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Sample records for perfluorooctanesulphonic acid pfos

  1. Early life perfluorooctanesulphonic acid (PFOS) exposure impairs zebrafish organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiangfei; Tanguay, Robert L.; Tal, Tamara L.; Bai, Chenglian; Tilton, Susan C.; Jin, Daqing; Yang, Dongren; Huang, Changjiang; Dong, Qiaoxiang

    2014-01-01

    As a persistent organic contaminant, perfluorooctanesulphonic acid (PFOS) has been widely detected in the environment, wildlife, and humans. The present study revealed that zebrafish embryos exposed to 16 M PFOS during a sensitive window of 4896 hour post-fertilization (hpf) disrupted larval morphology at 120 hpf. Malformed zebrafish larvae were characterized by uninflated swim bladder, less developed gut, and curved spine. Histological and ultrastructural examination of PFOS-exposed larvae showed structural alterations in swim bladder and gut. Whole genome microarray was used to identify the early transcripts dysregulated following exposure to 16 M PFOS at 96 hpf. In total, 1,278 transcripts were significantly misexpressed (p < 0.05) and 211 genes were changed at least two-fold upon PFOS exposure in comparison to the vehicle exposed control group. A PFOS-induced network of perturbed transcripts relating to swim bladder and gut development revealed that misexpression of genes were involved in organogenesis. Taken together, early life stage exposure to PFOS perturbs various molecular pathways potentially resulting in observed defects in swim bladder and gut development. PMID:24667235

  2. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) contamination from textiles.

    PubMed

    Supreeyasunthorn, Phenpimuk; Boontanon, Suwanna K; Boontanon, Narin

    2016-05-11

    The goals of this study were to determine the concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in textiles and to determine PFOS and PFOA contamination in textile washing water. Quantification analysis was performed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Analysis of 32 textile samples by methanol extraction revealed that the average concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were 0.18 µg m(-2) (0.02 to 0.61 µg m(-2)) and 2.74 µg m(-2) (0.31 to 14.14 µg m(-2)), respectively. Although the average concentration of PFOS found in textile samples was below European Union (EU) Commission regulations (<1 µg m(-2)), the average concentration of PFOA was 2.74 µg m(-2), and 68.75% of textile samples had PFOA concentrations exceeding 1 µg m(-2). Thus, based on these results, the concentration of PFOA in products should also be regulated. Experiments on PFOS and PFOA leaching into washing water were conducted. The maximum concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were measured after the first washing; the concentrations gradually decreased with each subsequent washing. PFOS and PFOA migrated from textiles and were released into the environment, with disappearance percentages of 29.8% for PFOS and 99% for PFOA. The data presented in this study showed that textiles could be a significant direct and indirect source of PFOS and PFOA exposure for both humans and the environment. PMID:26864911

  3. Extent of Sorption and Biodegradation of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonic Acid (PFOS) in Aquifer Sediment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fluoropolymers such as Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) were used provide non-stick surfaces on cookware and waterproof, breathable clothing. PFOA is very persistent in the environment and is found at low concentrations in the environment and...

  4. Extent of Sorption and Biodegradability of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonic Acid (PFOS) in Aquifer Sediment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fluoropolymers such as Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) were used provide non-stick surfaces on cookware and waterproof, breathable clothing. PFOA is very persistent in the environment and is found at low concentrations in the environment and...

  5. Absorption and excretion of 14C-perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perfluoroalkyl compounds such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are industrial chemicals that are environmentally persistent. Both PFOS and PFOA are found in biosolids, and the application of these contaminated biosolids to pastures has raised concerns about possi...

  6. Absorption and excretion of 14C-perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane aulfonate (PFOS) in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perfluoroalkyl compounds such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are industrial chemicals that are environmentally persistent. Both PFOS and PFOA are found in biosolids, and the application of these contaminated biosolids to pastures has raised concerns about possi...

  7. Electrochemical treatment of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in groundwater impacted by aqueous film forming foams (AFFFs).

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Charles E; Andaya, Christina; Urtiaga, Ana; McKenzie, Erica R; Higgins, Christopher P

    2015-09-15

    Laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate the use of electrochemical treatment for the decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), as well as other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), in aqueous film forming foam (AFFF)-impacted groundwater collected from a former firefighter training area and PFAA-spiked synthetic groundwater. Using a commercially-produced Ti/RuO2 anode in a divided electrochemical cell, PFOA and PFOS decomposition was evaluated as a function of current density (0-20 mA/cm(2)). Decomposition of both PFOA and PFOS increased with increasing current density, although the decomposition of PFOS did not increase as the current density was increased above 2.5 mA/cm(2). At a current density of 10 mA/cm(2), the first-order rate constants, normalized for current density and treatment volume, for electrochemical treatment of both PFOA and PFOS were 46 10(-5) and 70 10(-5) [(min(-1)) (mA/cm(2))(-1) (L)], respectively. Defluorination was confirmed for both PFOA and PFOS, with 58% and 98% recovery as fluoride, respectively (based upon the mass of PFOA and PFOS degraded). Treatment of other PFAAs present in the groundwater also was observed, with shorter chain PFAAs generally being more recalcitrant. Results highlight the potential for electrochemical treatment of PFAAs, particularly PFOA and PFOS, in AFFF-impacted groundwater. PMID:25909497

  8. Extent of Sorption and Biodegradability of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in Aquifer Sediment (Maryland)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fluoropolymers such as Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) were used provide non-stick surfaces on cookware and waterproof, breathable clothing. PFOA is very persistent in the environment and is found at low concentrations in the environment and...

  9. Bioavailability of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in biosolids-amended soils to earthworms (Eisenia fetida).

    PubMed

    Wen, Bei; Zhang, Hongna; Li, Longfei; Hu, Xiaoyu; Liu, Yu; Shan, Xiao-quan; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2015-01-01

    The bioavailability of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in seven biosolids-amended soils without any additionally spiking to earthworms (Eisenia fetida) was studied. The uptake and elimination kinetics of PFOS and PFOA fit a one-compartment first-order kinetic model. PFOS displayed higher uptake and lower elimination rate coefficients, and longer time to reach steady-state (t(ss)) than those of PFOA. The bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) of PFOS and PFOA ranged 1.544.12 and 0.521.34 g(soil) g(worm)(?1), respectively. The BAFs and tss decreased with increasing concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in soils. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to elucidate the bioavailability of PFOS and PFOA. The results showed that the total concentrations of PFOS and PFOA, and organic matter (OM) contents in soils explained 87.2% and 91.3% of the variation in bioavailable PFOS and PFOA, respectively. PFOS and PFOA concentrations exhibited positive influence and OM contents showed the negative influence on the accumulation of PFOS and PFOA in earthworms. Soil pH and clay contents played relatively unimportant role in PFOS and PFOA bioavailability. PMID:25439283

  10. Perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in human breast milk: results of a pilot study.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Vlkel W; Genzel-Boroviczny O; Demmelmair H; Gebauer C; Koletzko B; Twardella D; Raab U; Fromme H

    2008-07-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFC) are a large group of chemicals produced for several decades and widely used for many industrial and consumer applications. Because of their global occurrence in different environmental media, their persistence and their potential to bioaccumulate in organisms they are of toxicological and public concern. In the present study, perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were quantified in 70 breast milk samples. Samples were obtained from Leipzig, Germany (38 archived samples), Munich, Germany (19 fresh samples) and Gyor, Hungary (13 frozen samples). PFOS could be quantified in all 70 samples. The concentration in samples from Germany ranged between 28 and 309 ng/l (median: 119 ng/l). Samples from Hungary showed significantly higher PFOS concentrations (median 330 ng/l, range 96-639 ng/l). In only 11 of 70 samples (16%) PFOA reached the LOQ (200 ng/l); values ranged from 201 to 460 ng/l. If only those samples with PFOA values above the LOQ were considered, we found a significant correlation between the PFOS and PFOA concentrations (r=0.75, p=0.008). Based on the results of the German sample, we estimated an intake of 0.10 microg PFOS/day (using median) or 0.27 PFOS microg/day (using maximum value) via breast milk for an infant of 5 kg bodyweight. Our data suggest that fully breastfed infants are unlikely to exceed the recommended tolerable daily intake of PFC. However, more target-oriented studies are needed to identify the amount and time-trend of PFOS and PFOA in maternal blood during pregnancy, after delivery, as well as in the growing infant and in its diet (e.g., breast milk and formula).

  11. Perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in human breast milk: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Vlkel, W; Genzel-Boroviczny, O; Demmelmair, H; Gebauer, C; Koletzko, B; Twardella, D; Raab, U; Fromme, H

    2008-07-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFC) are a large group of chemicals produced for several decades and widely used for many industrial and consumer applications. Because of their global occurrence in different environmental media, their persistence and their potential to bioaccumulate in organisms they are of toxicological and public concern. In the present study, perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were quantified in 70 breast milk samples. Samples were obtained from Leipzig, Germany (38 archived samples), Munich, Germany (19 fresh samples) and Gyor, Hungary (13 frozen samples). PFOS could be quantified in all 70 samples. The concentration in samples from Germany ranged between 28 and 309 ng/l (median: 119 ng/l). Samples from Hungary showed significantly higher PFOS concentrations (median 330 ng/l, range 96-639 ng/l). In only 11 of 70 samples (16%) PFOA reached the LOQ (200 ng/l); values ranged from 201 to 460 ng/l. If only those samples with PFOA values above the LOQ were considered, we found a significant correlation between the PFOS and PFOA concentrations (r=0.75, p=0.008). Based on the results of the German sample, we estimated an intake of 0.10 microg PFOS/day (using median) or 0.27 PFOS microg/day (using maximum value) via breast milk for an infant of 5 kg bodyweight. Our data suggest that fully breastfed infants are unlikely to exceed the recommended tolerable daily intake of PFC. However, more target-oriented studies are needed to identify the amount and time-trend of PFOS and PFOA in maternal blood during pregnancy, after delivery, as well as in the growing infant and in its diet (e.g., breast milk and formula). PMID:17870667

  12. Worldwide surveys of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in water environment in recent years.

    PubMed

    Kunacheva, Chinagarn; Fujii, Shigeo; Tanaka, Shuhei; Seneviratne, S T M L D; Lien, Nguyen Pham Hong; Nozoe, Munehiro; Kimura, Koji; Shivakoti, Binaya Raj; Harada, Hidenori

    2012-01-01

    Recently, perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been noted as causes of some of the important environmental problems in recent years due to their occurrences and properties. The most commonly used PFCs are perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), which have been used in many kinds of products. They have been found in surface water and tap water in both developed and developing countries around the world including in North America, Europe and Asia. In most countries, rivers are the source of tap water, which is one of the important pathways in which PFCs reach humans. It is essential to evaluate PFOS and PFOA contamination in the river basin. The purpose of this field study was to determine the presence of PFOS and PFOA in rivers around the world. The surveys were conducted in 15 countries during 2004 to 2010. In total, 539 samples were collected from the rivers in 41 cities. A solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled with HPLC-ESI-MS/MS were used for the analysis of these chemicals. PFOS and PFOA were detected in all 41 cities not only in industrialized areas but also in non-industrialized areas, representing that these compounds undergo long-range transportation in the environment. The average concentration of PFOS in each city ranged from not detected to 70.1 ng/L. The average concentration of PFOA in each city was in the range 0.2-1,630.2 ng/L. The industrialized areas show higher contamination in both PFOS and PFOA concentrations than non-industrialized areas. Industrial activities are some of the major sources of PFCs contamination in rivers. PMID:23109596

  13. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA): emerging contaminants of increasing concern in fish from Lake Varese, Italy.

    PubMed

    Squadrone, S; Ciccotelli, V; Prearo, M; Favaro, L; Scanzio, T; Foglini, C; Abete, M C

    2015-07-01

    Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) are highly fluorinated aliphatic compounds with high thermal and chemical stability, used in a range of industrial applications. Extensive screening analyses in biota samples from all over the world have shown the bioaccumulation of PFAS into higher trophic levels in the food chain. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluoroctanoic acid (PFOA) are potential reproductive and developmental toxicants and are considered to be emerging endocrine disrupters. Ingestion of fish and other seafood is considered the main source of exposure of these contaminants. Here, we quantified PFOS and PFOA by LC-MS/MS in muscle samples of European perch from Lake Varese, Italy. PFOS was detected in all samples with concentrations of up to 17.2 ng g(-1). Although the reported values were lower than the recommended total daily intake (TDI) proposed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), fish from Lake Varese may be a significant source of dietary PFOS exposure. PMID:26085281

  14. In vitro evaluation of the effects of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on IL-2 production in human T-cells

    PubMed Central

    Midgett, Kristin; Peden-Adams, Margie M.; Gilkeson, Gary S.; Kamen, Diane L.

    2014-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds, such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), have been shown to alter various immune functions suggesting they are immunotoxic. This study assessed the effects of PFOS and PFOA on interleukin (IL)-2 production in the human Jurkat T-cell line and PFOS in healthy human primary T cells. Jurkat cells were stimulated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA)/phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), anti CD-3/anti CD-28, or anti CD-3, and dosed with 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 50, 75, or 100 ?g ml?1 PFOS or 0, 0.005, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, or 10 ?g ml?1 PFOA. Jurkat cells stimulated with PHA/PMA or anti CD-3 exhibited decreased IL-2 production beginning at 50 ?g PFOS ml?1 and 5 ?g PFOS ml?1 respectively, but stimulation with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 resulted in no changes compared with the control. Addition of the PPAR-alpha antagonist GW6471 to PFOS-dosed cells stimulated with PHA/PMA resulted in decreases in IL-2 production starting at 50 ?g PFOS ml?1, which suggests PFOS affected T-cell IL-2 production via PPAR-alpha-independent mechanisms. Exposure to PFOA, PFOA + GW6471, or PFOS + PFOA in Jurkat cells resulted in no significant differences in IL-2 production. In vitro dosing studies using healthy primary human CD4+ T cells were consistent with the Jurkat results. These data demonstrated that PFOA did not impact IL-2 production, but PFOS suppressed IL-2 production in both a human cell line and human primary cells at dose levels within the high end of the human exposure range. A decrease in IL-2 production is characteristic of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and should be further investigated. PMID:25056757

  15. Removal of PFOS, PFOA and other perfluoroalkyl acids at water reclamation plants in South East Queensland Australia.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jack; Eaglesham, Geoff; Reungoat, Julien; Poussade, Yvan; Bartkow, Michael; Lawrence, Michael; Mueller, Jochen F

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the fate of perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs) and carboxylic acids (PFCAs) in two water reclamation plants in Australia. Both facilities take treated water directly from WWTPs and treat it further to produce high quality recycled water. The first plant utilizes adsorption and filtration methods alongside ozonation, whilst the second uses membrane processes and advanced oxidation to produce purified recycled water. At both facilities perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were the most frequently detected PFCs. Concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in influent (WWTP effluent) ranged up to 3.7 and 16 ng L? respectively, and were reduced to 0.7 and 12 ng L? in the finished water of the ozonation plant. Throughout this facility, concentrations of most of the detected perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) remained relatively unchanged with each successive treatment step. PFOS was an exception to this, with some removal following coagulation and dissolved air flotation/sand filtration (DAFF). At the second plant, influent concentrations of PFOS and PFOA ranged up to 39 and 29 ng L?. All PFCs present were removed from the finished water by reverse osmosis (RO) to concentrations below detection and reporting limits (0.4-1.5 ng L?). At both plants the observed concentrations were in the low parts per trillion range, well below provisional health based drinking water guidelines suggested for PFOS and PFOA. PMID:21051071

  16. Investigation of the Effects of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) on Apoptosis and Cell Cycle in a Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Liver Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yuan; Liu, Wei; Xie, Wenping; Yu, Wenlian; Wang, Cheng; Chen, Huiming

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on apoptosis and cell cycle in a zebrafish (Danio rerio) liver cell line (ZFL). Treatment groups included a control group, PFOA-IC50, PFOA-IC80, PFOS-IC50 and PFOS-IC80 groups. IC50 and IC80 concentrations were identified by cellular modeling and MTT assays. mRNA levels of p53, Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase-3 and NF-κB p65 were detected by qPCR. Cell apoptosis and cell cycle were detected by flow cytometry and the protein levels of p53, Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase-3 and NF-κB p65 were determined by western blotting. Both PFOA and PFOS inhibited the growth of zebrafish liver cells, and the inhibition rate of PFOS was higher than that of PFOA. Bcl-2 expression levels in the four groups were significantly higher than the control group and Bcl-2 increased significantly in the PFOA-IC80 group. However, the expression levels of Bax in the four treatment groups were higher than the control group. The percentage of cell apoptosis increased significantly with the treatment of PFOA and PFOS (p < 0.05). Cell cycle and cell proliferation were blocked in both the PFOA-IC80 and PFOS-IC80 groups, indicating that PFOA-IC80 and PFOS-IC50 enhanced apoptosis in ZFL cells. PMID:26690195

  17. Investigation of the Effects of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) on Apoptosis and Cell Cycle in a Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Liver Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yuan; Liu, Wei; Xie, Wenping; Yu, Wenlian; Wang, Cheng; Chen, Huiming

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on apoptosis and cell cycle in a zebrafish (Danio rerio) liver cell line (ZFL). Treatment groups included a control group, PFOA-IC50, PFOA-IC80, PFOS-IC50 and PFOS-IC80 groups. IC50 and IC80 concentrations were identified by cellular modeling and MTT assays. mRNA levels of p53, Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase-3 and NF-κB p65 were detected by qPCR. Cell apoptosis and cell cycle were detected by flow cytometry and the protein levels of p53, Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase-3 and NF-κB p65 were determined by western blotting. Both PFOA and PFOS inhibited the growth of zebrafish liver cells, and the inhibition rate of PFOS was higher than that of PFOA. Bcl-2 expression levels in the four groups were significantly higher than the control group and Bcl-2 increased significantly in the PFOA-IC80 group. However, the expression levels of Bax in the four treatment groups were higher than the control group. The percentage of cell apoptosis increased significantly with the treatment of PFOA and PFOS (p < 0.05). Cell cycle and cell proliferation were blocked in both the PFOA-IC80 and PFOS-IC80 groups, indicating that PFOA-IC80 and PFOS-IC50 enhanced apoptosis in ZFL cells. PMID:26690195

  18. Association of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) with age of puberty among children living near a chemical plant.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Fletcher, Tony; Armstrong, Ben; Genser, Bernd; Dhatariya, Ketan; Mondal, Debapriya; Ducatman, Alan; Leonardi, Giovanni

    2011-10-01

    Animal studies suggest that perfluorocarbons (PFCs) may alter sexual maturation. Relationships of human PFC exposure with puberty are not clear. We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate whether perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were associated with indicators of sexual maturation in a 2005-2006 survey of residents with PFOA water contamination from the Mid-Ohio Valley. Participants were 3076 boys and 2931 girls aged 8-18 years. They were classified as having reached puberty based on either hormone levels (total >50 ng/dL and free >5 pg/mL testosterone in boys and estradiol >20 pg/mL in girls) or onset of menarche. We estimated the odds of having reached puberty classified by these criteria and the fitted median age of reaching puberty in relation to serum PFOA and PFOS concentrations measured when puberty status was assigned. For boys, there was a relationship of reduced odds of reached puberty (raised testosterone) with increasing PFOS (delay of 190 days between the highest and lowest quartile). For girls, higher concentrations of PFOA or PFOS were associated with reduced odds of postmenarche (130 and 138 days of delay, respectively). In conclusion, our study showed a later age of puberty in this population correlated with PFC concentrations. PMID:21534542

  19. ACTIVATION OF MOUSE AND HUMAN PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTORS (PPAR ALPHA, GAMMA, BETA DELTA) BY PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID (PFOA) AND PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluates the potential for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) to activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), using a transient transfection cell assay. Cos-1 cells were cultured in DMEM with fetal bovine serum (FBS) in ...

  20. Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) adversely affects the life-cycle of the damselfly Enallagma cyathigerum.

    PubMed

    Bots, Jessica; De Bruyn, Luc; Snijkers, Tom; Van den Branden, Bert; Van Gossum, Hans

    2010-03-01

    We evaluated whether life-time exposure to PFOS affects egg development, hatching, larval development, survival, metamorphosis and body mass of Enallagma cyathigerum (Insecta: Odonata). Eggs and larvae were exposed to five concentrations ranging from 0 to 10000 microg/L. Our results show reduced egg hatching success, slower larval development, greater larval mortality, and decreased metamorphosis success with increasing PFOS concentration. PFOS had no effect on egg developmental time and hatching or on mass of adults. Eggs were the least sensitive stage (NOEC=10000 microg/L). Larval NOEC values were 1000 times smaller (10 microg/L). Successful metamorphosis was the most sensitive response trait studied (NOEC<10 microg/L). The NOEC value suggests that E. cyathigerum is amongst the most sensitive freshwater organisms tested. NOEC for metamorphosis is less than 10-times greater than the ordinary reported environmental concentrations in freshwater, but is more than 200-times smaller than the greatest concentrations measured after accidental releases. PMID:19811863

  1. MEASUREMENT OF THYROID HORMONES IN THE RAT SERA CONTAINING PERFLUOROOCTANESULFONATE (PFOS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), a persistent and bioaccumulative acid, is widely distributed in humans and wildlife. Prior studies with PFOS (rats and monkeys) have observed decreased total and free thyroid hormones (TH) in serum without a rise in thyrotropin (TSH). Measuremen...

  2. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICOGENOMIC STUDIES OF PFOA AND PFOS IN MICE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are developmentally toxic in rodents. To better understand the mechanism(s) associated with this toxicity, we have conducted transcript profiling in mice. In an initial study, pregnant animals were dosed througho...

  3. Challenges of non-PFOS top antireflective coating material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Shu-Hao; Vermeir, Inge; Scholze, Matthias; Voigt, Matthias; Gierth, Janine; Mittermeier, Armelle; Mäge, Iris; Voelkel, Lars

    2008-03-01

    Top anti-reflective coating (TARC) material is very useful in decreasing standing waves and minimizing swing amplitude of critical dimensions (CD) because it can reduce the reflectivity of structures by interference. TARC can also help to control resist defects, improve CD uniformity, and solve CD variation issues caused by post exposure bake (PEB) delay. The perfluorooctyl sulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are used as a surfactant in actual TARC materials. They can reduce surface tension to improve the coating performance of TARC. However, PFOS and PFOA are restricted for future applications due to environmental concerns and should be omitted from TARC materials. Therefore, material vendors start working hard on Non-PFOS TARC material development. In this paper, the PEB delay behavior with and without TARC was discussed. The effect of PEB delay is not only related to the pattern density, but also strongly related to resist material. According to the testing results, there are still some issues in Non-PFOS TARC materials such as coating performance, material removing, defect control, and film loss etc. Taking these Non-PFOS TARC materials as examples, Non-PFOS TARC-3 could not be dissolved completely in alkaline developer. There are serious embedded defects of Non-PFOS TARC-2 on patterned wafer. Additionally, Non-PFOS TARC-1 shows an acceptable defect level without TARC baking, but it has poor edge coating and more film loss issues. The issue of poor film coating could be solved by coating recipe modification and also by improvements on the material itself made by the material vendor. Therefore, Non-PFOS TARC-1 without TARC baking can be a candidate for a Non-PFOS TARC process because of its acceptable Litho performances and defect density.

  4. Devopmental toxicity of perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) is not dependent on expression on peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha)in the mouse

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are members of a family of perfluorinated compounds. Both are environmentally persistent and found in the serum of wildlife and humans. PFOS and PFOA are developmentally toxic in laboratory rodents. Exposure to t...

  5. Modeling Bioaccumulation as a Potential Route of Riverine Foodweb Exposures to PFOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated acids are compounds of interest as bioaccumulators; these persistent chemicals have been found in humans and animals throughout the world. Perfluoroctane sulfonate (PFOS) has an especially high bioconcentration factor in fish, due to the stability of PFOS in the e...

  6. Behavior and Fate of PFOA and PFOS in Sandy Aquifer Sediment (journal)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microcosms were constructed with sediment from beneath a landfill that received waste containing PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid) and PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate). The microcosms were amended with PFOA and PFOS, and sampled after 91, 210, 343, 463, 574, and 740 days of incubat...

  7. Identification of the source of PFOS and PFOA contamination at a military air base site.

    PubMed

    Arias E, Victor A; Mallavarapu, Megharaj; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Although the use of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS)/perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)-based aqueous fire-fighting foams (AFFF) has been banned due to their persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity to biota, PFOS and PFOA are still present at significant levels in the environment due to their past usage. This study investigated the reasons for detection of PFOS and PFOA in an evaporation pond used to collect the wastewater arising from fire-fighting exercises at a military air base despite the replacement of PFOS/PFOA-based foam with no PFOS/PFOA-foam about 6 years ago. Concentrations in the wastewater stored in this pond ranged from 3.6 to 9.7 mg/L for PFOS and between 0.6 and 1.7 mg/L for PFOA. The hypothesis tested in a laboratory study was that PFOS and PFOA have accumulated in the sediments of the pond and can be released into the main body of the water. Concentrations detected in the sediments were 38 and 0.3 mg/g for PFOS and PFOA, respectively. These values exceed the recently reported average global values for sediments (0.2-3.8 ng/g for PFOS and from 0.1 to 0.6 ng/g for PFOA) by a factor of several thousands. PFOS and PFOA distribution coefficients were derived for the organic content of the pond sediment (1.6%). Identification of the source of contamination and knowledge of the partition between soil and aqueous phases are vital first steps in developing a sustainable remediation technology to remove the source from the site. This study clearly suggests that unless the sediment is cleaned of PFOS/PFOA, these chemicals will continue to be detected for a long period in the pond water, with potential adverse impacts on the ecosystem. PMID:25407991

  8. Impact of a perfluorinated organic compound PFOS on the terrestrial pollinator Bombus terrestris (Insecta, Hymenoptera).

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Mommaerts V; Hagenaars A; Meyer J; De Coen W; Swevers L; Mosallanejad H; Smagghe G

    2011-03-01

    Perfluorinated organic chemicals like perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) are persistent environmental pollutants that have been measured in a great diversity of wildlife worldwide, especially in the aquatic compartment. However, little information is available on the presence and effects of PFOS in the terrestrial compartment. Therefore, we investigated in this project the risks for effects, bioaccumulation and potential mechanisms of activity of PFOS in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) that is an important worldwide pollinator in the terrestrial compartment of wildflowers and cultivated crops. The exposure to PFOS occurred orally via the drinking of treated sugar water in a wide range from 1 ?g/l up to 10 mg/l, containing environmentally relevant as well as high concentrations, and this was done with use of microcolonies of B. terrestris in the laboratory. A chronic toxicity assay demonstrated high bumblebee worker mortality (up to 100%) with an LC(50) of 1.01 mg/l (R(2) = 0.98). In addition, PFOS posed strong detrimental reproductive effects, and these concerted with a dramatic reduction in ovarian size. HPLC-MS demonstrated a bioaccumulation factor of 27.9 for PFOS in bumblebee workers fed with sugar water containing 100 ?g/l PFOS during 5 weeks (2184 365 ng/g BW). Finally, potential mechanisms of activity were investigated to explain the significant impact of PFOS on survival and reproduction capacity of B. terrestris. Exposure of bumblebee workers to PFOS resulted in a significant decrease in mitochondrial electron transport activity (p = 0.035) and lipid amounts (p = 0.019), while the respective p-values were 0.58 and 0.12 for protein and glucose amounts. Hence, addition of PFOS to ecdysteroid responsive Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells resulted in a strong antagonistic action on the EcR-b.act.luc reporter construct, demonstrating that PFOS may exert its effects partially through an endocrine disrupting action via the insect molting hormone or ecdysteroid receptor.

  9. Effect of sound frequency and initial concentration on the sonochemical degradation of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS).

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Freire, Lucia; Balachandran, Rajesh; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Keswani, Manish

    2015-12-30

    Perfluoooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) is a perfluorinated compound (PFC) highly resistant to conventional advance oxidation processes, which was widely used in industrial activities due to its surfactant nature, olephobic-hydrophobic properties, and chemical inertness. Sonochemical treatment has been suggested as an effective approach to treat aqueous solutions containing minimal levels of PFCs. This study investigates PFOS sonochemical degradation and its dependency on the initial concentration (10-460 μM), and the applied sound frequency (25 and 500 kHz, and 1 MHz). PFOS was degraded by sonochemical treatment at concentrations as high as 460 μM, as demonstrated by fluoride release and total organic content data. PFOS degradation rate was higher at megasonic frequencies (1MHz) compared to ultrasonic frequencies (25-500 kHz). PFOS degradation was controlled by saturation kinetics as indicated by an increase in PFOS degradation rate with increasing PFOS concentration until a maximum, after which the degradation rate was independent of the concentration. The saturation conditions were dependent on the sound frequency, and they were reached at a lower concentration under 1 MHz (100 μM) compared to the 500 kHz frequency (>460 μM). Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that high PFOS concentration can be effectively sonochemically treated using megasonic frequencies. PMID:26282221

  10. Gene expression profiling in the lung and liver of PFOS-exposed mouse fetuses

    EPA Science Inventory

    The industrial surfactants perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are persistent environmental contaminants commonly found in the tissues of humans and wildlife. Both compounds are agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) and...

  11. Chronic effects of PFOA and PFOS on sexual reproduction of freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lilan; Niu, Junfeng; Wang, Yujuan; Shi, Jianghong; Huang, Qingguo

    2014-11-01

    Rotifers play an important role in the dynamics of freshwater and coastal marine ecosystems, and are also important tools for assessing toxicity in aquatic environments. In this study, the effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on the population growth rate and resting egg production of rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus were investigated. Reproductive bioassays indicated that PFOS increased the rotifer population growth rate at the concentration ?2.0 mg L(-1), and inhibited it at higher concentrations. For PFOA, the inhibition of population growth rate was observed when the concentration was greater than 4.0 mg L(-1). Exposure to PFOS (0.25 mg L(-1)) or PFOA (2.0 mg L(-1)) increased the mictic ratios of unexposed rotifer offspring. Population variation and increased mictic ratios were likely the two major factors leading to decline of resting egg production. The resting eggs formed under exposure to PFOA/PFOS in the range of 0.125-2.0 mg L(-1) showed higher hatching percentages in the control medium than that without PFOA/PFOS exposure. When the resting eggs were formed in the control medium and incubated in media with different levels of PFOA/PFOS, higher hatching percentages were induced by PFOS but lower hatching percentages induced by PFOA. The effects on the hatching rate of resting eggs with PFOA/PFOS exposure during the hatching period were greater than those with exposure during resting egg formation period, and the effect of PFOS was greater than that of PFOA. Both PFOA and PFOS exhibited slight effect on the hatching pattern. PMID:25113191

  12. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) exposure could modify the dopaminergic system in several limbic brain regions.

    PubMed

    Salgado, R; Lpez-Doval, S; Pereiro, N; Lafuente, A

    2016-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is the most representative of a rising class of persistent organic pollutants perfluorochemicals. In the present study, its neurotoxicity was examined using adult male rats orally treated with 0.5; 1.0; 3.0 and 6.0mg of PFOS/kg/day for 28 days. At the end of the treatment, the dopamine concentration and its metabolism expressed like the ratio 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC)/dopamine and homovanillic acid (HVA)/dopamine were measured in the amygdala, prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Gene and protein expression of the dopamine receptors D1 and D2 were also determined in these limbic areas. The obtained results suggest that: (1) PFOS can alter the dopamine system by modifying its neuronal activity and/or its D1 and D2 receptors in the studied brain regions; (2) the dopamine concentration and metabolism seem to be more sensitive against PFOS toxicity in the hippocampus than in the other analyzed brain areas; (3) the inhibited gene and protein expression of the D1 receptors induced by PFOS in the amygdala could be related to several changes in the HPA axis activity, and lastly; (4) the observed alterations on the dopamine system induced by PFOS could be a possible neurotoxicity mechanism of PFOS, leading to many neurological diseases. PMID:26529483

  13. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human microvascular endothelial cells: role in endothelial permeability

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Yong; Ducatman, Alan; Ward, Rebecca; Leonard, Steve; Bukowski, Valerie; Guo, Nancy Lan; Shi, Xianglin; Vallyathan, Val; Castranova, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a member of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) containing an 8-carbon backbone. PFOS is a man-made chemical with carbon-fluorine bonds that are one of the strongest in organic chemistry and widely used in industry. Human occupational and environmental exposure to PFOS occurs globally. PFOS is non-biodegradable and persistent in the human body and environment. In this study, data demonstrated that exposure of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) to PFOS induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at both high and low concentrations. Morphologically, it was found that exposure to PFOS induced actin filament remodeling and endothelial permeability changes in HMVEC. Furthermore, data demonstrated the production of ROS plays a regulatory role in PFOS-induced actin filament remodeling and the increase in endothelial permeability. Our results indicate that the generation of ROS may play a role in PFOS-induced aberrations of the endothelial permeability barrier. The results generated from this study may provide a new insight into the potential adverse effects of PFOS exposure on humans at the cellular level. PMID:20391123

  14. Levels of perfluorinated compounds in food and dietary intake of PFOS and PFOA in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Noorlander, Cornelle W; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J; Te Biesebeek, Jan Dirk; Mengelers, Marcel J B; Zeilmaker, Marco J

    2011-07-13

    This study presents concentrations of perfluorinated compounds in food and the dietary intake of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in The Netherlands. The concentrations of perfluorinated compounds in food were analyzed in pooled samples of foodstuffs randomly purchased in several Dutch retail store chains with nation-wide coverage. The concentrations analyzed for PFOS and PFOA were used to assess the exposure to these compounds in The Netherlands. As concentrations in drinking water in The Netherlands were missing for these compounds, conservative default concentrations of 7 pg/g for PFOS and 9 pg/g for PFOA, as reported by European Food Safety Authority, were used in the exposure assessment. In food, 6 out of 14 analyzed perfluorinated compounds could be quantified in the majority of the food categories (perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), PFOA, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoro-1-hexanesulfonate (PFHxS), and PFOS). The highest concentration of the sum of these six compounds was found in crustaceans (825 pg/g product, PFOS: 582 pg/g product) and in lean fish (481 pg/g product, PFOS: 308 pg/g product). Lower concentrations were found in beef, fatty fish, flour, butter, eggs, and cheese (concentrations between 20 and 100 pg/g product; PFOS, 29-82 pg/g product) and milk, pork, bakery products, chicken, vegetable, and industrial oils (concentration lower than 10 pg/g product; PFOS not detected). The median long-term intake for PFOS was 0.3 ng/kg bw/day and for PFOA 0.2 ng/kg bw/day. The corresponding high level intakes (99th percentile) were 0.6 and 0.5 ng/kg bw/day, respectively. These intakes were well below the tolerable daily intake values of both compounds (PFOS, 150 ng/kg bw/day; PFOA, 1500 ng/kg bw/day). The intake calculations quantified the contribution of drinking water to the PFOS and PFOA intake in The Netherlands. Important contributors of PFOA intake were vegetables/fruit and flour. Milk, beef, and lean fish were important contributors of PFOS intake. PMID:21591675

  15. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) depletion in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is an industrial chemical that is used as a surfactant in several manufactured consumer products but is also a breakdown product from other chemical surfactants. As a result of its extensive use, PFOS is ubiquitous in the environment and is often detected in biosoli...

  16. Behaviour of damselfly larvae (Enallagma cyathigerum) (Insecta, Odonata) after long-term exposure to PFOS.

    PubMed

    Van Gossum, Hans; Bots, Jessica; Snijkers, Tom; Meyer, Johan; Van Wassenbergh, Sam; De Coen, Wim; De Bruyn, Luc

    2009-04-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) is a persistent and ubiquitous environmental contaminant that has been detected in organisms worldwide. Here, we evaluate whether long-term (1 and 4 months) exposure to PFOS contamination affects the behavioural performance of freshwater larvae of the damselfly Enallagma cyathigerum (Insecta: Odonata). Our results show reduced behavioural performance with increasing PFOS concentration. In 1 month exposed larvae, no observed effect concentrations (NOECs) were 100 microg/L for general activity. In 4 months exposed larvae, NOECs were 10 microg/L, for each behavioural trait, except swimming acceleration of male larvae where the NOEC was 100 microg/L. When faced with PFOS concentrations above the NOEC, E. cyathigerum larvae were less active, less capable to escape a simulated predator attack and less efficient in foraging. Together, our results show that damselfly larvae suffer reduced survival-related behavioural performance. PMID:19110351

  17. Enantiospecific perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) analysis reveals evidence for the source contribution of PFOS-precursors to the Lake Ontario foodweb.

    PubMed

    Asher, Brian J; Wang, Yuan; De Silva, Amila O; Backus, Sean; Muir, Derek C G; Wong, Charles S; Martin, Jonathan W

    2012-07-17

    Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) may arise directly, from emission and exposure to PFOS itself, or indirectly via the environmental release and degradation of PFOS-precursors. Human serum enantiomer fractions (EFs) of 1m-PFOS have been shown to be nonracemic, suggesting that PFOS-precursors are a significant source of PFOS in humans, but little is known about the importance of PFOS-precursors in ecosystems. In the current work, concentrations of PFOS, perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), PFOS isomer profiles, and EFs of 1m-PFOS were determined in Lake Ontario water, sediment, fishes and invertebrates. Concentrations of PFOS and PFOSA were highest in slimy sculpin and Diporeia, and concentrations of the two compounds were often correlated. 1m-PFOS was racemic in sediment, water, sculpin and rainbow smelt, but nonracemic in the top predator, lake trout, and all invertebrate species. Furthermore, EFs were correlated with the relative concentrations of PFOS and PFOSA in invertebrates. Overall, these empirical observations with a new analytical tool confirm previous suggestions that PFOS-precursors contribute to PFOS in the food web, likely via sediment. Implications are that future PFOS exposures in this ecosystem will be influenced by an in situ source, and that the apparent environmental behavior of PFOS (e.g., bioaccumulation potential) can be confounded by precursors. PMID:22676298

  18. PFOS and PFC releases and associated pollution from a PFC production plant in Minnesota (USA).

    PubMed

    Oliaei, Fardin; Kriens, Don; Weber, Roland; Watson, Alan

    2013-04-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and PFOS-related substances have been listed as persistent organic pollutants in the Stockholm Convention. From August 2012, Parties to the Convention needed to address the use, storage, and disposal of PFOS-including production sites and sites where PFOS wastes have been deposited-in their national implementation plans. The paper describes the pollution in Minnesota (USA) caused by the 3M Company at one of the largest per/polyfluorinated chemical (PFC) production facilities. From early 1950s until the end of 2002, when 3M terminated PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) production, PFOS, PFOA, and other PFC production wastes were disposed around the plant and in local disposal sites. Discharges from the site and releases from deposits caused widespread contamination of ground and surface waters including local drinking water wells. Fish in the river downstream were contaminated with PFOS to levels that led to fish consumption advisories. Human exposures resulted from ingesting contaminated drinking water, requiring installation of water treatment facilities and alternate water supplies. The critical evaluation of the assessments done revealed a range of gaps in particular of human exposure where relevant exposure pathways including the entire exposure via food have not been taken into consideration. Currently, the exposure assessment of vulnerable groups such as children or Hmong minorities is inadequate and needs to be improved/validated by epidemiological studies. The assessment methodology described for this site may serve-with highlighted improvements-as a model for assessment of other PFOS/PFC production sites in the Stockholm Convention implementation. PMID:23128989

  19. Production of PFOS from aerobic soil biotransformation of two perfluoroalkyl sulfonamide derivatives.

    PubMed

    Mejia Avendao, Sandra; Liu, Jinxia

    2015-01-01

    The continuous production and use in certain parts of the world of perfluoroalkyl sulfonamide derivatives that can degrade to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) has called for better understanding of the environmental fate of these PFOS precursors. Aerobic soil biotransformation of N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamide (EtFOSA, also known as Sulfluramid) was quantitatively investigated in semi-closed soil microcosms over 182 d for the first time. The apparent soil half-life of EtFOSA was 13.92.1 d and the yield to PFOS by the end of incubation was 4.0 mol%. A positive identification of a previously suspected degradation product, EtFOSA alcohol, provided strong evidence to determine degradation pathways. The lower mass balance in sterile soil than live soil suggested likely strong irreversible sorption of EtFOSA to the test soil. The aerobic soil biotransformation of a technical grade N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanol (EtFOSE) was semi-quantitatively examined, and the degradation pathways largely followed those in activated sludge and marine sediments. Aside from PFOS, major degradation products included N-Ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamidoacetic acid (EtFOSAA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide acetic acid (FOSAA). This study confirms that aerobic soil biotransformation of EtFOSE and EtFOSA contributes significantly to the PFOS observed in soil environment, as well as to several highly persistent sulfonamide derivatives frequently detected in biosolid-amended soils and landfill leachates. PMID:25460746

  20. The study of interaction between PFOA/PFOS and uracil by topology quality and spectroscopic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hui-Ying; Zhu, Jian-Qing; Wang, Wei; Xu, Xiao-Lu; Lu, Yin

    2014-02-01

    It has been established that perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) can be considered as emerging persistent organic pollutants. In recent years, there was increasing distribution of PFOA/PFOS in environmental systems, and accumulation and toxic effects of PFOA/PFOS in human body. In this paper, quantum chemistry methods were employed to study the interaction between perfluorinated organic pollutants and base (uracil). The results showed that there were four stable binding modes between the two perfluorinated compounds with uracil, especially the second mode which caused the most detrimental physiological functional response. NBO analysis showed that reactive hydrogen in the two perfluorinated compounds had the greatest effect on the hydrogen bond. The nature of the hydrogen bond formed between the two perfluorinated compounds and base was investigated using the AIM theory. The changes of spectroscopic properties in complexes were analyzed by IR and NMR spectra.

  1. Connexin 43 mediates PFOS-induced apoptosis in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Li; Yang, Xiaoyan; Gu, Wen; Zhao, Kangfeng; Ge, Huizheng; Zhou, Jianjun; Bai, Xuetao

    2015-08-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a man-made environmental pollutant that is toxic to mammals. However, the neurotoxic effects of PFOS remain largely unexplored. In this study, we determined the role of an astrocyte specific gap junction protein, connexin 43 (Cx43), in PFOS-induced apoptosis. The rate of astrocyte apoptosis was higher in cortex astrocytes after PFOS treatment. These astrocytes also showed up-regulated expression of Cx43 and higher levels of cleaved caspase-3. Elevated ROS accumulation and decreased ??m also confirmed the presence of PFOS-induced apoptosis. However, the exposure of astrocytes to PFOS together with carbenoxolone (CBX) significantly reduced both Cx43 and cleaved caspase-3 levels. These results indicate that Cx43 plays a proapoptotic role in PFOS-induced apoptosis in cortex astrocyte cells. PMID:25770831

  2. Differences in the isomer composition of perfluoroctanesulfonyl (PFOS) derivatives.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Sandhya M; Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2007-02-15

    Perfluorooctanesulfonyl (PFOS)-based materials and related compounds are an emerging group of environmental pollutants. Perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride, the key intermediate for the production of these materials, was manufactured by an electrochemical fluorination process that resulted in complex mixtures containing linear and branched PFOS derivatives and other perfluorinated compounds. This study uses 19F-NMR spectroscopy to investigate differences in the composition between commercial samples of PFOS and PFBS (perfluorobutanesulfonyl) derivatives. While PFBS derivatives, which are under evaluation as substitutes for PFOS-based materials, contained no detectable levels of branched impurities, all PFOS derivatives contained significant levels of branched and other impurities. Analysis of the NMR data reveals that PFOS fluorides typically have a higher content of internally branched and similar levels of isopropyl branched PFOS isomers compared to PFOS potassium salts. Furthermore, the isomer distribution of PFOS derivatives may vary depending on their source. These findings suggest that it is important to determine the isomer composition of PFOS samples used in both environmental and toxicological studies. PMID:17365291

  3. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) induced embryotoxicity and disruption of cardiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Yu, Zhuo; Feng, Lixin; Wang, Yan

    2013-08-01

    Prenatal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is correlated with birth defects and adverse health effects. However, the mechanisms remain largely unknown. In current study, the embryonic stem cell test (EST) was performed to evaluate the embryotoxicity of PFOS, and embryonic stem cells (ESCs)-derived cardiomyocytes were used as a model of the early stages of heart development to determine the developmental toxicity of PFOS. One validated endpoint and three molecular endpoints were observed to ensure accurate evaluation of toxicity. According to the criteria of the EST, PFOS was classified as weak embryotoxic. In addition, a cascade of genes related to normal cardiac development was examined at three different time points to monitor cardiogenesis. We found that PFOS significantly interfered with gene expression during cardiogenesis, especially on Nkx2.5 and Myl4. Further, PFOS reduced ATP production in ESCs-derived cardiomyocytes, together with PFOS induced apoptosis, could explain the reduction in beating ability. PFOS-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulated within cells, which was accompanied by an interfering expression of apoptosis-related genes, ultimately leading to apoptosis. In conclusion, PFOS altered the expression of crucial genes, reduced ATP production, induced ROS, and stimulated apoptosis during the early stages of cardiogenesis; these effects may result in poor developmental outcomes. PMID:23562911

  4. ACCUMULATION AND EFFECTS OF PFOS ON THE REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY OF THE FATHEAD MINNOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a globally-distributed contaminant in fish and wildlife. Comparatively little is known, however, concerning potential adverse effects of PFOS on reproduction and development of fish. There is some indication that PFOS could affect reproductive ...

  5. PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) DISRUPTS THE THYROID STATUS IN LABORATORY RODENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) DISRUPTS THE THYROID STATUS IN LABORATORY RODENTS. C. Lau, J.R. Thibodeaux, R.G. Hanson, B.E. Gray and J.M. Rogers. Reprod. Tox. Div. NHEERL, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC.

    PFOS is an environmental contaminant ubiquitously found in h...

  6. Absorption and distribution of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is an industrial chemical that is found in biosolids, and the application of these biosolids to pastures has raised concerns about human exposure through the accumulation of PFOS in edible tissues of these animals. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) h...

  7. Does perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) act as chemosensitizer in zebrafish embryos?

    PubMed

    Keiter, Susanne; Burkhardt-Medicke, Kathleen; Wellner, Peggy; Kais, Britta; Färber, Harald; Skutlarek, Dirk; Engwall, Magnus; Braunbeck, Thomas; Keiter, Steffen H; Luckenbach, Till

    2016-04-01

    Earlier studies have shown that perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) increases the toxicity of other chemicals by enhancing their uptake by cells and tissues. The present study aimed at testing whether the underlying mechanism of enhanced uptake of chemicals by zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos in the presence of PFOS is by interference of this compound with the cellular efflux transporter Abcb4. Modifications of uptake/clearance and toxicity of two Abcb4 substrates, the fluorescent dye rhodamine B (RhB) and vinblastine, by PFOS were evaluated using 24 and 48h post-fertilization (hpf) embryos. Upon 90min exposure of 24hpf embryos to 1μM RhB and different PFOS concentrations (3-300μM) accumulation of RhB in zebrafish was increased by up to 11.9-fold compared to controls, whereas RhB increases in verapamil treatments were 1.7-fold. Co-administration of PFOS and vinblastine in exposures from 0 to 48hpf resulted in higher vinblastine-caused mortalities in zebrafish embryos indicating increased uptake of this compound. Interference of PFOS with zebrafish Abcb4 activity was further studied using recombinant protein obtained with the baculovirus expression system. PFOS lead to a concentration-dependent decrease of the verapamil-stimulated Abcb4 ATPase activity; at higher PFOS concentrations (250, 500μM), also the basal ATPase activity was lowered indicating PFOS to be an Abcb4 inhibitor. In exposures of 48hpf embryos to a very high RhB concentration (200μM), accumulation of RhB in embryo tissue and adsorption to the chorion were increased in the presence of 50 or 100μM PFOS. In conclusion, the results indicate that PFOS acts as inhibitor of zebrafish Abcb4; however, the exceptionally large PFOS-caused effect amplitude of RhB accumulation in the 1μM RhB experiments and the clear PFOS effects in the experiments with 200μM RhB suggest that an additional mechanism appears to be responsible for the potential of PFOS to enhance uptake of Abcb4 substrates. PMID:26803730

  8. Elevated levels of PFOS and PFHxS in firefighters exposed to aqueous film forming foam (AFFF).

    PubMed

    Rotander, Anna; Toms, Leisa-Maree L; Aylward, Lesa; Kay, Margaret; Mueller, Jochen F

    2015-09-01

    Exposure to aqueous film forming foam (AFFF) was evaluated in 149 firefighters working at AFFF training facilities in Australia by analysis of PFOS and related compounds in serum. A questionnaire was designed to capture information about basic demographic factors, lifestyle factors and potential occupational exposure (such as work history and self-reported skin contact with foam). The results showed that a number of factors were associated with PFAA serum concentrations. Blood donation was found to be linked to low PFAA levels, and the concentrations of PFOS and PFHxS were found to be positively associated with years of jobs with AFFF contact. The highest levels of PFOS and PFHxS were one order of magnitude higher compared to the general population in Australia and Canada. Study participants who had worked ten years or less had levels of PFOS that were similar to or only slightly above those of the general population. This coincides with the phase out of 3M AFFF from all training facilities in 2003, and suggests that the exposures to PFOS and PFHxS in AFFF have declined in recent years. Self-reporting of skin contact and frequency of contact were used as an index of exposure. Using this index, there was no relationship between PFOS levels and skin exposure. This index of exposure is limited as it relies on self-report and it only considers skin exposure to AFFF, and does not capture other routes of potential exposure. Possible associations between serum PFAA concentrations and five biochemical outcomes were assessed. The outcomes were serum cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoproteins, low density lipoproteins, and uric acid. No statistical associations between any of these endpoints and serum PFAA concentrations were observed. PMID:26001497

  9. Current exposure of Italian women of reproductive age to PFOS and PFOA: A human biomonitoring study.

    PubMed

    De Felip, Elena; Abballe, Annalisa; Albano, Fulvia Lucia; Battista, Tatiana; Carraro, Valter; Conversano, Michele; Franchini, Silva; Giambanco, Laura; Iacovella, Nicola; Ingelido, Anna Maria; Maiorana, Antonio; Maneschi, Francesco; Marra, Valentina; Mercurio, Antonella; Nale, Roberta; Nucci, Bianca; Panella, Vincenzo; Pirola, Flavia; Porpora, Maria Grazia; Procopio, Enrico; Suma, Nicola; Valentini, Silvia; Valsenti, Luisa; Vecchi, Valerio

    2015-10-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentrations were determined in serum samples collected in 2011-2012 from 549 nulliparous Italian women of reproductive age who resided in six different Italian Regions. Assessment of exposure to perfluorinated compounds was part of a large human biomonitoring study (Project Life Plus "Womenbiopop") that aimed at examining the exposure of women of reproductive age to priority organic pollutants. The median concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were 2.43, and 1.55 ng g(-1), respectively. Significant differences in the concentrations of both compounds were observed among the six Regions. Women from central Italy had the highest levels of both compounds, followed by women from northern Italy, and southern Italy. No differences in the PFOS concentrations were found between women from urban/industrial areas and women from rural areas, whereas the levels of PFOA were significantly higher in women residing in urban/industrial areas than in women residing in rural areas. Taken together, the observed concentrations confirm that the overall exposure of the Italian population is among the lowest observed in industrialized countries. A downward temporal trend in exposure was observed for both compounds when comparing the results from the present study with those assessed in a study conducted in 2008. PMID:25965289

  10. Contribution to the evaluation of reference values for PFOA and PFOS in plasma of children and adults from Germany.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Michael; Angerer, Jürgen; Fromme, Hermann; Hölzer, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFC) are a large group of chemicals produced for several decades and widely used for many industrial and consumer applications. Human Biomonitoring studies reveal a background exposure of the general population to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and pefluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in many parts of the world. Reference values for PFOS and PFOA in the German population are currently not available. However, the data of three PFC human biomonitoring studies are taken as basis for deriving a preliminary reference value. The first two studies were performed in southern Germany with 105 (sampling period 2003-2004) and 356 adults (sampling period 2005). The third study was performed in North Rhine-Westphalia (sampling period October and November 2006) in connection with the high PFOA contamination of drinking water in the Sauerland region. Non PFOA exposed control groups comprised of 80 children and 153 females from Siegen and 103 men from Brilon. The whole study which could be taken as a basis for PFOS reference considerations comprised of 170 children, 317 females and 204 men. Though the studies are not representative for the German population, they provide at present the best available data basis for deriving reference values. The 95th percentile values of the studies were used and the following preliminary reference values are recommended: PFOA, 10microg/l for all groups; for PFOS 10microg/l for children at school beginner age, 15microg/l for adult females and 25microg/l for adult males. PMID:18162439

  11. Estimating emissions of PFOS and PFOA to the Danube River catchment and evaluating them using a catchment-scale chemical transport and fate model.

    PubMed

    Lindim, C; Cousins, I T; vanGils, J

    2015-12-01

    Novel approaches for estimating the emissions of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) to surface waters are explored. The Danube River catchment is used to investigate emissions contributing to riverine loads of PFOS and PFOA and to verify the accuracy of estimates using a catchment-scale dynamic fugacity-based chemical transport and fate model (STREAM-EU; Spatially and Temporally Resolved Exposure Assessment Model for European basins). Model accuracy evaluation performed by comparing STREAM-EU predicted concentrations and monitoring data for the Danube and its tributaries shows that the best estimates for PFOS and PFOA emissions in the Danube region are obtained by considering the combined contributions of human population, wealth (based on local gross domestic product (GDP)) and wastewater treatment. Human population alone cannot explain the levels of PFOS and PFOA found in the Danube catchment waters. Introducing wealth distribution information in the form of local GDPs improves emission estimates markedly, likely by better representing emissions resulting from consumer trends, industrial and commercial sources. For compounds such as PFOS and PFOA, whose main sink and transport media is the aquatic compartment, a major source to freshwater are wastewater treatment plants. Introducing wastewater treatment information in the emission estimations also further improves emission estimates. PMID:26367703

  12. Adsorption behavior of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) on boehmite.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Liu, Chengshuai; Shih, Kaimin

    2012-11-01

    Understanding the interaction of perfluorochemicals, persistent pollutants with known human health effects, with mineral compounds in surface water and groundwater environments is essential to determining their fate and transport. Kinetic experiments showed that adsorption equilibrium can be achieved within 48 h and the boehmite (AlOOH) surface is receptive to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) adsorption. The adsorption isotherms estimated the maximum adsorption capacities of PFOS and PFOA on boehmite as 0.877 ?g m(-2) and 0.633 ?g m(-2), respectively. Compared to the adsorption capacity on ?-alumina, the abundant hydroxyl groups on boehmite surfaces resulted in the 2-3 times higher adsorption of PFOS and PFOA. Increasing solution pH led to a moderate decrease in PFOS and PFOA adsorption, owing to an increase in ligand exchange reactions and the decrease of electrostatic interactions. The presence of NaCl and CaCl(2) in solution demonstrated negative effects for PFOS and PFOA adsorption on boehmite surfaces, with potential mechanisms being electrical double layer compression, competitive adsorption of chloride, and the Ca(2+) bridging effect between perfluorochemicals. PMID:22897837

  13. Pathways and factors for food safety and food security at PFOS contaminated sites within a problem based learning approach.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Gianfranco; D'Hollander, Wendy; Oliaei, Fardin; Stahl, Thorsten; Weber, Roland

    2015-06-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and related substances have been listed in Annex B of the Stockholm Convention. The implementation requires inventories of use, stockpiles, and environmental contamination including contaminated sites and measures for (risk) reduction and phase out. In most countries monitoring capacity is not available and therefore other approaches for assessment of contaminated sites are needed. Available informations about PFOS contamination in hot spot areas and its bio-accumulation in the food webs have been merged to build up a worst-case scenario We model PFOS transfer from 1 to 100ngL(-1) range in water to extensive and free-range food producing animals, also via the spread of contaminated sludges on agriculture soils. The modeling indicates that forages represented 78% of the exposure in ruminants, while soil accounted for >80% in outdoor poultry/eggs and pigs. From the carry-over rates derived from literature, in pork liver, egg, and feral fish computed concentration falls at 101, 28 and 2.7ngg(-1), respectively, under the 1ngL(-1) PFOS scenario. Assuming a major consumption of food produced from a contaminated area, advisories on egg and fish, supported by good agriculture/farming practices could abate 75% of the human food intake. Such advisories would allow people to become resilient in a PFOS contaminated area through an empowerment of the food choices, bringing the alimentary exposure toward the current Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 150ngkg(-1)bodyweightd(-1) proposed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). PMID:25439130

  14. TOXICITY AND BIOACCUMULATION OF PFOS IN A PARTIAL LIFE CYCLE TEST WITH THE NORTHERN LEOPARD FROG

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of recent monitoring studies have demonstrated elevated concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in humans and wildlife throughout the world. Although no longer actively manufactured, the global distribution and relative persistence of PFOS indicates a need to...

  15. EFFECTS OF PRENATAL PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) EXPOSURE ON LUNG MATURATION IN THE PERINATAL RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), found widely in wildlife and humans, is environmentally and metabolically stable. Environmental PFOS may be from its use as a surfactant, hydrolysis of perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride, and degradation of N-alkyl-perfluorooctanesulfon...

  16. PFOS and PFOA in environmental and tap water in China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yi He; Liu, Wei; Sato, Itaru; Nakayama, Shoji F; Sasaki, Kazuaki; Saito, Norimitsu; Tsuda, Shuji

    2009-10-01

    There is a great concern about global contamination with persistent fluoroorganic compounds including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), however, few data are available on the environmental levels of these chemicals in China. In the present study, therefore, environmental or tap water samples collected from various regions of China were assayed for PFOS and PFOA by solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. Median concentrations (maximum concentration) of PFOS and PFOA in environmental water were 0.4 (2.4) and 0.1 (1.3) ngL(-1) for the remote area (n=13), 4.0 (14.1) and 3.9 (30.8) ngL(-1) for the urban area (n=22), respectively. Systematic survey was also conducted in the Hun River (n=11) and the Yangtze River (n=34). In the Hun River, the median of PFOS concentration was 4.9ngL(-1), while PFOA was below the limit of quantitation (0.1ngL(-1)) at many of the sampling sites. The Yangtze River was moderately contaminated with both chemicals: median concentration was 4.2ngL(-1) for PFOS and 5.4ngL(-1) for PFOA. Remarkably high concentration of PFOA was found at 2 sampling sites of the Yangtze River (110.6 and 297.5ngL(-1)), but the concentration had declined to the average level at the next sampling site in both cases. Many cities provided tap water with low levels of PFOS and PFOA, however, tap water in Guangzhou and Shenzhen exceeded 10ngL(-1) for both chemicals. This study revealed obvious presence of perfluorinated compounds spread out the entire territory of China, and the levels in urban area of China were almost comparable to those in the US, Europe and Japan. PMID:19775722

  17. Gene Expression Profiling in the Liver and Lung of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate-Exposed Mouse Fetuses: Comparison to Changes Induced by Exposure to Perfluorooctanoic Acid

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are environmental contaminants found in the tissues of humans and wildlife. They are activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR?) and exhibit hepatocarcinogenic potential in rats. PFOS...

  18. Absorption and excretion of 14C- perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are industrial chemicals that are environmentally persistent. PFOS has recently been classified as a persistent organic pollutant under the Stockholm Convention. Both PFOS and PFOA can be found in biosolids, and the application of c...

  19. EVALUATION OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE RAT BRAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examined whether there is a differential distribution of PFOS within the brain, and compares adult rats with neonatal rats at an age when formation of the blood-brain barrier is not yet complete (postnatal day 7). Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (60-70 day old, 4/...

  20. Emission Inventory for PFOS in China: Review of Past Methodologies and Suggestions

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Theodore Chao; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jun; Deng, Shubo; Yu, Gang

    2011-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic chemical that has the potential for long-range transport in the environment. Its use in a wide variety of consumer products and industrial processes makes a detailed characterization of its emissions sources very challenging. These varied emissions sources all contribute to PFOS' existence within nearly all environmental media. Currently, China is the only country documented to still be producing PFOS, though there is no China PFOS emission inventory available. This study reviews the inventory methodologies for PFOS in other countries to suggest a China-specific methodology framework for a PFOS emission inventory. The suggested framework combines unknowns for PFOS-containing product penetration into the Chinese market with product lifecycle assumptions, centralizing these diverse sources into municipal sewage treatment plants. Releases from industrial sources can be quantified separately using another set of emission factors. Industrial sources likely to be relevant to the Chinese environment are identified. PMID:22125449

  1. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PFOS AND PFOA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) are fully-fluorinated organic chemicals with a carbon backbone (typically varying from C-4 to C-14) and a functional group (usually carboxylic acid or sulfonic acid). These chemicals are man-made, exceptionally stable to metabolic and environmental de...

  2. Comparison of human whole blood, plasma, and serum matrices for the determination of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and other fluorochemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Ehresman, David J.; Froehlich, John W.; Olsen, Geary W. . E-mail: gwolsen@mmm.com; Chang, Shu-Ching; Butenhoff, John L.

    2007-02-15

    Interest in human exposure to perfluorinated acids, including perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHS), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) has led to their measurement in whole blood, plasma and serum. Comparison of measurements in these different blood-based matrices, however, has not been rigorously investigated to allow for across-matrix comparisons. This research evaluated concentrations of PFBS, PFHS, PFOS, and PFOA in whole blood collected in heparin (lithium) and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), plasma samples collected in heparin and EDTA, and serum (from whole blood allowed to clot). Blood samples were collected from 18 voluntary participants employed at 3M Company. Solid phase extraction methods were used for all analytical sample preparations, and analyses were completed using high-pressure liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry methods. Serum concentrations ranged from: limit of quantitation (LOQ, 5 ng/mL) to 25 ng/mL for PFBS; LOQ (5 ng/mL) to 75 ng/mL for PFHS; LOQ (5 ng/mL) to 880 ng/mL for PFOS; and LOQ (5 or 10 ng/mL) to 7320 ng/mL for PFOA. Values less than the LOQ were not included in the statistical analyses of the mean of the ratios of individual values for the matrices. PFBS was not quantifiable in most samples. Serum to plasma ratios for PFHS, PFOS, and PFOA were 1:1 and this ratio was independent of the level of concentrations measured. Serum or plasma to whole blood ratios, regardless of the anticoagulant used, approximated 2:1. The difference between plasma and serum and whole blood corresponded to volume displacement by red blood cells, suggesting that the fluorochemicals are not found intracellularly or attached to the red blood cells.

  3. Effect of PFOA/PFOS pre-exposure on the toxicity of the herbicides 2,4-D, Atrazine, Diuron and Paraquat to a model aquatic photosynthetic microorganism.

    PubMed

    Rodea-Palomares, Ismael; Makowski, Marcin; Gonzalo, Soledad; Gonzlez-Pleiter, Miguel; Legans, Francisco; Fernndez-Pias, Francisca

    2015-11-01

    Pre-exposure to the perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) perfluorooctano sulphonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on the toxicity of four herbicides of different types and modes of action towards the self-luminescent recombinant cyanobacterium Anabaena CPB4337 was evaluated. The rationale of the approach is that both PFOS and PFOA as surfactants are known to modify cell membrane properties and pre-exposure to them might alter herbicide toxicity towards the cyanobacterium. Anabaena CPB4337 was pre-exposed during 72h to PFOS or PFOA at a concentration below their no observed effect concentration (NOEC). After pre-exposure, cells were exposed to increasing concentrations of 2,4-D Atrazine, Diuron and Paraquat and the toxicity was compared to that of non-pre-exposed ones. The data clearly showed that PFCs pre-treatment significantly altered the toxicity of the tested herbicides. However the effects resulting from PFOA and PFOS pre-exposure were not homogeneous for all the herbicides. In general PFOA pre-exposure resulted in increased herbicide toxicity except for atrazine, while PFOS pre-exposure resulted in increased toxicity for paraquat and diuron, and reduced toxicity for atrazine with no significant effect on 2,4-D toxicity. The strongest modifying effect was found for paraquat whose toxicity doubled with PFOA pre-exposure. Further analysis of membrane properties by flow cytometry revealed that both PFOA and PFOS were able to modify membrane integrity and membrane potential of Anabaena CPB4337 at the concentrations used in the pre-exposure experiments. These results reveal relevant indirect effects of PFCs pollution with eco-toxicological implications. PMID:26070144

  4. Chronic PFOS exposure alters the expression of neuronal development-related human homologues in Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Mayilswami, Srinithi; Krishnan, Kannan; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-12-01

    PFOS is a toxic, persistent environmental pollutant which is widespread worldwide. PFOS contamination has entered the food chain and is interfering with normal development in man and is neurotoxic, hepatotoxic and tumorigenic. The earthworm, Eisenia fetida is one of the organisms which can help to diagnose soil health and contamination at lower levels in the food chain. Studying the chronic effects of sub-lethal PFOS exposure in such an organism is therefore appropriate. As PFOS bioaccumulates and is not easily biodegraded, it is biomagnified up the food chain. Gene expression studies will give us information to develop biomarkers for early diagnosis of soil contamination, well before this contaminant passes up the food chain. We have carried out mRNA sequencing of control and chronically PFOS exposed E. fetida and reconstructed the transcripts in silico and identified the differentially expressed genes. Our findings suggest that PFOS up/down regulates neurodegenerative-related human homologues and can cause neuronal damage in E. fetida. This information will help to understand the links between neurodegenerative disorders and environmental pollutants such as PFOS. Furthermore, these up/down regulated genes can be used as biomarkers to detect a sub-lethal presence of PFOS in soil. Neuronal calcium sensor-2, nucleoside diphosphate kinase, polyadenylate-binding protein-1 and mitochondrial Pyruvate dehydrogenase protein-X component, could be potential biomarkers for sub lethal concentrations of PFOS. PMID:25285771

  5. Distribution and excretion of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in beef cattle (Bos taurus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a perfluoroalkyl surfactant used in many industrial products, is present in industrial wastes and in wastewater treatment plant biosolids. Biosolids are commonly applied to pastures and crops used for animal feed; consequently, PFOS may accumulate in the edible tis...

  6. EFFECTS OF PRENATAL PERFLUOROOCTANESULFONATE (PFOS) EXPOSURE ON LUNG MATURATION IN THE PERINATAL RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    PFOS is an environmentally stable compound that has been detected at 3 ppb -10 ppm in serum samples from the general public and occupationally exposed individuals. We have shown that exposing pregnant rats to PFOS (25, or 50 mg/kg/d on GD 19-20) induces neonatal death in the rat...

  7. PFOS Induces Behavioral Alterations, Including Spontaneous Hyperactivity That Is Corrected by Dexamfetamine in Zebrafish Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Spulber, Stefan; Kilian, Pascal; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Norhamidah; Onishchenko, Natalia; Ulhaq, Mazhar; Norrgren, Leif; Negri, Sara; Di Tuccio, Marcello; Ceccatelli, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a widely spread environmental contaminant. It accumulates in the brain and has potential neurotoxic effects. The exposure to PFOS has been associated with higher impulsivity and increased ADHD prevalence. We investigated the effects of developmental exposure to PFOS in zebrafish larvae, focusing on the modulation of activity by the dopaminergic system. We exposed zebrafish embryos to 0.1 or 1 mg/L PFOS (0.186 or 1.858 M, respectively) and assessed swimming activity at 6 dpf. We analyzed the structure of spontaneous activity, the hyperactivity and the habituation during a brief dark period (visual motor response), and the vibrational startle response. The findings in zebrafish larvae were compared with historical data from 3 months old male mice exposed to 0.3 or 3 mg/kg/day PFOS throughout gestation. Finally, we investigated the effects of dexamfetamine on the alterations in spontaneous activity and startle response in zebrafish larvae. We found that zebrafish larvae exposed to 0.1 mg/L PFOS habituate faster than controls during a dark pulse, while the larvae exposed to 1 mg/L PFOS display a disorganized pattern of spontaneous activity and persistent hyperactivity. Similarly, mice exposed to 0.3 mg/kg/day PFOS habituated faster than controls to a new environment, while mice exposed to 3 mg/kg/day PFOS displayed more intense and disorganized spontaneous activity. Dexamfetamine partly corrected the hyperactive phenotype in zebrafish larvae. In conclusion, developmental exposure to PFOS in zebrafish induces spontaneous hyperactivity mediated by a dopaminergic deficit, which can be partially reversed by dexamfetamine in zebrafish larvae. PMID:24740186

  8. TOWARD A RISK ASSESSMENT OF PERFLUOROALKYL ACIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS),and fluorotelomer alcoholsare surfactants that have wide applications in industrial and consumer products. Various fluorotelomer alcohols are known to be metabolized to perfluo...

  9. High accumulation of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in marine tucuxi dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) from the Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Dorneles, Paulo R; Lailson-Brito, Jos; Azevedo, Alexandre F; Meyer, Johan; Vidal, Lara G; Fragoso, Ana B; Torres, Joo P; Malm, Olaf; Blust, Ronny; Das, Krishna

    2008-07-15

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) were measured in liver samples from 29 marine tucuxi dolphins from Rio de Janeiro state (RJ), Brazil. PFC measurement combined liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, using a CapLC system connected to a Quadrupole-LIT mass spectrometer. PFOS was the only PFC detected and it was so in all samples. PFOS concentrations (ng x g(-1) dw) of dolphins (n=23) from the highly contaminated Guanabara Bay (in RJ) varied between 43 and 2431 as well as between 76 and 427 from areas of RJ other than the quoted bay (n=6). Concentrations of three fetuses and one neonate varied between 664 and 1590. Fetus/mother ratios were calculated in two situations (2.75 and 2.62). It seems that mother-to-calf transference plays important role for relationships between PFOS and age. When a one-year-old male calf presenting 2431 ng x g(-1) dw was excluded from the test, significant correlations were observed between PFOS concentrations and both age and total length. Despite the placental transference, PFOS concentrations were not significantly lower in females than in males. PFOS levels in marine tucuxi dolphins from Guanabara Bay are among the highest detected to date in cetaceans, and this may represent a threat to the small population concerned. PMID:18754395

  10. Prenatal exposure to PFOS caused mitochondia-mediated apoptosis in heart of weaned rat.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Huai-Cai; He, Qing-Zhi; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Wu, Cheng-Qiu; Wu, Yi-Mou; Xu, Shun-Qing

    2015-09-01

    Perfluorooctanyl sulfonate (PFOS), a cardiac toxicity compound, has been widely detected in the environment and in organisms. However, the toxic mechanism is not clear. Our previous study indicated that prenatal PFOS exposure led to swollen mitochondrial with vacuolar structure and loss of cristae in offsping's heart. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of PFOS on the apoptosis in developing heart and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to PFOS at doses of 0.1, 0.6, and 2.0 mg/kg-d and 0.05% Tween 80 as control by gavage from gestation day 2 (GD 2) to GD 21. Apoptosis, as well as expression of apoptosis related genes associated with mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis pathway, including p53, bcl-2, bax, cytochrome c, caspase-9, and caspase-3 were analyzed in heart tissues from weaned (postnatal day 21, PND 21) offspring. The results showed that prenatal PFOS exposure resulted in apoptosis in the offspring's heart. The mRNA and protein expression levels of p53, bax, cytochrome c, caspase-9, and caspase-3 in the offspring's heart were enhanced in various PFOS-treated groups, meanwhile, the bcl-2 expression levels were decreased. Our results indicated that prenatal PFOS exposure induced the apoptosis of weaned offspring rat heart tissue via mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway. PMID:24616003

  11. Behavior, metabolism and swimming physiology in juvenile Spinibarbus sinensis exposed to PFOS under different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ji-Gang; Nie, Li-Juan; Mi, Xia-Mei; Wang, Wei-Zhen; Ma, Yi-Jie; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Fu, Shi-Jian

    2015-10-01

    The harmful effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are of growing international concern. This paper aimed to gain an integrated understanding of fitness-related ecological end points, such as behavior, metabolism and swimming physiology, in juvenile Spinibarbus sinensis in response to PFOS toxicity at different temperatures. The fish were exposed to a range of PFOS concentrations (0, 0.32, 0.8, 2 and 5mg/L) at different temperatures (18 and 28C) for 30days. The effects on fish behavior, metabolic characteristics and aerobic swimming performance caused by PFOS at different temperatures were investigated. Our results showed that both PFOS and temperature had important influences on spontaneous swimming behavior, social interactions, routine metabolic rate (RMR), net energetic cost of transport (COTnet) and critical swimming speed (U crit) in fish. The lowest observed effect concentration for both U crit and RMR was 5 and 0.8mg/L at 18 and 28C, respectively. We found that PFOS affected various behavioral and social end points and also appeared to affect metabolic rates and reduced U crit, likely as a result of increased COTnet, and that many of these effects also changed with respect to temperature. Our results further the understanding of the metabolic and behavioral toxicity of PFOS to aquatic organisms. PMID:26077224

  12. Toxicity and DNA methylation changes induced by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in sea urchin Glyptocidaris crenularis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Guanghui; Wang, Luyan; Zhang, Jing; Wei, Yuanyuan; Wei, Lie; Li, Yang; Shao, Mihua; Xiong, Deqi

    2015-06-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is an ubiquitous persistent organic pollutant, which can be bioaccumulated and cause adverse effects on organisms. However, there is very limited information about the toxic effects of PFOS to marine organisms and its mechanisms. Therefore, in the present study, adult sea urchins Glyptocidaris crenularis were exposed to PFOS for 21 d, followed by a 7-d depuration period, in order to investigate the toxicity of PFOS to sea urchin and its potential epigenetic mechanisms. Sea urchins dropped spines, and lowered down the motor ability and feeding ability after the PFOS exposure. Superoxide dismutase activities in supernatant of coelomic fluid of sea urchin increased firstly and then dropped down, while the change of the catalase activity took an opposite trend during the exposure period. They both approached to the corresponding activity of the control after the depuration period. The DNA methylation polymorphism, methylation rate and demethylation rate in sea urchin gonad all increased following the prolonged exposure time, and then decreased after the depuration period. The demethylation rates were lower than the corresponding methylation rates, therefore methylation events were dominant during the whole experimental period. This might suggest that sea urchin have strong self-protection mechanisms and can survive from the PFOS exposure presented in this study. Further efforts are needed to more precisely investigate the DNA methylation effects of PFOS and the self-protection mechanism of sea urchin. PMID:25723714

  13. Influence of oxic/anoxic condition on sorption behavior of PFOS in sediment.

    PubMed

    Ololade, Isaac Ayodele; Zhou, Qin; Pan, Gang

    2016-05-01

    Sediment components and redox properties change with oxic/anoxic condition, which affect the environmental transport of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Herein, the influence of oxic/anoxic condition on the variation of redox and residual components of sediments, where organic matter, iron and manganese oxides are separated from the original sediment collected from Lake Taihu, China, are investigated. Meanwhile, the distinguishing sorption behaviors of PFOS on various residual sediments under oxic and anoxic condition are studied. Sediment after extracting iron and manganese (S-FeMn), which possessed the highest organic carbon (0.99%), had the highest affinity for PFOS under oxic condition. However, anoxic environment resulted in an increase of the pH, dissolving of organic carbon and de-protonation of S-FeMn, which caused the lower sorption capacity of PFOS on S-FeMn. Sediment after extracting manganese (S-Mn) had the higher sorption ability in anoxic environment because the Fe(2+) from S-Mn provided more effective electrostatic sites for anionic PFOS. When the environment changed to oxic condition, the iron existed as trivalent form in S-Mn, which resulted in a block of effective sorption site and reduced the sorption amounts of PFOS. The higher percentage of manganese oxides restrained the sorption of PFOS. Hence, whether or not oxic/anoxic condition promoted the PFOS sorption depended on both the percentage and form of various components in the sediment. The study generated further insight into the environmental transport of PFOS in the sediments with different properties and the wetland system, where oxic/anoxic subsurface flow was constructed. PMID:26350897

  14. Binding of PFOS to serum albumin and DNA: insight into the molecular toxicity of perfluorochemicals

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xian; Chen, Ling; Fei, Xun-Chang; Ma, Yin-Sheng; Gao, Hong-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Background Health risk from exposure of perfluorochemicals (PFCs) to wildlife and human has been a subject of great interest for understanding their molecular mechanism of toxicity. Although much work has been done, the toxigenicity of PFCs remains largely unknown. In this work, the non-covalent interactions between perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and serum albumin (SA) and DNA were investigated under normal physiological conditions, aiming to elucidate the toxigenicity of PFCs. Results In equilibrium dialysis assay, the bindings of PFOS to SA correspond to the Langmuir isothermal model with two-step sequence model. The saturation binding number of PFOS was 45 per molecule of SA and 1 per three base-pairs of DNA, respectively. ITC results showed that all the interactions were spontaneous driven by entropy change. Static quenching of the fluorescence of SA was observed when interacting with PFOS, indicating PFOS bound Trp residue of SA. CD spectra of SA and DNA changed obviously in the presence of PFOS. At normal physiological conditions, 1.2 mmol/l PFOS reduces the binding ratio of Vitamin B2 to SA by more than 30%. Conclusion The ion bond, van der Waals force and hydrophobic interaction contributed to PFOS binding to peptide chain of SA and to the groove bases of DNA duplex. The non-covalent interactions of PFOS with SA and DNA alter their secondary conformations, with the physiological function of SA to transport Vitamin B2 being inhibited consequently. This work provides a useful experimental method for further studying the toxigenicity of PFCs. PMID:19239717

  15. Comparing measured and modelled PFOS concentrations in a UK freshwater catchment and estimating emission rates.

    PubMed

    Earnshaw, Mark R; Paul, Alexander G; Loos, Robert; Tavazzi, Simona; Paracchini, Bruno; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbhler, Konrad; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2014-09-01

    The lifecycle, sources and fate of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) continue to generate scientific and political interest, particularly since PFOS was listed by the Stockholm Convention and largely restricted in Europe. It continues to be detected in aquatic environments, with only limited studies into the on-going sources. This paper explores PFOS emissions discharged by the general population into a small catchment comprising two rivers in the UK. A sampling campaign was undertaken to improve our understanding of population-derived PFOS sources from sewage treatment plants (STPs) and in rivers. A corresponding modelling exercise allowed an emission estimate of 13?g/day/per capita to be derived for the Aire and Calder rivers. PFOS emission was linked to STP discharges bylinear regression of measured and modelled concntrations (R(2)=0.49-0.85). The model was able to accurately estimate the spatial trends of PFOS in the rivers, while predicted concentrations were within a factor of three based on per capita emission values taken from the literature. Measured PFOS concentrations in rivers suggested that emissions from STPs are partially dependent on treatment type, where plants with secondary or tertiary treatment such as activated sludge processes emit less PFOS, possibly due to increased partitioning and retention. With refinements based on the type of treatment at each STP, predictions were further improved. The total PFOS mass discharged annually via rivers from the UK has been estimated to be between 215 and 310kg, based on the per capita emission range derived in this study. PMID:24879369

  16. Estimation of PFOS emission from domestic sources in the eastern coastal region of China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shuangwei; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Liu, Shijie; Jones, Kevin; Sweetman, Andy

    2013-09-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and related chemicals (collectively "PFOS equivalents") have been released to the environment through widespread consumer use and disposal of PFOS-containing products like carpet, leather, textiles, paper, food containers, household cleansers, etc. Accordingly, in addition to PFOS-related industries, domestic activities may also considerably contribute to the PFOS emissions in the eastern coastal region of China, which has been characterized by high industrial input. In the present study, domestic emissions of PFOS equivalents derived from municipal wastewater treatment plants were estimated at the county level, using a regression model of domestic emission density with population density and per capita disposable income as independent variables. The total emission load of PFOS equivalents from domestic sources in the eastern coastal region of China was 381kg in 2010, and large cities were prominent as the emission centers. The domestic emission density averaged 0.37g/km(2)a for the entire study area. Generally, the Beijing-Tianjin area, Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta, as the most populous and economically developed areas in China, showed significantly higher emission density. Geographical variations within individual provinces were noteworthy. The average per capita discharge load of PFOS equivalents arising from domestic activities was 1.91?g/day per capita in the eastern coastal region of China, which is consistent with previous estimates in Korea, but lower than those calculated for developed countries. In comparison, the spatial distributions of provincial PFOS emissions from domestic and industrial sources were similar to each other; however, the latter was much larger for all the provinces. PMID:23892226

  17. Developmental Toxicity of Perfluoroalkyl Acid Mixtures in CD-1 Mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) belong to a family of fluoro-organic compounds known as perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). PFAAs have been widely used in industrial and commercial applications, and have been found to be...

  18. Thyroid hormone status and pituitary function in adult rats given oral doses of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is widely distributed and persistent in humans and wildlife. Prior toxicological studies have reported decreased total and free thyroid hormones in serum without a major compensatory rise in thyrotropin (TSH) or altered thyroid gland histology. Alt...

  19. Carcinogenic potency of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells.

    PubMed

    Jacquet, N; Maire, M A; Landkocz, Y; Vasseur, P

    2012-02-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is the degradation product of many fluoroderivatives and a widespread environmental contaminant. Its persistence, its long half-life in humans and its toxicity explain high concerns on human health side effects in future. PFOS is suspected to be a non-genotoxic carcinogen. In the present work, we assessed carcinogenic potential of PFOS by studying morphological transformation in Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells; cell transformation of SHE cells is an in vitro assay recommended by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development to detect carcinogens, genotoxic or not. Genotoxicity of PFOS and expression of PPARs genes in SHE cells were also measured. PFOS was shown to induce cell transformation (P<0.05) at non-cytotoxic concentrations (0.2 and 2?g/mL) (P?0.01). No genotoxic effect was recorded in the range of PFOS concentrations tested (2נ10(-4) to 50?g/mL) using the single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay after 5 and 24h of exposure. The expression of PPARs genes was measured by qPCR within the first 24h and after 7days of PFOS treatment. Results indicated an increased expression of ppar-?/? isoform as early as 24h. After 7days, the increase of ppar-?/? mRNA was significant at the concentrations inducing cell transformation (0.2 and 2?g/mL), while overexpression of ppar-? and ppar-? did not closely relate to effective concentrations. The results indicate that PFOS behave as a non-genotoxic carcinogen and impacted PPARs genes. Its cell transforming potential paralleled an increased expression of ppar-?/?. PMID:22057587

  20. Neonatal exposure to PFOS and PFOA in mice results in changes in proteins which are important for neuronal growth and synaptogenesis in the developing brain.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Niclas; Eriksson, Per; Viberg, Henrik

    2009-04-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) belong to the family of perfluorinated compounds. They are used in industrial and consumer applications, e.g., clothing fabrics, carpets, and food packaging. PFOS and PFOA are present in the environment and are found in dust and human milk, which implies that newborns and toddlers can be directly exposed to these agents during brain development. Recently, we reported that PFOS and PFOA can cause neurobehavioral defects and changes in the cholinergic system, in the adult animal, when given directly to neonatal mice, and thereby showing similarities with other investigated persistent organic pollutants, such as dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethan, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). In recent studies, we have also seen that highly brominated PBDEs can affect the levels of proteins that are important for neuronal growth and synaptogenesis in the neonatal mouse brain. The present study shows that a single oral dose of either 21 micromol PFOS or PFOA/kg body weight (11.3 or 8.70 mg), given directly to the neonatal mice on postnatal day 10, significantly increased the levels of CaMKII, GAP-43, and synaptophysin in the hippocampus of the neonatal mouse. Both compounds significantly increased the levels of synaptophysin and tau in cerebral cortex, and PFOA also increased the levels of tau in hippocampus. These proteins are important for normal brain development, and altered levels of these proteins during a critical period of the brain growth spurts could be one of the mechanisms behind earlier reported behavioral defects. PMID:19211617

  1. Comparison of waterborne and in ovo nanoinjection exposures to assess effects of PFOS on zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Li, Yabing; Han, Zhihua; Zheng, Xinmei; Ma, Zhiyuan; Liu, Hongling; Giesy, John P; Xie, Yuwei; Yu, Hongxia

    2015-02-01

    Since perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) had been detected in eggs of seabirds and fish, toxicity of waterborne PFOS to embryonic development of zebrafish (Danio rerio) was investigated. However, because assessment of effects by use of dietary exposure of adults is time-consuming and expensive, a study was conducted to compare effects on embryos via nanoinjection and waterborne exposure. Nanoinjection, in which small amounts of chemicals are injected into developing eggs, was used to incorporate PFOS into the yolk sac of embryos of zebrafish. Effects of PFOS during the period of development of the embryo were assessed within 96 h post-fertilization (hpf). PFOS significantly retarded development of embryos of zebrafish and resulted in abnormalities as well as lethality of developing embryos. Both methods of exposure, waterborne and nanoinjection, resulted in similar dose-dependent effects. Some sublethal effects, such as edema at 48 hpf, delayed hatching, and curvature of the spine was observed after 72 hpf. In ovo, nanoinjection was deemed to be an accurate method of exposure for controlling the actual internal dose for study of adverse effects, which closely mimicked responses to waterborne exposure of zebrafish embryo to PFOS. PMID:25182431

  2. Molecular dynamics simulations of structural transformation of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) at water/rutile interfaces.

    PubMed

    He, Guangzhi; Zhang, Meiyi; Zhou, Qin; Pan, Gang

    2015-09-01

    Concentration and salinity conditions are the dominant environmental factors affecting the behavior of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) on the surfaces of a variety of solid matrices (suspended particles, sediments, and natural minerals). However, the mechanism has not yet been examined at molecular scales. Here, the structural transformation of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) at water/rutile interfaces induced by changes of the concentration level of PFOS and salt condition was investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. At low and intermediate concentrations all PFOS molecules directly interacted with the rutile (110) surface mainly by the sulfonate headgroups through electrostatic attraction, yielding a typical monolayer structure. As the concentration of PFOS increased, the molecules aggregated in a complex multi-layered structure, where an irregular assembling configuration was adsorbed on the monolayer structure by the van der Waals interactions between the perfluoroalkyl chains. When adding CaCl2 to the system, the multi-layered structure changed to a monolayer again, indicating that the addition of CaCl2 enhanced the critical concentration value to yield PFOS multilayer assemblies. The divalent Ca(2+) substituted for monovalent K(+) as the bridging counterion in PFOS adsorption. MD simulation may trigger wide applications in study of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) from atomic/molecular scale. PMID:25966457

  3. The partition behavior of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanesulfonamide (FOSA) on microplastics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Shih, Kai Min; Li, Xiao Yan

    2015-01-01

    Microplastics have been recognized as transport vectors for heavy metals and organic pollutants to marine animals. Thus, the sorption behavior of contaminant on microplastic is crucial to their transport in marine system. In this study, the sorption behavior of PFOS and FOSA (two perfluorochemicals) on three kinds of microplastics (PE, PS, and PVC) are reported. The isotherm study showed that the sorption of PFOS and FOSA on microplastics is highly linear, and it indicated that partition by hydrophobic interaction is the predominant sorption mechanism. The Kd values of FOSA on three kinds of microplastics are all higher than those of PFOS, and the reason is attributed to their different functional groups. The Kd value of FOSA on three types of microplastics followed the order as: PE>PVC>PS. Such finding may indicate that the molecule composition and structure of microplastics play important roles in their sorption processes of organic pollutants. The PFOS sorption levels on PE and PS particles were increased with the increase of NaCl and CaCl2 concentrations, while the ion concentrations have no effect on FOSA sorption. The study on the pH effects on PFOS and FOSA sorption indicated FOSA could partition under various pH conditions on three types of microplastics while PFOS sorption on PE and PS were favored with lower pH. PMID:25222623

  4. PFOS Disturbs BDNF-ERK-CREB Signalling in Association with Increased MicroRNA-22 in SH-SY5Y Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wu; He, Qing-zhi; Wu, Cheng-qiu; Pan, Xiao-yuan; Wang, Jing; Tan, Yan; Shan, Xiao-yun; Zeng, Huai-cai

    2015-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, is neurotoxic to mammalian species. However, the underlying mechanism of its neurotoxicity was unclear. We hypothesized that PFOS suppresses BDNF expression to produce its neurotoxic effects by inhibiting the ERK-CREB pathway. SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells were exposed to various concentrations of PFOS to examine the role of the BDNF-ERK-CREB signalling pathway in PFOS-induced apoptosis and cytotoxicity. Furthermore, to ascertain the mechanism by which PFOS reduces BDNF signalling, we examined the expression levels of miR-16 and miR-22, which potentially regulate BDNF mRNA translation at the posttranscriptional level. Results indicated that PFOS significantly decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, BDNF and pERK protein levels decreased after PFOS treatment; however, pCREB protein levels were significantly elevated in PFOS treated groups. TrkB protein expression increased in the 10 μM and 50 μM PFOS groups and significantly decreased in the 100 μM PFOS group. Our results demonstrated that PFOS exposure decreased miR-16 expression and increased miR-22 expression, which may represent a possible mechanism by which PFOS decreases BDNF protein levels. PFOS may inhibit BDNF-ERK-CREB signalling by increasing miR-22 levels, which may, in part, explain the mechanism of PFOS neurotoxicity. PMID:26649298

  5. THE DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROALKYL ACIDS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Perfluoroalkyl acids such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have applications in numerous industrial and consumer products. Although the toxicology of some of these compounds has been investigated in the past, the widespread pr...

  6. Developmental toxicity of perfluorononanoic acid in the mouse.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicology Curriculum, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) is a persistent environmental contaminant. Although its levels in the environment are lower than those of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), its pre...

  7. Reactive oxygen species mediate nitric oxide production through ERK/JNK MAPK signaling in HAPI microglia after PFOS exposure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Nie, Xiaoke; Zhang, Yan; Li, Ting; Mao, Jiamin; Liu, Xinhang; Gu, Yiyang; Shi, Jiyun; Xiao, Jing; Wan, Chunhua; Wu, Qiyun

    2015-10-15

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), an emerging persistent contaminant that is commonly encountered during daily life, has been shown to exert toxic effects on the central nervous system (CNS). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the neurotoxicity of PFOS remain largely unknown. It has been widely acknowledged that the inflammatory mediators released by hyper-activated microglia play vital roles in the pathogenesis of various neurological diseases. In the present study, we examined the impact of PFOS exposure on microglial activation and the release of proinflammatory mediators, including nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxidative species (ROS). We found that PFOS exposure led to concentration-dependent NO and ROS production by rat HAPI microglia. We also discovered that there was rapid activation of the ERK/JNK MAPK signaling pathway in the HAPI microglia following PFOS treatment. Moreover, the PFOS-induced iNOS expression and NO production were attenuated after the inhibition of ERK or JNK MAPK by their corresponding inhibitors, PD98059 and SP600125. Interestingly, NAC, a ROS inhibitor, blocked iNOS expression, NO production, and activation of ERK and JNK MAPKs, which suggested that PFOS-mediated microglial NO production occurs via a ROS/ERK/JNK MAPK signaling pathway. Finally, by exposing SH-SY5Y cells to PFOS-treated microglia-conditioned medium, we demonstrated that NO was responsible for PFOS-mediated neuronal apoptosis. PMID:26086160

  8. Antioxidative-related genes expression following perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) exposure in the intertidal mud crab, Macrophthalmus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kiyun; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Kwak, Tae-Soo; Kwak, Ihn-Sil

    2015-09-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent environmental contaminant that is used as a surfactant in various industries and consumer products. The intertidal mud crab, Macrophthalmus japonicus, is one of the most abundant macrobenthic creatures. In this study, we have investigated the effect of PFOS on the molecular transcription of antioxidant and detoxification signaling in M. japonicus crab. The selected stress response genes were superoxide dismutases (CuZnSOD and MnSOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx), peroxiredoxin (Prx), and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR). Significant up-regulation of SODs and CAT was observed after 24 and 96 h exposure to PFOS at different concentrations. The gene expression levels of GPx, PHGPx, and TrXR were significantly up-regulated after exposure to PFOS for 96 h. The transcript levels of CAT and PHGPx were induced in dose- and time-dependent manners after PFOS treatments. However, Prx gene expression was significantly up-regulated in M. japonicus crabs exposed to 10 and 30 μg L-1 PFOS for 96 h. Additionally, PFOS toxicity in M. japonicus induced reduced survival rates at relatively high concentrations of PFOS exposure. Our findings support the contention that exposures to PFOS induced the response of genes related to oxidative stress and detoxification in M. japonicus crabs.

  9. Toxicogenomic profiling of perfluorononanoic acid in wild-type and PPARa-null mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant and a developmental toxicant in laboratory animals. Like other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOA) and perfluoroalkyl acid (PFOS), PFNA is a known activator ofperoxisome prol...

  10. Developmental toxicity in white leghorn chickens following in ovo exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS).

    PubMed

    Peden-Adams, Margie M; Stuckey, Joyce E; Gaworecki, Kristen M; Berger-Ritchie, Jennifer; Bryant, Kathy; Jodice, Patrick G; Scott, Thomas R; Ferrario, Joseph B; Guan, Bing; Vigo, Craig; Boone, J Scott; McGuinn, W David; DeWitt, Jamie C; Keil, Deborah E

    2009-06-01

    Studies show that perfluorinated compounds cause various toxicological effects; nevertheless, effects on immune function and developmental endpoints have not been addressed at length. This study examined the effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in white leghorn hatchlings on various developmental, immunological, and clinical health parameters. In addition, serum PFOS concentrations were determined by LC/MS/MS. Embryonic day (ED) 0 eggs were injected with either safflower oil/10% DMSO (control, 0mg/kg egg wt) or PFOS in safflower oil/10% DMSO at 1, 2.5, or 5mg/kg egg wt, and the chicks were grown to post-hatch day (PHD) 14. Treatment with PFOS did not affect hatch rate. Following in ovo exposure chicks exhibited increases in spleen mass at all treatment levels, in liver mass at 2.5 and 5mg/kg egg wt, and in body length (crown-rump length) at the 5mg/kg treatment. Right wings were shorter in all treatments compared to control. Increases in the frequency of brain asymmetry were evident in all treatment groups. SRBC-specific immunoglobulin (IgM and IgY combined) titers were decreased significantly at all treatment levels, while plasma lysozyme activity was increased at all treatment levels. The PHA skin test response decreased in relation to increasing PFOS dose. Serum concentrations where significant immunological, morphological, and neurological effects were observed at the lowest dose (1mg/kg egg wt) averaged 154 ng PFOS/g serum. These concentrations fall within environmental ranges reported in blood samples from wild caught avian species; thereby, verifying that the environmental egg concentrations used for the injections do indeed relate to serum levels in hatchlings that are also environmentally relevant. These data indicate that immune alterations and brain asymmetry can occur in birds following in ovo exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of PFOS and demonstrates the need for further research on the developmental effects of perfluorinated compounds in various species. PMID:19071210

  11. Developmental toxicity in white leghorn chickens following in ovo exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peden-Adams, M. M.; Stuckey, Joyce E.; Gaworecki, K.M.; Berger-Ritchie, J.; Bryant, K.; Jodice, P.G.; Scott, T.R.; Ferrario, J.B.; Guan, B.; Vigo, C.; Boone, J.S.; McGuinn, W.D.; DeWitt, J.C.; Keil, D.E.

    2009-01-01

    Studies show that perfluorinated compounds cause various toxicological effects; nevertheless, effects on immune function and developmental endpoints have not been addressed at length. This study examined the effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in white leghorn hatchlings on various developmental, immunological, and clinical health parameters. In addition, serum PFOS concentrations were determined by LC/MS/MS. Embryonic day (ED) 0 eggs were injected with either safflower oil/10% DMSO (control, 0 mg/kg egg wt) or PFOS in safflower oil/10% DMSO at 1, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg egg wt, and the chicks were grown to post-hatch day (PHD) 14. Treatment with PFOS did not affect hatch rate. Following in ovo exposure chicks exhibited increases in spleen mass at all treatment levels, in liver mass at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg egg wt, and in body length (crown-rump length) at the 5 mg/kg treatment. Right wings were shorter in all treatments compared to control. Increases in the frequency of brain asymmetry were evident in all treatment groups. SRBC-specific immunoglobulin (IgM and IgY combined) titers were decreased significantly at all treatment levels, while plasma lysozyme activity was increased at all treatment levels. The PHA skin test response decreased in relation to increasing PFOS dose. Serum concentrations where significant immunological, morphological, and neurological effects were observed at the lowest dose (1 mg/kg egg wt) averaged 154 ng PFOS/g serum. These concentrations fall within environmental ranges reported in blood samples from wild caught avian species; thereby, verifying that the environmental egg concentrations used for the injections do indeed relate to serum levels in hatchlings that are also environmentally relevant. These data indicate that immune alterations and brain asymmetry can occur in birds following in ovo exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of PFOS and demonstrates the need for further research on the developmental effects of perfluorinated compounds in various species. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  12. In vitro PFOS exposure on immune endpoints in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and mice.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Jena R; Peden-Adams, Margie M; White, Natasha D; Bossart, Gregory D; Fair, Patricia A

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies in our lab have shown that perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) modulates immune function in mice and correlates with many immune parameters in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). In this study, bottlenose dolphin peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and adult female B6C3F1 mouse splenocytes were exposed to environmentally relevant PFOS concentrations (0-5 µg ml(-1)) in vitro; and natural killer (NK) cell activity and lymphocyte proliferation (T and B cell) were assessed using the parallelogram approach for risk assessment. The objectives were: to corroborate results from the correlative studies in bottlenose dolphins with in vitro PFOS exposures; to evaluate the sensitivity of the mouse model as compared with bottlenose dolphins; and to assess risk using the parallelogram approach. In mouse cells, NK cell activity was decreased at in vitro doses of 0.01, 0.5, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 µg PFOS ml(-1) and increased at 5 µg ml(-1). Additionally, B cell proliferation was not altered, but T cell proliferation was decreased at all in vitro PFOS exposures. In dolphin cells, NK cell activity and T cell proliferation were not altered by in vitro PFOS exposure, but B cell proliferation exhibited a positive association in relation to PFOS dose. Overall, the data indicates that: the in vitro exposures of bottlenose dolphin PBLs exhibited results similar to reported correlative fields studies; that mice were generally more sensitive (for these selected endpoints) than were dolphins; and that the parallelogram approach could be used two-thirds of the time to predict the effects in bottlenose dolphins. PMID:23722986

  13. Developmental toxicity and alteration of gene expression in zebrafish embryos exposed to PFOS

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Xiongjie; Du Yongbing; Lam, Paul K.S.; Wu, Rudolf S.S.; Zhou Bingsheng

    2008-07-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent organic pollutant, the potential toxicity of which is causing great concern. In the present study, we employed zebrafish embryos to investigate the developmental toxicity of this compound. Four-hour post-fertilization (hpf) zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0.1, 0.5, 1, 3 and 5 mg/L PFOS. Hatching was delayed and hatching rates as well as larval survivorship were significantly reduced after the embryos were exposed to 1, 3 and 5 mg/L PFOS until 132 hpf. The fry displayed gross developmental malformations, including epiboly deformities, hypopigmentation, yolk sac edema, tail and heart malformations and spinal curvature upon exposure to PFOS concentrations of 1 mg/L or greater. Growth (body length) was significantly reduced in the 3 and 5 mg/L PFOS-treated groups. To test whether developmental malformation was mediated via apoptosis, flow cytometry analysis of DNA content, acridine orange staining and TUNEL assay was used. These techniques indicated that more apoptotic cells were present in the PFOS-treated embryos than in the control embryos. Certain genes related to cell apoptosis, p53 and Bax, were both significantly up-regulated upon exposure to all the concentrations tested. In addition, we investigated the effects of PFOS on marker genes related to early thyroid development (hhex and pax8) and genes regulating the balance of androgens and estrogens (cyp19a and cyp19b). For thyroid development, the expression of hhex was significantly up-regulated at all concentrations tested, whereas pax8 expression was significantly up-regulated only upon exposure to lower concentrations of PFOS (0.1, 0.5, 1 mg/L). The expression of cyp19a and of cyp19b was significantly down-regulated at all exposure concentrations. The overall results indicated that zebrafish embryos constitute a reliable model for testing the developmental toxicity of PFOS, and the gene expression patterns in the embryos were able to reveal some potential mechanisms of developmental toxicity.

  14. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) contamination of fish in urban lakes: a prioritization methodology for lake management.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Feng; Gulliver, John S; Simcik, Matt F

    2013-12-15

    The contamination of urban lakes by anthropogenic pollutants such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a worldwide environmental problem. Large-scale, long-term monitoring of urban lakes requires careful prioritization of available resources, focusing efforts on potentially impaired lakes. Herein, a database of PFOS concentrations in 304 fish caught from 28 urban lakes was used for development of an urban-lake prioritization framework by means of exploratory data analysis (EDA) with the aid of a geographical information system. The prioritization scheme consists of three main tiers: preliminary classification, carried out by hierarchical cluster analysis; predictor screening, fulfilled by a regression tree method; and model development by means of a neural network. The predictive performance of the newly developed model was assessed using a training/validation splitting method and determined by an external validation set. The application of the model in the U.S. state of Minnesota identified 40 urban lakes that may contain elevated levels of PFOS; these lakes were not previously considered in PFOS monitoring programs. The model results also highlight ongoing industrial/commercial activities as a principal determinant of PFOS pollution in urban lakes, and suggest vehicular traffic as an important source and surface runoff as a primary pollution carrier. In addition, the EDA approach was further compared to a spatial interpolation method (kriging), and their advantages and disadvantages were discussed. PMID:24184022

  15. Hepatic miRNA profiles and thyroid hormone homeostasis in rats exposed to dietary potassium perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS).

    PubMed

    Dong, Hongyan; Curran, Ivan; Williams, Andrew; Bondy, Genevieve; Yauk, Carole L; Wade, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) has been widely used in a variety of industrial and commercial applications as a surfactant and stain repellent. PFOS causes liver damage (including liver tumors) in experimental animals, primarily via interaction with PPAR? and CAR/PXR. We investigated the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in PFOS-induced hepatotoxicity, and mechanisms involved in abnormal thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis, in the livers of adult male rats exposed in feed to 50mg PFOS/kg diet for 28 days. PFOS-treated rats exhibited expected histopathological and clinical chemistry changes, and global gene expression changes consistent with the involvement of PPAR? and CAR/PXR. Thirty-eight miRNAs were significantly altered. Three members of the miR-200 family were the most increased, while miR-122-5p and miR-21-5p were the most decreased, in PFOS-treated rats. Expression of the miR-23b-3p/27b-3p/24-3p cluster also decreased in PFOS-treated animals. Pathway analysis of miRNAs and associated gene expression changes suggests involvement of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is a primary process of tumor cell motility and cancer metastasis. Our analysis also revealed transcripts that may mediate PFOS-induced effects on TH homeostasis including: activation of the CAR/PXR pathway, phase II/III enzymes, and deiodinase. These changes are consistent with low serum TH due to enhanced metabolic clearance of TH. However, most TH hepatic target genes were not altered in a manner consistent with reduced TH signaling, suggesting that PFOS exposure did not induce functional hypothyroidism. Collectively, the study suggests an important role for miRNAs in PFOS-induced hepatotoxicity and provides insight into the effects of PFOS on TH homeostasis. PMID:26724606

  16. Mechanisms of perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) toxicity: Involvement of peroxisome proliferator activator receptor alpha (PPAR) molecular signals.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are members of a family of environmentally persistent perfluorinated compounds and are found in the serum of wildlife and humans. PFOS and PFOA are developmentally toxic in rats and mice. Exposure in utero reduces...

  17. PARTIAL LIFE-CYCLE TOXICITY AND BIOCONCENTRATION MODELLING OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE NORTHERN LEOPARD FROG (RANA PIPIENS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of recent monitoring studies have demonstrated elevated concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in humans and wildlife throughout the world. Although no longer manufactured in the U.S., the global distribution and relative persistence of PFOS indicates a need ...

  18. Linear and branched perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) isomer patterns differ among several tissues and blood of polar bears.

    PubMed

    Greaves, Alana K; Letcher, Robert J

    2013-09-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a globally distributed persistent organic pollutant that has been found to bioaccumulate and biomagnify in aquatic food webs. Although principally in its linear isomeric configuration, 21-35% of the PFOS manufactured via electrochemical fluorination is produced as a branched structural isomer. PFOS isomer patterns were investigated in multiple tissues of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from East Greenland. The liver (n = 9), blood (n = 19), brain (n = 16), muscle (n = 5), and adipose (n = 5) were analyzed for linear PFOS (n-PFOS), as well as multiple mono- and di-trifluoromethyl-substituted branched isomers. n-PFOS accounted for 93.0 0.5% of ?-PFOS isomer concentrations in the liver, whereas the proportion was significantly lower (p<0.05) in the blood (85.4 0.5%). Branched isomers were quantifiable in the liver and blood, but not in the brain, muscle, or adipose. In both the liver and blood, 6-perfluoromethylheptane sulfonate (P6MHpS) was the dominant branched isomer (2.61 0.10%, and 3.26 0.13% of ?-PFOS concentrations, respectively). No di-trifluoromethyl-substituted isomers were detectable in any of the tissues analyzed. These tissue-specific isomer patterns suggest isomer-specific pharmacokinetics, perhaps due to differences in protein affinities, and thus differences in protein interactions, as well transport, absorption, and/or metabolism in the body. PMID:23920361

  19. PFOS induced lipid metabolism disturbances in BALB/c mice through inhibition of low density lipoproteins excretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ling; Wang, Yu; Liang, Yong; Li, Jia; Liu, Yuchen; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Aiqian; Fu, Jianjie; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-04-01

    Male BALB/c mice fed with either a regular or high fat diet were exposed to 0, 5 or 20 mg/kg perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) for 14 days. Increased body weight, serum glucose, cholesterol and lipoprotein levels were observed in mice given a high fat diet. However, all PFOS-treated mice got reduced levels of serum lipid and lipoprotein. Decreasing liver glycogen content was also observed, accompanied by reduced serum glucose levels. Histological and ultrastructural examination detected more lipid droplets accumulated in hepatocytes after PFOS exposure. Moreover, transcripitonal activity of lipid metabolism related genes suggests that PFOS toxicity is probably unrelevant to PPAR?'s transcription. The present study demonstrates a lipid disturbance caused by PFOS and thus point to its role in inhibiting the secretion and normal function of low density lipoproteins.

  20. Potential toxicity of environmentally relevant perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentrations to yellow-legged gull Larus michahellis embryos.

    PubMed

    Parolini, Marco; Colombo, Graziano; Valsecchi, Sara; Mazzoni, Michela; Possenti, Cristina Daniela; Caprioli, Manuela; Dalle-Donne, Isabella; Milzani, Aldo; Saino, Nicola; Rubolini, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Perfluooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is considered an emerging pollutant because of its wide distribution in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, as well as its potential toxicity to living organisms. Although PFOS environmental levels and the adverse effects on classical model organisms in toxicological studies are well known, including developmental alterations and alteration of oxidative status, its toxicity to free-living species has been seldom investigated. The aim of this study was to assess the potential toxicity of environmental levels of PFOS to yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) embryos under field experimental conditions. In a within-clutch experimental design, we injected two PFOS concentrations (100ng PFOS/g egg weight and 200ng PFOS/g egg weight) in ovo soon after laying. Eggs were collected when they reached the cracking stage. We investigated the effects of PFOS treatment, laying order and sex on both morphological and biochemical endpoints of embryos. Specifically, we assessed changes in embryo body mass and tarsus length, as well as in liver and brain mass. Moreover, the imbalance of oxidative status was evaluated in both liver and brain from embryos by measuring total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS), while the levels of protein carbonyl content (PCO) and DNA fragmentation were measured as oxidative and genetic damage endpoints, respectively. The concentrations of PFOS we tested did not significantly alter the morphological endpoints, independently of laying order and sex. Similarly, embryo oxidative status and oxidative and genetic damage were not significantly affected by PFOS in ovo exposure. These findings suggest that current environmental PFOS levels do not affect early development of yellow-legged gull embryos. PMID:26310703

  1. Exploring the fate, transport and risk of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) in a coastal region of China using a multimedia model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shijie; Lu, Yonglong; Xie, Shuangwei; Wang, Tieyu; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and related substances have been widely applied in both industrial processes and domestic products in China. Exploring the environmental fate and transport of PFOS using modeling methods provides an important link between emission and multimedia diffusion which forms a vital part in the human health risk assessment and chemical management for these substances. In this study, the gridded fugacity based BETR model was modified to make it more suitable to model transfer processes of PFOS in a coastal region, including changes to PFOS partition coefficients to reflect the influence of water salinity on its sorption behavior. The fate and transport of PFOS in the Bohai coastal region of China were simulated under steady state with the modified version of the model. Spatially distributed emissions of PFOS and related substances in 2010 were estimated and used in these simulations. Four different emission scenarios were investigated, in which a range of half-lives for PFOS related substances were considered. Concentrations of PFOS in air, vegetation, soil, fresh water, fresh water sediment and coastal water were derived from the model under the steady-state assumption. The median modeled PFOS concentrations in fresh water, fresh water sediment and soil were 7.20ng/L, 0.39ng/g and 0.21ng/g, respectively, under Emission Scenario 2 (which assumed all PFOS related substances immediately degrade to PFOS) for the whole region, while the maximum concentrations were 47.10ng/L, 4.98ng/g and 2.49ng/g, respectively. Measured concentration data for PFOS in the Bohai coastal region around the year of 2010 were collected from the literature. The reliability of the model results was evaluated by comparing the range of modeled concentrations with the measured data, which generally matched well for the main compartments. Fate and transfer fluxes were derived from the model based on the calculated inventory within the compartments, transfer fluxes between compartments and advection fluxes between sub-regions. It showed that soil and costal water were likely to be the most important sinks of PFOS in the Bohai costal region, in which more than 90% of PFOS was stored. Flows of fresh water were the driving force for spatial transport of PFOS in this region. Influences of the seasonal change of fresh water fluxes on the model results were also analyzed. When only seasonal changes of the fresh water flow rates were considered, concentrations of PFOS in winter and spring were predicted to be higher than that under annual average conditions, while the concentrations in summer and autumn were lower. For PFOS fluxes entering the sea, opposite conclusions were drawn compared to the concentrations. Environmental risks from the presence of PFOS in fresh water were assessed for this region through comparison with available water quality criteria values. The predicted concentrations of PFOS in the Bohai coastal region provided by the model were lower than the water quality criteria published by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and Chinese researchers, while the concentrations in more than 80% of the sampling locations exceeded the European Union Water Framework Directive Environmental Quality Standards values. Seasonal variations of flow rate might cause a significant increase in environmental risks. PMID:26298835

  2. Exposure to Perfluorononanoic acid during pregnancy: Evaluations of rat and mice model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) is a persistent environmental contaminant. Although its levels in the environment are lower than those of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), its presence in humans is rising and is of concern. Previous studies have in...

  3. GC AND LC CHROMATOGRAPHIC AND EI, CE, +/- CI, AND ES MASS SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SALTS AND AMIDES OF PERFLUOROOCTANESULFONIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1976, fluorine in human blood serum was thought to be present as perfluorooctanic acid; however, in the 1990s it was correctly identified by LC/MS as perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS). PFOS was both a commercial product and an end-stage metabolite of numerous substituted amides ...

  4. EFFECTS OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) ON MATERNAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL THYROID STATUS IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECTS OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) ON MATERNAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL THYROID STATUS IN THE RAT. JR Thibodeaux1, R Hanson1, B Grey1, JM Rogers1, ME Stanton2, and C Lau1. 1Reproductive Toxicology Division; 2Neurotoxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, Research Triangle P...

  5. A map of European emissions and concentrations of PFOS and PFOA.

    PubMed

    Pistocchi, Alberto; Loos, Robert

    2009-12-15

    A spatially distributed data set of measured concentrations of perfluorooctansulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) was used, together with climatological averages of river flow, to estimate their overall aqueous emissions from the European Continent. This estimate relies on the assumption that PFOA/S are conservative chemicals. PFOS correlates rather well with river basin population, and its emissions can be estimated by regression for nonmonitored catchments. As such, regression equations were derived in both linear and log-linear form, the latter explaining a much higher portion of variance. Unlike PFOS, PFOA discharges are strongly influenced by point emissions from industrial facilities; they only correlate with catchment population below a threshold of 0.5 tons per year, and point source industrial emissions cannot be neglected in the estimation of PFOA loads. The lumped loads of PFOA from diffuse and point sources are reasonably described by a single log-linear regression model as a function of population in the catchment, likely owing to the fact that fluoropolymer industries located in highly populated catchments are more frequent as well. Overall, by using the log-linear models derived in this paper, PFOS and PFOA discharges along the whole European river network to coastal areas in Europe have been estimated for the year 2007 to be in the order of 20 and 30 tons per year, respectively. PMID:20000515

  6. MATERNAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE MOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    MATERNAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE MOUSE. J.R. Thibodeaux1, R.G. Hanson1, B.E. Grey1, B.D. Barbee1, J.H. Richards2, J.L. Butenhoff3, J.M. Rogers1, C. Lau1. 1Reprod. Tox. Div., 2Exp. Tox. Div., NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, Research Triangle Pa...

  7. MATERNAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCATANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    MATERNAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE RAT. C. Lau1, J.M. Rogers1, J.R. Thibodeaux1, R.G. Hanson1, B.E. Grey1, B.D. Barbee1, J.H. Richards2, J.L. Butenoff3. 1Reprod. Tox. Div., 2Exp. Tox. Div., NHEERL, USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, 3...

  8. ANALYTICAL METHODS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE CRITERIA FOR LC/ES/MS DETERMINATION OF PFOS IN FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    PFOS, perfluorooctanesulfonate, has recently received much attention from environmental researchers. Previous analytical methods were based upon complexing with a strong ion-pairing reagent and extraction into MTBE. Detection was done on a concentrate using negative ion LC/ES/MS/...

  9. EFFECTS OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) ON THYROID HORMONE STATUS IN ADULT AND NEONATAL RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECTS OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) ON THYROID HORMONE STATUS IN ADULT AND NEONATAL RATS. M.N. Logan1, J.R. Thibodeaux2, R.G. Hanson2, C. Lau2. 1North Carolina Central University, Durham, NC, 2Reprod. Tox. Div. NHEERL, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC.

    Perfluor...

  10. HEPATIC GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES OF RATS EXPOSED TO PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN UTERO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hepatic Gene Expression Profiles of Rats Exposed to Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in utero.
    J.A. Bjork1, J.M. Berthiaume1, C. Lau2, J. L. Butenhoff3, and K.B. Wallace1

    1Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Minnesota School of Medicine, Dulut...

  11. Biochemical effect evaluation of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid-contaminated wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus).

    PubMed Central

    Hoff, Philippe Tony; Scheirs, Jan; Van de Vijver, Kristin; Van Dongen, Walter; Esmans, Eddy Louis; Blust, Ronny; De Coen, Wim

    2004-01-01

    Wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) were captured at Blokkersdijk, a nature reserve in the immediate vicinity of a fluorochemical plant in Antwerp, Belgium, and at Galgenweel, 3 kilometers farther away. The liver perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) concentrations in the Blokkersdijk mice were extremely high (0.47-178.55 micro g/g wet weight). Perfluorononanoic, perfluorodecanoic, perfluoroundecanoic, and perfluorododecanoic acids were found sporadically in the liver tissue of the Blokkersdijk mice. The liver PFOS concentrations at Galgenweel were significantly lower than those at Blokkersdijk (0.14-1.11 micro g/g wet weight). Further results suggest sex independence of the liver PFOS levels, increased levels of PFOS bioaccumulation in older mice, and maternal PFOS transfer to the young. Several liver end points were significantly elevated in the Blokkersdijk mice: liver weight, relative liver weight, peroxisomal beta-oxidation activity, microsomal lipid peroxidation level, and mitochondrial fraction protein content. For the mitochondrial fraction catalase activity, no significant difference between locations was found. The liver weight, relative liver weight, and liver microsomal lipid peroxidation level increased significantly with the liver PFOS concentration. No indications for PFOS-mediated effects on the serum triglyceride, cholesterol, or potassium levels were obtained. The liver PFOS concentration was negatively related to the serum alanine aminotransferase activity. PMID:15121511

  12. Solid-phase extraction of PFOA and PFOS from surface waters on functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes followed by UPLC-ESI-MS.

    PubMed

    Speltini, Andrea; Maiocchi, Mattia; Cucca, Lucia; Merli, Daniele; Profumo, Antonella

    2014-06-01

    This is the first report on the analytical application of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbents for determination in surface waters, at the nanograms per litre level, of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), the two predominant contaminants among the perfluorinated compounds detected. After the preconcentration step, the quantification was achieved by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. To increase the extraction efficiency towards these amphiphilic compounds, MWCNTs were derivatized with amino-terminated alkyl chains, thus producing a mixed-mode material (MWCNT-R-NH2) combining hydrophobic affinity and anion-exchange properties. Experiments with distilled, tap and river water (pH 3) spiked at different concentrations (10, 15, 30, 100, 200 and 500 ng L(-1)) provided absolute recoveries in the range 71-102% (n?=?3, relative standard deviations less than 10%). Analytes were eluted in a single fraction with 6 mL methanol (3??10(-4) M NaOH). The within-laboratory reproducibility of the MWCNT-R-NH2 SPE sorbent was evaluated with raw river water, and relative standard deviations less than 15% were obtained (n?=?4). Preconcentration factors up to 125 (500-mL sample) made it possible to quantify PFOA and PFOS at low nanograms per litre levels in naturally contaminated river water. The method quantification limits of 10 ng L(-1) for PFOA and 15 ng L(-1) for PFOS were well below the advisory levels for drinking and surface waters. Comparison with non-derivatized MWCNTs highlighted the role of functionalization in improving the adsorption affinity towards these contaminants. MWCNT-R-NH2 maintained their extraction capability for at least eight repeated adsorption/desorption cycles. PMID:24652153

  13. Toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid to plants and aquatic invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Hui

    2009-02-01

    Acute toxicities of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were tested on four freshwater species and three plant species. PFOS was more toxic than PFOA for all species tested in this study. Similar time-response patterns of PFOS and PFOA toxicity were observed for each tested species. Values of the 48-h LC(50) of PFOS for all test species ranged from 27 to 233 mg/L and values of the 96-h LC(50) for three of the species ranged from 10 to 178 mg/L. Values of the 48-h LC(50) of PFOA for all test species ranged from 181 to 732 mg/L and values of the 96-h LC(50) for three of the species ranged from 337 to 672 mg/L. The most sensitive freshwater species to PFOS was green neon shrimp (Neocaridina denticulate) with a 96-h LC(50) of 10 mg/L. Of the aquatic organisms tested, the aquatic snail (Physa acuta) always has the highest resistance to PFOS or PFOA toxicity over each exposure period. Both PFOS and PFOA had no obvious adverse effect on seed germination for all three plant species. Five-day EC(50) of root elongation was more sensitive to LC(50) of seed germination in this study. Based on EC(10), EC(50), and NOECs, the 5-day root elongation sensitivity of test plants to both PFOS and PFOA was in the order of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) > pakchoi (Brassica rapa chinensis) > cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Based on the results of this study and other published literature, it is suggested that current PFOS and PFOA levels in freshwater may have no acute harmful ecological impact on the aquatic environment. However, more research on the long-term ecological effects of PFOS and PFOA on aquatic fauna are needed to provide important information to adequately assess ecological risk of PFOS and PFOA. PMID:18461560

  14. Chronic PFOS exposures induce life stage-specific behavioral deficits in adult zebrafish and produce malformations in F1 offspring

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiangfei; Huang, Changjiang; Das, Siba R.; La Du, Jane; Corvi, Margaret M.; Bai, Chenglian; Chen, Yuanhong; Tanguay, Robert L.; Dong, Qiaoxiang

    2014-01-01

    Perfluorooctanesulphonicacid (PFOS) is an organic contaminant that is ubiquitous in the environment, wildlife, and humans. Few studies have assessed the effects of chronic PFOS exposure on central nervous system function in aquatic organisms. The present study defined the behavioral effects of varying life span chronic exposures to low dose PFOS in zebrafish. The zebrafish were treated with vehicle control or 0.5?M PFOS during 121, 21120, or 1120 day post fertilization (dpf). Chronic PFOS exposure impaired the adult zebrafish behavior mode under the tapping stimulus. The movement speed of 1120 dpf exposed fish was significantly increased compared with control, while 121 and 21120 dpf exposed groups were not severely affected. PFOS residues in F1 embryos derived from parental exposure during both the 1120 and 21120 dpf groups was significantly higher than control, and F1 embryos in these two groups showed obvious malformations, such as uninflated swim bladder (USB) and bent spine (BS). Larvae of the parental exposed to PFOS from 121 or 21120 dpf elicited a higher swim rate than control in both the light and dark periods. Embryos derived from the 1120 dpf group showed a statistically lower speed in the light period and a higher speed in the dark period as compared with control. Though there is little PFOS residue in 121 dpf group, the adverse behavioral effects on both adult and F1 larvae indicate that exposure during the first 21 dpf induce long-term neurobehavior toxicity. Our findings demonstrate that chronic exposure to low dose PFOS in different life stage adversely impacts adult behavior, subsequent offspring malformation, and larval behavior. PMID:23059794

  15. Evidence for the Involvement of Xenobiotic-response Nuclear Receptors in Transcriptional Effects Upon Perfluroroalkyl Acid Exposure in Diverse Species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans and ecological species have been found to have detectable body burdens of a number of perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAA) including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). In mouse and rat liver these compounds elicit transcriptional and phenotyp...

  16. Evidence for the Involvement of Xenobiotic-responsive Nuclear Receptors in Transcriptional Effects Upon Perfluoroalkyl Acid Exposure in Diverse Species.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans and other species have detectable body burdens of a number of perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAA) including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). In mouse and rat liver these compounds elicit transcriptional and phenotypic effects similar to pe...

  17. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) distribution and effect factors in the water and sediment of the Yellow River Estuary, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shiliang; Wang, Hui; Deng, Wenjing

    2013-10-01

    The distribution of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was investigated in a total of 15 water and sediment samples from the Yellow River Estuary, China in April 2011. The results indicated that the concentrations of PFOS in the water and sediment samples averaged 157.5ng/L and 198.8ng/g and ranged from 82.30 to 261.8ng/L and 75.48 to 457.0ng/g, respectively. The concentrations of PFOS in the sediment column increased from 45.32 to 379.98ng/g with the decrease of the sampling depth, which showed that the increased PFOS pollution in the sediment appeared in this region in over recent years. The distribution coefficient (K d) of PFOS between water and sediment linearly increased from 0.37 to 4.80L/g as the salinity (S) increased from 0.18 to 4.47. Correlation analysis revealed that K d was significantly and positively correlated to the contents of total organic carbon and clay of the sediment, and salinity. Therefore, salinity was an important parameter in controlling the sediment-water interactions and the fate or transport of PFOS in the aquatic environment. The results of this study showed that the estuary was an important sink for PFOS and suggested that PFOS might be carried with the river water and transported for long distances before it reached to the sea and largely scavenged to the sediment in the estuaries due to the change in salinity. PMID:23591678

  18. Mechanisms for removal of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) from drinking water by conventional and enhanced coagulation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Feng; Simcik, Matt F; Gulliver, John S

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are persistent organic pollutants that have been found to be ubiquitous in the environment. This article, for the first time, delineates removal areas of these polar compounds on a coagulation diagram that associates chemical conditions with different coagulation mechanisms. Variables considered were solution pH, coagulant dosage, coagulants (alum and ferric chloride), natural organic matter (NOM), initial turbidity, and flocculation time. The jar-test results show that conventional coagulation (alum dosage of 10-60 mg/L and final pH of 6.5-8.0) removed ≤20% of PFOS and PFOA. These chemicals tended to be removed better by enhanced coagulation at higher coagulant dosages (>60 mg/L) and (thus) lower final pH (4.5-6.5). A coagulation diagram was developed to define the coagulant dosage and solution pH for PFOS/PFOA removal. The results suggest that the primary PFOS/PFOA removal mechanism is adsorption to fine Al hydroxide flocs freshly formed during the initial stage of coagulation; increasing flocculation time from 2 to 90 min could not further improve PFOS and PFOA removals. Furthermore, the effect of NOM on PFOS/PFOA removal by coagulation was examined, and possible removal mechanisms were discussed. PMID:23123052

  19. Toxicity evaluation of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in the liver of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Hagenaars, A; Knapen, D; Meyer, I J; van der Ven, K; Hoff, P; De Coen, W

    2008-07-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has been manufactured for over 50 years in increasing quantities and has been used for several industrial and commercial aims. Due to persistence and bioaccumulation of this pollutant, it can be found worldwide in wildlife and humans. Biochemical effects of PFOS exposure are mainly studied in mammalian model species and information about effects on fish species remain largely scarce. This lack of toxicity data points out that there is an urgent need for the mechanistic molecular understanding of the mode of action of this pollutant. In the present study, common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was exposed through water for 14 days at concentrations of 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/l PFOS. Liver was selected as target tissue. Custom microarrays were constructed from cDNA libraries obtained with Suppression Subtractive Hybridization-Polymerase Chain Reaction (SSH-PCR) experiments. Microarray data revealed that the expression of several genes in the liver was influenced by PFOS exposure and real-time PCR was used to confirm these gene expression changes. The affected genes were mainly involved in energy metabolism, reproduction and stress response. Furthermore, the relative condition factor, the hepatosomatic index, and the available glycogen reserves of the exposed fish were significantly lower after 14 days of exposure than in the control fish. At all levels of biological organization, indications of a trade-off between the metabolic cost of toxicant exposure on one hand and processes vital to the survival of the organism on the other hand were seen. Our results support the prediction that increases in energy expenditure negatively affects processes vital to the survival of an organism, such as growth. PMID:18501439

  20. Heat-activated persulfate oxidation of PFOA, 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate, and PFOS under conditions suitable for in-situ groundwater remediation.

    PubMed

    Park, Saerom; Lee, Linda S; Medina, Victor F; Zull, Aaron; Waisner, Scott

    2016-02-01

    PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid) oxidation (0.121-6.04 μM) by heat-activated persulfate was evaluated at 20-60 °C with 4.2-84 mM [Formula: see text] and in the presence of soluble fuel components to assess feasibility for in-situ remediation of groundwater. 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acid/sulfonate (6:2 FTSA) and PFOS (perfluorooctanesulfonic acid) persulfate oxidation was also evaluated in a subset of conditions given their co-occurrence at many sites. High performance liquid chromatography electron spray tandem mass spectrometry was used for organic analysis and fluoride was measured using a fluoride-specific electrode. PFOA pseudo-1st order transformation rates (k1,PFOA) increased with increasing temperature (half-lives from 0.1 to 7 d for 60 to 30 °C) sequentially removing CF2 groups ('unzipping') to shorter chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and F(-). At 50 °C, a 5-fold increase in [Formula: see text] led to a 5-fold increase in k1,PFOA after which self-scavenging by sulfate radicals decreased the relative rate of increase with more [Formula: see text] . Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene did not affect k1,PFOA even at 40 times higher molar concentrations than PFOA. A modeling approach to explore pathways strongly supported that for 6:2 FTSA, both the ethyl linkage and CF2-CH2 bond of 6:2 FTSA oxidize simultaneously, resulting in a ratio of ∼25/75 PFHpA/PFHxA. The effectiveness of heat-activated [Formula: see text] on PFOA oxidation was reduced in a soil slurry; therefore, repeated persulfate injections are required to efficiently achieve complete oxidation in the field. However, PFOS remained unaltered even at higher activation temperatures, thus limiting the sole use of heat-activated persulfate for perfluoroalkyl substances removal in the field. PMID:26692515

  1. Perfluoroalkyl acids and the isomers of perfluorooctanesulfonate and perfluorooctanoate in the sera of 50 new couples in Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifeng; Jiang, Weiwei; Fang, Shuhong; Zhu, Lingyan; Deng, Jimin

    2014-07-01

    A total of 100 serum samples from 50 new couples (none of the females in this study has ever been pregnant) in Tianjin, North China, were analyzed for eleven perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) with isomer-specific method. Among all samples, total perfluorooctanesulfonate (?PFOS, mean 11.3 ng/mL) was predominant followed by total perfluorooctanoate (?PFOA, 2.95 ng/mL), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA, 1.17 ng/mL), perfluorononanoate (PFNA, 0.93 ng/mL) and perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS, 0.67 ng/mL). The mean concentrations of ?PFOS and PFHxS in males (14.2 and 0.89 ng/mL) were significantly higher (p=0.001) than in females (8.36 and 0.45 ng/mL). No statistical difference between genders was observed for the other PFAAs. This suggests that menstruation is one important elimination pathway for ?PFOS and PFHxS in females. Linear PFOA was the dominant isomer with mean proportion of 99.7%, suggesting that telomeric PFOA (and its precursors), which contains almost pure linear isomer, might be the dominant exposure source of PFOA in Tianjin. On average, the proportion of linear PFOS (n-PFOS) was 59.2% of ?PFOS, which was lower than that in technical PFOS products (ca. 70% linear). Except perfluoroisopropyl PFOS, all the other monomethyl branched PFOS isomers were enriched in human serum compared to the commercial products, suggesting the monomethyl branched PFOS precursors were preferentially biotransformed in humans. PMID:24747327

  2. AROMATASE-B (CYP 19B) EXPRESSION IN FATHEAD MINNOWS (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS) EXPOSED TO PERFLUOROOCTANE (PFOS) AND THE AROMATASE INHIBITOR FADROZOLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a fluorinated organic contaminant that is globally distributed in both humans and wildlife. PFOS belongs to a family of perfluorinated sulfonates that are highly persistent in the environment and have been commercially produced for over 40 year...

  3. Is Ongoing Sulfluramid Use in South America a Significant Source of Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS)? Production Inventories, Environmental Fate, and Local Occurrence.

    PubMed

    Löfstedt Gilljam, John; Leonel, Juliana; Cousins, Ian T; Benskin, Jonathan P

    2016-01-19

    Despite international phase-out initiatives, production and use of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and related substances continues in some countries. In Brazil, the PFOS-precursor N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamide (EtFOSA) is used in Sulfluramid, a pesticide for controlling leaf-cutting ants. New data on production, environmental fate, and occurrence of Brazilian Sulfluramid are reported herein. From 2003 to 2013, Brazilian Sulfluramid manufacturing increased from 30 to 60 tonnes yr(-1) EtFOSA. During this time <1.3 tonnes yr(-1) were imported, while exports increased from ∼0.3 to 2 tonnes yr(-1). From 2004 to 2015, most EtFOSA was exported to Argentina (7.2 tonnes), Colombia (2.07 tonnes), Costa Rica (1.13 tonnes), Equador (2.16 tonnes), and Venezuela (2.4 tonnes). Within Brazil, sales occurred primarily in the states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Espírito Santo, and Bahia. Model simulations predict EtFOSA will partition to soils, while transformation products perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) and PFOS are sufficiently mobile to leach into surface waters. In support of these predictions, up to 3400 pg L(-1) of FOSA and up to 1100 pg L(-1) of PFOS were measured in Brazilian surface water, while EtFOSA was not detected. The high FOSA/PFOS ratio observed here (up to 14:1) is unprecedented in the scientific literature to our knowledge. Depending on the extent of conversion of EtFOSA, cumulative Brazilian Sulfluramid production and import from 2004 to 2015 may contribute between 167 and 487 tonnes of PFOS/FOSA to the environment. These levels are clearly nontrivial and of concern since production is continuing unabated. PMID:26653085

  4. Adsorption of perfluoroalkyl acids by carbonaceous adsorbents: Effect of carbon surface chemistry.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Yue; Liu, Jinxia

    2015-07-01

    Adsorption by carbonaceous sorbents is among the most feasible processes to remove perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS) and carboxylic acids (PFOA) from drinking and ground waters. However, carbon surface chemistry, which has long been recognized essential for dictating performance of such sorbents, has never been considered for PFOS and PFOA adsorption. Thus, the role of surface chemistry was systematically investigated using sorbents with a wide range in precursor material, pore structure, and surface chemistry. Sorbent surface chemistry overwhelmed physical properties in controlling the extent of uptake. The adsorption affinity was positively correlated carbon surface basicity, suggesting that high acid neutralizing or anion exchange capacity was critical for substantial uptake of PFOS and PFOA. Carbon polarity or hydrophobicity had insignificant impact on the extent of adsorption. Synthetic polymer-based Ambersorb and activated carbon fibers were more effective than activated carbon made of natural materials in removing PFOS and PFOA from aqueous solutions. PMID:25827692

  5. Comparison of the sorption behaviors and mechanisms of perfluorosulfonates and perfluorocarboxylic acids on three kinds of clay minerals.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lixia; Bian, Jingna; Zhang, Yahui; Zhu, Lingyan; Liu, Zhengtao

    2014-11-01

    The sorption of four perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) [perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA)] on three typical minerals [montmorillonite (MM), kaolinite (KL) and hematite (HM)] was studied. The sorption of PFOS and PFHxS was much stronger than PFOA and PFHxA. The sorption of each PFAA on the minerals followed an order of HM>KL>MM, even though MM was positively while KL and HM were negatively charged, implying that the sorption is driven by some other interactions besides electrostatic attraction. The sorption decreased with an increase in pH and a decrease in ionic strength of the solution, and their impacts on PFOS were much stronger than other three PFAAs. Surface complexing and hydrogen-bonding could make great contributions to the sorption of PFOS on the minerals. The results are important for understanding the transport and fate of PFAAs in sediment and ground water. PMID:25113183

  6. Developmental Toxicity of Perfluoronanoic Acid in Mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) is a ubiquitous and persistent environmental contaminant. Although its levels in the environment and in humans are lower than those of perfluorooctane sulfonate(PFOS) or perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a steady trend of increases in the general popula...

  7. Concentrations and patterns of perfluoroalkyl acids in Georgia, USA surface waters near and distant to a major use source

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konwick, B.J.; Tomy, G.T.; Ismail, N.; Peterson, J.T.; Fauver, R.J.; Higginbotham, D.; Fisk, A.T.

    2008-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are widespread contaminants emanating from, among other sources, the production/degradation of fluorinated chemicals used in surface repellant applications, such as carpet manufacturing. The goal of the present study was to assess the concentrations of PFAAs, including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUA), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), in surface waters both near a wastewater land application system (LAS) in Dalton (GA, USA), home to North America's largest carpet manufacturing site, and distant to this location (Altamaha River, GA, USA) to understand the fate of PFAAs in freshwater. Levels of PFAAs were high in the Conasauga River (GA, USA) downstream of the LAS (PFOA, 253-1,150 ng/L; PFOS, 192-318 ng/L; PFNA, 202-369 ng/L; PFDA, 30.1-113 ng/L; PFUA, 58.0-99.2 ng/L; PFOSA, 162-283 ng/L) and in streams and ponds in Dalton (PFOA, 49.9-299 ng/L; PFOS, 15.8-120 ng/L), and were among the highest measured at a nonspill or directrelease location. Perfluoroalkyl acids in the Altamaha River were much lower (PFOA, 3.0-3.1 ng/L; PFOS, 2.6-2.7 ng/L), but were a source of PFAAs to Georgia's estuaries. A preliminary hazard assessment indicated that concentrations of PFOS at two sites in the Conasauga River exceeded the threshold effect predicted for birds consuming aquatic organisms that are exposed continuously to the PFOS levels at these sites. Assuming that toxicity for all PFAAs quantified is equal to that of PFOS, the sum total PFAAs at two sites within the Conasauga River exceeded PFOS thresholds for aquatic and avian species, warranting additional research. ?? 2008 SETAC Printed in the USA.

  8. Concentrations and patterns of perfluoroalkyl acids in Georgia, USA surface waters near and distant to a major use source.

    PubMed

    Konwick, Brad J; Tomy, Gregg T; Ismail, Nargis; Peterson, James T; Fauver, Rebecca J; Higginbotham, David; Fisk, Aaron T

    2008-10-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are widespread contaminants emanating from, among other sources, the production/degradation of fluorinated chemicals used in surface repellant applications, such as carpet manufacturing. The goal of the present study was to assess the concentrations of PFAAs, including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUA), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), in surface waters both near a wastewater land application system (LAS) in Dalton (GA, USA), home to North America's largest carpet manufacturing site, and distant to this location (Altamaha River, GA, USA) to understand the fate of PFAAs in freshwater. Levels of PFAAs were high in the Conasauga River (GA, USA) downstream of the LAS (PFOA, 253-1,150 ng/L; PFOS, 192-318 ng/L; PFNA, 202-369 ng/L; PFDA, 30.1-113 ng/L; PFUA, 58.0-99.2 ng/L; PFOSA, 162-283 ng/L) and in streams and ponds in Dalton (PFOA, 49.9-299 ng/L; PFOS, 15.8-120 ng/L), and were among the highest measured at a nonspill or direct-release location. Perfluoroalkyl acids in the Altamaha River were much lower (PFOA, 3.0-3.1 ng/L; PFOS, 2.6-2.7 ng/L), but were a source of PFAAs to Georgia's estuaries. A preliminary hazard assessment indicated that concentrations of PFOS at two sites in the Conasauga River exceeded the threshold effect predicted for birds consuming aquatic organisms that are exposed continuously to the PFOS levels at these sites. Assuming that toxicity for all PFAAs quantified is equal to that of PFOS, the sum total PFAAs at two sites within the Conasauga River exceeded PFOS thresholds for aquatic and avian species, warranting additional research. PMID:18419175

  9. Induction of p53-mediated apoptosis in splenocytes and thymocytes of C57BL/6 mice exposed to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Guang-Hui; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Ying-Hua; Liu, Miao-Miao; Wang, Da; Zheng, Li; Jin, Yi-He; School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Ministry of Education, Dalian 116024

    2012-10-15

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent environmental contaminant found in human and wildlife tissues. It has been reported that PFOS can cause atrophy of the immune organs and apoptosis of immunocytes in rodents. However, the mechanism behind such cause is still unclear. To understand the model of cell death and its mechanism on lymphoid cells in vivo, we conducted a dose/response experiment in which 4 groups of male adult C57BL/6 mice (12 mice per group) were dosed daily by oral gavage with PFOS at 0, 0.0167, 0.0833, or 0.8333 mg/kg/day, yielding targeted Total Administered Dose (TAD) of 0, 1, 5, or 50 mg PFOS/kg, respectively, over 60 days. The results showed that spleen and thymus weight were significantly reduced in the highest PFOS-dose-group (TAD 50 mg PFOS/kg) compared to the control group, whereas liver weight was significantly increased. We analyzed the cell death via apoptosis with an annexin-V/propidium iodide assay by flow cytometry, and observed that both the percentage of apoptosis and the expression of the pro-apoptotic proteins p53 in splenocytes and thymocytes increased in a dose-related manner after PFOS treatment. We also observed that PFOS induced p53-dependent apoptosis through the cooperation between the Bcl-xl down regulation without changing the Bcl-2 and Bax expression. The down regulation of Bcl-xl was strongly indicating mitochondrial involvement in apoptosis. It is confirmed by the release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase-3. All of these findings establish an important role of p53 and mitochondrial function in PFOS induced toxic environment in the host. -- Highlights: ► PFOS immunotoxicity is caused by induction of apoptosis via the p53 activation. ► PFOS exposure can induce down regulation of Bcl-xl. ► Mitochondria are involved in PFOS-induced apoptosis. ► PFOS exposure can cause the release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase-3.

  10. Identification of Novel Polyfluorinated Ether Sulfonates as PFOS Alternatives in Municipal Sewage Sludge in China.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Ting; Lin, Yongfeng; Wang, Thanh; Liu, Runzeng; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-06-01

    A 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (6:2 Cl-PFAES) with the trade name F-53B, is an alternative to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in electroplating industry that is uniquely used in China. It was developed as a mist suppressant initially in the 1970s, but the environmental behaviors and potential adverse effects of the 6:2 Cl-PFAES have only recently been investigated. In this work, the occurrence and distribution of perfluoroalkyl sulfonate (PFSA), fluorotelomer sulfonate (FTSA), and PFAES analogues were investigated in municipal sewage sludge samples collected around China. Perfluorobutane, perfluorohexane, perfluorooctane, and perfluorodecanesulfonates, 6:2 and 8:2 FTSAs, and the emerging 6:2 Cl-PFAES were detected. Moreover, 8:2 and 10:2 Cl-PFAESs were identified for the first time as new polyfluorinated contaminants using high resolution mass spectrometry. These fluorinated analytes were further quantified with the aid of commercial and laboratory-purified standards. PFOS was the predominant contaminant with a geometric mean (GM) value of 3.19 ng/g dry weight (d.w.), which was subsequently followed by 6:2 Cl-PFAES and 8:2 Cl-PFAES (GM: 2.15 and 0.50 ng/g d.w., respectively). Both 6:2 and 8:2 Cl-PFAES were positively detected as the major components in the F-53B commercial product, and discrete 6:2 Cl-PFAES/8:2 Cl-PFAES ratios in the product and sludge samples might suggest 8:2 Cl-PFAES had enhanced sorption behavior in the sludge due to the increase in hydrophobicity. PMID:25961764

  11. TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS), PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID (PFOA), AND RELATED ORGANIC FLUOROCHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A host of organic fluorochemicals increasingly are being used as surfactant coatings for fabrics and paper products, fire-fighting foams, electronic etching baths and insecticides. Concern for the potential toxicological risk of these types of chemicals had been minimal until re...

  12. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) perturbs male rat Sertoli cell blood-testis barrier function by affecting F-actin organization via p-FAK-Tyr(407): an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Wan, Hin-Ting; Mruk, Dolores D; Wong, Chris K C; Cheng, C Yan

    2014-01-01

    Environmental toxicants such as perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) have been implicated in male reproductive dysfunction, including reduced sperm count and semen quality, in humans. However, the underlying mechanism(s) remains unknown. Herein PFOS at 10-20 ?M (?5-10 ?g/mL) was found to be more potent than bisphenol A (100 ?M) in perturbing the blood-testis barrier (BTB) function by disrupting the Sertoli cell tight junction-permeability barrier without detectable cytotoxicity. We also delineated the underlying molecular mechanism by which PFOS perturbed Sertoli cell BTB function using an in vitro model that mimics the BTB in vivo. First, PFOS perturbed F-actin organization in Sertoli cells, causing truncation of actin filaments at the BTB. Thus, the actin-based cytoskeleton was no longer capable of supporting the distribution and/or localization of actin-regulatory and adhesion proteins at the cell-cell interface necessary to maintain BTB integrity. Second, PFOS was found to perturb inter-Sertoli cell gap junction (GJ) communication based on a dye-transfer assay by down-regulating the expression of connexin-43, a GJ integral membrane protein. Third, phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-Tyr(407) was found to protect the BTB from the destructive effects of PFOS as shown in a study via an overexpression of an FAK Y407E phosphomimetic mutant. Also, transfection of Sertoli cells with an FAK-specific microRNA, miR-135b, to knock down the expression of phosphorylated FAK-Tyr(407) was found to worsen PFOS-mediated Sertoli cell tight junction disruption. In summary, PFOS-induced BTB disruption is mediated by down-regulating phosphorylated FAK-Tyr(407) and connexin-43, which in turn perturbed F-actin organization and GJ-based intercellular communication, leading to mislocalization of actin-regulatory and adhesion proteins at the BTB. PMID:24169556

  13. DISRUPTION OF THYROID HORMONE HOMEOSTASIS BY PERFLUROALKYL ACIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) are man-made chemicals found ubiquitously in humans and wildlife; the major representatives of these are those with an 8-carbon chain (C-8, perfluorooctane sulfonate, PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA). Presently, we have investigated the effects o...

  14. Developmental retardation, reduced fecundity, and modulated expression of the defensome in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus exposed to BDE-47 and PFOS.

    PubMed

    Han, Jeonghoon; Won, Eun-Ji; Lee, Min-Chul; Seo, Jung Soo; Lee, Su-Jae; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2015-08-01

    2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are widely dispersed persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the marine ecosystem. However, their toxic effects on marine organisms are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of BDE-47 and PFOS on development and reproduction at the organismal level and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and gene expression patterns of the defensome at the cellular level in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus. In copepods exposed to BDE-47 and PFOS, we observed developmental retardation and reduced fecundity, suggesting repercussions on in vivo endpoints through alterations to the normal molting and reproduction system of T. japonicus. BDE-47 and PFOS increased levels of ROS in T. japonicus in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that POPs can induce oxidative stress through the generation of ROS. Additionally, transcript profiles of genes related to detoxification (e.g., CYPs), antioxidant functions (e.g., GST- sigma, catalase, MnSOD), apoptosis (e.g., p53, Rb), and cellular proliferation (e.g., PCNA) were modulated over 72h in response to BDE-47 (120μg/L) and PFOS (1000μg/L). These findings indicate that BDE-47 and PFOS can induce oxidative stress-mediated DNA damage repair systems with transcriptional regulation of detoxification, antioxidant, and apoptosis-related genes, resulting in developmental retardation and reduced fecundity in the copepod T. japonicus. PMID:26037098

  15. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in soils and groundwater of a U.S. metropolitan area: migration and implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Feng; Simcik, Matt F; Halbach, Thomas R; Gulliver, John S

    2015-04-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are emerging anthropogenic compounds that have recently become the target of global concern due to their ubiquitous presence in the environment, persistence, and bioaccumulative properties. This study was carried out to investigate the migration of PFOS and PFOA in soils and groundwater in a U.S. metropolitan area. We observed elevated levels in surface soils (median: 12.2 ng PFOS/g dw and 8.0 ng PFOA/g dw), which were much higher than the soil-screening levels for groundwater protection developed in this study. The measured levels in subsurface soils show a general increase with depth, suggesting a downward movement toward the groundwater table and a potential risk of aquifer contamination. Furthermore, concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in monitoring wells in the source zone varied insignificantly over 5 years (2009-2013), suggesting limited or no change in either the source or the magnitude of the source. The analysis also shows that natural processes of dispersion and dilution can significantly attenuate the groundwater contamination; the adsorption on aquifer solids, on the other hand, appears to have limited effects on the transport of PFOS and PFOA in the aquifer. The probabilistic exposure assessment indicates that ingestion of contaminated groundwater constitutes a much more important exposure route than ingestion of contaminated soil. Overall, the results suggest that (i) the transport of PFOS and PFOA is retarded in the vadose zone, but not in the aquifer; (ii) the groundwater contamination of PFOS and PFOA often follows their release to surface soils by years, if not decades; and (iii) the aquifer can be a major source of exposure for communities living near point sources. PMID:25455741

  16. Combined effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and maternal restraint stress on hypothalamus adrenal axis (HPA) function in the offspring of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ribes, Diana; Fuentes, Silvia; Torrente, Margarita; Colomina, M. Teresa; Domingo, Jose L.

    2010-02-15

    Although it is known that prenatal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) can cause developmental adverse effects in mammals, the disruptive effects of this compound on hormonal systems are still controversial. Information concerning the effects of PFOS on hypothalamus adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress and corticosterone levels is not currently available. On the other hand, it is well established that stress can enhance the developmental toxicity of some chemicals. In the present study, we assessed the combined effects of maternal restraint stress and PFOS on HPA axis function in the offspring of mice. Twenty plug-positive female mice were divided in two groups. Animals were given by gavage 0 and 6 mg PFOS/kg/day on gestation days 12-18. One half of the animals in each group were also subjected to restraint stress (30 min/session, 3 sessions/day) during the same period. Five plug-positive females were also included as non-manipulated controls. At 3 months of age, activity in an open-field and the stress response were evaluated in male and female mice by exposing them to 30 min of restraint stress. Male and female offspring were subsequently sacrificed and blood samples were collected to measure changes in corticosterone levels at four different moments related to stress exposure conditions: before stress exposure, immediately after 30 min of stress exposure, and recuperation levels at 60 and 90 min after stress exposure. Results indicate corticosterone levels were lower in mice prenatally exposed to restraint. In general terms, PFOS exposure decreased corticosterone levels, although this effect was only significant in females. The recuperation pattern of corticosterone was mainly affected by prenatal stress. Interactive effects between PFOS and maternal stress were sex dependent. The current results suggest that prenatal PFOS exposure induced long-lasting effects in mice.

  17. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) including structural PFOS isomers in plasma from elderly men and women from Sweden: Results from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS).

    PubMed

    Salihovic, Samira; Krrman, Anna; Lind, Lars; Lind, P Monica; Lindstrm, Gunilla; van Bavel, Bert

    2015-09-01

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a class of compounds with unique chemical properties that have been shown useful in a wide variety of applications because they provide materials with reduced surface tension and exceptional non-stick properties. PFASs are commonly found in impregnation materials, coatings of papers and textiles, fire-fighting foams, pesticides, and cleaning agents. The potential for human exposure to PFASs is high because of their widespread distribution. The aim of this study was to investigate levels of PFASs in men and women from Sweden and to assess the influence of gender and parity among women. Levels of 13 PFASs were determined in plasma samples collected during 2001-2004 from 1016 (507 women) 70year-old participants from the population-based Prospective Study of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS). The PFASs studied were nine perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), four perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA). In addition, structural isomers of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were determined in a subset of 398 individuals. The detection rates were high and the majority of the studied compounds were detected in more than 75% of the participants. Levels of the selected analytes were found to be similar to other studies of non-occupationally exposed populations. Gender differences were observed in levels of PFHpA which was higher in men, while PFHxS was higher in women. Parity among women was shown to have a minor effect on PFAS concentrations and we found primi- and multiparous women to have slightly lower levels of PFUnDA when compared to nulliparous women. PMID:26001496

  18. Pyrene-functionalized oligonucleotides and locked nucleic acids (LNAs): Tools for fundamental research, diagnostics, and materials science†

    PubMed Central

    Østergaard, Michael E.; Hrdlicka, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Pyrene-functionalized oligonucleotides (PFOs) are increasingly explored as tools in fundamental research, diagnostics and materials science. Their popularity is linked to the ability of pyrenes to function as polarity-sensitive and quenchable fluorophores, excimer-generating units, aromatic stacking moieties and nucleic acid duplex intercalators. These characteristics have motivated development of PFOs for detection of complementary DNA/RNA targets, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and generation of π-arrays on nucleic acid scaffolds. This Review will highlight the physical properties and applications of PFOs that are likely to provide high degree of positional control of the chromophore in nucleic acid complexes. Particular emphasis will be placed on pyrene-functionalized Locked Nucleic Acids (LNAs) since these materials display distinctive properties such as large fluorescence quantum yields, efficient discrimination of SNPs, and recognition of mixed-sequence double stranded DNA. PMID:21487621

  19. Survey of perfluorinated alkyl acids in Finnish effluents, storm water, landfill leachate and sludge.

    PubMed

    Perkola, Noora; Sainio, Pirjo

    2013-11-01

    The objective of the Control of Hazardous Substances in the Baltic Sea (COHIBA) project is to support the implementation of the HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan regarding hazardous substances by developing joint actions to achieve the goal of "a Baltic Sea with life undisturbed by hazardous substances". One aim in the project was to identify the most important sources of 11 hazardous substances of special concern in the Baltic Sea. Among them are perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). In this study, four perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) were studied: PFOA, PFOS, perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA). The occurrence of PFAAs in municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plant effluents (MWWTP1-3, IWWTP1), target industry effluent, storm water, landfill leachate and sludge was studied. Effluents were analysed six times and storm water, leachate and sludge were analysed twice, once in the warm season and once in the cold, during a 1-year sampling campaign. PFOS prevailed in two municipal effluents (MWWTP1 and 3) and industrial effluent (IWWTP1; 7.8-14, 8.0-640 and 320-1,300 ng/l, respectively). However, in one municipal effluent (MWWTP2) PFOA was, in a majority of sampling occasions, the predominant PFAA (9-15 ng/l) followed by PFOS (3.8-20 ng/l). The highest PFAA loads of the municipal effluents were found in the MWWTP3 receiving the biggest portion of industrial wastewater. In storm water the highest concentration was found for PFHxA (17 ng/l). The highest concentration of PFOS and PFOA were 9.9 and 5.1 ng/l, respectively. PFOS, PFOA and PFHxA were detected in every effluent, storm water and landfill leachate sample, whereas PFDA was detected in most of the samples (77%). In the target industry, PFOS concentrations varied between 1,400 and 18,000 ?g/l. In addition, on one sampling occasion PFOA and PFHxA were found (0.027 and 0.009 ?g/l, respectively). For effluents, PFAA mass flows into the Baltic Sea were calculated. For municipal wastewater treatment plants average mass flows per day varied for PFOS between 1,073 and 38,880 mg/day, for PFOA 960 and 2,700 mg/day, for PFHxA 408 and 1,269 mg/day and for PFDA 84 and 270 mg/day. In IWWTP mass flows for PFOS, PFOA, PFHxA and PFDA were 495 mg/d, 28 mg/d, 23 mg/d and 0.6 mg/g, respectively. PMID:23512237

  20. Evaluation of Perfluoroalkyl Acid Activity Using Primary Mouse and Human Hepatocytes.

    EPA Science Inventory

    While perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been studied at length, less is known about the biological activity of other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the environment. Using a transient transfection assay developed in COS-1 cells, our group h...

  1. EVALUATION OF PERFLUOROALKYL ACID ACTIVITY USING PRIMARY MOUSE AND HUMAN HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    While perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been studied at length, less is know about the biological activity of other environmental perfluoroalkyl acids (pFAAs). Using a transient transfection assay developed in COS-l cells, our group has previ...

  2. Enhanced cytotoxicity of pentachlorophenol by perfluorooctane sulfonate or perfluorooctanoic acid in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Shan, Guoqiang; Ye, Minqiang; Zhu, Benzhan; Zhu, Lingyan

    2013-11-01

    Chlorinated phenols and perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are two kinds of pollutants which are widely present in the environment. Considering liver is the primary toxic target organ for these two groups of chemicals, it is interesting to evaluate the possible joint effects of them on liver. In this work, the combined toxicity of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were investigated using HepG2 cells. The results indicated that PFOS and PFOA could strengthen PCP's hepatotoxicity. Further studies showed that rather than intensify the oxidative stress or promote the biotransformation of PCP, PFOS (or PFOA) might lead to strengthening of the oxidative phosphorylation uncoupling of PCP. By measuring the intracellular PCP concentration and the cell membrane properties, it was suggested that PFOS and PFOA could disrupt the plasma membrane and increase the membrane permeability. Thus, more cellular accessibility of PCP was induced when they were co-exposed to PCP and PFOS (or PFOA), leading to increased cytotoxicity. Further research is warranted to better understand the combined toxicity of PFAAs and other environmental pollutants. PMID:23972907

  3. Perfluoroalkyl acids in the egg yolk of birds from Lake Shihwa, Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hoon; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Kim, Seong Kyu; Lee, Kyu Tae; Newsted, John L; Giesy, John P

    2008-08-01

    Concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAs) were measured in egg yolks of three species of birds, the little egret (Egretta garzetta), little ringed plover (Charadrius dubius), and parrot bill (Paradoxornis webbiana), collected in and around Lake Shihwa, Korea, which receives wastewaters from an adjacent industrial complex. Mean concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) ranged from 185 to 314 ng/g ww and were similar to those reported for bird eggs from other urban areas. Long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) were also found in egg yolks often at great concentrations. Mean concentrations of perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA) ranged from 95 to 201 ng/g ww. Perfluorooctanoic acid was detected in 32 of 44 egg samples, but concentrations were 100-fold less than those of PFOS. Relative concentrations of PFAs in all three species were similar with the predominance of PFOS (45-50%). There was a statistically significant correlation between PFUnA and perfluorodecanoic acid in egg yolks (p < 0.05), suggesting a common source of PFCAs. Using measured egg concentrations and diet concentrations, the ecological risk of the PFOS and PFA mixture to birds in Lake Shihwa was evaluated using two different approaches. Estimated hazard quotients were similar between the two approaches. The concentration of PFOS associated with 90th centile in bird eggs was 100-fold less than the lowest observable adverse effect level determined for birds, and those concentrations were 4-fold less than the suggested toxicity reference values. On the basis of limited toxicological data, current concentrations of PFOS are less than what would be expected to have an adverse effect on birds in the Lake Shihwa region. PMID:18754515

  4. On-line preconcentration of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Knob, Radim; Maier, Vítězslav; Petr, Jan; Ranc, Václav; Sevčík, Juraj

    2012-07-01

    Separation of major environmental pollutants as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) by capillary electrophoresis is reported for the first time. It is not possible to resolve the solutes in an aqueous media. However, the use of methanol and acetonitrile as the background electrolyte (BGE) solvents allowed their rapid separation in an uncoated capillary. A major effort was put into BGE optimization in respect to both separation efficiency and detection for further on-line preconcentration. 5 mmol.L⁻¹ naphthalene-1-sulfonic acid and 10 mmol.L⁻¹ triethylamine dissolved in ACN/MeOH (50:50 v/v) provided best separation and detection conditions. Next, the large-volume sample stacking and the field-amplified sample injection were applied and compared. Large-volume sample stacking improved limits of detection (LODs) with regard to the standard injection by 69 times for PFOA and 143 times for PFOS with LODs of 280 and 230 nmol.L⁻¹, respectively. Field-amplified sample injection improved LODs 624 times for PFOAand 806 times for PFOS with LODs 31 and 40 nmol.L⁻¹, respectively. Both preconcentration methods showed repeatabilities of migration times less than 1.2% RSD intraday and 6.6% RSD interday. The method was applied on PFOA and PFOS analysis in a sample of river water treated with solid-phase extraction, which further improved LOD toward 5.6 × 10⁻¹⁰ mol.L⁻¹ for PFOS and 6.4 × 10⁻¹⁰ mol.L⁻¹ for PFOA and allows the method to be used for river water contamination screening or decomposition studies. PMID:22821493

  5. Temporal changes (1997-2012) of perfluoroalkyl acids and selected precursors (including isomers) in Swedish human serum.

    PubMed

    Gebbink, Wouter A; Glynn, Anders; Berger, Urs

    2015-04-01

    Concentrations (including isomer patterns) and temporal changes (1997-2012) of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and selected perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid (PFCA) precursors were determined in serum samples from Swedish women. Perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) and perfluorooctane sulfonamidoacetic acid (FOSAA), as well as its N-methyl and N-ethyl derivatives (MeFOSAA and EtFOSAA) were consistently detected. Highest PFOS precursor concentrations were found for EtFOSAA (before year 2000) or MeFOSAA and FOSAA (after 2000). Disappearance half-lives for all PFOS precursors were shorter compared to PFOS. 4:2/6:2 and 6:2/6:2 polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs) were detected in <60% of the samples, whereas 6:2/8:2 and 8:2/8:2 diPAPs were detected in >60% of the samples, but showed no significant change in concentrations over time. Linear and sum-branched isomers were quantified separately for three PFAAs and three precursors. Significant changes between 1997 and 2012 in the % linear isomer were observed for PFOA and FOSA (increase) and PFOS (decrease). PMID:25660070

  6. Cytotoxicity and inhibition of intercellular interaction in N2a neurospheroids by perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seong-Kyoon; Kim, Jung-Hee; Park, Jin-Kyu; Lee, Kyeong-Min; Kim, Eunjoo; Jeon, Won Bae

    2013-10-01

    Effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) on the neuronal lineage marker expression, cell-cell interaction, caspase-3 mRNA transcription and reactive oxygen species production by N2a neuronal cells were assesses in 3-dimensional (3D) spheroid cultures, and the cytotoxicity were thoroughly compared with those of a conventional 2D monolayer-based toxicity assay. Increasing concentrations of PFOA or PFOS resulted in an increase in cell death. The half maximal inhibitory concentrations measured with spheroids were approximately one and a half times greater than the respective values for monolayer cells. Necrosis was prevalent in spheroids regardless of the dose, whereas the major injury mechanism in monolayers was dependent on compound concentration. Both PFOA and PFOS inhibited neuronal, astrocyte and oligodendrocyte marker gene expression by monolayers and spheroids grown under undifferentiated and all-trans-retinoic acid-induced differentiating conditions. In the presence of PFOA or PFOS, expression levels of E-cadherin and connexin-43 mRNAs were significantly downregulated, and spheroids were dissociated into single cell populations, indicating that the compounds affect the synthesis of E-cadherin and connexin-43 at the transcriptional level. Results from 3D cultures may provide an insight into potential inhibitory mode of action on gap junctional intercellular communication. PMID:23948355

  7. Temporal trends of perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids and their sulfonamide-based precursors in herring from the Swedish west coast 1991-2011 including isomer-specific considerations.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Shahid; Huber, Sandra; Bignert, Anders; Berger, Urs

    2014-04-01

    A method was developed for simultaneous analysis of perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and their sulfonamide-based precursors (perfluoroalkane sulfonamidoacetic acids (FASAAs), sulfonamides (FASAs), and sulfonamidoethanols (FASEs)) in fish muscle. Extraction was performed with acetonitrile followed by a clean-up and fractionation step and instrumental analysis by UPLC/MS/MS and GC/MS. Time trends of PFSAs and their precursors in herring muscle samples originating from the Kattegat at the west coast of Sweden were investigated covering the years 1991-2011. The following analytes were detected, all with decreasing or unchanged trends between 1991 and 2011: Perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS, below the method detection limit (acid (PFHxS, 9-38pg/g), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS, 240-930pg/g), perfluorodecane sulfonic acid (PFDS, acid (MeFOSAA and EtFOSAA, 2-39 and 2-31pg/g, respectively) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA, 78-920pg/g). The highest concentrations were found for PFOS and FOSA around the turn of the century. Shorter disappearance half-lives were observed for precursors compared to PFSAs. Assuming that these trend differences are representative for fish consumed by the general Swedish population, this observation suggests that the relative contribution of precursors to total human exposure to PFOS via fish intake has decreased in Sweden over the study period. PFOS precursors in fish may have constituted a significant indirect exposure pathway for PFOS in the 1990s. Isomer-specific analysis of PFOS and FOSA revealed <10% relative contributions of branched isomers to total PFOS and total FOSA. Furthermore, the percentage branched isomers decreased over time for both compounds. These findings are contrary to patterns and temporal trends of PFOS isomers commonly found in human serum. In combination with literature data on isomer patterns in other edible fish species and on isomer-specific human toxicokinetics, our results suggest that fish consumption alone cannot account for the PFOS isomer patterns and trends observed in humans. PMID:24468635

  8. Reductions in Serum Lipids with a 4-year Decline in Serum Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Perfluorooctanesulfonic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Fitz-Simon, Nicola; Fletcher, Tony; Luster, Michael I.; Steenland, Kyle; Calafat, Antonia M.; Kato, Kayoko; Armstrong, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Background Several epidemiological cross-sectional studies have found positive associations between serum concentrations of lipids and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, or C8). A longitudinal study should be less susceptible to biases from uncontrolled confounding or reverse causality. Methods We investigated the association between within-individual changes in serum PFOA and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and changes in serum lipid levels (low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides) over a 4.4-year period. The study population consisted of 560 adults living in parts of Ohio and West Virginia where public drinking water had been contaminated with PFOA. They had participated in a cross-sectional study in 20052006, and were followed up in 2010, by which time exposure to PFOA had been substantially reduced. Results Overall serum concentrations of PFOA and PFOS fell by half from initial geometric means of 74.8 and 18.5 ng/mL, respectively, with little corresponding change in LDL cholesterol (mean increase 1.8%, standard deviation 26.6%). However, there was a tendency for people with greater declines in serum PFOA or PFOS to have greater LDL decrease. For a person whose serum PFOA fell by half, the predicted fall in LDL cholesterol was 3.6% (95% confidence interval = 1.55.7%). The association with a decline in PFOS was even stronger, with a 5% decrease in LDL (2.57.4%). Conclusions Our findings from this longitudinal study support previous evidence from cross-sectional studies of positive associations between PFOA and PFOS in serum and LDL cholesterol. PMID:23685825

  9. More signs of neurotoxicity of surfactants and flame retardants - Neonatal PFOS and PBDE 99 cause transcriptional alterations in cholinergic genes in the mouse CNS.

    PubMed

    Hallgren, Stefan; Fredriksson, Anders; Viberg, Henrik

    2015-09-01

    Maternally and lactionally transferred persistent organic pollutants may interfere with CNS development. Here, 10-day-old male mice were exposed to single oral doses of PFOS (perflourooctanosulphonate) or PBDE 99 (2,2',4,4',5-penta-bromodiphenyl ether), and examined for changes in cholinergic gene transcription in the CNS 24h and 7 weeks later. 24h after exposure qPCR analyses revealed decreased transcription of nAChR-?2 and AChE in cortex, and increased mAChR-5 in hippocampus of PFOS treated mice. Neonatal PFOS treatment altered spontaneous behaviour at 2 months of age but did not affect gene transcription in adults. At 2 months of age neonatally PBDE 99 treated mice had altered spontaneous behaviour, and cortical transcription of AChE, nAChR-?4, nAChR-?2 and mAChR-5 were elevated. Our results indicate that PFOS and PBDE 99 affects the developing central cholinergic system by altering gene transcription in cortex and hippocampus, which may in part account for mechanisms causing changes in spontaneous behaviour. PMID:26254212

  10. Tissue specific uptake and elimination of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after dietary exposure.

    PubMed

    Falk, Sandy; Failing, Klaus; Georgii, Sebastian; Brunn, Hubertus; Stahl, Thorsten

    2015-06-01

    Tissue specific uptake and elimination of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were studied in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Adult trout were exposed to perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) via food over a time period of 28d. In the following 28-d depuration period the fish were fed PFAA-free food. At defined sampling times four animals were removed from the experimental tank, euthanized and dissected. Muscle, liver, kidneys, gills, blood, skin and carcass were examined individually. At the end of the accumulation phase between 0.63% (PFOA) and 15.5% (PFOS) of the absolute, applied quantity of PFAAs was recovered in the whole fish. The main target organ was the liver with recovery rates between 0.11% (PFBS) and 4.01% (PFOS) of the total amount of ingested PFAAs. Perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids were taken up more readily and had longer estimated elimination half-lives than perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids of the same chain length. The longest estimated elimination half-lives were found to be for PFOS between 8.4d in muscle tissue and 20.4d in the liver and for PFNA between 8.2d in the blood and 11.6d in the liver. PMID:25022474

  11. Increasing levels of long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) in Arctic and North Atlantic marine mammals, 1984-2009.

    PubMed

    Rotander, Anna; Krrman, Anna; van Bavel, Bert; Polder, Anuschka; Rigt, Frank; Auunsson, Gujn Atli; Vkingsson, Gsli; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Bloch, Dorete; Dam, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Temporal variations in concentrations of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and sulfonic acids (PFSAs), including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) structural isomers, were examined in livers of pilot whale (Globicephala melas), ringed seal (Phoca hisida), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus) and in muscle tissue of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus). The sampling spanned over 20 years (1984-2009) and covered a large geographical area of the North Atlantic and West Greenland. Liver and muscle samples were homogenized, extracted with acetonitrile, cleaned up using hexane and solid phase extraction (SPE), and analyzed by liquid chromatography with negative electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In general, the levels of the long-chained PFCAs (C9-C12) increased whereas the levels of PFOS remained steady over the studied period. The PFOS isomer pattern in pilot whale liver was relatively constant over the sampling years. However, in ringed seals there seemed to be a decrease in linear PFOS (L-PFOS) with time, going from 91% in 1984 to 83% in 2006. PMID:22051347

  12. Alterations in gene expression levels provide early indicators of chemical stress during Xenopus laevis embryo development: A case study with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS).

    PubMed

    San-Segundo, Laura; Guimarães, Laura; Fernández Torija, Carlos; Beltrán, Eulalia M; Guilhermino, Lúcia; Pablos, María Victoria

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, Xenopus laevis embryos were exposed to a range of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentrations (0, 0.5, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96mg/L) for 96h in laboratorial conditions to establish toxicity along with possible gene expression changes. Mortality and deformities were monitored daily and head-tail length was measured at the end of the assay as an indicator of growth. At 24 and 96h post-exposure (hpe), the mRNA expression levels of the genetic markers involved in general stress responses (hsp70, hsp47, crh-a and ucn1), oxidative stress (cat.2 and sod), lipid metabolism (ppard) and apoptosis (tp53 and bax) were analyzed by RT-qPCR. Malformations were significantly higher in the embryos exposed to the highest PFOS concentration (41.8% to 56.4%) compared to controls (5.5%) at 48, 72 and 96hpe. Growth inhibition was observed in the embryos exposed to PFOS concentrations≥48mg/L. At 24 hpe, a statistically significant up-regulation of genes hsp70, hsp47, ppard, tp53 and bax in relation to controls was found. Similar responses were found for genes hsp70, hsp47, crh-a, ucn1, sod and ppard at 96 hpe. Alterations in the mRNA expression levels indicated both a stress response to PFOS exposure during X. laevis embryo development, and alterations in the regulation of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and differentiation. These molecular alterations were detected at an earlier exposure time or at lower concentrations than those producing developmental toxicity. Therefore, these sensitive warning signals could be used together with other biomarkers to supplement alternative methods (i.e. the frog embryo test) for developmental toxicity safety evaluations, and as tools in amphibian risk assessments for PFOS and its potential substitutes. PMID:26802562

  13. Temporal trends for inflow of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) to Tokyo Bay, Japan, estimated by a receptor-oriented approach.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Takeo; Serizawa, Shigeko; Kobayashi, Jun; Kodama, Keita; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Maki, Hideaki; Zushi, Yasuyuki; Sevilla-Nastor, Janice Beltran; Imaizumi, Yoshitaka; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Horiguchi, Toshihiro; Shiraishi, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    We estimated inflow rates of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) to Tokyo Bay, Japan, between February 2004 and February 2011 by a receptor-oriented approach based on quarterly samplings of the bay water. Temporal trends in these inflow rates are an important basis for evaluating changes in PFOS and PFOA emissions in the Tokyo Bay catchment basin. A mixing model estimated the average concentrations of these compounds in the freshwater inflow to the bay, which were then multiplied by estimated freshwater inflow rates to obtain the inflow rates of these compounds. The receptor-oriented approach enabled us to comprehensively cover inflow to the bay, including inflow via direct discharge to the bay. On a logarithmic basis, the rate of inflow for PFOS decreased gradually, particularly after 2006, whereas that for PFOA exhibited a marked stepwise decrease from 2006 to 2007. The rate of inflow for PFOS decreased from 730kg/y during 2004-2006 to 160kg/y in 2010, whereas that for PFOA decreased from 2000kg/y during 2004-2006 to 290kg/y in 2010. These reductions probably reflected reductions in the use and emission of these compounds and their precursors in the Tokyo Bay catchment basin. Our estimated per-person inflow rates (i.e., inflow rates divided by the estimated population in the basin) for PFOS were generally comparable to previously reported per-person waterborne emission rates in Japan and other countries, whereas those for PFOA were generally higher than previously reported per-person waterborne emission rates. A comparison with previous estimates of household emission rates of these compounds suggested that our inflow estimates included a considerable contribution from point industrial sources. PMID:26363401

  14. Surface modification of activated carbon for enhanced adsorption of perfluoroalkyl acids from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Yue; Liu, Jinxia

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the research was to examine the effect of increasing carbon surface basicity on uptake of perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS) and carboxylic acids (PFOA) by activated carbon. Granular activated carbons made from coal, coconut shell, wood, and phenolic-polymer-based activated carbon fibers were modified through high-temperature and ammonia gas treatments to facilitate systematical evaluation of the impact of basicity of different origins. Comparison of adsorption isotherms and adsorption distribution coefficients showed that the ammonia gas treatment was more effective than the high-temperature treatment in enhancing surface basicity. The resultant higher point of zero charges and total basicity (measured by total HCl uptake) correlated with improved adsorption affinity for PFOS and PFOA. The effectiveness of surface modification to enhance adsorption varied with carbon raw material. Wood-based carbons and activated carbon fibers showed enhancement by one to three orders of magnitudes while other materials could experience reduction in adsorption towards either PFOS or PFOA. PMID:26469934

  15. Developmental toxicity of perfluorononanoic acid in mice.

    PubMed

    Das, Kaberi P; Grey, Brian E; Rosen, Mitchell B; Wood, Carmen R; Tatum-Gibbs, Katoria R; Zehr, R Daniel; Strynar, Mark J; Lindstrom, Andrew B; Lau, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) is a ubiquitous and persistent environmental contaminant. Although its levels in the environment and in humans are lower than those of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a steady trend of increases in the general population in recent years has drawn considerable interest and concern. Previous studies with PFOS and PFOA have indicated developmental toxicity in laboratory rodent models. The current study extends the evaluation of these adverse outcomes to PFNA in mice. PFNA was given to timed-pregnant CD-1 mice by oral gavage daily on gestational day 1-17 at 1, 3, 5 or 10mg/kg; controls received water vehicle. Dams given 10mg/kg PFNA could not carry their pregnancy successfully and effects of this dose group were not followed. Similar to PFOS and PFOA, PFNA at 5mg/kg or lower doses produced hepatomegaly in the pregnant dams, but did not affect the number of implantations, fetal viability, or fetal weight. Mouse pups were born alive and postnatal survival in the 1 and 3mg/kg PFNA groups was not different from that in controls. In contrast, although most of the pups were also born alive in the 5mg/kg PFNA group, 80% of these neonates died in the first 10 days of life. The pattern of PFNA-induced neonatal death differed somewhat from those elicited by PFOS or PFOA. A majority of the PFNA-exposed pups survived a few days longer after birth than those exposed to PFOS or PFOA, which typically died within the first 2 days of postnatal life. Surviving neonates exposed to PFNA exhibited dose-dependent delays in eye opening and onset of puberty. In addition, increased liver weight seen in PFNA-exposed offspring persisted into adulthood and was likely related to the persistence of the chemical in the tissue. Evaluation of gene expression in fetal and neonatal livers revealed robust activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARα) target genes by PFNA that resembled the responses of PFOA. Our results indicate that developmental toxicity of PFNA in mice is comparable to that of PFOS and PFOA, and that these adverse effects are likely common to perfluoroalkyl acids that persist in the body. PMID:25543169

  16. Effects of perfluorooctane sulfuric acid on placental PRL-family hormone production and fetal growth retardation in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chae Kwan; Kang, Sung Goo; Lee, Jong Tae; Lee, Soo-Woong; Kim, Jeong Ho; Kim, Dae Hwan; Son, Byung Chul; Kim, Kun Hyung; Suh, Chun Hui; Kim, Se Yeong; Park, Yeong Beom

    2015-02-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfuric acid (PFOS) is a persistent organic pollutant, causes fetal growth retardation but the mechanism is still unclear. This study focused on PFOS-induced toxicity such as placental trophoblast cell histopathological changes, endocrine function (i.e., prolactin (PRL)-family hormone production) and subsequent fetal growth retardation in mice. Maternal body weight gain, placental and fetal weights were significantly decreased in proportion to PFOS dosage. Placental efficiency (fetal weight/placental weight) was significantly reduced dose-dependently. Necrotic changes were observed in PFOS-treated placental tissues, and the area of injury increased dose-dependently. Finally, mRNA levels and maternal serum concentrations of the PRL-family hormones (mPL-II, mPLP-Cα, mPLP-K) were significantly reduced dose-dependently. In addition, the changing pattern between PRL-family hormone concentrations and fetal body weight was positively correlated. These results suggest that gestational PFOS treatment induces placental histopathological changes and disruption of endocrine function, finally may lead to fetal growth retardation in mice. PMID:25449418

  17. Inverse association of colorectal cancer prevalence to serum levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in a large Appalachian population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are persistent environmental contaminants that affect metabolic regulation, inflammation, and other factors implicated in the development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the link between these compounds and CRC remains unknown. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the association of CRC diagnosis to PFOA and PFOS blood levels in a large Appalachian population. Methods Participants were 47,359 adults ≥ 21 years of age and residing in six PFOA-contaminated water districts in the mid-Ohio Valley (N = 47,151 cancer-free adults, 208 cases of primary CRC). All participants completed a comprehensive health survey between 2005 and 2006; serum levels of PFOA, PFOS, and a range of other blood markers were also measured. Medical history was assessed via self report and cancer diagnosis confirmed via chart review. Results CRC showed a strong inverse, dose–response association with PFOS serum levels (odds ratio (OR) adjusted for potential confounders = 0.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.2,0.3) for highest vs. lowest quartile of PFOS, P-trend < 0.00001) and a significant, but more modest inverse association with PFOA (adjusted OR = 0.6 (CI 0.4, 0.9) for highest vs. lowest quartile, P-trend = 0.001). These inverse associations were stronger in those diagnosed within the previous 6 years and resident in the same water district for a minimum of 10–15 years preceding assessment. The relationship between PFOA and CRC was also more pronounced in men and leaner adults, and showed a stronger linear trend at lower exposure levels. Conclusions In this large cross-sectional study, we found a strong, inverse association between PFOS and likelihood of CRC diagnosis and a significant, although more modest inverse association between PFOA and CRC. If confirmed in prospective investigations, these findings may aid in identifying new strategies for CRC prevention and treatment and inform future studies regarding mechanisms underlying CRC pathogenesis. PMID:24468211

  18. Determination of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate in cooking oil and pig adipose tissue using reversed-phase liquid-liquid extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tang, Caiming; Tan, Jianhua; Wang, Chunwei; Peng, Xianzhi

    2014-05-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) are two perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) ubiquitously present in the environment, which could pose potential adverse effects on human health. Contamination and presence of PFOA and PFOS should be eliminated or rigidly restricted in food stuffs such as cooking oils and lard (from pig adipose tissue). This work describes a rapid, simple, reliable and sensitive method for quantitative analysis of PFOA and PFOS in cooking oils and pig adipose tissue with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The pretreatment mainly included a one-step reversed-phase liquid-liquid extraction using the mixture of basified water/methanol as the aqueous system, and dichloromethane (DCM) as the non-polar system. PFOA and PFOS can be successfully separated from the two lipid-rich matrices, i.e., cooking oil and adipose tissue, and extracted into the aqueous system, and then directly analyzed with LC-MS/MS. This method was validated in terms of accuracy (both intra- and inter-batch), precision, recovery, linearity, sensitivity and applicability. The intra-batch accuracies for PFOA and PFOS in cooking oil samples were within 93.9-101.9% with relative standard deviation (RSD) no more than 10.9%, and the inter-batch accuracies were 91.2-96.2% with RSD not exceeding 10.0%. The intra-batch accuracies of the analytes in pig adipose tissue samples were 102.9-113.0% with RSD of 8.8-13.1%. And the quantification ranges of PFOA and PFOS were 0.01-25ng/mL. This method has been applied to the analysis of PFOA and PFOS in real samples collected from local markets in Guangzhou, China. PMID:24679825

  19. Enhanced elimination of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid by menstruating women: evidence from population-based pharmacokinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Wong, Fiona; MacLeod, Matthew; Mueller, Jochen F; Cousins, Ian T

    2014-01-01

    Human biomonitoring studies have shown that concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in men are higher than in women. We investigate sex differences in elimination of PFOS by fitting a population-based pharmacokinetic model to six cross-sectional data sets from 1999 to 2012 from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and derive human first-order elimination rate constants (kE) and corresponding elimination half-lives (t1/2) for PFOS, where t1/2 = ln 2/kE. We use a modified version of the Ritter population-based pharmacokinetic model and derive elimination rate constants separately for men and women. The model accounts for population-average lifetime changes in PFOS intake, body weight, and menstruation rate. We compare the model-derived elimination rate constant for hypothetical nonmenstruating women to the elimination rate constant for men and women when menstruation is included as a loss process to evaluate the hypothesis that loss of PFOS by menstruation is an important process for women. The modeled elimination half-life for men is 4.7 years, and the modeled elimination half-life for women when excluding losses from menstruation is 3.7 years. The elimination half-life for women when menstruation is included in the model is 4.0 years. Thus, menstruation accounts for 30% of the discrepancy in elimination of PFOS between men and women. The remaining discrepancy is likely due to other sex-specific elimination routes that are not considered in our modeling. PMID:24943117

  20. Perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate in liver and muscle tissue from wild boar in Hesse, Germany.

    PubMed

    Stahl, T; Falk, S; Failing, K; Berger, J; Georgii, S; Brunn, H

    2012-05-01

    Approximately 15,000 tons of wild boar meats (Sus scrofa) are consumed per year in Germany. Boar meat therefore plays a definite role in regard to human diet. Because they are omnivores and because of their high body fat quotient, wild boar may accumulate large concentrations of persistent organic compounds, such as halogenated hydrocarbons, and could thus possibly serve as bioindicators for persistent xenobiotics. In addition, consumption of wild boar meat and liver could lead to increased contaminant levels in humans. Between 2007 and 2009, we tested a total of 529 livers and 506 muscle tissue samples from wild boar for the presence of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). PFOA concentrations ?45?g/kg and PFOS concentrations ?1,780?g/kg were detected in the liver samples. PFOA concentrations ?7.4?g/kg and PFOS concentrations ?28.6?g/kg were detected in muscle tissue. Our results show that PFOS may be detected in considerably greater concentrations than PFOA in organs and tissues, which is in agreement with results from other published studies. The comparisons between both organs for the same substance, as well as the comparisons between the substances within an organ, showed clear and statistically significant differences at P<0.0001. Assuming a tolerable daily intake value of PFOA (1.5?g/kgbw/d) and PFOS (0.15?g/kgbw/d) as recommended by the European Food Safety Authority, the results of model calculations based on the maximum concentrations of PFOA and PFOS found in wild boar indicate that there should be no PFC-related health danger resulting from moderate consumption of wild boar meat or liver. PMID:22108952

  1. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids and perfluorooctanesulfonate in bivalve shells: extraction method optimization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Sun, Hongwen; Yang, Lurong; He, Chuan; Wu, Wenling; Sun, Shujuan

    2010-01-22

    Different extraction methods, including extraction by organic solvents with and without acetic acid digestion, and mixed inorganic acid digestion coupled with solid phase extraction (SPE), were developed for the analysis of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in bivalve shells. The extracts were separated, identified and quantified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The method utilizing mixed acid digestion coupled with SPE performed more efficiently than other extraction methods. Matrix recoveries of the optimized methods ranged from 92% to 104%, with limits of detection of 0.05-0.43ng/g. The optimized method was successfully applied to the analysis of PFCAs and PFOS in shell samples of two bivalves from Bohai Bay, China. PFCAs and PFOS concentrations in the shells ranged from 0.3 ng/g to 4.1 ng/g, 1-50 times lower than those in the soft tissues of bivalves for most target analytes. No relationship between PFCAs and PFOS in shells and in soft tissues was found; this is explained by the different contaminant uptake mechanism of shells and soft tissues. PMID:20015508

  2. Associations of in Utero Exposure to Perfluorinated Alkyl Acids with Human Semen Quality and Reproductive Hormones in Adult Men

    PubMed Central

    Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Hst; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Bonde, Jens Peter; Kristensen, Susanne Lund; Halldorsson, Thorhallur Ingi; Becher, Georg; Haug, Line Smstuen; Ernst, Emil Hagen; Toft, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs), persistent chemicals with unique water-, dirt-, and oil-repellent properties, are suspected of having endocrine-disrupting activity. The PFAA compounds perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) are found globally in humans; because they readily cross the placental barrier, in utero exposure may be a cause for concern. Objectives: We investigated whether in utero exposure to PFOA and PFOS affects semen quality, testicular volume, and reproductive hormone levels. Methods: We recruited 169 male offspring (1921 years of age) from a pregnancy cohort established in Aarhus, Denmark, in 19881989, corresponding to 37.6% of the eligible sons. Each man provided a semen sample and a blood sample. Semen samples were analyzed for sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility, and morphology, and blood samples were used to measure reproductive hormones. As a proxy for in utero exposure, PFOA and PFOS were measured in maternal blood samples from pregnancy week 30. Results: Multivariable linear regression analysis suggested that in utero exposure to PFOA was associated with lower adjusted sperm concentration (ptrend = 0.01) and total sperm count (ptrend = 0.001) and with higher adjusted levels of luteinizing hormone (ptrend = 0.03) and follicle-stimulating hormone (ptrend = 0.01). PFOS did not appear to be associated with any of the outcomes assessed, before or after adjustment. Conclusions: The results suggest that in utero exposure to PFOA may affect adult human male semen quality and reproductive hormone levels. PMID:23360585

  3. High levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in sport fish species downstream of a firefighting training facility at Hamilton International Airport, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gewurtz, Sarah B; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Petro, Steve; Mahon, Chris G; Zhao, Xiaoming; Morse, Dave; Reiner, Eric J; Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Braekevelt, Eric; Drouillard, Ken

    2014-06-01

    A recent study reported elevated concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in surface water, snapping turtles, and amphipods in Lake Niapenco, downstream of Hamilton International Airport, Ontario, Canada. Here, our goals were to 1) determine the extent of PFAA contamination in sport fish species collected downstream of the airport, 2) explore if the airport could be a potential source, and 3) compare fish PFOS concentrations to consumption advisory benchmarks. The PFOS levels in several sport fish collected from the three locations closest to the airport (<40km) were among the highest previously published in the peer-reviewed literature and also tended to exceed consumption benchmarks. The only other fish that had comparable concentrations were collected in a region affected by inputs from a major fluorinated chemical production facility. In contrast, PFOS concentrations in the two most downstream locations (>70km) were comparable to or below the average concentrations in fish as observed in the literature and were generally below the benchmarks. With regards to perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs), there was no significant decrease in concentrations in fish with distance from the airport and levels were comparable to or below the average concentrations observed in the literature, suggesting that the airport is not a significant source of PFCAs in these fish species. PFOS-based aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) was used at a firefighting training facility at the airport in the 1980s to mid-1990s. Taken together, our results provide evidence that the historical use of AFFF at the airport has resulted in fish PFOS concentrations that exceed the 95th percentile concentration of values reported in the literature to date. PMID:24632327

  4. Efficient Sorption and Removal of Perfluoroalkyl Acids (PFAAs) from Aqueous Solution by Metal Hydroxides Generated in Situ by Electrocoagulation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Yujuan; Niu, Junfeng; Yue, Zhihan; Huang, Qingguo

    2015-09-01

    Removal of environmentally persistent perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), that is, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs, C4 ∼ C10) were investigated through sorption on four metal hydroxide flocs generated in situ by electrocoagulation in deionized water with 10 mM NaCl as supporting electrolyte. The results indicated that the zinc hydroxide flocs yielded the highest removal efficiency with a wide range concentration of PFOA/PFOS (1.5 μM ∼ 0.5 mM) at the zinc dosage <150 mg L(-1) with the energy consumption <0.18 Wh L(-1). The sorption kinetics indicated that the zinc hydroxide flocs had an equilibrium adsorbed amount (qe) up to 5.74/7.69 mmol g(-1) (Zn) for PFOA/PFOS at the initial concentration of 0.5 mM with an initial sorption rate (v0) of 1.01 × 10(3)/1.81 × 10(3) mmol g(-1) h(-1). The sorption of PFOA/PFOS reached equilibrium within <10 min. The sorption mechanisms of PFAAs on the zinc hydroxide flocs were proposed based on the investigation of various driving forces. The results indicated that the hydrophobic interaction was primarily responsible for the PFAAs sorption. The electrocoagulation process with zinc anode may have a great potential for removing PFAAs from industrial wastewater as well as contaminated environmental waterbody. PMID:26244813

  5. Foodstuff analyses show that seafood and water are major perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) sources to humans in Korea.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jin-Ju; Lee, Ji-Woo; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2014-08-30

    We measured concentrations of PFAAs in 397 foods, of 66 types, in Korea, and determined the daily human dietary PFAAs intake and the contribution of each foodstuff to that intake. The PFAAs concentration in the 66 different food types ranged from below the detection limit to 48.3ng/g. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) were the dominant PFAAs in fish, shellfish, and processed foods, while perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and short-chain PFCAs dominated dairy foodstuffs and beverages. The Korean adult dietary intake ranges, estimated for a range of scenarios, were 0.60-3.03 and 0.17-1.68ngkg(-1)bwd(-1) for PFOS and PFOA, respectively, which were lower than the total daily intake limits suggested by European Food Safety Authority (PFOS: 150ngkg(-1)bwd(-1); PFOA: 1500ngkg(-1)bwd(-1)). The major contributors to PFAAs dietary exposure varied with subject age and PFAAs. For example, fish was a major contributor of PFOS but dairy foods were major contributors of PFOA. However, tap water was a major contributor to PFOA intake when it was the main source of drinking water (rather than bottled water). PMID:25093550

  6. An energy-efficient process for decomposing perfluorooctanoic and perfluorooctane sulfonic acids using dc plasmas generated within gas bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuoka, K.; Sasaki, K.; Hayashi, R.

    2011-06-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) are environmentally harmful and persistent substances. Their decomposition was investigated using dc plasmas generated within small gas bubbles in a solution. The plasma characteristics including discharge voltage, voltage drop in the liquid, plasma shape and the emission spectrum were examined with different gases. The decomposition rate and energy efficiency were evaluated by measuring the concentration of fluoride and sulfate ions released from PFOA/PFOS molecules. The concentration of fluoride ions and energy efficiency in the treatment of a PFOS solution were 17.7 mg l-1 (54.8% of the initial amount of fluorine atoms) and 26 mg kWh-1, respectively, after 240 min of operation. The addition of scavengers of hydroxyl radicals and hydrated electrons showed little effect on the decomposition. The decomposition processes were analyzed with an assumption that positive species reacted with PFOA/PFOS molecules at the boundary of the plasma-solution surface. This type of plasma showed a much higher decomposition energy efficiency compared with energy efficiencies reported in other studies.

  7. Use of simple pharmacokinetic modeling to characterize exposure of Australians to perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jack; Lorber, Matthew; Toms, Leisa-Maree L; Kato, Kayoko; Calafat, Antonia M; Mueller, Jochen F

    2010-05-01

    Perflurooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) have been used for a variety of applications including fluoropolymer processing, fire-fighting foams and surface treatments since the 1950s. Both PFOS and PFOA are polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs), man-made compounds that are persistent in the environment and humans; some PFCs have shown adverse effects in laboratory animals. Here we describe the application of a simple one compartment pharmacokinetic model to estimate total intakes of PFOA and PFOS for the general population of urban areas on the east coast of Australia. Key parameters for this model include the elimination rate constants and the volume of distribution within the body. A volume of distribution was calibrated for PFOA to a value of 170ml/kgbw using data from two communities in the United States where the residents' serum concentrations could be assumed to result primarily from a known and characterized source, drinking water contaminated with PFOA by a single fluoropolymer manufacturing facility. For PFOS, a value of 230ml/kgbw was used, based on adjustment of the PFOA value. Applying measured Australian serum data to the model gave mean+/-standard deviation intake estimates of PFOA of 1.6+/-0.3ng/kgbw/day for males and females >12years of age combined based on samples collected in 2002-2003 and 1.3+/-0.2ng/kg bw/day based on samples collected in 2006-2007. Mean intakes of PFOS were 2.7+/-0.5ng/kgbw/day for males and females >12years of age combined based on samples collected in 2002-2003, and 2.4+/-0.5ng/kgbw/day for the 2006-2007 samples. ANOVA analysis was run for PFOA intake and demonstrated significant differences by age group (p=0.03), sex (p=0.001) and date of collection (p<0.001). Estimated intake rates were highest in those aged >60years, higher in males compared to females, and higher in 2002-2003 compared to 2006-2007. The same results were seen for PFOS intake with significant differences by age group (p<0.001), sex (p=0.001) and date of collection (p=0.016). PMID:20236705

  8. Associations between Serum Perfluoroalkyl Acids and LINE-1 DNA Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Deborah J.; Wellenius, Gregory A.; Butler, Rondi A.; Bartell, Scott M.; Fletcher, Tony; Kelsey, Karl T.

    2014-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are persistent, synthetic compounds that are used in a number of consumer products. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been associated with cardiovascular risk factors, and changes in gene expression and DNA methylation in animals and cellular systems. However, whether PFAA exposure is associated with LINE-1 DNA methylation, a potential marker of cardiovascular risk, in humans remains unknown. We sought to evaluate the cross-sectional associations between serum PFAAs and LINE-1 DNA methylation in a population highly exposed to PFOA. We measured serum PFAAs twice four to five years apart in 685 adult participants (47% male, mean age ± SD=42 ± 11 years). We measured percent LINE-1 DNA methylation in peripheral blood leukocytes at the second time point (follow-up), and estimated absolute differences in LINE-1 methylation associated with an interquartile (IQR) shift in mean PFAA serum levels. IQR increases in mean serum PFOA, PFOS, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) were associated with differences of −0.04 (p=0.16), 0.20 (p=0.001), 0.06 (p=0.19), and 0.02 (p=0.57), respectively, in % LINE-1 methylation at follow-up after adjustment for potential confounders. We observed a monotonic increase in LINE-1 DNA methylation across tertiles of PFOS and PFNA (ptrend=0.02 for both associations), but not across tertiles of PFOA or PFHxS (ptrend=0.71 and 0.44, respectively). In summary, serum PFOS was associated with LINE-1 methylation, while serum PFOA, PFHxS, and PFNA were not. Additional research is needed to more precisely determine whether these compounds are epigenetically active. PMID:24263140

  9. Serum Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Concentrations in Relation to Birth Outcomes in the Mid-Ohio Valley, 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Cheryl R.; Steenland, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous research suggests perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Objective: We conducted a population-based study of PFOA and PFOS and birth outcomes from 2005 through 2010 in a Mid-Ohio Valley community exposed to high levels of PFOA through drinking-water contamination. Methods: Women provided serum for PFOA and PFOS measurement in 2005–2006 and reported reproductive histories in subsequent follow-up interviews. Reported singleton live births among 1,330 women after 1 January 2005 were linked to birth records (n = 1,630) to identify the outcomes of preterm birth (< 37 weeks gestation), pregnancy-induced hypertension, low birth weight (< 2,500 g), and birth weight (grams) among full-term infants. Results: We observed little or no evidence of association between maternal serum PFOA or PFOS and preterm birth (n = 158) or low birth weight (n = 88). Serum PFOA and PFOS were both positively associated with pregnancy-induced hypertension (n = 106), with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) per log unit increase in PFOA and PFOS of 1.27 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.55) and 1.47 (95% CI: 1.06, 2.04), respectively, but associations did not increase monotonically when categorized by quintiles. Results of subanalyses restricted to pregnancies conceived after blood collection were consistent with the main analyses. There was suggestion of a modest negative association between PFOS and birth weight in full-term infants (–29 g per log unit increase; 95% CI: –66, 7), which became stronger when restricted to births conceived after the blood sample collection (–49 g per log unit increase; 95% CI: –90, –8). Conclusion: Results provide some evidence of positive associations between measured serum perfluorinated compounds and pregnancy-induced hypertension and a negative association between PFOS and birth weight among full-term infants. Citation: Darrow LA, Stein CR, Steenland K. 2013. Serum perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate concentrations in relation to birth outcomes in the Mid-Ohio Valley, 2005–2010. Environ Health Perspect 121:1207–1213; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206372 PMID:23838280

  10. Occurrence of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in N.E. Spanish surface waters and their removal in a drinking water treatment plant that combines conventional and advanced treatments in parallel lines.

    PubMed

    Flores, Cintia; Ventura, Francesc; Martin-Alonso, Jordi; Caixach, Josep

    2013-09-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are two emerging contaminants that have been detected in all environmental compartments. However, while most of the studies in the literature deal with their presence or removal in wastewater treatment, few of them are devoted to their detection in treated drinking water and fate during drinking water treatment. In this study, analyses of PFOS and PFOA have been carried out in river water samples and in the different stages of a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) which has recently improved its conventional treatment process by adding ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis in a parallel treatment line. Conventional and advanced treatments have been studied in several pilot plants and in the DWTP, which offers the opportunity to compare both treatments operating simultaneously. From the results obtained, neither preoxidation, sand filtration, nor ozonation, removed both perfluorinated compounds. As advanced treatments, reverse osmosis has proved more effective than reverse electrodialysis to remove PFOA and PFOS in the different configurations of pilot plants assayed. Granular activated carbon with an average elimination efficiency of 6411% and 4519% for PFOS and PFOA, respectively and especially reverse osmosis, which was able to remove ?99% of both compounds, were the sole effective treatment steps. Trace levels of PFOS (3.0-21 ng/L) and PFOA (<4.2-5.5 ng/L) detected in treated drinking water were significantly lowered in comparison to those measured in precedent years. These concentrations represent overall removal efficiencies of 8922% for PFOA and 867% for PFOS. PMID:23764674

  11. The Association of Prenatal Exposure to Perfluorinated Chemicals with Maternal Essential and Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids during Pregnancy and the Birth Weight of Their Offspring: The Hokkaido Study

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Tamie; Goudarzi, Houman; Kobayashi, Sachiko; Sasaki, Seiko; Okada, Emiko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Itoh, Sachiko; Araki, Atsuko; Ikeno, Tamiko; Iwasaki, Yusuke; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background Fatty acids (FAs) are essential for fetal growth. Exposure to perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) may disrupt FA homeostasis, but there are no epidemiological data regarding associations of PFCs and FA concentrations. Objectives We estimated associations between perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)/perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) concentrations and maternal levels of FAs and triglyceride (TG) and birth size of the offspring. Methods We analyzed 306 mother–child pairs in this birth cohort between 2002 and 2005 in Japan. The prenatal PFOS and PFOA levels were measured in maternal serum samples by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Maternal blood levels of nine FAs and TG were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and TG E-Test Wako kits, respectively. Information on infants’ birth size was obtained from participant medical records. Results The median PFOS and PFOA levels were 5.6 and 1.4 ng/mL, respectively. In the fully adjusted model, including maternal age, parity, annual household income, blood sampling period, alcohol consumption, and smoking during pregnancy, PFOS but not PFOA had a negative association with the levels of palmitic, palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic, and arachidonic acids (p < 0.005) and TG (p-value = 0.016). Female infants weighed 186.6 g less with mothers whose PFOS levels were in the fourth quartile compared with the first quartile (95% CI: –363.4, –9.8). We observed no significant association between maternal levels of PFOS and birth weight of male infants. Conclusions Our data suggest an inverse association between PFOS exposure and polyunsaturated FA levels in pregnant women. We also found a negative association between maternal PFOS levels and female birth weight. Citation Kishi R, Nakajima T, Goudarzi H, Kobayashi S, Sasaki S, Okada E, Miyashita C, Itoh S, Araki A, Ikeno T, Iwasaki Y, Nakazawa H. 2015. The association of prenatal exposure to perfluorinated chemicals with maternal essential and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during pregnancy and the birth weight of their offspring: the Hokkaido Study. Environ Health Perspect 123:1038–1045; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408834 PMID:25840032

  12. Perfluoroalkyl acid contamination and polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of French freshwater and marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Ami; Bemrah, Nawel; Veyrand, Bruno; Pollono, Charles; Merlo, Mathilde; Desvignes, Virginie; Sirot, Véronique; Oseredczuk, Marine; Marchand, Philippe; Cariou, Ronan; Antignac, Jean-Phillippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2014-07-30

    In this study, French marine and freshwater fish perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) contamination are presented along with their fatty acid (FA) composition to provide further elements for a risk/benefit balance of fish consumption to be assessed. The 29 most consumed marine fish species were collected in four metropolitan French coastal areas in 2004 to constitute composite samples. Geographical differences in terms of consumed species and contamination level were taken into account. Three hundred and eighty-seven composite samples corresponding to 16 freshwater fish species collected between 2008 and 2010 in the six major French rivers or their tributaries were selected among the French national agency for water and aquatic environments freshwater fish sample library. The raw edible parts were analyzed for FA composition and PFAA contamination. Results show that freshwater fishes are more contaminated by PFAAs than marine fishes and do not share the same contamination profile. Freshwater fish contamination is mostly driven by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (75%), whereas marine fish contamination is split between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (24%), PFOS (20%), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) (15%), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFHpA) (11%), and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) (11%). Common carp, pike-perch, European perch, thicklip grey mullet, and common roach presented the most unfavorable balance profile due to their high level of PFAAs and low level of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). These data could be used, if needed, in an updated opinion on fish consumption that takes into account PFAA contamination. PMID:25004121

  13. Quantitative characterization of short- and long-chain perfluorinated acids in solid matrices in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Zhang, Chaojie; Qu, Yan; Chen, Jing; Chen, Ling; Liu, Ying; Zhou, Qi

    2010-01-01

    Perfluorinated acids (PFAs) have been recognized as emerging environmental pollutants because of their widespread occurrences, persistence, and bioaccumulative and toxicological effects. PFAs have been detected in aquatic environment and biota in China, but the occurrences of these chemicals have not been reported in solid matrices in China. In the present study, short- and long-chain PFAs (C2-C14) have been quantitatively determined in solid matrices including sediments, soils and sludge collected in Shanghai, China. The results indicate that sludge contains more PFAs than sediments and soils, and the total PFAs concentrations in sediments, soil and sludge are 62.5-276 ng g(-1), 141-237 ng g(-1) and 413-755 ng g(-1), respectively. In most cases, trifluoroacetic acid was the major PFA and accounted for 22-90% of the total PFAs. Although the levels of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were not only lower than trifluoroacetic acid, but also lower than some short-chain PFCAs (PFOS were still the major pollution compounds in most cases and they constituted 2-34% and 1-9% of the total PFAs, respectively. Meanwhile, unlike previous studies, PFOS levels were not always higher than PFOA in solids collected in Shanghai, China. Given that some short-chain PFAs such as trifluoroacetic acid are mildly phytotoxic and their higher levels in solid matrices were collected in Shanghai, China, these chemicals should be included in future environmental monitoring efforts. PMID:19896166

  14. Perfluoroalkyl acids in urban stormwater runoff: influence of land use.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Feng; Simcik, Matt F; Gulliver, John S

    2012-12-15

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are persistent organic pollutants in the environment and have been reported to have nonpoint sources. In this study, six PFAAs with different chain lengths were monitored in stormwater runoff from seven storm events (2009-2011) at various outfall locations corresponding to different watershed land uses. We found PFAA(s) in 100% of stormwater runoff samples. Monitoring results and statistical analysis show that PFAAs in stormwater runoff from residential areas mainly came from rainfall. On the other hand, non-atmospheric sources at both industrial and commercial areas contributed PFAAs in stormwater runoff. The mass flux of PFAAs from stormwater runoff in the Twin Cities (Minneapolis and St. Paul, MN) metropolitan area is estimated to be about 7.86 kg/year. In addition, for the first time, we monitored PFAAs on the particles/debris in stormwater runoff and found high-level PFOS on the particulate matter in runoff collected from both industrial and commercial areas; the levels were so high that the finding could not be explained by the solid-water partitioning or adsorption. PFOS on the particulate matter is suspected to have originated from industrial/commercial products, entering the waste stream as PFOS containing particles. PMID:22154107

  15. Perfluoroalkyl acids in the Atlantic and Canadian Arctic Oceans.

    PubMed

    Benskin, Jonathan P; Muir, Derek C G; Scott, Brian F; Spencer, Christine; De Silva, Amila O; Kylin, Henrik; Martin, Jonathan W; Morris, Adam; Lohmann, Rainer; Tomy, Gregg; Rosenberg, Bruno; Taniyasu, Sachi; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi

    2012-06-01

    We report here on the spatial distribution of C(4), C(6), and C(8) perfluoroalkyl sulfonates, C(6)-C(14) perfluoroalkyl carboxylates, and perfluorooctanesulfonamide in the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans, including previously unstudied coastal waters of North and South America, and the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were typically the dominant perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in Atlantic water. In the midnorthwest Atlantic/Gulf Stream, sum PFAA concentrations (?PFAAs) were low (77-190 pg/L) but increased rapidly upon crossing into U.S. coastal water (up to 5800 pg/L near Rhode Island). ?PFAAs in the northeast Atlantic were highest north of the Canary Islands (280-980 pg/L) and decreased with latitude. In the South Atlantic, concentrations increased near Rio de la Plata (Argentina/Uruguay; 350-540 pg/L ?PFAAs), possibly attributable to insecticides containing N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamide, or proximity to Montevideo and Buenos Aires. In all other southern hemisphere locations, ?PFAAs were <210 pg/L. PFOA/PFOS ratios were typically ?1 in the northern hemisphere, ?1 near the equator, and ?1 in the southern hemisphere. In the Canadian Arctic, ?PFAAs ranged from 40 to 250 pg/L, with perfluoroheptanoate, PFOA, and PFOS among the PFAAs detected at the highest concentrations. PFOA/PFOS ratios (typically ?1) decreased from Baffin Bay to the Amundsen Gulf, possibly attributable to increased atmospheric inputs. These data help validate global emissions models and contribute to understanding of long-range transport pathways and sources of PFAAs to remote regions. PMID:22548373

  16. Perfluorinated acids in Arctic snow: new evidence for atmospheric formation.

    PubMed

    Young, Cora J; Furdui, Vasile I; Franklin, James; Koerner, Roy M; Muir, Derek C G; Mabury, Scott A

    2007-05-15

    Perfluorinated acids (PFAs) are ubiquitously found in water and biota, including remote regions such as the High Arctic. Under environmental conditions, PFAs exist mainly as anions and are not expected to be subject to long-range atmospheric transport in the gas phase. Fluorinated telomer alcohols (FTOHs) are volatile and can be atmospherically oxidized to form perfluorocarboxylic acids. Analogously, fluorosulfamido alcohols can be oxidized to form perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). High Arctic ice caps experience contamination solely from atmospheric sources. By examining concentrations of PFAs in ice cap samples, it is possible to determine atmospheric fluxes to the Arctic. Ice samples were collected from high Arctic ice caps in the spring of 2005 and 2006. Samples were concentrated using solid-phase extraction and analyzed by LC-MS-MS. PFAs were observed in all samples, dating from 1996 to 2005. Concentrations were in the low-mid pg L(-1) range and exhibited seasonality, with maximum concentrations in the spring-summer. The presence of perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA) on the ice cap was indicative of atmospheric oxidation as a source. Ratios of PFAs to sodium concentrations were highly variable, signifying PFA concentrations on the ice cap were unrelated to marine chemistry. Fluxes of the PFAs were estimated to the area north of 65 degrees N for the 2005 season, which ranged from 114 to 587 kg year(-1) for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), 73 to 860 kg year(-1) for perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), 16 to 84 kg year(-1) for PFDA, 26 to 62 kg year(-1) for PFUnA, and 18 to 48 kg year(-1) for PFOS. The PFOA and PFNA fluxes agreed with FTOH modeling estimations. A decrease in PFOS concentrations through time was observed, suggesting a fast response to changes in production. These data suggest that atmospheric oxidation of volatile precursors is a primary source of PFAs to the Arctic. PMID:17547163

  17. Simple, high throughput ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry trace analysis of perfluorinated alkylated substances in food of animal origin: milk and fish.

    PubMed

    Lacina, Ondrej; Hradkova, Petra; Pulkrabova, Jana; Hajslova, Jana

    2011-07-15

    The present study documents development and validation of a novel approach for determination of 23 perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) in food of animal origin represented by milk and fish. The list of target analytes comprises four classes of PFASs, both ionic and non-ionic: 11 perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs), 4 perfluorosulphonic acids (PFSAs), 5 perfluorosulphonamides (FOSAs) and 3 perfluorophosphonic acids (PFPAs). Fast sample preparation procedure is based on an extraction of target analytes with acetonitrile (MeCN) and their transfer (supported by inorganic salts and acidification) into the organic phase. Removing of matrix co-extracts by a simple dispersive solid phase extraction (SPE) employing ENVI-Carb and C18 sorbents is followed by an efficient sample pre-concentration performed by acetonitrile evaporation and subsequent dilution of residue in a small volume of methanol (matrix equivalent in the final extracts was 16 and 8 g mL(-1), for milk and fish respectively). Using modern instrumentation consisting of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) hyphenated with a tandem mass spectrometer (MS/MS), limits of quantification (LOQs) as low as 0.001-0.006 μg kg(-1) for milk and 0.002-0.013 μg kg(-1) for fish can be achieved. Under these conditions, a wide spectrum of PFASs, including minor representatives, can be determined which enables collecting data required for human exposure studies. The pilot study employing the new method for examination of milk and canned fish samples was realized. Whereas in majority of canned fish products a wide spectrum of PFCAs, perfluorooctanesulphonic acid (PFOS) and perfluoro-1-octanesulphonamide (PFOSA) was detected, only in a few milk samples very low concentrations (LOQ levels) of PFOS and perfluorooctansulphonic acid (PFDS) were found. PMID:21621213

  18. Perfluorinated acids as novel chemical tracers of global circulation of ocean waters.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Taniyasu, Sachi; Petrick, Gert; Wei, Si; Gamo, Toshitaka; Lam, Paul K S; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2008-01-01

    Perfluorinated acids (PFAs) such as perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are global environmental contaminants. The physicochemical properties of PFAs are unique in that they have high water solubilities despite the low reactivity of carbon-fluorine bond, which also imparts high stability in the environment. Because of the high water solubilities, the open-ocean water column is suggested to be the final sink for PFOS and PFOA. However, little is known on the distribution of PFAs in the oceans around the world. Here we describe the horizontal (spatial) and vertical distribution of PFAs in ocean waters worldwide. PFOS and PFOA concentrations in the North Atlantic Ocean ranged from 8.6 to 36pg l(-1) and from 52 to 338pg l(-1), respectively, whereas the corresponding concentrations in the Mid Atlantic Ocean were 13-73pg l(-1) and 67-439pg l(-1). These were completely different from the surface waters of the South Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean (overall range of <5-11pg l(-1) for PFOS and PFOA). Vertical profiles of PFAs in the marine water column were associated with the global ocean circulation theory. Vertical profiles of PFAs in water columns from the Labrador Sea reflected the influx of the North Atlantic Current in surface waters, the Labrador Current in subsurface waters, and the Denmark Strait Overflow Water in deep layers below 2000m. Striking differences in the vertical and spatial distribution of PFAs, depending on the oceans, suggest that these persistent acids can serve as useful chemical tracers to allow us to study oceanic transportation by major water currents. The results provide evidence that PFA concentrations and profiles in the oceans adhere to a pattern consistent with the global "Broecker's Conveyor Belt" theory of open ocean water circulation. PMID:17854858

  19. Sorption of perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluoroheptanoic acid on granular activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Di; Luo, Qi; Gao, Bin; Chiang, Sheau-Yun Dora; Woodward, David; Huang, Qingguo

    2016-02-01

    The sorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) on granular activated carbon (GAC) was characterized and compared to explore the underlying mechanisms. Sorption of the three perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) on GAC appeared to be a rapid intra-particle diffusion process, which were well represented by the pseudo-second-order rate model with the sorption rate following the order PFOS > PFOA > PFHpA. Sorption isotherm data were well fitted by the Freundlich model with the sorption capacity (Kf) of PFOS, PFOA and PFHpA being 4.45, 2.42 and 1.66 respectively. This suggests that the hydrophilic head group on PFAAs, i.e. sulfonate vs carboxylic, has a strong influence on their sorption. Comparison between PFOA and PFHpA revealed that hydrophobicity could also play a role in the sorption of PFAAs on GAC when the fluorocarbon chain length is different. Analyses using Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR)-Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy suggested possible formation of a negative charge-assisted H-bond between PFAAs and the functionalities on GAC surfaces, including non-aromatic ketones, sulfides, and halogenated hydrocarbons. PMID:26606188

  20. Polar herbicides, pharmaceutical products, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and nonylphenol and its carboxylates and ethoxylates in surface and tap waters around Lake Maggiore in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Loos, Robert; Wollgast, Jan; Huber, Tania; Hanke, Georg

    2007-02-01

    A survey of contamination of surface and drinking waters around Lake Maggiore in Northern Italy with polar anthropogenic environmental pollutants has been conducted. The target analytes were polar herbicides, pharmaceuticals (including antibiotics), steroid estrogens, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (including perfluorooctanoate PFOA), nonylphenol and its carboxylates and ethoxylates (NPEO surfactants), and triclosan, a bactericide used in personal-care products. Analysis of water samples was performed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) then liquid chromatography-triple-quadrupole (tandem) mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). By extraction of 1-L water samples and concentration of the extract to 100 microL, method detection limits (MDLs) as low as 0.05-0.1 ng L(-1) were achieved for most compounds. Lake-water samples from seven different locations in the Southern part of Lake Maggiore and eleven samples from different tributary rivers and creeks were investigated. Rain water was also analyzed to investigate atmospheric input of the contaminants. Compounds regularly detected at very low concentrations in the lake water included: caffeine (max. concentration 124 ng L(-1)), the herbicides terbutylazine (7 ng L(-1)), atrazine (5 ng L(-1)), simazine (16 ng L(-1)), diuron (11 ng L(-1)), and atrazine-desethyl (11 ng L(-1)), the pharmaceuticals carbamazepine (9 ng L(-1)), sulfamethoxazole (10 ng L(-1)), gemfibrozil (1.7 ng L(-1)), and benzafibrate (1.2 ng L(-1)), the surfactant metabolite nonylphenol (15 ng L(-1)), its carboxylates (NPE(1)C 120 ng L(-1), NPE(2)C 7 ng L(-1), NPE(3)C 15 ng L(-1)) and ethoxylates (NPE( n )Os, n = 3-17; 300 ng L(-1)), perfluorinated surfactants (PFOS 9 ng L(-1), PFOA 3 ng L(-1)), and estrone (0.4 ng L(-1)). Levels of these compounds in drinking water produced from Lake Maggiore were almost identical with those found in the lake itself, revealing the poor performance of sand filtration and chlorination applied by the local waterworks. PMID:17200857

  1. Occurrence of perfluorooctanesulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid and histopathology in eels from north Italian waters.

    PubMed

    Giari, Luisa; Guerranti, Cristiana; Perra, Guido; Lanzoni, Mattia; Fano, Elisa Anna; Castaldelli, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    A perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS) biomonitoring study was conducted in European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in Italy for the first time. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentrations were assessed in the organs of 35 wild eels from two locations, the highly impacted Po River and the Comacchio Lagoon along the north-western Adriatic coast. PFAS were extracted by ion-pairing liquid extraction procedure and measured using high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. There were no significant differences in mean PFAS concentrations (p>0.05) between samples from the two sites. PFOS and PFOA were detectable (>0.4ngg(-1) wet weight, w.w) in 73% and 31% of the total samples, respectively. PFOS concentrations ranged from <0.4 to 6.28ngg(-1)w.w and PFOA from <0.4 to 92.77ngg(-1)w.w. The highest PFAS levels were observed in blood and the lowest in muscle. Histology showed macrophage aggregates and hepatocytic vacuolation in some liver samples. No tissue anomalies were seen in the gonads, suggesting no reproductive impairment. The PFAS contamination levels observed were comparable to, or lower than, those reported in fish in other European countries, seeming to indicate that PFAS pollution of the study area is not remarkable. PMID:25083944

  2. Detection of a cyclic perfluorinated acid, perfluoroethylcyclohexane sulfonate, in the Great Lakes of North America.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Amila O; Spencer, Christine; Scott, Brian F; Backus, Sean; Muir, Derek C G

    2011-10-01

    Perfluoroethylcyclohexanesulfonate (PFECHS) is a cyclic perfluorinated acid (PFA) mainly used as an erosion inhibitor in aircraft hydraulic fluids. It is expected to be as recalcitrant to environmental degradation as aliphatic PFAs including perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). For the first time, PFECHS is reported in top predator fish (PFOS was the major aliphatic PFA in fish from the Great Lakes. Concentrations of most of the PFAs were not statistically different from previously reported 2004 trout data in Lake Ontario. Shorter chain perfluorocarboxylates were prevalent in surface waters of the Great Lakes, dominated by PFOA (0.65-5.5 ng/L). An impurity in the commercial PFECHS formulation, perfluoromethylcyclohexane sulfonate (PFMeCHS), was also detected in the dissolved phase but not above detection limits in fish tissue. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were estimated by taking the ratio of fish to water concentrations. The mean log BAF values corresponded to 2.8 for PFECHS, 2.1 for PFOA, and 4.5 for PFOS. It is not certain whether the fish-water BAF for PFECHS is an overestimate due to the influence of precursor biotransformation. Further studies are recommended to understand the extent of PFECHS contamination. PMID:21528907

  3. Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate and Perfluorooctanoic Acid in Fish Fillet Samples

    PubMed Central

    Paiano, Viviana; Fattore, Elena; Carr, Andrea; Generoso, Caterina; Fanelli, Roberto; Bagnati, Renzo

    2012-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic (PFOA) acid are persistent contaminants which can be found in environmental and biological samples. A new and fast analytical method is described here for the analysis of these compounds in the edible part of fish samples. The method uses a simple liquid extraction by sonication, followed by a direct determination using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The linearity of the instrumental response was good, with average regression coefficients of 0.9971 and 0.9979 for PFOS and PFOA, respectively, and the coefficients of variation (CV) of the method ranged from 8% to 20%. Limits of detection (LOD) were 0.04?ng/g for both the analytes and recoveries were 90% for PFOS and 76% for PFOA. The method was applied to samples of homogenized fillets of wild and farmed fish from the Mediterranean Sea. Most of the samples showed little or no contamination by perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid, and the highest concentrations detected among the fish species analyzed were, respectively, 5.96?ng/g and 1.89?ng/g. The developed analytical methodology can be used as a tool to monitor and to assess human exposure to perfluorinated compounds through sea food consumption. PMID:22567564

  4. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic Acid in fish fillet samples.

    PubMed

    Paiano, Viviana; Fattore, Elena; Carr, Andrea; Generoso, Caterina; Fanelli, Roberto; Bagnati, Renzo

    2012-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic (PFOA) acid are persistent contaminants which can be found in environmental and biological samples. A new and fast analytical method is described here for the analysis of these compounds in the edible part of fish samples. The method uses a simple liquid extraction by sonication, followed by a direct determination using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The linearity of the instrumental response was good, with average regression coefficients of 0.9971 and 0.9979 for PFOS and PFOA, respectively, and the coefficients of variation (CV) of the method ranged from 8% to 20%. Limits of detection (LOD) were 0.04?ng/g for both the analytes and recoveries were 90% for PFOS and 76% for PFOA. The method was applied to samples of homogenized fillets of wild and farmed fish from the Mediterranean Sea. Most of the samples showed little or no contamination by perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid, and the highest concentrations detected among the fish species analyzed were, respectively, 5.96?ng/g and 1.89?ng/g. The developed analytical methodology can be used as a tool to monitor and to assess human exposure to perfluorinated compounds through sea food consumption. PMID:22567564

  5. In vivo DNA mismatch repair measurement in zebrafish embryos and its use in screening of environmental carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuanhong; Huang, Changjiang; Bai, Chenglian; Du, Changchun; Liao, Junhua; Dong, Qiaoxiang

    2016-01-25

    Impairment of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) function leads to the development and progression of certain cancers. Many environmental contaminants can target DNA MMR system. Currently, measurement of MMR activity is limited to in vitro or in vivo methods at the cell line level, and reports on measurement of MMR activity at the live organism level are lacking. Here, we report an efficient method to measure DNA MMR activity in zebrafish embryos. A G-T mismatch was introduced into enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. Repair of the G-T mismatch to G-C in the heteroduplex plasmid generates a functional EGFP expression. The heteroduplex plasmid and a similarly constructed homoduplex plasmid were injected in parallel into the same batch of embryos at 1-cell stage and EGFP expression in EGFP positive embryos was quantified at 24 h after injection. MMR efficiency was calculated as the total fluorescence intensity of embryos injected with the heteroduplex construct divided by that of embryos injected with the homoduplex construct. Our results showed 73% reduction of MMR activity in embryos derived from MMR-deficient mlh1 mutant fish (positive control) when compared with embryos from MMR-competent wild type AB line fish, indicating feasibility of in vivo MMR activity measurement in zebrafish embryos. We further applied this novel assay for measurement of MMR efficiency in embryos exposed to environmental chemicals such as cadmium chloride (CdCl2), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), and perfluorooctanesulphonic acid (PFOS) from 6 hpf to 24 hpf. We observed significant reductions of MMR efficiency in embryos exposed to 0.1 μM CdCl2 (52%) and 0.5 μM BaP (34%), but no effect in embryos exposed to PFOS. Our study for the first time provides a model system for in vivo measurement of DNA MMR activity at the organism level, which has important implications in risk assessment of various environmental carcinogens. PMID:26476317

  6. Occurrence and sources of perfluoroalkyl acids in Italian river basins.

    PubMed

    Valsecchi, Sara; Rusconi, Marianna; Mazzoni, Michela; Viviano, Gaetano; Pagnotta, Romano; Zaghi, Carlo; Serrini, Giuliana; Polesello, Stefano

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a survey on the occurrence and sources of 11 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) in the main river basins in Italy, covering about 40% of the Italian surface area and 45% of the Italian population. Total concentrations of PFAA ranged fromacids (PFCA), 6% PFOS and 1% long chain PFCA. PFOA and PFOS loads, evaluated in the present work, represent 10% and 2% of the estimated European loads, respectively. In Italy the most important sources of PFAA are two chemical plants which produce fluorinated polymers and intermediates, sited in the basin of rivers Po and Brenta, respectively, whose overall emission represents 57% of the total estimated PFAA load. Both rivers flow into the Adriatic Sea, raising concern for the marine ecosystem also because a significant PFOS load (0.3ty(-1)) is still present. Among the remaining activities, tanneries and textile industries are relevant sources of respectively PFBS and PFOA, together with short chain PFCA. As an example, the total PFAA load (0.12ty(-1)) from the textile district of Prato is equivalent to the estimated domestic emission of the whole population in all the studied basins. PMID:25108894

  7. Historical usage of aqueous film forming foam: a case study of the widespread distribution of perfluoroalkyl acids from a military airport to groundwater, lakes, soils and fish.

    PubMed

    Filipovic, Marko; Woldegiorgis, Andreas; Norstrm, Karin; Bibi, Momina; Lindberg, Maria; sters, Ann-Helen

    2015-06-01

    Historical usage of aqueous film forming foams (AFFFs) at military airports is a potential source of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) to the nearby environment. In this study, the distribution of perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in soil, groundwater, surface water, tap water well, and fish muscle was investigated at a closed down military airfield (F18) and its surroundings in Stockholm, Sweden. The presence of PFOS at AFFF training sites was inventoried. One major finding of the study is that a former airfield, abandoned since 1994, may still be a point source of PFAAs to nearby recipients. PFOS and PFOA were ubiquitous in the soil samples at former AFFF training sites with concentrations ranging from 2.18 to 8520ngg(-1) dry weight and <0.12-287ngg(-1) dry weight respectively. The sum of PFAAs in the groundwater and surface waters ranged from 738 to 51000ngL(-1) and PFOS in European perch ranged from 76.5 to 370ngg(-1)wet weight muscle tissue which is among the highest previously reported worldwide. Our results provide evidence that the historical use of AFFF at the site have contaminated an aquifer (7500 m(3)d(-1)), that will require constant PFAA purification before being used for drinking water production. Despite the fact that the water turnover time in the investigated recipients (of 4-6months) suggest a depletion of PFAA-contaminants over a quarter of a decade, abandoned airfields may still pose an environmental and human health concern. PMID:25262531

  8. Estimation of the total concentration of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) in human serum: Data from NHANES 2005-2012.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-09-01

    While selected perfluoroalkyl acids/substances (PFAAs) like perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been detected and measured in laboratory, a method to estimate the total concentration of PFAAs (?PFAA) in serum has not been developed. Because of the health concerns associated with PFAAs and because of the inability of every laboratory to measure every PFAA as well as because of the non-availability of sensitive enough equipment to be able to detect very small amounts of certain PFAAs, it is of interest to know ?PFAA. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2005-2012 to develop regression models to estimate ?PFAA by using the levels of PFOA and PFOS only. While data for 2005-2008 were used to develop regression models, data for 2009-2012 were used to evaluate the accuracy of the developed models. Over 63% of observed values for evaluation data were found to be within 10% of the predicted values. The model so developed can be used with just the knowledge of the age, gender, and concentrations of PFOA and PFOS. While the data used to develop the model were generated in U.S., the model can be used to estimate ?PFAA for data collected in North America and Europe and probably elsewhere in the world. PMID:25981317

  9. Association of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate with serum lipids among adults living near a chemical plant.

    PubMed

    Steenland, Kyle; Tinker, Sarah; Frisbee, Stephanie; Ducatman, Alan; Vaccarino, Viola

    2009-11-15

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are compounds that do not occur in nature but have been widely used since World War II and persist indefinitely in the environment. They are present in the serum of Americans with median levels of 4 ng/mL and 21 ng/mL, respectively. PFOA has been positively associated with cholesterol in several studies of workers. A cross-sectional study of lipids and PFOA and PFOS was conducted among 46,294 community residents aged 18 years or above, who drank water contaminated with PFOA from a chemical plant in West Virginia. The mean levels of serum PFOA and PFOS in 2005-2006 were 80 ng/mL (median, 27 ng/mL) and 22 ng/mL (median, 20 ng/mL), respectively. All lipid outcomes except high density lipoprotein cholesterol showed significant increasing trends by increasing decile of either compound; high density lipoprotein cholesterol showed no association. The predicted increase in cholesterol from lowest to highest decile for either compound was 11-12 mg/dL. The odds ratios for high cholesterol (>/=240 mg/dL), by increasing quartile of PFOA, were 1.00, 1.21 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12, 1.31), 1.33 (95% CI: 1.23, 1.43), and 1.40 (95% CI: 1.29, 1.51) and were similar for PFOS quartiles. Because these data are cross-sectional, causal inference is limited. Nonetheless, the associations between these compounds and lipids raise concerns, given their common presence in the general population. PMID:19846564

  10. Determination of perfluorinated sulfonate and perfluorinated acids in tissues of free-living European beaver (castor fiber L.) by d-SPE/ micro-UHPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Surma, Magdalena; Gi?ejewski, Zygmunt; Zieli?ski, Henryk

    2015-10-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are the main representatives of an rising class of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), perfluorochemicals (PFCs). In this study, determination of selected PFCs concentration in liver, brain, tail, adipose and peritoneum tissues of free-living European beaver (Castor fiber L.) was addressed. Tissue samples, collected from beavers living in Masurian Lakeland (NE Poland), were analyzed by dispersive Solid Phase Extraction (d-SPE) with micro-UHPLC-MS/MS system. In a group of ten selected pefrluorinated compounds only two perfluorinated acids (PFOA and PFNA) and one perfluorinated sulfonate (PFOS) were quantified. PFOA was detected in all analysed tissue samples in both female and male beavers in a range from 0.55 to 0.98ngg(-1) ww whereas PFOS was identified in all analyzed female beaver tissues and only in liver, subcutaneous adipose and peritoneum tissues of male beavers at the concentration level from 0.86 to 5.08ngg(-1) ww. PFNA was only identified in female beaver tissues (liver, subcutaneous adipose and peritoneum) in a range from 1.50 to 6.61ngg(-1) ww. This study demonstrated the bioaccumulation of PFCs in tissue samples collected from beavers living in area known as green lungs of Poland. The results provided in this study indicate for the increasing risk of PFCs occurrence in the environment and the level of PFCs in tissue of free-living European beavers may serve as bioindicator of environmental pollution by these compounds. PMID:26143169

  11. Perfluoroalkyl sulfonates and carboxylic acids in liver, muscle and adipose tissues of black-footed albatross (Phoebastria nigripes) from Midway Island, North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Chu, Shaogang; Wang, Jun; Leong, Gladys; Woodward, Lee Ann; Letcher, Robert J; Li, Qing X

    2015-11-01

    The Great Pacific Garbage Patch (GPGP) is a gyre of marine plastic debris in the North Pacific Ocean, and nearby is Midway Atoll which is a focal point for ecological damage. This study investigated 13 C4-C16 perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), four (C4, C6, C8 and C10) perfluorinated sulfonates and perfluoro-4-ethylcyclohexane sulfonate [collectively perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs)] in black-footed albatross tissues (collected in 2011) from Midway Atoll. Of the 18 PFCAs and PFSAs monitored, most were detectable in the liver, muscle and adipose tissues. The concentrations of PFCAs and PFSAs were higher than those in most seabirds from the arctic environment, but lower than those in most of fish-eating water birds collected in the U.S. mainland. The concentrations of the PFAAs in the albatross livers were 7-fold higher than those in Laysan albatross liver samples from the same location reported in 1994. The concentration ranges of PFOS were 22.91-70.48, 3.01-6.59 and 0.53-8.35 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww), respectively, in the liver, muscle and adipose. In the liver samples PFOS was dominant, followed by longer chain PFUdA (8.04-18.70 ng g(-1) ww), PFTrDA, and then PFNA, PFDA and PFDoA. Short chain PFBA, PFPeA, PFBS and PFODA were below limit of quantification. C8-C13 PFCAs showed much higher composition compared to those found in other wildlife where PFOS typically predominated. The concentrations of PFUdA in all 8 individual albatross muscle samples were even higher than those of PFOS. This phenomenon may be attributable to GPGP as a pollution source as well as PFAA physicochemical properties. PMID:26037817

  12. Temporal-spatial distributions and ecological risks of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the surface water from the fifth-largest freshwater lake in China (Lake Chaohu).

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Xiu; He, Wei; Qin, Ning; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; He, Qi-Shuang; Yang, Bin; Yang, Chen; Jorgensen, Sven Erik; Xu, Fu-Liu

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the residues, compositions, distributions and potential ecological risks of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), water samples were collected seasonally between August 2011 and November 2012 from 20 sites in Lake Chaohu and its tributary rivers. The mean concentration of total PFAAs (TPFAAs) was 14.46 6.84 ng/L. PFOA was the predominant contaminant (8.62 4.40 ng/L), followed by PFBA (2.04 1.16 ng/L) and PFHxA (1.23 1.50 ng/L). The TPFAAs concentrations peaked in August 2012 in each area, except for the western river. The opposite spatial trends were found for PFOA and PFOS in both the lake and river areas. Except for PFOS and PFUdA, the levels of TPFAAs and PFAAs were significantly related to the composition of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) but not related to total DOM expressed by dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The risk of PFOS determined by a species sensitivity distribution model was notably above that of PFOA. PMID:25686885

  13. Prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Acids and Serum Testosterone Concentrations at 15 Years of Age in Female ALSPAC Study Participants

    PubMed Central

    Calafat, Antonia M.; Marcus, Michele; Jaakkola, Jouni J.K.; Lashen, Hany

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) or to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) increases mouse and human peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor alpha (PPARα) subtype activity, which influences lipid metabolism. Because cholesterol is the substrate from which testosterone is synthesized, exposure to these substances has the potential to alter testosterone concentrations. Objectives We explored associations of total testosterone and sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations at age 15 years with prenatal exposures to PFOS, PFOA, perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluoronanoic acid (PFNA) in females. Methods Prenatal concentrations of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were measured in serum collected from pregnant mothers at enrollment (1991–1992) in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The median gestational age when the maternal blood sample was obtained was 16 weeks (interquartile range, 11–28 weeks). Total testosterone and SHBG concentrations were measured in serum obtained from their daughters at 15 years of age. Associations between prenatal PFAAs concentrations and reproductive outcomes were estimated using linear regression models (n = 72). Results Adjusted total testosterone concentrations were on average 0.18-nmol/L (95% CI: 0.01, 0.35) higher in daughters with prenatal PFOS in the upper concentration tertile compared with daughters with prenatal PFOS in the lower tertile. Adjusted total testosterone concentrations were also higher in daughters with prenatal concentrations of PFOA (β = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.43) and PFHxS (β = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.35) in the upper tertile compared with daughters with concentrations in the lower tertile. We did not find evidence of associations between PFNA and total testosterone or between any of the PFAAs and SHBG. Conclusions Our findings were based on a small study sample and should be interpreted with caution. However, they suggest that prenatal exposure to some PFAAs may alter testosterone concentrations in females. Citation Maisonet M, Calafat AM, Marcus M, Jaakkola JJ, Lashen H. 2015. Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids and serum testosterone concentrations at 15 years of age in female ALSPAC study participants. Environ Health Perspect 123:1325–1330; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408847 PMID:26034840

  14. Occurrence and point source characterization of perfluoroalkyl acids in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Alder, Alfredo C; van der Voet, Juergen

    2015-06-01

    The occurrence and levels of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) emitted from specific pollution sources into the aquatic environment in Switzerland were studied using digested sewage sludges from 45 wastewater treatment plants in catchments containing a wide range of potential industrial emitters. Concentrations of individual PFAAs show a high spatial and temporal variability, which infers different contributions from industrial technologies and activities. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was generally the predominant PFAA with concentrations varying between 4 and 2440μgkg(-1) (median 75μgkg(-1)). Elevated emissions were especially observed in catchments capturing discharges from metal plating industries (median 82μgkg(-1)), aqueous firefighting foams (median 215μgkg(-1)) and landfill leachates (median 107μgkg(-1)). Some elevated perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) levels could be attributed to emissions from textile finishing industries with concentrations up to 233μgkg(-1) in sewage sludge. Assuming sorption to sludge for PFOS and PFCAs of 15% and 2%, respectively, concentrations in wastewater effluents up to the low μgL(-1) level were estimated. Even if wastewater may be expected to be diluted between 10 and 100 times by the receiving waters, elevated concentrations may be reached at specific locations. Although sewage sludge is a minor compartment for PFAAs in WWTPs, these investigations are helpful for the identification of hot-spots from industrial emitters as well as to estimate monthly average concentrations in wastewater. PMID:25176581

  15. Human placental transfer of perfluoroalkyl acid precursors: Levels and profiles in paired maternal and cord serum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Wang, Zhen; Shi, Yu; Li, Jingguang; Wang, Yuxin; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning; Cai, Zongwei

    2016-02-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) precursors, the indirect source of PFAA exposure, have been observed in environmental and human samples. However, the maternal-fetal transfer of these chemicals has not been well examined. In this study, 50 paired maternal and cord serum samples collected in Jiangsu province of China were analyzed for fifteen PFAA precursors. Among the detected PFAAs, 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate (6:2 FTS), N-methyl- and N-ethyl-perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetates had comparable detection rate in both maternal and cord sera, while the mean concentrations and detection rates of 8:2 FTS and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) were higher in maternal sera compared to cord sera (Mann-Whitney U test, P<0.05). Analysis of variance and least significant difference tests showed that the youngest maternal age group (21-24 years old) had the highest concentration of 6:2 FTS in cord sera. Maternal serum PFOSA was found significantly correlated with the cord serum perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) (Spearman test, r=0.361, P=0.010), indicating that maternal serum PFOSA might be an indirect source of PFOS in fetuses. The obtained results suggested the potential prenatal exposure and human placental transfer of perfluoroalkyl acid precursors. PMID:26517392

  16. Footprints of Urban Micro-Pollution in Protected Areas: Investigating the Longitudinal Distribution of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Wildlife Preserves

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Jorquera, Ignacio A.; Silva-Sanchez, Cecilia; Strynar, Mark; Denslow, Nancy D.; Toor, Gurpal S.

    2016-01-01

    Current approaches to protect biodiversity by establishing protected areas usually gloss over water pollution as a threat. Our objective was to determine the longitudinal and seasonal distribution of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in water column and sediments from a wastewater dominated stream that enters preservation areas. Water samples were collected along the longitudinal section (six sites, 1000 m away from each other) of the stream during the dry and wet seasons. Sediments were collected from three sites along the stream from three depths. Water and sediments were analyzed for PFAAs using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Eleven PFAAs with 5 to 14 carbon atoms were detected in the water column at all sampling points, with a minor reduction at the last point suggesting a dilution effect. The most detected PFAAs was PFOS, followed by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA). Seasonal differences in PFAAs concentrations suggested contribution of stormwater runoff during the wet season. All analyzed PFAAs in sediments were under the limit of quantification, likely due to the high proportion of sand and low organic matter. However, high concentrations of PFAAs were detected in the water column inside the protected areas, which includes PFOS in concentrations considered not safe for avian wildlife. Water samples appear to be more relevant than sediments to determine PFAAs micro-pollution in water bodies with sandy sediments. Inclusion of a management plans on micro-pollution research, monitoring, and mitigation is recommended for protected areas. PMID:26909512

  17. Footprints of Urban Micro-Pollution in Protected Areas: Investigating the Longitudinal Distribution of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Wildlife Preserves.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Jorquera, Ignacio A; Silva-Sanchez, Cecilia; Strynar, Mark; Denslow, Nancy D; Toor, Gurpal S

    2016-01-01

    Current approaches to protect biodiversity by establishing protected areas usually gloss over water pollution as a threat. Our objective was to determine the longitudinal and seasonal distribution of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in water column and sediments from a wastewater dominated stream that enters preservation areas. Water samples were collected along the longitudinal section (six sites, 1000 m away from each other) of the stream during the dry and wet seasons. Sediments were collected from three sites along the stream from three depths. Water and sediments were analyzed for PFAAs using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Eleven PFAAs with 5 to 14 carbon atoms were detected in the water column at all sampling points, with a minor reduction at the last point suggesting a dilution effect. The most detected PFAAs was PFOS, followed by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA). Seasonal differences in PFAAs concentrations suggested contribution of stormwater runoff during the wet season. All analyzed PFAAs in sediments were under the limit of quantification, likely due to the high proportion of sand and low organic matter. However, high concentrations of PFAAs were detected in the water column inside the protected areas, which includes PFOS in concentrations considered not safe for avian wildlife. Water samples appear to be more relevant than sediments to determine PFAAs micro-pollution in water bodies with sandy sediments. Inclusion of a management plans on micro-pollution research, monitoring, and mitigation is recommended for protected areas. PMID:26909512

  18. Spatial distribution and partition of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in rivers of the Pearl River Delta, southern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baolin; Zhang, Hong; Xie, Liuwei; Li, Juying; Wang, Xinxuan; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Yanping; Yang, Bo

    2015-08-15

    This study investigated the occurrence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in surface water from 67 sampling sites along rivers of the Pearl River Delta in southern China. Sixteen PFAAs, including perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs, C5-14, C16 and C18) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs, C4, C6, C8 and C10) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography-negative electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS). Total PFAA concentrations (? PFAAs) in the surface water ranged from 1.53 to 33.5 ngL(-1) with an average of 7.58 ngL(-1). Perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were the three most abundant PFAAs and on average accounted for 28%, 16% and 10% of ? PFAAs, respectively. Higher concentrations of ? PFAAs were found in the samples collected from Jiangmen section of Xijiang River, Dongguan section of Dongjiang River and the Pearl River flowing the cities which had very well-developed manufacturing industries. PCA model was employed to quantitatively calculate the contributions of extracted sources. Factor 1 (72.48% of the total variance) had high loading for perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), PFBS and PFOS. For factor 2 (10.93% of the total variance), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUdA) got high loading. The sorption of PFCAs on suspended particulate matter (SPM) increased by approximately 0.1 log units for each additional CF2 moiety and that on sediment was approximately 0.8 log units lower than the SPM logKd values. In addition, the differences in the partition coefficients were influenced by the structure discrepancy of absorbents and influx of fresh river water. These data are essential for modeling the transport and environmental fate of PFAAs. PMID:25889539

  19. Perfluoroalkyl acids in the Canadian environment: multi-media assessment of current status and trends.

    PubMed

    Gewurtz, Sarah B; Backus, Sean M; De Silva, Amila O; Ahrens, Lutz; Armellin, Alain; Evans, Marlene; Fraser, Susan; Gledhill, Melissa; Guerra, Paula; Harner, Tom; Helm, Paul A; Hung, Hayley; Khera, Nav; Kim, Min Gu; King, Martha; Lee, Sum Chi; Letcher, Robert J; Martin, Pamela; Marvin, Chris; McGoldrick, Daryl J; Myers, Anne L; Pelletier, Magella; Pomeroy, Joe; Reiner, Eric J; Rondeau, Myriam; Sauve, Marie-Claude; Sekela, Mark; Shoeib, Mahiba; Smith, Daniel W; Smyth, Shirley Anne; Struger, John; Spry, Doug; Syrgiannis, Jim; Waltho, Jasmine

    2013-09-01

    In Canada, perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been the focus of several monitoring programs and research and surveillance studies. Here, we integrate recent data and perform a multi-media assessment to examine the current status and ongoing trends of PFAAs in Canada. Concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and other long-chain perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) in air, water, sediment, fish, and birds across Canada are generally related to urbanization, with elevated concentrations observed around cities, especially in southern Ontario. PFOS levels in water, fish tissue, and bird eggs were below their respective Draft Federal Environmental Quality Guidelines, suggesting there is low potential for adverse effects to the environment/organisms examined. However, PFOS in fish and bird eggs tended to exceed guidelines for the protection of mammalian and avian consumers, suggesting a potential risk to their wildlife predators, although wildlife population health assessments are needed to determine whether negative impacts are actually occurring. Long-term temporal trends of PFOS in suspended sediment, sediment cores, Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush), and Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) eggs collected from Lake Ontario increased consistently from the start of data collection until the 1990s. However, after this time, the trends varied by media, with concentrations stabilizing in Lake Trout and Herring Gull eggs, and decreasing and increasing in suspended sediment and the sediment cores, respectively. For PFCAs, concentrations in suspended sediment, sediment cores, and Herring Gulls generally increased from the start of data collection until present and concentrations in Lake Trout increased until the late 1990s and subsequently stabilized. A multimedia comparison of PFAA profiles provided evidence that unexpected patterns in biota of some of the lakes were due to unique source patterns rather than internal lake processes. High concentrations of PFAAs in the leachate and air of landfill sites, in the wastewater influent/effluent, biosolids, and air at wastewater treatment plants, and in indoor air and dust highlight the waste sector and current-use products (used primarily indoors) as ongoing sources of PFAAs to the Canadian environment. The results of this study demonstrate the utility of integrating data from different media. Simultaneous evaluation of spatial and temporal trends in multiple media allows inferences that would be impossible with data on only one medium. As such, more co-ordination among monitoring sites for different media is suggested for future sampling, especially at the northern sites. We emphasize the importance of continued monitoring of multiple-media for determining future responses of environmental PFAA concentrations to voluntary and regulatory actions. PMID:23831544

  20. Determination of perfluorinated alkylated substances in sediments and sediment core from the Gulf of Gda?sk, Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Rostkowski, Pawe?; Jarzy?ska, Gra?yna; Falandysz, Jaromir J; Taniyasu, Sachi; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS) have been determined in surface sediments and sediment core from Gulf of Gda?sk, Baltic Sea. Perfluorooctanesulphonate (PFOS), perfluorohexanesulphonate (PFHxS), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), perfluoronanoate (PFNA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA), perfluoroundecanote (PFUnDA), perfluorododecanoate (PFDoDA) and perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA) were quantified after isotopic dilution ((13)C(4) PFOS and (13)C(4) PFOA), liquid-liquid extractions by methanol and acetonitrile, cleanup by Envi-Carb, OasisWAX and Envi-Carb and final measurement by HPLC-MS/MS. PFOS, PFHxS, PFUnDA, PFDA, PFNA and PFOA were found in Baltic Sea sediments in concentrations exceeding the method limit of quantification (LOQ) of 2 pg/g. PFOS was detected in concentration up to 0.896 ng/g dry weight and PFHxS up to 0.326 ng/g dw, which shows on a weak pollution. PFOS (48-74%) or PFHxS (45-56%) dominated in PFAS composition of sediments surveyed. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of the Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A to view the free supplemental file. PMID:22320695

  1. Impact of Microbial Growth on Subsurface Perfluoroalkyl Acid Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weathers, T. S.; Higgins, C. P.; Sharp, J.

    2014-12-01

    The fate and transport of poly and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the presence of active microbial communities has not been widely investigated. These emerging contaminants are commonly utilized in aqueous film-forming foams (AFFF) and have often been detected in groundwater. This study explores the transport of a suite of perfluorocarboxylic acids and perfluoroalkylsulfonates, including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), in microbially active settings. Single point organic carbon normalized sorption coefficients derived by exposing inactive cellular material to PFASs result in more than an order of magnitude increase in sorption compared to soil organic carbon sorption coefficients found in literature. For example, the sorption coefficients for PFOS are 4.05±0.07 L/kg and 2.80±0.08 L/kg for cellular organic carbon and soil organic carbon respectively. This increase in sorption, coupled with enhanced extracellular polymeric substance production observed during growth of a common hydrocarbon degrading soil microbe exposed to source-level concentrations of PFASs (10 mg/L of 11 analytes, 110 mg/L total) may result in PFAS retardation in situ. To address the upscaling of this phenomenon, flow-through columns packed with low-organic carbon sediment and biostimulated with 10 mg/L glucose were exposed to PFAS concentrations from 15 μg/L to 10 mg/L of each 11 analytes. Breakthrough and tailing of each analyte was measured and modeled with Hydrus-1D to explore sorption coefficients over time for microbially active columns.

  2. Perfluoroalkyl acids in blood serum samples from children in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Bao, Jia; Lee, Yungling Leo; Chen, Pau-Chung; Jin, Yi-He; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2014-06-01

    Severe perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) contamination resulting from the fast-growing semiconductor, electrochemical, and optoelectronic industries has been determined in the river water in the vicinity of the Taipei area, Taiwan, during recent years. However, little is known about body burdens of the PFAA contaminations in local residents, especially children living in the Taipei area recently. In this study, ten target PFAA analytes consisted of three perfluorosulfonates (PFSAs) and seven perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) in the blood serum samples, collected from 225 healthy children with an average age of 13.6 years in the Taipei area from 2009 to 2010, were analyzed via high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). As the dominant PFAA contaminant in the blood serum samples from Taiwanese children, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) contributed 86% of all the target PFAA analytes, while the other nine analytes contributed less than 5% individually. PFOS showed the highest median up to 29 ng/mL, ranging from 0.03 to 148 ng/mL, which was higher than that observed in the serum samples collected from Taiwanese children between 2006 and 2008. Statistically, serum concentrations of perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) had significantly positive correlations with ages of children (p < 0.05). Furthermore, serum PFBS, PFHxS, and PFOA concentrations in the male children were considerably higher than those in the female children (p = 0.049, p = 0.000, p = 0.000). PMID:24622984

  3. Bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl acids in dairy cows in a naturally contaminated environment.

    PubMed

    Vestergren, Robin; Orata, Francis; Berger, Urs; Cousins, Ian T

    2013-11-01

    Beef and dairy products may be important vectors of human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), but the understanding of how PFAAs are accumulated and transferred through agricultural food chains is very limited. Here, the bioaccumulation of PFAAs in dairy cows receiving naturally contaminated feed and drinking water was investigated by conducting a mass balance of PFAAs for a herd of dairy cows in a barn on a typical Swedish dairy farm. It was assumed that the cows were able to reach steady state with their dietary intake of PFAAs. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) with 8 to 12 carbons were detected in cow tissue samples (liver, muscle, and blood) at concentrations up to 130 ng kg(-1). Mass balance calculations demonstrated an agreement between total intake and excretion within a factor of 1.5 and consumption of silage was identified as the dominant intake pathway for all PFAAs. Biomagnification factors (BMFs) were highly tissue and homologue specific. While BMFs of PFOS and PFCAs with 9 and 10 fluorinated carbons in liver ranged from 10 to 20, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was not biomagnified (BMF<1) in any of the investigated tissues. Biotransfer factors (BTFs; defined as the concentration in tissue divided by the total daily intake) were calculated for muscle and milk. Log BTFs ranged from -1.95 to -1.15 day kg(-1) with the highest BTF observed for PFOS in muscle. Overall, the results of this study suggest that long-chain PFAAs have a relatively high potential for transfer to milk and beef from the diet of dairy cows. However, a low input of PFAAs to terrestrial systems via atmospheric deposition and low bioavailability of PFAAs in soil limits the amount of PFAAs that enter terrestrial agricultural food chains in background contaminated environments and makes this pathway less important than aquatic exposure pathways. The BTFs estimated here provide a useful tool for predicting human exposure to PFAAs via milk and beef under different contamination scenarios. PMID:23644948

  4. Evaluating the additivity of perfluoroalkyl acids in binary combinations on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? activation.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Cynthia J; Rider, Cynthia V; Lau, Christopher; Abbott, Barbara D

    2014-02-28

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are found globally in the environment, detected in humans and wildlife, and are typically present as mixtures of PFAA congeners. Mechanistic studies have found that responses to PFAAs are mediated in part by PPAR?. Our previous studies showed that individual PFAAs activate PPAR? transfected into COS-1 cells. The goal of the current study was to determine if binary combinations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and another PFAA act in an additive fashion to activate PPAR? in the mouse one-hybrid in vitro model. COS-1 cells were transiently transfected with mouse PPAR? luciferase reporter construct and exposed to either vehicle control (0.1% DMSO or water), PPAR? agonist (WY14643, 10 ?M), PFOA at 1-128?M, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) at 1-128 ?M, perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) at 8-1024 ?M, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) at 4-384 ?M or perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) at 8-2048 ?M to generate sigmoidal concentration-response curves. In addition, cells were exposed to binary combinations of PFOA+either PFNA, PFHxA, PFOS or PFHxS in an 88 factorial design. The concentration-response data for individual chemicals were fit to sigmoidal curves and analyzed with nonlinear regression to generate EC??s and Hillslopes, which were used in response-addition and concentration-addition models to calculate predicted responses for mixtures in the same plate. All PFOA+PFAA combinations produced concentration-response curves that were closely aligned with the predicted curves for both response addition and concentration addition at low concentrations. However, at higher concentrations of all chemicals, the observed response curves deviated from the predicted models of additivity. We conclude that binary combinations of PFAAs behave additively at the lower concentration ranges in activating PPAR? in this in vitro system. PMID:24374136

  5. Occurrence of selected perfluorinated alkyl acids in lunch meals served at school canteens in Italy and their relevance for children's intake.

    PubMed

    Dellatte, Elena; Brambilla, Gianfranco; De Filippis, Stefania Paola; di Domenico, Alessandro; Pulkrabova, Jana; Eschauzier, Christian; Klenow, Stefanie; Heinemeyer, Gerhard; de Voogt, Pim

    2013-01-01

    Ready-to-eat servings may be more contaminated with perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) than the corresponding unprocessed foods due to the presence of PFAAs in and transfer from food contact materials (FCM) and cookware. Therefore, the presence of selected PFAAs in meals served weekly at lunch time in six Italian school canteens was assessed. Five towns were selected representing different areas with local water and food supply. Daily lunch menus were sampled and pooled to form a composite. Analyses were carried out on the weekly composite from each canteen. UPLC-MS/MS quantification limits were in the 6.0-12 pg g⁻¹ range for the selected PFAAs (PFHxA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFHxS, branched and non-branched PFOS). Non-branched PFOS was quantified in four out of six composites, with levels ranging from 14 to 25 pg g⁻¹, while PFOA and PFDA were determined in two out of six in the range 6.5-8.2 pg g⁻¹. Theoretical estimates and analytical results in the same order of magnitude indicate a negligible contribution from food processing and serving to meal contamination. When composite analytical data are transposed into dietary estimates, it is shown that Italian school-age children have intakes in the range of 0.3-1.1 and 0.5-1.4 ng kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹ for PFOA and PFOS respectively, well below the corresponding tolerable daily intakes (TDIs). PMID:23859821

  6. Highly elevated levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate and other perfluorinated acids found in biota and surface water downstream of an international airport, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    de Solla, S R; De Silva, A O; Letcher, R J

    2012-02-01

    Per- and poly-fluorinated compounds (PFCs), which include perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) and sulfonates (PFSAs) and various precursors, are used in a wide variety of industrial, commercial and domestic products. This includes aqueous film forming foam (AFFF), which is used by military and commercial airports as fire suppressants. In a preliminary assessment prior to this study, very high concentrations (>1 ppm wet weight) of the PFSA, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), were discovered in the plasma of snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) collected in 2008 from Lake Niapenco in southern Ontario, Canada. We presently report on a suite of C(6) to C(15) PFCAs, C(4), C(6), C(8) and C(10) PFSAs, several PFC precursors (e.g. perfluorooctane sulfonamide, PFOSA), and a cyclic perfluorinated acid used in aircraft hydraulic fluid, perfluoroethylcyclohexane sulfonate (PFECHS) in surface water from the Welland River and Lake Niapenco, downstream of the John C. Munro International Airport, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Amphipods, shrimp, and water were sampled from the Welland River and Lake Niapenco, as well as local references. The same suite of PFCs in turtle plasma from Lake Niapenco was compared to those from other southern Ontario sites. PFOS dominated the sum PFCs in all substrates (e.g., >99% in plasma of turtles downstream the Hamilton Airport, and 72.1 to 94.1% at all other sites). PFOS averaged 2223(±247.1SE) ng/g in turtle plasma from Lake Niapenco, and ranged from 9.0 to 171.4 elsewhere. Mean PFOS in amphipods and in water were 518.1(±83.8)ng/g and 130.3(±43.6) ng/L downstream of the airport, and 19.1(±2.7) ng/g and 6.8(±0.5) ng/L at reference sites, respectively. Concentrations of selected PFCs declined with distance downstream from the airport. Although there was no known spill event or publicly reported use of AFFF associated with a fire event at the Hamilton airport, the airport is a likely major source of PFC contamination in the Welland River. PMID:22208739

  7. Perfluoroalkyl acids in various edible Baltic, freshwater, and farmed fish in Finland.

    PubMed

    Koponen, Jani; Airaksinen, Riikka; Hallikainen, Anja; Vuorinen, Pekka J; Mannio, Jaakko; Kiviranta, Hannu

    2015-06-01

    In this study, the concentration of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in various edible Finnish Baltic Sea, freshwater, and farmed fish species were analysed. PFAAs were present in all the Baltic and freshwater species, but were not observed in any farmed fish. The most abundant compound in each species was perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), comprising 41-100% of the total concentration. The total PFAA concentration varied considerably from 0.31 to 46ngg(-1) fresh weight. A notable variation in the PFAA concentrations implies that a single fish species alone is not suitable for monitoring PFAA contamination in a certain area. Our results confirm that wild domestic fish is one of the PFAA source in the Finnish diet. PMID:25262944

  8. Tissue Distribution and Whole Body Burden of the Chlorinated Polyfluoroalkyl Ether Sulfonic Acid F-53B in Crucian Carp (Carassius carassius): Evidence for a Highly Bioaccumulative Contaminant of Emerging Concern.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yali; Vestergren, Robin; Zhou, Zhen; Song, Xiaowei; Xu, Lin; Liang, Yong; Cai, Yaqi

    2015-12-15

    Following the global actions to phase out perfluoroctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) a large number of alternative per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, with poorly defined hazard properties, are being used in increasing quantities. Here, we report on the first detection of the chlorinated polyfluoroalkyl ether sulfonic acid F-53B in biological samples and determine the tissue distribution and whole body bioaccumulation factors (BAFwholebody) in crucian carp (Carassius carassius). Analysis of fish samples from Xiaoqing River (XR) and Tangxun Lake (TL) demonstrated a similar level of F-53B contamination with median concentrations in blood of 41.9 and 20.9 ng/g, respectively. Tissue/blood ratios showed that distribution of F-53B primarily occurs to the kidney (TL: 0.48, XR: 0.54), gonad (TL: 0.36, XR: 0.54), liver (TL: 0.38, XR: 0.53), and heart (TL: 0.47, XR: 0.47). Median Log BAFwholebody values for F-53B (XR: 4.124, TL: 4.322) exceeded regulatory bioaccumulation criterion and were significantly higher than those of PFOS in the same data sets (XR: 3.430, TL: 3.279). On the basis of its apparent omnipresence and strong bioaccumulation propensity, it is hypothesized that F-53B could explain a significant fraction of previously unidentified organofluorine in biological samples from China, and regulatory actions for this compound are encouraged. PMID:26560673

  9. Subsurface transport potential of perfluoroalkyl acids at aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF)-impacted sites.

    PubMed

    Guelfo, Jennifer L; Higgins, Christopher P

    2013-05-01

    Subsurface transport potential of a suite of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) was studied in batch sorption experiments with various soils and in the presence of co-contaminants relevant to aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF)-impacted sites. Specifically, PFAA sorption to multiple soils in the presence of nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) and nonfluorinated AFFF surfactants was examined. This study is the first to report on sorption of perfluorobutanoate (PFBA) and perfluoropentanoate (PFPeA) (log Koc = 1.88 and 1.37, respectively) and found that sorption of these compounds does not follow the chain-length dependent trend observed for longer chain-length PFAAs. Sorption of PFBA was similar to that of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, log Koc = 1.89). NAPL and nonfluorinated AFFF surfactants all had varying impacts on sorption of longer chain (>6 CF2 groups) PFAAs. The primary impact of NAPL was observed in low foc soil (soil A) where Freundlich n-values increased when NAPL was present. Impacts of nonfluorinated AFFF surfactants varied with surfactant and soil. The anionic surfactant sodium decyl sulfate (SDS) illicited PFAA chain-length dependent impacts in two negatively charged soils with varying foc. In soil A, Kd values for perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA) increased 91% with SDS, whereas values for perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) increased only 28%. An amphoteric surfactant, n,n-dimethyldodecylamine n-oxide (AO), had the most notable impact on PFAA sorption to a positively charged soil (soil C). In this soil, AO oxide significantly increased sorption for the longer chain PFAAs (i.e., 528% increase in Kd for PFDA). Changes in sorption caused by SDS and AO may be due to mixed hemimicelle formation, competitive sorption, or changes to PFAA solubility. Short-chain PFAA behavior in the presence of NAPL, SDS, and AO was again notable. Co-contaminants generally increased the sorption of these compounds to all soils. Log Kd values of PFBA in soil A increased 85%, 372%, and 32% in the presence of NAPL, SDS, and AO, respectively. Use of Kd values to calculate retardation factors (Rf) of PFAAs demonstrates the variability of co-contaminant impacts on PFAA transport. Whereas NAPL and nonfluorinated surfactants decreased the sorption of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) at lower PFOS concentrations (1 ?g/L), they led to increases in sorption at higher PFOS concentrations (500 ?g/L). These results demonstrate that PFAA groundwater transport will depend on the solid phase characteristics as well as PFAA concentration and chain length. Detailed site-specific information will likely be needed to accurately predict PFAA transport at AFFF-impacted sites. PMID:23566120

  10. Estrogen-Like Activity of Perfluoroalkyl Acids In Vivo and Interaction with Human and Rainbow Trout Estrogen Receptors In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Benninghoff, Abby D.; Bisson, William H.; Koch, Daniel C.; Ehresman, David J.; Kolluri, Siva K.; Williams, David E.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the structural characteristics of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) that confer estrogen-like activity in vivo using juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as an animal model and to determine whether these chemicals interact directly with the estrogen receptor (ER) using in vitro and in silico species comparison approaches. Perfluorooctanoic (PFOA), perfluorononanoic (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoic (PFUnDA) acids were all potent inducers of the estrogen-responsive biomarker protein vitellogenin (Vtg) in vivo, although at fairly high dietary exposures. A structure-activity relationship for PFAAs was observed, where eight to ten fluorinated carbons and a carboxylic acid end group were optimal for maximal Vtg induction. These in vivo findings were corroborated by in vitro mechanistic assays for trout and human ER. All PFAAs tested weakly bound to trout liver ER with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 15.2289?M. Additionally, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, and perlfuorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) significantly enhanced human ER?-dependent transcriptional activation at concentrations ranging from 101000nM. Finally, we employed an in silico computational model based upon the crystal structure for the human ER? ligand-binding domain complexed with E2 to structurally investigate binding of these putative ligands to human, mouse, and trout ER?. PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, and PFOS all efficiently docked with ER? from different species and formed a hydrogen bond at residue Arg394/398/407 (human/mouse/trout) in a manner similar to the environmental estrogens bisphenol A and nonylphenol. Overall, these data support the contention that several PFAAs are weak environmental xenoestrogens of potential concern. PMID:21163906

  11. [Spatial distribution of perfluorooctanoic acids and perfluorinate sulphonates in surface water of East Lake].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Wang, Lin-ling; Zhu, Hu-di; Wang, Bei-bei; Liu, Huang-cheng; Cao, Meng-hua; Miao, Zhu; Hu, Li; Lu, Xiao-hua; Liu, Guang-hong

    2012-08-01

    Concentrations and spatial distribution of PFOS and PFOA in surface water from East Lake in Wuhan, Hubei, China were studied. The total concentration of PFCs ranged from 31.1 to 237 ng x L(-1), and the mean value was 115 ng x L(-1), revealing lake-wide contamination in East Lake. PFOS and PFOA were detected in all samples with maximum values of 132 ng x L(-1) and 158 ng x L(-1), respectively, whereas the mean values of PFOS and PFOA were 60.4 and 55.0 ng x L(-1), respectively. The highest concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were found in the eastern area of lake, followed by the southern area of lake, and the western and northern areas of East Lake were the least contaminated regions. The specific distribution and composition profile of PFOS and PFOA, and the lack of significant correlation between PFOS and PFOA, suggested that there were various sources of PFCs. The PFOS concentrations at 30 sample sites (63%) were greater than 43 ng x L(-1), which was used to estimate an avian wildlife value for PFOS. The PFOA concentrations at 20 sample sites (42%) were greater than 40 ng x L(-1), which was a health-based guidance level recommended by the State of New Jersey for PFOA. PMID:23213877

  12. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) acts as a tumor promoter on Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells.

    PubMed

    Jacquet, N; Maire, M A; Rast, C; Bonnard, M; Vasseur, P

    2011-08-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (C(8)F(17)SO(3)) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (C(8)HF(15)O(2)) are synthetic chemicals widely used in industrial applications for their hydrophobic and oleophobic properties. They are persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic to mammalian species. Their widespread distribution on earth and contamination of human serum raised concerns about long-term side effects. They are suspected to be carcinogenic through a nongenotoxic mode of action, a mechanism supported by recent findings that PFOS induced cell transformation but no genotoxicity in Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells. In the present study, we evaluated carcinogenic potential of PFOA using the cell transformation assay on SHE cells. The chemical was applied alone or in combination with a nontransformant concentration of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP, 0.4?M) in order to detect PFOA ability to act as tumor initiator or tumor promoter. The results showed that PFOA tested alone in the range 3.7??10(-5) to 300?M did not induce SHE cell transformation frequency in a 7-day treatment. On the other side, the combination BaP/PFOA induced cell transformation at all PFOA concentrations tested, which revealed synergistic effects. No genotoxicity of PFOA on SHE cells was detected using the comet assay after 5 and 24h of exposure. No significant increase in DNA breakage was found in BaP-initiated cells exposed to PFOA in a 7-day treatment. The whole results showed that PFOA acts as a tumor promoter and a nongenotoxic carcinogen. Cell transformation in initiated cells was observed at concentrations equivalent to the ones found in human serum of nonoccupationally and occupationally exposed populations. An involvement of PFOA in increased incidence of cancer recorded in occupationally exposed population cannot be ruled out. PMID:22828883

  13. Folic Acid

    MedlinePLUS

    ... get enough folic acid each day? What foods contain folic acid? Can I get enough folic acid ... their doctors. Some doctors prescribe prenatal vitamins that contain higher amounts of folic acid. You are breastfeeding. ...

  14. Occurrence of perfluoroalkyl acids in environmental waters in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Duong, Hanh Thi; Kadokami, Kiwao; Shirasaka, Hanako; Hidaka, Rento; Chau, Hong Thi Cam; Kong, Lingxiao; Nguyen, Trung Quang; Nguyen, Thao Thanh

    2015-03-01

    This is the first nationwide study of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in environmental waters in Vietnam. Twenty-eight river water and 22 groundwater samples collected in four major cities and 14 river water samples from the Red River were screened to investigate the occurrence and sources of 16 PFAAs. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were the most prevalent of 11 detected PFAAs with maximum concentrations in urban river water of 5.3, 18 and 0.93ngL(-1), respectively, and in groundwater of 8.2, 4.5 and 0.45ngL(-1), respectively. PFAAs in the Red River water were detected at low levels. PFAA concentrations in river water were higher in the rainy season than in the dry season, possibly due to storm water runoff, a common phenomenon in Southeast Asian countries. The highest concentrations of PFAAs in river water were observed in samples from highly populated and industrialized areas, perhaps sourced from sewage. The PFAA concentrations observed were similar to those in other Southeast Asian countries, but lower than in developed nations. From the composition profiles of PFAAs, industrial products containing PFAAs imported from China and Japan might be one of the major sources of PFAAs in the Vietnamese aquatic environment. According to the health-based values and advisory issued by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the concentrations of detected PFAAs in this study do not pose an immediate health risk to humans and aquatic organisms. PMID:25496738

  15. Phlebotomy Treatment for Elimination of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in a Highly Exposed Family: A Retrospective Case-Series

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Liu, Yanna; Genuis, Quentin I. T.; Martin, Jonathan W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a family of commonly used synthetic chemicals that have become widespread environmental contaminants. In human serum, perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perflurooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are most frequently detected, in part owing to their long elimination half-lives of between 3.8 yrs (PFOA) and 8.5 yrs (PFHxS). These PFAAs also cross the placenta and have been associated with developmental toxicity, and some are considered likely human carcinogens. Interventions to eliminate PFAAs in highly contaminated individuals would reduce future health risks, but minimal research has been conducted on methods to facilitate accelerated human clearance of these persistent substances. Methods Six patients with elevated serum concentrations from a single family were treated by intermittent phlebotomy over a 4–5 year period at intervals similar to, or less frequent than what is done for routine blood donation at Canadian Blood Services. The apparent elimination half-life (HLapp) for PFHxS, PFOS, and PFOA in this treated population was calculated in each patient and compared to the intrinsic elimination half-lives (HLin) from a literature reference population of untreated fluorochemical manufacturing plant retirees (n = 26, age >55 yrs). Results For all three PFAAs monitored during phlebotomy, HLapp in each of the family members (except the mother, who had a low rate of venesection) was significantly shorter than the geometric mean HL measured in the reference population, and in some cases were even shorter compared to the fastest eliminator in the reference population. Conclusion This study suggests significantly accelerated PFAA clearance with regular phlebotomy treatment, but the small sample size and the lack of controls in this clinical intervention precludes drawing firm conclusions. Given the minimal risks of intermittent phlebotomy, this may be an effective and safe clinical intervention to diminish the body burden of PFAAs in highly exposed people. PMID:25504057

  16. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING IN WILD-TYPE AND PPARa-NULL MICE EXPOSED TO PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE REVEALS PPARa-INDEPENDENT EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a perfluoroalky1 acid (PFAA) and a persistent environmental contaminant found in the tissues of humans and wildlife. Although blood levels of PFOS have begun to decline, health concerns remain because of the long half-life of PFOS in humans. Li...

  17. A review of sources, multimedia distribution and health risks of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tieyu; Wang, Pei; Meng, Jing; Liu, Shijie; Lu, Yonglong; Khim, Jong Seong; Giesy, John P

    2015-06-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been recognized as emerging pollutants because of their ubiquitous occurrence in the environment, biota and humans. In order to investigate their sources, fate and environmental effects, a great number of surveys have been carried out over the past several years. In the present review, we summarized the status of sources and emission, concentration, distribution and risks of PFAAs in China. Concentrations of PFAAs, especially perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in various environmental media including water, sediment, soil, rain, snow and organisms, as well as human tissues are summarized based on the available data. Concentrations of PFAAs in aquatic systems are higher in relatively more industrialized and urbanized areas than those from the less populated and remote regions in China, indicating that their emission and distribution are closely related to regional urbanization and industrialization. PFAAs and related products have been widely used over the past several decades, which have brought about high concentrations detected in environmental matrixes, biota and even local residents. Ecological risk assessment of PFAAs is still less developed in China. Most existing studies compared concentrations of PFAAs to guideline values derived for single species to evaluate the risk. In order to reveal the transport, partitioning and degradation of PFAAs in the environment, further studies on their behavior, fate, bioaccumulation and adverse effects in different trophic levels should be conducted. PMID:25262946

  18. Acid Rain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... damaging to lakes, streams, and forests and the plants and animals that live in these ecosystems. This Web site provides information about the following: What causes acid rain The effects of acid rain How we measure acid rain ...

  19. Aspartic acid

    MedlinePLUS

    ... also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps every cell in the body work. It plays a role in: Hormone production and release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: Legumes such as ...

  20. Folic Acid

    MedlinePLUS

    Folic acid is used to treat or prevent folic acid deficiency. It is a B-complex vitamin needed by ... Folic acid comes in tablets. It usually is taken once a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label ...

  1. Folic Acid

    MedlinePLUS

    Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

  2. Major perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) concentrations and influence of food consumption among the general population of Daegu, Korea.

    PubMed

    Ji, Kyunghee; Kim, Sunmi; Kho, Younglim; Sakong, Joon; Paek, Domyung; Choi, Kyungho

    2012-11-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been used in various industrial and consumer products for decades, and have consequently been detected in human blood worldwide. In the present study, general adult population in Daegu, Korea (n=140, >20 years of old) was recruited, collected for serum, and analyzed for 13 major PFAAs. The influence of dietary and water consumption on serum PFAA levels was also evaluated. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) were frequently detected with relatively higher concentrations in blood serum. Most PFAA concentrations except for PFOA were detected in higher concentrations among males, and were positively correlated with age and body mass index (BMI). PFOA concentrations were relatively higher among the female of childbearing age, e.g., 20-49years old, raising concerns on potential impacts on fetus through transplacental transfer or lactation. In addition, the concentrations of PFOA in Daegu population were higher than other areas of Korea, suggesting a presence of distinctive sources in the area. Among food items, potato consumption was identified to be significant contributor to serum PFOA. For PFUnDA and PFTrDA levels, intake of fish/shellfish was positively associated. The results of this study will be useful in developing public health management options for PFAAs. PMID:22964400

  3. Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  4. Firefighters' exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids and 2-butoxyethanol present in firefighting foams.

    PubMed

    Laitinen, Juha Ari; Koponen, Jani; Koikkalainen, Janne; Kiviranta, Hannu

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess eight firefighters' exposure to Sthamex 3% AFFF (aqueous film forming foam) in the simulation of aircraft accidents at Oulu airport in Finland. Study was conducted in 2010 before limitation for the use of PFOA and PFOS in AFFFs. Due to prospective limitation also eight commercially available AFFFs were evaluated from occupational and environmental point of view to find substitutive AFFFs for future. The firefighters' exposure to twelve perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAS) was analyzed in order to observe the signs of accumulation during three consecutive training sessions. The firefighters' short-term exposure to 2-butoxyethanol (EGBE) was analyzed by urinalysis of 2-butoxyacetic acid (2-BAA). For the background information also the concentration of PFAS in used AFFF-liquid was analyzed. Fire fighters' serum PFHxS and PFNA concentrations seemed to increase during the three training sessions although they were not the main PFAS in used AFFF. The statistical significance for the elevations was not able to test due to limited size of test group. In two training sessions, the average urinary excretions of 2-BAA exceeded the reference limit of the occupationally unexposed population. In the evaluations of the firefighting foams, non-fluorine based products were favored and the alcohol resistance properties of foams were recommended for consideration due to the increasing use of biofuels. PMID:25447453

  5. Short- and long-chain perfluorinated acids in sewage sludge from Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hong; Zhang, Chao-Jie; Zhou, Qi; Chen, Ling; Meng, Xiang-Zhou

    2012-09-01

    Perfluorinated acids (PFAs) are the subject of increasingly intense environmental research. In this study, sewage sludge samples were collected from 25 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Shanghai, China to evaluate the levels and profile of C3-C14 PFAs. The results showed a ubiquitous PFAs contamination of sewage sludge in Shanghai with the total PFAs (∑PFAs) range of 126-809 ng g(-1)dw. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was found to be the dominant PFA pollutant and its concentration ranged from 23.2 to 298 ng g(-1)dw, much higher than the levels in other countries. Moreover, concentrations of short-chain PFAs (PFOS) are predicted to be 1.08 and 7.53 ng g(-1)dw, respectively, much lower than the corresponding US EPA standards. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to explore the fate of PFAs in sludge-amended soils due to the persistence and bioaccumulation potential of these compounds. PMID:22546628

  6. Elevated levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in family members of occupationally exposed workers: the importance of dust transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jianjie; Gao, Yan; Wang, Thanh; Liang, Yong; Zhang, Aiqian; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-03-01

    The exposure pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) to humans are still not clear because of the complex living environment, and few studies have simultaneously investigated the bioaccumulative behaviour of different PFAAs in humans. In this study, serum, dust, duplicate diet, and other matrices were collected around a manufacturing plant in China, and homologous series of PFAAs were analysed. PFAA levels in dust and serum of local residents in this area were considerably higher than those in non-polluted area. Although dietary intake was the major exposure pathway in the present study, dust ingestion played an important role in this case. Serum PFAAs in local residents was significantly correlated with dust PFAAs levels in their living or working microenvironment. Serum PFAAs and dust PFAAs were significantly higher in family members of occupational workers (FM) than in ordinary residents (OR) (p < 0.01). After a careful analysis of the PFAAs exposure pathway, a potential pathway in addition to direct dust ingestion was suggested: PFAAs might transferred from occupational worker's clothes to dinners via cooking processes. The bioaccumulative potential of PFHxS and PFOS were higher than other PFAAs, which suggested a substantial difference between the bioaccumulative ability of perfluorinated sulfonic acids and perfluorinated carboxylic acids.

  7. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Stensland, G.J.

    1983-11-01

    A series of definitions for the field of acid rain studies are presented. Protocols for acid rain sampling and monitoring are also presented. A procedure for calculatory precipitation pH is discussed. 11 references, 1 table.

  8. Aristolochic Acids

    Cancer.gov

    Aristolochic acids are a group of acids found naturally in many types of plants known as Aristolochia (birthworts or pipevines) and some types of plants known as Asarum (wild ginger), which grow worldwide.

  9. Aminocaproic Acid

    MedlinePLUS

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  10. Bioaccumulation characteristics of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in coastal organisms from the west coast of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seongjin; Khim, Jong Seong; Wang, Tieyu; Naile, Jonathan E; Park, Jinsoon; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Song, Sung Joon; Ryu, Jongseong; Codling, Garry; Jones, Paul D; Lu, Yonglong; Giesy, John P

    2015-06-01

    Year-round monitoring for perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) along the west coast of South Korea targeting long-term changes in water and coastal organisms has been conducted since 2008. In this study, we present the most recent 5-years of accumulated data and scrutinize the relationship between concentrations in water and biota highlighting bioaccumulation characteristics. Twelve individual PFAAs in samples of water (n=43) and biota (n=59) were quantified by use of HPLC-MS/MS after solid phase extraction. In recent years, concentrations of PFAAs in water have been generally decreasing, but profiles of relative concentrations of individual PFAAs vary among location and year. Bioaccumulation of PFAAs in various organisms including fishes, bivalves, crabs, gastropods, shrimps, starfish, and polychaetes varied among species. However, overall bioaccumulation of PFAAs was dependent on corresponding concentrations of PFAAs in water within an area. In organ-specific distributions of PFAAs, greater concentrations of PFAAs were found in intestine of fish (green eel goby). This result suggests that PFAAs are mainly accumulated via dietary exposure, while greater concentrations were found in gill and intestine of bivalve (oyster) which suggests both waterborne and dietary exposures to these organisms. Concentrations of PFAAs in biota did not decrease over time (2008-2010), indicating that continuing bioaccumulation followed by slow degradation or excretion of PFAAs accumulated in biota. Overall, spatio-temporal distributions of PFAAs in water and bioaccumulation characteristics seemed to be associated with recent restrictions of PFOS-based products and uses of PFBS-based substitutes. PMID:25015225

  11. Determination of perfluorinated alkyl acid concentrations in biological standard reference materials.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Jessica L; O'Connell, Steven G; Butt, Craig M; Mabury, Scott A; Small, Jeff M; De Silva, Amila O; Muir, Derek C G; Delinsky, Amy D; Strynar, Mark J; Lindstrom, Andrew B; Reagen, William K; Malinsky, Michelle; Schfer, Sandra; Kwadijk, Christiaan J A F; Schantz, Michele M; Keller, Jennifer M

    2012-11-01

    Standard reference materials (SRMs) are homogeneous, well-characterized materials used to validate measurements and improve the quality of analytical data. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has a wide range of SRMs that have mass fraction values assigned for legacy pollutants. These SRMs can also serve as test materials for method development, method validation, and measurement for contaminants of emerging concern. Because inter-laboratory comparison studies have revealed substantial variability of measurements of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), future analytical measurements will benefit from determination of consensus values for PFAAs in SRMs to provide a means to demonstrate method-specific performance. To that end, NIST, in collaboration with other groups, has been measuring concentrations of PFAAs in a variety of SRMs. Here we report levels of PFAAs and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) determined in four biological SRMs: fish tissue (SRM 1946 Lake Superior Fish Tissue, SRM 1947 Lake Michigan Fish Tissue), bovine liver (SRM 1577c), and mussel tissue (SRM 2974a). We also report concentrations for three in-house quality-control materials: beluga whale liver, pygmy sperm whale liver, and white-sided dolphin liver. Measurements in SRMs show an array of PFAAs, with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) being the most frequently detected. Reference and information values are reported for PFAAs measured in these biological SRMs. PMID:22476786

  12. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Elsworth, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book was written in a concise and readable style for the lay public. It's purpose was to make the public aware of the damage caused by acid rain and to mobilize public opinion to favor the elimination of the causes of acid rain.

  13. Acid Deposition

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator presents acid deposition trends in the contiguous U.S. from 1989 to 2007. Data are broken down by wet and dry deposition and deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds. Acid deposition is particularly damaging to lakes, streams, and forests and the plants and a...

  14. How Acidic Is Carbonic Acid?

    PubMed

    Pines, Dina; Ditkovich, Julia; Mukra, Tzach; Miller, Yifat; Kiefer, Philip M; Daschakraborty, Snehasis; Hynes, James T; Pines, Ehud

    2016-03-10

    Carbonic, lactic, and pyruvic acids have been generated in aqueous solution by the transient protonation of their corresponding conjugate bases by a tailor-made photoacid, the 6-hydroxy-1-sulfonate pyrene sodium salt molecule. A particular goal is to establish the pKa of carbonic acid H2CO3. The on-contact proton transfer (PT) reaction rate from the optically excited photoacid to the carboxylic bases was derived, with unprecedented precision, from time-correlated single-photon-counting measurements of the fluorescence lifetime of the photoacid in the presence of the proton acceptors. The time-dependent diffusion-assisted PT rate was analyzed using the Szabo-Collins-Kimball equation with a radiation boundary condition. The on-contact PT rates were found to follow the acidity order of the carboxylic acids: the stronger was the acid, the slower was the PT reaction to its conjugate base. The pKa of carbonic acid was found to be 3.49 ± 0.05 using both the Marcus and Kiefer-Hynes free energy correlations. This establishes H2CO3 as being 0.37 pKa units stronger and about 1 pKa unit weaker, respectively, than the physiologically important lactic and pyruvic acids. The considerable acid strength of intact carbonic acid indicates that it is an important protonation agent under physiological conditions. PMID:26862781

  15. Asparagusic acid.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2014-01-01

    Asparagusic acid (1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid) is a simple sulphur-containing 5-membered heterocyclic compound that appears unique to asparagus, though other dithiolane derivatives have been identified in non-food species. This molecule, apparently innocuous toxicologically to man, is the most probable culprit responsible for the curious excretion of odorous urine following asparagus ingestion. The presence of the two adjacent sulphur atoms leads to an enhanced chemical reactivity, endowing it with biological properties including the ability to substitute potentially for ?-lipoic acid in ?-keto-acid oxidation systems. This brief review collects the scattered data available in the literature concerning asparagusic acid and highlights its properties, intermediary metabolism and exploratory applications. PMID:24099657

  16. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W.

    1980-06-20

    Acid precipitation includes not only rain but also acidified snow, hail and frost, as well as sulfur and nitrogen dust. The principal source of acid precipitation is pollution emitted by power plants and smelters. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds contained in the emissions combine with moisture to form droplets with a high acid content - sometimes as acidic as vinegar. When sufficiently concentrated, these acids can kill fish and damage material structures. Under certain circumstances they may reduce crop and forest yields and cause or aggravate respiratory diseases in humans. During the summer, especially, pollutants tend to collect over the Great Lakes in high pressure systems. Since winds typically are westerly and rotate clockwise around high pressure systems, the pollutants gradually are dispersed throughout the eastern part of the continent.

  17. Acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Hileman, B.

    1983-03-01

    Fog in areas of southern California previously thought to be pollution-free has been shown to have a pH as low as 1.69. It has been found to be most acidic after smoggy days, suggesting that it forms on the aerosol associated with the previously exiting smog. Studies on Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondacks show that fog water is often 10 times as acidic as rainwater. As a result of their studies, California plans to spend $4 million on acid deposition research in the coming year. (JMT)

  18. Acid Reflux

    MedlinePLUS

    ... continual presence of acid can prompt an entire array of symptoms other than simple heartburn. Experts recognize ... of an interaction between PPIs and Clopidogrel. Current data suggests that it is safe to use a ...

  19. Acid Precipitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the fact that the acidity of rain and snow falling on parts of the U.S. and Europe has been rising. The reasons are still not entirely clear and the consequences have yet to be well evaluated. (MLH)

  20. Carnosic acid.

    PubMed

    Birtić, Simona; Dussort, Pierre; Pierre, François-Xavier; Bily, Antoine C; Roller, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Carnosic acid (salvin), which possesses antioxidative and antimicrobial properties, is increasingly exploited within the food, nutritional health and cosmetics industries. Since its first extraction from a Salvia species (∼70 years ago) and its identification (∼50 years ago), numerous articles and patents (∼400) have been published on specific food and medicinal applications of Rosmarinus and Salvia plant extracts abundant in carnosic acid. In contrast, relevant biochemical, physiological or molecular studies in planta have remained rare. In this overview, recent advances in understanding of carnosic acid distribution, biosynthesis, accumulation and role in planta, and its applications are summarised. We also discuss the deficiencies in our understanding of the relevant biochemical processes, and suggest the molecular targets of carnosic acid. Finally, future perspectives and studies related to its potential roles are highlighted. PMID:25639596

  1. Folic acid

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in the blood caused by the drug fenofibrate. Stomach cancer. Research suggests that taking folic acid reduces the risk of developing some types of stomach cancer. Gout. Early research suggests that folate might reduce ...

  2. ACID RAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acid precipitation has become one of the major environmental problems of this decade. It is a challenge to scientists throughout the world. Researchers from such diverse disciplines as plant pathology, soil science, bacteriology, meteorology and engineering are investigating diff...

  3. Ethacrynic Acid

    MedlinePLUS

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It causes the kidneys to get rid of unneeded water and salt from the body into the urine.

  4. Mefenamic Acid

    MedlinePLUS

    ... as mefenamic acid may cause ulcers, bleeding, or holes in the stomach or intestine. These problems may ... like coffee grounds, blood in the stool, or black and tarry stools.Keep all appointments with your ...

  5. Acidic precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    At the International Symposium on Acidic Precipitation, over 400 papers were presented, and nearly 200 of them are included here. They provide an overview of the present state of the art of acid rain research. The Conference focused on atmospheric science (monitoring, source-receptor relationships), aquatic effects (marine eutrophication, lake acidification, impacts on plant and fish populations), and terrestrial effects (forest decline, soil acidification, etc.).

  6. Acid connection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    Results of improved analytical methods and expanded sampling during the late 1970s confirm that rainfall over the eastern US now averages pH 4.5 or less. As yet results of studies to define the causes and effects of the acid rain are conflicting. The Tennessee Valley Authority has addressed the acid rain problem through a program which involves: rainfall monitoring to determine present conditions and trends; research on atmospheric movement and chemical reaction of pollutants to clarify the relationship between emissions and rainfall acidity; and laboratory and field studies of vegetation, soils, and surface waters to define present conditions and indicate possible future trends. The program is discussed in detail.

  7. Salicylic acids

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Shamsul; Irfan, Mohd; Wani, Arif; Nasser, Alyemeni; Ahmad, Aqil

    2012-01-01

    Salicylic acid is well known phytohormone, emerging recently as a new paradigm of an array of manifestations of growth regulators. The area unleashed yet encompassed the applied agriculture sector to find the roles to strengthen the crops against plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses. The skipped part of integrated picture, however, was the evolutionary insight of salicylic acid to either allow or discard the microbial invasion depending upon various internal factors of two interactants under the prevailing external conditions. The metabolic status that allows the host invasion either as pathogenesis or symbiosis with possible intermediary stages in close systems has been tried to underpin here. PMID:22301975

  8. Association between thyroid profile and perfluoroalkyl acids: Data from NHNAES 2007–2008

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Ram B.

    2013-10-15

    The effect of six perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), namely, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDE), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), 2-(N-methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamide) acetic acid (MPAH), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) on the levels of six thyroid function variables, namely, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free and total thyroxine (FT4, TT4), free and total triiodothyronine (FT3, TT3), and thyroglobulin (TGN) was evaluated. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2007–2008 were used for this evaluation. TSH levels increased with increase in levels of PFOA (p<0.01). There were no statistically significant associations between the levels of FT3, and FT4 with the levels of any of the six PFAAs. Levels of TT3 were found to increase with the levels of PFOA (p=0.01) and TT4 levels were found to increase with increase in PFHxS levels (p<0.01). Males had statistically significantly higher levels of FT3 than females and females had statistically significantly higher levels of TT4 than males. As compared to non-Hispanics whites and Hispanics, non-Hispanic blacks had lower levels of TSH, FT3, TT3, and TT4 but Hispanics had the lowest levels of TGN. Age was negatively associated with FT3 and TT3 but positively associated with FT4 and TT4. Non-smokers had higher levels of TSH and TT4 than smokers and smokers had higher levels of FT3 and TGN than non-smokers. Iodine deficiency was associated with increased levels of TSH, TT3, TT4, and TGN. -- Highlights: • Levels of total triiodothyronine were found to increase with the levels of PFOA. • Total thyroxine increased with increase in levels of perfluorohexane sulfonic acid. • There was a positive association between the levels of PFOA and TSH. • Iodine deficiency was associated with elevated levels of TSH, total T3 and T4. • Iodine deficiency was associated with elevated levels of thyroglobulin.

  9. Presence and sources of anthropogenic perfluoroalkyl acids in high-consumption tap-water based beverages.

    PubMed

    Eschauzier, Christian; Hoppe, Maria; Schlummer, Martin; de Voogt, Pim

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the presence and sources of perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) in tap water and corresponding tap-water based beverages such as coffee and cola collected in the city of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Exposure pathways studies have shown that low concentrations of PFAA in tap water already may pose a high contribution to daily human exposure. Tap water samples (n=4) had higher concentrations of PFAAs than the corresponding post-mixed cola (n=4). The lower PFAA levels in the cola were attributed to the pre-treatment of tap water in the mixing machines and dilution with cola syrup. In coffee samples from a coffee machine perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) at 4 ng L(-1) was the dominating analyte (n=12). The concentrations of PFHpA, PFOA and non branched PFOS were found to be significantly higher in manually (self) brewed coffee than in the corresponding tap water (n=4). The contribution from short-chain PFAA analogs could not be quantified due to low recoveries. Leaching experiments at different temperatures were performed with fluoropolymers-containing tubes to investigate the potential of leaching from tubes used in beverage preparation (n=16). Fluoropolymer tubes showed leaching of PFAAs at high (80°C) temperature but its relevance for contamination of beverages in practice is small. The specific contribution from perfluoropolymer tubing inside the beverage preparation machines could not be assessed since no information was available from the manufacturers. The present study shows that although different beverage preparation processes possibly affect the concentrations of PFAAs encountered in the final consumed product, the water used for preparation remains the most important source of PFAAs. This in turn has implications for areas where drinking water is contaminated. Tap-water based beverages will possibly be an additional source of human exposure to PFAAs and need to be considered in exposure modeling. PMID:22939265

  10. Brain region-specific perfluoroalkylated sulfonate (PFSA) and carboxylic acid (PFCA) accumulation and neurochemical biomarker responses in east Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    PubMed

    Eggers Pedersen, Kathrine; Basu, Niladri; Letcher, Robert; Greaves, Alana K; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2015-04-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is a growing class of contaminants in the Arctic environment, and include the established perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs; especially perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)) and carboxylic acids (PFCAs). PFSAs and PFCAs of varying chain length have been reported to bioaccumulate in lipid rich tissues of the brain among other tissues such as liver, and can reach high concentrations in top predators including the polar bear. PFCA and PFSA bioaccummulation in the brain has the potential to pose neurotoxic effects and therefore we conducted a study to investigate if variations in neurochemical transmitter systems i.e. the cholinergic, glutaminergic, dopaminergic and GABAergic, could be related to brain-specific bioaccumulation of PFASs in East Greenland polar bears. Nine brain regions from nine polar bears were analyzed for enzyme activity (monoamine oxidase (MAO), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutamine synthetase (GS)) and receptor density (dopamine-2 (D2), muscarinic cholinergic (mAChR) and gamma-butyric acid type A (GABA-A)) along with PFSA and PFCA concentrations. Average brain ∑PFSA concentration was 25ng/g ww where PFOS accounted for 91%. Average ∑PFCA concentration was 88ng/g ww where PFUnDA, PFDoDA and PFTrDA combined accounted for 79%. The highest concentrations of PFASs were measured in brain stem, cerebellum and hippocampus. Correlative analyses were performed both across and within brain regions. Significant positive correlations were found between PFASs and MAO activity in occipital lobe (e.g. ∑PFCA; rp=0.83, p=0.041, n=6) and across brain regions (e.g. ∑PFCA; rp=0.47, p=0.001, ∑PFSA; rp=0.44, p>0.001; n=50). GABA-A receptor density was positively correlated with two PFASs across brain regions (PFOS; rp=0.33, p=0.02 and PFDoDA; rp=0.34, p=0.014; n=52). Significant negative correlations were found between mAChR density and PFASs in cerebellum (e.g. ∑PFCA; rp=-0.95, p=0.013, n=5) and across brain regions (e.g. ∑PFCA; rp=-0.40, p=0.003, ∑PFSA; rp=-0.37, p=0.007; n=52). AChE activity and D2 density were negatively correlated with single PFCAs in several brain regions, whereas GS activity was positively correlated with PFASs primarily in occipital lobe. Results from the present study support the hypothesis that PFAS concentrations in polar bears from East Greenland have exceeded the threshold limits for neurochemical alterations. It is not known whether the observed alterations in neurochemical signaling are currently having negative effects on neurochemistry in East Greenland polar bears. However given the importance of these systems in cognitive processes and motor function, the present results indicate an urgent need for a better understanding of neurochemical effects of PFAS exposure to wildlife. PMID:25682255

  11. Dichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dichloroacetic acid ; CASRN 79 - 43 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  12. Cacodylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Cacodylic acid ; CASRN 75 - 60 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  13. Formic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Formic acid ; CASRN 64 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  14. Trichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 09 / 003F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF TRICHLOROACETIC ACID ( CAS No . 76 - 03 - 9 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) September 2011 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC ii DISCLAIMER This document has

  15. Dichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA 635 / R - 03 / 007 www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF DICHLOROACETIC ACID ( CAS No . 79 - 43 - 6 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) August 2003 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been revi

  16. Benzoic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Benzoic acid ; CASRN 65 - 85 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effec

  17. Trichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Trichloroacetic acid ( TCA ) ; CASRN 76 - 03 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  18. Acrylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acrylic acid ( CASRN 79 - 10 - 7 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  19. Selenious acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Selenious acid ; CASRN 7783 - 00 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  20. Stearic Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) is presented for the chemical, stearic acid. The profile lists the chemical's physical and harmful characteristics, exposure limits, and symptoms of major exposure, for the benefit of teachers and students, who use the chemical in the laboratory.

  1. Phosphoric acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phosphoric acid ; CASRN 7664 - 38 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  2. Sorption of PFOA and PFOS to Ground Water Sediment

    EPA Science Inventory

    During its years of operation, the Washington County Sanitary Landfill near St. Paul, Minnesota accepted both municipal and industrial solid waste. Several years of ground water monitoring performed by the MPCA indicates that, some of the waste disposed of at this landfill contai...

  3. Sorption of PFOA and PFOS to Aquifer Sediment

    EPA Science Inventory

    During its years of operation, the Washington County Sanitary Landfill near St. Paul, Minnesota accepted both municipal and industrial solid waste. Several years of ground water monitoring performed by the MPCA indicates that, some of the waste disposed of at this landfill contai...

  4. Determination of perfluorinated alkyl acids in corn, popcorn and popcorn bags before and after cooking by focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction, liquid chromatography and quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Moreta, Cristina; Tena, Mara Teresa

    2014-08-15

    An analytical method is proposed to determine ten perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) [nine perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)] in corn, popcorn and microwave popcorn packaging by focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction (FUSLE) and ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (QTOF-MS/MS). Selected PFAAs were extracted efficiently in only one 10-s cycle by FUSLE, a simple, safe and inexpensive technique. The developed method was validated for microwave popcorn bags matrix as well as corn and popcorn matrices in terms of linearity, matrix effect error, detection and quantification limits, repeatability and recovery values. The method showed good accuracy with recovery values around 100% except for the lowest chain length PFAAs, satisfactory reproducibility with RSDs under 16%, and sensitivity with limits of detection in the order of hundreds picograms per gram of sample (between 0.2 and 0.7ng/g). This method was also applied to the analysis of six microwave popcorn bags and the popcorn inside before and after cooking. PFCAs contents between 3.50ng/g and 750ng/g were found in bags, being PFHxA (perfluorohexanoic acid) the most abundant of them. However, no PFAAs were detected either corn or popcorn, therefore no migration was assumed. PMID:24986069

  5. Identification of long-chain perfluorinated acids in biota from the Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jonathan W; Smithwick, Marla M; Braune, Birgit M; Hoekstra, Paul F; Muir, Derek C G; Mabury, Scott A

    2004-01-15

    Recently it was discovered that humans and animals from various urban and remote global locations contained a novel class of persistent fluorinated contaminants, the most pervasive of which was perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Lower concentrations of perfluorooctanoate, perfluorohexane sulfonate, and heptadecafluorooctane sulfonamide have also been detected in various samples. Although longer perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) are used in industry and have been detected in fish following a spill of aqueous film forming foam, no studies have been conducted to examine the widespread occurrence of long-chain PFCAs (e.g., CF3(CF2)xCOO-, where x > 6). To provide a preliminary assessment of fluorinated contaminants, including PFCAs, in the Canadian Arctic, polar bears, ringed seals, arctic fox, mink, common loons, northern fulmars, black guillemots, and fish were collected at various locations in the circumpolar region. PFOS was the major contaminant detected in most samples and in polar bear liver was the most prominent organohalogen (mean PFOS = 3.1 microg/g wet weight) compared to individual polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, chlordane, or hexachlorocyclohexane-related chemicals in fat. Using two independent mass spectral techniques, it was confirmed that all samples also contained ng/g concentrations of a homologous series of PFCAs, ranging in length from 9 to 15 carbons. Sum concentrations of PFCAs (sum(PFCAs)) were lower than total PFOS equivalents (sum(PFOS)) in all samples except for mink. In mink, perfluorononanoate (PFNA) concentrations exceeded PFOS concentrations, indicating that PFNA and other PFCAs should be considered in future risk assessments. Mammals feeding at higher trophic levels had greater concentrations of PFOS and PFCAs than mammals feeding at lower trophic positions. In general, odd-length PFCAs exceeded the concentration of even-length PFCAs, and concentrations decreased with increasing chain length in mammals. PFOS and PFCA concentrations were much lower for animals living in the Canadian Arctic than for the same species living in mid-latitude regions of the United States. Future studies should continue to monitor all fluorinated contaminants and examine the absolute and relative toxicities for this novel suite of PFCAs. PMID:14750710

  6. Carbonate acidizing

    SciTech Connect

    Daccord, G.; Touboul, E.; Lenormand, R.

    1989-02-01

    The authors present the first quantitative study and complete model of the wormholing phenomenon, leading to a means of predicting and optimizing carbonate acidizing treatments. Laboratory experiments on a gypsum model system and computer simulations show that for a given geometry, wormholes can be quantified by a unique parameter, their equivalent hydraulic length. The behavior of this quantifying parameter vs. all the system parameters is studied and allows the quantitative prediction of the efficiency of an acidizing treatment. This study highlights the fractal nature of the phenomenon, which is accounted for in the equations, and the strong effect of the sample geometry. Three types of etching can be obtained: compact, wormhole type, or homogeneous. The optimum conditions for achieving the best skin decrease correspond to the creation of wormholes and can then be defined in terms of fluid reactivity and injection rate.

  7. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    SciTech Connect

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  8. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... acid is a substance produced when proteins (called amino acids) in the body break down. A test can ... Cederbaum S, Berry GT. Inborn errors of carbohydrate, ammonia, amino acid, and organic acid metabolism. In: Gleason CA, Devaskar ...

  9. Folic acid - test

    MedlinePLUS

    Folic acid is a type of B vitamin. This article discusses the test to measure the amount of folic acid in the blood. ... that may interfere with test results, including folic acid supplements. Drugs that can decrease folic acid measurements ...

  10. Folic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Your Child All About Food Allergies Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Folic Acid and ... before conception and during early pregnancy . About Folic Acid Folic acid, sometimes called folate, is a B ...

  11. Bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl acids by earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Rich, Courtney D; Blaine, Andrea C; Hundal, Lakhwinder; Higgins, Christopher P

    2015-01-20

    The presence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in biosolids-amended and aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF)-impacted soils results in two potential pathways for movement of these environmental contaminants into terrestrial foodwebs. Uptake of PFAAs by earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to unspiked soils with varying levels of PFAAs (a control soil, an industrially impacted biosolids-amended soil, a municipal biosolids-amended soil, and two AFFF-impacted soils) was measured. Standard 28 day exposure experiments were conducted in each soil, and measurements taken at additional time points in the municipal soil were used to model the kinetics of uptake. Uptake and elimination rates and modeling suggested that steady state bioaccumulation was reached within 28 days of exposure for all PFAAs. The highest concentrations in the earthworms were for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in the AFFF-impacted Soil A (2160 ng/g) and perfluorododecanoate (PFDoA) in the industrially impacted soil (737 ng/g). Wet-weight (ww) and organic carbon (OC)-based biota soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) for the earthworms were calculated after 28 days of exposure for all five soils. The highest BSAF in the industrially impacted soil was for PFDoA (0.42 goc/gww,worm). Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs, dry-weight-basis, dw) were also calculated at 28 days for each of the soils. With the exception of the control soil and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) in the industrially impacted soil, all BAF values were above unity, with the highest being for perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) in the AFFF-impacted Soil A (139 gdw,soil/gdw,worm). BSAFs and BAFs increased with increasing chain length for the perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) and decreased with increasing chain length for the perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs). The results indicate that PFAA bioaccumulation into earthworms depends on soil concentrations, soil characteristics, analyte, and duration of exposure, and that accumulation into earthworms may be a potential route of entry of PFAAs into terrestrial foodwebs. PMID:25517891

  12. Circulating microRNA profiles altered in mice after 28 d exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shengmin; Wang, Jianshe; Zhang, Wei; Dai, Jiayin

    2014-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a stable man-made compound with many industrial and commercial uses. Recently, however, concern has been raised that it may induce various toxicological effects such as hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and developmental toxicity. Because levels of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) can be altered in several clinical diseases, they may serve as potential novel biomarkers. Here,we explored differences in the profiles of circulating miRNAs in mice after PFOA exposure. Using TaqMan miRNA arrays, we determined that the levels of 24 circulating miRNAs were altered in mice dosed with PFOA at 1.25 mg/kg/d and 73 were altered in mice dosed with 5 mg/kg/d. Eight miRNAs were further validated using TaqMan Real-Time PCR assays. Results were consistent with those obtained from the TaqMan miRNA arrays, except for miR-199a-3p. The most remarkable of the circulating miRNAs (miR-26b-5p and miR-199a-3p) were also up-regulated in the serum of occupational workers in our previous epidemiological study. We also found similar patterns in mice exposed to PFOS. These results demon-strated that circulating miRNA profiles were altered after exposure to high concentrations of PFOA and miR-28-5p, miR-32-5p, miR-122-5p, miR-192-5p, and miR-26b-5p in serum may be linked to effects of PFOA, especially in occupationally exposed people. PMID:24459700

  13. Understanding Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH

  14. Understanding Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  15. New bioactive fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to the new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octad...

  16. New Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecen...

  17. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, R.H.; Boyle, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Acid rain, says Boyle is a chemical leprosy eating into the face of North America and Europe, perhaps the major ecological problem of our time. Boyle describes the causes and scope of the phenomenon; the effects on man, wildlife, water, and our cultural heritage. He probes the delays of politicians and the frequent self-serving arguments advanced by industry in the face of what scientists have proved. The solutions he offers are to strengthen the Clean Air Act and require emission reductions that can be accomplished by establishing emission standards on a regional or bubble basis, burn low-sulfur coal, install scrubbers at critical plants, and invest in alternative energy sources. 73 references, 1 figure.

  18. PPAR involvement in PFAA developmental toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are found in the environment and in serum of wildlife and humans. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are developmentally toxic in rodents. The effects of in utero exposure include increas...

  19. Contribution of diffuse inputs to the aqueous mass load of perfluoroalkyl acids in river and stream catchments in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Kyu; Li, Dong-Hao; Shoeib, Mahiba; Zoh, Kyung-Duk

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies disagree regarding the contributions of point versus non-point sources to the aqueous mass loads of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). This study investigated the longitudinal change in PFAA mass load from upstream to downstream stations along rivers and/or streams to assess the relative contributions of point versus nonpoint inputs. With concentrations 10 to 100 times higher than running water, point sources such as wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) effluent and airport ditch-outlet (ADO) water were separated from neighboring upstream and downstream running waters using principal component analysis. Source waters were characterized by certain predominant components [e.g., perfluorobutylsulfonate (PFBS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in WWTP effluent and perfluorohexylsulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctylsulfonate (PFOS) in ADO water], which were minor components of running water. From a mass balance assessment of PFAA mass load, certain compounds such as PFOA and PFBS dominated the contribution of point sources to the mass load in the running water at downstream stations or in small catchment basins with high levels of industrial activity. Most of the mass load in the investigated catchments was attributable to upstream running water with a minor influence from industrial, commercial, and domestic human activities. Furthermore, the negative relationship of per capita emission factors (hereafter, EFs) with population density and a lower contribution of PFAA from WWTPs (~30% on average) compared to the running water-derived mass load at the national level indicated that diffuse inputs were more important contributors to aqueous PFAA contamination in each catchment basin as well as the entire watershed of the country (Korea). Volatile precursor compounds, which are readily dispersed to neighboring basins and transformed to PFAAs in the ambient environment, can be an important source of these diffuse inputs and will become more significant over time. PMID:23849806

  20. Occurrence of perfluoroalkyl surfactants in water, fish, and birds from New York State.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Ewan; Mayack, David T; Roblee, Kenneth; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2006-04-01

    Concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and several other perfluoroalkyl surfactants (PASs) were determined in nine major water bodies (n = 51) of New York State (NYS). These PASs were also measured in the livers of two species of sport fish (n = 66) from 20 inland lakes in NYS. Finally, perfluorinated compounds were measured in the livers of 10 species of waterfowl (n = 87) from the Niagara River region in NYS. PFOS, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHS) were ubiquitous in NYS waters. PFOA was typically found at higher concentrations than were PFOS and PFHS. Elevated concentrations of PFOS were found in surface waters of Lake Onondaga, and elevated concentrations of PFOA were found in the Hudson River. PFOS was the most abundant perfluorinated compound in all fish and bird samples. PFOS concentrations in the livers of fishes ranged from 9 to 315 ng/g wet weight. PFOS, PFOA, and PFOSA (perfluorooctanesulfonamide) concentrations in smallmouth and largemouth bass (taken together) caught in remote mountain lakes with no known point sources of PAS contamination were 14 to 207, < 1.5 to 6.1, and < 1.5 to 9.8 ng/g wet weight, respectively. PFOS concentrations in the livers of birds ranged from 11 to 882 ng/g wet weight. PFOS concentrations were 2.5-fold greater (p = 0.001) in piscivorous birds than in non-piscivorous birds. However, PFOA, PFOSA, and PFHS were not found in bird livers. Overall, average concentrations of PFOS in fish were 8850-fold greater than those in surface water. An average biomagnification factor of 8.9 was estimated for PFOS in common merganser relative to that in fish. This study highlights the significance of dietary fish in PFOS accumulation in the food chain. Furthermore, our results provide information on the distribution of PASs in natural waters, fish, and several bird species in NYS. PMID:16435086

  1. Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxygenated fatty acids are useful as specialty chemicals, plasticizers, and biomedicals. Microbial enzymes convert fatty acids to mono-, di-, and trihydroxy fatty acid products. Among them, Bacillus megaterium ALA2 converted n-6 and n-3 PUFAs to many new oxygenated fatty acids. Linoleic acid was ...

  2. An eosin Y-based "turn-on" fluorescent sensor for detection of perfluorooctane sulfonate.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jiaman; Deng, Xiaoyan; Tan, Kejun

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a novel sensing method with a higher sensitivity of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) than perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has been proposed detection of PFOS in aqueous solution replying on the "off-on" switch of eosin Y/polyethyleneimine (PEI)/PFOS fluorescence system due to the higher affinity of PEI to PFOS than eosin Y. In pH 7.0 Britton-Robinson buffer solution, eosin Y reacts with protonated PEI to form complex by electrostatic attraction, which leads to a strong fluorescence quenching of the eosin Y. When PFOS presents, the fluorescence of eosin Y is recover due to the electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between PFOS and PEI. The recovered fluorescence intensity is proportional to the concentration of PFOS in the ranging from 0 to 2.0×10(-6) mol/L with the limit of detection (LOD, 3σ) being 1.5×10(-8) mol/L without preconcentration. In this study, the optimum reaction conditions and the interferences of foreign substances were investigated. In addition, the effects of PFOA, the analog of PFOS, on the fluorescence recovery of the system were also studied. The presented approach has been successfully used to detect PFOS in real samples with RSD ⩽2.9%. PMID:26103430

  3. GENE PROFILING IN WILD-TYPE AND PPAR?-NULL MICE EXPOSED TO PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA), is a persistent environmental contaminant found in the tissues of humans and wildlife. Over the last decade, health concerns have been raised, in part, because of the long half-life of PFOS and other PFAAs in humans,...

  4. Indoleacetic Acid and Abscisic Acid Antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Tanada, T.

    1973-01-01

    The phytochrome-mediated attachment of mung bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. Oklahoma 612) root tips on glass is quickly affected by indoleactic acid and abscisic acid at concentrations of 10 nm or less. Indoleacetic acid induces detachment, whereas abscisic acid induces attachment. Both plant regulators rapidly antagonize the action of the other. None of several cytokinins, gibberellins, and ethylene tested over a wide range in concentration had any effect on either attachment or detachment of root tips. It is postulated that phytochrome could control the endogenous levels of indoleacetic acid and abscisic acid and perhaps other hormones under certain circumstances, that this action is the first process initiated by phytochrome, and that indoleacetic acid and abscisic acid act on the plasmalemma to bring about opposing changes in the surface electric charges of plant cells. PMID:16658277

  5. Folic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kids Deal With Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth > Parents > Pregnancy & Newborn Center > Your ... especially before conception and during early pregnancy . About Folic Acid Folic acid, sometimes called folate, is a B ...

  6. Facts about Folic Acid

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... of the baby's brain and spine. About folic acid Folic acid is a B vitamin. Our bodies ...

  7. Azelaic Acid Topical

    MedlinePLUS

    Azelaic acid gel is used to clear the bumps, lesions, and swelling caused by rosacea (a skin disease that ... redness, flushing, and pimples on the face). Azelaic acid cream is used to treat acne. Azelaic acid ...

  8. Uric acid test (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  9. Acid Lipase Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage ... Trials Related NINDS Publications and Information What is Acid Lipase Disease ? Acid lipase disease or deficiency occurs ...

  10. Developmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides an overview the developmental toxicity resulting from exposure to perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs). The majority of studies of PFAA-induced developmental toxicity have examined effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) a...

  11. Perfluorinated Compounds in House Dust from Ohio and North Carolina, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), have come under increasing scrutiny due to their persistence in the environment, global distribution, and animal toxicity. Given that human exposure routes for these c...

  12. Acid tolerance in amphibians

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, B.A.

    1985-04-01

    Studies of amphibian acid tolerance provide information about the potential effects of acid deposition on amphibian communities. Amphibians as a group appear to be relatively acid tolerant, with many species suffering increased mortality only below pH 4. However, amphibians exhibit much intraspecific variation in acid tolerance, and some species are sensitive to even low levels of acidity. Furthermore, nonlethal effects, including depression of growth rates and increases in developmental abnormalities, can occur at higher pH.

  13. Indoleacetic Acid and Abscisic Acid Antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Tanada, T.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of low concentrations (10 nm or less) of indoleacetic acid and abscisic acid on the phytochrome-mediated attachment of barley root (Hordeum vulgare L., var. Compana) tips on glass have been found to be opposite to those reported for mung bean root tips. Unlike their effects on mung bean root tips, indoleacetic acid causes attachment while abscisic acid causes detachment of barley root tips. Both hormones specifically and rapidly counteract the action of the other. No effect on the photoreversibility of attachment was observed when several gibberellins, cytokinins, and ethylene were added to the assay medium over a wide concentration range. PMID:16658278

  14. Efficient decomposition of environmentally persistent perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorochemicals using zerovalent iron in subcritical water.

    PubMed

    Hori, Hisao; Nagaoka, Yumiko; Yamamoto, Ari; Sano, Taizo; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Taniyasu, Sachi; Kutsuna, Shuzo; Osaka, Issey; Arakawa, Ryuichi

    2006-02-01

    Decomposition of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and related chemicals in subcritical water was investigated. Although PFOS demonstrated little reactivity in pure subcritical water, addition of zerovalent metals to the reaction system enhanced the PFOS decomposition to form F-ions, with an increasing order of activity of no metal approximately equal Al < Cu < Zn < Fe. Use of iron led to the most efficient PFOS decomposition: When iron powder was added to an aqueous solution of PFOS (93-372 microM) and the mixture was heated at 350 degrees C for 6 h, PFOS concentration in the reaction solution fell below 2.2 microM (detection limit of HPLC with conductometric detection), with formation of F-ions with yields [i.e., (moles of F- formed)/(moles of fluorine content in initial PFOS) x 100] of 46.2-51.4% and without any formation of perfluorocarboxylic acids. A small amount of CHF3 was detected in the gas phase with a yield [i.e., (moles of CHF3)/(moles of carbon content in initial PFOS) x 100] of 0.7%, after the reaction of PFOS (372 microM) with iron at 350 degree C for 6 h. Spectroscopic measurements indicated that PFOS in water markedly adsorbed on the iron surface even at room temperature, and the adsorbed fluorinated species on the iron surface decomposed with rising temperature, with prominent release of F- ions to the solution phase above 250 degrees C. This method was also effective in decomposing other perfluoroalkylsulfonates bearing shorter chain (C2-C6) perfluoroalkyl groups and was successfully applied to the decomposition of PFOS contained in an antireflective coating agent used in semiconductor manufacturing. PMID:16509356

  15. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  16. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few

  17. Quantity of acid in acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    This communication notes the actual magnitude of the acidity in acidic fog particles and suggests a possible line of inquiry into the health effects of such fog so that it can be determined whether a typical fog is detrimental or beneficial relative to dry air.

  18. Acid from heaven

    SciTech Connect

    West, S.

    1980-02-02

    Since the 1950's, acid rain has spread throughout the world and significantly increased in its acidity. Most of the acid rain in the U.S. is caused by sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from coal- and oil-fired power plants. These emissions react with oxygen in the atmosphere to produce dehydrated sulfuric and nitric acids. The effect of acid rain on U.S. lakes, streams, vegetation, forests, and agricultural soils are discussed. Scientific and political actions to alleviate the current acid rain problem must be initiated. (3 maps, 1 photo)

  19. Fatty acid analogs

    DOEpatents

    Elmaleh, David R. (Newton Center, MA); Livni, Eli (Brookline, MA)

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

  20. Carbolic acid poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Phenol poisoning; Phenylic acid poisoning; Hydroxybenzene poisoning; Phenic acid poisoning; Benzenol poisoning ... Phenol ... and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 2008. Toxicological profile for Phenol. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human ...

  1. Zoledronic Acid Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cancer. However, it can be used to treat bone disease in patients who have cancer. Zoledronic acid is ... When zoledronic acid is used to treat Paget's disease of bone, it is usually given as a single dose, ...

  2. Plasma amino acids

    MedlinePLUS

    Plasma amino acids is a screening test done on infants that looks at the amounts of amino ... Laboratory error High or low amounts of individual plasma amino acids must be considered with other information. ...

  3. Valproic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Be sure to discuss all your choices for breastfeeding with your health care provider. What if the father of the baby takes valproic acid? Valproic acid may have effects on sperm shape and movement that could make ...

  4. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePLUS

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount ... the blood in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications ...

  5. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Early research suggests that taking a combination of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids twice daily for ... that taking a combination of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids for 3 months can improve reading, ...

  6. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  7. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); Broun, Pierre (Burlingame, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  8. 78 FR 20029 - Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic...: This regulation establishes an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of castor oil... residues of castor oil, polymer with adipic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid and ricinoleic acid on food...

  9. Quantity of acid in acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    The chemical composition of fog particles has become of considerable interest, because of both the possibility of interpreting atmospheric- chemistry processes in fog particles in terms of the principles of aqueous chemistry and the potential health effects of species present in fog particles. The acidity of fog particles has received wide attention. This communication noted the actual magnitude of the excess acidity in acidic fog particles and suggested a possible line of inquiry into the health effects of such fog so that it can be determined whether a typical fog is detrimental or beneficial relative to dry air. (DP)

  10. What Is Acid Rain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    Acid rain is the collective term for any type of acidified precipitation: rain, snow, sleet, and hail, as well as the presence of acidifying gases, particles, cloud water, and fog in the atmosphere. The increased acidity, primarily from sulfuric and nitric acids, is generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil.…

  11. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  12. The Acid Rain Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  13. [alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

    2010-01-01

    Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH

  14. Asymmetric Amino Acid Catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crdova, Armando

    2008-03-01

    The origins of biological homochirality have intrigued researchers since Pasteur's discovery of the optical activity of biomolecules. Herein, I discuss our observations of asymmetric amplification in amino acid catalyzed carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions under homogenous reaction conditions. Our model shows a synergistic mechanism between the amino acid catalyst and the optically active products such as sugars and amino acid derivatives.

  15. The Acid Rain Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)

  16. What Is Acid Rain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    Acid rain is the collective term for any type of acidified precipitation: rain, snow, sleet, and hail, as well as the presence of acidifying gases, particles, cloud water, and fog in the atmosphere. The increased acidity, primarily from sulfuric and nitric acids, is generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil.

  17. [alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

    2010-01-01

    Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

  18. Association between perfluorinated compounds and pathological conditions in southern sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kannan, K.; Perrotta, E.; Thomas, N.J.

    2006-01-01

    Concentrations of four perfluorinated contaminants, including perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), were measured in liver tissue from 80 adult female sea otters collected from the California coast during 1992a??2002. Concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were in the ranges of <1a??884 and <5a??147 ng/g, wet wt, respectively. Concentrations of PFOA in the livers of these sea otters were among the highest values reported for marine mammals to date. Liver tissue from 6 male sea otters also was analyzed and contained significantly higher concentrations of PFOS than did tissues from female otters. To examine the association between exposures and potential effects, concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were compared among the adult female otters that died from infectious diseases, noninfectious causes, and from apparent emaciation. Concentrations of both PFOA and PFOS were significantly higher in sea otters in the infectious disease category than in the noninfectious category. Concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were not significantly different between noninfectious and emaciated otters, suggesting that the poor nutritive (body) status of emaciated otters did not affect the concentrations of perfluorochemicals in livers. Concentrations of PFOA increased significantly from 1992 to 2002, whereas PFOS concentrations increased from 1992 to 1998 and then decreased after 2000. Significant association between infectious diseases and elevated concentrations of PFOS/PFOA in the livers of sea otters is a cause for concern and suggests the need for further studies.

  19. Amino acid analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

  20. Editorial: Acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This editorial focuses on acid rain and the history of public and governmental response to acid rain. Comments on a book by Gwineth Howell `Acid Rain and Acid Waters` are included. The editor feels that Howells has provide a service to the environmental scientific community, with a textbook useful to a range of people, as well as a call for decision makers to learn from the acid rain issue and use it as a model for more sweeping global environmental issues. A balance is needed among several parameters such as level of evidence, probability that the evidence will lead to a specific direction and the cost to the global community. 1 tab.

  1. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Waunakee, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow; Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2010-11-09

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  2. Nucleic acid detection assays

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James E.

    2005-04-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  3. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor L. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2007-12-11

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  4. Nucleic acid detection compositions

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James L.

    2008-08-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  5. [Safety of folic acid].

    PubMed

    Strhle, Alexander; Wolters, Maike; Hahn, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Improving dietary folate intake is a central public health goal. However, critical voices have become louder warning of too high intake of folic acid. Safety concerns of a high folic acid exposure are usually limited to synthetic folic acid contained in drugs and food supplements. Against this background, the present article focuses on two matters: (a) How do the absorption and metabolism of synthetic folic acid differ from that of other folates? (b) How has the longterm safety of folic acid to be judged, especially regarding the risk of colorectal cancer, autism, asthma, impaired immune defence, masking vitamin B12 deficiency and interactions with the methotrexate metabolism? PMID:26731845

  6. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  7. Nucleic acid detection kits

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann; Kwiatkowski, Robert W.; Vavra, Stephanie H.

    2005-03-29

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of nucleic acid from various viruses in a sample.

  8. Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

    2008-12-02

    Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

  9. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  10. Fatty acids and neurodevelopment.

    PubMed

    Belkind-Gerson, J; Carren-Rodrguez, A; Contreras-Ochoa, C O; Estrada-Mondaca, S; Parra-Cabrera, M S

    2008-08-01

    Knowledge of the importance of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), arachidonic acid (AA), and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) in neurodevelopment was originally obtained from animal studies. These fatty acids are rapidly accreted in brain during the first postnatal year in animal and human infants, and they are found in high concentrations in breast milk. Reports of enhanced intellectual development in breast-fed children, and reports linking LCPUFA deficiency with neurodevelopmental disorders have stressed the physiological importance of DHA in visual and neural systems. In addition to high concentrations of fatty acids in breast milk, they are also present in fish and algae oil and have recently been added to infant formulas. Esterified poplyunsaturated fatty acids act in cellular membranes, in signal transduction, in neurotransmission, and in the formation of lipid rafts. Nonesterified polyunsaturated fatty acids can modulate gene expression and ion channel activities, thus becoming neuroprotective agents. The conversion of linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid into ARA and DHA have led to randomized clinical trials that have studied whether infant formulas supplemented with DHA or both DHA and ARA would enhance visual and cognitive development. This review gives an overview of fatty acids and neurodevelopment, focusing on the findings from these studies. PMID:18667917

  11. Acid-Base Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Hamm, L Lee; Nakhoul, Nazih; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S

    2015-12-01

    Acid-base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function. The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid-base balance. This function of the kidneys has two components: reabsorption of virtually all of the filtered HCO3 (-) and production of new bicarbonate to replace that consumed by normal or pathologic acids. This production or generation of new HCO3 (-) is done by net acid excretion. Under normal conditions, approximately one-third to one-half of net acid excretion by the kidneys is in the form of titratable acid. The other one-half to two-thirds is the excretion of ammonium. The capacity to excrete ammonium under conditions of acid loads is quantitatively much greater than the capacity to increase titratable acid. Multiple, often redundant pathways and processes exist to regulate these renal functions. Derangements in acid-base homeostasis, however, are common in clinical medicine and can often be related to the systems involved in acid-base transport in the kidneys. PMID:26597304

  12. Acid-Base Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Nakhoul, Nazih; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S.

    2015-01-01

    Acid-base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function. The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid-base balance. This function of the kidneys has two components: reabsorption of virtually all of the filtered HCO3− and production of new bicarbonate to replace that consumed by normal or pathologic acids. This production or generation of new HCO3− is done by net acid excretion. Under normal conditions, approximately one-third to one-half of net acid excretion by the kidneys is in the form of titratable acid. The other one-half to two-thirds is the excretion of ammonium. The capacity to excrete ammonium under conditions of acid loads is quantitatively much greater than the capacity to increase titratable acid. Multiple, often redundant pathways and processes exist to regulate these renal functions. Derangements in acid-base homeostasis, however, are common in clinical medicine and can often be related to the systems involved in acid-base transport in the kidneys. PMID:26597304

  13. Glycolic Acid 15% Plus Salicylic Acid 2%

    PubMed Central

    Snchez-Blanco, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Background: Facial flat warts are a contagious viral disease that can cause disturbing cosmetic problems. Topical glycolic acid has been reported to be effective in dermatological treatment depending on the exfoliant capacity, but has not often been reported to be effective in the treatment of facial flat warts. Objective: The aim of this paper was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of glycolic acid 15% topical gel plus salicylic acid 2% in the treatment of recalcitrant facial flat warts. Methods: A total of 20 consecutive patients 7 to 16 years of age with recalcitrant facial flat warts were enrolled in this study. Patients having warts by the eye and lip regions were excluded from the study. A fine layer of face gel was applied to the treatment area once daily. Most of the participants had tried different treatments with no success. Assessments for the response and the occurrence of side effects were performed every two weeks at Weeks 2, 4, 6, and 8. Results: All the patients were clinically cured within eight weeks. Seven patients cleared in four weeks, and 13 patients cleared in eight weeks. No noticeable adverse events were related to the skin. Conclusion: Topical gel of glycolic acid 15% plus salicylic acid 2% is safe and effective when applied to facial flat warts once daily until clearance and may be considered as first-line treatment. PMID:21938272

  14. Lewis acid organocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Sereda, Oksana; Tabassum, Sobia; Wilhelm, Ren

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The term Lewis acid catalysts generally refers to metal salts like aluminium chloride, titanium chloride and zinc chloride. Their application in asymmetric catalysis can be achieved by the addition of enantiopure ligands to these salts. However, not only metal centers can function as Lewis acids. Compounds containing carbenium, silyl or phosphonium cations display Lewis acid catalytic activity. In addition, hypervalent compounds based on phosphorus and silicon, inherit Lewis acidity. Furthermore, ionic liquids, organic salts with a melting point below 100 degrees C, have revealed the ability to catalyze a range of reactions either in substoichiometric amount or, if used as the reaction medium, in stoichiometric or even larger quantities. The ionic liquids can often be efficiently recovered. The catalytic activity of the ionic liquid is explained by the Lewis acidic nature of their cations. This review covers the survey of known classes of metal-free Lewis acids and their application in catalysis. PMID:21494948

  15. Lewis Acid Organocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sereda, Oksana; Tabassum, Sobia; Wilhelm, Ren

    The term Lewis acid catalysts generally refers to metal salts like aluminium chloride, titanium chloride and zinc chloride. Their application in asymmetric catalysis can be achieved by the addition of enantiopure ligands to these salts. However, not only metal centers can function as Lewis acids. Compounds containing carbenium, silyl or phosphonium cations display Lewis acid catalytic activity. In addition, hypervalent compounds based on phosphorus and silicon, inherit Lewis acidity. Furthermore, ionic liquids, organic salts with a melting point below 100 C, have revealed the ability to catalyze a range of reactions either in substoichiometric amount or, if used as the reaction medium, in stoichiometric or even larger quantities. The ionic liquids can often be efficiently recovered. The catalytic activity of the ionic liquid is explained by the Lewis acidic nature of their cations. This review covers the survey of known classes of metal-free Lewis acids and their application in catalysis.

  16. Acid rain reports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Three independent reports on acid precipitation issued in June reinforce each other and, taken together, support those seeking immediate action to curb man-generated acid deposition in northeastern North America by reducing emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. The Interagency Task Force on Acid Precipitation report concluded that manmade pollution is to blame for acid precipitation problems in the northeastern United States. A National Research Council (NRC) committee stated that reducing the manmade emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides will result in a proportional reduction in the deposition of acid precipitation. And an acid rain panel assembled by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) called for immediate action to curb the emissions despite incomplete scientific data.

  17. Polyfluorinated Compounds: Past, Present, and Future

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interest and concern about polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), erfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and an increasing number of other related compounds is growing as more is learned about these ubiquitous anthropogenic substances. Many of these co...

  18. REGULATORY ACTIONS - COMMUNITY RIGHT TO KNOW - PERFLUORINATED COMPOUNDS (PFCS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasing worldwide attention is being focused on a group of persistent organic pollutants known as the perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). This class of compounds includes the now well known perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), but it also includes ...

  19. Determination of Ten Perfluorinated Compounds in Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) Fillets

    EPA Science Inventory

    Limited information is known about the environmental distributions of the perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), in part due to a lack of well characterized analytical methods that can be used to accurately mea...

  20. Determination of Perfluorinated Compounds in the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite ongoing efforts to develop robust analytical methods for the determination of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) such as perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in surface water, comparatively little has been published on method performance, and the...

  1. Multi-Platform Metabolomic Analyses of Rat Urine Following Exposure to Perfluorinated Chemicals (PFCs)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), namely perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), represent an emerging class of persistent and bioaccumulative compounds. Global occurrence of these fluorochemicals, coupled with probable human exposure, has prompted inv...

  2. Application of WWTP Biosolids and Resulting Perfluorinated Compound Contamination of Surface and Well Water in Decatur, Alabama, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been produced and used in a wide range of industrial and consumer products for many decades. Their resistance to degradation has led to their widespread distribution in...

  3. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W. (Golden, CO); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

    2009-10-13

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  4. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  5. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W. (Menlo Park, CA); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

    2011-11-01

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  6. THIN-LAYER SEPARATION OF CITRIC ACID CYCLE INTERMEDIATES, LACTIC ACID, AND THE AMINO ACID TAURINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes a two-dimensional mixed-layer method for separating citric acid cycle intermediates, lactic acid and the amino acid taurine. The method cleanly separates all citric acid cycle intermediates tested, excepting citric acid and isocitric acid. The solvents are in...

  7. In vitro evaluation of the immunotoxic potential of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs)

    SciTech Connect

    Corsini, Emanuela; Avogadro, Anna; Galbiati, Valentina; Dell'Agli, Mario; Marinovich, Marina; Galli, Corrado L.; Germolec, Dori R.

    2011-01-15

    There is evidence from both epidemiology and laboratory studies that perfluorinated compounds may be immunotoxic, affecting both cell-mediated and humoral immunity. The overall goal of this study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying the immunotoxic effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctane acid (PFOA), using in vitro assays. The release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-{alpha} was evaluated in lipolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human peripheral blood leukocytes and in the human promyelocytic cell line THP-1, while the release of IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-{gamma} was evaluated in phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated peripheral blood leukocytes. PFOA and PFOS suppressed LPS-induced TNF-{alpha} production in primary human cultures and THP-1 cells, while IL-8 was suppressed only in THP-1 cells. IL-6 release was decreased only by PFOS. Both PFOA and PFOS decreased T-cell derived, PHA-induced IL-4 and IL-10 release, while IFN-{gamma} release was affected only by PFOS. In all instances, PFOS was more potent than PFOA. Mechanistic investigations carried out in THP-1 cells demonstrated that the effect on cytokine release was pre-transcriptional, as assessed by a reduction in LPS-induced TNF-{alpha} mRNA expression. Using siRNA, a role for PPAR-{alpha} could be demonstrated for PFOA-induced immunotoxicity, while an inhibitory effect on LPS-induced I-{kappa}B degradation could explain the immunomodulatory effect of PFOS. The dissimilar role of PPAR-{alpha} in PFOA and PFOS-induced immunotoxicity was consistent with the differing effects observed on LPS-induced MMP-9 release: PFOA, as the PPAR-{alpha} agonist fenofibrate, modulated the release, while PFOS had no effect. Overall, these studies suggest that PFCs directly suppress cytokine secretion by immune cells, and that PFOA and PFOS have different mechanisms of action.

  8. Diterpenoid acids from Grindelia nana.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, A A; Ahmed, A A; Tanaka, T; Iinuma, M

    2000-03-01

    Two new norditerpenoid acids of the labdane-type (norgrindelic acids), 4,5-dehydro-6-oxo-18-norgrindelic acid (1) and 4beta-hydroxy-6-oxo-19-norgrindelic acid (2), as well as a new grindelic acid derivative, 18-hydroxy-6-oxogrindelic acid (3), were isolated from the aerial parts of Grindelia nana. In addition, the known compounds, 6-oxogrindelic acid, grindelic acid, methyl grindeloate, 7alpha,8alpha-epoxygrindelic acid, and 4alpha-carboxygrindelic acid were also isolated. The structures of the new compounds were characterized on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. PMID:10757723

  9. Structure of Acid phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Csar L; Vihko, Pirkko T

    2013-01-01

    Acid phosphatases are enzymes that have been studied extensively due to the fact that their dysregulation is associated with pathophysiological conditions. This characteristic has been exploited for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic methods. As an example, prostatic acid phosphatase was the first marker for metastatic prostate cancer diagnosis and the dysregulation of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase is associated with abnormal bone resorption linked to osteoporosis. The pioneering crystallization studies on prostatic acid phosphatase and mammalian tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase conformed significant milestones towards the elucidation of the mechanisms followed by these enzymes (Schneider et al., EMBO J 12:2609-2615, 1993). Acid phosphatases are also found in nonmammalian species such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and plants, and most of them share structural similarities with mammalian acid phosphatase enzymes. Acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters following the general equation. Phosphate monoester + H2O -->/<-- alcohol + phosphate. The general classification "acid phosphatase" relies only on the optimum acidic pH for the enzymatic activity in assay conditions using non-physiological substrates. These enzymes accept a wide range of substrates in vitro, ranging from small organic molecules to phosphoproteins, constituting a heterogeneous group of enzymes from the structural point of view. These structural differences account for the divergence in cofactor dependences and behavior against substrates, inhibitors, and activators. In this group only the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase is a metallo-enzyme whereas the other members do not require metal-ion binding for their catalytic activity. In addition, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and erythrocytic acid phosphatase are not inhibited by L-(+)-tartrate ion while the prostatic acid phosphatase is tartrate-sensitive. This is an important difference that can be exploited in in vitro assays to differentiate between different kinds of phosphatase activity. The search for more sensitive and specific methods of detection in clinical laboratory applications led to the development of radioimmunoassays (RIA) for determination of prostatic acid phosphatase in serum. These methods permit the direct quantification of the enzyme regardless of its activity status. Therefore, an independent structural classification exists that helps to group these enzymes according to their structural features and mechanisms. Based on this we can distinguish the histidine acid phosphatases (Van Etten, Ann N Y Acad Sci 390:27-51, 1982), the low molecular weight protein tyrosine acid phosphatases and the metal-ion dependent phosphatases. A note of caution is worthwhile mentioning here. The nomenclature of acid phosphatases has not been particularly easy for those new to the subject. Unfortunately, the acronym PAP is very common in the literature about purple acid phosphatases and prostatic acid phosphatase. In addition, LPAP is the acronym chosen to refer to the lysophosphatidic acid phosphatase which is a different enzyme. It is important to bear in mind this distinction while reviewing the literature to avoid confusion. PMID:23860654

  10. Proteins and Amino Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteins are the most abundant substances in living organisms and cells. All proteins are constructed from the same twenty amino acids that are linked together by covalent bonds. Shorter chains of two or more amino acids can be linked by covalent bonds to form polypeptides. There are twenty amino...

  11. ACID AEROSOLS ISSUE PAPER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report evaluates scientific information on direct health effects associated with exposure to acid aerosols. The present report is not intended as a complete and detailed review of all literature pertaining to acid aerosols. Rather, an attempt has been made to focus on the eva...

  12. EFFECTS OF ACID PRECIPITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent reviews of available data indicate that precipitation in a large region of North America is highly acidic when its pH is compared with the expected pH value of 5.65 for pure rain water in equilibrium with CO2. A growing body of evidence suggests that acid rain is responsib...

  13. Characterization of acid tars.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Sunday A; Stegemann, Julia A; Roy, Amitava

    2010-03-15

    Acid tars from the processing of petroleum and petrochemicals using sulfuric acid were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) micro-analysis. Leaching of contaminants from the acid tars in 48 h batch tests with distilled water at a liquid-to-solid ratio 10:1 was also studied. GC/MS results show that the samples contained aliphatic hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons, up to 12 of the 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and numerous other organic groups, including organic acids (sulfonic acids, carboxylic acids and aromatic acids), phenyl, nitrile, amide, furans, thiophenes, pyrroles, and phthalates, many of which are toxic. Metals analysis shows that Pb was present in significant concentration. DSC results show different transition peaks in the studied samples, demonstrating their complexity and variability. FTIR analysis further confirmed the presence of the organic groups detected by GC/MS. The SEM/EDX micro-analysis results provided insight on the surface characteristics of the samples and show that contaminants distribution was heterogeneous. The results provide useful data on the composition, complexity, and variability of acid tars; information which hitherto have been scarce in public domain. PMID:19857924

  14. Uric Acid Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... treatment for cancer. Rapid cell turnover from such treatment can result in an increased uric acid level. The uric acid urine test is used to help diagnose the cause of recurrent kidney stones and to monitor people with gout for stone formation. ^ Back to top When is ...

  15. Uric acid - blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High levels of uric acid can sometimes cause gout or kidney disease. You may have this test if you have had or are about to have certain types of chemotherapy. Rapid weight loss, which may occur with such treatments, can increase the amount of uric acid in ...

  16. Salicylic Acid Topical

    MedlinePLUS

    Propa pH® Peel-Off Acne Mask ... pimples and skin blemishes in people who have acne. Topical salicylic acid is also used to treat ... medications called keratolytic agents. Topical salicylic acid treats acne by reducing swelling and redness and unplugging blocked ...

  17. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl Acids*

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perfluorinated carbon backbone (4-12 in length) and an acidic functional moiety (carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds are chemically stable, have excellent surface-tension reducing properties...

  18. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl acids

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Perfluoroalkyl acids(PFAAs) area a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perflurinated carbon backbone (4-12in length) and a acidic functional moiety (Carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds have excellent surface-tension reducing properties and have numerous industr...

  19. Analysis of Organic Acids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, John R.; Rauner, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are the procedures and a discussion of the results for an experiment in which students select unknown carboxylic acids, determine their melting points, and investigate their solubility behavior in water and ethanol. A table of selected carboxylic acids is included. (CW)

  20. Acid-fast stain

    MedlinePLUS

    The acid-fast stain is a laboratory test that determines if a sample of tissue, blood, or other body substance is infected with ... washed with an acid solution and a different stain is applied. Bacteria that hold onto the first ...

  1. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  2. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;

  3. Mutant fatty acid desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

  4. EXPOSURES TO ACIDIC AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient monitoring of acid aerosol in four U.S. cities and in a rural region of southern Ontario clearly show distinct periods of strong acidity. easurements made in Kingston, TN, and Stuebenville, OH, resulted in 24-hr H+ ion concentrations exceeding 100 nmole/m3 more than 10 ti...

  5. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Amicar® Injection ... Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type of ... baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  6. Acid rain trends summarized

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In the northeastern United States, the acidity of precipitation has changed little in recent years, although the acidity is increasing in other regions. That's the latest word from a comprehensive review by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of more than 200 published reports of acid rain research from the past 30 years. The report contributes to the controversy over whether increased sulfur emissions from Midwest powerplants increase the acidity of precipitation in the Northeast.When the results of the many individual studies are combined, they show that acidification of precipitation in the Northeast, which has the most damaging level of acidity on a regional basis, occurred primarily before the mid-1950's and has been largely stabilized since the mid-1960s, said John T. Turk, a research hydrologist at the USGS Denver office and author of the 18-page summary report.

  7. Acid rain information book

    SciTech Connect

    Bubenick, D.V.

    1984-01-01

    The potential consequences of widespread acid precipitation demand that this phenomenon be carefully evaluated. Review of the literature shows a rapidly growing body of knowledge, but also reveals major gaps in understanding that need to be narrowed. This document discusses major aspects of the acid rain phenomenon, points out areas of uncertainty, and summarizes current and projected research by responsible government agencies and other concerned organizations. It follows the logical progression from sources of pollutants affecting acid rain formation to the atmospheric transport and transformation of those pollutants and finally to the deposition of acid rain, the effects of that deposition, and possible mitigative measures. This information is followed by a discussion of uncertainties in the understanding of the acid rain phenomenon and a description of current and proposed research.

  8. Conjugated Fatty Acid Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Rawat, Richa; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Sweet, Marie; Shanklin, John

    2012-01-01

    Conjugated linolenic acids (CLNs), 18:3 ?9,11,13, lack the methylene groups found between the double bonds of linolenic acid (18:3 ?9,12,15). CLNs are produced by conjugase enzymes that are homologs of the oleate desaturases FAD2. The goal of this study was to map the domain(s) within the Momordica charantia conjugase (FADX) responsible for CLN formation. To achieve this, a series of Momordica FADX-Arabidopsis FAD2 chimeras were expressed in the Arabidopsis fad3fae1 mutant, and the transformed seeds were analyzed for the accumulation of CLN. These experiments identified helix 2 and the first histidine box as a determinant of conjugase product partitioning into punicic acid (18:3 ?9cis,11trans,13cis) or ?-eleostearic acid (18:3 ?9cis,11trans,13trans). This was confirmed by analysis of a FADX mutant containing six substitutions in which the sequence of helix 2 and first histidine box was converted to that of FAD2. Each of the six FAD2 substitutions was individually converted back to the FADX equivalent identifying residues 111 and 115, adjacent to the first histidine box, as key determinants of conjugase product partitioning. Additionally, expression of FADX G111V and FADX G111V/D115E resulted in an approximate doubling of eleostearic acid accumulation to 20.4% and 21.2%, respectively, compared with 9.9% upon expression of the native Momordica FADX. Like the Momordica conjugase, FADX G111V and FADX D115E produced predominantly ?-eleostearic acid and little punicic acid, but the FADX G111V/D115E double mutant produced approximately equal amounts of ?-eleostearic acid and its isomer, punicic acid, implicating an interactive effect of residues 111 and 115 in punicic acid formation. PMID:22451660

  9. Total syntheses of cis-cyclopropane fatty acids: dihydromalvalic acid, dihydrosterculic acid, lactobacillic acid, and 9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sayali; White, Jonathan M; Williams, Spencer J

    2014-12-14

    cis-Cyclopropane fatty acids (cis-CFAs) are widespread constituents of the seed oils of subtropical plants, membrane components of bacteria and protozoa, and the fats and phospholipids of animals. We describe a systematic approach to the synthesis of enantiomeric pairs of four cis-CFAs: cis-9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid, lactobacillic acid, dihydromalvalic acid, and dihydrosterculic acid. The approach commences with Rh2(OAc)4-catalyzed cyclopropenation of 1-octyne and 1-decyne, and hinges on the preparative scale chromatographic resolution of racemic 2-alkylcycloprop-2-ene-1-carboxylic acids using a homochiral Evan's auxiliary. Saturation of the individual diastereomeric N-cycloprop-2-ene-1-carbonylacyloxazolidines, followed by elaboration to alkylcyclopropylmethylsulfones, allowed Julia-Kocienski olefination with various ?-aldehyde-esters. Finally, saponification and diimide reduction afforded the individual cis-CFA enantiomers. PMID:25321346

  10. Sulfuric Acid on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain.

    This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.

    Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks.

    Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  11. Gluconic acid production.

    PubMed

    Anastassiadis, Savas; Morgunov, Igor G

    2007-01-01

    Gluconic acid, the oxidation product of glucose, is a mild neither caustic nor corrosive, non toxic and readily biodegradable organic acid of great interest for many applications. As a multifunctional carbonic acid belonging to the bulk chemicals and due to its physiological and chemical characteristics, gluconic acid itself, its salts (e.g. alkali metal salts, in especially sodium gluconate) and the gluconolactone form have found extensively versatile uses in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, construction and other industries. Present review article presents the comprehensive information of patent bibliography for the production of gluconic acid and compares the advantages and disadvantages of known processes. Numerous manufacturing processes are described in the international bibliography and patent literature of the last 100 years for the production of gluconic acid from glucose, including chemical and electrochemical catalysis, enzymatic biocatalysis by free or immobilized enzymes in specialized enzyme bioreactors as well as discontinuous and continuous fermentation processes using free growing or immobilized cells of various microorganisms, including bacteria, yeast-like fungi and fungi. Alternatively, new superior fermentation processes have been developed and extensively described for the continuous and discontinuous production of gluconic acid by isolated strains of yeast-like mold Aureobasidium pullulans, offering numerous advantages over the traditional discontinuous fungi processes. PMID:19075839

  12. Trans Fatty Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  13. Strongly Acidic Auxin Indole-3-Methanesulfonic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jerry D.; Baldi, Bruce G.; Bialek, Krystyna

    1985-01-01

    A radiochemical synthesis is described for [14C]indole-3-methanesulfonic acid (IMS), a strongly acidic auxin analog. Techniques were developed for fractionation and purification of IMS using normal and reverse phase chromatography. In addition, the utility of both Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry for analysis of IMS has been demonstrated. IMS was shown to be an active auxin, stimulating soybean hypocotyl elongation, bean first internode curvature, and ethylene production. IMS uptake by thin sections of soybean hypocotyl was essentially independent of solution pH and, when applied at a 100 micromolar concentration, IMS exhibited a basipetal polarity in its transport in both corn coleoptile and soybean hypocotyl sections. [14C]IMS should, therefore, be a useful compound to study fundamental processes related to the movement of auxins in plant tissues and organelles. PMID:16664007

  14. Polycondensation of alpha-amino acids by pyrosulfuric acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denes, F.; Fox, S. W.

    1976-01-01

    The thermal polycondensation of amino acids common to protein is promoted at 80 deg C by pyrosulfuric acid. This is in contrast to the noncondensation at 100 deg C in the presence of concentrated sulfuric acid. These results are in accord with an anhydride mechanism, as proposed earlier for copolycondensation promoted by polyphosphoric acid. The amino acid composition, molecular weight, near-homogeneity, and infrared absorption of the polymer formed are described. The potential significance of planetary pyrosulfuric acid is discussed.

  15. Understanding acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Budiansky, S.

    1981-06-01

    The complexities of the phenomenon of acid rain are described. Many factors, including meteorology, geology, chemistry, and biology, all play parts. Varying weather, varying soils, the presence of other pollutants and species differences all act to blur the connections between industrial emissions, acid rain, and environmental damage. Some experts believe that the greatest pH shock to lakes occurs during snow melt and runoff in the spring; others believe that much of the plant damage ascribed to acid rain is actually due to the effects of ozone. Much work needs to be done in the area of sampling. Historical data are lacking and sampling methods are not sufficiently accurate. (JMT)

  16. [Nicolas Lmery and acidity].

    PubMed

    Lafont, Olivier

    2002-01-01

    After a recalling of Lmery's biography, the history of acidity before Lmery is evoked. The opinions of Theophrastus, Libavius, Otto Techenius, Robert Boyle and Franois Andr are compared. According to Lmery's theory points of acids enter the pores of alkalis, giving salts which are different from a simple mixture. This theory was approved by the scientific community. The examples of J. Morin and Baron are given. A short description of the evolution of the concept of acidity after Lmery's period is also given. PMID:12141323

  17. WASTE ACID DETOXIFICATION AND RECLAMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) project demonstrated the Waste Acid Detoxification and Reclamation (WADR) systems ability to recover waste electropolish acid solutions generated during the manufacturing of gun-tubes, and reuse the clean acid. ...

  18. Amino Acids and Chirality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Jamie E.

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

  19. Difficult Decisions: Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John A.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses some of the contributing factors and chemical reactions involved in the production of acid rain, its effects, and political issues pertaining to who should pay for the clean up. Supplies questions for consideration and discussion. (RT)

  20. Nucleic Acids for Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Joanne; Stojanovic, Milan N.

    Nucleic acids have many features that are ideal for molecular computation. Using nucleic acids, we have constructed a full set of molecular logic gates, with modular stem-loop-controlled deoxyribozymes as switches and single-stranded oligonucleotides as inputs and outputs. These gates have been combined to form basic computational circuits, including a half- and a full-adder, and can also be assembled into automata to perform complex computational tasks such as game playing. Our most advanced automaton to-date integrates more than 100 nucleic acid logic gates to play a complete game of tic-tac-toe encompassing 76 possible game plays. Inputs and outputs can also be coupled with upstream and downstream components, such as aptamers, sensors, secondary gate activation, and small-molecule release, indicating the potential for nucleic acid computation in the engineering of autonomous therapeutic and diagnostic molecular devices.

  1. Stomach acid test

    MedlinePLUS

    Gastric acid secretion test ... The test is done after you have not eaten for a while so fluid is all that remains in ... injected into your body. This is done to test the ability of the cells in the stomach ...

  2. Aminolevulinic Acid Topical

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in combination with photodynamic therapy (PDT; special blue light) to treat actinic keratoses (small crusty or scaly ... photosensitizing agents. When aminolevulinic acid is activated by light, it damages the cells of actinic keratosis lesions.

  3. Suberanilohydroxamic Acid. Aton Pharma.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Ricky W

    2004-07-01

    Aton Pharma Inc, under license from the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, is developing suberanilohydroxamic acid (SAHA), a cytodifferentiating agent and histone deacetylase inhibitor, as a potential cancer chemopreventive. PMID:15243870

  4. Hydrofluoric acid poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Chemical Emergencies: Case Definition: Hydrofluoric Acid . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Dept of Health and Human Services; 2005. Goldfrank LR, ed. Goldfrank's Toxicologic Emergencies . 8th ed. New York, NY: McGraw Hill; 2006. Wax ...

  5. Folic Acid Quiz

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of folic acid daily. 2) Eat a fortified breakfast cereal daily which contains 100% of the daily ... are pregnant. Close × Answer: A CORRECT: While it's important to eat a healthy diet, the EASIEST way ...

  6. Polymers for acid thickening

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, K.W.

    1980-09-30

    Acids, thickened with branched emulsion or suspension polymers of diallyldimethylammonium chloride are useful as oil well drilling and fracturing fluids for stimulating well production and in other applications, such as thickeners for cosmetics, paints, adhesives, textiles and printing inks.

  7. (Acid rain workshop)

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.S.

    1990-12-05

    The traveler presented a paper entitled Susceptibility of Asian Ecosystems to Soil-Mediated Acid Rain Damage'' at the Second Workshop on Acid Rain in Asia. The workshop was organized by the Asian Institute of Technology (Bangkok, Thailand), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, Illinois), and Resource Management Associates (Madison, Wisconsin) and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the United Nations Environment Program, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, and the World Bank. Papers presented on the first day discussed how the experience gained with acid rain in North America and Europe might be applied to the Asian situation. Papers describing energy use projections, sulfur emissions, and effects of acid rain in several Asian countries were presented on the second day. The remaining time was allotted to discussion, planning, and writing plans for a future research program.

  8. Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Amoxicillin is in a class of medications called penicillin-like antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth ... allergic to amoxicillin (Amoxil, Trimox, Wymox), clavulanic acid, penicillin, cephalosporins, or any other medications.tell your doctor ...

  9. Folic acid in diet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... types of anemias . Folate works along with vitamin B12 and vitamin C to help the body break ... Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. National Academy Press. ...

  10. Trans fatty acids (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Trans fatty acids are manufactured fats created during a process called hydrogenation, which is aimed at stabilizing polyunsaturated oils to prevent them from becoming rancid and to keep them solid at room temperature. They may be particularly dangerous for ...

  11. Acid-base chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, C.W.; Blewit, H.L.

    1985-01-01

    The book is not a research compendium and there are no references to the literature. It is a teaching text covering the entire range of undergraduate subject matter dealing with acid-base chemistry (some of it remotely) as taught in inorganic, analytical, and organic chemistry courses. The excellent chapters VII through IX deal in detail with the quantitative aspects of aqueous acid-base equilibria (salt hydrolysis and buffer, titrations, polyprotic and amphoteric substances).

  12. Surviving acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, R.C.

    1984-12-06

    Proposals for the control of acid precipitation surfaced in various forms throughout the 98th Congress, and the issue is certain to generate continued debate in both houses of Congress in 1985. In this article, the Senate Minority Leader comments on the projected economic impact of several acid rain control plans and highlights a coal technology program for fiscal 1985 which presents utilities with an opportunity to make a positive contribution toward the formulation of realistic environmental policy.

  13. Method for isolating nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2015-09-29

    The current disclosure provides methods and kits for isolating nucleic acid from an environmental sample. The current methods and compositions further provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by reducing adsorption of nucleic acids by charged ions and particles within an environmental sample. The methods of the current disclosure provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by releasing adsorbed nucleic acids from charged particles during the nucleic acid isolation process. The current disclosure facilitates the isolation of nucleic acids of sufficient quality and quantity to enable one of ordinary skill in the art to utilize or analyze the isolated nucleic acids for a wide variety of applications including, sequencing or species population analysis.

  14. Mammalian Fatty Acid Elongases

    PubMed Central

    Jump, Donald B.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Very long chain fatty acids confer functional diversity on cells by variations in their chain length and degree of unsaturation. Microsomal fatty acid elongation represents the major pathway for determining the chain length of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids in cellular lipids. The overall reaction for fatty acid elongation involves four enzymes and utilizes malonyl CoA, NADPH, and fatty acyl CoA as substrates. While the fundamental pathway and its requirements have been known for many years, recent advances have revealed a family of enzymes involved in the first step of the reaction, i.e., the condensation reaction. Seven fatty acid elongase subtypes (Elovl #17) have been identified in the mouse, rat, and human genomes. These enzymes determine the rate of overall fatty acid elongation. Moreover, these enzymes also display differential substrate specificity, tissue distribution, and regulation, making them important regulators of cellular lipid composition as well as specific cellular functions. Herein, methods are described to measure elongase activity, analyze elongation products, and alter cellular elongase expression. PMID:19763486

  15. Studies on bile acids

    PubMed Central

    Okishio, Tatsuo; Nair, Padmanabhan P.; Gordon, Maureen

    1967-01-01

    1. A method is described for the quantitative isolation of bile acids from cellular material. Homogenates of rat liver are freeze-dried and extracted exhaustively with 95% (v/v) ethanol containing 0·1% (v/v) of aq. ammonia (sp.gr. 0·88) and purified by anion-exchange chromatography on Amberlyst A-26. 2. The extracted bile acid conjugates are subjected to either of two hydrolytic procedures, one involving chemical and the other enzymic agents. A unique feature in this study is the introduction of an enzyme, a clostridial peptide-bond hydrolase, for the rapid cleavage of bile acid conjugates, replacing the classical drastic chemical hydrolysis with strong alkali. 3. After hydrolysis, free bile acids are methylated and converted into their trifluoroacetates for final determination by gas–liquid chromatography on a triple component column, FS-1265–SE30–NGS. 4. For the purpose of identification of peaks, bile acid methyl esters are converted into their trimethylsilyl ethers by allowing the methyl esters to react with a new and potent silyl donor, bis(trimethylsilyl)acetamide. 5. The technique affords us a means of studying the metabolism of bile acids at the cellular and subcellular levels in tissues. PMID:16742477

  16. Neutron Nucleic Acid Crystallography.

    PubMed

    Chatake, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The hydration shells surrounding nucleic acids and hydrogen-bonding networks involving water molecules and nucleic acids are essential interactions for the structural stability and function of nucleic acids. Water molecules in the hydration shells influence various conformations of DNA and RNA by specific hydrogen-bonding networks, which often contribute to the chemical reactivity and molecular recognition of nucleic acids. However, X-ray crystallography could not provide a complete description of structural information with respect to hydrogen bonds. Indeed, X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for determining the locations of water molecules, i.e., the location of the oxygen atom of H2O; however, it is very difficult to determine the orientation of the water molecules, i.e., the orientation of the two hydrogen atoms of H2O, because X-ray scattering from the hydrogen atom is very small.Neutron crystallography is a specialized tool for determining the positions of hydrogen atoms. Neutrons are not diffracted by electrons, but are diffracted by atomic nuclei; accordingly, neutron scattering lengths of hydrogen and its isotopes are comparable to those of non-hydrogen atoms. Therefore, neutron crystallography can determine both of the locations and orientations of water molecules. This chapter describes the current status of neutron nucleic acid crystallographic research as well as the basic principles of neutron diffraction experiments performed on nucleic acid crystals: materials, crystallization, diffraction experiments, and structure determination. PMID:26227050

  17. Calorimetry of Nucleic Acids.

    PubMed

    Rozners, Eriks; Pilch, Daniel S; Egli, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This unit describes the application of calorimetry to characterize the thermodynamics of nucleic acids, specifically, the two major calorimetric methodologies that are currently employed: differential scanning (DSC) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). DSC is used to study thermally induced order-disorder transitions in nucleic acids. A DSC instrument measures, as a function of temperature (T), the excess heat capacity (Cp ex ) of a nucleic acid solution relative to the same amount of buffer solution. From a single curve of Cp ex versus T, one can derive the following information: the transition enthalpy (?H), entropy (?S), free energy (?G), and heat capacity (?Cp); the state of the transition (two-state versus multistate); and the average size of the molecule that melts as a single thermodynamic entity (e.g., the duplex). ITC is used to study the hybridization of nucleic acid molecules at constant temperature. In an ITC experiment, small aliquots of a titrant nucleic acid solution (strand 1) are added to an analyte nucleic acid solution (strand 2), and the released heat is monitored. ITC yields the stoichiometry of the association reaction (n), the enthalpy of association (?H), the equilibrium association constant (K), and thus the free energy of association (?G). Once ?H and ?G are known, ?S can also be derived. Repetition of the ITC experiment at a number of different temperatures yields the ?Cp for the association reaction from the temperature dependence of ?H. 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:26623974

  18. Acidification and Acid Rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, S. A.; Veselã½, J.

    2003-12-01

    Air pollution by acids has been known as a problem for centuries (Ducros, 1845; Smith, 1872; Camuffo, 1992; Brimblecombe, 1992). Only in the mid-1900s did it become clear that it was a problem for more than just industrially developed areas, and that precipitation quality can affect aquatic resources ( Gorham, 1955). The last three decades of the twentieth century saw tremendous progress in the documentation of the chemistry of the atmosphere, precipitation, and the systems impacted by acid atmospheric deposition. Chronic acidification of ecosystems results in chemical changes to soil and to surface waters and groundwater as a result of reduction of base cation supply or an increase in acid (H+) supply, or both. The most fundamental changes during chronic acidification are an increase in exchangeable H+ or Al3+ (aluminum) in soils, an increase in H+ activity (˜concentration) in water in contact with soil, and a decrease in alkalinity in waters draining watersheds. Water draining from the soil is acidified and has a lower pH (=-log [H+]). As systems acidify, their biotic community changes.Acidic surface waters occur in many parts of the world as a consequence of natural processes and also due to atmospheric deposition of strong acid (e.g., Canada, Jeffries et al. (1986); the United Kingdom, Evans and Monteith (2001); Sweden, Swedish Environmental Protection Board (1986); Finland, Forsius et al. (1990); Norway, Henriksen et al. (1988a); and the United States (USA), Brakke et al. (1988)). Concern over acidification in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere has been driven by the potential for accelerating natural acidification by pollution of the atmosphere with acidic or acidifying compounds. Atmospheric pollution ( Figure 1) has resulted in an increased flux of acid to and through ecosystems. Depending on the ability of an ecosystem to neutralize the increased flux of acidity, acidification may increase only imperceptibly or be accelerated at a rate that endangers the existing biota. Concerns about acid (or acidic) rain in its modern sense were publicized by the Swedish soil scientist Svante Odén (1968). He argued, initially in the Swedish press, that long-term increases in the atmospheric deposition of acid could lower the pH of surface waters, cause a decline in fish stocks, deplete soils of nutrients, and accelerate damage to materials. By the 1970s, acidification of surface waters was reported in many countries in Europe as well as in North America. The late twentieth-century rush to understand the impact of acid rain was driven by: (i) reports of damaged or threatened freshwater fisheries and (ii) damaged forests. Perhaps the earliest linkage between acidic surface water and damage to fish was made by Dahl (1921) in southern Norway. There, spring runoff was sufficiently acidic to kill trout. It was not until the 1970s that a strong link was established between depressed pH, mobilization of aluminum from soil, and fish status ( Schofield and Trojnar,1980). The relationship between acidification of soils and forest health started with hypotheses in the 1960s and has slowly developed. Acid rain enhances the availability of some nutrients (e.g., nitrogen), and may either enhance or diminish the availability of others (e.g., calcium, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus). Damage to anthropogenic structures, human health, and visibility have also raised concerns. The history of these early developments was summarized by Cowling (1982). Since the 1970s, sulfur and nitrogen emissions to the atmosphere have been reduced by 50-85% and 0-30%, respectively, both in North America and Europe. The emission reductions have occurred as a consequence of knowledge gained and economic factors. While recovery of water quality is underway in some areas, problems of acidification persist, and are now complicated by the effects of climate change ( Schindler, 1997).

  19. MODEL AND CELL MEMBRANE PARTITIONING OF PERFLUOROOCTANESULFONATE IS INDEPENDENT OF THE LIPID CHAIN LENGTH

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wei; Ludewig, Gabriele; Wang, Kai; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) is a persistent environmental pollutant that may cause adverse health effects in humans and animals by interacting with and disturbing of the normal properties of biological lipid assemblies. To gain further insights into these interactions, we investigated the effect of PFOS potassium salt on dimyristoyl- (DMPC), dipalmitoyl- (DPPC) and distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC) model membranes using fluorescence anisotropy measurements and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and on the cell membrane of HL-60 human leukemia cells and freshly isolated rat alveolar macrophages using fluorescence anisotropy measurements. PFOS caused a concentration-dependent decrease of the main phase transition temperature (Tm) and an increased peak width (?Tw) in both the fluorescence anisotropy and the DSC experiments, with a rank order DMPC > DPPC > DSPC. PFOS caused a fluidization of the gel phase of all phosphatidylcholines investigated, but had the opposite effect on the liquid crystalline phase. The apparent partition coefficients of PFOS between the phosphatidylcholine bilayer and the bulk aqueous phase were largely independent of the phosphatidylcholine chain length and ranged from 4.4 104 to 8.8 104. PFOS also significantly increased the fluidity of membranes of cells. These findings suggest that PFOS readily partitions into lipid assemblies, independent of their composition, and may cause adverse biological effects by altering their fluidity in a manner that depends on the membrane cooperativity and state (e.g., gel versus liquid crystalline phase) of the lipid assembly. PMID:19932010

  20. Discovery of essential fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Arthur A.; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fat was recognized as a good source of energy and fat-soluble vitamins by the first part of the 20th century, but fatty acids were not considered to be essential nutrients because they could be synthesized from dietary carbohydrate. This well-established view was challenged in 1929 by George and Mildred Burr who reported that dietary fatty acid was required to prevent a deficiency disease that occurred in rats fed a fat-free diet. They concluded that fatty acids were essential nutrients and showed that linoleic acid prevented the disease and is an essential fatty acid. The Burrs surmised that other unsaturated fatty acids were essential and subsequently demonstrated that linolenic acid, the omega-3 fatty acid analog of linoleic acid, is also an essential fatty acid. The discovery of essential fatty acids was a paradigm-changing finding, and it is now considered to be one of the landmark discoveries in lipid research. PMID:25339684

  1. Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

  2. Direct Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of ?-Hydroxy Acids from Malonic Acid.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hang; Luo, Zhenli; Ge, Pingjin; He, Junqian; Zhou, Feng; Zheng, Peipei; Jiang, Jun

    2015-12-18

    A nickel(II) catalyzed asymmetric synthesis of ?-hydroxy acids from malonic acid and ketones was developed, revealing for the first time the synthetic utility of malonic acid in the construction of chiral carboxyl acids; importantly, the synthetic potential of this strategy was further demonstrated by the rapid construction of cephalanthrin A, phaitanthrin B, cruciferane, and rice metabolites. PMID:26587748

  3. Amino-acid contamination of aqueous hydrochloric acid.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolman, Y.; Miller, S. L.

    1971-01-01

    Considerable amino-acid contamination in commercially available analytical grade hydrochloric acid (37% HCl) was found. One bottle contained 8,300 nmol of amino-acids per liter. A bottle from another supplier contained 6,700 nmol per liter. The contaminants were mostly protein amino-acids and several unknowns. Data on the volatility of the amino-acids during HCl distillation were also obtained.

  4. Domoic Acid Epileptic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ramsdell, John S.; Gulland, Frances M.

    2014-01-01

    Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. PMID:24663110

  5. Optical high acidity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Betty S. (Jemez Springs, NM); Nekimken, Howard L. (Los Alamos, NM); Carey, W. Patrick (Lynnwood, WA); O'Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA)

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and, a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber.

  6. Optical high acidity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, B.S.; Nekimken, H.L.; Carey, W.P.; O`Rourke, P.E.

    1997-07-22

    An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber. 10 figs.

  7. Domoic acid epileptic disease.

    PubMed

    Ramsdell, John S; Gulland, Frances M

    2014-03-01

    Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. PMID:24663110

  8. Hydrogen production by fermentation using acetic acid and lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Mitsufumi; Nishimura, Yasuhiko

    2007-03-01

    Microbial hydrogen production from sho-chu post-distillation slurry solution (slurry solution) containing large amounts of organic acids was investigated. The highest hydrogen producer, Clostridium diolis JPCC H-3, was isolated from natural environment and produced hydrogen at 6.03+/-0.15 ml from 5 ml slurry solution in 30 h. Interestingly, the concentration of acetic acid and lactic acid in the slurry solution decreased during hydrogen production. The substrates for hydrogen production by C. diolis JPCC H-3, in particular organic acids, were investigated in an artificial medium. No hydrogen was produced from acetic acid, propionic acid, succinic acid, or citric acid on their own. Hydrogen and butyric acid were produced from a mixture of acetic acid and lactic acid, showing that C. diolis. JPCC H-3 could produce hydrogen from acetic acid and lactic acid. Furthermore, calculation of the Gibbs free energy strongly suggests that this reaction would proceed. In this paper, we describe for the first time microbial hydrogen production from acetic acid and lactic acid by fermentation. PMID:17434426

  9. A Demonstration of Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Man Wai

    2004-01-01

    A demonstration showing acid rain formation is described. Oxides of sulfur and nitrogen that result from the burning of fossil fuels are the major pollutants of acid rain. In this demonstration, SO[subscript 2] gas is produced by the burning of matches. An acid-base indicator will show that the dissolved gas turns an aqueous solution acidic.

  10. Oleanane acid from Myrica cerifera.

    PubMed

    Nagai, M; Sakurai, N; Yumoto, N; Nagumo, S; Seo, S

    2000-10-01

    From the twigs of Myrica cerifera L. (Myricaceae), a new oleanane triterpenic acid named myrica acid was isolated along with myricalactone and several other known constituents. The structure of the acid was determined as 3beta-hydroxy-1-oxoolean-11,13(18)-dien-28-oic acid on the basis of chemical and spectral evidence. PMID:11045444

  11. Corrosion inhibitors used in acidizing

    SciTech Connect

    Cizek, A. . Aquaness Chemical Division)

    1994-01-01

    The history of the development of oil well acidizing and acid corrosion inhibitors used by this industry is reviewed. As deeper and hotter wells were drilled, stimulation acids were exposed to hotter conditions and the organic inhibitors required intensifiers. High-temperature acid corrosion inhibitors are also discussed.

  12. Pelargonic acid weed control parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers and researchers are interested in pelargonic acid (nonanoic acid) as a broad-spectrum post-emergence or burn-down herbicide. Pelargonic acid is a fatty acid naturally occurring in many plants and animals, and present in many foods we consume. The objective of this research was to determine...

  13. Acid rain in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, Neeloo; Streets, David G.; Foell, Wesley K.

    1992-07-01

    Acid rain has been an issue of great concern in North America and Europe during the past several decades. However, due to the passage of a number of recent regulations, most notably the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1990, there is an emerging perception that the problem in these Western nations is nearing solution. The situation in the developing world, particularly in Asia, is much bleaker. Given the policies of many Asian nations to achieve levels of development comparable with the industrialized worldwhich necessitate a significant expansion of energy consumption (most derived from indigenous coal reserves)the potential for the formation of, and damage from, acid deposition in these developing countries is very high. This article delineates and assesses the emissions patterns, meteorology, physical geology, and biological and cultural resources present in various Asian nations. Based on this analysis and the risk factors to acidification, it is concluded that a number of areas in Asia are currently vulnerable to acid rain. These regions include Japan, North and South Korea, southern China, and the mountainous portions of Southeast Asia and southwestern India. Furthermore, with accelerated development (and its attendant increase in energy use and production of emissions of acid deposition precursors) in many nations of Asia, it is likely that other regions will also be affected by acidification in the near future. Based on the results of this overview, it is clear that acid deposition has significant potential to impact the Asian region. However, empirical evidence is urgently needed to confirm this and to provide early warning of increases in the magnitude and spread of acid deposition and its effects throughout this part of the world.

  14. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a chelating agent can bind to metals via four carboxylate and two amine groups. It is a polyamino carboxylic acid and a colorless, water-soluble solid, which is widely used to dissolve lime scale. It is produced as several salts, notably disodium EDTA and calcium disodium EDTA. EDTA reacts with the calcium ions in dentine and forms soluble calcium chelates. A review of the literature and a discussion of the different indications and considerations for its usage are presented. PMID:24966721

  15. Teratogenic potential of valproic acid.

    PubMed

    Hanold, K C

    1986-01-01

    Valproic acid administration in pregnancy may be a potential teratogen to the developing fetus. Numerous animal studies have linked valproic acid to vertebral anomalies and renal agenesis. Recent European data have suggested valproic acid as a causal agent of neural tube defects in human offspring. Research relative to teratogenicity of valproic acid administration for petit mal epilepsy is reviewed. Conclusions indicate that the benefits of valproic acid administration outweigh the hazards of teratogenicity. PMID:3084732

  16. Neurotoxicity of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate to Hippocampal Cells in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Long, Yan; Wang, Yubang; Ji, Guixiang; Yan, Lifeng; Hu, Fan; Gu, Aihua

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a ubiquitous pollutant and found in the environment and in biota. The neurotoxicity of PFOS has received much concern among its various toxic effects when given during developing period of brain. However, little is known about the neurotoxic effects and potential mechanisms of PFOS in the mature brain. Our study demonstrated the neurotoxicity and the potential mechanisms of PFOS in the hippocampus of adult mice for the first time. The impairments of spatial learning and memory were observed by water maze studies after exposure to PFOS for three months. Significant apoptosis was found in hippocampal cells after PFOS exposure, accompanied with a increase of glutamate in the hippocampus and decreases of dopamine (DA) and 3,4-dihydrophenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in Caudate Putamen in the 10.75 mg/kg PFOS group. By two-dimensional fluorescence difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) analysis, seven related proteins in the hippocampus that responded to PFOS exposure were identified, among which, Mib1 protein (an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase), Herc5 (hect domain and RLD 5 isoform 2) and Tyro3 (TYRO3 protein tyrosine kinase 3) were found down-regulated, while Sdha (Succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein subunit), Gzma (Isoform HF1 of Granzyme A precursor), Plau (Urokinase-type plasminogen activator precursor) and Lig4 (DNA ligase 4) were found up-regulated in the 10.75 mg/kg PFOS-treated group compare with control group. Furthermore, we also found that (i) increased expression of caspase-3 protein and decreased expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL and survivin proteins, (ii) the increased glutamate release in the hippocampus. All these might contribute to the dysfunction of hippocampus which finally account for the impairments of spatial learning and memory in adult mice. PMID:23382877

  17. The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

  18. The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the

  19. Comparison of Buffer Effect of Different Acids During Sandstone Acidizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umer Shafiq, Mian; Khaled Ben Mahmud, Hisham; Hamid, Mohamed Ali

    2015-04-01

    The most important concern of sandstone matrix acidizing is to increase the formation permeability by removing the silica particles. To accomplish this, the mud acid (HF: HCl) has been utilized successfully for many years to stimulate the sandstone formations, but still it has many complexities. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of different acid combinations (HF: HCl, HF: H3PO4 and HF: HCOOH). Hydrofluoric acid and fluoboric acid are used to dissolve clays and feldspar. Phosphoric and formic acids are added as a buffer to maintain the pH of the solution; also it allows the maximum penetration of acid into the core sample. Different tests have been performed on the core samples before and after the acidizing to do the comparative study on the buffer effect of these acids. The analysis consists of permeability, porosity, color change and pH value tests. There is more increase in permeability and porosity while less change in pH when phosphoric and formic acids were used compared to mud acid. From these results it has been found that the buffer effect of phosphoric acid and formic acid is better than hydrochloric acid.

  20. [Studies on interaction of acid-treated nanotube titanic acid and amino acids].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huqin; Chen, Xuemei; Jin, Zhensheng; Liao, Guangxi; Wu, Xiaoming; Du, Jianqiang; Cao, Xiang

    2010-06-01

    Nanotube titanic acid (NTA) has distinct optical and electrical character, and has photocatalysis character. In accordance with these qualities, NTA was treated with acid so as to enhance its surface activity. Surface structures and surface groups of acid-treated NTA were characterized and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The interaction between acid-treated NTA and amino acids was investigated. Analysis results showed that the lengths of acid-treated NTA became obviously shorter. The diameters of nanotube bundles did not change obviously with acid-treating. Meanwhile, the surface of acid-treated NTA was cross-linked with carboxyl or esterfunction. In addition, acid-treated NTA can catch amino acid residues easily, and then form close combination. PMID:20649031

  1. [Studies on interaction of acid-treated nanotube titanic acid and amino acids].

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Zhang H; Chen X; Jin Z; Liao G; Wu X; Du J; Cao X

    2010-06-01

    Nanotube titanic acid (NTA) has distinct optical and electrical character, and has photocatalysis character. In accordance with these qualities, NTA was treated with acid so as to enhance its surface activity. Surface structures and surface groups of acid-treated NTA were characterized and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The interaction between acid-treated NTA and amino acids was investigated. Analysis results showed that the lengths of acid-treated NTA became obviously shorter. The diameters of nanotube bundles did not change obviously with acid-treating. Meanwhile, the surface of acid-treated NTA was cross-linked with carboxyl or esterfunction. In addition, acid-treated NTA can catch amino acid residues easily, and then form close combination.

  2. Alkyl phosphonic acids and sulfonic acids in the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George W.; Onwo, Wilfred M.; Cronin, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Homologous series of alkyl phosphonic acids and alkyl sulfonic acids, along with inorganic orthophosphate and sulfate, are identified in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite after conversion to their t-butyl dimethylsilyl derivatives. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl compounds are observed in both series. Five of the eight possible alkyl phosphonic acids and seven of the eight possible alkyl sulfonic acids through C4 are identified. Abundances decrease with increasing carbon number as observed of other homologous series indigenous to Murchison. Concentrations range downward from approximately 380 nmol/gram in the alkyl sulfonic acid series, and from 9 nmol/gram in the alkyl phosphonic acid series.

  3. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

    2010-05-03

    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  4. Mefenamic acid enteropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, P E; Sladen, G E; Filipe, I

    1987-01-01

    The clinical, radiological, and histological features of two patients with severe intestinal damage induced by mefenamic acid and mimicking coeliac disease are described. Symptoms rapidly reverted on withdrawal of the drug, and in one case, did not relapse during treatment with other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Images Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 5 Fig 6 PMID:3680546

  5. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates-Bockenstedt, Catherine

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity designed to motivate students by incorporating science-related issues into a classroom debate. Includes "The Acid Rain Bill" and "Position Guides" for student roles as committee members, consumers, governors, industry owners, tourism professionals, senators, and debate directors. (DKM)

  6. Acid rain bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Sayers, C.S.

    1983-09-01

    This bibliography identifies 900 citations on various aspects of Acid Rain, covering published bibliographies, books, reports, conference and symposium proceedings, audio visual materials, pamphlets and newsletters. It includes five sections: citations index (complete record of author, title, source, order number); KWIC index; title index; author index; and source index. 900 references.

  7. Acid Rain Classroom Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demchik, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a curriculum plan in which students learn about acid rain through instructional media, research and class presentations, lab activities, simulations, design, and design implementation. Describes the simulation activity in detail and includes materials, procedures, instructions, examples, results, and discussion sections. (SAH)

  8. The Acid Rain Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen

    1982-01-01

    Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…

  9. Acid Rain Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugo, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students investigate the formation of solid ammonium chloride aerosol particles to help students better understand the concept of acid rain. Provides activity objectives, procedures, sample data, clean-up instructions, and questions and answers to help interpret the data. (MDH)

  10. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity which provides opportunities for role-playing as industrialists, ecologists, and government officials. The activity involves forming an international commission on acid rain, taking testimony, and, based on the testimony, making recommendations to governments on specific ways to solve the problem. Includes suggestions for…

  11. Plant fatty acid hydroxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Somerville, Chris; van de Loo, Frank

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

  12. Plant fatty acid hydroxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Somerville, C.; Loo, F. van de

    2000-02-22

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related to the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

  13. ACID AEROSOL MEASUREMENT WORKSHOP

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the discussion and results of the U.S. EPA Acid Aerosol Measurement Workshop, conducted February 1-3, 1989, in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. t was held in response to recommendations by the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) regarding ...

  14. Docosahexaenoic acid and lactation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an important component of membrane phospholipids in the retina, and brain, and accumulates rapidly in these tissues during early infancy. DHA is present in human milk, but the amount varies considerably and is largely dependent on maternal diet. This article reviews dat...

  15. Lake and Stream Acidity

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator presents trends in the percentage of lakes and streams in selected regions in the Northeast and mid-Atlantic states that have been considered chronically acidic between 1987 and 2007. This information describes how the extent of acidification, a serious danger t...

  16. Acid Rain: Science Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Harriett S.

    1989-01-01

    Presented is a science activity designed to help students monitor the pH of rainfall. Materials, procedures and follow-up activities are listed. A list of domestic and foreign sources of information is provided. Topics which relate to acid precipitation are outlined. (CW)

  17. Spermatotoxicity of dichloroacetic acid

    EPA Science Inventory

    The testicular toxicity of dichloroacetic acid (DCA), a disinfection byproduct of drinking water, was evaluated in adult male rats given both single and multiple (up to 14 d) oral doses. Delayed spermiation and altered resorption of residual bodies were observed in rats given sin...

  18. Water surface is acidic

    PubMed Central

    Buch, Victoria; Milet, Anne; Vácha, Robert; Jungwirth, Pavel; Devlin, J. Paul

    2007-01-01

    Water autoionization reaction 2H2O → H3O− + OH− is a textbook process of basic importance, resulting in pH = 7 for pure water. However, pH of pure water surface is shown to be significantly lower, the reduction being caused by proton stabilization at the surface. The evidence presented here includes ab initio and classical molecular dynamics simulations of water slabs with solvated H3O+ and OH− ions, density functional studies of (H2O)48H+ clusters, and spectroscopic isotopic-exchange data for D2O substitutional impurities at the surface and in the interior of ice nanocrystals. Because H3O+ does, but OH− does not, display preference for surface sites, the H2O surface is predicted to be acidic with pH < 4.8. For similar reasons, the strength of some weak acids, such as carbonic acid, is expected to increase at the surface. Enhanced surface acidity can have a significant impact on aqueous surface chemistry, e.g., in the atmosphere. PMID:17452650

  19. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity which provides opportunities for role-playing as industrialists, ecologists, and government officials. The activity involves forming an international commission on acid rain, taking testimony, and, based on the testimony, making recommendations to governments on specific ways to solve the problem. Includes suggestions for

  20. The Acid Rain Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen

    1982-01-01

    Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.

  1. Targeting tumor acidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetnyak, Yana K.; Engelman, Donald M.; Andreev, Oleg A.

    2012-02-01

    One of the main features of solid tumors is extracellular acidity, which correlates with tumor aggressiveness and metastatic potential. We introduced novel approach in targeting of acidic tumors, and translocation of cell-impermeable cargo molecules across cellular membrane. Our approach is based on main principle of insertion and folding of a polypeptide in lipid bilayer of membrane. We have identified family of pH Low Insertion Peptides (pHLIPs), which are capable spontaneous insertion and folding in membrane at mild acidic conditions. The affinity of peptides of pHLIP family to membrane at low pH is several times higher than at neutral pH. The process of peptides folding occurs within milliseconds. The energy released in a result of folding (about 2 kcal/mol) could be used to move polar cargo across a membrane, which is a novel concept in drug delivery. pHLIP peptides could be considered as a pH-sensitive single peptide molecular transporters and conjugated with imaging probes for fluorescence, MR, PET and SPECT imaging, they represent a novel in vivo marker of acidity. The work is supported by NIH grants CA133890 and GM073857 to OAA, DME, YRK.

  2. Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

    2003-06-24

    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

  3. Specific bile acids inhibit hepatic fatty acid uptake

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Biao; Park, Hyo Min; Kazantzis, Melissa; Lin, Min; Henkin, Amy; Ng, Stephanie; Song, Sujin; Chen, Yuli; Tran, Heather; Lai, Robin; Her, Chris; Maher, Jacquelyn J.; Forman, Barry M.; Stahl, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Bile acids are known to play important roles as detergents in the absorption of hydrophobic nutrients and as signaling molecules in the regulation of metabolism. Here we tested the novel hypothesis that naturally occurring bile acids interfere with protein-mediated hepatic long chain free fatty acid (LCFA) uptake. To this end stable cell lines expressing fatty acid transporters as well as primary hepatocytes from mouse and human livers were incubated with primary and secondary bile acids to determine their effects on LCFA uptake rates. We identified ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA) as the two most potent inhibitors of the liver-specific fatty acid transport protein 5 (FATP5). Both UDCA and DCA were able to inhibit LCFA uptake by primary hepatocytes in a FATP5-dependent manner. Subsequently, mice were treated with these secondary bile acids in vivo to assess their ability to inhibit diet-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Administration of DCA in vivo via injection or as part of a high-fat diet significantly inhibited hepatic fatty acid uptake and reduced liver triglycerides by more than 50%. In summary, the data demonstrate a novel role for specific bile acids, and the secondary bile acid DCA in particular, in the regulation of hepatic LCFA uptake. The results illuminate a previously unappreciated means by which specific bile acids, such as UDCA and DCA, can impact hepatic triglyceride metabolism and may lead to novel approaches to combat obesity-associated fatty liver disease. PMID:22531947

  4. Radioenzymatic assay for quinolinic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, A.C.; Okuno, E.; Brougher, D.S.; Schwarcz, R.

    1986-10-01

    A new and rapid method for the determination of the excitotoxic tryptophan metabolite quinolinic acid is based on its enzymatic conversion to nicotinic acid mononucleotide and, in a second step utilizing (/sup 3/H)ATP, further to (/sup 3/H) deamido-NAD. Specificity of the assay is assured by using a highly purified preparation of the specific quinolinic acid-catabolizing enzyme, quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase, in the initial step. The limit of sensitivity was found to be 2.5 pmol of quinolinic acid, sufficient to conveniently determine quinolinic acid levels in small volumes of human urine and blood plasma.

  5. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  6. Acid diffusion through polyaniline membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Su, T.M.; Huang, S.C.; Conklin, J.A.

    1995-12-01

    Polyaniline membranes in the undoped (base) and doped (acid) forms are studied for their utility as pervaporation membranes. The separation of water from mixtures of propionic acid, acetic acid and formic acid have been demonstrated from various feed compositions. Doped polyaniline displays an enhanced selectivity of water over these organic acids as compared with undoped polyaniline. For as-cast polyaniline membranes a diffusion coefficient (D) on the order of 10{sup -9} cm{sup 2}/sec has been determined for the flux of protons through the membranes using hydrochloric acid.

  7. NAPAP (National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program) results on acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) was mandated by Congress in 1980 to study the effects of acid rain. The results of 10 years of research on the effect of acid deposition and ozone on forests, particularly high elevation spruce and fir, southern pines, eastern hardwoods and western conifers, will be published this year.

  8. Acid Earth--The Global Threat of Acid Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, John

    Acid pollution is a major international problem, but the debate it has elicited has often clouded the distinction between myth and facts. This publication attempts to concerning the acid pollution situation. This publication attempts to identify available facts. It is the first global review of the problem of acid pollution and the first to

  9. College Chemistry Students' Mental Models of Acids and Acid Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClary, LaKeisha; Talanquer, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to characterize the mental models of acids and acid strength expressed by advanced college chemistry students when engaged in prediction, explanation, and justification tasks that asked them to rank chemical compounds based on their relative acid strength. For that purpose we completed a qualitative research…

  10. Circulating folic acid in plasma: relation to folic acid fortification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The implementation of folic acid fortification in the United States has resulted in unprecedented amounts of this synthetic form of folate in the American diet. Folic acid in circulation may be a useful measure of physiologic exposure to synthetic folic acid, and there is a potential for elevated co...

  11. SPECTROFLUOROMETRIC ASSAY FOR HYPOHALITE AND PEROXYACETIC ACID USING KOJIC ACID

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hypochlorite reacted with kojic acid to form an intensely fluorescent product with excitation and emission wavelengths at 395 and 495 nm, respectively. Hypobromite, generated by reaction of hypochlorite or peroxyacetic acid with NaBr, also reacted with kojic acid to generate an identical fluorescen...

  12. Acid Earth--The Global Threat of Acid Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, John

    Acid pollution is a major international problem, but the debate it has elicited has often clouded the distinction between myth and facts. This publication attempts to concerning the acid pollution situation. This publication attempts to identify available facts. It is the first global review of the problem of acid pollution and the first to…

  13. College Chemistry Students' Mental Models of Acids and Acid Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClary, LaKeisha; Talanquer, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to characterize the mental models of acids and acid strength expressed by advanced college chemistry students when engaged in prediction, explanation, and justification tasks that asked them to rank chemical compounds based on their relative acid strength. For that purpose we completed a qualitative research

  14. Boric/sulfuric acid anodize - Alternative to chromic acid anodize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koop, Rodney; Moji, Yukimori

    1992-04-01

    The suitability of boric acid/sulfuric acid anodizing (BSAA) solution as a more environmentally acceptable replacement of the chromic acid anodizing (CAA) solution was investigated. Results include data on the BSAA process optimization, the corrosion protection performance, and the compatibility with aircraft finishing. It is shown that the BSSA implementation as a substitude for CAA was successful.

  15. (Radioiodinated free fatty acids)

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Jr., F. F.

    1987-12-11

    The traveler participated in the Second International Workshop on Radioiodinated Free Fatty Acids in Amsterdam, The Netherlands where he presented an invited paper describing the pioneering work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving the design, development and testing of new radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids for evaluation of heart disease. He also chaired a technical session on the testing of new agents in various in vitro and in vivo systems. He also visited the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, West Germany, to review, discuss, plan and coordinate collaborative investigations with that institution. In addition, he visited the Cyclotron Research Center in Liege, Belgium, to discuss continuing collaborative studies with the Osmium-191/Iridium-191m radionuclide generator system, and to complete manuscripts and plan future studies.

  16. Exposure and effects of perfluoroalkyl compounds on tree swallows nesting at Lake Johanna in east central Minnesota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Poganski, Beth H.; Solem, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) samples were collected at a reference lake and a nearby lake (Lake Johanna) in east central Minnesota, USA contaminated with perfluorinated carboxylic and sulfonic acids. Tissues were analyzed for a suite of 13 perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) to quantify exposure and to determine if there was an association between egg concentrations of PFCs and reproductive success of tree swallows. Concentrations of perfluoroocatane sulfonate (PFOS) were elevated in all tree swallow tissues from Lake Johanna compared to tissues collected at the reference lake. Other PFCs, except for two, were elevated in blood plasma at Lake Johanna compared to the reference lake. PFOS was the dominant PFC (>75%) at Lake Johanna, but accounted for <50% of total PFCs at the reference lake. There was a negative association between concentrations of PFOS in eggs and hatching success. Reduced hatching success was associated with PFOS levels as low as 150 ng/g wet weight.

  17. Ideas about Acids and Alkalis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toplis, Rob

    1998-01-01

    Investigates students' ideas, conceptions, and misconceptions about acids and alkalis before and after a teaching sequence in a small-scale research project. Concludes that student understanding of acids and alkalis is lacking. (DDR)

  18. Perfluorooctanoic acid and environmental risks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a member of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) family of chemicals, which consist of a carbon backbone typically four to fourteen carbons in length and a charged functional moiety.

  19. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  20. Grading acid rain research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The growing concern with the environmental effects of acid rain has spawned a number of study groups in recent years, and now the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) has released what is essentially a study of a study. In January 1982, White House Science Advisor George Keyworth asked William Nierenberg, Director of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, and a panel of nine scientists to conduct a peer review of three separate reports on acid deposition in eastern North America that had been turned in by U.S.-Canadian scientific working groups.Those studies had been requisitioned by a 1980 Memorandum of Intent between the United States and Canada regarding transboundary air pollution. Overall, the Nierenberg peer review panel was impressed with the efforts of the United States-Canadian Working Groups, (labeled Groups 1, 2, and 3B), but it also found problems. While applauding the work groups' exhaustive search through the acid rain literature, the Nierenberg panel cited what they call an overdependence on soft literature, or writings such as in-house reports and personal communications, which are outside the publicly available (and carefully scrutinized) body of scientific literature.

  1. Immunomodulatory spherical nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Radovic-Moreno, Aleksandar F; Chernyak, Natalia; Mader, Christopher C; Nallagatla, Subbarao; Kang, Richard S; Hao, Liangliang; Walker, David A; Halo, Tiffany L; Merkel, Timothy J; Rische, Clayton H; Anantatmula, Sagar; Burkhart, Merideth; Mirkin, Chad A; Gryaznov, Sergei M

    2015-03-31

    Immunomodulatory nucleic acids have extraordinary promise for treating disease, yet clinical progress has been limited by a lack of tools to safely increase activity in patients. Immunomodulatory nucleic acids act by agonizing or antagonizing endosomal toll-like receptors (TLR3, TLR7/8, and TLR9), proteins involved in innate immune signaling. Immunomodulatory spherical nucleic acids (SNAs) that stimulate (immunostimulatory, IS-SNA) or regulate (immunoregulatory, IR-SNA) immunity by engaging TLRs have been designed, synthesized, and characterized. Compared with free oligonucleotides, IS-SNAs exhibit up to 80-fold increases in potency, 700-fold higher antibody titers, 400-fold higher cellular responses to a model antigen, and improved treatment of mice with lymphomas. IR-SNAs exhibit up to eightfold increases in potency and 30% greater reduction in fibrosis score in mice with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Given the clinical potential of SNAs due to their potency, defined chemical nature, and good tolerability, SNAs are attractive new modalities for developing immunotherapies. PMID:25775582

  2. Acid rain: Reign of controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Kahan, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    Acid Rain is a primer on the science and politics of acid rain. Several introductory chapters describe in simple terms the relevant principles of water chemistry, soil chemistry, and plant physiology and discuss the demonstrated or postulated effects of acid rain on fresh waters and forests as well as on statuary and other exposed objects. There follow discussions on the economic and social implications of acid rain (for example, possible health effects) and on the sources, transport, and distribution of air pollutants.

  3. Protonation Equilibrium of 4-Substituted Benzohydroxamic Acids in Mineral Acids.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Kallol K.; Tamrakar, Pankaj; Rajput, Surendra K.

    1999-04-30

    The protonation equilibria of some 4-substituted benzohydroxamic acids 4-X(C(6)H(4)CONHOH) (X = H, OMe, Cl) have been investigated in aqueous sulfuric, perchloric, and hydrochloric acids at 25 degrees C UV spectrophotometrically. The Hammett acidity function method, the Bunnett-Olsen method, Cox-Yates excess acidity function method, and Marziano-Cimino-Passerini method have been compared in order to rationalize the differences observed between pK(BH)()+ values determined by each method. An attempt has been made to apply multivariate analysis to separate the effect of protonation from the medium effect for benzohydroxamic acid. PMID:11674401

  4. Sequential injection redox or acid-base titration for determination of ascorbic acid or acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Lenghor, Narong; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Vilen, Michael; Sara, Rolf; Christian, Gary D; Grudpan, Kate

    2002-12-01

    Two sequential injection titration systems with spectrophotometric detection have been developed. The first system for determination of ascorbic acid was based on redox reaction between ascorbic acid and permanganate in an acidic medium and lead to a decrease in color intensity of permanganate, monitored at 525 nm. A linear dependence of peak area obtained with ascorbic acid concentration up to 1200 mg l(-1) was achieved. The relative standard deviation for 11 replicate determinations of 400 mg l(-1) ascorbic acid was 2.9%. The second system, for acetic acid determination, was based on acid-base titration of acetic acid with sodium hydroxide using phenolphthalein as an indicator. The decrease in color intensity of the indicator was proportional to the acid content. A linear calibration graph in the range of 2-8% w v(-1) of acetic acid with a relative standard deviation of 4.8% (5.0% w v(-1) acetic acid, n=11) was obtained. Sample throughputs of 60 h(-1) were achieved for both systems. The systems were successfully applied for the assays of ascorbic acid in vitamin C tablets and acetic acid content in vinegars, respectively. PMID:18968850

  5. Biological effects of transfatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kaunitz, H

    1976-03-01

    Transfatty acids are geometrical isomers of the naturally occurring cis-fatty acids, and their molecular configuration is more like that of the corresponding saturated fatty acid. In view of the large amounts of trans-acids in commercially prepared margarines, metabolic studies with trans-acids have received a great deal of attention. Although there are differences in the absorption and digestion of trans-acids and although considerable amounts are deposited in various tissues, no definite signs of toxicity have been observed. An important finding is the increased requirement for essential fatty acids in animals fed high levels of trans-acids. In recent work carried out in Kummerow's laboratory, aortic lesions were found in swine fed large amounts of trans-acids. Evaluation of the data suggests that factors other than trans-acids, per se, may have been responsible for the occurrence of the lesions. As yet, there does not seem to be any valid reason why trans-acids should be excluded from the diet as long as their intake is associated with a high enough level of essential fatty acids in the diet. PMID:960788

  6. An Umbrella for Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randal, Judith

    1979-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has awarded several grants to study effects of and possible solutions to the problem of "acid rain"; pollution from atmospheric nitric and sulfuric acids. The research program is administered through North Carolina State University at Raleigh and will focus on biological effects of acid rain. (JMF)

  7. Scientists Puzzle Over Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Reports on a growing concern over increased acidity in atmospheric percipitation. Explores possible causes of the increased acidity, identifies chemical components of precipitation in various parts of the world, and presents environmental changes that might be attributed to the acidity. (GS)

  8. Pantothenic acid biosynthesis in zymomonas

    DOEpatents

    Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V.

    2014-07-01

    Zymomonas is unable to synthesize pantothenic acid and requires this essential vitamin in growth medium. Zymomonas strains transformed with an operon for expression of 2-dehydropantoate reductase and aspartate 1-decarboxylase were able to grow in medium lacking pantothenic acid. These strains may be used for ethanol production without pantothenic acid supplementation in seed culture and fermentation media.

  9. Carboxylic acid sorption regeneration process

    DOEpatents

    King, C.J.; Poole, L.J.

    1995-05-02

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks into an organic liquid phase or onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine thus forming an alkylammonium carboxylate which is dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine. 10 figs.

  10. Composition for nucleic acid sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2008-08-26

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  11. Evolution of rosmarinic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Maike; Abdullah, Yana; Benner, Johannes; Eberle, David; Gehlen, Katja; Hcherig, Stephanie; Janiak, Verena; Kim, Kyung Hee; Sander, Marion; Weitzel, Corinna; Wolters, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid and chlorogenic acid are caffeic acid esters widely found in the plant kingdom and presumably accumulated as defense compounds. In a survey, more than 240 plant species have been screened for the presence of rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids. Several rosmarinic acid-containing species have been detected. The rosmarinic acid accumulation in species of the Marantaceae has not been known before. Rosmarinic acid is found in hornworts, in the fern family Blechnaceae and in species of several orders of mono- and dicotyledonous angiosperms. The biosyntheses of caffeoylshikimate, chlorogenic acid and rosmarinic acid use 4-coumaroyl-CoA from the general phenylpropanoid pathway as hydroxycinnamoyl donor. The hydroxycinnamoyl acceptor substrate comes from the shikimate pathway: shikimic acid, quinic acid and hydroxyphenyllactic acid derived from l-tyrosine. Similar steps are involved in the biosyntheses of rosmarinic, chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acids: the transfer of the 4-coumaroyl moiety to an acceptor molecule by a hydroxycinnamoyltransferase from the BAHD acyltransferase family and the meta-hydroxylation of the 4-coumaroyl moiety in the ester by a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from the CYP98A family. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferases as well as the meta-hydroxylases show high sequence similarities and thus seem to be closely related. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferase and CYP98A14 from Coleus blumei (Lamiaceae) are nevertheless specific for substrates involved in RA biosynthesis showing an evolutionary diversification in phenolic ester metabolism. Our current view is that only a few enzymes had to be "invented" for rosmarinic acid biosynthesis probably on the basis of genes needed for the formation of chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acid while further biosynthetic steps might have been recruited from phenylpropanoid metabolism, tocopherol/plastoquinone biosynthesis and photorespiration. PMID:19560175

  12. The politics of acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcher, M.E. )

    1989-01-01

    This work examines and compares the acid rain policies through the different political systems of Canada, Great Britain and the United States. Because the flow of acid rain can transcend national boundaries, acid rain has become a crucial international problem. According to the author, because of differences in governmental institutions and structure, the extent of governmental intervention in the industrial economy, the degree of reliance on coal for power generation, and the extent of acid rain damage, national responses to the acid rain problem have varied.

  13. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  14. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Prudent, J.R.; Hall, J.G.; Lyamichev, V.I.; Brow, M.A.D.; Dahlberg, J.E.

    1999-11-16

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations.

  15. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  16. Tested Demonstrations: Color Oscillations in the Formic Acid-Nitric Acid-Sulfuric Acid System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raw, C. J. G.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Presented are procedures for demonstrating the production of color oscillations when nitric acid is added to a formic acid/concentrated sulfuric acid mixture. Because of safety considerations, "Super-8" home movie of the color changes was found to be satisfactory for demonstration purposes. (JN)

  17. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCATANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE RAT AND MOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    1Lau, C., 1J.M. Rogers, 1R.G. Hanson*, 1B.D. Barbee*, 1M.G. Narotsky, 1J.E. Schmid* and 2J.H. Richards*. 1Reproductive Toxicology Division, and 2Environmental Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Developmental toxicity of Perfluorooctane ...

  18. PFOS and PFOSA in Bottlenose Dolphins: An Investigation into Two Unusually High Mortality Events

    EPA Science Inventory

    Along the Atlantic coast of the United States during 1987 and 1988, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) suffered one of this country's largest marine mammal mass mortality events. An estimated 50% of all near-shore bottlenose died during this short period. Two years later a ...

  19. PFOS and PFOSA in Bottlenose Dolphins: An Investigation into Two High Mortality Epizootics (NRMMSTSN2009)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Along the Atlantic coast of the United States during 1987 and 1988, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) suffered one of this country's largest marine mammal mass mortality events. An estimated 50% of all near-shore bottlenose died during this short period. Two years later a ...

  20. PFOS and PFOSA in Bottlenose Dolphins: An Investigation into Two Unusual Mortality Epizootics (WDA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Along the Atlantic coast of the United States during 1987 and 1988, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) suffered one of this country's largest marine mammal mass mortality events. An estimated 50% of all near-shore bottlenose died during this short period. Two years later a ...

  1. PFOS and PFOSA in Bottlenose Dolphins: An Investigation into Two Unusually High Mortality Epizootics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Along the Atlantic coast of the United States during 1987 and 1988, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) suffered one of this country's largest marine mammal mass mortality events. An estimated 50% of all near-shore bottlenose died during this short period. Two years later a ...

  2. Amino acids in Arctic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalabrin, E.; Zangrando, R.; Barbaro, E.; Kehrwald, N. M.; Gabrieli, J.; Barbante, C.; Gambaro, A.

    2012-07-01

    Amino acids are significant components of atmospheric aerosols, affecting organic nitrogen input to marine ecosystems, atmospheric radiation balance, and the global water cycle. The wide range of amino acid reactivities suggest that amino acids may serve as markers of atmospheric transport and deposition of particles. Despite this potential, few measurements have been conducted in remote areas to assess amino acid concentrations and potential sources. Polar regions offer a unique opportunity to investigate atmospheric processes and to conduct source apportionment studies of such compounds. In order to better understand the importance of amino acid compounds in the global atmosphere, we determined free amino acids (FAAs) in seventeen size-segregated aerosol samples collected in a polar station in the Svalbard Islands from 19 April until 14 September 2010. We used an HPLC coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS) to analyze 20 amino acids to quantify compounds at fmol m-3 levels. Mean total FAA concentration was 1070 fmol m-3 where serine and glycine were the most abundant compounds in almost all samples and accounted for 45-60% of the total amino acid relative abundance. The other eighteen compounds had average concentrations between 0.3 and 98 fmol m-3. The higher amino acid concentrations were present in the ultrafine aerosol fraction (<0.49 ?m) and accounted for the majority of the total amino acid content. Local marine sources dominate the boreal summer amino acid concentrations, with the exception of the regional input from Icelandic volcanics.

  3. Amino acids in Arctic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalabrin, E.; Zangrando, R.; Barbaro, E.; Kehrwald, N. M.; Gabrieli, J.; Barbante, C.; Gambaro, A.

    2012-11-01

    Amino acids are significant components of atmospheric aerosols, affecting organic nitrogen input to marine ecosystems, atmospheric radiation balance, and the global water cycle. The wide range of amino acid reactivities suggest that amino acids may serve as markers of atmospheric transport and deposition of particles. Despite this potential, few measurements have been conducted in remote areas to assess amino acid concentrations and potential sources. Polar regions offer a unique opportunity to investigate atmospheric processes and to conduct source apportionment studies of such compounds. In order to better understand the importance of amino acid compounds in the global atmosphere, we determined free amino acids (FAAs) in seventeen size-segregated aerosol samples collected in a polar station in the Svalbard Islands from 19 April until 14 September 2010. We used an HPLC coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS) to analyze 20 amino acids and quantify compounds at fmol m-3 levels. Mean total FAA concentration was 1070 fmol m-3 where serine and glycine were the most abundant compounds in almost all samples and accounted for 45-60% of the total amino acid relative abundance. The other eighteen compounds had average concentrations between 0.3 and 98 fmol m-3. The higher amino acid concentrations were present in the ultrafine aerosol fraction (< 0.49 ?m) and accounted for the majority of the total amino acid content. Local marine sources dominate the boreal summer amino acid concentrations, with the exception of the regional input from Icelandic volcanic emissions.

  4. Chromatographic assays for folic acid.

    PubMed

    Reif, V D; Reamer, J T; Grady, L T

    1977-08-01

    TLC and high-pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assays for folic acid were developed. In the TLC procedure, the folic acid band was extracted from the silica gel after development and determined spectrophotometrically by an oxidation and Bratton-Marshall sequence. A column packed with octadecylsilane chemically bonded to microparticulate silica gel was used for the HPLC assay. Potentiometric determination of water in folic acid samples was necessary to obtain accurate purity values. In a comparison of four assay methods, a direct colorimetric method gave precise, but unspecific, results, while the USP XIX colorimetric method lacked both precision and specificity. The two chromatographic methods were both precise and specific and gave the same assay results. Both methods separated p-aminobenzoic acid, N-(p-amino-benzoyl)-L-glutamic acid, 2-amino-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-6-pteridinecarboxylic acid, 2-amino-4(1H)-pteridinone, and several unidentified impurities from folic acid. PMID:894496

  5. Amino Acid Catabolism in Plants.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Tatjana M; Nunes Nesi, Adriano; Arajo, Wagner L; Braun, Hans-Peter

    2015-11-01

    Amino acids have various prominent functions in plants. Besides their usage during protein biosynthesis, they also represent building blocks for several other biosynthesis pathways and play pivotal roles during signaling processes as well as in plant stress response. In general, pool sizes of the 20 amino acids differ strongly and change dynamically depending on the developmental and physiological state of the plant cell. Besides amino acid biosynthesis, which has already been investigated in great detail, the catabolism of amino acids is of central importance for adjusting their pool sizes but so far has drawn much less attention. The degradation of amino acids can also contribute substantially to the energy state of plant cells under certain physiological conditions, e.g. carbon starvation. In this review, we discuss the biological role of amino acid catabolism and summarize current knowledge on amino acid degradation pathways and their regulation in the context of plant cell physiology. PMID:26384576

  6. Adding value to plant oils and fatty acids: Biological transformation of fatty acids into ?-hydroxycarboxylic, ?,?-dicarboxylic, and ?-aminocarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Seo, Joo-Hyun; Lee, Sun-Mee; Lee, Jinwon; Park, Jin-Byung

    2015-12-20

    Not only short chain ?-hydroxycarboxylic acids, ?,?-dicarboxylic acids, and ?-aminocarboxylic acids but also medium to long chain carboxylic acids are widely used as building blocks and intermediates in the chemical, pharmaceutical, and food industries. Thereby, recent achievements in biological production of medium to long chain carboxylic acids are addressed here. ?-Hydroxycarboxylic and ?,?-dicarboxylic acids were synthesized via terminal CH bond oxygenation of fatty acids and/or internal oxidative cleavage of the fatty acid carbon skeletons. ?-Aminocarboxylic acids were enzymatically produced from ?-hydroxycarboxylic acids via ?-oxocarboxylic acids. Productivities and product yields of some of the products are getting close to the industrial requirements for large scale production. PMID:26546054

  7. Synthesis of amino acids

    DOEpatents

    Davis, J.W. Jr.

    1979-09-21

    A method is described for synthesizing amino acids preceding through novel intermediates of the formulas: R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(OSOC1)CN, R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(C1)CN and (R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(CN)O)/sub 2/SO wherein R/sub 1/ and R/sub 2/ are each selected from hydrogen and monovalent hydrocarbon radicals of 1 to 10 carbon atoms. The use of these intermediates allows the synthesis steps to be exothermic and results in an overall synthesis method which is faster than the synthesis methods of the prior art.

  8. Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Fournier, T; Medjoubi-N, N; Porquet, D

    2000-10-18

    Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) or orosomucoid (ORM) is a 41-43-kDa glycoprotein with a pI of 2.8-3.8. The peptide moiety is a single chain of 183 amino acids (human) or 187 amino acids (rat) with two and one disulfide bridges in humans and rats,respectively. The carbohydrate content represents 45% of the molecular weight attached in the form of five to six highly sialylated complex-type-N-linked glycans. AGP is one of the major acute phase proteins in humans, rats, mice and other species. As most acute phase proteins, its serum concentration increases in response to systemic tissue injury, inflammation or infection, and these changes in serum protein concentrations have been correlated with increases in hepatic synthesis. Expression of the AGP gene is controlled by a combination of the major regulatory mediators, i.e. glucocorticoids and a cytokine network involving mainly interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha), interleukin-6 and IL-6 related cytokines. It is now well established that the acute phase response may take place in extra-hepatic cell types, and may be regulated by inflammatory mediators as observed in hepatocytes. The biological function of AGP remains unknown; however,a number of activities of possible physiological significance, such as various immunomodulating effects, have been described. AGP also has the ability to bind and to carry numerous basic and neutral lipophilic drugs from endogenous (steroid hormones) and exogenous origin; one to seven binding sites have been described. AGP can also bind acidic drugs such as phenobarbital. The immunomodulatory as well as the binding activities of AGP have been shown to be mostly dependent on carbohydrate composition. Finally, the use of AGP transgenic animals enabled to address in vivo, functionality of responsive elements and tissue specificity, as well as the effects of drugs that bind to AGP and will be an useful tool to determine the physiological role of AGP. PMID:11058758

  9. Nucleic Acid Detection Methods

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Cassandra L. (Boston, MA); Yaar, Ron (Brookline, MA); Szafranski, Przemyslaw (Boston, MA); Cantor, Charles R. (Boston, MA)

    1998-05-19

    The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3'-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated.

  10. Nucleic acid detection methods

    DOEpatents

    Smith, C.L.; Yaar, R.; Szafranski, P.; Cantor, C.R.

    1998-05-19

    The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3{prime}-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated. 18 figs.

  11. Cryoprotection from lipoteichoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Charles V.; Middaugh, Amy; Wickham, Jason R.; Friedline, Anthony; Thomas, Kieth J.; Johnson, Karen; Zachariah, Malcolm; Garimella, Ravindranth

    2012-10-01

    Numerous chemical additives lower the freezing point of water, but life at sub-zero temperatures is sustained by a limited number of biological cryoprotectants. Antifreeze proteins in fish, plants, and insects provide protection to a few degrees below freezing. Microbes have been found to survive at even lower temperatures, and with a few exceptions, antifreeze proteins are missing. Survival has been attributed to external factors, such as the high salt concentration of brine veins and adhesion to particulates or ice crystal defects. We have discovered an endogenous cryoprotectant in the cell wall of bacteria, lipoteichoic acid biopolymers. Adding 1% LTA to bacteria cultures immediately prior to freezing provides 50% survival rate, similar to the results obtained with 1% glycerol. In the absence of an additive, bacterial survival is negligible as measured with the resazurin cell viability assay. The mode of action for LTA cryoprotection is unknown. With a molecular weight of 3-5 kDa, it is unlikely to enter the cell cytoplasm. Our observations suggest that teichoic acids could provide a shell of liquid water around biofilms and planktonic bacteria, removing the need for brine veins to prevent bacterial freezing.

  12. Growth of nitric acid hydrates on thin sulfuric acid films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iraci, Laura T.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Wilson, Margaret A.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1994-01-01

    Type I polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are thought to nucleate and grow on stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSAs). To model this system, thin sulfuric acid films were exposed to water and nitric acid vapors (1-3 x 10(exp -4) Torr H2O and 1-2.5 x 10(exp -6) Torr HNO3) and subjected to cooling and heating cycles. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to probe the phase of the sulfuric acid and to identify the HNO3/H2O films that condensed. Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) was observed to grow on crystalline sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) films. NAT also condensed in/on supercooled H2SO4 films without causing crystallization of the sulfuric acid. This growth is consistent with NAT nucleation from ternary solutions as the first step in PSC formation.

  13. Occurrence of perfluorooctane sulfonate and other perfluorinated alkylated substances in harbor porpoises from the Black Sea.

    PubMed

    Van de Vijver, Kristin Inneke; Holsbeek, Ludo; Das, Krishna; Blust, Ronny; Joiris, Claude; De Coen, Wim

    2007-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS) were determined in liver, kidney, muscle, brain, and blubber samples of 31 harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena relicta) of different age and sex stranded along the Ukrainian coast of the Black Sea. In all individuals and in all tissues, PFOS was the predominant PFAS, accounting for on average 90% of the measured PFAS load. PFOS concentrations were the highest in liver (327+/-351 ng/g wet wt) and kidney (147 +/-262 ng/g wet wt) tissue, and lower in blubber (18+/-8 ng/g wet wt), muscle (41+/-50 ng/g wet wt), and brain (24 +/-23 ng/g wetwt). No significant differences could be determined between males and females, nor between juvenile and adult animals (p > 0.05). Perfluorononanoic acid, perfluorodecanoic acid, perfluoroundecanoic acid, and perfluorododecanoic acid could be detected in liver tissue of approximately 25% of the individuals. Perfluorobutane sulfonate, perfluorobutanoic acid, and perfluorooctanoic acid were not detected in any of the porpoise livers. Although we investigated a potential intraspecies segregation according to the source of prey, using stable isotopes, no statistically significant correlation between PFOS concentrations and stable isotopes could be determined. It is, however, noteworthy that the contamination by PFOS in the Black Sea harbor porpoises is comparable to levels found in porpoises from the German Baltic Sea and from coastal areas near Denmark and, therefore, might pose a threat to this population. PMID:17265965

  14. Acidizing: A well completion reference

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    Acidizing removes near-wellbore formation damage by dissolving or bypassing drilling mud, completion fluid or other restrictions. These treatments include matrix pump rate jobs, washes and chemical injection. Matrix stimulation techniques are performed without fracturing reservoir rock. Acid is used to remove drilling, completion, workover or production damage. Solvents and surfactants like crude, condensate, diesel or mutual solvents are used to change pore fluid or formation wettability characteristics. Washes remove scale and other dispersible or soluble material from formations, perforations and casing. The purpose of the above methods is to improve well productivity by removing or mitigating formation damage. Hydrofluoric (HF) acid dissolves clay and fine particles in sandstones. Hydrochloric (HCl) acid etches wormholes that bypass damage in carbonates. Products are subdivided into groups that have similar function and performance. Where applicable, groups have been subdivided to reflect significant differences in additive chemical nature to emphasize uniqueness in the product lines of each company. Products and additives are grouped in 28 categories: water-base completion fluids; water-base polymers; friction reducers; fluid loss; diverting agents; polymer plugs; acid inhibitors; acid retarders; emulsifiers; clay stabilizers; surfactants; non-emulsifiers; fines suspender; anti-sludge agent; foamers; scale inhibitors; iron (Fe) control; oxygen scavenger; mutual solvents; corrosion inhibitors; paraffin control; miscellaneous products; acid systems; retarded acid system; mud acid plus surfactants; mud acid plus alcohol; SGMA; and retarded HF.

  15. Bile Acid Metabolism and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, John Y. L.

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids are important physiological agents for intestinal nutrient absorption and biliary secretion of lipids, toxic metabolites, and xenobiotics. Bile acids also are signaling molecules and metabolic regulators that activate nuclear receptors and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling to regulate hepatic lipid, glucose, and energy homeostasis and maintain metabolic homeostasis. Conversion of cholesterol to bile acids is critical for maintaining cholesterol homeostasis and preventing accumulation of cholesterol, triglycerides, and toxic metabolites, and injury in the liver and other organs. Enterohepatic circulation of bile acids from the liver to intestine and back to the liver plays a central role in nutrient absorption and distribution, and metabolic regulation and homeostasis. This physiological process is regulated by a complex membrane transport system in the liver and intestine regulated by nuclear receptors. Toxic bile acids may cause inflammation, apoptosis, and cell death. On the other hand, bile acid-activated nuclear and GPCR signaling protects against inflammation in liver, intestine, and macrophages. Disorders in bile acid metabolism cause cholestatic liver diseases, dyslipidemia, fatty liver diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. Bile acids, bile acid derivatives, and bile acid sequestrants are therapeutic agents for treating chronic liver diseases, obesity, and diabetes in humans. PMID:23897684

  16. Therapeutic targeting of bile acids.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, Michael; Gores, Gregory J

    2015-08-15

    The first objectives of this article are to review the structure, chemistry, and physiology of bile acids and the types of bile acid malabsorption observed in clinical practice. The second major theme addresses the classical or known properties of bile acids, such as the role of bile acid sequestration in the treatment of hyperlipidemia; the use of ursodeoxycholic acid in therapeutics, from traditional oriental medicine to being, until recently, the drug of choice in cholestatic liver diseases; and the potential for normalizing diverse bowel dysfunctions in irritable bowel syndrome, either by sequestering intraluminal bile acids for diarrhea or by delivering more bile acids to the colon to relieve constipation. The final objective addresses novel concepts and therapeutic opportunities such as the interaction of bile acids and the microbiome to control colonic infections, as in Clostridium difficile-associated colitis, and bile acid targeting of the farnesoid X receptor and G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 with consequent effects on energy expenditure, fat metabolism, and glycemic control. PMID:26138466

  17. Acid rain: Rhetoric and reality

    SciTech Connect

    Park, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    Acid rain is now one of the most serious environmental problems in developed countries. Emissions and fallout were previously extremely localized, but since the introduction of tall stacks policies in both Britain and the US - pardoxically to disperse particulate pollutants and hence reduce local damage - emissions are now lifted into the upper air currents and carried long distances downwind. The acid rain debate now embraces many western countries - including Canada, the US, England, Scotland, Wales, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, West Germany, the Netherlands, Austria, Switzerland - and a growing number of eastern countries - including the Soviet Union, Poland, East Germany, and Czechoslovakia. The problem of acid rain arises, strictly speaking, not so much from the rainfall itself as from its effects on the environment. Runoff affects surface water and groundwater, as well as soils and vegetation. Consequently changes in rainfall acidity can trigger off a range of impacts on the chemistry and ecology of lakes and rivers, soil chemistry and processes, the health and productivity of plants, and building materials, and metallic structures. The most suitable solutions to the problems of acid rain require prevention rather than cure, and there is broad agreement in both the political scientific communities on the need to reduce emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides to the atmosphere. Book divisions discuss: the problem of acid rain, the science of acid rain, the technology of acid rain, and the politics of acid rain, in an effort to evaluate this growing global problem of acid rain.

  18. Electrolytic nature of aqueous sulfuric acid. 2. Acidity.

    PubMed

    Fraenkel, Dan

    2012-09-27

    In part 1 of this study, I reported that the Debye-Hückel limiting law and the smaller-ion shell (SiS) model of strong electrolyte solutions fit nicely with the experimental mean ionic activity coefficient (γ(±)) of aqueous sulfuric acid as a function of concentration and of temperature when the acid is assumed to be a strong 1-3 electrolyte. Here, I report that the SiS-derived activity coefficient of H(+), γ(H(+)), of the 1-3 acid is comparable to that of aqueous HCl. This agrees with titration curves showing, as well-known, that sulfuric acid in water is parallel in strength to aqueous HCl. The calculated pH is in good accord with the Hammett acidity function, H(0), of aqueous sulfuric acid at low concentration, and differences between the two functions at high concentration are discussed and explained. This pH-H(0) relation is consistent with the literature showing that the H(0) of sulfuric acid (in the 1-9 M range) is similar to those of HCl and the other strong mineral monoprotic acids. The titration of aqueous sulfuric acid with NaOH does not agree with the known second dissociation constant of 0.010 23; rather, the constant is found to be ~0.32 and the acid behaves upon neutralization as a strong diprotic acid practically dissociating in one step. A plausible reaction pathway is offered to explain how the acid may transform, upon base neutralization, from a dissociated H(4)SO(5) (as 3H(+) and HSO(5)(3-)) to a dissociated H(2)SO(4) even though the equilibrium constant of the reaction H(+) + HSO(5)(3-) ↔ SO(4)(2-) + H(2)O, at 25 °C, is 10(-37) (part 1). PMID:22924595

  19. Perfluorinated chemicals: Differential toxicity, inhibition of aromatase activity and alteration of cellular lipids in human placental cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gorrochategui, Eva; Pérez-Albaladejo, Elisabet; Casas, Josefina; Lacorte, Sílvia; Porte, Cinta

    2014-06-01

    The cytotoxicity of eight perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), namely, perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA), perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was assessed in the human placental choriocarcinoma cell line JEG-3. Only the long chain PFCs – PFOS, PFDoA, PFNA, PFOA – showed significant cytotoxicity in JEG-3 cells with EC50 values in the range of 107 to 647 μM. The observed cytotoxicity was to some extent related to a higher uptake of the longer chain PFCs by cells (PFDoA > PFOS ≫ PFNA > PFOA > PFHxA). Moreover, this work evidences a high potential of PFOS, PFOA and PFBS to act as aromatase inhibitors in placental cells with IC50s in the range of 57–80 μM, the inhibitory effect of PFBS being particularly important despite the rather low uptake of the compound by cells. Finally, exposure of JEG-3 cells to a mixture of the eight PFCs (0.6 μM each) led to a relative increase (up to 3.4-fold) of several lipid classes, including phosphatidylcholines (PCs), plasmalogen PC and lyso plasmalogen PC, which suggests an interference of PFCs with membrane lipids. Overall, this work highlights the ability of the PFC mixture to alter cellular lipid pattern at concentrations well below those that generate toxicity, and the potential of the short chain PFBS, often considered a safe substitute of PFOS, to significantly inhibit aromatase activity in placental cells. - Highlights: • Eight perfluorinated chemicals of different chain lengths have been selected. • Long chain ones – PFOS, PFDoA, PFNA, PFOA – were cytotoxic in placenta cells. • The uptake of long chain perfluorinated chemicals by cells was comparatively higher. • PFOS, PFOA and the short chain PFBS significantly inhibited aromatase activity. • A mixture of perfluorinated chemicals significantly altered placenta cell lipidome.

  20. Interactions of amino acids, carboxylic acids, and mineral acids with different quinoline derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, Dipjyoti; Deka, Himangshu; Samanta, Shyam Sundar; Guchait, Subrata; Baruah, Jubaraj B.

    2011-03-01

    A series of quinoline containing receptors having amide and ester bonds are synthesized and characterised. The relative binding abilities of these receptors with various amino acids, carboxylic acids and mineral acids are determined by monitoring the changes in fluorescence intensity. Among the receptors bis(2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)ethyl) isophthalate shows fluorescence enhancement on addition of amino acids whereas the other receptors shows fluorescence quenching on addition of amino acids. The receptor N-(quinolin-8-yl)-2-(quinolin-8-yloxy) propanamide has higher binding affinity for amino acids. However, the receptor N-(quinolin-8-yl)-2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)acetamide having similar structure do not bind to amino acids. This is attributed to the concave structure of the former which is favoured due to the presence of methyl substituent. The receptor bis(2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)ethyl) isophthalate do not bind to hydroxy carboxylic acids, but is a good receptor for dicarboxylic acids. The crystal structure of bromide and perchlorate salts of receptor 2-bromo-N-(quinolin-8-yl)-propanamide are determined. In both the cases the amide groups are not in the plane of quinoline ring. The structure of N-(quinolin-8-yl)-2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)acetamide, N-(2-methoxyphenethyl)-2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)acetamide and their salts with maleic acid as well as fumaric acid are determined. It is observed that the solid state structures are governed by the double bond geometry of these two acid. Maleic acid forms salt in both the cases, whereas fumaric acid forms either salt or co-crystals.