to use hormones (or symptomatic patients to use higher doses than those needed to mitigate symptoms), a practice that can be expected to result in adverse events.
Ovulation was successfully induced with luteinising hormone releasing hormone in 28 women with hypothalamic amenorrhoea who had failed to respond to treatment with clomiphene. Luteinising hormone releasing hormone was administered in a pulsatile manner with miniaturised automatic infusion systems. The rate of ovarian follicular maturation, as monitored by serial pelvic ultrasonography, was similar to that observed in spontaneous cycles. Endocrine assessment by serial measurement of gonadotrophin, oestradiol, and progesterone concentrations showed hormone concentrations to be within the normal range. Intravenous treatment was required in only two patients, the remainder responding satisfactorily to subcutaneous infusion. All patients conceived within six cycles of treatment, and only one multiple pregnancy occurred. Images FIG 1
Mason, P; Adams, J; Morris, D V; Tucker, M; Price, J; Voulgaris, Z; Van der Spuy, Z M; Sutherland, I; Chambers, G R; White, S
Abnormal sexual differentiation and other reproductive abnormalities in marine animals indicate the presence in seawater of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) that perturb the function of the sex hormone signaling pathways. However, most studies to date have reported on EDC effects in freshwater and sewage samples, and there is a paucity of bioassay data on the effects of EDCs in marine waters. Our aims in this study were to devise robust methodologies suitable for extracting potential EDCs and to measure their summated effects on activities of androgen receptors (ARs) and estrogen receptors (ER-alpha and ER-beta) in marine samples from Singapore's coastal waters. In this study, we examined the ability of C18, hydrophilic and lipophilic balance, and diol cartridges to extract potential EDCs from seawater samples. Extracts from C18 cartridges exhibited the highest sex hormone bioactivities in reporter gene assays based on a human cell line expressing AR, ER-alpha, and ER-beta. Examination of extracts from 20 coastal locations showed high androgenic and estrogenic agonist activities in confined clusters closest to the main island of Singapore. Sex hormone activity declined rapidly in clusters farther from the main coastline and in more open waters. Unexpectedly, surface and mid-depth samples from the confined high-activity clusters, in the presence of hormone, exhibited AR and ER-alpha activities that were 200-900% higher than those observed for the cognate hormone alone. This enhanced sex hormone activity suggests that analyses of complex seawater mixtures may uncover unusual bioactivities that may not be obvious by studying individual compounds. Our data present a "snapshot" of the sex hormone disruptor activity in Singapore's marine environment and indicate that C18 extraction for EDCs used in conjunction with reporter gene bioassays represents a robust and sensitive methodology for measuring summated androgenic and estrogenic activities in seawater.
Gong, Yinhan; Chin, Hong Soon; Lim, Lis Sa Elissa; Loy, Chong Jin; Obbard, Jeffrey P; Yong, E L
The present study explored effects of emotional states on sexual desire and dysfunction. Three basic emotion dimensions, pleasure-displeasure, arousal-nonarousal, and dominance-submissiveness, served as the independent factors. Factor analysis of a sexual desire and problems questionnaire yielded a single factor with sexual desire as one pole and sexual problems as the opposite pole. The resulting “sexual desire” scale had a KR-20
The present investigation explored gender differences in sexual identity development—first same-sex attractions, self-labeling, same-sex sexual contact, and disclosure—among 164 sexual-minority young adults. Based on interviews, results indicated the value of assessing gender differences in the context, timing, spacing, and sequencing of sexual identity milestones. Adolescent males had an earlier onset of all milestones except disclosure. The context for sexual identity
Two longitudinal studies examined German adolescents’ sexual scripts in relation to the normative acceptance of sexual aggression,\\u000a the behavioral enactment of risk factors, and the experience of sexual aggression\\/ victimization. Study 1 comprised a sample\\u000a of 283 10th and 11th grade high school students who completed measures of sexual scripts, normative acceptance of risk elements\\u000a associated with sexual aggression, behavioral
Barbara Krahé; Steffen Bieneck; Renate Scheinberger-Olwig
\\u000a Sexuality as a developmental issue is present throughout the life cycle, but becomes especially salient during adolescence.\\u000a Adolescents have to adjust to their developing sexuality, in particular their increased sexual drive and interest in sex and\\u000a have the task of constructing their sexual selves. Sexual content and topics feature prominently in adolescents’ online lives\\u000a from chat rooms, to bulletin boards,
On average, rapists show greater relative genital responses to rape stories than do nonrapists in the laboratory. It has been suggested that this robust group difference is explained by the fact that many rapists are sexually sadistic. It is not clear, however, what the critical cues underlying rapists' genital responses are, because rape stories used in previous research include a
Michael C. Seto; Martin L. Lalumière; Grant T. Harris; Meredith L. Chivers
Sexual assault is a crime of violence affecting modern American society. Victims of sexual assault tend to be women from a broad cross-section of social, economic, ethnic, and age groups. The postmenopausal woman is not immune from sexual assault and is increasingly a victim. The author presents the topic of sexual assault within the general framework of the physician's role
|This book provides a complete course in human sexuality. It can also be used to supplement a family living course. Text content provides current information for teaching high school students about sexuality issues. The text offers basic information on growth and development, sexual development, pregnancy, and birth. It explains the sexual…
Medical students' attitudes towards concepts in sexuality before and after a five-day sexuality course were tested at the University of Miami School of Medicine and evaluated with Osgood's Semantic Differential. Concepts rated were "my sexuality,""masturbation,""homosexuality," and "my role in understanding sexual problems." (LBH)
Three studies were conducted to develop and validate a measure of sexual harassment proclivities in males. Previous studies of sexual harassment were reviewed and a gap in the current knowledge of the psychological characteristics of sexual harassers was revealed. A possible technique for studying sexual harassment proclivities was suggested by recent research on rape proclivities. Two initial studies using this
Sexual health is an evolving paradigm that integrates a positive approach to sexuality with existing public health policy and practice for reducing the burdens of sexually transmitted infections, including those due to HIV. The sexual health paradigm rests in commitment to sexual rights, sexual knowledge, sexual choice, and sexual pleasure, as well as key elements of sexuality addressed by sexual desire, sexual arousal, and sexual function, and sexual behaviors. The sexual health paradigm offers new approaches to supporting general health and well being while reducing the burdens of sexual diseases and their consequences. PMID:24088679
Married men labeled as sexual addicts seek help after being discovered to have had broken monogamy rules for sexual behavior through their use of masturbation, pornography, cybersex, commercial sex involvement, paraphilic pursuits, or affairs. This study analyzed the sexual patterns and dynamics of 30 men who presented to 1 clinician between 2005 and 2009. Their important differences were captured by a 6-category spectrum: (a) no sexual excess beyond breaking the spouse's restrictive rules (n = 2), (b) discovery of husband's longstanding sexual secrets (n = 5), (c) new discovery of the joys of commercial sex (n = 4), (d) the bizarre or paraphilic (n = 7), (e) alternate concept of normal masculinity (n = 5), and (f) spiraling psychological deterioration (n = 7). Only the men with a spiraling psychological deterioration-about 25% of the sample with sexual issues-could reasonably be described as having a sexual addiction. This group experienced significant psychological failures before the onset of their deterioration. Another 25% were adequately defined as paraphilic. Half of the sample was not adequately described using addiction, compulsivity, impulsivity, and relationship incapacity models. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for DSM-5 and treatment. PMID:20432125
Female sexual dysfunctions (FSDs) range from short-term aggravations to major emotional disturbances adversely affecting family and workplace. This review highlights diagnosis and management of the four most widely diagnosed FSDs. It initially focuses on hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) as a driving force at the heart of all other FSDs; nothing happens without sexual desire. Successful resolution of HSDD frequently facilitates resolution of other disorders. Central to understanding HSDD is the impact of aging female sexual endocrinology and its effect on both prevalence and expression patterns of FSD. Advances in this field have enabled introduction of some the most effective treatments yet described for HSDD. Sexual arousal disorder, though commonly affected by the same factors as HSDD, is heavily associated with psychotropic drugs and mood elevators. Orgasmic disorder is frequently the downstream result of other sexual dysfunctions, particularly HSDD, or the result of a major psychosexual trauma. Successful management of the underlying disorder often resolves orgasmic disorder. Sexual pain disorder is frequently the result of a gynecologic disorder, such as endometriosis, that can be substantially managed through successful treatment of that disorder. This article ends with the article's most important note: how to initiate the conversation. PMID:24074537
Multiple sclerosis (MS) affects three times more women than men and this ratio appears to be increasing. However male patients experience increased disease progression, brain atrophy, and cognitive impairment. Gonadal hormones may modulate these sex differences. For example, female puberty heralds an increased risk of MS, and during pregnancy disease activity is milder, with an increased risk of postpartum relapses. Gonadal hormones likely have complex and inflammatory and neuroprotective effects, and may interact with other disease modulators, such as vitamin D. Sex differences in the heritability of disease susceptibility genes implicate a role for epigenetic modification. Many questions remain, including the impact of sex on treatment response and epigenetic changes, and the modulatory potential of hormonal treatments. This article summarizes what is known about sexual dimorphism in MS onset and course, as well as potential interactions between sex and other factors influencing MS pathogenesis, incidence and severity. PMID:23608496
Abstract Aims To describe levels of sexual desire across the menopausal transition (MT) and early postmenopause (PM), including effects of age, MT-related factors, health, stress, symptoms (hot flash, sleep, mood), and social opportunity factors. Methods A subset of Seattle Midlife Women's Health Study (SMWHS) participants who provided data during the early reproductive, early and late menopausal transition stages, or postmenopause (n?=?286), including menstrual calendars for staging the MT, annual health reports between 1990 and 2005, and morning urine samples assayed for estrone glucuronide (E1G), testosterone (T), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) was included. Multilevel modeling using the R program was used to test factors related to sexual desire. Results Women experienced a significant decrease in sexual desire during the late MT stage (p?0.01) and early PM (p?0.0001). Those with higher urinary E1G and T reported significantly higher levels of sexual desire, whereas those with higher FSH levels reported significantly lower sexual desire (p?0.0001, 0.06, and 0.0002, respectively). Women using hormone therapy also reported higher sexual desire (p?=?0.02). Those reporting higher perceived stress reported lower sexual desire (p?0.0001), but history of sexual abuse did not have a significant effect. Those most troubled by symptoms of hot flashes, fatigue, depressed mood, anxiety, difficulty getting to sleep, early morning awakening, and awakening during the night also reported significantly lower sexual desire (p range from <0.03 to 0.0001), but there was no effect of vaginal dryness. Women with better perceived health reported higher sexual desire (p?0.0001), and those reporting more exercise and more alcohol intake also reported greater sexual desire (p?0.0001). Having a partner was associated with lower sexual desire. Conclusions Clinicians working with women traversing the MT should be aware that promoting healthy sexual functioning among midlife women requires consideration of their changing biology as well as ongoing life challenges.
Purpose of review Premenopausal women have a lower risk and incidence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to age-matched men and this sex advantage for women gradually disappears after menopause, suggesting that sexualhormones play a cardioprotective role in women. However, randomized prospective primary or secondary prevention trials failed to confirm that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) affords cardioprotection. This review highlights the factors that may contribute to this divergent outcome and could reveal why young or premenopausal women are protected from CVD and yet postmenopausal women do not benefit from HRT. Recent findings In addition to the two classical estrogen receptors, ER? and ER?, a third, G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPR30, has been identified. New intracellular signaling pathways and actions for the cardiovascular protective properties of estrogen have been proposed. In addition, recent Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) studies restricted to younger postmenopausal women showed that initiation of HRT closer to menopause reduced the risk of CVD. Moreover, dosage, duration, the type of estrogen and route of administration all merit consideration when determining the outcome of HRT. Summary HRT has become one of the most controversial topics related to women’s health. Future studies are necessary if we are to understand the divergent published findings regarding HRT and develop new therapeutic strategies to improve the quality of life for women.
This paper argues against Appel's recent proposal-in this journal-that there is a fundamental human right to sexual pleasure, and that therefore the sexual pleasure of severely disabled people should be publicly funded-by thereby partially legalising prostitution. An alternative is proposed that does not need to pose a new positive human right; does not need public funding; does not need the legalisation of prostitution; and that would offer a better experience to the severely disabled: charitable non-profit organisations whose members would voluntarily and freely provide sexual pleasure to the severely disabled. PMID:21059634
The sexual behaviours placing an individual at risk for HIV infection are those also placing him/her at risk for gonorrhoea, syphilis, hepatitis B, chlamydia and unplanned pregnancy. This article proposes that approaches to HIV prevention must be included within a broad context of human sexuality. To address disease prevention in the absence of including people's relationships, social, behavioural and emotional needs is futile. Compartmentalization, denial of risk by various populations, and societal barriers are all factors to be overcome in the fight against HIV transmission. Specific strategies involved in a comprehensive approach are outlined under the categories of predisposing, enabling and reinforcing factors contributing to healthy sexual behaviour. PMID:8481861
This study used objectification theory as a framework through which to explore the effect of interpersonal objectification, self-objectification, and indicators of selfobjectification (body shame, general surveillance, and surveillance during sexual activity) on women’s sexual health, including sexual subjectivity (sexual body esteem, sexual selfreflection, and entitlement and efficacy in attaining pleasure), sexual functioning, and risky sexual behaviors. It was hypothesized that
Sexuality education occurs both formally and informally in the public school system. This study sought to assess sexuality education in Indiana public schools-the classroom curricula as well as students' sexuality-related questions. Data were collected from teachers, nurses, and counselors (N = 399) pertaining to the inclusion of specific topics in sexuality education courses; sexuality-related questions received from students; and reported
Amanda Tanner; Michael Reece; Laurie Legocki; Maresa Murray
Sexual dysfunction is common in Parkinson's disease (PD). We investigated the premorbid and present sexual functioning of 75 people with PD (32 women and 43 men). Women reported difficulties with arousal (87.5%), with reaching orgasm (75.0%), with low sexual desire (46.9%), and wih sexual dissatisfaction (37.5%). Men reported erectile dysfunction (68.4%), sexual dissatisfaction (65.1%), premature ejaculation (40.6%), and difficulties reaching
GILA BRONNER; VLADIMIR ROYTER; AMOS D. KORCZYN; NIR GILADI
BACKGROUND: The management of patients who relapse after radical radiotherapy is a challenging problem for the multidisciplinary team. This group of men may have been considered ineligible or chosen not to be treated with an initial surgical approach as a result of high-risk features or significant comorbid conditions. It is important not to miss the opportunity for definitive local salvage therapies at this stage, and eligible patients should undergo careful restaging to determine their suitability for these approaches. For those men not suitable for local treatment, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) remains an option. METHODS: Literature review of the evidence relating to the management of hormone therapy for radiorecurrent prostate cancer. RESULTS: Results from retrospective studies have shown that not all men with biochemical relapse will experience distant metastasis or a reduction in survival due to prostate cancer progression. Therefore, the timing of ADT commencement remains controversial. However, it would seem appropriate to offer immediate therapy to men with advanced disease or unfavourable prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics at relapse. Patients with more favourable risk factors and PSA kinetics may be considered for watchful waiting and deferred ADT to avoid or delay the associated toxicities. Patients with non-metastatic disease can be given the option of castration-based therapy or an antiandrogen such as bicalutamide which may have potential advantages in maintenance of sexual function, physical capacity and bone mineral density but at the expense of an increase in gynaecomastia and mastalgia. Recent data suggest the burden of toxicity from ADT may be reduced by the use of intermittent hormone therapy without compromising survival in this group of patients with radiorecurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Hormone therapy remains an option for men with radiorecurrent prostate cancer. PMID:22996761
Prenatal exposure of rodents to glucocorticoids (Gc) affects the sexual development of the offspring, possibly interfering with the differentiation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Glucocorticoid receptors (GR) are present on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in the rat hypothalamus, suggesting a direct effect of Gc in the control of the synthesis and\\/or release of the hormone. In this study, we demonstrate the
Donatella Dondi; Margherita Piccolella; Elio Messi; Marek Demissie; Anna Cariboni; Silvia Selleri; Flavio Piva; Athina Samara; G. Giacomo Consalez; Roberto Maggi
Lesbian and bisexual women's sexual health is neglected in much Government policy and practice in England and Wales. This paper examines lesbian and bisexual women's negotiation of sexual health, drawing on findings from a small research project. Themes explored include invisibility and lack of information, influences on decision-making and sexual activities and experiences of services and barriers to sexual healthcare.
Weakly-electric fish (Apteronotidae) produce highly diverse electrocommunication signals. Electric organ discharges (EODs) vary across species, sexes, and in the magnitude and direction of their sexual dimorphism. Gonadal steroid hormones can modulate EODs, and differences in androgen sensitivity are hypothesized to underlie variation in the degree of sexual dimorphism across species. In this study, we asked whether variation in androgen sensitivity explained variation in sexual dimorphism of EODs within species, at the population level. We examined two populations of black ghost knifefish (Apteronotus albifrons), one from the Orinoco and the other from the Amazon River Basin. EOD frequency (EODf) and chirp rates were measured to characterize diversity in sexual dimorphism across populations. The magnitude of sexual dimorphism in EODf differed significantly across populations, and was more pronounced in the Orinoco population than in the Amazon population. Chirp rates were sexually monomorphic in both populations. 11-Ketotestosterone (11-kT) was administered over a two-week period to assess population differences in sensitivity to androgens. 11-kT masculinized EODf significantly more in the population with the greater degree of sexual dimorphism. 11-kT had no effect on the sexually monomorphic chirping rates. We conclude that population divergence in androgen sensitivity contributes to variation in sexual dimorphism of EODf in A. albifrons. PMID:23142327
IgE recognition of autoantigens might augment allergic inflammation in the absence of exogenous allergen exposure. Among allergy and autoimmunity, there is disproportionate representation of males before puberty and females after puberty, suggesting a role for sex hormones. Hormone allergy is an allergic reaction where the offending allergens are one's own hormones. It is an immune reaction to the hormones, which can interfere with the normal function of the hormones. It can occur perimenstrually in women along with the variation in menstrual cycle. The perimenstrual allergies are about the cyclic abundance of the hormone causing a cyclic expression of allergic symptoms. The inflammatory mechanisms of allergic reactions to hormone allergens, which are intrinsic to the body, are the same as the mechanisms of allergic reactions to external allergens.
... to Women - Return from War - PTSD and Communities - PTSD Research - Mobile Apps - Páginas en Español - Videos - Web Links PROFESSIONAL ABOUT US PTSD Awareness Month Men and Sexual Trauma Men and ...
Sex and rape; Date rape; Sexual assault ... Rape may occur between members of the same sex. This is more common in places such as prisons, military settings, and single-sex schools. People with physical or mental disabilities or ...
The sexual assault examination poses many problems for physicians. They must deal not only with the patient's physical and emotional trauma, but also collect forensic evidence, and provide proper treatment and follow-up. Patient management has been simplified and improved in Ontario by a standardized sexual assault examination kit. It has been used at McMaster University's Regional Sexual Assault Centre since its establishment in 1979. The first step in managing victims is ensuring their wellbeing, and treating them sympathetically. The kit provides information on consent, taking the sexual assault history, recording the patient's emotional status, and treatment guidelines. It also contains equipment and instructions on collecting clothing and body evidence, and on the genital and anal examination. The collection of good forensic evidence can decrease the need for doctors and nurses to testify in court. ImagesFig. 1
... breast cancer treatment Emotional aspects of breast cancer Body image after breast cancer treatment Sexuality after breast cancer ... treatment for breast cancer stops working Previous Topic Body image after breast cancer treatment Next Topic Pregnancy after ...
... after removal of the ovaries* Psychological and Emotional Causes Mental distress: stress, anxiety, depression, eating disorders, past sexual abuse, fear of unwanted pregnancy Relationship issues: boredom, anger, power struggles, ...
... women was thought to be largely due to psychological problems. Recent research is beginning to uncover many ... women. While many sexual problems have an underlying psychological component, possible physical causes must be ruled out ...
... and behaviors in their kids. • Creating policies at work, at school, and in other places that address sexual harassment. • Developing mass media (e.g., radio, TV, magazines, newspapers) messages that promote norms, or ...
This lesson describes how meiosis makes sexual reproduction possible. Specifically, meiosis produces haploid cells and allows for genetic variation. Key terms in this lesson are hyperlinked so students can easily find definitions to new words.
... to have sex. If you choose to have sex, however, latex condoms are the best protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Condoms are also a form of birth control to help prevent pregnancy.
We surveyed 157 college women regarding sexual abuse, age at first intercourse, reactions to first intercourse, sexual attitudes, and sexual risk behavior outcomes to clarify the relationship between early sexual experiences and risky sexual behavior. Women who had been sexually abused in childhood reported greater numbers of lifetime sexual partners. This relationship was partially explained by adolescent\\/adult sexual abuse, age
Young adults have high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sexual minority youths' risk for STIs, including HIV, is as high as or higher than sexual majority peers'. Sexual safety, while often treated as a single behavior such as condom use, can be best conceptualized as the result of multiple factors. We used latent class analysis to identify profiles based on ever-used sexual safety strategies and lifetime number of partners among 425 self-identified LGBTQ youth aged 14-19. Data collection took place anonymously online. We identified four specific subgroup profiles for males and three for females, with each subgroup representing a different level and type of sexual safety. Profiles differed from each other in terms of age and outness for males, and in outness, personal homonegativity, and amount of education received about sexual/romantic relationships for females. Youths' sexual safety profiles have practice implications for sexuality educators, health care professionals, and parents. PMID:24011111
Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J; Wells, Elizabeth A
There is theoretical reason to believe narcissism is associated with a number of sexual behaviors and outcomes that affect both sexual and relationship satisfaction. Nevertheless, research on the association between personality and behavior demonstrates that personality traits, such as narcissism, only predict behavior in domains that activate the components of the personality system. Given that global assessments of narcissism do not capture the extent to which the components of narcissism are activated in the sexual domain, we examined the extent to which the facets of a domain-specific measure of sexual narcissism accounted for the trajectories of own and partner sexual and marital satisfaction over the first five years of 120 new marriages. Three of the four facets of sexual narcissism (sexual exploitation, sexual entitlement, and low sexual empathy) were negatively associated with both trajectories. The fourth facet (sexual skill) was positively associated with both trajectories. Notably, sexual satisfaction mediated the effect of every facet of sexual narcissism on marital satisfaction. A global assessment of narcissism was not associated with either trajectory of satisfaction. These findings highlight (1) the importance of narcissistic tendencies for sexual processes, (2) the benefits of using domain-specific measures of personality in research on sexual behavior, and (3) the importance of examining the implications of the specific facets of personality constructs. PMID:23297145
Gonadal sex is determined by the temperature experienced during incubation in the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius). Furthermore, both factors, incubation temperature and gonadal sex, influence adult sexual and agonistic behavior in this species. Yet it is unclear whether such differences in behavior are irreversibly organized during development or are mediated by differences in hormone levels in adulthood. To address this
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that some sex differences in brain and behavior might result from direct genetic effects, and not solely the result of the organizational effects of steroid hormones. The present study examined the potential role for sex-biased gene expression during development of sexually dimorphic singing behavior and associated song nuclei in juvenile zebra finches. RESULTS: A microarray screen
Michelle L Tomaszycki; Camilla Peabody; Kirstin Replogle; David F Clayton; Robert J Tempelman; Juli Wade
In the socially monogamous prairie vole, we have observed that small changes in early handling, as well as early hormonal manipulations can have long-lasting and sexually dimorphic effects on behavior. These changes may be mediated in part by changes in parental interactions with their young, acting on systems that rely on oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP). Knowledge of both
C. Sue Carter; Ericka M. Boone; Hossein Pournajafi-Nazarloo; Karen L. Bales
Moderate support was obtained in a sample of 101 gay, bisexual, and heterosexual males for the perinatal hormone theory, which hypothesizes that attenuated levels of androgens during critical periods of male fetal development fail to masculinize and defeminize the brain. Affected individuals develop female-typical sexual orientation (assessed here by a pie chart) and cerebral organization, reflected in visual-spatial abilities and
The present study sought to evaluate the relative associations of exercise, sleep and other lifestyle habits with aging, sex hormones, percent body fat (%BF) and sexual activities in men living in the community. A better understanding of this complex interrelationship is important in helping the formulation of modalities for a holistic approach to the management of aging men. The results
To determine the psychophysiological correlates of hormonal response during sexual activity, systolic blood pressure (SBP), anal electromyography (EMG), and anal photoplethysmography (APG) were monitored continuously throughout testing in 13 women and 10 men. Each subject completed two or more tests of self-stimulation to 5 min beyond orgasm. Blood samples were obtained continuously for measurement of oxytocin (OT) levels. In both
Marie S. Carmichael; Valerie L. Warburton; Jean Dixen; Julian M. Davidson
A trial was conducted to determine the effects of different rearing feed regimens on plasma hormone and metabolite levels and hepatic lipid metabolism and gene expression on sexually mature broiler breeders. Cobb 500 birds were divided into two groups at 4 weeks of age and fed either everyday (ED) ...
As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is expiring, biosimilars or follow-on -protein products (FOPP's) have emerged. Biosimilar drugs are cheaper than the originator/comparator drug. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Biosimilar soamtropin has been approved in both the US and Europe. The scientific viability of biosimilar drugs and especially growth hormone has been proven by several rigorously conducted clinical trials. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation) for up to 7 y for pediatric indications measure up favorably to previously approved growth hormones which served as reference comparators. The Obama Administration appears to be committed to establish innovative pathways for the approval of biologics and biosimilars in the US. The cost savings in health care expenditures will be substantial as the global sales of biologics have reached $ 93 billion in 2009. PMID:22108957
This investigation examined the links between self-monitoring propensities and orientations toward sexual relations. A factor analysis of behavioral and attitudinal survey data revealed that high self-monitoring individuals tend to establish an unrestricted orientation toward sexual relations (such that they may engage in sex with others to whom they are not necessarily psychologically close), whereas low self-monitoring individuals tend to establish
Two hypotheses are evaluated in thisinvestigation of gender differences in the attitudinaland behavioral correlates of sexual risk. The“difference in magnitude” hypothesispredicts that the same factors are implicated for women and men butdifferences occur in the strength of correlates.Alternatively, women may engage in sexual risk fordifferent reasons than do men, leading to a“difference in pattern” hypothesis. We compared these possibilitieswith a
Nancy J. Bell; Keri K. O'Neal; Du Feng; Carol J. Schoenrock
Progressive acquisition from childhood onwards to adulthood of a procreative and psycho-emotional sexual identity is presented in all its bio-psycho-social complexity. Gender identity disorders (GDI) and the different sexual orientations (hetero-, homo- or bisexual) are included with their possible etiologies. Different medico-psycho-social programs and projects are presented targeting persons having difficulties in this developmental process of their identity. PMID:23547360
The melanocortin system is involved in mainly regulatory activity in many physiologic systems. Of the five subtypes of receptors,\\u000a the MC4R appears most associated with sexual modulation. The MC4R subtype is found in the central nervous system in sites\\u000a known to be associated with sexual function, and preclinical evidence points to the importance of regions of the hypothalamus.\\u000a There is
Jeremy P. W. Heaton; Alvaro Morales; Michael A. Adams
\\u000a This work summarizes the mechanisms involved in sexual reproduction in the gametophyte of pteridophyta, which is selected\\u000a as experimental system due to its morphological simplicity, and the lack of connections with the mother plant.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a A better knowledge about the mechanisms involved in sexual reproduction has important repercussions in the plant world, and\\u000a could contribute to exploiting interesting species in a
V. Menéndez; E. Peredo; M. Méndez; A. Revilla; H. Fernández
Abstract Sexual selection has a reputation as a major cause of speciation, one of the most potent forces driving reproductive,isolation. This rep- utation arises from,observations,that species differ most,in traits involved with mating,success and from,successful models,of sexual selection–driven speciation. But how,well proven is the case? Models confirm that the process can occur, but is strongest in conjunction with ecological or niche
Sexual identity has been substantially underinvestigated relative to other aspects of identity. The purpose of this study was to document the relationship between sexual psychosocial maturity, positive sexual self-concepts, and effective sexual decision-making\\/coping styles with the identity processes that college students choose to use in defining their sexual self. Participants in the study were 275 undergraduate male and female students
The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to examine the sexual behavior of emerging adult women in relation to their sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes, and perceptions of their parents' sexual attitudes; and second, to discuss the implications of this research in working with young adult women. Three hundred and sixty-four college-age women were administered the Sexual Experiences Inventory, Miller-Fisk
Growth hormone (GH) regulates somatic growth, substrate metabolism and body composition. Its actions are elaborated through\\u000a the GH receptor (GHR). GHR signalling involves the role of at least three major pathways, STATs, MAPK, and PI3-kinase\\/Akt.\\u000a GH receptor function can be modulated by changes to the ligand, to the receptor or by factors regulating signal transduction.\\u000a Insights on the physico-chemical basis
A brief review of important contributions to our present knowledge of growth hormone is given. In 1887 it had been noted that\\u000a a pituitary tumor was present in most patients with acromegaly. Even at the beginning of the 20. Century relationship between\\u000a growth disorders and the pituitary was contested. From 1908 pituitary surgery became established treatment in GH hypersecretion.\\u000a In
Thyroid hormone replacement has been used for more than 100 years in the treatment of hypothyroidism, and there is no doubt about its overall efficacy. Desiccated thyroid contains both thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3); serum T3 frequently rises to supranormal values in the absorption phase, associated with palpitations. Liothyronine (T3) has the same drawback and requires twice-daily administration in view
Sexual activity corresponds to light to moderate physical exercise and entails no significant risk to the majority of patients with cardiovascular disease. In patients suffering from severe angina or chronic heart failure, however, sexual activity might trigger coital angina or cardiac decompensation necessitating hospitalization. Nevertheless, even for patients with coronary artery disease the absolute risk of having a heart attack or fatal event during sexual activity is extremely low. Due to systemic atherosclerosis and concomitant endothelial dysfunction the prevalence of sexual dysfunction is higher in patients with cardiovascular disease as compared to the general population. PDE-5 inhibitors can be safely used by many patients suffering from both, cardiovascular disease and sexual dysfunction as long as no concomitant medication with nitrates exists. The concomitant use of PDE-5 inhibitors and nitrates is strictly contraindicated because of the risk of life-threatening hypotension. It is therefore of utmost importance to ask patients presenting with coital angina about PDE-5 inhibitor intake before the administration of nitrate-based anti-ischemic therapies. The recommendations of the Princeton Consensus Conference provide a useful framework for risk stratification and counseling of patients with cardiovascular disease regarding sexual activity. PMID:20235042
Stress and anxiety are commonly thought to be detrimental to sexual function. Several studies in both the human and animal literature, however, have found that inducing anxiety can enhance sexual function in women. The mechanisms that explain a negative relationship between physical and psychological stress and sexual functioning are well documented, but little is known about how stress or anxiety might have a facilitatory effect on sexual arousal. As an initial step in exploring the relationship between anxiety and sexual arousal, the present study examined the role of the autonomic nervous system, and the adrenal hormones cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) in response to a sexual film, an anxiety-inducing film, and a humorous film. Nineteen premenopausal women (mean age 24.4 years) who were free from sexual difficulties came into the lab on three separate days. At each session they were shown an anxiety-inducing, sexually arousing, or humorous (control) film while their physiological arousal was measured. They also provided saliva samples before and after each film. Cortisol significantly decreased, while DHEA-S increased in the sexual and humorous conditions. Neither hormone changed significantly in the anxiety-inducing condition. Autonomic nervous system activity measured by heart rate and heart rate variability did not change in response to the sexual or anxiety-inducing films, but heart rate variability increased significantly in response to the humorous film. The cortisol/DHEA-S ratio at the post-sexual film time point was significantly negatively correlated with genital arousal (measured by vaginal pulse amplitude). Anxiety-inducing films did not result in a physiological stress response, which can explain why they do not impair sexual function.
The evolutionary constraints that lead to the evolution of sexual reproduction are framed by the better repair mechanisms that repair fatal mutations, as well as the need for variable immune systems imposed on large organisms by parasites, such as viruses and bacteria. Besides the evolution of sexual reproduction, these factors also affect mate choice, especially as regards the gene complex that encodes the immune system. The need to increase both the likelihood of gametes to encounter each other as well as sufficient provision of nutrition for the offspring then leads to the evolution of two sexes: large numbers of small mobile sperms ensure that gametes meet, whereas large egg cells full of energy provide for the zygote, thus leading to a developmental advantage. The asymmetric investment in the offspring then affects not only mate choice criteria, but also cognitive strategies. Men place more importance on youthfulness and fertility than women, who regard resource holding potential as a more relevant criterion. Consequently, female jealousy is connected to endangered access to resources, whereas male jealousy is rooted in paternal uncertainty. Cognitive adaptations developed to ensure reproductive success show sex differences, such as in error management. The most obvious function of sexual behavior is reproduction. To foster the benefits for the offspring, reproduction partners should also develop an emotional bond, which is mediated by hormones connected to sexual intercourse. With increasing age, reproduction loses importance, while pair bonding functions remain relevant. Therefore, sexuality never ceases to be part of a relationship. PMID:19229111