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1

Voltammetric study of gold-supported lipid membranes in the presence of perfluorooctanesulphonic acid.  

PubMed

The effect of perfluorooctanesulphonic acid (PFOS) on lipid membranes was studied using supported 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) bilayer as the model membrane. Phospholipid bilayer was deposited on gold electrode using a combination of the Langmuir-Blodgett and Langmuir-Schaefer (LB/LS) techniques. Electrodes were modified with two different types of membranes: DMPC bilayers initially containing PFOS and pure DMPC bilayers later exposed to the PFOS solutions. Such approach allowed studying both the changes in membrane characteristic imposed by the perfluorinated compound present in the model membrane and the process of its incorporation into the membrane. Studies with anticancer drug doxorubicin revealed that PFOS inhibits drug transport through the phospholipid bilayer and its effect can be compared to that of cholesterol. Moreover, the different trends observed in the changes in electron transfer rate constant (k(s)) calculated for ferricyanides and in peak current of hexaamineruthenium chloride showed that electrostatic interactions between electroactive probes and PFOS molecules incorporating into phospholipid bilayers play an important role and should be taken into account while explaining the interactions of perfluorooctanesulphonic acid with model biological membranes. PMID:19592313

Matyszewska, Dorota; Bilewicz, Renata

2009-09-01

2

Altered Fatty Acid Homeostasis and Related Toxicologic Sequelae in Rats Exposed to Dietary Potassium Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is one of a class of industrial chemicals known as perfluoroalkyl acids, which have a wide variety of uses as surfactants and stain repellants. The presence of fluorochemical residues in human blood, plasma, or serum from sample populations worldwide is indicative of widespread human exposure. Previous studies demonstrated that PFOS alters fatty acid metabolism in the liver of

Ivan Curran; S. Lynn Hierlihy; Virginia Liston; Peter Pantazopoulos; Andrée Nunnikhoven; Sheryl Tittlemier; Michael Barker; Keith Trick; Genevieve Bondy

2008-01-01

3

Toxicological interactions of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) with selected pollutants.  

PubMed

The combined toxicity of the perfluorinated surfactants perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and several pollutants (Hg(2+), Cd(2+), 2,4-D, propylparaben, mitomycin C and furazolidone) has been examined with a bioluminescent cyanobacterial toxicity test. Hg(2+), Cd(2+), mitomycin C and furazolidone could be included in the "Acute aquatic hazard" category established in the Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 being "very toxic to aquatic life". Toxicological interactions of PFOA, PFOS with these pollutants in binary, ternary and multicomponent mixtures were studied using the combination-index method. PFOA and PFOS showed an antagonistic interaction at the whole range of effect levels, this may explain in part the finding that PFOA and PFOS interacted in an inverse way with the organic pollutants; the relative hydrophobicity of the tested compounds would also explain this interaction pattern. The interaction of both PFOS and PFOA with heavy metals was mostly antagonistic, decreasing metal toxicity. With increasing complexity of the mixtures, the CI method predicted synergism at low to very low levels of effect; pollutant combinations at their mixture NOECs were tested and confirmed the predicted synergism. PMID:22177019

Rodea-Palomares, Ismael; Leganés, Francisco; Rosal, Roberto; Fernández-Piñas, Francisca

2012-01-30

4

Transfer of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) from contaminated feed to dairy milk.  

PubMed

Dietary intake is the predominant route for human exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS). Single pollution events may thus affect human exposure if polluted ground and water is used to produce animal feed or food. In this study, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK-) model is derived that describes the uptake of PFOS from contaminated feed by cows and its subsequent elimination through the cows' milk. Parameter values of the model were estimated by fitting to experimental data of a cow feeding trial. Model calculations showed that almost all PFOS ingested is excreted through the cows' milk. The elimination rate, however, was low as the estimated half-life in the cow was 56days and it may, thus, take a long time after an initial pollution event to produce PFOS-free milk. The derived model can be used to estimate the transfer of PFOS through the dairy food chain and can be used for comparison of various contamination routes. PMID:23790943

van Asselt, E D; Kowalczyk, J; van Eijkeren, J C H; Zeilmaker, M J; Ehlers, S; Fürst, P; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, M; van der Fels-Klerx, H J

2013-11-15

5

Perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in human breast milk: Results of a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorinated compounds (PFC) are a large group of chemicals produced for several decades and widely used for many industrial and consumer applications. Because of their global occurrence in different environmental media, their persistence and their potential to bioaccumulate in organisms they are of toxicological and public concern.In the present study, perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were quantified in

W. Völkel; O. Genzel-Boroviczény; H. Demmelmair; C. Gebauer; B. Koletzko; D. Twardella; U. Raab; H. Fromme

2008-01-01

6

Effect of humic acid on the sorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) on boehmite.  

PubMed

The sorption of PFOS and PFBS on boehmite was significantly retarded by the competitive sorption of humic acid (HA), implying that PFOS and PFBS are likely more mobile in water and groundwater systems enriched with HA. The sorption behavior of PFOS and PFBS on the HA-modified boehmite surface were also found to differ due to their different chain lengths. For a partially HA-modified boehmite surface, the isotherm study showed that PFOS had a much higher maximum sorption capacity than PFBS and that PFOS might possess additional surface interactions besides electrostatic interaction. For a HA-saturated boehmite, a linear sorption isotherm was found for PFOS while nearly no PFBS sorption was observed. This indicates that sorption behavior between PFOS and the sorbed HA on boehmite was dominated by hydrophobic interactions, instead of electrostatic interaction. In addition, a conceptual model combining hydrophobic and electrostatic interaction was established to explain the sorption behavior of PFOS and PFBS on HA-modified boehmite. Finally, the results revealed that the sorption of PFOS and PFBS on HA-modified boehmite is pH-dependent. The neutralization of negative sites on HA-modified boehmite reduced the electrostatic repulsion and enhanced the partitioning of PFBS on the sorbed HA. PMID:25268321

Wang, Fei; Shih, Kaimin; Leckie, James O

2015-01-01

7

Removal of PFOS, PFOA and other perfluoroalkyl acids at water reclamation plants in South East Queensland Australia.  

PubMed

This paper examines the fate of perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs) and carboxylic acids (PFCAs) in two water reclamation plants in Australia. Both facilities take treated water directly from WWTPs and treat it further to produce high quality recycled water. The first plant utilizes adsorption and filtration methods alongside ozonation, whilst the second uses membrane processes and advanced oxidation to produce purified recycled water. At both facilities perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were the most frequently detected PFCs. Concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in influent (WWTP effluent) ranged up to 3.7 and 16 ng L?¹ respectively, and were reduced to 0.7 and 12 ng L?¹ in the finished water of the ozonation plant. Throughout this facility, concentrations of most of the detected perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) remained relatively unchanged with each successive treatment step. PFOS was an exception to this, with some removal following coagulation and dissolved air flotation/sand filtration (DAFF). At the second plant, influent concentrations of PFOS and PFOA ranged up to 39 and 29 ng L?¹. All PFCs present were removed from the finished water by reverse osmosis (RO) to concentrations below detection and reporting limits (0.4-1.5 ng L?¹). At both plants the observed concentrations were in the low parts per trillion range, well below provisional health based drinking water guidelines suggested for PFOS and PFOA. PMID:21051071

Thompson, Jack; Eaglesham, Geoff; Reungoat, Julien; Poussade, Yvan; Bartkow, Michael; Lawrence, Michael; Mueller, Jochen F

2011-01-01

8

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in surface waters, sediments, soils and wastewater - A review on concentrations and distribution coefficients.  

PubMed

The sorption of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) to soils and sediments determines their fate and distribution in the environment, but there is little consensus regarding distribution coefficients that should be used for assessing the environmental fate of these compounds. Here we reviewed sorption coefficients for PFCs derived from laboratory experiments and compared these values with the gross distribution between the concentrations of PFCs in surface waters and sediments or between wastewater and sewage sludge. Sorption experiments with perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) suggest that their sorption can be described reasonably well as a partitioning-like process with an average log K(oc) of approximately 2.8 for PFOA and 3.0 for PFOS. However, median concentrations in sediments (PFOA, 0.27 ng g(-1); PFOS, 0.54 ng g(-1)) or sewage sludge (PFOA, 37 ng g(-1); PFOS, 69 ng g(-1)) in relation to median concentrations in surface water (PFOA, 3ngl(-1); PFOS, 3ngl(-1)) or wastewater treatment effluent (PFOA, 24 ng l(-1); PFOS, 11 ng l(-1)), suggest that effective log K(oc) distribution coefficients for the field situation may be close to 3.7 for PFOA and 4.2 for PFOS. Applying lab-based log K(oc) distribution coefficients can therefore result in a serious overestimation of PFC concentrations in water and in turn to an underestimation of the residence time of PFOA and PFOS in contaminated soils. Irrespective of the dissipation kinetics, the majority of PFOA and PFOS from contaminated soils will be transported to groundwater and surface water bodies. PMID:23498059

Zareitalabad, P; Siemens, J; Hamer, M; Amelung, W

2013-05-01

9

ACTIVATION OF MOUSE AND HUMAN PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTORS (PPAR ALPHA, GAMMA, BETA DELTA) BY PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID (PFOA) AND PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS)  

EPA Science Inventory

This study evaluates the potential for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) to activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), using a transient transfection cell assay. Cos-1 cells were cultured in DMEM with fetal bovine serum (FBS) in ...

10

Ecological risk assessment of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in marine environment using Isochrysis galbana, Paracentrotus lividus, Siriella armata and Psetta maxima.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) are anthropogenic substances classified as persistent bioaccumulative compounds and are found in various environmental compartments throughout the world, from industrialized regions to remote zones far from areas of production. In this study, we assessed the effects of PFOA and PFOS on early life stages of marine test species belonging to three different trophic levels: one microalga (Isochrysis galbana), a primary consumer (Paracentrotus lividus) and two secondary consumers (Siriella armata and Psetta maxima). Acute EC(50) values for PFOS were 0.11 mg L(-1) in P. maxima, 6.9 mg L(-1) in S. armata, 20 mg L(-1) in P. lividus and 37.5 mg L(-1) in I. galbana. In the case of PFOA, the toxicity was lower but the ranking was the same; 11.9 mg L(-1) in P. maxima, 15.5 mg L(-1) in S. armata, 110 mg L(-1) in P. lividus and 163.6 mg L(-1) in I. galbana. The Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) for PFOS and PFOA in marine water derived from these acute toxicity values are 1.1 ?g L(-1) for PFOS and 119 ?g L(-1) for PFOA. This study established a baseline dataset of toxicity of PFOS and PFOA on saltwater organisms. The data obtained suggest that PFOA pose a minor risk to these organisms through direct exposure. In the perspective of risk assessment, early life stage (ELS) endpoints provide rapid, cost-effective and ecologically relevant information, and links should be sought between these short-term tests and effects of long-term exposures in more realistic scenarios. PMID:22446617

Mhadhbi, Lazhar; Rial, Diego; Pérez, Sara; Beiras, Ricardo

2012-05-01

11

Exposure and effective dose biomarkers for perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in infertile subjects: preliminary results of the PREVIENI project.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have been used as surfactants in various industry and consumer products. PFOS/PFOA are very persistent in the environment and bioaccumulate in humans. They are potential reproductive and developmental toxicants and are considered to be emerging endocrine disrupters (EDs). The Italian project PREVIENI, funded by the Italian Environment Ministry, aims to link environment and human health through the investigation of selected endocrine disrupters (EDs) exposure and associated biomarkers related to human infertility conditions. In the early PREVIENI phase, PFOS and PFOA were determined in 53 couples affected by an infertility status, enrolled in a metropolitan area, according to established inclusion criteria and informed consensus. Nuclear receptors related to chemical compounds interactions were selected as biomarkers of effect and their gene expression modulations were analyzed in human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC). Among couples, subjects not presenting infertility factors (IF--) were separated from affected subjects (IF++). Most IF-- serum samples showed PFOS and PFOA concentrations overlapping the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.5 ng/g wet weight (ww). A substantial percentage of IF++ serum samples showed PFOS concentrations >20-fold the LOD, i.e. from 3 to 50 ng/g ww. In male (50%, n=26) and from 3 to 144 ng/g ww in female (37%, n=30) samples. PFOA values were below the LOD levels in 90% of the total samples. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR?) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) showed a low level of expression in PBMC of both IF++ and IF-- groups. Whereas alpha and beta estrogen receptors (ER? and ER?), androgen receptor (AR), and pregnane X receptor (PXR) were all upregulated in IF++ of both sexes with respect to IF-- group. Our preliminary results related to the metropolitan area indicate that subjects affected by infertility factors tend to have both higher PFOS levels and higher gene expression of specific nuclear receptors. PMID:22197512

La Rocca, Cinzia; Alessi, Eva; Bergamasco, Bruno; Caserta, Donatella; Ciardo, Francesca; Fanello, Emiliano; Focardi, Silvano; Guerranti, Cristiana; Stecca, Laura; Moscarini, Massimo; Perra, Guido; Tait, Sabrina; Zaghi, Carlo; Mantovani, Alberto

2012-02-01

12

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in sewage treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in the biological units of various full-scale municipal sewage treatment plants were measured. Samples of influent, primary effluent, aeration tank effluent, final effluent and grab samples of primary, activated, secondary and anaerobically digested sludge were collected by 5 sampling events over one year. The two sewage treatment plants (STPs) selected for

Jing Yu; Jiangyong Hu; Shuhei Tanaka; Shigeo Fujii

2009-01-01

13

Carryover of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) from Soil to Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the scope of a joint project to study soil-to-plant carryover of polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs), five cultivated\\u000a plants (spring wheat, oats, potatoes, maize, and perennial ryegrass) were sown or planted in Mitscherlich pots. Six variants\\u000a per species were used, each with a different concentration level of PFOA and PFOS (from 0.25 to 50 mg\\/kg as aqueous solution)\\u000a to detect possible concentration

T. Stahl; J. Heyn; H. Thiele; J. Hüther; K. Failing; S. Georgii; H. Brunn

2009-01-01

14

Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) adversely affects the life-cycle of the damselfly Enallagma cyathigerum.  

PubMed

We evaluated whether life-time exposure to PFOS affects egg development, hatching, larval development, survival, metamorphosis and body mass of Enallagma cyathigerum (Insecta: Odonata). Eggs and larvae were exposed to five concentrations ranging from 0 to 10000 microg/L. Our results show reduced egg hatching success, slower larval development, greater larval mortality, and decreased metamorphosis success with increasing PFOS concentration. PFOS had no effect on egg developmental time and hatching or on mass of adults. Eggs were the least sensitive stage (NOEC=10000 microg/L). Larval NOEC values were 1000 times smaller (10 microg/L). Successful metamorphosis was the most sensitive response trait studied (NOEC<10 microg/L). The NOEC value suggests that E. cyathigerum is amongst the most sensitive freshwater organisms tested. NOEC for metamorphosis is less than 10-times greater than the ordinary reported environmental concentrations in freshwater, but is more than 200-times smaller than the greatest concentrations measured after accidental releases. PMID:19811863

Bots, Jessica; De Bruyn, Luc; Snijkers, Tom; Van den Branden, Bert; Van Gossum, Hans

2010-03-01

15

Identification of genes responsive to PFOS using gene expression profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) is widely distributed in the environment including in the tissues of wildlife and humans, however, its mechanism of action remains unclear. Here, the Affymetrix rat genome U34A genechip was used to identify alterations in gene expression due to PFOS exposure. Rat hepatoma cells were treated with PFOS at 2–50mg\\/L (4–100?M) for 96h. Sprague-Dawley rats were orally

Wenyue Hu; Paul D. Jones; Trine Celius; John P. Giesy

2005-01-01

16

A review of spatial and temporal assessment of PFOS and PFOA contamination in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current state of concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in China is presented. While products that are known to degrade to either PFOS or PFOA have been used in China, concentrations in environmental media have been reported to be relatively low across China. Greater concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were observed in southern and eastern China

Chunli Chen; Yonglong Lu; Xiang Zhang; Jing Geng; Tieyu Wang; Yajuan Shi; Wenyou Hu; Jing Li

2009-01-01

17

Accumulation of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in the food chain of the Western Scheldt estuary: Comparing field measurements with kinetic modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmentally persistent perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a perfluoroalkylated acid (PFA), which has been found to accumulate and biomagnify through food webs all over the world. In the present investigation, the accumulation kinetics of PFOS was explored using the bioaccumulation model OMEGA. As accumulation behavior of PFOS may show similarities to fatty acids as well as to neutral organic compounds,

Martine G. de Vos; Mark A. J. Huijbregts; Martine J. van den Heuvel-Greve; A. Dick Vethaak; Kristin I. Van de Vijver; Pim E. G. Leonards; S. P. J. van Leeuwen; P. de Voogt; A. Jan Hendriks

2008-01-01

18

DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICOGENOMIC STUDIES OF PFOA AND PFOS IN MICE.  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are developmentally toxic in rodents. To better understand the mechanism(s) associated with this toxicity, we have conducted transcript profiling in mice. In an initial study, pregnant animals were dosed througho...

19

Challenges of non-PFOS top antireflective coating material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Top anti-reflective coating (TARC) material is very useful in decreasing standing waves and minimizing swing amplitude of critical dimensions (CD) because it can reduce the reflectivity of structures by interference. TARC can also help to control resist defects, improve CD uniformity, and solve CD variation issues caused by post exposure bake (PEB) delay. The perfluorooctyl sulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are used as a surfactant in actual TARC materials. They can reduce surface tension to improve the coating performance of TARC. However, PFOS and PFOA are restricted for future applications due to environmental concerns and should be omitted from TARC materials. Therefore, material vendors start working hard on Non-PFOS TARC material development. In this paper, the PEB delay behavior with and without TARC was discussed. The effect of PEB delay is not only related to the pattern density, but also strongly related to resist material. According to the testing results, there are still some issues in Non-PFOS TARC materials such as coating performance, material removing, defect control, and film loss etc. Taking these Non-PFOS TARC materials as examples, Non-PFOS TARC-3 could not be dissolved completely in alkaline developer. There are serious embedded defects of Non-PFOS TARC-2 on patterned wafer. Additionally, Non-PFOS TARC-1 shows an acceptable defect level without TARC baking, but it has poor edge coating and more film loss issues. The issue of poor film coating could be solved by coating recipe modification and also by improvements on the material itself made by the material vendor. Therefore, Non-PFOS TARC-1 without TARC baking can be a candidate for a Non-PFOS TARC process because of its acceptable Litho performances and defect density.

Hsu, Shu-Hao; Vermeir, Inge; Scholze, Matthias; Voigt, Matthias; Gierth, Janine; Mittermeier, Armelle; Mäge, Iris; Voelkel, Lars

2008-03-01

20

CHRONIC ZEBRAFISH PFOS EXPOSURE ALTERS SEX RATIO AND MATERNAL RELATED EFFECTS IN F1 OFFSPRING  

PubMed Central

Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) is an organic contaminant ubiquitous in the environment, wildlife, and humans. Few studies have assessed its chronic toxicity on aquatic organisms. The present study defined the effects of long-term exposure to PFOS on zebrafish development and reproduction. Specifically, zebrafish at 8 h postfertilization (hpf) were exposed to PFOS at 0, 5, 50, and 250 ?g/L for five months. Growth suppression was observed in the 250 ?g/L PFOS-treated group. The sex ratio was altered, with a significant female dominance in the high-dose PFOS group. Male gonad development was also impaired in a dose-dependent manner by PFOS exposure. Although female fecundity was not impacted, the F1 embryos derived from high-dose exposed females paired with males without PFOS exposure developed severe deformity at early development stages and resulted in 100% larval mortality at 7 d postfertilization (dpf). Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid quantification in embryos indicated that decreased larval survival in F1 offspring was directly correlated to the PFOS body burden, and larval lethality was attributable to maternal transfer of PFOS to the eggs. Lower-dose parental PFOS exposure did not result in decreased F1 survival; however, the offspring displayed hyperactivity of basal swimming speed in a light-to-dark behavior assessment test. These findings demonstrate that chronic exposure to PFOS adversely impacts embryonic growth, reproduction, and subsequent offspring development. Environ. PMID:21671259

Wang, Mingyong; Chen, Jiangfei; Lin, Kuanfei; Chen, Yuanhong; Hu, Wei; Tanguay, Robert L.; Huang, Changjiang; Dong, Qiaoxiang

2012-01-01

21

[Researching progresses in environmental pollution behavior, toxic effects and mechanisms of PFOS/PFOA].  

PubMed

It has been validated that perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) can be considered as emerging persistent organic pollutants. In recent years, there are increasing distribution of PFOS/PFOA in environmental systems, and accumulation and toxic effects of PFOS/PFOA in living organisms. Thus, environmental pollution and biological exposure of PFOS/PFOA were firstly analyzed on the basis of their pollution levels, exposure to wild animals, exposure to human bodies, and changing trends in pollution and exposure. Secondly, movement and transformation behaviors of PFOS/PFOA in environment were expounded on the basis of their transport and transformation processes in air environment, wastewater and sewage sludge, and their accumulation, metabology and degradation processes in living organisms. Some recent important advances in ecological effects of PFOS/PFOA and their possible mechanisms were summarized. Finally, the future emphases of research on pollution ecology of PFOS/PFOA were tentatively suggested. PMID:18268971

Zhou, Qi-xing; Hu, Xian-gang

2007-10-01

22

Removal of PFOS, PFOA and other perfluoroalkyl acids at water reclamation plants in South East Queensland Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the fate of perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs) and carboxylic acids (PFCAs) in two water reclamation plants in Australia. Both facilities take treated water directly from WWTPs and treat it further to produce high quality recycled water. The first plant utilizes adsorption and filtration methods alongside ozonation, whilst the second uses membrane processes and advanced oxidation to produce purified

Jack Thompson; Geoff Eaglesham; Julien Reungoat; Yvan Poussade; Michael Bartkow; Michael Lawrence; Jochen F. Mueller

2011-01-01

23

Devopmental toxicity of perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) is not dependent on expression on peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha)in the mouse  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are members of a family of perfluorinated compounds. Both are environmentally persistent and found in the serum of wildlife and humans. PFOS and PFOA are developmentally toxic in laboratory rodents. Exposure to t...

24

PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) - IRIS ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

An assessment of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is underway that will establish the RfD/RfC as appropriate which will be made available to the public through the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)....

25

Behavior and Fate of PFOA and PFOS in Sandy Aquifer Sediment (journal)  

EPA Science Inventory

Microcosms were constructed with sediment from beneath a landfill that received waste containing PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid) and PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate). The microcosms were amended with PFOA and PFOS, and sampled after 91, 210, 343, 463, 574, and 740 days of incubat...

26

Modeling Bioaccumulation as a Potential Route of Riverine Foodweb Exposures to PFOS  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluorinated acids are compounds of interest as bioaccumulators; these persistent chemicals have been found in humans and animals throughout the world. Perfluoroctane sulfonate (PFOS) has an especially high bioconcentration factor in fish, due to the stability of PFOS in the e...

27

Low serum levels of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) in children and adults from Afghanistan.  

PubMed

Applications of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have led to a PFC exposure of the general population worldwide. Most PFC human biomonitoring data are available from developed countries. Here we report for the first time PFC levels in serum from children and adults living in the low developed country of Afghanistan. Among a health cooperation project we had the chance to collect blood samples from 12 children (age 2.5-9 years) and 43 adults (age 20-65 years). 25 participants were from Kabul and 30 lived in a rural area. Drinking water samples were collected from 10 tap water and 16 well water sources. PFC levels were determined by HPLC and MS/MS detection after offline protein precipitation with acetonitrile. PFOS could be quantified in all blood samples (limit of quantification, LOQ: 0.1 microg/l). Median (range) was 1.2 microg/l (0.21-11.8 microg/l). Most PFOA (n=43) and PFHxS levels (n=42) were below LOQ of 0.5 microg/l. Maximum levels were 1.5 (PFOA) and 3.0 microg/l (PFHxS). All PFOS and PFOA concentrations in drinking water were below LOQ (PFOA 0.03 microg/l and PFOS 0.015 microg/l). It is concluded that exposure to PFCs also occurs in Afghanistan but on a very low level. PMID:20471065

Hemat, Hamayon; Wilhelm, Michael; Völkel, Wolfgang; Mosch, Christine; Fromme, Hermann; Wittsiepe, Jürgen

2010-07-15

28

Developmental toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is not dependent on expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha (PPAR?) in the mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are members of a family of perfluorinated compounds. Both are environmentally persistent and found in the serum of wildlife and humans. PFOS and PFOA are developmentally toxic in laboratory rodents. Exposure to these chemicals in utero delays development and reduces postnatal survival and growth. Exposure to PFOS on the last 4 days of

Barbara D. Abbott; Cynthia J. Wolf; Kaberi P. Das; Robert D. Zehr; Judith E. Schmid; Andrew B. Lindstrom; Mark J. Strynar; Christopher Lau

2009-01-01

29

Identification of the source of PFOS and PFOA contamination at a military air base site.  

PubMed

Although the use of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS)/perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)-based aqueous fire-fighting foams (AFFF) has been banned due to their persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity to biota, PFOS and PFOA are still present at significant levels in the environment due to their past usage. This study investigated the reasons for detection of PFOS and PFOA in an evaporation pond used to collect the wastewater arising from fire-fighting exercises at a military air base despite the replacement of PFOS/PFOA-based foam with no PFOS/PFOA-foam about 6 years ago. Concentrations in the wastewater stored in this pond ranged from 3.6 to 9.7 mg/L for PFOS and between 0.6 and 1.7 mg/L for PFOA. The hypothesis tested in a laboratory study was that PFOS and PFOA have accumulated in the sediments of the pond and can be released into the main body of the water. Concentrations detected in the sediments were 38 and 0.3 mg/g for PFOS and PFOA, respectively. These values exceed the recently reported average global values for sediments (0.2-3.8 ng/g for PFOS and from 0.1 to 0.6 ng/g for PFOA) by a factor of several thousands. PFOS and PFOA distribution coefficients were derived for the organic content of the pond sediment (1.6 %). Identification of the source of contamination and knowledge of the partition between soil and aqueous phases are vital first steps in developing a sustainable remediation technology to remove the source from the site. This study clearly suggests that unless the sediment is cleaned of PFOS/PFOA, these chemicals will continue to be detected for a long period in the pond water, with potential adverse impacts on the ecosystem. PMID:25407991

Arias E, Victor A; Mallavarapu, Megharaj; Naidu, Ravi

2015-01-01

30

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human microvascular endothelial cells: role in endothelial permeability.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a member of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) containing an eight-carbon backbone. PFOS is a man-made chemical with carbon-fluorine bonds that are among the strongest in organic chemistry, and PFOS is widely used in industry. Human occupational and environmental exposure to PFOS occurs globally. PFOS is non-biodegradable and is persistent in the human body and environment. In this study, data demonstrated that exposure of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) to PFOS induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at both high and low concentrations. Morphologically, it was found that exposure to PFOS induced actin filament remodeling and endothelial permeability changes in HMVEC. Furthermore, data demonstrated that the production of ROS plays a regulatory role in PFOS-induced actin filament remodeling and the increase in endothelial permeability. Our results indicate that the generation of ROS may play a role in PFOS-induced aberrations of the endothelial permeability barrier. The results generated from this study may provide a new insight into the potential adverse effects of PFOS exposure on humans at the cellular level. PMID:20391123

Qian, Yong; Ducatman, Alan; Ward, Rebecca; Leonard, Steve; Bukowski, Valerie; Lan Guo, Nancy; Shi, Xianglin; Vallyathan, Val; Castranova, Vincent

2010-01-01

31

Gene expression profiling in the lung and liver of PFOS-exposed mouse fetuses  

EPA Science Inventory

The industrial surfactants perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are persistent environmental contaminants commonly found in the tissues of humans and wildlife. Both compounds are agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor a (PPARa) and...

32

Chronic effects of PFOA and PFOS on sexual reproduction of freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus.  

PubMed

Rotifers play an important role in the dynamics of freshwater and coastal marine ecosystems, and are also important tools for assessing toxicity in aquatic environments. In this study, the effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on the population growth rate and resting egg production of rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus were investigated. Reproductive bioassays indicated that PFOS increased the rotifer population growth rate at the concentration ?2.0 mg L(-1), and inhibited it at higher concentrations. For PFOA, the inhibition of population growth rate was observed when the concentration was greater than 4.0 mg L(-1). Exposure to PFOS (0.25 mg L(-1)) or PFOA (2.0 mg L(-1)) increased the mictic ratios of unexposed rotifer offspring. Population variation and increased mictic ratios were likely the two major factors leading to decline of resting egg production. The resting eggs formed under exposure to PFOA/PFOS in the range of 0.125-2.0 mg L(-1) showed higher hatching percentages in the control medium than that without PFOA/PFOS exposure. When the resting eggs were formed in the control medium and incubated in media with different levels of PFOA/PFOS, higher hatching percentages were induced by PFOS but lower hatching percentages induced by PFOA. The effects on the hatching rate of resting eggs with PFOA/PFOS exposure during the hatching period were greater than those with exposure during resting egg formation period, and the effect of PFOS was greater than that of PFOA. Both PFOA and PFOS exhibited slight effect on the hatching pattern. PMID:25113191

Zhang, Lilan; Niu, Junfeng; Wang, Yujuan; Shi, Jianghong; Huang, Qingguo

2014-11-01

33

Comparison of human whole blood, plasma, and serum matrices for the determination of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and other fluorochemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in human exposure to perfluorinated acids, including perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHS), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) has led to their measurement in whole blood, plasma and serum. Comparison of measurements in these different blood-based matrices, however, has not been rigorously investigated to allow for across-matrix comparisons. This research evaluated concentrations of PFBS, PFHS, PFOS, and PFOA in whole blood

David J. Ehresman; John W. Froehlich; Geary W.. Olsen; Shu-Ching Chang; John L. Butenhoff

2007-01-01

34

Contribution to the evaluation of reference values for PFOA and PFOS in plasma of children and adults from Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorinated compounds (PFC) are a large group of chemicals produced for several decades and widely used for many industrial and consumer applications. Human Biomonitoring studies reveal a background exposure of the general population to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and pefluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in many parts of the world. Reference values for PFOS and PFOA in the German population are currently not

Michael Wilhelm; Jürgen Angerer; Hermann Fromme; Jürgen Hölzer

2009-01-01

35

Induction of oxidative stress and apoptosis by PFOS and PFOA in primary cultured hepatocytes of freshwater tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorinated organic compounds (PFOCs) are emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs) widely present in the environment, wildlife and human. We studied the cellular toxicology of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on oxidative stress and induction of apoptosis in primary cultured hepatocytes of freshwater tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Cultured hepatocytes were exposed to PFOS or PFOA (0, 1, 5, 15 and

Chunsheng Liu; Ke Yu; Xiongjie Shi; Jingxian Wang; Paul K. S. Lam; Rudolf S. S. Wu; Bingsheng Zhou

2007-01-01

36

Depuration kinetics and tissue disposition of PFOA and PFOS in white leghorn chickens ( Gallus gallus) administered by subcutaneous implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elimination kinetics and tissue disposition of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in male chickens (Gallus gallus) was determined following exposure by subcutaneous implantation. Chickens were exposed to two levels of PFOA or PFOS for 4wk and then allowed to depurate for an additional 4wk. These exposures did not cause any statistically significant changes in body index, clinical biochemistry

Hoon Yoo; Keerthi S. Guruge; Noriko Yamanaka; Chihiro Sato; Osamu Mikami; Shigeru Miyazaki; Nobuyoshi Yamashita; John P. Giesy

2009-01-01

37

Negative bias from analog methods used in the analysis of free thyroxine in rat serum containing perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decreases in serum total thyroxine (TT4) and free thyroxine (FT4) without a compensatory rise in thyroid stimulating hormone (thyrotropin or TSH) or histological changes of the thyroid have been observed in studies with perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) treatments in rats. Prior observations do not fit the clinical profile of a hypothyroid state. PFOS is known to compete with fatty acids for albumin

Shu-Ching Chang; Julie R. Thibodeaux; Mary L. Eastvold; David J. Ehresman; James A. Bjork; John W. Froehlich; Christopher S. Lau; Ravinder J. Singh; Kendall B. Wallace; John L. Butenhoff

2007-01-01

38

Two-generation reproduction and cross-foster studies of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent acid found widely distributed in wildlife and humans. To understand the potential reproductive and developmental effects of PFOS, a two-generation reproduction study was conducted in rats. Male and female rats were dosed via oral gavage at dose levels of 0, 0.1, 0.4, 1.6, and 3.2mg\\/(kgday) for 6 weeks prior to mating, during mating, and, for

Deanna J. Luebker; Marvin T. Case; Raymond G. York; John A. Moore; Kristen J. Hansen; John L. Butenhoff

2005-01-01

39

Enantiospecific perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) analysis reveals evidence for the source contribution of PFOS-precursors to the Lake Ontario foodweb.  

PubMed

Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) may arise directly, from emission and exposure to PFOS itself, or indirectly via the environmental release and degradation of PFOS-precursors. Human serum enantiomer fractions (EFs) of 1m-PFOS have been shown to be nonracemic, suggesting that PFOS-precursors are a significant source of PFOS in humans, but little is known about the importance of PFOS-precursors in ecosystems. In the current work, concentrations of PFOS, perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), PFOS isomer profiles, and EFs of 1m-PFOS were determined in Lake Ontario water, sediment, fishes and invertebrates. Concentrations of PFOS and PFOSA were highest in slimy sculpin and Diporeia, and concentrations of the two compounds were often correlated. 1m-PFOS was racemic in sediment, water, sculpin and rainbow smelt, but nonracemic in the top predator, lake trout, and all invertebrate species. Furthermore, EFs were correlated with the relative concentrations of PFOS and PFOSA in invertebrates. Overall, these empirical observations with a new analytical tool confirm previous suggestions that PFOS-precursors contribute to PFOS in the food web, likely via sediment. Implications are that future PFOS exposures in this ecosystem will be influenced by an in situ source, and that the apparent environmental behavior of PFOS (e.g., bioaccumulation potential) can be confounded by precursors. PMID:22676298

Asher, Brian J; Wang, Yuan; De Silva, Amila O; Backus, Sean; Muir, Derek C G; Wong, Charles S; Martin, Jonathan W

2012-07-17

40

Impact of a perfluorinated organic compound PFOS on the terrestrial pollinator Bombus terrestris (Insecta, Hymenoptera).  

PubMed

Perfluorinated organic chemicals like perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) are persistent environmental pollutants that have been measured in a great diversity of wildlife worldwide, especially in the aquatic compartment. However, little information is available on the presence and effects of PFOS in the terrestrial compartment. Therefore, we investigated in this project the risks for effects, bioaccumulation and potential mechanisms of activity of PFOS in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) that is an important worldwide pollinator in the terrestrial compartment of wildflowers and cultivated crops. The exposure to PFOS occurred orally via the drinking of treated sugar water in a wide range from 1 ?g/l up to 10 mg/l, containing environmentally relevant as well as high concentrations, and this was done with use of microcolonies of B. terrestris in the laboratory. A chronic toxicity assay demonstrated high bumblebee worker mortality (up to 100%) with an LC(50) of 1.01 mg/l (R(2) = 0.98). In addition, PFOS posed strong detrimental reproductive effects, and these concerted with a dramatic reduction in ovarian size. HPLC-MS demonstrated a bioaccumulation factor of 27.9 for PFOS in bumblebee workers fed with sugar water containing 100 ?g/l PFOS during 5 weeks (2184 ± 365 ng/g BW). Finally, potential mechanisms of activity were investigated to explain the significant impact of PFOS on survival and reproduction capacity of B. terrestris. Exposure of bumblebee workers to PFOS resulted in a significant decrease in mitochondrial electron transport activity (p = 0.035) and lipid amounts (p = 0.019), while the respective p-values were 0.58 and 0.12 for protein and glucose amounts. Hence, addition of PFOS to ecdysteroid responsive Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells resulted in a strong antagonistic action on the EcR-b.act.luc reporter construct, demonstrating that PFOS may exert its effects partially through an endocrine disrupting action via the insect molting hormone or ecdysteroid receptor. PMID:21253836

Mommaerts, Veerle; Hagenaars, An; Meyer, Johan; De Coen, Wim; Swevers, Luc; Mosallanejad, Hadi; Smagghe, Guy

2011-03-01

41

Development of PBPK Models for PFOA and PFOS for Human Pregnancy and Lactation Life Stages  

PubMed Central

Perfluoroalkyl acid carboxylates and sulfonates (PFAAs) have many consumer and industrial applications. Developmental toxicity studies in animals have raised concern about potential reproductive/developmental effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS); however, in humans conflicting results have been reported for associations between maternal PFAA levels and these outcomes. Risk assessments and interpretation of available human data during gestation and lactation are hindered due to lack of a framework for understanding and estimating maternal, fetal, and neonatal pharmacokinetics (PK). Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models were developed for PFOA & PFOS for the gestation and lactation life stages in humans to understand how the physiological changes associated with development affect pharmacokinetics of these compounds in the mother, fetus, and infant. These models were derived from PBPK models for PFOA/PFOS that were previously developed for adult humans and rats during gestation and lactation and from existing human pregnancy and lactation models developed for other chemicals. The models simulated PFOA and PFOS concentrations in fetal, infant, and maternal plasma and milk, were compared to available data in humans, and also used to estimate maternal exposure. The models reported here identified several research needs, which include: 1) the identification of transporters involved in renal resorption to explain the multi-year half-lives of these compounds in humans, 2) factors affecting clearance of PFOA/PFOS during gestation and lactation, and 3) data to estimate clearance of PFOA/PFOS in infants. These models may help address concerns regarding possible adverse health effects due to PFOA/PFOS exposure in the fetus and infant and may be useful in comparing pharmacokinetics across life stages. PMID:23151209

Loccisano, Anne E.; Longnecker, Matthew P.; Campbell, Jerry L.; Andersen, Melvin E.; Clewell, Harvey J.

2012-01-01

42

Neonatal mortality from in utero exposure to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in Sprague–Dawley rats: Dose–response, and biochemical and pharamacokinetic parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is a widely distributed, environmentally persistent acid found at low levels in human, wildlife, and environmental media samples. Neonatal mortality has been observed following PFOS exposure in a two-generation reproduction study in rats and after dosing pregnant rats and mice during gestation. Objectives of the current study were to better define the dose–response curve for neonatal mortality in

Deanna J. Luebker; Raymond G. York; Kristen J. Hansen; John A. Moore; John L. Butenhoff

2005-01-01

43

Studies on the Toxicological Effects of PFOA and PFOS on Rats Using Histological Observation and Chemical Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an emerging class of environmentally persistent and bioaccumulative contaminants, perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), especially\\u000a perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), have been ubiquitously found in the environment. Increasing\\u000a evidence shows that the accumulated levels of PFCs in animals and the human body might cause potential impairment to their\\u000a health. In the present study, toxicological effects of PFOA and PFOS

Lin Cui; Qun-fang Zhou; Chun-yang Liao; Jian-jie Fu; Gui-bin Jiang

2009-01-01

44

Accumulation of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in the food chain of the Western Scheldt estuary: Comparing field measurements with kinetic modeling.  

PubMed

The environmentally persistent perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a perfluoroalkylated acid (PFA), which has been found to accumulate and biomagnify through food webs all over the world. In the present investigation, the accumulation kinetics of PFOS was explored using the bioaccumulation model OMEGA. As accumulation behavior of PFOS may show similarities to fatty acids as well as to neutral organic compounds, different modeling approaches were used. Accumulation kinetics of PFOS was modeled similar to (1) moderately and (2) highly hydrophobic compounds, (3) metals and (4) as a combination of hydrophobic compounds and metals. Modeled elimination and uptake rate constants were compared to empirical rate constants from literature. Subsequently, model predictions were compared to field-based biota-suspended solids accumulation ratios (BSAF) in the estuarine food chain of the Western Scheldt, The Netherlands. Results show that uptake of PFOS is comparable to moderately hydrophobic compounds and elimination is best described by elimination kinetics of metals. These observations indicate that the accumulation behavior of PFOS is comparable to that of short and medium chained fatty acids. PMID:17931687

de Vos, Martine G; Huijbregts, Mark A J; van den Heuvel-Greve, Martine J; Vethaak, A Dick; Van de Vijver, Kristin I; Leonards, Pim E G; van Leeuwen, S P J; de Voogt, P; Hendriks, A Jan

2008-02-01

45

The study of interaction between PFOA/PFOS and uracil by topology quality and spectroscopic analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been established that perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) can be considered as emerging persistent organic pollutants. In recent years, there was increasing distribution of PFOA/PFOS in environmental systems, and accumulation and toxic effects of PFOA/PFOS in human body. In this paper, quantum chemistry methods were employed to study the interaction between perfluorinated organic pollutants and base (uracil). The results showed that there were four stable binding modes between the two perfluorinated compounds with uracil, especially the second mode which caused the most detrimental physiological functional response. NBO analysis showed that reactive hydrogen in the two perfluorinated compounds had the greatest effect on the hydrogen bond. The nature of the hydrogen bond formed between the two perfluorinated compounds and base was investigated using the AIM theory. The changes of spectroscopic properties in complexes were analyzed by IR and NMR spectra.

Xu, Hui-Ying; Zhu, Jian-Qing; Wang, Wei; Xu, Xiao-Lu; Lu, Yin

2014-02-01

46

Chronic PFOS exposures induce life stage-specific behavioral deficits in adult zebrafish and produce malformation and behavioral deficits in F1 offspring.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) is an organic contaminant that is ubiquitous in the environment. Few studies have assessed the behavioral effects of chronic PFOS exposure in aquatic organisms. The present study defined the behavioral effects of varying life span chronic exposures to PFOS in zebrafish. Specifically, zebrafish were exposed to control or 0.5?µM PFOS during 1 to 20, 21 to 120, or 1 to 120 d postfertilization (dpf). Exposure to PFOS impaired the adult zebrafish behavior mode under the tapping stimulus. The movement speed of male and female fish exposed for 1 to 120 dpf was significantly increased compared with control before and after tapping, whereas in the groups exposed for 1 to 20 and 21 to 120 dpf, only the males exhibited elevated swim speed before tapping. Residues of PFOS in F1 embryos derived from parental exposure for 1 to 120 and 21 to 120 dpf were significantly higher than control, and F1 embryos in these two groups also showed high malformation and mortality. The F1 larvae of parental fish exposed to PFOS for 1 to 20 or 21 to 120 dpf exhibited a higher swimming speed than control larvae in a light-to-dark behavior assessment test. The F1 larvae derived from parental fish exposed to PFOS for 1 to 120 dpf showed a significantly lower speed in the light period and a higher speed in the dark period compared with controls. Although there was little PFOS residue in embryos derived from the 1- to 20-dpf parental PFOS-exposed group, the adverse behavioral effects on both adult and F1 larvae indicate that exposure during the first 21 dpf induces long-term neurobehaviorial toxicity. The authors' findings demonstrate that chronic PFOS exposure during different life stages adversely affects adult behavior and F1 offspring morphology, behavior, and survival. PMID:23059794

Chen, Jiangfei; Das, Siba R; La Du, Jane; Corvi, Margaret M; Bai, Chenglian; Chen, Yuanhong; Liu, Xiaojuan; Zhu, Guonian; Tanguay, Robert L; Dong, Qiaoxiang; Huang, Changjiang

2013-01-01

47

Estimating the contribution of precursor compounds in consumer exposure to PFOS and PFOA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exposure of humans to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was quantified with emphasis on assessing the relative importance of metabolic transformation of precursor compounds. A Scenario-Based Risk Assessment (SceBRA) approach was used to model the exposure to these compounds from a variety of different pathways, the uptake into the human body and resulting daily doses. To capture

Robin Vestergren; Ian T. Cousins; David Trudel; Matthias Wormuth; Martin Scheringer

2008-01-01

48

Differential expression of chicken hepatic genes responsive to PFOA and PFOS.  

PubMed

The effects of PFOS and PFOA on the gene expression patterns of chickens that were exposed to either PFOS or PFOA at low doses were investigated with the use of microarray techniques. Twelve Genechip Chicken Genome Arrays were used to study hepatic gene expression in 6-week-old chickens (Gallus gallus) that were exposed to either PFOA (0.1, 0.5, or 5mg/mL), PFOS (0.02 or 0.1mg/mL), or a saline vehicle control (0.9% NaCl in Milli-Q water) via subcutaneous implantation of a 2mL osmotic pump for 4 weeks or for 4 weeks with a further 4 weeks of depuration. Over 240 and 480 genes were significantly affected by PFOS after 4 weeks of exposure and after 4 weeks of exposure with a further 4 weeks of depuration, respectively and over 290 and 320 genes were significantly affected by PFOA, correspondingly. For PFOS, the genes that were affected after 4 weeks of exposure were mainly related to the transport of electrons and oxygen, and the metabolism of lipids and fatty acids; while the genes that were affected after 4 weeks of exposure with a further 4 weeks of depuration were mainly related to the transport of electrons and ions, and protein amino acid phosphorylation and proteolysis. For PFOA, the genes that were affected after 4 weeks of exposure were related to the transport of ions, lipids, and electrons and cytochromes; while the genes that were affected after 4 weeks of exposure with a further 4 weeks of depuration were related to protein amino acid phosphorylation and proteolysis, the transport of ions, and the metabolism of fatty acids and lipids. The results also showed that the gene expression patterns between chickens that were treated with PFOS and those that were treated with PFOA were different, which points to the importance of the separate evaluation of the toxicities of PFOS and PFOA. Specifically, the gene expressions of CYP8B and NOV were studied. PMID:17560707

Yeung, Leo W Y; Guruge, Keerthi S; Yamanaka, Noriko; Miyazaki, Shigeru; Lam, Paul K S

2007-07-31

49

Perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) throughout the food production chain.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) is a persistent organic pollutant with adverse effects on human health. Since dietary intake plays an important role in human exposure, the transfer of PFOS throughout the food chain needs further investigation. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of PFOS concentrations and transfer for the various chain steps from farm-to-fork. This reveals that most research focused on levels of PFOS in surface water and fish but data on soil and crops are largely missing. Furthermore, the uptake of PFOS by farm animals and subsequent transfer into meat and animal products needs further attention, as these products will eventually be consumed by the human population. Once the necessary data gaps are filled, the contribution of the various chain steps on the total PFOS intake can be established. Moreover, the effect of pollution events on the food chain can be established enabling appropriate actions in order to protect consumer health. PMID:25214321

van Asselt, E D; Rietra, R P J J; Römkens, P F A M; van der Fels-Klerx, H J

2011-09-01

50

Development of PFOS and PFOA criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life in China.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are two widely used perfluorinated compounds. They have been detected in various environmental media and have harmed aquatic life and systems. The toxic effects of PFOS and PFOA on freshwater organisms were explored with the goal of protecting aquatic ecosystems in this study. Data from acute toxicity tests using nine aquatic species and chronic toxicity tests using three species were analyzed, along with PFOS and PFOA toxicity data for representative Chinese aquatic biota that have been published in the Chinese and international literature. Using the method recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), the criterion maximum concentration (CMC) for PFOS was calculated to be 3.78 mg/L, and the criterion continuous concentration (CCC) was calculated to be 0.25mg/L. For PFOA, the CMC was calculated to be 45.54 mg/L, and the CCC was calculated to be 3.52 mg/L. The criteria derived in this study provide the scientific basis for development of water quality standards and aquatic ecosystem risk evaluation. PMID:24184545

Yang, Suwen; Xu, Fanfan; Wu, Fengchang; Wang, Shengrui; Zheng, Binghui

2014-02-01

51

PBPK modeling for PFOS and PFOA: Validation with human experimental data.  

PubMed

In recent years, because of the potential human toxicity, concern on perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has increased notably with special attention to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Unfortunately, there is currently an important knowledge gap on the burdens of these chemicals in most human tissues, as the reported studies have been mainly focused on plasma. In order to overcome these limitations, the use of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models has been extended. The present study was aimed at testing an existing PBPK model for their predictability of PFOS and PFOA in a new case-study, and also to adapt it to estimate the PFAS content in human tissue compartments. Model validation was conducted by means of PFOA and PFOS concentrations in food and human drinking water from Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain), and being the predicted results compared with those experimentally found in human tissues (blood, liver, kidney, liver and brain) of subjects from the same area of study. The use of human-derived partition coefficient (Pk) data was proven as more suitable for application to this PBPK model than rat-based Pk values. However, the uncertainty and variability of the data are still too high to get conclusive results. Consequently, further efforts should be carried out to reduce parametric uncertainty of PBPK models. More specifically, a deeper knowledge on the distribution of PFOA and PFOS within the human body should be obtained by enlarging the number of biological monitoring studies on PFASs. PMID:24440341

Fàbrega, Francesc; Kumar, Vikas; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L; Nadal, Martí

2014-10-15

52

Removal of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) from water by coagulation: Mechanisms and influencing factors.  

PubMed

In this study, alum (Al2(SO4)3?18H2O), ferric chloride (FeCl3?6H2O) and polyaluminium chloride (PACl) were used to remove perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) from water. The influencing factors, including pH and natural organic matter (NOM), were investigated. A positive correlation was found between the size of the flocs and the removal efficiency of PFOX (X=S and A). The removal ratios of PFOS and PFOA were 32% and ?12%, respectively, when 50mg/L of FeCl3?6H2O was added as the coagulant at the initial pH. Coagulation achieved high removal ratios for PFOX under acidic conditions (?47.6% and 94.7% for PFOA and PFOS at pH 4, respectively). In addition, increasing NOM concentrations decreased the removal rates of PFOX because of the existence of competitive adsorption between NOM molecules and PFOX on the surface of the coagulants and flocs. The combination of adsorption by powdered activated carbon (PAC) and coagulation increased the removal ratios up to >90% for PFOX at the initial concentration of 1mg/L, implying that the adsorption enhanced coagulation. Meantime, the experiments with natural water showed that coagulation is a feasible method to remove PFOS and PFOA from surface water. PMID:25168583

Bao, Yueping; Niu, Junfeng; Xu, Zesheng; Gao, Ding; Shi, Jianghong; Sun, Xiaomin; Huang, Qingguo

2014-11-15

53

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) induced embryotoxicity and disruption of cardiogenesis.  

PubMed

Prenatal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is correlated with birth defects and adverse health effects. However, the mechanisms remain largely unknown. In current study, the embryonic stem cell test (EST) was performed to evaluate the embryotoxicity of PFOS, and embryonic stem cells (ESCs)-derived cardiomyocytes were used as a model of the early stages of heart development to determine the developmental toxicity of PFOS. One validated endpoint and three molecular endpoints were observed to ensure accurate evaluation of toxicity. According to the criteria of the EST, PFOS was classified as weak embryotoxic. In addition, a cascade of genes related to normal cardiac development was examined at three different time points to monitor cardiogenesis. We found that PFOS significantly interfered with gene expression during cardiogenesis, especially on Nkx2.5 and Myl4. Further, PFOS reduced ATP production in ESCs-derived cardiomyocytes, together with PFOS induced apoptosis, could explain the reduction in beating ability. PFOS-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulated within cells, which was accompanied by an interfering expression of apoptosis-related genes, ultimately leading to apoptosis. In conclusion, PFOS altered the expression of crucial genes, reduced ATP production, induced ROS, and stimulated apoptosis during the early stages of cardiogenesis; these effects may result in poor developmental outcomes. PMID:23562911

Cheng, Wei; Yu, Zhuo; Feng, Lixin; Wang, Yan

2013-08-01

54

PFOS and PFOA in environmental and tap water in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a great concern about global contamination with persistent fluoroorganic compounds including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), however, few data are available on the environmental levels of these chemicals in China. In the present study, therefore, environmental or tap water samples collected from various regions of China were assayed for PFOS and PFOA by solid phase extraction and

Yi He Jin; Wei Liu; Itaru Sato; Shoji F. Nakayama; Kazuaki Sasaki; Norimitsu Saito; Shuji Tsuda

2009-01-01

55

Biodegradation of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) as an emerging contaminant.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is a compound of global concern because of its persistence and bioaccumulation in the environment. Nevertheless, little is known of the potential for PFOS biodegradation, even though the importance of characterizing the function and activity of microbial populations detected in the environment has been discussed. This study focused on the biodegradation of PFOS by a specific microorganism. Through this study, we have identified the aerobic microorganism for the specific decomposition of PFOS from wastewater treatment sludge, as a well-known sink for environmental PFOS. This species was Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain HJ4 with a 99% similarity, a mesophilic rod type bacteria (30-37°C). A pH range of 7-9 was determined to be optimal for the growth of strain HJ4. In this study approximately 67% over a range of concentrations (1400-1800?gL(-)(1)) for PFOS was biologically decomposed by P. aeruginosa after 48h incubation. This result is reported here for the first time, which strongly pertains to the efficient biodegradation of PFOS. Therefore, our study is considered a major advancement in sustainable PFOS treatment. PMID:24556541

Kwon, Bum Gun; Lim, Hye-Jung; Na, Suk-Hyun; Choi, Bong-In; Shin, Dong-Soo; Chung, Seon-Yong

2014-08-01

56

Behavioral effects in adult mice exposed to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, very little information concerning the effects on behavior in mammals of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a widely distributed persistent environmental pollutant, is available. In the present study, we assessed the behavioral effects of PFOS on 3 months old mice after 1 month of exposure to this pollutant. Thirty adult mice were divided into three groups. Animals were given by gavage

Silvia Fuentes; Paloma Vicens; M. Teresa Colomina; José L. Domingo

2007-01-01

57

Associations between PFOA, PFOS and changes in the expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism in humans.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 'C8') and perfluoroctane sulphonate (PFOS) are environmentally stable compounds with industrial and consumer uses and long half-lives in humans. Concern has been raised over chronic exposure effects to human health, especially in relation to cholesterol metabolism. Here, we explore the association between exposure to PFOA and PFOS and the in vivo expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism. We studied 290 individuals exposed to background levels of PFOS and elevated concentrations of PFOA through drinking water. Using adjusted linear regression models, we found inverse associations between serum PFOA levels and the whole blood expression level of genes involved in cholesterol transport (NR1H2, NPC1 and ABCG1; p=0.002, 0.026 and 0.014 respectively). A positive association was seen between PFOS and a transcript involved in cholesterol mobilisation (NCEH1; p=0.018), and a negative relationship with a transcript involved in cholesterol transport (NR1H3; p=0.044). When sexes were analysed separately, reductions in the levels of mRNAs involved in cholesterol transport were seen with PFOA in men (NPC1, ABCG1, and PPARA; p=0.025, 0.024 and 0.012 respectively) and in women (NR1H2 expression; p=0.019), whereas an increase in the levels of a cholesterol mobilisation transcript (NCEH1; p=0.036) was noted in women alone. PFOS was positively associated with expression of genes involved in both cholesterol mobilisation and transport in women (NCEH1 and PPARA; p=0.003 and 0.039 respectively), but no effects were evident in men. This is the first report of associations between the in vivo expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism and exposure to PFOA or PFOS, suggested that exposure to these compounds may promote a hypercholesterolaemic environment, with wider implications for human disease. PMID:23624243

Fletcher, Tony; Galloway, Tamara S; Melzer, David; Holcroft, Paul; Cipelli, Riccardo; Pilling, Luke C; Mondal, Debapriya; Luster, Michael; Harries, Lorna W

2013-07-01

58

Enhanced adsorption of PFOA and PFOS on multiwalled carbon nanotubes under electrochemical assistance.  

PubMed

Removal of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from aqueous solution has attracted wide attention in light of their environmental persistence, bioaccumulation, and potential toxicity. Although various destructive technologies were developed, removal of PFOX (X = A and S) under mild conditions are still desirable. In this work, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were applied to remove PFOX in electrochemically assistant adsorption. Electrosorption kinetics and isotherms were investigated relative to open circuit (OC) adsorption and adsorption on powder MWNTs. Compared with powder MWNTs adsorption, the initial adsorption rate (?(0)) of 100 ?g/L PFOX at 0.6 V increased 60-fold (PFOA) and 41-fold (PFOS) according to pseudosecond-order kinetics model and the maximum electrosorption capacity (q(m)) of PFOX (50 ?g/L to 10 mg/L) increased 150-fold (PFOA) and 94-fold (PFOS) simulated with Langmuir model. These significant improvements were assumed to benefit from enhanced electrostatic attraction under electrochemical assistance. Furthermore, the used MWNTs were found to be regenerative and reusable. This work provides not only a new approach to effective removal of perfluorochemicals from aqueous solution but also a low energy-consumption and environmentally-friendly strategy for application of carbon nanotubes in water treatment. PMID:21861476

Li, Xiaona; Chen, Shuo; Quan, Xie; Zhang, Yaobin

2011-10-01

59

Adsorption behavior of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) on boehmite.  

PubMed

Understanding the interaction of perfluorochemicals, persistent pollutants with known human health effects, with mineral compounds in surface water and groundwater environments is essential to determining their fate and transport. Kinetic experiments showed that adsorption equilibrium can be achieved within 48 h and the boehmite (AlOOH) surface is receptive to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) adsorption. The adsorption isotherms estimated the maximum adsorption capacities of PFOS and PFOA on boehmite as 0.877 ?g m(-2) and 0.633 ?g m(-2), respectively. Compared to the adsorption capacity on ?-alumina, the abundant hydroxyl groups on boehmite surfaces resulted in the 2-3 times higher adsorption of PFOS and PFOA. Increasing solution pH led to a moderate decrease in PFOS and PFOA adsorption, owing to an increase in ligand exchange reactions and the decrease of electrostatic interactions. The presence of NaCl and CaCl(2) in solution demonstrated negative effects for PFOS and PFOA adsorption on boehmite surfaces, with potential mechanisms being electrical double layer compression, competitive adsorption of chloride, and the Ca(2+) bridging effect between perfluorochemicals. PMID:22897837

Wang, Fei; Liu, Chengshuai; Shih, Kaimin

2012-11-01

60

TOXICITY AND BIOACCUMULATION OF PFOS IN A PARTIAL LIFE CYCLE TEST WITH THE NORTHERN LEOPARD FROG  

EPA Science Inventory

A number of recent monitoring studies have demonstrated elevated concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in humans and wildlife throughout the world. Although no longer actively manufactured, the global distribution and relative persistence of PFOS indicates a need to...

61

Prenatal Exposure to PFOS or PFOA Alters Motor Function in Mice in a Sex-Related Manner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are organic surfactants widely used in various industrial\\u000a and consumer applications. Due to their chemical properties, these perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have also become persistent\\u000a contaminants. The risk of possible intrauterine and lactational exposure to these chemicals poses a significant health concern\\u000a for potential developmental effects. In the present study we have found that

Natalia Onishchenko; Celia Fischer; Wan Norhamidah Wan Ibrahim; Sara Negri; Stefan Spulber; Danilo Cottica; Sandra Ceccatelli

2011-01-01

62

Toxicity, uptake kinetics and behavior assessment in zebrafish embryos following exposure to perfluorooctanesulphonicacid (PFOS)  

PubMed Central

Perfluorooctanesulphonicacid (PFOS), a persistent organic contaminant, has been widely detected in the environment, wildlife and humans, but few studies have assessed its effect on aquatic organisms. The present study evaluated the effect of PFOS on zebrafish embryos. Zebrafish embryos exhibited bent spine and developmental toxicity after exposure to various PFOS concentrations (0.01-16.0 ?M) from 6 to 120 hour post-fertilization (hpf). The LC50 at 120 hpf was 4.39 ?M and the EC50 at 120 hpf was 2.23 ?M. PFOS induced apoptosis at 24 hpf was consistently located in the brain, eye, and tail region of embryos. PFOS elevated the basal rate of swimming after 4 days of exposure, and larvae exposed to PFOS (0.5-8.0?M) for only 1 h at 6 dpf swam faster with increasing PFOS concentration. Larvae exposed to 16.0 ?M PFOS for 24 h periods from 1 to 121 hpf showed the highest incidence of malformations in the 97-121 hpf window. Continuous exposure to PFOS from 1 to 121 hpf resulted in a steady accumulation with no evidence of elimination. Our results further the understanding of the health risks of PFOS to aquatic organisms and identify additional research needed on PFOS toxicology. PMID:20171748

Huang, Haihua; Huang, Changjiang; Wang, Lijun; Ye, Xiaowei; Bai, Chenglian; Simonich, Michael T.; Tanguay, Robert L.; Dong, Qiaoxiang

2014-01-01

63

DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PFOS AND PFOA  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) are fully-fluorinated organic chemicals with a carbon backbone (typically varying from C-4 to C-14) and a functional group (usually carboxylic acid or sulfonic acid). These chemicals are man-made, exceptionally stable to metabolic and environmental de...

64

Emission Inventory for PFOS in China: Review of Past Methodologies and Suggestions  

PubMed Central

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic chemical that has the potential for long-range transport in the environment. Its use in a wide variety of consumer products and industrial processes makes a detailed characterization of its emissions sources very challenging. These varied emissions sources all contribute to PFOS' existence within nearly all environmental media. Currently, China is the only country documented to still be producing PFOS, though there is no China PFOS emission inventory available. This study reviews the inventory methodologies for PFOS in other countries to suggest a China-specific methodology framework for a PFOS emission inventory. The suggested framework combines unknowns for PFOS-containing product penetration into the Chinese market with product lifecycle assumptions, centralizing these diverse sources into municipal sewage treatment plants. Releases from industrial sources can be quantified separately using another set of emission factors. Industrial sources likely to be relevant to the Chinese environment are identified. PMID:22125449

Lim, Theodore Chao; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jun; Deng, Shubo; Yu, Gang

2011-01-01

65

Emission inventory for PFOS in China: review of past methodologies and suggestions.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic chemical that has the potential for long-range transport in the environment. Its use in a wide variety of consumer products and industrial processes makes a detailed characterization of its emissions sources very challenging. These varied emissions sources all contribute to PFOS' existence within nearly all environmental media. Currently, China is the only country documented to still be producing PFOS, though there is no China PFOS emission inventory available. This study reviews the inventory methodologies for PFOS in other countries to suggest a China-specific methodology framework for a PFOS emission inventory. The suggested framework combines unknowns for PFOS-containing product penetration into the Chinese market with product lifecycle assumptions, centralizing these diverse sources into municipal sewage treatment plants. Releases from industrial sources can be quantified separately using another set of emission factors. Industrial sources likely to be relevant to the Chinese environment are identified. PMID:22125449

Lim, Theodore Chao; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jun; Deng, Shubo; Yu, Gang

2011-01-01

66

Comparison of human whole blood, plasma, and serum matrices for the determination of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and other fluorochemicals  

SciTech Connect

Interest in human exposure to perfluorinated acids, including perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHS), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) has led to their measurement in whole blood, plasma and serum. Comparison of measurements in these different blood-based matrices, however, has not been rigorously investigated to allow for across-matrix comparisons. This research evaluated concentrations of PFBS, PFHS, PFOS, and PFOA in whole blood collected in heparin (lithium) and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), plasma samples collected in heparin and EDTA, and serum (from whole blood allowed to clot). Blood samples were collected from 18 voluntary participants employed at 3M Company. Solid phase extraction methods were used for all analytical sample preparations, and analyses were completed using high-pressure liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry methods. Serum concentrations ranged from: limit of quantitation (LOQ, 5 ng/mL) to 25 ng/mL for PFBS; LOQ (5 ng/mL) to 75 ng/mL for PFHS; LOQ (5 ng/mL) to 880 ng/mL for PFOS; and LOQ (5 or 10 ng/mL) to 7320 ng/mL for PFOA. Values less than the LOQ were not included in the statistical analyses of the mean of the ratios of individual values for the matrices. PFBS was not quantifiable in most samples. Serum to plasma ratios for PFHS, PFOS, and PFOA were 1:1 and this ratio was independent of the level of concentrations measured. Serum or plasma to whole blood ratios, regardless of the anticoagulant used, approximated 2:1. The difference between plasma and serum and whole blood corresponded to volume displacement by red blood cells, suggesting that the fluorochemicals are not found intracellularly or attached to the red blood cells.

Ehresman, David J. [Medical Department, 3M Company, Mail Stop 220-6W-08, St. Paul, MN 55144-1000 (United States); Froehlich, John W. [LabOps Division, Pace Analytical Service Inc., Minneapolis, MN (United States); Olsen, Geary W. [Medical Department, 3M Company, Mail Stop 220-6W-08, St. Paul, MN 55144-1000 (United States)]. E-mail: gwolsen@mmm.com; Chang, Shu-Ching [Medical Department, 3M Company, Mail Stop 220-6W-08, St. Paul, MN 55144-1000 (United States); Butenhoff, John L. [Medical Department, 3M Company, Mail Stop 220-6W-08, St. Paul, MN 55144-1000 (United States)

2007-02-15

67

Treatment technologies for aqueous perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorochemicals (FCs) are oxidatively recalcitrant, environmentally persistent, and resistant to most conventional treatment\\u000a technologies. FCs have unique physiochemical properties derived from fluorine which is the most electronegative element. Perfluorooctanesulfonate\\u000a (PFOS), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) have been detected globally in the hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere. Reducing treatment\\u000a technologies such as reverses osmosis, nano-filtration and activated carbon can remove FCs from water. However,

Chad D. Vecitis; Jie Cheng; Brian T. Mader; Michael R. Hoffmann

2009-01-01

68

Effect of cationic and anionic surfactants on the sorption and desorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on natural sediments.  

PubMed

Sorption and desorption of PFOS at water-sediment interfaces were investigated in the presence of a cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS). CTAB remarkably enhanced the sorption of PFOS on the sediment. In contrast, the influence of SDBS to the sorption of PFOS was concentration dependent. Two contrasting factors were responsible for the phenomenon. One was the sorption of the surfactant itself to the sediment, which enhanced the sorption of PFOS. The other was the increase in solubility of PFOS caused by the adding of surfactants, which decreased the sorption of PFOS. SDBS had a much lower sorption capacity, but rather strong ability to increase the solubility of PFOS. High levels of SDBS remarkably reduced the sorption of PFOS on the sediment. These results imply that cationic and anionic surfactants may have contrast impacts on the distribution and transport of PFOS in the environment. PMID:18722698

Pan, Gang; Jia, Chengxia; Zhao, Dongye; You, Chun; Chen, Hao; Jiang, Guibin

2009-01-01

69

Differential expression of chicken hepatic genes responsive to PFOA and PFOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of PFOS and PFOA on the gene expression patterns of chickens that were exposed to either PFOS or PFOA at low doses were investigated with the use of microarray techniques. Twelve Genechip Chicken Genome Arrays were used to study hepatic gene expression in 6-week-old chickens (Gallus gallus) that were exposed to either PFOA (0.1, 0.5, or 5mg\\/mL), PFOS

Leo W. Y. Yeung; Keerthi S. Guruge; Noriko Yamanaka; Shigeru Miyazaki; Paul K. S. Lam

2007-01-01

70

Identification and pattern of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) isomers in human serum and plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human serum and plasma from Sweden (n=17), the United Kingdom (the UK) (n=13) and Australia (n=40) were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The objective was to identify different perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) isomers. Similar isomer patterns typical for the electrochemical fluorination (ECF) process were found for all samples. The linear PFOS (L-PFOS) was the major isomer

Anna Kärrman; Ingrid Langlois; Bert van Bavel; Gunilla Lindström; Michael Oehme

2007-01-01

71

Interactions in developmental toxicology: Concurrent exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and stress in pregnant mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maternal and developmental toxicity of combined exposure to restraint stress and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was assessed in mice. On gestation Days 6–18, four groups of plug-positive female mice were orally exposed to PFOS at 0, 1.5, 3 and 6mg\\/kg\\/day. Four additional groups of plug-positive animals received the same PFOS doses being restrained during 30min three times per day. A

Silvia Fuentes; M. Teresa Colomina; Judit Rodriguez; Paloma Vicens; José L. Domingo

2006-01-01

72

Global liver proteome analysis using iTRAQ labeling quantitative proteomic technology to reveal biomarkers in mice exposed to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS).  

PubMed

Proteomic analysis allows detection of changes of proteins expression in organisms exposed to environmental pollutants, leading to the discovery of biomarkers of exposure and understanding of the action mechanism of toxicity. In the present study, we applied iTRAQ labeling quantitative proteomic technology for global characterization of the liver proteome in mice exposed to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). This successfully identified and quantified 1038 unique proteins. Seventy-one proteins showed a significant expression change in the treated groups (1.0, 2.5, 5.0 mg/kg of body weight) compared with the control group, and 16 proteins displayed strong dose-dependent changes. Gene ontology analysis showed that these differential proteins were significantly enriched and mainly involved in lipid metabolism, transport, biosynthetic processes, and response to stimulus. We detected significantly increased expression levels of enzymes regulating peroxisomal ?-oxidation-including long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase, acyl-CoA oxidase 1, bifunctional enzyme, and 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase A. PFOS also significantly induced cytochrome P450s and glutathione S-transferases that are responsible for the metabolism of xenobiotic compounds. The expressions of several proteins with important biological functions-such as cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, and apolipoprotein A-I, also correlated with PFOS exposure. Together, the present results provide insight into the molecular mechanism and biomarkers for PFOS-induced effects. PMID:23046066

Tan, Feng; Jin, Yihe; Liu, Wei; Quan, Xie; Chen, Jingwen; Liang, Zhen

2012-11-01

73

Prenatal exposure to PFOA and PFOS and risk of hospitalization for infectious diseases in early childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo examine whether prenatal exposure to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) is associated with the occurrence of hospitalization for infectious diseases during early childhood.

Chunyuan Fei; Joseph K. McLaughlin; Loren Lipworth; Jørn Olsen

2010-01-01

74

Microcosm evaluation of the toxicity and risk to aquatic macrophytes from perfluorooctane sulfonic acid.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) is an anthropogenic contaminant detected in various environmental and biologic matrices. This compound is a fluorinated surfactant, a class of molecules renowned for their persistence and their global distribution but for which few ecotoxicological data are currently available, especially under field conditions. The toxicity of PFOS to the aquatic macrophytes Myriophyllum sibiricum and M. spicatum was investigated using 12,000 L outdoor microcosms. Replicate microcosms (n = 3) were treated with 0.3, 3, 10, and 30 mg/L PFOS as the potassium salt and assessed at regular intervals during a period of 42 days. M. sibiricum was more sensitive to PFOS under these simulated field conditions than M. spicatum. Toxicity was observed in the evaluated end points at > 3 mg/L PFOS for EC10s and > 12 mg/L PFOS for EC50s for M. spicatum and in M. sibiricum at > 0.1 mg/L PFOS for EC10s and > 1.6 mg/L PFOS for EC50s. The no observed-effect concentration (NOEC) for M. spicatum was consistently > or = 11.4 mg/L PFOS, whereas the NOEC for M. sibiricum was > or = 0.3 mg/L PFOS. A risk assessment for these plants estimated a negligible probability of toxicity being observed in these plants from PFOS exposure at current environmental concentrations. PMID:15750772

Hanson, M L; Sibley, P K; Brain, R A; Mabury, S A; Solomon, K R

2005-04-01

75

Pharmacokinetics and acute lethality of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) to juvenile mallard and northern bobwhite.  

PubMed

Ten-day-old mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were fed perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in their diet for 5 days. The birds were then observed for 3 days while being given uncontaminated feed, and half of the birds were sacrificed on Day 8 of the trial. The remaining birds were maintained for an additional two weeks prior to being euthanized on Day 22 of the trial. Birds were assessed for growth, rate of feed consumption, behavior, physical injury, mortality, and gross abnormalities. Liver weight and concentrations of PFOS in blood serum and liver were also assessed. Based on the average daily intake (ADI) of PFOS calculated over the 5-day exposure period, the LD50 for juvenile mallards was determined to be 150 mg PFOS/kg body weight (bw)/day, equivalent to a total cumulative dose of 750 mg PFOS/kg bw calculated over a 5-day period. For juvenile quail, the LD50 based on the ADI was 61 mg PFOS/kg bw/day, equivalent to a total cumulative dose of 305 mg PFOS/kg bw. Reductions in weight gain and body weight were observed in quail from the 141 mg PFOS/kg treatment, but these measures returned to control levels by Day 22. The no-mortality dietary treatments were 70.3 and 141 mg PFOS/kg feed for quail and mallards, respectively. Both mallards and quail accumulated PFOS in blood serum and liver in a dose-dependent manner. The half-lives of PFOS in mallard blood serum and liver were estimated to be 6.86 and 17.5 days, respectively. In quail, the half-life of PFOS in liver was estimated to be 12.8 days, while the half-life of PFOS in quail blood serum could not be estimated. Concentrations of PFOS in juvenile mallard and quail liver associated with mortality are at least 50-fold greater than the single maximum PFOS concentration that has been measured in livers of avian wildlife. PMID:16392015

Newsted, John L; Beach, Susan A; Gallagher, Sean P; Giesy, John P

2006-04-01

76

TOWARD A RISK ASSESSMENT OF PERFLUOROALKYL ACIDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS),and fluorotelomer alcoholsare surfactants that have wide applications in industrial and consumer products. Various fluorotelomer alcohols are known to be metabolized to perfluo...

77

Developmental Toxicity of Perfluoroalkyl Acid Mixtures in CD-1 Mice  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) belong to a family of fluoro-organic compounds known as perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). PFAAs have been widely used in industrial and commercial applications, and have been found to be...

78

PFOS levels in the blood and liver of a small insectivorous songbird near a fluorochemical plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is the stable end product of the degradation of various perfluorinated compounds and is the predominant compound found in the environment and biota. PFOS is a widespread environmental contaminant that is found in a great diversity of wildlife species with more elevated tissue concentrations in animals from populated and industrialized areas. In this study we determined the

Tom Dauwe; Kristin Van de Vijver; Wim De Coen; Marcel Eens

2007-01-01

79

Toxicity evaluation of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in the liver of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has been manufactured for over 50 years in increasing quantities and has been used for several industrial and commercial aims. Due to persistence and bioaccumulation of this pollutant, it can be found worldwide in wildlife and humans. Biochemical effects of PFOS exposure are mainly studied in mammalian model species and information about effects on fish species remain

A. Hagenaars; D. Knapen; I. J. Meyer; K. van der Ven; P. Hoff; W. De Coen

2008-01-01

80

Effect of cationic and anionic surfactants on the sorption and desorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on natural sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorption and desorption of PFOS at water-sediment interfaces were investigated in the presence of a cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS). CTAB remarkably enhanced the sorption of PFOS on the sediment. In contrast, the influence of SDBS to the sorption of PFOS was concentration dependent. Two contrasting factors were responsible for the phenomenon.

Gang Pan; Chengxia Jia; Dongye Zhao; Chun You; Hao Chen; Guibin Jiang

2009-01-01

81

Distribution and excretion of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in beef cattle (Bos taurus).  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a perfluoroalkyl surfactant used in many industrial products, is present in industrial wastes and in wastewater treatment plant biosolids. Biosolids are commonly applied to pastures and crops used for animal feed; consequently, PFOS may accumulate in the edible tissues of grazing animals or in animals exposed to contaminated feeds. There are no data on the absorption, distribution, and excretion of PFOS in beef cattle, so a 28-day study was conducted to determine these parameters for PFOS in three Lowline Angus steers given a single oral dose of PFOS at approximately 8 mg/kg body weight. PFOS concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in multiple tissue compartments. The major route of excretion was in the feces (11 ± 1.3% of the dose, mean ± standard deviation) with minimal PFOS elimination in urine (0.5 ± 0.07% of the dose). At day 28 the mean plasma concentration remained elevated at 52.6 ± 3.4 ?g/mL, and it was estimated that 35.8 ± 4.3% of the dose was present in the plasma. Plasma half-lives could not be calculated due to multiple peaks caused by apparent redistributions from other tissues. These data indicate that after an acute exposure PFOS persists and accumulates in edible tissues. The largest PFOS body burdens were in the blood (?36%), carcass remainder (5.7 ± 1.6%), and the muscle (4.3 ± 0.6%). It was concluded that PFOS would accumulate in edible tissues of beef, which could be a source of exposure for humans. PMID:24443932

Lupton, Sara J; Huwe, Janice K; Smith, David J; Dearfield, Kerry L; Johnston, John J

2014-02-01

82

PFOS Induces Behavioral Alterations, Including Spontaneous Hyperactivity That Is Corrected by Dexamfetamine in Zebrafish Larvae  

PubMed Central

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a widely spread environmental contaminant. It accumulates in the brain and has potential neurotoxic effects. The exposure to PFOS has been associated with higher impulsivity and increased ADHD prevalence. We investigated the effects of developmental exposure to PFOS in zebrafish larvae, focusing on the modulation of activity by the dopaminergic system. We exposed zebrafish embryos to 0.1 or 1 mg/L PFOS (0.186 or 1.858 µM, respectively) and assessed swimming activity at 6 dpf. We analyzed the structure of spontaneous activity, the hyperactivity and the habituation during a brief dark period (visual motor response), and the vibrational startle response. The findings in zebrafish larvae were compared with historical data from 3 months old male mice exposed to 0.3 or 3 mg/kg/day PFOS throughout gestation. Finally, we investigated the effects of dexamfetamine on the alterations in spontaneous activity and startle response in zebrafish larvae. We found that zebrafish larvae exposed to 0.1 mg/L PFOS habituate faster than controls during a dark pulse, while the larvae exposed to 1 mg/L PFOS display a disorganized pattern of spontaneous activity and persistent hyperactivity. Similarly, mice exposed to 0.3 mg/kg/day PFOS habituated faster than controls to a new environment, while mice exposed to 3 mg/kg/day PFOS displayed more intense and disorganized spontaneous activity. Dexamfetamine partly corrected the hyperactive phenotype in zebrafish larvae. In conclusion, developmental exposure to PFOS in zebrafish induces spontaneous hyperactivity mediated by a dopaminergic deficit, which can be partially reversed by dexamfetamine in zebrafish larvae. PMID:24740186

Spulber, Stefan; Kilian, Pascal; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Norhamidah; Onishchenko, Natalia; Ulhaq, Mazhar; Norrgren, Leif; Negri, Sara; Di Tuccio, Marcello; Ceccatelli, Sandra

2014-01-01

83

BINDING OF PERFLUORINATED FATTY ACIDS TO SERUM PROTEINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) accumulates in the liver and blood of exposed organisms. The potential for these surfactant molecules to interfere with hormone\\/protein interactions in blood is of concern given the importance of these interactions. The PFOS binding to serum proteins was investigated by assessing its ability to displace a variety of steroid hormones from specific binding proteins in the

Paul D. Jones; Wenyue Hu; Wim De Coen; John L. Newsted; John P. Giesy

2003-01-01

84

Occurrence of perfluoroalkyl acids including perfluorooctane sulfonate isomers in Huai River Basin and Taihu Lake in Jiangsu Province, China.  

PubMed

The spatial distribution of 10 perfluoroalkyl acids including linear and branched (six monotrifluoromethyl isomers) perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in surface water was investigated in Huai River Basin and Taihu Lake in Jiangsu Province, China. In the water samples from Huai River Basin, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and PFOS were the predominant compounds (mean 18 ng/L and 4.7 ng/L, respectively), while in samples from Taihu Lake, PFOA, perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), and PFOS were the predominant compounds (mean 56 ng/L, 19 ng/L, and 15 ng/L, respectively). Branched PFOS (Br-PFOS) isomers accounting for 48.1% to 62.5% of total PFOS were enriched in all samples from Taihu Lake, compared to technical electrochemical fluorination (ECF) PFOS (Br-PFOS ?30.0%), while the similar phenomena were not found in samples from Huai River Basin (Br-PFOS 29.0-35.0%). Principal component analysis (PCA) on the percentages of the individual isomer showed that the first two components accounted for 78.4% and 15.3% of the overall observed data variance. Samples from Huai River Basin were grouped together with the ECF PFOS standard suggesting the profiles were similar, while samples from Taihu Lake were grouped by themselves, suggesting that isomer profiles in these samples were different from that of Huai River Basin. The obvious difference in isomer profiles probably results from the different environmental behaviors of PFOS isomers and/or unknown sources (PFOS or PFOS precursors). PMID:23253185

Yu, Nanyang; Shi, Wei; Zhang, Beibei; Su, Guanyong; Feng, Jianfang; Zhang, Xiaowei; Wei, Si; Yu, Hongxia

2013-01-15

85

Ecotoxicological effects of waterborne PFOS exposure on swimming performance and energy expenditure in juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus).  

PubMed

The potential risks of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are of increasing ecological concern. Swimming performance is linked to the fitness and health of fish. However, the impacts of PFOS on swimming performance remain largely unknown. We investigated the ecotoxicological effects of acute exposure to PFOS on the swimming performance and energy expenditure of juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus). The fish were exposed to a range of PFOS concentrations (0, 0.5, 2, 8 and 32 mg/L) for 48 hr. The spontaneous swimming activity, fast-start swimming performance, critical swimming speed (U(crit)) and active metabolic rate (AMR) of the goldfish were examined after exposure to PFOS. PFOS exposure resulted in remarkable effects on spontaneous activity. Motion distance was reduced, and the proportion of motionless time increased with increasing concentrations of PFOS. However, no significant alterations in the fast-start performance-related kinematic parameters, such as latency time, maximum linear velocity, maximum linear acceleration or escape distance during the first 120 msec after stimulus, were observed after PFOS exposure. Unexpectedly, although PFOS exposure had marked influences on the swimming oxygen consumption rates and AMR of goldfish, the U(crit) of the goldfish was not significantly affected by PFOS. This may result in a noteworthy increase in the energetic cost of transport. The overall results indicate that, in contrast to spontaneous activity, underlying swimming capabilities are maintained in goldfish after short-term exposure to PFOS, but energy expenditure during the process of swimming is dramatically aggravated. PMID:24520707

Xia, Jigang; Fu, Shijian; Cao, Zhendong; Peng, Jianglan; Peng, Jing; Dai, Tingting; Cheng, Lili

2013-08-01

86

Estimation of PFOS emission from domestic sources in the eastern coastal region of China.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and related chemicals (collectively "PFOS equivalents") have been released to the environment through widespread consumer use and disposal of PFOS-containing products like carpet, leather, textiles, paper, food containers, household cleansers, etc. Accordingly, in addition to PFOS-related industries, domestic activities may also considerably contribute to the PFOS emissions in the eastern coastal region of China, which has been characterized by high industrial input. In the present study, domestic emissions of PFOS equivalents derived from municipal wastewater treatment plants were estimated at the county level, using a regression model of domestic emission density with population density and per capita disposable income as independent variables. The total emission load of PFOS equivalents from domestic sources in the eastern coastal region of China was 381kg in 2010, and large cities were prominent as the emission centers. The domestic emission density averaged 0.37g/km(2)·a for the entire study area. Generally, the Beijing-Tianjin area, Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta, as the most populous and economically developed areas in China, showed significantly higher emission density. Geographical variations within individual provinces were noteworthy. The average per capita discharge load of PFOS equivalents arising from domestic activities was 1.91?g/day per capita in the eastern coastal region of China, which is consistent with previous estimates in Korea, but lower than those calculated for developed countries. In comparison, the spatial distributions of provincial PFOS emissions from domestic and industrial sources were similar to each other; however, the latter was much larger for all the provinces. PMID:23892226

Xie, Shuangwei; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Liu, Shijie; Jones, Kevin; Sweetman, Andy

2013-09-01

87

Comparing measured and modelled PFOS concentrations in a UK freshwater catchment and estimating emission rates.  

PubMed

The lifecycle, sources and fate of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) continue to generate scientific and political interest, particularly since PFOS was listed by the Stockholm Convention and largely restricted in Europe. It continues to be detected in aquatic environments, with only limited studies into the on-going sources. This paper explores PFOS emissions discharged by the general population into a small catchment comprising two rivers in the UK. A sampling campaign was undertaken to improve our understanding of population-derived PFOS sources from sewage treatment plants (STPs) and in rivers. A corresponding modelling exercise allowed an emission estimate of 13?g/day/per capita to be derived for the Aire and Calder rivers. PFOS emission was linked to STP discharges bylinear regression of measured and modelled concntrations (R(2)=0.49-0.85). The model was able to accurately estimate the spatial trends of PFOS in the rivers, while predicted concentrations were within a factor of three based on per capita emission values taken from the literature. Measured PFOS concentrations in rivers suggested that emissions from STPs are partially dependent on treatment type, where plants with secondary or tertiary treatment such as activated sludge processes emit less PFOS, possibly due to increased partitioning and retention. With refinements based on the type of treatment at each STP, predictions were further improved. The total PFOS mass discharged annually via rivers from the UK has been estimated to be between 215 and 310kg, based on the per capita emission range derived in this study. PMID:24879369

Earnshaw, Mark R; Paul, Alexander G; Loos, Robert; Tavazzi, Simona; Paracchini, Bruno; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andrew J

2014-09-01

88

All-organic non-PFOS nonionic photoacid generating compounds with functionalized fluoroorganic sulfonate motif for chemically amplified resists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonionic photoacid generators (PAGs) based on photosensitive fluoroorganic sulfonate esters of imide and nitrobenzyl have been prepared and characterized. These new compounds produce fluoroorganic sulfonic acids that contain very few fluorine atoms (non-PFOS), which make them attractive PAGs for all advanced and emerging lithography. The structural influence of these new PAGs on sensitivity, resolution and line edge roughness (LER) was investigated by using DUV (254 nm) and e-beam lithography with ESCAP and ACRYLIC type positive tone resists. E-beam lithography evaluation indicates that these new fluroorganic sulfonic acids are sensitive and capable of providing image profiles down to 80 nm. The variation observed in sensitivity and LER at e-beam lithography was analyzed in terms of the structures of the photogenerated acids, chromophores and resists.

Ayothi, Ramakrishnan; Yi, Yi; Ober, Christopher K.; Putna, Steve; Yueh, Wang; Cao, Heidi

2006-03-01

89

Developmental toxicity of perfluorononanoic acid in the mouse.  

EPA Science Inventory

Toxicology Curriculum, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) is a persistent environmental contaminant. Although its levels in the environment are lower than those of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), its pre...

90

Toxicogenomic profiling of perfluorononanoic acid in wild-type and PPARa-null mice  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant and a developmental toxicant in laboratory animals. Like other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOA) and perfluoroalkyl acid (PFOS), PFNA is a known activator ofperoxisome prol...

91

Comparison and evaluation of pharmacokinetics of PFOA and PFOS in the adult rat using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model.  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl acid carboxylates and sulfonates (PFAAs) have many consumer and industrial applications. The persistence and widespread distribution of PFAAs have brought them under intense scrutiny. Limited PK data for PFAAs is available for humans; however, toxicological and pharmacokinetic data exist for rats, which can be useful for cross-species extrapolation. In this work, PBPK models were developed for adult male and female rats to describe the pharmacokinetics of PFOA and PFOS. The models contain a description of saturable renal resorption, free fraction of chemical in plasma, and saturable binding in liver. Both male and female rat models for each chemical were consistent with available PK data resulting from IV, oral, and dietary dosing regimens. Predicted plasma concentration curves followed trends observed in experimental data, and model predictions were within a factor of two of experimental values. PFOA and PFOS rat model output is sensitive to parameters governing renal resorption, indicating that renal resorption is responsible for the long-half life. These models, along with the PFAA gestation and lactation models published in this issue, will help address concerns about possible health effects due to PFAA exposure in the fetus and neonate and will be useful in comparing PK across life stages. PMID:21565266

Loccisano, Anne E; Campbell, Jerry L; Butenhoff, John L; Andersen, Melvin E; Clewell, Harvey J

2012-07-01

92

Sediment-water distribution of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in Yangtze River Estuary.  

PubMed

Analysis of Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) distribution in water and sediment in Yangtze River Estuary showed that the estuary was a sink for PFOS. Salinity was an important parameter in controlling the sediment-water interactions and the fate or transport of PFOS in the aquatic environment. As the salinity (S per thousand) increased from 0.18 to 3.31, the distribution coefficient (K(d)) between sediment and water linearly increased from 0.76 to 4.70 L g(-1). The study suggests that PFOS may be carried with the river water and transported for long distances before it reaches to the sea and largely scavenged to the sediment in the estuaries due to the dramatic change in salinity. PMID:20170997

Pan, Gang; You, Chun

2010-05-01

93

Investigation of DNA damage treated with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on ZrO2/DDAB active nano-order film.  

PubMed

The interactions between DNA and small molecules with planar heterocyclic structure were indicated in previous researches. This study investigated the interactions between PFOS with linear chain structure and DNA. A new phenomenon of DNA damage due to PFOS using electrochemistry technique was proved. The data was obtained on a modified glassy carbon electrode, on which didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB), ZrO(2) and calf thymus DNA were immobilized layer-by-layer. Electrochemical response of DNA damage caused by PFOS was detected by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) using methylene blue (MB) as electro-active indicator. The current of MB attenuated obviously after DNA/ZrO(2)/DDAB/GCE were incubated in PFOS. The shift of MB reduction peak potential indicates that PFOS is bound with DNA in groove probably by the first step of hydrophobic interaction and then the second step of intercalation into the base of DNA. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) was used to elucidate in detail the intercalation of PFOS into DNA and the formation of hydrogen bond between PFOS and DNA base. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) proved the formation of adducts of DNA and PFOS. Moreover, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) indicates that the PFOS influence DNA structure and attenuate DNA charge transport. These results demonstrate that PFOS intercalated into DNA do induce DNA base damage. PMID:22459586

Lu, Liping; Xu, Laihui; Kang, Tianfang; Cheng, Shuiyuan

2012-05-15

94

Developmental toxicity and alteration of gene expression in zebrafish embryos exposed to PFOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent organic pollutant, the potential toxicity of which is causing great concern. In the present study, we employed zebrafish embryos to investigate the developmental toxicity of this compound. Four-hour post-fertilization (hpf) zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0.1, 0.5, 1, 3 and 5 mg\\/L PFOS. Hatching was delayed and hatching rates as well as larval survivorship were significantly

Xiongjie Shi; Yongbing Du; Paul K. S. Lam; Rudolf S. S. Wu; Bingsheng Zhou

2008-01-01

95

Effects of PFOS and PFOA on L-type Ca 2+ currents in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are amphiphiles found ubiquitously in the environment, including wildlife and humans, and are known to have toxic effects on physiological functions of various tissues. We investigated the effects of PFOS and PFOA on action potentials and L-type Ca2+ currents, ICaL, in isolated guinea-pig ventricular myocytes using whole-cell patch-clamp recording. In current-clamp experiments, PFOS significantly

Kouji Harada; Feng Xu; Kyoichi Ono; Toshihiko Iijima; Akio Koizumi

2005-01-01

96

Microcosm Evaluation of the Toxicity and Risk to Aquatic Macrophytes from Perfluorooctane Sulfonic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) is an anthropogenic contaminant detected in various environmental and biologic matrices. This compound is a fluorinated surfactant, a class of molecules renowned for their persistence and their global distribution but for which few ecotoxicological data are currently available, especially under field conditions. The toxicity of PFOS to the aquatic macrophytes Myriophyllum sibiricum and M. spicatum was

M. L. Hanson; P. K. Sibley; R. A. Brain; S. A. Mabury; K. R. Solomon

2005-01-01

97

In vitro PFOS exposure on immune endpoints in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and mice.  

PubMed

Previous studies in our lab have shown that perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) modulates immune function in mice and correlates with many immune parameters in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). In this study, bottlenose dolphin peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and adult female B6C3F1 mouse splenocytes were exposed to environmentally relevant PFOS concentrations (0-5 µg ml(-1)) in vitro; and natural killer (NK) cell activity and lymphocyte proliferation (T and B cell) were assessed using the parallelogram approach for risk assessment. The objectives were: to corroborate results from the correlative studies in bottlenose dolphins with in vitro PFOS exposures; to evaluate the sensitivity of the mouse model as compared with bottlenose dolphins; and to assess risk using the parallelogram approach. In mouse cells, NK cell activity was decreased at in vitro doses of 0.01, 0.5, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 µg PFOS ml(-1) and increased at 5 µg ml(-1). Additionally, B cell proliferation was not altered, but T cell proliferation was decreased at all in vitro PFOS exposures. In dolphin cells, NK cell activity and T cell proliferation were not altered by in vitro PFOS exposure, but B cell proliferation exhibited a positive association in relation to PFOS dose. Overall, the data indicates that: the in vitro exposures of bottlenose dolphin PBLs exhibited results similar to reported correlative fields studies; that mice were generally more sensitive (for these selected endpoints) than were dolphins; and that the parallelogram approach could be used two-thirds of the time to predict the effects in bottlenose dolphins. PMID:23722986

Wirth, Jena R; Peden-Adams, Margie M; White, Natasha D; Bossart, Gregory D; Fair, Patricia A

2014-06-01

98

Toxic effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plant.  

PubMed

Toxic effects of different concentrations (0.1-200mgL(-1)) of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on wheat (Triticumaestivum L.) were investigated using the growing and developmental indexes of wheat, including length and biomass of roots and leaves, chlorophyll, soluble protein, peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the seedlings and permeability of root cells. The results showed that PFOS had significant (p<0.05) effects on the growth of wheat seedlings under the experimental conditions. At the low concentration (less than 10mgL(-1)), PFOS could slightly stimulate the growth of wheat seedlings and induce the synthesis of chlorophyll and soluble protein in wheat seedlings, and whereas exceeding 10mgL(-1) PFOS treatment could exert inhibition to the elongation and biomass of roots and leaves, and lead to damage to chlorophyll accumulation and soluble protein synthesis. Furthermore, the activities of SOD and POD in wheat roots and leaves were enhanced in the tested PFOS concentrations of 0.1-10mgL(-1). However, when the concentration of PFOS was raised up to 200mgL(-1), the activity of SOD and POD decreased significantly with 12.6% and 33.7% inhibition for roots compared to the control respectively, which indicated the antioxidative defensive system in wheat seedlings might be damaged by PFOS. In addition, the permeability of wheat root cells was enhanced at the tested concentration of 0.1-200mgL(-1). When the concentration was increased to 200mgL(-1), the electrolyte leakage was promoted 2.73 times higher than in the control. PMID:20193959

Qu, Baocheng; Zhao, Hongxia; Zhou, Jiti

2010-04-01

99

Developmental toxicity and alteration of gene expression in zebrafish embryos exposed to PFOS  

SciTech Connect

Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent organic pollutant, the potential toxicity of which is causing great concern. In the present study, we employed zebrafish embryos to investigate the developmental toxicity of this compound. Four-hour post-fertilization (hpf) zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0.1, 0.5, 1, 3 and 5 mg/L PFOS. Hatching was delayed and hatching rates as well as larval survivorship were significantly reduced after the embryos were exposed to 1, 3 and 5 mg/L PFOS until 132 hpf. The fry displayed gross developmental malformations, including epiboly deformities, hypopigmentation, yolk sac edema, tail and heart malformations and spinal curvature upon exposure to PFOS concentrations of 1 mg/L or greater. Growth (body length) was significantly reduced in the 3 and 5 mg/L PFOS-treated groups. To test whether developmental malformation was mediated via apoptosis, flow cytometry analysis of DNA content, acridine orange staining and TUNEL assay was used. These techniques indicated that more apoptotic cells were present in the PFOS-treated embryos than in the control embryos. Certain genes related to cell apoptosis, p53 and Bax, were both significantly up-regulated upon exposure to all the concentrations tested. In addition, we investigated the effects of PFOS on marker genes related to early thyroid development (hhex and pax8) and genes regulating the balance of androgens and estrogens (cyp19a and cyp19b). For thyroid development, the expression of hhex was significantly up-regulated at all concentrations tested, whereas pax8 expression was significantly up-regulated only upon exposure to lower concentrations of PFOS (0.1, 0.5, 1 mg/L). The expression of cyp19a and of cyp19b was significantly down-regulated at all exposure concentrations. The overall results indicated that zebrafish embryos constitute a reliable model for testing the developmental toxicity of PFOS, and the gene expression patterns in the embryos were able to reveal some potential mechanisms of developmental toxicity.

Shi Xiongjie [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Du Yongbing [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Lam, Paul K.S.; Wu, Rudolf S.S. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong (China); Zhou Bingsheng [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China)], E-mail: bszhou@ihb.ac.cn

2008-07-01

100

Exposure to Perfluorononanoic acid during pregnancy: Evaluations of rat and mice model  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) is a persistent environmental contaminant. Although its levels in the environment are lower than those of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), its presence in humans is rising and is of concern. Previous studies have in...

101

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) contamination of fish in urban lakes: a prioritization methodology for lake management.  

PubMed

The contamination of urban lakes by anthropogenic pollutants such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a worldwide environmental problem. Large-scale, long-term monitoring of urban lakes requires careful prioritization of available resources, focusing efforts on potentially impaired lakes. Herein, a database of PFOS concentrations in 304 fish caught from 28 urban lakes was used for development of an urban-lake prioritization framework by means of exploratory data analysis (EDA) with the aid of a geographical information system. The prioritization scheme consists of three main tiers: preliminary classification, carried out by hierarchical cluster analysis; predictor screening, fulfilled by a regression tree method; and model development by means of a neural network. The predictive performance of the newly developed model was assessed using a training/validation splitting method and determined by an external validation set. The application of the model in the U.S. state of Minnesota identified 40 urban lakes that may contain elevated levels of PFOS; these lakes were not previously considered in PFOS monitoring programs. The model results also highlight ongoing industrial/commercial activities as a principal determinant of PFOS pollution in urban lakes, and suggest vehicular traffic as an important source and surface runoff as a primary pollution carrier. In addition, the EDA approach was further compared to a spatial interpolation method (kriging), and their advantages and disadvantages were discussed. PMID:24184022

Xiao, Feng; Gulliver, John S; Simcik, Matt F

2013-12-15

102

Prenatal PFOS exposure induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in the lung of rat off-spring.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) could induce neonatal pulmonary injuries in rodents. The aim of this study was to investigate the underlying mode of action. Pregnant rats were dosed orally with PFOS (0, 0.1 and 2.0mg/kgd) from gestation days (GD) 1 to 21. Lung samples from postnatal day (PND) 0 and 21 pups were analyzed for the toxic effects of PFOS. The results showed that maternal exposure to 2.0mg/kgd PFOS caused severe histopathological changes along with marked oxidative injuries and cell apoptosis in offspring lungs; at the same time, the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2, release of cytochrome c (Cyt c) from mitochondria to cytoplasm, expressions of Fas and Fas-L, and activities of caspase-3, -8 and -9 were up-regulated correspondingly. The results indicate that oxidative stress and both intrinsic and extrinsic cell death pathways were involved in prenatal PFOS exposure-induced injuries in postnatal lungs. PMID:21440054

Chen, Tian; Zhang, Ling; Yue, Jun-qiu; Lv, Zi-quan; Xia, Wei; Wan, Yan-jian; Li, Yuan-yuan; Xu, Shun-qing

2012-07-01

103

GC AND LC CHROMATOGRAPHIC AND EI, CE, +/- CI, AND ES MASS SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SALTS AND AMIDES OF PERFLUOROOCTANESULFONIC ACID  

EPA Science Inventory

In 1976, fluorine in human blood serum was thought to be present as perfluorooctanic acid; however, in the 1990s it was correctly identified by LC/MS as perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS). PFOS was both a commercial product and an end-stage metabolite of numerous substituted amides ...

104

PARTIAL LIFE-CYCLE TOXICITY AND BIOCONCENTRATION MODELLING OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE NORTHERN LEOPARD FROG (RANA PIPIENS)  

EPA Science Inventory

A number of recent monitoring studies have demonstrated elevated concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in humans and wildlife throughout the world. Although no longer manufactured in the U.S., the global distribution and relative persistence of PFOS indicates a need ...

105

Contamination of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in surface water of the Yodo River basin (Japan)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study concerned surface water contamination of two perfluorinated compounds: perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). Surveys were repeatedly conducted in the Yodo River basin in order to find out the contamination profiles and the sources of these compounds. Collected samples were analyzed for aqueous PFOS and PFOA concentrations, by solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled with LC\\/MS measurement, and other

Nguyen Pham Hong Lein; Shigeo Fujii; Shuhei Tanaka; Munehiro Nozoe; Hiroaki Tanaka

2008-01-01

106

Estrogenic effects, reproductive impairment and developmental toxicity in ovoviparous swordtail fish ( Xiphophorus helleri) exposed to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the wide distribution and persistence of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), an increasing number of studies are focusing on the toxicological effects of PFOS exposure in mammalian and fish model species. The results of these studies (on estrogenic activity, development and reproduction, etc.), however, are largely inconsistent owing to differences in exposure conditions (exposure time, concentrations, species and test methods,

Jian Han; Zhanqiang Fang

2010-01-01

107

Mineralization behavior of fluorine in perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) during thermal treatment of lime-conditioned sludge.  

PubMed

The fate and transport of the fluorine in perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) during the thermal treatment of lime-conditioned sludge were observed using both qualitative and quantitative X-ray diffraction techniques. Two main fluorine mineralization mechanisms leading to the substantial formation of CaF2 and Ca5(PO4)3F phases were observed. They had a close relationship with the thermal treatment condition and the PFOS content of the sludge. At low temperatures (300-600 °C), CaF2 dominated in the product and increases in treatment time and temperature generally enhanced the fluorine transformation. However, at higher temperatures (700-900 °C), increases in treatment time and temperature had a negative effect on the overall efficiency of the fluorine crystallization. The results suggest that in the high temperature environment there were greater losses of gaseous products such as HF and SiF4 in the transformation of CaF2 to Ca5(PO4)3F, the hydrolysis of CaF2, and the reaction with SiO2. The quantitative analysis also showed that when treating sludge with low PFOS content at high temperatures, the formation of Ca5(PO4)3F may be the primary mechanism for the mineralization of the fluorine in PFOS. The overall results clearly indicate the variations in the fate and transport of fluorine in PFOS when the sludge is subject to different PFOS contents and treatment types, such as heat drying or incineration. PMID:23360134

Wang, Fei; Shih, Kaimin; Lu, Xingwen; Liu, Chengshuai

2013-03-19

108

PFOS induced lipid metabolism disturbances in BALB/c mice through inhibition of low density lipoproteins excretion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Male BALB/c mice fed with either a regular or high fat diet were exposed to 0, 5 or 20 mg/kg perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) for 14 days. Increased body weight, serum glucose, cholesterol and lipoprotein levels were observed in mice given a high fat diet. However, all PFOS-treated mice got reduced levels of serum lipid and lipoprotein. Decreasing liver glycogen content was also observed, accompanied by reduced serum glucose levels. Histological and ultrastructural examination detected more lipid droplets accumulated in hepatocytes after PFOS exposure. Moreover, transcripitonal activity of lipid metabolism related genes suggests that PFOS toxicity is probably unrelevant to PPAR?'s transcription. The present study demonstrates a lipid disturbance caused by PFOS and thus point to its role in inhibiting the secretion and normal function of low density lipoproteins.

Wang, Ling; Wang, Yu; Liang, Yong; Li, Jia; Liu, Yuchen; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Aiqian; Fu, Jianjie; Jiang, Guibin

2014-04-01

109

PFOS induced lipid metabolism disturbances in BALB/c mice through inhibition of low density lipoproteins excretion  

PubMed Central

Male BALB/c mice fed with either a regular or high fat diet were exposed to 0, 5 or 20?mg/kg perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) for 14 days. Increased body weight, serum glucose, cholesterol and lipoprotein levels were observed in mice given a high fat diet. However, all PFOS-treated mice got reduced levels of serum lipid and lipoprotein. Decreasing liver glycogen content was also observed, accompanied by reduced serum glucose levels. Histological and ultrastructural examination detected more lipid droplets accumulated in hepatocytes after PFOS exposure. Moreover, transcripitonal activity of lipid metabolism related genes suggests that PFOS toxicity is probably unrelevant to PPAR?'s transcription. The present study demonstrates a lipid disturbance caused by PFOS and thus point to its role in inhibiting the secretion and normal function of low density lipoproteins. PMID:24694979

Wang, Ling; Wang, Yu; Liang, Yong; Li, Jia; Liu, Yuchen; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Aiqian; Fu, Jianjie; Jiang, Guibin

2014-01-01

110

Preliminary screening of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other fluorochemicals in fish, birds and marine mammals from Greenland and the Faroe Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive screening analyses of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and related perfluorinated compounds in biota samples from all over the world have identified PFOS as a global pollutant and have shown its bioaccumulation into higher trophic levels in the food chain. Perfluorinated compounds have been found in remote areas as the Arctic. In this study a preliminary screening of PFOS and related

Rossana Bossi; Frank F. Riget; Rune Dietz; Christian Sonne; Patrik Fauser; Maria Dam; Katrin Vorkamp

2005-01-01

111

Biochemical effect evaluation of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid-contaminated wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus).  

PubMed Central

Wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) were captured at Blokkersdijk, a nature reserve in the immediate vicinity of a fluorochemical plant in Antwerp, Belgium, and at Galgenweel, 3 kilometers farther away. The liver perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) concentrations in the Blokkersdijk mice were extremely high (0.47-178.55 micro g/g wet weight). Perfluorononanoic, perfluorodecanoic, perfluoroundecanoic, and perfluorododecanoic acids were found sporadically in the liver tissue of the Blokkersdijk mice. The liver PFOS concentrations at Galgenweel were significantly lower than those at Blokkersdijk (0.14-1.11 micro g/g wet weight). Further results suggest sex independence of the liver PFOS levels, increased levels of PFOS bioaccumulation in older mice, and maternal PFOS transfer to the young. Several liver end points were significantly elevated in the Blokkersdijk mice: liver weight, relative liver weight, peroxisomal beta-oxidation activity, microsomal lipid peroxidation level, and mitochondrial fraction protein content. For the mitochondrial fraction catalase activity, no significant difference between locations was found. The liver weight, relative liver weight, and liver microsomal lipid peroxidation level increased significantly with the liver PFOS concentration. No indications for PFOS-mediated effects on the serum triglyceride, cholesterol, or potassium levels were obtained. The liver PFOS concentration was negatively related to the serum alanine aminotransferase activity. PMID:15121511

Hoff, Philippe Tony; Scheirs, Jan; Van de Vijver, Kristin; Van Dongen, Walter; Esmans, Eddy Louis; Blust, Ronny; De Coen, Wim

2004-01-01

112

Toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid to plants and aquatic invertebrates.  

PubMed

Acute toxicities of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were tested on four freshwater species and three plant species. PFOS was more toxic than PFOA for all species tested in this study. Similar time-response patterns of PFOS and PFOA toxicity were observed for each tested species. Values of the 48-h LC(50) of PFOS for all test species ranged from 27 to 233 mg/L and values of the 96-h LC(50) for three of the species ranged from 10 to 178 mg/L. Values of the 48-h LC(50) of PFOA for all test species ranged from 181 to 732 mg/L and values of the 96-h LC(50) for three of the species ranged from 337 to 672 mg/L. The most sensitive freshwater species to PFOS was green neon shrimp (Neocaridina denticulate) with a 96-h LC(50) of 10 mg/L. Of the aquatic organisms tested, the aquatic snail (Physa acuta) always has the highest resistance to PFOS or PFOA toxicity over each exposure period. Both PFOS and PFOA had no obvious adverse effect on seed germination for all three plant species. Five-day EC(50) of root elongation was more sensitive to LC(50) of seed germination in this study. Based on EC(10), EC(50), and NOECs, the 5-day root elongation sensitivity of test plants to both PFOS and PFOA was in the order of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) > pakchoi (Brassica rapa chinensis) > cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Based on the results of this study and other published literature, it is suggested that current PFOS and PFOA levels in freshwater may have no acute harmful ecological impact on the aquatic environment. However, more research on the long-term ecological effects of PFOS and PFOA on aquatic fauna are needed to provide important information to adequately assess ecological risk of PFOS and PFOA. PMID:18461560

Li, Mei-Hui

2009-02-01

113

HEPATIC GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES OF RATS EXPOSED TO PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN UTERO  

EPA Science Inventory

Hepatic Gene Expression Profiles of Rats Exposed to Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in utero. J.A. Bjork1, J.M. Berthiaume1, C. Lau2, J. L. Butenhoff3, and K.B. Wallace1 1Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Minnesota School of Medicine, Dulut...

114

MATERNAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE MOUSE  

EPA Science Inventory

MATERNAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE MOUSE. J.R. Thibodeaux1, R.G. Hanson1, B.E. Grey1, B.D. Barbee1, J.H. Richards2, J.L. Butenhoff3, J.M. Rogers1, C. Lau1. 1Reprod. Tox. Div., 2Exp. Tox. Div., NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, Research Triangle Pa...

115

Thyroid hormone status and pituitary function in adult rats given oral doses of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionPerfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is widely distributed and persistent in humans and wildlife. Prior toxicological studies have reported decreased total and free thyroid hormones in serum without a major compensatory rise in thyrotropin (TSH) or altered thyroid gland histology. Although these animals (rats, mice and monkeys) might have maintained an euthyroid state, the basis for hypothyroxinemia remained unclear. We undertook this study

Shu-Ching Chang; Julie R. Thibodeaux; Mary L. Eastvold; David J. Ehresman; James A. Bjork; John W. Froehlich; Christopher Lau; Ravinder J. Singh; Kendall B. Wallace; John L. Butenhoff

2008-01-01

116

WINDOW OF SUSCEPTIBILITY TO PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS)-INDUCED NEONATAL MORTALITY IN THE RAT  

EPA Science Inventory

GRASTY1, 2, R.C., B.E. GREY1, C.S. LAU1 and J.M. ROGERS1, 2. 1Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC; and 2Curriculum in Toxicology, UNC Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC. Window of susceptibility to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)-induce...

117

MATERNAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCATANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE RAT  

EPA Science Inventory

MATERNAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE RAT. C. Lau1, J.M. Rogers1, J.R. Thibodeaux1, R.G. Hanson1, B.E. Grey1, B.D. Barbee1, J.H. Richards2, J.L. Butenoff3. 1Reprod. Tox. Div., 2Exp. Tox. Div., NHEERL, USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, 3...

118

Adsorption of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) on alumina: influence of solution pH and cations.  

PubMed

The persistent nature of perfluorochemicals (PFCs) has attracted global concern in recent years. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are the most commonly found PFC compounds, and thus their fate and transport play key roles in PFC distribution in the natural environment. As most solid phases in natural water contain alumina, an investigation of PFOS and PFOA adsorption behavior on alumina should prove useful in evaluating the environmental impact of this type of persistent pollutant. Systematic experiments were carried out in this study to investigate the adsorption behavior of PFOS and PFOA onto alumina. The results of adsorption kinetics on alumina show that it takes 48 h to reach equilibrium. The adsorption isotherms reveal maximum adsorption capacities of 0.252 ?g/m(2) for PFOS and 0.157 ?g/m(2) for PFOA at pH = 4.3, with the difference primarily due to their different functional groups. An increase in pH leads to a decrease in PFOS and PFOA adsorption on alumina, which may be attributed to the reduction in electrostatic interaction. The adsorption of both PFOS and PFOA decreases with an increase in ionic strength for all four types of cations (Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+)), due to the compression of the electrical double layer. Furthermore, the results also indicate that both Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) can form bridges with PFOA anions in solution, whereas only PFOS can be bridged by Ca(2+) due to the higher covalent nature of magnesium. PMID:21453951

Wang, Fei; Shih, Kaimin

2011-04-01

119

Characterisation of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in a terrestrial ecosystem near a fluorochemical plant in Flanders, Belgium.  

PubMed

Bioaccumulation of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in a restricted terrestrial food chain was investigated with the omnivorous wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) on top of the studied food chain. The levels detected are very high compared with literature as a result of the presence of fluorochemical plant in the immediate vicinity of the study area. Soil, surface water, fruits of European elder and common blackberry, invertebrates, bank vole and wood mouse were collected at two sites, e.g. Blokkersdijk, adjacent to the fluorochemical plant, and Galgenweel, a reference site 2 km further away. In wood mouse, the highest PFOS concentrations were found in the liver followed by the pancreas, lungs and kidneys, with the spleen having the lowest levels. In the liver, the concentrations ranged from 787 to 22,355 ng/g ww at Blokkersdijk and these were significantly correlated with those detected in the kidneys (13.7-4,226 ng/g ww). If current results are compared to the findings of a previous study conducted in 2002 at the same sites, a significant decrease of PFOS in livers of wood mouse is observed. To the best of our knowledge, so far no studies reported levels of PFOS in terrestrial invertebrates under field conditions. At Blokkersdijk, PFOS was detected in all invertebrate species ranging from 28 to 9,000 ng/g. Soil and water were also contaminated with levels of respectively 68 ng/g and 22 ng/L. Biota-to-soil accumulation factors ranged from 0.11 to 68 for earthworms. Biomagnification factors (BMFs) of liver wood mouse/berries were as high as 302. BMFs for invertebrates were remarkably lower (up to 2). PMID:24385186

D'Hollander, Wendy; De Bruyn, Luc; Hagenaars, An; de Voogt, Pim; Bervoets, Lieven

2014-10-01

120

Chronic PFOS exposures induce life stage-specific behavioral deficits in adult zebrafish and produce malformations in F1 offspring  

PubMed Central

Perfluorooctanesulphonicacid (PFOS) is an organic contaminant that is ubiquitous in the environment, wildlife, and humans. Few studies have assessed the effects of chronic PFOS exposure on central nervous system function in aquatic organisms. The present study defined the behavioral effects of varying life span chronic exposures to low dose PFOS in zebrafish. The zebrafish were treated with vehicle control or 0.5?M PFOS during 1–21, 21–120, or 1–120 day post fertilization (dpf). Chronic PFOS exposure impaired the adult zebrafish behavior mode under the tapping stimulus. The movement speed of 1–120 dpf exposed fish was significantly increased compared with control, while 1–21 and 21–120 dpf exposed groups were not severely affected. PFOS residues in F1 embryos derived from parental exposure during both the 1–120 and 21–120 dpf groups was significantly higher than control, and F1 embryos in these two groups showed obvious malformations, such as uninflated swim bladder (USB) and bent spine (BS). Larvae of the parental exposed to PFOS from 1–21 or 21–120 dpf elicited a higher swim rate than control in both the light and dark periods. Embryos derived from the 1–120 dpf group showed a statistically lower speed in the light period and a higher speed in the dark period as compared with control. Though there is little PFOS residue in 1–21 dpf group, the adverse behavioral effects on both adult and F1 larvae indicate that exposure during the first 21 dpf induce long-term neurobehavior toxicity. Our findings demonstrate that chronic exposure to low dose PFOS in different life stage adversely impacts adult behavior, subsequent offspring malformation, and larval behavior. PMID:23059794

Chen, Jiangfei; Huang, Changjiang; Das, Siba R.; La Du, Jane; Corvi, Margaret M.; Bai, Chenglian; Chen, Yuanhong; Tanguay, Robert L.; Dong, Qiaoxiang

2014-01-01

121

Induction of p53-mediated apoptosis in splenocytes and thymocytes of C57BL/6 mice exposed to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)  

SciTech Connect

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent environmental contaminant found in human and wildlife tissues. It has been reported that PFOS can cause atrophy of the immune organs and apoptosis of immunocytes in rodents. However, the mechanism behind such cause is still unclear. To understand the model of cell death and its mechanism on lymphoid cells in vivo, we conducted a dose/response experiment in which 4 groups of male adult C57BL/6 mice (12 mice per group) were dosed daily by oral gavage with PFOS at 0, 0.0167, 0.0833, or 0.8333 mg/kg/day, yielding targeted Total Administered Dose (TAD) of 0, 1, 5, or 50 mg PFOS/kg, respectively, over 60 days. The results showed that spleen and thymus weight were significantly reduced in the highest PFOS-dose-group (TAD 50 mg PFOS/kg) compared to the control group, whereas liver weight was significantly increased. We analyzed the cell death via apoptosis with an annexin-V/propidium iodide assay by flow cytometry, and observed that both the percentage of apoptosis and the expression of the pro-apoptotic proteins p53 in splenocytes and thymocytes increased in a dose-related manner after PFOS treatment. We also observed that PFOS induced p53-dependent apoptosis through the cooperation between the Bcl-xl down regulation without changing the Bcl-2 and Bax expression. The down regulation of Bcl-xl was strongly indicating mitochondrial involvement in apoptosis. It is confirmed by the release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase-3. All of these findings establish an important role of p53 and mitochondrial function in PFOS induced toxic environment in the host. -- Highlights: ? PFOS immunotoxicity is caused by induction of apoptosis via the p53 activation. ? PFOS exposure can induce down regulation of Bcl-xl. ? Mitochondria are involved in PFOS-induced apoptosis. ? PFOS exposure can cause the release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase-3.

Dong, Guang-Hui, E-mail: ghdong@mail.cmu.edu.cn [School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China)] [School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Wang, Jing [Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Zhang, Ying-Hua; Liu, Miao-Miao; Wang, Da [School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China)] [School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Zheng, Li [Department of Immunology, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China)] [Department of Immunology, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Jin, Yi-He [School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China) [School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Ministry of Education, Dalian 116024 (China)

2012-10-15

122

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) distribution and effect factors in the water and sediment of the Yellow River Estuary, China.  

PubMed

The distribution of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was investigated in a total of 15 water and sediment samples from the Yellow River Estuary, China in April 2011. The results indicated that the concentrations of PFOS in the water and sediment samples averaged 157.5 ng/L and 198.8 ng/g and ranged from 82.30 to 261.8 ng/L and 75.48 to 457.0 ng/g, respectively. The concentrations of PFOS in the sediment column increased from 45.32 to 379.98 ng/g with the decrease of the sampling depth, which showed that the increased PFOS pollution in the sediment appeared in this region in over recent years. The distribution coefficient (K d) of PFOS between water and sediment linearly increased from 0.37 to 4.80 L/g as the salinity (S‰) increased from 0.18 to 4.47. Correlation analysis revealed that K d was significantly and positively correlated to the contents of total organic carbon and clay of the sediment, and salinity. Therefore, salinity was an important parameter in controlling the sediment-water interactions and the fate or transport of PFOS in the aquatic environment. The results of this study showed that the estuary was an important sink for PFOS and suggested that PFOS might be carried with the river water and transported for long distances before it reached to the sea and largely scavenged to the sediment in the estuaries due to the change in salinity. PMID:23591678

Wang, Shiliang; Wang, Hui; Deng, Wenjing

2013-10-01

123

Mechanisms for removal of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) from drinking water by conventional and enhanced coagulation.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are persistent organic pollutants that have been found to be ubiquitous in the environment. This article, for the first time, delineates removal areas of these polar compounds on a coagulation diagram that associates chemical conditions with different coagulation mechanisms. Variables considered were solution pH, coagulant dosage, coagulants (alum and ferric chloride), natural organic matter (NOM), initial turbidity, and flocculation time. The jar-test results show that conventional coagulation (alum dosage of 10-60 mg/L and final pH of 6.5-8.0) removed ?20% of PFOS and PFOA. These chemicals tended to be removed better by enhanced coagulation at higher coagulant dosages (>60 mg/L) and (thus) lower final pH (4.5-6.5). A coagulation diagram was developed to define the coagulant dosage and solution pH for PFOS/PFOA removal. The results suggest that the primary PFOS/PFOA removal mechanism is adsorption to fine Al hydroxide flocs freshly formed during the initial stage of coagulation; increasing flocculation time from 2 to 90 min could not further improve PFOS and PFOA removals. Furthermore, the effect of NOM on PFOS/PFOA removal by coagulation was examined, and possible removal mechanisms were discussed. PMID:23123052

Xiao, Feng; Simcik, Matt F; Gulliver, John S

2013-01-01

124

Pharmacokinetics and Acute Lethality of Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) to Juvenile Mallard and Northern Bobwhite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten-day-old mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were fed perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in their diet for 5 days. The birds were then observed for 3 days while being given\\u000a uncontaminated feed, and half of the birds were sacrificed on Day 8 of the trial. The remaining birds were maintained for\\u000a an additional two weeks prior to being euthanized

John L. Newsted; Susan A. Beach; Sean P. Gallagher; John P. Giesy

2006-01-01

125

Assembling structures and dynamics properties of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) at water-titanium oxide interfaces.  

PubMed

The surface-associated structures and growth modes of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) at water-rutile TiO2 interfaces were defined by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The results showed that a compact PFOS layer was generated at the rutile surfaces, and the assembling structures and dynamic profiles were crystal-face-dependent. PFOS molecules were attached to the (110) and (001) surfaces mainly by the sulfonate headgroups. A well-defined monolayer was formed on the (110) surface with the perfluorinated alkyl chains nearly perpendicular to the substrate, whereas the C-F chains were inclined at an angle (30-75°) and formed a hemicylinder-like configuration on the (001) surface. On the other hand, the perfluorinated amphiphiles interacted with the (100) plane through both the sulfonate headgroups (relatively strong electrostatic attraction) and the C-F tailgroups (weak van der Waals forces) and yielded an irregular assembling pattern. Water molecules were mostly concentrated more than 17.0 Å away from the solid surfaces and formed a continuous solvent layer, suggesting the super hydrophobicity of perfluorinated alkyl chains. A counterion-bridging mechanism suggested in surfactant adsorption was observed at the molecular scale, where the sulfonate headgroups were linked together by the potassium ions at the surfaces and caused the formation of surface aggregates. PMID:23759323

He, Guangzhi; Pan, Gang; Zhang, Meiyi

2013-09-01

126

Partitioning of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) between water and sediment.  

PubMed

Laboratory partitioning experiments were conducted to elucidate the sorption behaviour and partitioning of perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs). Three different sediment types were used and separately spiked with perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) at low environmentally realistic concentrations. PFOA, PFOS and PFOSA were mainly distributed in the dissolved phase at low suspended solid concentrations, indicating their long-range transport potential in the marine environment. In all cases, the equilibrium isotherms were linear and the organic carbon normalised partition coefficients (K(OC)) decreased in the following order: PFOSA (log K(OC) = 4.1 ± 0.35 cm³ g?¹)>PFOS (3.7 ± 0.56 cm³ g?¹) > PFOA (2.4 ± 0.12 cm³ g?¹). The level of organic content had a significant influence on the partitioning. For the sediment with negligible organic content the density of the sediment became the most important factor influencing the partitioning. Ultimately, data on the partitioning of PFCs between aqueous media and suspended solids are essential for modelling their transport and environmental fate. PMID:21742366

Ahrens, Lutz; Yeung, Leo W Y; Taniyasu, Sachi; Lam, Paul K S; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi

2011-10-01

127

Chronic effects of water-borne PFOS exposure on growth, survival and hepatotoxicity in zebrafish: A partial life-cycle test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is widely distributed and persistent in the environment and wildlife. The main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of long-term exposure to low concentrations of PFOS in zebrafish. Zebrafish fry (F0, 14d post-fertilization, dpf) were exposed via the water for 70d to 0 (control), 10, 50 and 250?gL?1 PFOS, followed by a further 30d

Yongbing Du; Xiongjie Shi; Chunsheng Liu; Ke Yu; Bingsheng Zhou

2009-01-01

128

Laboratory Evaluation of the Toxicity of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) on Selenastrum capricornutum , Chlorella vulgaris , Lemna gibba , Daphnia magna , and Daphnia pulicaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is an anthropogenic compound found in trace amounts in many environmental compartments far\\u000a from areas of production. This, along with the highly persistent nature of PFOS, presents a concern for possible effects in\\u000a aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to determine the toxicity of PFOS in representative freshwater organisms.\\u000a Toxicity testing using standard laboratory protocols

T. M. Boudreau; P. K. Sibley; S. A. Mabury; D. G. C. Muir; K. R. Solomon

2003-01-01

129

Toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and perfluorooctanoic acid on freshwater macroinvertebrates (Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa) and fish (Oryzias latipes).  

PubMed

Because of their global distribution, persistence, and tendency to bioaccumulate, concerns about perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are growing. We determined the toxicity of PFOS and PFOA in several freshwater organisms, including two cladocerans, Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa, and the teleost Oryzias latipes. In general, PFOS is approximately 10 times more toxic than PFOA in these organisms. In M. macrocopa, the median lethal concentration (LC50) was 17.95 mg/L for PFOS and 199.51 mg/L for PFOA. Moina macrocopa exhibited greater sensitivity than D. magna to both perfluorinated compounds in both acute and chronic exposures. In the 48-h acute toxicity test, M. macrocopa was approximately two times more sensitive than D. magna. In the 7-d chronic toxicity test, M. macrocopa showed significant reproductive changes at 0.31 mg/L for PFOS, which was approximately seven times lower than the effect concentrations observed over the 21-d exposure in D. magna. Two-generation fish toxicity tests showed that parental exposure to both compounds affected the performance of offspring. Unexposed progeny-generation (F1) fish exhibited elevated mortality and histopathological changes that were correlated with exposure in the parental generation (F0). Continuous exposure from F0 through F1 generations increased the extent of adverse effects. Considering the persistent nature of PFOS and PFOA, more research is required to determine potential consequences of long-term exposure to these compounds in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:18593212

Ji, Kyunghee; Kim, Younghee; Oh, Sorin; Ahn, Byeongwoo; Jo, Hyunye; Choi, Kyungho

2008-10-01

130

Perfluoroalkyl acids and the isomers of perfluorooctanesulfonate and perfluorooctanoate in the sera of 50 new couples in Tianjin, China.  

PubMed

A total of 100 serum samples from 50 new couples (none of the females in this study has ever been pregnant) in Tianjin, North China, were analyzed for eleven perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) with isomer-specific method. Among all samples, total perfluorooctanesulfonate (?PFOS, mean 11.3 ng/mL) was predominant followed by total perfluorooctanoate (?PFOA, 2.95 ng/mL), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA, 1.17 ng/mL), perfluorononanoate (PFNA, 0.93 ng/mL) and perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS, 0.67 ng/mL). The mean concentrations of ?PFOS and PFHxS in males (14.2 and 0.89 ng/mL) were significantly higher (p=0.001) than in females (8.36 and 0.45 ng/mL). No statistical difference between genders was observed for the other PFAAs. This suggests that menstruation is one important elimination pathway for ?PFOS and PFHxS in females. Linear PFOA was the dominant isomer with mean proportion of 99.7%, suggesting that telomeric PFOA (and its precursors), which contains almost pure linear isomer, might be the dominant exposure source of PFOA in Tianjin. On average, the proportion of linear PFOS (n-PFOS) was 59.2% of ?PFOS, which was lower than that in technical PFOS products (ca. 70% linear). Except perfluoroisopropyl PFOS, all the other monomethyl branched PFOS isomers were enriched in human serum compared to the commercial products, suggesting the monomethyl branched PFOS precursors were preferentially biotransformed in humans. PMID:24747327

Zhang, Yifeng; Jiang, Weiwei; Fang, Shuhong; Zhu, Lingyan; Deng, Jimin

2014-07-01

131

Concentrations and patterns of perfluoroalkyl acids in Georgia, USA surface waters near and distant to a major use source  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are widespread contaminants emanating from, among other sources, the production/degradation of fluorinated chemicals used in surface repellant applications, such as carpet manufacturing. The goal of the present study was to assess the concentrations of PFAAs, including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUA), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), in surface waters both near a wastewater land application system (LAS) in Dalton (GA, USA), home to North America's largest carpet manufacturing site, and distant to this location (Altamaha River, GA, USA) to understand the fate of PFAAs in freshwater. Levels of PFAAs were high in the Conasauga River (GA, USA) downstream of the LAS (PFOA, 253-1,150 ng/L; PFOS, 192-318 ng/L; PFNA, 202-369 ng/L; PFDA, 30.1-113 ng/L; PFUA, 58.0-99.2 ng/L; PFOSA, 162-283 ng/L) and in streams and ponds in Dalton (PFOA, 49.9-299 ng/L; PFOS, 15.8-120 ng/L), and were among the highest measured at a nonspill or directrelease location. Perfluoroalkyl acids in the Altamaha River were much lower (PFOA, 3.0-3.1 ng/L; PFOS, 2.6-2.7 ng/L), but were a source of PFAAs to Georgia's estuaries. A preliminary hazard assessment indicated that concentrations of PFOS at two sites in the Conasauga River exceeded the threshold effect predicted for birds consuming aquatic organisms that are exposed continuously to the PFOS levels at these sites. Assuming that toxicity for all PFAAs quantified is equal to that of PFOS, the sum total PFAAs at two sites within the Conasauga River exceeded PFOS thresholds for aquatic and avian species, warranting additional research. ?? 2008 SETAC Printed in the USA.

Konwick, B. J.; Tomy, G. T.; Ismail, N.; Peterson, J. T.; Fauver, R. J.; Higginbotham, D.; Fisk, A. T.

2008-01-01

132

Regulation of corticosterone secretion is modified by PFOS exposure at different levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in adult male rats.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a fluorinated compound and a Persistent Organic Pollutant which can disrupt the endocrine system. This work was undertaken to evaluate the possible effects of PFOS exposure on the regulation of corticosterone secretion in adrenal and pituitary glands and at hypothalamic level in adult male rat, and to evaluate the possible morphological alterations induced by PFOS in this endocrine tissue. Adult male rats were orally treated with 0.5, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 mg of PFOS/kg/day for 28 days. Corticosterone, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) secretion decreased in PFOS-treated rats. After PFOS exposure, relative expression of adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor (ACTHr) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) genes was increased in adrenal and in pituitary glands, respectively; while relative expression of ACTHr and CRH genes decreased in hypothalamus with the doses of 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg/day. PFOS treatment increased relative nitric oxide synthase 1 and 2 (NOS1 and NOS2) gene expression in the adrenal gland, and incremented superoxide dismutase activity. PFOS exposure induces a global inhibition of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, and small morphological changes were observed in adrenal zona fasciculata cells. PMID:24440345

Pereiro, N; Moyano, R; Blanco, A; Lafuente, A

2014-10-15

133

Preliminary evidence of a decline in perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) concentrations in American Red Cross blood donors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS,C8F17SO3-) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA,C7F15CO2-) concentrations in American Red Cross blood donors from Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota have declined after the 2000–2002 phase-out of perfluorooctanesulfonyl-fluoride (POSF, C8F17SO2F)-based materials by the primary global manufacturer, 3M Company. Forty donor plasma samples, categorized by age and sex, were collected in 2005, and PFOS and

Geary W. Olsen; David C. Mair; William K. Reagen; Mark E. Ellefson; David J. Ehresman; John L. Butenhoff; Larry R. Zobel

2007-01-01

134

Neonatal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) causes neurobehavioural defects in adult mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are found in applications such oil\\/water repellents for clothing fabrics, carpets, food packaging, lubricants, surfactants and fire extinguishers. PFCs are persistent in the environment. They have been found in humans and in wildlife.We reported earlier that persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as DDT, PCBs and BFRs, caused developmental neurotoxic defects in mice, manifested as persistent aberrations in

N. Johansson; A. Fredriksson; P. Eriksson

2008-01-01

135

Genotoxic potential of the perfluorinated chemicals PFOA, PFOS, PFBS, PFNA and PFHxA in human HepG2 cells.  

PubMed

Synthetically produced perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) are widely used in industrial products because of their anti-wetting and surfactant properties. PFCs are suspected carcinogens and a possible mechanism of action is generation of oxidative stress. We have investigated the potential of five different PFCs to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to induce oxidative DNA damage in HepG2 cells. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) increased the intracellular ROS production by 1.52-fold (95% CI, 1.37-1.67) and 1.25-fold (95% CI, 1.10-1.40), respectively. However, the increase in ROS production was not concentration-dependent and the compounds did not generate DNA damage that could be detected by the alkaline comet assay as strand breakage and alkali-labile sites or formamidopyrimidine-DNA-glycosylase (FPG) sites. Perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) did not generate ROS or DNA damage. Only the exposure to perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) caused a modest increase in DNA damage at a cytotoxic concentration level, which was detected as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release into the cell medium. This was not related to ROS generation. Collectively, these results indicate that PFCs induce only modest effects in terms of ROS production and DNA damage in a cell line representing the human liver. PMID:20451658

Eriksen, Kirsten Thorup; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sørensen, Mette; Roursgaard, Martin; Loft, Steffen; Møller, Peter

2010-07-19

136

Modeling the global fate and transport of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and precursor compounds in relation to temporal trends in wildlife exposure.  

PubMed

A global-scale fate and transport model was applied to investigate the historic and future trends in ambient concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and volatile perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride (POSF)-based precursor compounds in the environment. First, a global emission inventory for PFOS and its precursor compounds was estimated for the period 1957-2010. We used this inventory as input to a global-scale contaminant fate model and compared modeled concentrations with field data. The main focus of the simulations was to examine how modeled concentrations of PFOS and volatile precursor compounds respond to the major production phase-out that occurred in 2000-2002. Modeled concentrations of PFOS in surface ocean waters are generally within a factor of 5 of field data and are dominated by direct emissions of this substance. In contrast, modeled concentrations of the precursor compounds considered in this study are lower than measured concentrations both before and after the production phase-out. Modeled surface ocean water concentrations of PFOS in source regions decline slowly in response to the production phase-out while concentrations in remote regions continue to increase until 2030. In contrast, modeled concentrations of precursor compounds in both the atmosphere and surface ocean water compartment in all regions respond rapidly to the production phase-out (i.e., decline quickly to much lower levels). With respect to wildlife biomonitoring data, since precursor compounds are bioavailable and degrade to PFOS in vivo, it is at least plausible that declining trends in PFOS body burdens observed in some marine organisms are attributable to this exposure pathway. The continued increases in PFOS body burdens observed in marine organisms inhabiting other regions may reflect exposure primarily to PFOS itself, present in the environment due to production and use of this compound as well as degradation of precursor compounds. PMID:20000520

Armitage, James M; Schenker, Urs; Scheringer, Martin; Martin, Jonathan W; Macleod, Matthew; Cousins, Ian T

2009-12-15

137

Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) perturbs male rat Sertoli cell blood-testis barrier function by affecting F-actin organization via p-FAK-Tyr(407): an in vitro study.  

PubMed

Environmental toxicants such as perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) have been implicated in male reproductive dysfunction, including reduced sperm count and semen quality, in humans. However, the underlying mechanism(s) remains unknown. Herein PFOS at 10-20 ?M (?5-10 ?g/mL) was found to be more potent than bisphenol A (100 ?M) in perturbing the blood-testis barrier (BTB) function by disrupting the Sertoli cell tight junction-permeability barrier without detectable cytotoxicity. We also delineated the underlying molecular mechanism by which PFOS perturbed Sertoli cell BTB function using an in vitro model that mimics the BTB in vivo. First, PFOS perturbed F-actin organization in Sertoli cells, causing truncation of actin filaments at the BTB. Thus, the actin-based cytoskeleton was no longer capable of supporting the distribution and/or localization of actin-regulatory and adhesion proteins at the cell-cell interface necessary to maintain BTB integrity. Second, PFOS was found to perturb inter-Sertoli cell gap junction (GJ) communication based on a dye-transfer assay by down-regulating the expression of connexin-43, a GJ integral membrane protein. Third, phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-Tyr(407) was found to protect the BTB from the destructive effects of PFOS as shown in a study via an overexpression of an FAK Y407E phosphomimetic mutant. Also, transfection of Sertoli cells with an FAK-specific microRNA, miR-135b, to knock down the expression of phosphorylated FAK-Tyr(407) was found to worsen PFOS-mediated Sertoli cell tight junction disruption. In summary, PFOS-induced BTB disruption is mediated by down-regulating phosphorylated FAK-Tyr(407) and connexin-43, which in turn perturbed F-actin organization and GJ-based intercellular communication, leading to mislocalization of actin-regulatory and adhesion proteins at the BTB. PMID:24169556

Wan, Hin-Ting; Mruk, Dolores D; Wong, Chris K C; Cheng, C Yan

2014-01-01

138

A comparative study of adsorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) onto granular activated carbon, ion-exchange polymers and non-ion-exchange polymers.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is the latest chemical categorized as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). PFOS appears in the environmental water and tap water in ng L(-1) level. The process of adsorption has been identified as an effective technique to eliminate PFOS in water. Three non-ion-exchange polymers (DowV493, DowL493 and AmbXAD4), two ion-exchange polymers (DowMarathonA and AmbIRA400) and one granular activated carbon (GAC) (Filtersorb400) were tested with regard to their sorption kinetics and isotherms at low PFOS concentrations (100-1000 ng L(-1) equilibrium concentrations). The sorption capacities at 1 microg L(-1) equilibrium concentration decreased in the following order: ion-exchange polymers>non-ion-exchange polymers > GAC, but at further low equilibrium concentration (100 ng L(-1)) non-ion-exchange polymers showed higher adsorption capacity than other adsorbents. In the case of sorption kinetics, GAC and ion-exchange polymers reached the equilibrium concentration within 4 h and AmbXAD4 within 10 h. DowV493 and DowL493 took more than 80 h to reach equilibrium concentration. AmbIRA400 was identified as the best filter material to eliminate PFOS at equilibrium concentration > 1000 ng L(-1). Considering both adsorption isotherms and adsorption kinetics, AmbXAD4 and DowMarathonA were recommended to eliminate PFOS at ng L(-1) equilibrium concentration. PMID:20546842

Senevirathna, S T M L D; Tanaka, S; Fujii, S; Kunacheva, C; Harada, H; Shivakoti, B R; Okamoto, R

2010-07-01

139

First report of a Chinese PFOS alternative overlooked for 30 years: its toxicity, persistence, and presence in the environment.  

PubMed

This is the first report on the environmental occurrence of a chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (locally called F-53B, C8ClF16O4SK). It has been widely applied as a mist suppressant by the chrome plating industry in China for decades but has evaded the attention of environmental research and regulation. In this study, F-53B was found in high concentrations (43-78 and 65-112 ?g/L for the effluent and influent, respectively) in wastewater from the chrome plating industry in the city of Wenzhou, China. F-53B was not successfully removed by the wastewater treatments in place. Consequently, it was detected in surface water that receives the treated wastewater at similar levels to PFOS (ca. 10-50 ng/L) and the concentration decreased with the increasing distance from the wastewater discharge point along the river. Initial data presented here suggest that F-53B is moderately toxic (Zebrafish LC50-96 h 15.5 mg/L) and is as resistant to degradation as PFOS. While current usage is limited to the chrome plating industry, the increasing demand for PFOS alternatives in other sectors may result in expanded usage. Collectively, the results of this work call for future assessments on the effects of this overlooked contaminant and its presence and fate in the environment. PMID:23952109

Wang, Siwen; Huang, Jun; Yang, Yang; Hui, Yamei; Ge, Yuxi; Larssen, Thorjørn; Yu, Gang; Deng, Shubo; Wang, Bin; Harman, Christopher

2013-09-17

140

A global survey of perfluorinated acids in oceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorinated acids and their salts have emerged as an important class of global environmental contaminants. Biological monitoring surveys conducted using tissues of marine organisms reported the occurrence of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and related perfluorinated compounds in biota from various seas and oceans, including the Arctic and the Antarctic Oceans. Occurrence of perfluorinated compounds in remote marine locations is of concern and

Nobuyoshi Yamashita; Kurunthachalam Kannan; Sachi Taniyasu; Yuichi Horii; Gert Petrick; Toshitaka Gamo

2005-01-01

141

EVALUATION OF PERFLUOROALKYL ACID ACTIVITY USING PRIMARY MOUSE AND HUMAN HEPATOCYTES  

EPA Science Inventory

While perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been studied at length, less is know about the biological activity of other environmental perfluoroalkyl acids (pFAAs). Using a transient transfection assay developed in COS-l cells, our group has previ...

142

Evaluation of Perfluoroalkyl Acid Activity Using Primary Mouse and Human Hepatocytes.  

EPA Science Inventory

While perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been studied at length, less is known about the biological activity of other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the environment. Using a transient transfection assay developed in COS-1 cells, our group h...

143

Combined effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and maternal restraint stress on hypothalamus adrenal axis (HPA) function in the offspring of mice  

SciTech Connect

Although it is known that prenatal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) can cause developmental adverse effects in mammals, the disruptive effects of this compound on hormonal systems are still controversial. Information concerning the effects of PFOS on hypothalamus adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress and corticosterone levels is not currently available. On the other hand, it is well established that stress can enhance the developmental toxicity of some chemicals. In the present study, we assessed the combined effects of maternal restraint stress and PFOS on HPA axis function in the offspring of mice. Twenty plug-positive female mice were divided in two groups. Animals were given by gavage 0 and 6 mg PFOS/kg/day on gestation days 12-18. One half of the animals in each group were also subjected to restraint stress (30 min/session, 3 sessions/day) during the same period. Five plug-positive females were also included as non-manipulated controls. At 3 months of age, activity in an open-field and the stress response were evaluated in male and female mice by exposing them to 30 min of restraint stress. Male and female offspring were subsequently sacrificed and blood samples were collected to measure changes in corticosterone levels at four different moments related to stress exposure conditions: before stress exposure, immediately after 30 min of stress exposure, and recuperation levels at 60 and 90 min after stress exposure. Results indicate corticosterone levels were lower in mice prenatally exposed to restraint. In general terms, PFOS exposure decreased corticosterone levels, although this effect was only significant in females. The recuperation pattern of corticosterone was mainly affected by prenatal stress. Interactive effects between PFOS and maternal stress were sex dependent. The current results suggest that prenatal PFOS exposure induced long-lasting effects in mice.

Ribes, Diana; Fuentes, Silvia; Torrente, Margarita; Colomina, M. Teresa [Department of Psychology and Research Center for Behavioral Assessment (CRAMC), 'Rovira i Virgili' University, Sescelades Campus, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain); Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, 'Rovira i Virgili' University, Sant Llorenc 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Domingo, Jose L., E-mail: joseluis.domingo@urv.ca [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, 'Rovira i Virgili' University, Sant Llorenc 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain)

2010-02-15

144

Influence of membrane organization on the interactions between persistent pollutants and model membranes.  

PubMed

Langmuir monolayer studies and electrochemical methods were employed to investigate the effect of model membrane organization on the interactions with persistent pollutants such as perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanoloamine (DMPE) was employed to construct the model lipid membrane and perfluorooctanesulphonic acid (PFOS) was chosen as the representative of perfluorinated pollutants. We demonstrate that perfluorinated compounds penetrate a model membrane only when it is less condensed. Such liquid-expanded phase was achieved by compressing the Langmuir monolayer to lower surface pressures. PFOS incorporation into model DMPE membrane during membrane formation was observed in liquid-expanded region, while at higher surface pressures, in the well-organized monolayer the expulsion of perfluorinated compound occurred as the result of a strong attraction between the DMPE molecules. The DMPE monolayers prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett/Langmuir-Schaefer method were transferred onto gold electrode under surface pressure of 3 mN/m and 20 mN/m. The model membrane organization depends on surface pressure during transfer and time of exposure to PFOS solution and is shown to affect the electrode accessibility by three electroactive compounds used as the probes of the blocking properties of the monolayer: menadione, potassium ferricyanide and hexaamineruthenium chloride, differing in the properties and kinetics of electron transfer. PMID:22209490

Matyszewska, Dorota; Wypijewska, Ewa; Bilewicz, Renata

2012-10-01

145

Biochemical Responses and Accumulation Properties of Long-Chain Perfluorinated Compounds (PFOS\\/PFDA\\/PFOA) in Juvenile Chickens ( Gallus gallus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-day-old male chickens were exposed via oral gavage to mixtures of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate\\u000a (PFOA), and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) at either a low dose (0.1 mg\\/kg body weight [b.w.]) or a high dose (1.0 mg\\/kg b.w.),\\u000a or a saline\\/ethanol vehicle control, three times a week for 3 weeks. After 3 weeks of exposure, half of the chicks were sacrificed\\u000a and the other half were

Leo W. Y. Yeung; Eva I. H. Loi; Vicky Y. Y. Wong; Keerthi S. Guruge; Noriko Yamanaka; Nobuhiko Tanimura; Jun Hasegawa; Nobuyoshi Yamashita; Shigeru Miyazaki; Paul K. S. Lam

2009-01-01

146

Flos lonicerae extracts and chlorogenic acid protect human umbilical vein endothelial cells from the toxic damage of perfluorooctane sulphonate.  

PubMed

Chlorogenic acid (CGA), one of the most common phenolic acids, is found in many food and traditional Chinese herbs. Various bioactivities of CGA are studied. However, little is known about these properties of Flos Lonicerae extracts, and the difference in the effect between Flos Lonicerae extracts and CGA has not been reported. CGA was identified in Flos Lonicerae extracts by HPLC and determined qualitatively by quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry. In this study, we evaluated the effect of Flos Lonicerae extracts and CGA on inflammatory-related gene expression, adhesion molecule expression and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS)-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The suppression of transcription of IL-1?, IL-6, COX-2, and P-Selectin genes with Flos Lonicerae extracts was greater than that of CGA in PFOS-treated HUVECs, while the degree of suppression on PFOS-induced expression of NOS3 and ICAM-1 was greater for CGA. Furthermore, the suppressive effect of Flos Lonicerae extracts on adhesion of monocytes onto PFOS-induced HUVECs was greater than that of CGA. In addition, Flos Lonicerae extracts and CGA were highly effective in reducing ROS although their effects were almost comparable. So, Flos Lonicerae extracts exhibited antioxidant activity and CGA was a major contributor to this activity. These results suggest that Flos Lonicerae extracts could be useful to prevent PFOS-mediated inflammatory diseases. PMID:23392856

Liao, Yanyan; Dong, Sijun; Kiyama, Ryoiti; Cai, Peng; Liu, Liangpo; Shen, Heqing

2013-06-01

147

Perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorooctanesulfonate, and serum lipids in children and adolescents: results from the C8 Health Project  

PubMed Central

Objective Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) are man-made compounds with widespread presence in human sera. In previous occupational and adult studies, PFOA and PFOS have been positively associated with serum lipids. Our objective is to interrogate the association between PFOA and PFOS and serum lipids in children. Design Cross-sectional community-based study. Setting Mid-Ohio river valley. Participants 12,476 children included in the C8 Health Project, resultant from the pre-trial settlement of a class action lawsuit pursuant to PFOA contamination of the drinking water supply. Main Outcome Measures Serum lipids (total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol, and fasting triglycerides). Results Mean serum PFOA and PFOS concentrations were 69.2±111.9 ng/mL and 22.7±12.6 ng/mL. In linear regression after adjustment for covariables, PFOA was significantly associated with increased total and LDL cholesterol, and PFOS was significantly associated with increased total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol. In GLM ANCOVA analysis, between the 1st—5th quintiles of PFOA there was a 4.6 mg/dL and 3.8 mg/dL increase in the adjusted mean of total and LDL cholesterol, and an 8.5 mg/dL and 5.8 mg/dL increase in the adjusted mean for total and LDL cholesterol between the 1st—5th quintiles of PFOS. Increases were 10 mg/dL for some age- and gender-group strata. Observed effects were non-linear, with larger increases in total and LDL cholesterol occurring the lowest range of particularly PFOA. Conclusions While the epidemiologic and cross-sectional nature of the current study limit causal inferences, the consistent observed associations between increasing PFOA and PFOS and elevated total and LDL cholesterol warrant further study. PMID:20819969

Frisbee, Stephanie J.; Shankar, Anoop; Knox, Sarah S.; Steenland, Kyle; Savitz, David A.; Fletcher, Tony; Ducatman, Alan M.

2011-01-01

148

Enhanced elimination of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid by menstruating women: evidence from population-based pharmacokinetic modeling.  

PubMed

Human biomonitoring studies have shown that concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in men are higher than in women. We investigate sex differences in elimination of PFOS by fitting a population-based pharmacokinetic model to six cross-sectional data sets from 1999 to 2012 from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and derive human first-order elimination rate constants (kE) and corresponding elimination half-lives (t1/2) for PFOS, where t1/2 = ln 2/kE. We use a modified version of the Ritter population-based pharmacokinetic model and derive elimination rate constants separately for men and women. The model accounts for population-average lifetime changes in PFOS intake, body weight, and menstruation rate. We compare the model-derived elimination rate constant for hypothetical nonmenstruating women to the elimination rate constant for men and women when menstruation is included as a loss process to evaluate the hypothesis that loss of PFOS by menstruation is an important process for women. The modeled elimination half-life for men is 4.7 years, and the modeled elimination half-life for women when excluding losses from menstruation is 3.7 years. The elimination half-life for women when menstruation is included in the model is 4.0 years. Thus, menstruation accounts for 30% of the discrepancy in elimination of PFOS between men and women. The remaining discrepancy is likely due to other sex-specific elimination routes that are not considered in our modeling. PMID:24943117

Wong, Fiona; MacLeod, Matthew; Mueller, Jochen F; Cousins, Ian T

2014-08-01

149

Biomonitoring of perfluoroalkyl acids in human urine and estimates of biological half-life.  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are persistent and bioaccumulative compounds that have been associated with adverse health outcomes. In human blood, PFAAs exist as both linear and branched isomers, yet for most linear homologues, and for all branched isomers, elimination rates are unknown. Paired blood and urine samples (n = 86) were collected from adults in China. They were analyzed by a sensitive isomer-specific method that permitted the detection of many PFAAs in human urine for the first time. For all PFAAs except perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnA), levels in urine correlated positively with levels in blood. Perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) were excreted more efficiently than perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs) of the same carbon chain-length. In general, shorter PFCAs were excreted more efficiently than longer ones, but for PFSAs, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS, a C8 compound) was excreted more efficiently than perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS, a C6 compound). Among PFOS and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) isomers, major branched isomers were more efficiently excreted than the corresponding linear isomer. A one-compartment model was used to estimate the biological elimination half-lives of PFAAs. Among all PFAAs, the estimated arithmetic mean elimination half-lives ranged from 0.5 ± 0.1 years (for one branched PFOA isomer, 5m-PFOA) to 90 ± 11 years (for one branched PFOS isomer, 1m-PFOS). Urinary excretion was the major elimination route for short PFCAs (C ? 8), but for longer PFCAs, PFOS and PFHxS, other routes of excretion likely contribute to overall elimination. Urinary concentrations are good biomarkers of the internal dose, and this less invasive strategy can therefore be used in future epidemiological and biomonitoring studies. The very long half-lives of long-chain PFCAs, PFHxS, and PFOS isomers in humans stress the importance of global and domestic exposure mitigation strategies. PMID:23980546

Zhang, Yifeng; Beesoon, Sanjay; Zhu, Lingyan; Martin, Jonathan W

2013-09-17

150

Determination of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate in cooking oil and pig adipose tissue using reversed-phase liquid-liquid extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) are two perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) ubiquitously present in the environment, which could pose potential adverse effects on human health. Contamination and presence of PFOA and PFOS should be eliminated or rigidly restricted in food stuffs such as cooking oils and lard (from pig adipose tissue). This work describes a rapid, simple, reliable and sensitive method for quantitative analysis of PFOA and PFOS in cooking oils and pig adipose tissue with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The pretreatment mainly included a one-step reversed-phase liquid-liquid extraction using the mixture of basified water/methanol as the aqueous system, and dichloromethane (DCM) as the non-polar system. PFOA and PFOS can be successfully separated from the two lipid-rich matrices, i.e., cooking oil and adipose tissue, and extracted into the aqueous system, and then directly analyzed with LC-MS/MS. This method was validated in terms of accuracy (both intra- and inter-batch), precision, recovery, linearity, sensitivity and applicability. The intra-batch accuracies for PFOA and PFOS in cooking oil samples were within 93.9-101.9% with relative standard deviation (RSD) no more than 10.9%, and the inter-batch accuracies were 91.2-96.2% with RSD not exceeding 10.0%. The intra-batch accuracies of the analytes in pig adipose tissue samples were 102.9-113.0% with RSD of 8.8-13.1%. And the quantification ranges of PFOA and PFOS were 0.01-25ng/mL. This method has been applied to the analysis of PFOA and PFOS in real samples collected from local markets in Guangzhou, China. PMID:24679825

Tang, Caiming; Tan, Jianhua; Wang, Chunwei; Peng, Xianzhi

2014-05-01

151

High-dose, short-term exposure of mice to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) affects the number of circulating neutrophils differently, but enhances the inflammatory responses of macrophages to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a similar fashion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Having found previously that high-dose, short-term dietary exposure of mice to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) suppresses adaptive immunity, in the present study we characterize the effects of these fluorochemicals on the innate immune system. Male C57BL\\/6 mice receiving 0.02% (w\\/w) PFOS or PFOA in their diet for 10 days exhibited a significant reduction in the numbers of total white

Mousumi R. Qazi; Jasna Bogdanska; John L. Butenhoff; B. Dean Nelson; Joseph W. DePierre; Manuchehr Abedi-Valugerdi

2009-01-01

152

Polar herbicides, pharmaceutical products, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and nonylphenol and its carboxylates and ethoxylates in surface and tap waters around Lake Maggiore in Northern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of contamination of surface and drinking waters around Lake Maggiore in Northern Italy with polar anthropogenic environmental\\u000a pollutants has been conducted. The target analytes were polar herbicides, pharmaceuticals (including antibiotics), steroid\\u000a estrogens, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (including perfluorooctanoate PFOA), nonylphenol and\\u000a its carboxylates and ethoxylates (NPEO surfactants), and triclosan, a bactericide used in personal-care products. Analysis\\u000a of water

Robert Loos; Jan Wollgast; Tania Huber; Georg Hanke

2007-01-01

153

Facile preparation of magnetic separable powdered-activated-carbon\\/Ni adsorbent and its application in removal of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of this study was to synthesize magnetic separable Nickel\\/powdered activated carbon (Ni\\/PAC) and its application as an adsorbent for removal of PFOS from aqueous solution. In this work, the synthesized adsorbent using simple method was characterized by using X-ray diffractionometer (XRD), surface area and pore size analyzer, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and high resolution transmission electron microscope

Xuanqi Liang; Mohammed A. Gondal; Xiaofeng Chang; Zain H. Yamani; Nianwu Li; Hongling Lu; Guangbin Ji

2011-01-01

154

Associations between serum perfluoroalkyl acids and LINE-1 DNA methylation.  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are persistent, synthetic compounds that are used in a number of consumer products. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been associated with cardiovascular risk factors, and changes in gene expression and DNA methylation in animals and cellular systems. However, whether PFAA exposure is associated with LINE-1 DNA methylation, a potential marker of cardiovascular risk, in humans remains unknown. We sought to evaluate the cross-sectional associations between serum PFAAs and LINE-1 DNA methylation in a population highly exposed to PFOA. We measured serum PFAAs twice four to five years apart in 685 adult participants (47% male, mean age±SD=42±11years). We measured percent LINE-1 DNA methylation in peripheral blood leukocytes at the second time point (follow-up), and estimated absolute differences in LINE-1 methylation associated with an interquartile (IQR) shift in mean PFAA serum levels. IQR increases in mean serum PFOA, PFOS, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) were associated with differences of -0.04 (p=0.16), 0.20 (p=0.001), 0.06 (p=0.19), and 0.02 (p=0.57), respectively, in % LINE-1 methylation at follow-up after adjustment for potential confounders. We observed a monotonic increase in LINE-1 DNA methylation across tertiles of PFOS and PFNA (ptrend=0.02 for both associations), but not across tertiles of PFOA or PFHxS (ptrend=0.71 and 0.44, respectively). In summary, serum PFOS was associated with LINE-1 methylation, while serum PFOA, PFHxS, and PFNA were not. Additional research is needed to more precisely determine whether these compounds are epigenetically active. PMID:24263140

Watkins, Deborah J; Wellenius, Gregory A; Butler, Rondi A; Bartell, Scott M; Fletcher, Tony; Kelsey, Karl T

2014-02-01

155

Foodstuff analyses show that seafood and water are major perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) sources to humans in Korea.  

PubMed

We measured concentrations of PFAAs in 397 foods, of 66 types, in Korea, and determined the daily human dietary PFAAs intake and the contribution of each foodstuff to that intake. The PFAAs concentration in the 66 different food types ranged from below the detection limit to 48.3ng/g. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) were the dominant PFAAs in fish, shellfish, and processed foods, while perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and short-chain PFCAs dominated dairy foodstuffs and beverages. The Korean adult dietary intake ranges, estimated for a range of scenarios, were 0.60-3.03 and 0.17-1.68ngkg(-1)bwd(-1) for PFOS and PFOA, respectively, which were lower than the total daily intake limits suggested by European Food Safety Authority (PFOS: 150ngkg(-1)bwd(-1); PFOA: 1500ngkg(-1)bwd(-1)). The major contributors to PFAAs dietary exposure varied with subject age and PFAAs. For example, fish was a major contributor of PFOS but dairy foods were major contributors of PFOA. However, tap water was a major contributor to PFOA intake when it was the main source of drinking water (rather than bottled water). PMID:25093550

Heo, Jin-Ju; Lee, Ji-Woo; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Oh, Jeong-Eun

2014-08-30

156

An energy-efficient process for decomposing perfluorooctanoic and perfluorooctane sulfonic acids using dc plasmas generated within gas bubbles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) are environmentally harmful and persistent substances. Their decomposition was investigated using dc plasmas generated within small gas bubbles in a solution. The plasma characteristics including discharge voltage, voltage drop in the liquid, plasma shape and the emission spectrum were examined with different gases. The decomposition rate and energy efficiency were evaluated by measuring the concentration of fluoride and sulfate ions released from PFOA/PFOS molecules. The concentration of fluoride ions and energy efficiency in the treatment of a PFOS solution were 17.7 mg l-1 (54.8% of the initial amount of fluorine atoms) and 26 mg kWh-1, respectively, after 240 min of operation. The addition of scavengers of hydroxyl radicals and hydrated electrons showed little effect on the decomposition. The decomposition processes were analyzed with an assumption that positive species reacted with PFOA/PFOS molecules at the boundary of the plasma-solution surface. This type of plasma showed a much higher decomposition energy efficiency compared with energy efficiencies reported in other studies.

Yasuoka, K.; Sasaki, K.; Hayashi, R.

2011-06-01

157

Using blood gene signatures for assessing effects of exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in humans: the NOWAC postgenome study  

PubMed Central

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are ubiquitously present in human blood samples and the effects of these compounds on human health are not fully characterized. This study was conducted in order to investigate the applicability of peripheral blood gene expressions for exploring the impact of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) exposure on the general population. PFOS, PFOA and PFHxS were analyzed in blood samples from a representative group of 270 healthy, postmenopausal Norwegian women (48-62 years). Gene expression was measured in the same samples using the Applied Biosystems microarray platform. Forty-eight different gene sets, all previously linked to PFAA exposure were explored in relation to the selected PFAAs. Two gene sets, both related to the citric acid cycle, were differentially expressed between the “PFOS high” (>30ng/ml, n=42) and the “PFOS low” (<30ng/ml, n=228) group. Based on the results of this study we believe that blood gene signatures have a large potential for elucidating which biological pathways are being affected by environmental pollutants. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first assessment of the impact of PFAAs on blood gene expressions in humans from the general population. PMID:21915359

Rylander, Charlotta; Dumeaux, Vanessa; Olsen, Karina Standahl; Waaseth, Marit; Sandanger, Torkjel M; Lund, Eiliv

2011-01-01

158

Using blood gene signatures for assessing effects of exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in humans: the NOWAC postgenome study.  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are ubiquitously present in human blood samples and the effects of these compounds on human health are not fully characterized. This study was conducted in order to investigate the applicability of peripheral blood gene expressions for exploring the impact of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) exposure on the general population. PFOS, PFOA and PFHxS were analyzed in blood samples from a representative group of 270 healthy, postmenopausal Norwegian women (48-62 years). Gene expression was measured in the same samples using the Applied Biosystems microarray platform. Forty-eight different gene sets, all previously linked to PFAA exposure were explored in relation to the selected PFAAs. Two gene sets, both related to the citric acid cycle, were differentially expressed between the "PFOS high" (>30ng/ml, n=42) and the "PFOS low" (<30ng/ml, n=228) group. Based on the results of this study we believe that blood gene signatures have a large potential for elucidating which biological pathways are being affected by environmental pollutants. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first assessment of the impact of PFAAs on blood gene expressions in humans from the general population. PMID:21915359

Rylander, Charlotta; Dumeaux, Vanessa; Olsen, Karina Standahl; Waaseth, Marit; Sandanger, Torkjel M; Lund, Eiliv

2011-08-30

159

Perfluoroalkyl acid contamination and polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of French freshwater and marine fishes.  

PubMed

In this study, French marine and freshwater fish perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) contamination are presented along with their fatty acid (FA) composition to provide further elements for a risk/benefit balance of fish consumption to be assessed. The 29 most consumed marine fish species were collected in four metropolitan French coastal areas in 2004 to constitute composite samples. Geographical differences in terms of consumed species and contamination level were taken into account. Three hundred and eighty-seven composite samples corresponding to 16 freshwater fish species collected between 2008 and 2010 in the six major French rivers or their tributaries were selected among the French national agency for water and aquatic environments freshwater fish sample library. The raw edible parts were analyzed for FA composition and PFAA contamination. Results show that freshwater fishes are more contaminated by PFAAs than marine fishes and do not share the same contamination profile. Freshwater fish contamination is mostly driven by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (75%), whereas marine fish contamination is split between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (24%), PFOS (20%), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) (15%), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFHpA) (11%), and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) (11%). Common carp, pike-perch, European perch, thicklip grey mullet, and common roach presented the most unfavorable balance profile due to their high level of PFAAs and low level of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). These data could be used, if needed, in an updated opinion on fish consumption that takes into account PFAA contamination. PMID:25004121

Yamada, Ami; Bemrah, Nawel; Veyrand, Bruno; Pollono, Charles; Merlo, Mathilde; Desvignes, Virginie; Sirot, Véronique; Oseredczuk, Marine; Marchand, Philippe; Cariou, Ronan; Antignac, Jean-Phillippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

2014-07-30

160

Serum Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Concentrations in Relation to Birth Outcomes in the Mid-Ohio Valley, 2005-2010  

PubMed Central

Background: Previous research suggests perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Objective: We conducted a population-based study of PFOA and PFOS and birth outcomes from 2005 through 2010 in a Mid-Ohio Valley community exposed to high levels of PFOA through drinking-water contamination. Methods: Women provided serum for PFOA and PFOS measurement in 2005–2006 and reported reproductive histories in subsequent follow-up interviews. Reported singleton live births among 1,330 women after 1 January 2005 were linked to birth records (n = 1,630) to identify the outcomes of preterm birth (< 37 weeks gestation), pregnancy-induced hypertension, low birth weight (< 2,500 g), and birth weight (grams) among full-term infants. Results: We observed little or no evidence of association between maternal serum PFOA or PFOS and preterm birth (n = 158) or low birth weight (n = 88). Serum PFOA and PFOS were both positively associated with pregnancy-induced hypertension (n = 106), with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) per log unit increase in PFOA and PFOS of 1.27 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.55) and 1.47 (95% CI: 1.06, 2.04), respectively, but associations did not increase monotonically when categorized by quintiles. Results of subanalyses restricted to pregnancies conceived after blood collection were consistent with the main analyses. There was suggestion of a modest negative association between PFOS and birth weight in full-term infants (–29 g per log unit increase; 95% CI: –66, 7), which became stronger when restricted to births conceived after the blood sample collection (–49 g per log unit increase; 95% CI: –90, –8). Conclusion: Results provide some evidence of positive associations between measured serum perfluorinated compounds and pregnancy-induced hypertension and a negative association between PFOS and birth weight among full-term infants. Citation: Darrow LA, Stein CR, Steenland K. 2013. Serum perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate concentrations in relation to birth outcomes in the Mid-Ohio Valley, 2005–2010. Environ Health Perspect 121:1207–1213; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206372 PMID:23838280

Stein, Cheryl R.; Steenland, Kyle

2013-01-01

161

Occurrence of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in N.E. Spanish surface waters and their removal in a drinking water treatment plant that combines conventional and advanced treatments in parallel lines.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are two emerging contaminants that have been detected in all environmental compartments. However, while most of the studies in the literature deal with their presence or removal in wastewater treatment, few of them are devoted to their detection in treated drinking water and fate during drinking water treatment. In this study, analyses of PFOS and PFOA have been carried out in river water samples and in the different stages of a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) which has recently improved its conventional treatment process by adding ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis in a parallel treatment line. Conventional and advanced treatments have been studied in several pilot plants and in the DWTP, which offers the opportunity to compare both treatments operating simultaneously. From the results obtained, neither preoxidation, sand filtration, nor ozonation, removed both perfluorinated compounds. As advanced treatments, reverse osmosis has proved more effective than reverse electrodialysis to remove PFOA and PFOS in the different configurations of pilot plants assayed. Granular activated carbon with an average elimination efficiency of 64±11% and 45±19% for PFOS and PFOA, respectively and especially reverse osmosis, which was able to remove ?99% of both compounds, were the sole effective treatment steps. Trace levels of PFOS (3.0-21 ng/L) and PFOA (<4.2-5.5 ng/L) detected in treated drinking water were significantly lowered in comparison to those measured in precedent years. These concentrations represent overall removal efficiencies of 89±22% for PFOA and 86±7% for PFOS. PMID:23764674

Flores, Cintia; Ventura, Francesc; Martin-Alonso, Jordi; Caixach, Josep

2013-09-01

162

Perfluoroalkyl acids in urban stormwater runoff: influence of land use.  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are persistent organic pollutants in the environment and have been reported to have nonpoint sources. In this study, six PFAAs with different chain lengths were monitored in stormwater runoff from seven storm events (2009-2011) at various outfall locations corresponding to different watershed land uses. We found PFAA(s) in 100% of stormwater runoff samples. Monitoring results and statistical analysis show that PFAAs in stormwater runoff from residential areas mainly came from rainfall. On the other hand, non-atmospheric sources at both industrial and commercial areas contributed PFAAs in stormwater runoff. The mass flux of PFAAs from stormwater runoff in the Twin Cities (Minneapolis and St. Paul, MN) metropolitan area is estimated to be about 7.86 kg/year. In addition, for the first time, we monitored PFAAs on the particles/debris in stormwater runoff and found high-level PFOS on the particulate matter in runoff collected from both industrial and commercial areas; the levels were so high that the finding could not be explained by the solid-water partitioning or adsorption. PFOS on the particulate matter is suspected to have originated from industrial/commercial products, entering the waste stream as PFOS containing particles. PMID:22154107

Xiao, Feng; Simcik, Matt F; Gulliver, John S

2012-12-15

163

Disposition of perfluorinated acid isomers in Sprague-Dawley rats; part 1: single dose.  

PubMed

Perfluorinated acids (PFAs) and their precursors (PFA-precursors) exist in the environment as linear and multiple branched isomers. These isomers are hypothesized to have different biological properties, but no isomer-specific data are currently available. The present study is the first in a two-part project examining PFA isomer-specific uptake, tissue distribution, and elimination in a rodent model. Seven male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered a single gavage dose of approximately 500 microg/kg body weight perfluorooctane sulfonate (C(8)F(17)SO(3)(-), PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (C(7)F(15)CO(2)H, PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (C(8)F(17)CO(2)H, PFNA) and 30 microg/kg body weight perfluorohexane sulfonate (C(6)F(13)SO(3)(-), PFHxS). Over the subsequent 38 d, urine, feces, and tail-vein blood samples were collected intermittently, while larger blood volumes and tissues were collected on days 3 and 38 for isomer analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). For all PFAs, branched isomers generally had lower blood depuration half-lives than the corresponding linear isomer. The most remarkable exception was for the PFOS isomer containing an alpha-perfluoromethyl branch (1m-PFOS), which was threefold more persistent than linear PFOS, possibly due to steric shielding of the hydrophilic sulfonate moiety. For perfluoromonomethyl-branched isomers of PFOS, a structure-property relationship was observed whereby branching toward the sulfonate end of the perfluoroalkyl chain resulted in increased half-lives. For PFHxS, PFOA, and PFOS, preferential elimination of branched isomers occurred primarily via urine, whereas for PFNA preferential elimination of the isopropyl isomer occurred via both urine and feces. Changes in the blood isomer profiles over time and their inverse correlation to isomer elimination patterns in urine, feces, or both provided unequivocal evidence of significant isomer-specific biological handling. Source assignment based on PFA isomer profiles in biota must therefore be conducted with caution, because isomer profiles are unlikely to be conserved in biological samples. PMID:18939892

Benskin, Jonathan P; De Silva, Amila O; Martin, Leah J; Arsenault, Gilles; McCrindle, Robert; Riddell, Nicole; Mabury, Scott A; Martin, Jonathan W

2009-03-01

164

Perfluoroalkyl acids in the Atlantic and Canadian Arctic Oceans.  

PubMed

We report here on the spatial distribution of C(4), C(6), and C(8) perfluoroalkyl sulfonates, C(6)-C(14) perfluoroalkyl carboxylates, and perfluorooctanesulfonamide in the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans, including previously unstudied coastal waters of North and South America, and the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were typically the dominant perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in Atlantic water. In the midnorthwest Atlantic/Gulf Stream, sum PFAA concentrations (?PFAAs) were low (77-190 pg/L) but increased rapidly upon crossing into U.S. coastal water (up to 5800 pg/L near Rhode Island). ?PFAAs in the northeast Atlantic were highest north of the Canary Islands (280-980 pg/L) and decreased with latitude. In the South Atlantic, concentrations increased near Rio de la Plata (Argentina/Uruguay; 350-540 pg/L ?PFAAs), possibly attributable to insecticides containing N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamide, or proximity to Montevideo and Buenos Aires. In all other southern hemisphere locations, ?PFAAs were <210 pg/L. PFOA/PFOS ratios were typically ?1 in the northern hemisphere, ?1 near the equator, and ?1 in the southern hemisphere. In the Canadian Arctic, ?PFAAs ranged from 40 to 250 pg/L, with perfluoroheptanoate, PFOA, and PFOS among the PFAAs detected at the highest concentrations. PFOA/PFOS ratios (typically ?1) decreased from Baffin Bay to the Amundsen Gulf, possibly attributable to increased atmospheric inputs. These data help validate global emissions models and contribute to understanding of long-range transport pathways and sources of PFAAs to remote regions. PMID:22548373

Benskin, Jonathan P; Muir, Derek C G; Scott, Brian F; Spencer, Christine; De Silva, Amila O; Kylin, Henrik; Martin, Jonathan W; Morris, Adam; Lohmann, Rainer; Tomy, Gregg; Rosenberg, Bruno; Taniyasu, Sachi; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi

2012-06-01

165

Perfluorinated acids in Arctic snow: new evidence for atmospheric formation.  

PubMed

Perfluorinated acids (PFAs) are ubiquitously found in water and biota, including remote regions such as the High Arctic. Under environmental conditions, PFAs exist mainly as anions and are not expected to be subject to long-range atmospheric transport in the gas phase. Fluorinated telomer alcohols (FTOHs) are volatile and can be atmospherically oxidized to form perfluorocarboxylic acids. Analogously, fluorosulfamido alcohols can be oxidized to form perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). High Arctic ice caps experience contamination solely from atmospheric sources. By examining concentrations of PFAs in ice cap samples, it is possible to determine atmospheric fluxes to the Arctic. Ice samples were collected from high Arctic ice caps in the spring of 2005 and 2006. Samples were concentrated using solid-phase extraction and analyzed by LC-MS-MS. PFAs were observed in all samples, dating from 1996 to 2005. Concentrations were in the low-mid pg L(-1) range and exhibited seasonality, with maximum concentrations in the spring-summer. The presence of perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA) on the ice cap was indicative of atmospheric oxidation as a source. Ratios of PFAs to sodium concentrations were highly variable, signifying PFA concentrations on the ice cap were unrelated to marine chemistry. Fluxes of the PFAs were estimated to the area north of 65 degrees N for the 2005 season, which ranged from 114 to 587 kg year(-1) for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), 73 to 860 kg year(-1) for perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), 16 to 84 kg year(-1) for PFDA, 26 to 62 kg year(-1) for PFUnA, and 18 to 48 kg year(-1) for PFOS. The PFOA and PFNA fluxes agreed with FTOH modeling estimations. A decrease in PFOS concentrations through time was observed, suggesting a fast response to changes in production. These data suggest that atmospheric oxidation of volatile precursors is a primary source of PFAs to the Arctic. PMID:17547163

Young, Cora J; Furdui, Vasile I; Franklin, James; Koerner, Roy M; Muir, Derek C G; Mabury, Scott A

2007-05-15

166

Toxic effect of serial perfluorosulfonic and perfluorocarboxylic acids on the membrane system of a freshwater alga measured by flow cytometry.  

PubMed

Flow cytometric measurements were used to investigate the toxic effect of perfluorobutanoic sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA), and perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTeA) on some membrane systems of the freshwater alga species Scenedesmus obliquus. Among the test compounds, PFOS, PFDoA, and PFTeA inhibited algal growth rate in a concentration-dependent manner while PFBS, PFHxA, and PFOA did not inhibit algal growth within the test concentration ranges. An enhancement of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and cell membrane permeability in S. obliquus was observed caused by exposure to PFOS, PFOA, PFDoA, and PFTeA. Both carbon chain length and acid group influenced the toxicity of PFAAs, where the toxicity increased with increasing carbon chain length for the compounds belonging to the same class. The observed effective concentrations lie in the micromole range and the test compounds disrupted membrane properties at concentrations below those associated with algal growth inhibition. Flow cytometry is proved to be a useful technique for toxicity testing with microalgae and provide additional information regarding the mode of action of PFAAs to algal species. PMID:18269298

Liu, Wei; Chen, Shuo; Quan, Xie; Jin, Yi-He

2008-07-01

167

Occurrence and transport of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including short-chain PFAAs in Tangxun Lake, China.  

PubMed

Short-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), which have less than seven fluorinated carbons, have been introduced as substitutes for eight-carbon homologue products. In this study, water, sediment, and biological samples (fish and plant) were collected from Tangxun Lake, which is located near a production base of the fluorochemical industry in Wuhan, China. Perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) were the predominant PFAAs in surface water, with average concentrations of 3660 ng/L and 4770 ng/L, respectively. However, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the most abundant PFAA in sediments, with an average concentration of 74.4 ng/g dw. The organic carbon normalized distribution coefficients (KOC) indicated that short-chain PFAAs (CF2 < 7) tended to have lower adsorption potentials than PFOS, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and longer perfluoroalkyl chain compounds. PFBS and PFBA could transport to a farther distance in the horizontal direction along the water flow and infiltrate into deeper depths in the vertical direction. However, levels of PFOS and PFOA in water dropped exponentially along the current, and their proportions were decreased gradually with the increasing depth in sediment cores. Furthermore, values of log bioconcentration factor (BCF) of the short-chain PFAAs were all relatively low (<1), indicating no bioaccumulation potentials for short-chain PFAAs in aquatic species. PMID:23883102

Zhou, Zhen; Liang, Yong; Shi, Yali; Xu, Lin; Cai, Yaqi

2013-08-20

168

Determination of polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters, perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids, perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids in lake trout from the Great Lakes region.  

PubMed

A comprehensive method to extract perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids, and polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters simultaneously from fish samples has been developed. The recoveries of target compounds ranged from 78 % to 121 %. The new method was used to analyze lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the Great Lakes region. The results showed that the total perfluoroalkane sulfonate concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 145 ng/g (wet weight) with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) as the dominant contaminant. Concentrations in fish between lakes were in the order of Lakes Ontario ? Erie > Huron > Superior ? Nipigon. The total perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 18.2 ng/g wet weight. The aggregate mean perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentration in fish across all lakes was 0.045 ± 0.023 ng/g. Mean concentrations of PFOA were not significantly different (p > 0.1) among the five lakes. Perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids were detected in lake trout from Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, and Lake Huron with concentration ranging from non-detect (ND) to 0.032 ng/g. Polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters were detected only in lake trout from Lake Huron, at levels similar to perfluorooctanoic acid. PMID:22722738

Guo, Rui; Reiner, Eric J; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Helm, Paul A; Mabury, Scott A; Braekevelt, Eric; Tittlemier, Sheryl A

2012-11-01

169

Mass Balance of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in the Baltic Sea  

PubMed Central

A mass balance was assembled for perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in the Baltic Sea. Inputs (from riverine discharge, atmospheric deposition, coastal wastewater discharges, and the North Sea) and outputs (to sediment burial, transformation of the chemical, and the North Sea), as well as the inventory in the Baltic Sea, were estimated from recently published monitoring data. Formation of the chemicals in the water column from precursors was not considered. River inflow and atmospheric deposition were the dominant inputs, while wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents made a minor contribution (<5%). A mass balance of the Oder River watershed was assembled to explore the sources of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the river inflow. It indicated that WWTP effluents made only a moderate contribution to riverine discharge (21% for PFOA, 6% for PFOS), while atmospheric deposition to the watershed was 1–2 orders of magnitude greater than WWTP discharges. The input to the Baltic Sea exceeded the output for all four PFAAs, suggesting that inputs were higher during 2005–2010 than during the previous 20 years despite efforts to reduce emissions of PFAAs. One possible explanation is the retention and delayed release of PFAAs from atmospheric deposition in the soils and groundwater of the watershed. PMID:23528236

2013-01-01

170

Mass balance of perfluoroalkyl acids in the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

A mass balance was assembled for perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in the Baltic Sea. Inputs (from riverine discharge, atmospheric deposition, coastal wastewater discharges, and the North Sea) and outputs (to sediment burial, transformation of the chemical, and the North Sea), as well as the inventory in the Baltic Sea, were estimated from recently published monitoring data. Formation of the chemicals in the water column from precursors was not considered. River inflow and atmospheric deposition were the dominant inputs, while wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents made a minor contribution (<5%). A mass balance of the Oder River watershed was assembled to explore the sources of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the river inflow. It indicated that WWTP effluents made only a moderate contribution to riverine discharge (21% for PFOA, 6% for PFOS), while atmospheric deposition to the watershed was 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than WWTP discharges. The input to the Baltic Sea exceeded the output for all four PFAAs, suggesting that inputs were higher during 2005-2010 than during the previous 20 years despite efforts to reduce emissions of PFAAs. One possible explanation is the retention and delayed release of PFAAs from atmospheric deposition in the soils and groundwater of the watershed. PMID:23528236

Filipovic, Marko; Berger, Urs; McLachlan, Michael S

2013-05-01

171

Serum perfluoroalkyl acids concentrations and memory impairment in a large cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the cross-sectional association between serum perfluorooctanate (PFOA), perfuorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) concentrations with self-reported memory impairment in adults and the interaction of these associations with diabetes status. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Population-based in Mid-Ohio Valley, West Virginia following contamination by a chemical plant. Participants The C8 Health Project collected data and measured the serum level of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) of 21?024 adults aged 50+ years. Primary outcome measure Self-reported memory impairment as defined by the question ‘have experienced short-term memory loss?’ Results A total of 4057 participants self-reported short-term memory impairment. Inverse associations between PFOS and PFOA and memory impairment were highly statistically significant with fully adjusted OR=0.93 (95% CI 0.90 to 0.96) for doubling PFOS and OR=0.96 (95% CI 0.94 to 0.98) for doubling PFOA concentrations. Comparable inverse associations with PFNA and PFHxS were of borderline statistical significance. Inverse associations of PFAAs with memory impairment were weaker or non-existent in patients with diabetes than overall in patients without diabetes. Conclusions An inverse association between PFAA serum levels and self-reported memory impairment has been observed in this large population-based, cross-sectional study that is stronger and more statistically significant for PFOA and PFOS. The associations can be potentially explained by a preventive anti-inflammatory effect exerted by a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonist effect of these PFAAs, but confounding or even reverse causation cannot be excluded as an alternative explanation. PMID:23794579

Gallo, Valentina; Leonardi, Giovanni; Brayne, Carol; Armstrong, Ben; Fletcher, Tony

2013-01-01

172

Thyroid Function and Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Children Living Near a Chemical Plant  

PubMed Central

Background: Animal studies suggest that some perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) may impair thyroid function. Epidemiological findings, mostly related to adults, are inconsistent. Objectives: We investigated whether concentrations of PFAAs were associated with thyroid function among 10,725 children (1–17 years of age) living near a Teflon manufacturing facility in the Mid-Ohio Valley (USA). Methods: Serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total thyroxine (TT4), and PFAAs were measured during 2005–2006, and information on diagnosed thyroid disease was collected by questionnaire. Modeled in utero PFOA concentrations were based on historical information on PFOA releases, environmental distribution, pharmacokinetic modeling, and residential histories. We performed multivariate regression analyses. Results: Median concentrations of modeled in utero PFOA and measured serum PFOA, PFOS, and PFNA were 12, 29, 20, and 1.5 ng/mL, respectively. The odds ratio for hypothyroidism (n = 39) was 1.54 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 2.37] for an interquartile range (IQR) contrast of 13 to 68 ng/mL in serum PFOA measured in 2005–2006. However, an IQR shift in serum PFOA was not associated with TSH or TT4 levels in all children combined. IQR shifts in serum PFOS (15 to 28 ng/mL) and serum PFNA (1.2 to 2.0 ng/mL) were both associated with a 1.1% increase in TT4 in children 1–17 years old (95% CIs: 0.6, 1.5 and 0.7, 1.5 respectively). Conclusions: This is the first large-scale report in children suggesting associations of serum PFOS and PFNA with thyroid hormone levels and of serum PFOA and hypothyroidism. PMID:22453676

Mondal, Debapriya; Armstrong, Ben; Bloom, Michael S.; Fletcher, Tony

2012-01-01

173

Perfluoroalkyl acids in subarctic wild male mink (Neovison vison) in relation to age, season and geographical area.  

PubMed

This study investigates the influence of biological and environmental factors on the concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in a top predator; the American mink. Perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) with C8-C13 perfluorinated carbon chains were analyzed in livers from wild male mink liver (n=101) from four areas in Sweden representing two inland environments (rural and highly anthropogenic, respectively) and two different coastal environments. Mean PFOS concentrations were 1250ng/g wet weight and some mink from the urban inland area had among the highest PFOS concentrations ever recorded in mink (up to 21 800ng/g wet weight). PFBS was detected in 89% of the samples, but in low concentrations (mean 0.6ng/g ww). There were significant differences in PFAA concentrations between the geographical areas (p<0.001-0.01). Age, body condition and body weight did not influence the concentrations significantly, but there was a seasonal influence on the concentrations of perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively), with lower concentrations in autumn samples than in samples taken in the winter and spring. It is thus recommended to take possible seasonal differences into account when using mink exposure data. The overall results suggest that the mink is a suitable sentinel species for assessing and monitoring environmental levels of PFAAs. PMID:23928036

Persson, Sara; Rotander, Anna; Kärrman, Anna; van Bavel, Bert; Magnusson, Ulf

2013-09-01

174

Occurrence of perfluorooctanesulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid and histopathology in eels from north Italian waters.  

PubMed

A perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS) biomonitoring study was conducted in European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in Italy for the first time. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentrations were assessed in the organs of 35 wild eels from two locations, the highly impacted Po River and the Comacchio Lagoon along the north-western Adriatic coast. PFAS were extracted by ion-pairing liquid extraction procedure and measured using high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. There were no significant differences in mean PFAS concentrations (p>0.05) between samples from the two sites. PFOS and PFOA were detectable (>0.4ngg(-1) wet weight, w.w) in 73% and 31% of the total samples, respectively. PFOS concentrations ranged from <0.4 to 6.28ngg(-1)w.w and PFOA from <0.4 to 92.77ngg(-1)w.w. The highest PFAS levels were observed in blood and the lowest in muscle. Histology showed macrophage aggregates and hepatocytic vacuolation in some liver samples. No tissue anomalies were seen in the gonads, suggesting no reproductive impairment. The PFAS contamination levels observed were comparable to, or lower than, those reported in fish in other European countries, seeming to indicate that PFAS pollution of the study area is not remarkable. PMID:25083944

Giari, Luisa; Guerranti, Cristiana; Perra, Guido; Lanzoni, Mattia; Fano, Elisa Anna; Castaldelli, Giuseppe

2015-01-01

175

Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate and Perfluorooctanoic Acid in Fish Fillet Samples  

PubMed Central

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic (PFOA) acid are persistent contaminants which can be found in environmental and biological samples. A new and fast analytical method is described here for the analysis of these compounds in the edible part of fish samples. The method uses a simple liquid extraction by sonication, followed by a direct determination using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The linearity of the instrumental response was good, with average regression coefficients of 0.9971 and 0.9979 for PFOS and PFOA, respectively, and the coefficients of variation (CV) of the method ranged from 8% to 20%. Limits of detection (LOD) were 0.04?ng/g for both the analytes and recoveries were 90% for PFOS and 76% for PFOA. The method was applied to samples of homogenized fillets of wild and farmed fish from the Mediterranean Sea. Most of the samples showed little or no contamination by perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid, and the highest concentrations detected among the fish species analyzed were, respectively, 5.96?ng/g and 1.89?ng/g. The developed analytical methodology can be used as a tool to monitor and to assess human exposure to perfluorinated compounds through sea food consumption. PMID:22567564

Paiano, Viviana; Fattore, Elena; Carra, Andrea; Generoso, Caterina; Fanelli, Roberto; Bagnati, Renzo

2012-01-01

176

Effects of perfluoroalkyl acids on the function of the thyroid hormone and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are perfluorinated compounds that widely exist in the environment and can elicit adverse effects including endocrine disruption in humans and animals. This study investigated the effect of seven PFAAs on the thyroid hormone (TH) system assessing the proliferation of the 3,3',5-triiodo-L-thryonine (T3)-dependent rat pituitary GH3 cells using the T-screen assay and the effect on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) transactivation in the AhR-luciferase reporter gene bioassay. A dose-dependent impact on GH3 cells was observed in the range 1×10(-9)-1×10(-4) M: seven PFAAs (perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA), and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA)) inhibited the GH3 cell growth, and four PFAAs (PFOS, PFHxS, PFNA, and PFUnA) antagonized the T3-induced GH3 cell proliferation. At the highest test concentration, PFHxS showed a further increase of the T3-induced GH3 growth. Among the seven tested PFAAs, only PFDoA and PFDA elicited an activating effect on the AhR. In conclusion, PFAAs possess in vitro endocrine-disrupting potential by interfering with TH and AhR functions, which need to be taken into consideration when assessing the impact on human health. PMID:23539207

Long, Manhai; Ghisari, Mandana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

2013-11-01

177

Low serum levels of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) in children and adults from Afghanistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applications of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have led to a PFC exposure of the general population worldwide. Most PFC human biomonitoring data are available from developed countries. Here we report for the first time PFC levels in serum from children and adults living in the low developed country of Afghanistan. Among a health cooperation project we had the chance to collect

Hamayon Hemat; Michael Wilhelm; Wolfgang Völkel; Christine Mosch; Hermann Fromme; Jürgen Wittsiepe

2010-01-01

178

Perfluoroalkyl acids in blood serum samples from children in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Severe perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) contamination resulting from the fast-growing semiconductor, electrochemical, and optoelectronic industries has been determined in the river water in the vicinity of the Taipei area, Taiwan, during recent years. However, little is known about body burdens of the PFAA contaminations in local residents, especially children living in the Taipei area recently. In this study, ten target PFAA analytes consisted of three perfluorosulfonates (PFSAs) and seven perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) in the blood serum samples, collected from 225 healthy children with an average age of 13.6 years in the Taipei area from 2009 to 2010, were analyzed via high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). As the dominant PFAA contaminant in the blood serum samples from Taiwanese children, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) contributed 86% of all the target PFAA analytes, while the other nine analytes contributed less than 5% individually. PFOS showed the highest median up to 29 ng/mL, ranging from 0.03 to 148 ng/mL, which was higher than that observed in the serum samples collected from Taiwanese children between 2006 and 2008. Statistically, serum concentrations of perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) had significantly positive correlations with ages of children (p?

Bao, Jia; Lee, Yungling Leo; Chen, Pau-Chung; Jin, Yi-He; Dong, Guang-Hui

2014-06-01

179

Breastfeeding: A Potential Excretion Route for Mothers and Implications for Infant Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Acids  

PubMed Central

Background: The presence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in breast milk has been documented, but their lactational transfer has been rarely studied. Determination of the elimination rates of these chemicals during breastfeeding is important and critical for assessing exposure in mothers and infants. Objectives: We aimed to investigate the association between breastfeeding and maternal serum concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS). For a subset of the population, for whom we also have their infants’ measurements, we investigated associations of breastfeeding with infant serum PFAA concentrations. Methods: The present analysis included 633 women from the C8 Science Panel Study who had a child < 3.5 years of age and who provided blood samples and reported detailed information on breastfeeding at the time of survey. PFAA serum concentrations were available for all mothers and 8% (n = 49) of the infants. Maternal and infant serum concentrations were regressed on duration of breastfeeding. Results: Each month of breastfeeding was associated with lower maternal serum concentrations of PFOA (–3%; 95% CI: –5, –2%), PFOS (–3%; 95% CI: –3, –2%), PFNA (–2%; 95% CI: –2, –1%), and PFHxS (–1%; 95% CI: –2, 0%). The infant PFOA and PFOS serum concentrations were 6% (95% CI: 1, 10%) and 4% (95% CI: 1, 7%) higher per month of breastfeeding. Conclusions: Breast milk is the optimal food for infants, but is also a PFAA excretion route for lactating mothers and exposure route for nursing infants. Citation: Mondal D, Weldon RH, Armstrong BG, Gibson LJ, Lopez-Espinosa MJ, Shin HM, Fletcher T. 2014. Breastfeeding: a potential excretion route for mothers and implications for infant exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids. Environ Health Perspect 122:187–192;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306613 PMID:24280536

Mondal, Debapriya; Weldon, Rosana Hernandez; Armstrong, Ben G.; Gibson, Lorna J.; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Shin, Hyeong-Moo

2013-01-01

180

Time trends between 1987 and 2007 for perfluoroalkyl acids in plasma from Swedish women.  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a large group of chemicals which are highly persistent in both nature and humans. The use of the most prominent ones, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), was reduced in the early 21st century, and since then levels in human matrices have decreased. However, these two compounds have been exchanged by other PFAAs, for which time trends have not been as extensively investigated. By the use of 80 plasma samples collected between 1987 and 2007 from healthy women (n=1-9 yearly for 1987-2001, n=15 from 2006, and n=10 from 2007), possible time trends of six PFAAs were assessed. Time trends were evaluated for the entire study period, as well as for three sub-periods. As seen in previous studies, levels of perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), PFOS, and PFOA peaked during the middle time period (1990-2000), with medians of 0.98 ng mL(-1), 18.06 ng mL(-1), and 3.73 ng mL(-1), respectively. However, levels of perfluorononanic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanic acid (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) increased over the whole study period and most markedly so after year 2000, with medians of 0.73 ng mL(-1), 0.28 ng mL(-1), and 0.24 ng mL(-1), respectively, during the last study period. PMID:24440039

Axmon, Anna; Axelsson, Jonatan; Jakobsson, Kristina; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G

2014-05-01

181

Toxicokinetics of seven perfluoroalkyl sulfonic and carboxylic acids in pigs fed a contaminated diet.  

PubMed

The transfer of a mixture of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from contaminated feed into the edible tissues of 24 fattening pigs was investigated. Four perfluoroalkyl sulfonic (PFSAs) and three perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) were quantifiable in feed, plasma, edible tissues, and urine. As percentages of unexcreted PFAA, the substances accumulated in plasma (up to 51%), fat, and muscle tissues (collectively, meat 40-49%), liver (under 7%), and kidney (under 2%) for most substances. An exception was perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), with lower affinity for plasma (23%) and higher for liver (35%). A toxicokinetic model is developed to quantify the absorption, distribution, and excretion of PFAAs and to calculate elimination half-lives. Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), a PFCA, had the shortest half-life at 4.1 days. PFSAs are eliminated more slowly (e.g., half-life of 634 days for PFOS). PFAAs in pigs exhibit longer elimination half-lives than in most organisms reported in the literature, but still shorter than in humans. PMID:24892814

Numata, Jorge; Kowalczyk, Janine; Adolphs, Julian; Ehlers, Susan; Schafft, Helmut; Fuerst, Peter; Müller-Graf, Christine; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Greiner, Matthias

2014-07-16

182

An optimized method for the determination of perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorooctane sulfonate and other perfluorochemicals in different matrices using liquid chromatography/ion-trap mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Perfluorochemicals (PFC's) are widely spread in the environment and have been detected in blood of wildlife and humans world-wide. Recently, various toxic effects of PFC's in laboratory rats have been demonstrated, resulting in increased government concerns regarding the presence of PFC's in the environment and the implications they have on human health. In the last decade, various analytical methods have been developed for the analysis of PFC's in different matrices whereby the majority of methods have utilised liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Here we describe an optimized method for the quantitation of PFC's, including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), in food packaging, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sealant tape and drinking water. The method involved PFC's extraction via off-line SPE followed by separation using reversed-phase liquid chromatography on a Phenyl-Hexyl column coupled with ion-trap (IT) mass spectrometric detection. The optimized approach minimized ion-suppression effects commonly seen with conventional elution buffers, improving detection limits down to 25 pg/mL and allowed effective quantitation down to 50 pg/mL for PFOA and PFOS. The optimized LC-MS method detected PFOA and other PFC's in microwave popcorn packaging and PFOA in PTFE sealant tape in the low ?g/kg. In all samples, PFOS was not detected. PMID:21700512

Dolman, Sebastiaan; Pelzing, Matthias

2011-07-15

183

Perfluorinated alkyl acids in blood serum from primiparous women in Sweden: serial sampling during pregnancy and nursing, and temporal trends 1996-2010.  

PubMed

We investigated temporal trends of blood serum levels of 13 perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) in primiparous women (N = 413) from Uppsala County, Sweden, sampled 3 weeks after delivery 1996-2010. Levels of the short-chain perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) increased 11%/y and 8.3%/y, respectively, and levels of the long-chain perfluorononanoate (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) increased 4.3%/y and 3.8%/y, respectively. Concomitantly, levels of FOSA (22%/y), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 8.4%/y), perfluorodecane sulfonate (PFDS, 10%/y), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, 3.1%/y) decreased. Thus, one or several sources of exposure to the latter compounds have been reduced or eliminated, whereas exposure to the former compounds has recently increased. We explored if maternal levels of PFOS, PFOA, and PFNA during the early nursing period are representative for the fetal development period, using serial maternal serum samples, including cord blood (N = 19). PFAA levels in maternal serum sampled during pregnancy and the nursing period as well as in cord blood were strongly correlated. Strongest correlations between cord blood levels and maternal levels were observed for maternal serum sampled shortly before or after the delivery (r = 0.70-0.89 for PFOS and PFOA). A similar pattern was observed for PFNA, although the correlations were less strong due to levels close to the method detection limit in cord blood. PMID:22770559

Glynn, Anders; Berger, Urs; Bignert, Anders; Ullah, Shahid; Aune, Marie; Lignell, Sanna; Darnerud, Per Ola

2012-08-21

184

Occurrence of selected perfluorinated alkyl acids in lunch meals served at school canteens in Italy and their relevance for children's intake.  

PubMed

Ready-to-eat servings may be more contaminated with perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) than the corresponding unprocessed foods due to the presence of PFAAs in and transfer from food contact materials (FCM) and cookware. Therefore, the presence of selected PFAAs in meals served weekly at lunch time in six Italian school canteens was assessed. Five towns were selected representing different areas with local water and food supply. Daily lunch menus were sampled and pooled to form a composite. Analyses were carried out on the weekly composite from each canteen. UPLC-MS/MS quantification limits were in the 6.0-12 pg g?¹ range for the selected PFAAs (PFHxA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFHxS, branched and non-branched PFOS). Non-branched PFOS was quantified in four out of six composites, with levels ranging from 14 to 25 pg g?¹, while PFOA and PFDA were determined in two out of six in the range 6.5-8.2 pg g?¹. Theoretical estimates and analytical results in the same order of magnitude indicate a negligible contribution from food processing and serving to meal contamination. When composite analytical data are transposed into dietary estimates, it is shown that Italian school-age children have intakes in the range of 0.3-1.1 and 0.5-1.4 ng kg?¹ bw day?¹ for PFOA and PFOS respectively, well below the corresponding tolerable daily intakes (TDIs). PMID:23859821

Dellatte, Elena; Brambilla, Gianfranco; De Filippis, Stefania Paola; di Domenico, Alessandro; Pulkrabova, Jana; Eschauzier, Christian; Klenow, Stefanie; Heinemeyer, Gerhard; de Voogt, Pim

2013-01-01

185

Analysis of perfluorinated acids at parts-per-quadrillion levels in seawater using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Perfluorinated acids (PFAs) and their salts have emerged as an important class of global environmental contaminants. Determination of sub-parts-per-trillion or parts-per-quadrillion concentrations of perfluorinated acids in aqueous media has been impeded by relatively high background levels arising from procedural or instrumental blanks. To understand the role of the oceans in the transport and fate of perfluorinated acids, methods to determine ultratrace levels of these compounds in seawater are needed. In this study, sources of procedural and instrumental blank contamination by perfluorinated acids have been identified and eliminated, to reduce background levels in blanks and thereby improve limits of quantitation. The method developed in this study is capable of detecting perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHS), perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), and perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA) at low pg/L levels in oceanic waters. PFOA is the major perfluorinated compound detected in oceanic waters, followed by PFOS. Further studies are being conducted to elucidate the distribution and fate of perfluorinated acids in oceans. PMID:15575267

Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Taniyasu, Sachi; Horii, Yuichi; Okazawa, Tsuyoshi; Petrick, Gert; Gamo, Toshitaka

2004-11-01

186

Dietary exposure to selected perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in four European regions.  

PubMed

The dietary exposure to selected PFAAs was estimated in four selected European states (Belgium, the Czech Republic, Italy and Norway) representing Western, Southern, Eastern and Northern Europe. The harmonised sampling programme designed in the European Union project PERFOOD was targeted at identifying seven selected PFAAs, including perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), in food items that are most important both in terms of consumption and based on known high contamination patterns. The estimated average dietary exposure for adults (18-64 years) and children (3-9 years) is generally below or close to 1 ng kg?¹ BW day?¹ for all seven PFAAs. Considering the high consumption of food groups that contribute most to the exposure does not result in estimates exceeding 4 ng kg?¹ BW day?¹. Thus, based on the TDIs proposed by EFSA for PFOS (150 ng kg?¹ BW day?¹) and PFOA (1500 ng kg?¹ BW day?¹), no concern can be identified. There are distinct dietary exposure patterns from region to region as a result of different food consumption and contamination patterns. Foods of plant origin (e.g. fruit and vegetables) are most important for the dietary exposure to PFHxA, PFOA and PFHxS, while the consumption of foods of animal origin (particularly fish and seafood) mostly contributes to the dietary exposure to PFDA and PFUnDA. For the dietary exposure to PFNA and PFOS, food of animal and plant origin contributes with equal importance. In conclusion, region-to-region differences as well as the relative importance of food of different origin for each PFAA should be paid more attention in further research. PMID:24279394

Klenow, Stefanie; Heinemeyer, Gerhard; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Dellatte, Elena; Herzke, Dorte; de Voogt, Pim

2013-01-01

187

Partial life-cycle and acute toxicity of perfluoroalkyl acids to freshwater mussels.  

PubMed

Freshwater mussels are among the most sensitive aquatic organisms to many contaminants and have complex life-cycles that include several distinct life stages with unique contaminant exposure pathways. Standard acute (24-96 h) and chronic (28 d) toxicity tests with free larva (glochidia) and juvenile mussels are effective at generating data on contaminant effects at two discrete life stages but do not incorporate effects on brooded glochidia. We developed a novel partial life-cycle assay that incorporates exposures to brooding adult female mussels and used this method in combination with acute toxicity tests to assess adverse effects of perfluoroctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluoroctanoic acid (PFOA) on freshwater mussels. Fatmucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) were exposed to PFOS at two life stages: brooding glochidia (in marsupia) for 36 d and free glochidia in water for 24 h. In standard acute tests with glochidia (24-48 h exposures) and juveniles (48-96 h exposures) of fatmucket and black sandshell (Ligumia recta), glochidia were 8 to 25 times more sensitive than juveniles. Perfluoroctanesulfonic acid significantly reduced the duration of glochidia viability and reduced probability of metamorphosis at concentrations 3,000 times lower than the most sensitive acute endpoint (24-h EC50). The partial life-cycle test is adaptable to a variety of endpoints and research objectives and is useful for identifying adverse effects at contaminant concentrations below those required for an acute lethal response. PMID:22553110

Hazelton, Peter D; Cope, W Gregory; Pandolfo, Tamara J; Mosher, Shad; Strynar, Mark J; Barnhart, M Christopher; Bringolf, Robert B

2012-07-01

188

Parameters affecting the formation of perfluoroalkyl acids during wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

This study examined the fate and behaviour of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in liquid and solid samples from five different wastewater treatment types: facultative and aerated lagoons, chemically assisted primary treatment, secondary aerobic biological treatment, and advanced biological nutrient removal treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest data set from a single study available in the literature to date for PFAAs monitoring study in wastewater treatment. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the predominant PFAA in wastewater with levels from 2.2 to 150ng/L (influent) and 1.9 to 140ng/L (effluent). Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) was the predominant compound in primary sludge, waste biological sludge, and treated biosolids with concentrations from 6.4 to 2900ng/g dry weight (dw), 9.7 to 8200ng/gdw, and 2.1 to 17,000ng/gdw, respectively. PFAAs were formed during wastewater treatment and it was dependant on both process temperature and treatment type; with higher rates of formation in biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) operating at longer hydraulic retention times and higher temperatures. PFAA removal by sorption was influenced by different sorption tendencies; median log values of the solid-liquid distribution coefficient estimated from wastewater biological sludge and final effluent were: PFOS (3.73)>PFDA (3.68)>PFNA (3.25)>PFOA (2.49)>PFHxA (1.93). Mass balances confirmed the formation of PFAAs, low PFAA removal by sorption, and high PFAA levels in effluents. PMID:24691135

Guerra, P; Kim, M; Kinsman, L; Ng, T; Alaee, M; Smyth, S A

2014-05-15

189

The effect of ongoing blood loss on human serum concentrations of perfluorinated acids.  

PubMed

Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) have been detected in serum at low concentrations in background populations. Higher concentrations haven been observed in adult males compared to females, with a possible explanation that menstruation offers females an additional elimination route. In this study, we examined the significance of blood loss as an elimination route of PFAAs. Pooled serum samples were collected from individuals undergoing a medical procedure involving ongoing blood withdrawal called venesection. Concentrations from male venesection patients were approximately 40% lower than males in the general population for perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). A simple pharmacokinetic model was used to test the hypothesis that blood loss could explain why adult males have higher concentrations of PFAAs than females, and why males undergoing venesections had lower concentrations compared to males in the general population. The model application generally supported these hypotheses showing that venesection might reduce blood serum concentrations by 37% (PFOA) and 53% (PFOS) compared to the observed difference of 44% and 37%. Menstruation was modeled to show a 22% reduction in PFOA serum concentrations compared to a 24% difference in concentrations between males and females in the background population. Uncertainties in the modeling and the data are identified and discussed. PMID:25180653

Lorber, M; Eaglesham, G E; Hobson, P; Toms, L-M L; Mueller, J F; Thompson, J S

2015-01-01

190

Perfluoroalkyl acids in the Canadian environment: multi-media assessment of current status and trends.  

PubMed

In Canada, perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been the focus of several monitoring programs and research and surveillance studies. Here, we integrate recent data and perform a multi-media assessment to examine the current status and ongoing trends of PFAAs in Canada. Concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and other long-chain perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) in air, water, sediment, fish, and birds across Canada are generally related to urbanization, with elevated concentrations observed around cities, especially in southern Ontario. PFOS levels in water, fish tissue, and bird eggs were below their respective Draft Federal Environmental Quality Guidelines, suggesting there is low potential for adverse effects to the environment/organisms examined. However, PFOS in fish and bird eggs tended to exceed guidelines for the protection of mammalian and avian consumers, suggesting a potential risk to their wildlife predators, although wildlife population health assessments are needed to determine whether negative impacts are actually occurring. Long-term temporal trends of PFOS in suspended sediment, sediment cores, Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush), and Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) eggs collected from Lake Ontario increased consistently from the start of data collection until the 1990s. However, after this time, the trends varied by media, with concentrations stabilizing in Lake Trout and Herring Gull eggs, and decreasing and increasing in suspended sediment and the sediment cores, respectively. For PFCAs, concentrations in suspended sediment, sediment cores, and Herring Gulls generally increased from the start of data collection until present and concentrations in Lake Trout increased until the late 1990s and subsequently stabilized. A multimedia comparison of PFAA profiles provided evidence that unexpected patterns in biota of some of the lakes were due to unique source patterns rather than internal lake processes. High concentrations of PFAAs in the leachate and air of landfill sites, in the wastewater influent/effluent, biosolids, and air at wastewater treatment plants, and in indoor air and dust highlight the waste sector and current-use products (used primarily indoors) as ongoing sources of PFAAs to the Canadian environment. The results of this study demonstrate the utility of integrating data from different media. Simultaneous evaluation of spatial and temporal trends in multiple media allows inferences that would be impossible with data on only one medium. As such, more co-ordination among monitoring sites for different media is suggested for future sampling, especially at the northern sites. We emphasize the importance of continued monitoring of multiple-media for determining future responses of environmental PFAA concentrations to voluntary and regulatory actions. PMID:23831544

Gewurtz, Sarah B; Backus, Sean M; De Silva, Amila O; Ahrens, Lutz; Armellin, Alain; Evans, Marlene; Fraser, Susan; Gledhill, Melissa; Guerra, Paula; Harner, Tom; Helm, Paul A; Hung, Hayley; Khera, Nav; Kim, Min Gu; King, Martha; Lee, Sum Chi; Letcher, Robert J; Martin, Pamela; Marvin, Chris; McGoldrick, Daryl J; Myers, Anne L; Pelletier, Magella; Pomeroy, Joe; Reiner, Eric J; Rondeau, Myriam; Sauve, Marie-Claude; Sekela, Mark; Shoeib, Mahiba; Smith, Daniel W; Smyth, Shirley Anne; Struger, John; Spry, Doug; Syrgiannis, Jim; Waltho, Jasmine

2013-09-01

191

Maternal exposure to perfluorinated acids and fetal growth.  

PubMed

The widespread detection of perfluorinated acids (PFAs) in humans and known developmental toxicity in animals has raised concern about their potential effects on human reproductive health. Our objective was to determine whether increasing maternal exposure to PFAs is associated with adverse effects on fetal growth and length of gestation in women giving birth in Alberta, Canada. We examined the concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) in a cohort of 252 pregnant women who gave birth to live singletons. Each of the women had undergone an early second trimester prenatal screen, and her serum was analyzed for PFA concentrations. Data on infant and maternal variables were collected from the delivery record completed at birth. Adjusted changes in birth weight per natural log (ng/ml) of PFOA (median 1.5 ng/ml), PFHxS (median 0.97 ng/ml), and PFOS (median 7.8 ng/ml) were -37.4 g (95% confidence interval (CI): -86.0 to 11.2 g), 21.9 g (-23.4 to 67.2 g), and 31.3 g (-43.3 to 105.9 g), respectively. Mean birth weight z-score, standardized for gestational age and gender, length of gestation, and risk of preterm birth did not appear to be influenced by maternal PFA exposure. When PFA concentrations were divided into tertiles, similar patterns were observed. These results suggest that maternal PFA exposure has no substantial effect on fetal weight and length of gestation at the concentrations observed in this population. PMID:19865074

Hamm, Michele P; Cherry, Nicola M; Chan, Emily; Martin, Jonathan W; Burstyn, Igor

2010-11-01

192

Determination of perfluorinated alkyl acid concentrations in human serum and milk standard reference materials.  

PubMed

Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) are certified reference materials produced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology that are homogeneous materials well characterized with values for specified properties, such as environmental contaminant concentrations. They can be used to validate measurement methods and are critical in improving data quality. Disagreements in perfluorinated alkyl acid (PFAA) concentrations measured in environmental matrices during past interlaboratory comparisons emphasized the need for SRMs with values assigned for PFAAs. We performed a new interlaboratory comparison among six laboratories and provided, for the first time, value assignment of PFAAs in SRMs. Concentrations for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and other PFAAs in two human serum and two human milk SRMs are reported. PFAA concentration measurements agreed for serum SRM 1957 using different analytical methods in six laboratories and for milk SRM 1954 in three laboratories. The interlaboratory relative standard deviation for PFOS in SRM 1957 was 7%, which is an improvement over past interlaboratory studies. Matrix interferences are discussed, as well as temporal trends and the percentage of branched vs. linear isomers. The concentrations in these SRMs are similar to the present-day average concentrations measured in human serum and milk, resulting in representative and useful control materials for PFAA human monitoring studies. PMID:19862506

Keller, Jennifer M; Calafat, Antonia M; Kato, Kayoko; Ellefson, Mark E; Reagen, William K; Strynar, Mark; O'Connell, Steven; Butt, Craig M; Mabury, Scott A; Small, Jeff; Muir, Derek C G; Leigh, Stefan D; Schantz, Michele M

2010-05-01

193

Association of perfluorooctanoic acid with HDL cholesterol and circulating miR-26b and miR-199-3p in workers of a fluorochemical plant and nearby residents.  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) are stable man-made compounds with many industrial and commercial uses. Concern has been raised that they may exert deleterious effects, especially on lipid regulation. We aimed to assess exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), and seven other PFCs in occupational workers from a fluorochemical plant and nearby community residents, and to investigate the association between PFOA and serum biomarkers. Serum biomarkers included not only biochemical parameters, such as lipids and enzymes, but also circulating microRNAs (miRNAs). Samples were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Circulating miRNA levels were detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Analyses were conducted by correlation and linear regression. We detected PFOS, PFOA, perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) in all samples. The median levels of serum PFOA and PFOS were 284.34 ng/mL and 34.16 ng/mL in residents and 1635.96 ng/mL and 33.46 ng/mL in occupational participants, respectively. To our knowledge, we found for the first time that PFOA was negatively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in workers using linear regression after adjusting for potential confounders. Circulating miR-26b and miR-199a-3p were elevated with serum concentration of PFOA. Although the limitations of small sample size and the cross-sectional nature of the current study constrained causal inferences, the observed associations between PFOA and these serum biomarkers warrant further study. PMID:22862179

Wang, Jianshe; Zhang, Yating; Zhang, Wei; Jin, Yihe; Dai, Jiayin

2012-09-01

194

Temporal trends of perfluoroalkyl acids in plasma samples of pregnant women in Hokkaido, Japan, 2003-2011.  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are persistent organic pollutants that are used in a wide range of consumer products. Recent epidemiological studies have shown that prenatal exposure to toxic levels of PFAAs in the environment may adversely affect fetal growth and humoral immune response in infants and children. Here we have characterized levels of prenatal exposure to PFAA between 2003 and 2011 in Hokkaido, Japan, by measuring PFAA concentrations in plasma samples from pregnant women. The study population comprised 150 women who enrolled in a prospective birth cohort study conducted in Hokkaido. Eleven PFAAs were measured in maternal plasma samples using simultaneous analysis by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. At the end of the study, in 2011, age- and parity-adjusted mean concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA), perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were 1.35ng/mL, 1.26ng/mL, 0.66ng/mL, 1.29ng/mL, 0.25ng/mL, 0.33ng/mL, 0.28ng/mL, and 3.86ng/mL, respectively. Whereas PFOS and PFOA concentrations declined 8.4%/y and 3.1%/y, respectively, PFNA and PFDA levels increased 4.7%/y and 2.4%/y, respectively, between 2003 and 2011. PFUnDA, PFDoDA, and PFTrDA were detected in the vast majority of maternal samples, but no significant temporal trend was apparent. Future studies must involve a larger population of pregnant women and their children to determine the effects of prenatal exposure to PFAA on health outcomes in infants and children. PMID:24013022

Okada, Emiko; Kashino, Ikuko; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Sasaki, Seiko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Yamamoto, Jun; Ikeno, Tamiko; Ito, Yoichi M; Matsumura, Toru; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Kishi, Reiko

2013-10-01

195

Electrochemical oxidation of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (6:2 FTS) on DSA electrode: operating parameters and mechanism.  

PubMed

The 6:2 FTS was the substitute for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in the chrome plating industry in Japan. Electrochemical oxidation of 6:2 FTS was investigated in this study. The degradabilities of PFOS and 6:2 FTS were tested on the Ti/SnO?-Sb?O?-Bi?O? anode. The effects of current density, potential, and supporting electrolyte on the degradation of 6:2 FTS were evaluated. Experimental results showed that 6:2 FTS was more easily degraded than PFOS on the Ti/SnO?-Sb?O?-Bi?O? anode. At a low current density of 1.42 mA/cm², 6:2 FTS was not degraded on Ti/SnO?-Sb?O?-Bi?O?, while the degradation ratio increased when the current density ranged from 4.25 to 6.80 mA/cm². The degradation of 6:2 FTS at current density of 6.80 mA/cm² followed pseudo first-order kinetics with the rate constant of 0.074 hr?¹. The anodic potential played an important role in the degradation of 6:2 FTS, and the pseudo first-order rate constants increased with the potential. The surface of Ti/SnO?-Sb?O?-Bi?O? was contaminated after electrolysis at constant potential of 3V, while the fouling phenomenon was not observed at 5V. The fouled anode could be regenerated by incinerating at 600°C. The intermediates detected by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a triple-stage quadrupole mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS) were shorter chain perfluorocarboxylic acids. The 6:2 FTS was first attacked by hydroxyl radical, and then formed perfluorinated carboxylates, which decarboxylated and removed CF2 units to yield shorter-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids. PMID:25108730

Zhuo, Qiongfang; Li, Xiang; Yan, Feng; Yang, Bo; Deng, Shubo; Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang

2014-08-01

196

Evaluating the additivity of perfluoroalkyl acids in binary combinations on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? activation.  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are found globally in the environment, detected in humans and wildlife, and are typically present as mixtures of PFAA congeners. Mechanistic studies have found that responses to PFAAs are mediated in part by PPAR?. Our previous studies showed that individual PFAAs activate PPAR? transfected into COS-1 cells. The goal of the current study was to determine if binary combinations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and another PFAA act in an additive fashion to activate PPAR? in the mouse one-hybrid in vitro model. COS-1 cells were transiently transfected with mouse PPAR? luciferase reporter construct and exposed to either vehicle control (0.1% DMSO or water), PPAR? agonist (WY14643, 10 ?M), PFOA at 1-128?M, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) at 1-128 ?M, perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) at 8-1024 ?M, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) at 4-384 ?M or perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) at 8-2048 ?M to generate sigmoidal concentration-response curves. In addition, cells were exposed to binary combinations of PFOA+either PFNA, PFHxA, PFOS or PFHxS in an 8×8 factorial design. The concentration-response data for individual chemicals were fit to sigmoidal curves and analyzed with nonlinear regression to generate EC??s and Hillslopes, which were used in response-addition and concentration-addition models to calculate predicted responses for mixtures in the same plate. All PFOA+PFAA combinations produced concentration-response curves that were closely aligned with the predicted curves for both response addition and concentration addition at low concentrations. However, at higher concentrations of all chemicals, the observed response curves deviated from the predicted models of additivity. We conclude that binary combinations of PFAAs behave additively at the lower concentration ranges in activating PPAR? in this in vitro system. PMID:24374136

Wolf, Cynthia J; Rider, Cynthia V; Lau, Christopher; Abbott, Barbara D

2014-02-28

197

Determination of perfluorinated alkylated substances in sediments and sediment core from the Gulf of Gda?sk, Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS) have been determined in surface sediments and sediment core from Gulf of Gda?sk, Baltic Sea. Perfluorooctanesulphonate (PFOS), perfluorohexanesulphonate (PFHxS), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), perfluoronanoate (PFNA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA), perfluoroundecanote (PFUnDA), perfluorododecanoate (PFDoDA) and perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA) were quantified after isotopic dilution ((13)C(4) PFOS and (13)C(4) PFOA), liquid-liquid extractions by methanol and acetonitrile, cleanup by Envi-Carb, OasisWAX and Envi-Carb and final measurement by HPLC-MS/MS. PFOS, PFHxS, PFUnDA, PFDA, PFNA and PFOA were found in Baltic Sea sediments in concentrations exceeding the method limit of quantification (LOQ) of 2 pg/g. PFOS was detected in concentration up to 0.896 ng/g dry weight and PFHxS up to 0.326 ng/g dw, which shows on a weak pollution. PFOS (48-74%) or PFHxS (45-56%) dominated in PFAS composition of sediments surveyed. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of the Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A to view the free supplemental file. PMID:22320695

Falandysz, Jerzy; Rostkowski, Pawe?; Jarzy?ska, Gra?yna; Falandysz, Jaromir J; Taniyasu, Sachi; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi

2012-01-01

198

[Determination of three perfluoro sulfonated chemicals in bivalve shells using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with the pretreatment of mixed inorganic acid digestion coupled with solid-phase extraction].  

PubMed

For the analysis of perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in shells, an extraction method of mixed inorganic acid digestion coupled with solid phase extraction (SPE) was established. The target compounds were determined by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The shell powder was at first digested with the mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, then the digestion solution was adjusted to pH 6 with sodium hydroxide, and cleaned up with Oasis WAX SPE cartridge. The perfluoro sulfonated chemicals were quantified with HPLC-MS/MS using electrospray ionization in negative ion mode with internal standard method. The limits of detection (LODs) were of 0.28 ng/g for PFBS, 0.42 ng/g for PFHxS and 0.43 ng/g for PFOS, and matrix recoveries of the perfluoro sulfonated chemicals were 94.88%-96.24%. The analytical results for the shells of two bivalves from Bohai Bay showed this pretreatment method is suitable for the determination of perfluoro sulfonated acids (PFSAs) in shells. Concentrations of PFSAs in the shells ranged from < LOD-0.70 ng/g, which were an order of magnitude lower than those in the soft tissues of these bivalves. PMID:20812629

Yang, Jin; Wang, Lei; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Jiao; Sun, Hongwen

2010-05-01

199

Genotoxic potential of the perfluorinated chemicals PFOA, PFOS, PFBS, PFNA and PFHxA in human HepG2 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetically produced perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) are widely used in industrial products because of their anti-wetting and surfactant properties. PFCs are suspected carcinogens and a possible mechanism of action is generation of oxidative stress. We have investigated the potential of five different PFCs to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to induce oxidative DNA damage in HepG2 cells. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)

Kirsten Thorup Eriksen; Ole Raaschou-Nielsen; Mette Sørensen; Martin Roursgaard; Steffen Loft; Peter Møller

2010-01-01

200

Perfluorinated acids and hypothyroxinemia in pregnant women.  

PubMed

Perfluorinated acids (PFAs) are prominent and widespread contaminants of human blood. In animal studies there is evidence that suggests certain PFAs can disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis. A commonly reported condition in exposed animals is hypothyroxinemia, whereby serum free thyroxine (fT4) is decreased despite normal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations. We designed an individually matched case-control study to investigate whether exposure to perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was associated with hypothyroxinemia in pregnant women from Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, in 2005-2006, who underwent a "triple screen" blood test at 15-20 weeks gestation as part of ante-natal care. Thyroid hormones, fT4 and TSH, were measured in serum from 974 women, and from these we measured PFAs in the sera of 96 hypothyroxinemic cases (normal TSH, the lowest 10th percentile of fT4) and 175 controls (normal TSH, fT4 between the 50th and 90th percentiles) matched on age and referring physician. Analyses by conditional logistic regression indicated that the concentrations of PFAs in this population were not associated with hypothyroxinemia among pregnant women. The current findings do not support a causal link between PFA exposure and maternal hypothyroxinemia in the studied population. PMID:21310403

Chan, Emily; Burstyn, Igor; Cherry, Nicola; Bamforth, Fiona; Martin, Jonathan W

2011-05-01

201

Photo-generated Acid Diffusion in Polymer Photoresist Thin Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced photoresist formulations make use of photosensitive molecules, photoacid generators (PAGs), which decompose to form acids after illumination with UV radiation. The photo-generated acids then catalytically alter the solubility of the resist polymer during a post-exposure bake so that the exposed areas of an image can be removed with an appropriate solvent. One of the limitations in resist performance is the diffusion of small molecules such as the photoacid generators (PAG), photo-generated acids (PGAs), solvents, and performance enhancing additives, in the photoresist formulation. We utilize the high spatial resolution of neutron reflectometry over length scales relevant to line width broadening (10 nm to 20 nm) to measure the diffusion rates of PAGs, PGAs, and polymers in model resist materials. In this study, the model polymer matrix material is monodisperse poly(hydroxystyrene)(PHS) and the photoacid generator is bis(p-tert-butylphenyl) iodonium perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS). By measuring the profiles of the PGAs in the PHS layer and into an overlaying poly(methyl methacrylate) layer as a function of post-exposure bake temperature and time, the initial rates of diffusion may be determined.

Lin, Eric; Soles, Christopher; Wu, Wen-Li; Lin, Qinghuang

2000-03-01

202

Subsurface transport potential of perfluoroalkyl acids at aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF)-impacted sites.  

PubMed

Subsurface transport potential of a suite of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) was studied in batch sorption experiments with various soils and in the presence of co-contaminants relevant to aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF)-impacted sites. Specifically, PFAA sorption to multiple soils in the presence of nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) and nonfluorinated AFFF surfactants was examined. This study is the first to report on sorption of perfluorobutanoate (PFBA) and perfluoropentanoate (PFPeA) (log Koc = 1.88 and 1.37, respectively) and found that sorption of these compounds does not follow the chain-length dependent trend observed for longer chain-length PFAAs. Sorption of PFBA was similar to that of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, log Koc = 1.89). NAPL and nonfluorinated AFFF surfactants all had varying impacts on sorption of longer chain (>6 CF2 groups) PFAAs. The primary impact of NAPL was observed in low foc soil (soil A) where Freundlich n-values increased when NAPL was present. Impacts of nonfluorinated AFFF surfactants varied with surfactant and soil. The anionic surfactant sodium decyl sulfate (SDS) illicited PFAA chain-length dependent impacts in two negatively charged soils with varying foc. In soil A, Kd values for perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA) increased 91% with SDS, whereas values for perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) increased only 28%. An amphoteric surfactant, n,n-dimethyldodecylamine n-oxide (AO), had the most notable impact on PFAA sorption to a positively charged soil (soil C). In this soil, AO oxide significantly increased sorption for the longer chain PFAAs (i.e., 528% increase in Kd for PFDA). Changes in sorption caused by SDS and AO may be due to mixed hemimicelle formation, competitive sorption, or changes to PFAA solubility. Short-chain PFAA behavior in the presence of NAPL, SDS, and AO was again notable. Co-contaminants generally increased the sorption of these compounds to all soils. Log Kd values of PFBA in soil A increased 85%, 372%, and 32% in the presence of NAPL, SDS, and AO, respectively. Use of Kd values to calculate retardation factors (Rf) of PFAAs demonstrates the variability of co-contaminant impacts on PFAA transport. Whereas NAPL and nonfluorinated surfactants decreased the sorption of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) at lower PFOS concentrations (1 ?g/L), they led to increases in sorption at higher PFOS concentrations (500 ?g/L). These results demonstrate that PFAA groundwater transport will depend on the solid phase characteristics as well as PFAA concentration and chain length. Detailed site-specific information will likely be needed to accurately predict PFAA transport at AFFF-impacted sites. PMID:23566120

Guelfo, Jennifer L; Higgins, Christopher P

2013-05-01

203

High levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in eggs and embryo livers of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) and herring gull (Larus argentatus) from Lake Vänern, Sweden.  

PubMed

In the eggs and developing chick livers in the two wild bird species, great cormorant and herring gull, the concentrations of a range of 15 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were determined. Eggs of the two species were collected from Lake Vänern, Sweden, and analysed either as undeveloped egg (whole egg or separated into yolk and albumen) or incubated until start of the hatching process when the chick liver was removed and analysed. High levels of PFAAs were found in all matrixes except albumen. The predominant PFAA was perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), which was found in the ?g/g wet weight (ww) range in some samples of cormorant whole egg, yolk and liver and herring gull egg yolk and liver. The average concentration in yolk was 1,506 ng/g ww in cormorant and 589 ng/g ww in herring gull. The average liver concentrations of PFOS were 583 ng/g ww in cormorant and 508 ng/g ww in herring gull. At these concentrations, biochemical effects in the developing embryo or effects on embryo survival cannot be ruled out. For perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), the liver/egg and liver/yolk concentration ratios increased with PFCA chain length in cormorant but not in herring gull, indicating that chain length could possibly affect egg-to-liver transfer of PFCAs and that species differences may exist. PMID:23463275

Nordén, Marcus; Berger, Urs; Engwall, Magnus

2013-11-01

204

Estrogen-Like Activity of Perfluoroalkyl Acids In Vivo and Interaction with Human and Rainbow Trout Estrogen Receptors In Vitro  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study were to determine the structural characteristics of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) that confer estrogen-like activity in vivo using juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as an animal model and to determine whether these chemicals interact directly with the estrogen receptor (ER) using in vitro and in silico species comparison approaches. Perfluorooctanoic (PFOA), perfluorononanoic (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoic (PFUnDA) acids were all potent inducers of the estrogen-responsive biomarker protein vitellogenin (Vtg) in vivo, although at fairly high dietary exposures. A structure-activity relationship for PFAAs was observed, where eight to ten fluorinated carbons and a carboxylic acid end group were optimal for maximal Vtg induction. These in vivo findings were corroborated by in vitro mechanistic assays for trout and human ER. All PFAAs tested weakly bound to trout liver ER with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 15.2–289?M. Additionally, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, and perlfuorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) significantly enhanced human ER?-dependent transcriptional activation at concentrations ranging from 10–1000nM. Finally, we employed an in silico computational model based upon the crystal structure for the human ER? ligand-binding domain complexed with E2 to structurally investigate binding of these putative ligands to human, mouse, and trout ER?. PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, and PFOS all efficiently docked with ER? from different species and formed a hydrogen bond at residue Arg394/398/407 (human/mouse/trout) in a manner similar to the environmental estrogens bisphenol A and nonylphenol. Overall, these data support the contention that several PFAAs are weak environmental xenoestrogens of potential concern. PMID:21163906

Benninghoff, Abby D.; Bisson, William H.; Koch, Daniel C.; Ehresman, David J.; Kolluri, Siva K.; Williams, David E.

2011-01-01

205

Estrogen-like activity of perfluoroalkyl acids in vivo and interaction with human and rainbow trout estrogen receptors in vitro.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to determine the structural characteristics of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) that confer estrogen-like activity in vivo using juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as an animal model and to determine whether these chemicals interact directly with the estrogen receptor (ER) using in vitro and in silico species comparison approaches. Perfluorooctanoic (PFOA), perfluorononanoic (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoic (PFUnDA) acids were all potent inducers of the estrogen-responsive biomarker protein vitellogenin (Vtg) in vivo, although at fairly high dietary exposures. A structure-activity relationship for PFAAs was observed, where eight to ten fluorinated carbons and a carboxylic acid end group were optimal for maximal Vtg induction. These in vivo findings were corroborated by in vitro mechanistic assays for trout and human ER. All PFAAs tested weakly bound to trout liver ER with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of 15.2-289 ?M. Additionally, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, and perlfuorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) significantly enhanced human ER?-dependent transcriptional activation at concentrations ranging from 10-1000 nM. Finally, we employed an in silico computational model based upon the crystal structure for the human ER? ligand-binding domain complexed with E2 to structurally investigate binding of these putative ligands to human, mouse, and trout ER?. PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, and PFOS all efficiently docked with ER? from different species and formed a hydrogen bond at residue Arg394/398/407 (human/mouse/trout) in a manner similar to the environmental estrogens bisphenol A and nonylphenol. Overall, these data support the contention that several PFAAs are weak environmental xenoestrogens of potential concern. PMID:21163906

Benninghoff, Abby D; Bisson, William H; Koch, Daniel C; Ehresman, David J; Kolluri, Siva K; Williams, David E

2011-03-01

206

[Spatial distribution of perfluorooctanoic acids and perfluorinate sulphonates in surface water of East Lake].  

PubMed

Concentrations and spatial distribution of PFOS and PFOA in surface water from East Lake in Wuhan, Hubei, China were studied. The total concentration of PFCs ranged from 31.1 to 237 ng x L(-1), and the mean value was 115 ng x L(-1), revealing lake-wide contamination in East Lake. PFOS and PFOA were detected in all samples with maximum values of 132 ng x L(-1) and 158 ng x L(-1), respectively, whereas the mean values of PFOS and PFOA were 60.4 and 55.0 ng x L(-1), respectively. The highest concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were found in the eastern area of lake, followed by the southern area of lake, and the western and northern areas of East Lake were the least contaminated regions. The specific distribution and composition profile of PFOS and PFOA, and the lack of significant correlation between PFOS and PFOA, suggested that there were various sources of PFCs. The PFOS concentrations at 30 sample sites (63%) were greater than 43 ng x L(-1), which was used to estimate an avian wildlife value for PFOS. The PFOA concentrations at 20 sample sites (42%) were greater than 40 ng x L(-1), which was a health-based guidance level recommended by the State of New Jersey for PFOA. PMID:23213877

Chen, Jing; Wang, Lin-ling; Zhu, Hu-di; Wang, Bei-bei; Liu, Huang-cheng; Cao, Meng-hua; Miao, Zhu; Hu, Li; Lu, Xiao-hua; Liu, Guang-hong

2012-08-01

207

Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Acids and Markers of Kidney Function among Children and Adolescents Living near a Chemical Plant  

PubMed Central

Background: Serum levels of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have been associated with decreased renal function in cross-sectional analyses, but the direction of the association is unclear. Objectives: We examined the association of measured and model-predicted serum PFOA concentrations with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), a marker of kidney function, in a highly exposed population (median serum PFOA, 28.3 ng/mL). Methods: We measured serum creatinine, PFOA, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and calculated eGFR in 9,660 children 1 to < 18 years of age at study enrollment. We predicted concurrent and historical serum PFOA concentrations using a validated environmental, exposure, and pharmacokinetic model based on individual residential histories, and used linear regression to estimate the association between eGFR and measured and predicted serum PFOA concentrations. We hypothesized that predicted serum PFOA levels would be less susceptible to reverse causation than measured levels. Results: An interquartile range increase in measured serum PFOA concentrations [IQR ln(PFOA) = 1.63] was associated with a decrease in eGFR of 0.75 mL/min/1.73 m2 (95% CI: –1.41, –0.10; p = 0.02). Measured serum levels of PFOS, PFNA, and PFHxS were also cross-sectionally associated with decreased eGFR. In contrast, predicted serum PFOA concentrations at the time of enrollment were not associated with eGFR (–0.10; 95% CI: –0.80, 0.60; p = 0.78). Additionally, predicted serum PFOA levels at birth and during the first ten years of life were not related to eGFR. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the cross-sectional association between eGFR and serum PFOA observed in this and prior studies may be a consequence of, rather than a cause of, decreased kidney function. PMID:23482063

Josson, Jyoti; Elston, Beth; Bartell, Scott M.; Shin, Hyeong-Moo; Vieira, Veronica M.; Savitz, David A.; Fletcher, Tony; Wellenius, Gregory A.

2013-01-01

208

Acid rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid precipitation is a global problem. The effects were first seen in Europe; it affects the Great Lakes and the Midwest because higher-than-normal levels of acidity in rain are found in these areas. Several bays of the Great Lakes are now known to receive substantial runoff from freshwater streams that have been made acidic by acid rains. These areas may

1979-01-01

209

Tissue distribution of 35S-labelled perfluorobutanesulfonic acid in adult mice following dietary exposure for 1-5 days.  

PubMed

Perfluorobutanesulfonyl fluoride (PBSF) has been introduced as a replacement for its eight-carbon homolog perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride (POSF) in the manufacturing of fluorochemicals. Fluorochemicals derived from PBSF may give rise to perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS) as a terminal degradation product. Although basic mammalian toxicokinetic data exist for PFBS, information on its tissue distribution has only been reported in one study focused on rat liver. Therefore, here we characterized the tissue distribution of PFBS in mice in the same manner as we earlier examined its eight-carbon homolog perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) to allow direct comparisons. Following dietary exposure of adult male C57/BL6 mice for 1, 3 or 5d to 16 mg (35)S-PFBS kg(-1) d(-1), both scintillation counting and whole-body autoradiography (WBA) revealed the presence of PFBS in all of the 20 different tissues examined, demonstrating its ability to leave the bloodstream and enter tissues. After 5d of treatment the highest levels were detected in liver, gastrointestinal tract, blood, kidney, cartilage, whole bone, lungs and thyroid gland. WBA revealed relatively high levels of PFBS in male genital organs as well, with the exception of the testis. The tissue levels increased from 1 to 3 d of exposure but appeared thereafter to level-off in most cases. The estimated major body compartments were whole bone, liver, blood, skin and muscle. This exposure to PFBS resulted in 5-40-fold lower tissue levels than did similar exposure to PFOS, as well as in a different pattern of tissue distribution, including lower levels in liver and lungs relative to blood. PMID:24238775

Bogdanska, Jasna; Sundström, Maria; Bergström, Ulrika; Borg, Daniel; Abedi-Valugerdi, Manuchehr; Bergman, Åke; DePierre, Joseph; Nobel, Stefan

2014-03-01

210

Dietary exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids of specific French adult sub-populations: high seafood consumers, high freshwater fish consumers and pregnant women.  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are globally found in various media, including food and especially fishery products. In the present study, the dietary exposure to 15 perfluoroalkyl acids was assessed for 3 French adult populations, namely high seafood consumers, high freshwater fish consumers, and pregnant women. Purified food extracts were analysed by LC-MS/MS and PFBA, PFPA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFTrDA, PFTeDA, PFBS, PFHxS, PFHpS, PFOS and PFDS were monitored and quantified according to the isotope dilution principle. Under lower bound (LB) hypothesis (i.e. contamination valuesPFOS (7.5 ng.kg(-1) bw.d(-1)), PFUnA (1.3 ng.kg(-1) bw.d(-1)), PFDA (0.4 ng.kg(-1) bw.d(-1)) and PFHpS (0.03 ng.kg(-1) bw.d(-1)) while high seafood consumers appear as the most exposed to PFOA (1.2 ng.kg(-1) bw.d(-1)), PFNA (0.2 ng.kg(-1) bw.d(-1)) and PFHxS (0.06 ng.kg(-1) bw.d(-1)). For all considered populations, the major exposure contributors are fish, seafood and water under LB hypothesis, while dairy products, bread and crispbread are the main contributors under upper bound (UB) hypothesis. Besides this food exposure assessment, further studies are needed to assess the more global PFAA exposure, taking into account indoor and outdoor air, dust and cutaneous contact, which could be other important contributors for this particular class of chemicals. PMID:24530183

Yamada, A; Bemrah, N; Veyrand, B; Pollono, C; Merlo, M; Desvignes, V; Sirot, V; Marchand, P; Berrebi, A; Cariou, R; Antignac, J P; Le Bizec, B; Leblanc, J C

2014-09-01

211

Rosmarinic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rosmarinic acid is an ester of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid. It is commonly found in species of the Boraginaceae and the subfamily Nepetoideae of the Lamiaceae. However, it is also found in species of other higher plant families and in some fern and hornwort species. Rosmarinic acid has a number of interesting biological activities, e.g. antiviral, antibacterial, antiinflammatory and

Maike Petersen; Monique S. J Simmonds

2003-01-01

212

Shikimic Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The molecule for this month comes from the article Isolation of Shikimic Acid from Star Aniseed by Richard Payne and Michael Edmonds. Shikimic acid plays a key role in the biosynthesis of many important natural products including aromatic amino acids, alkaloids, phenolics, and phenylpropanoids. It plays such an important role that one of the key biosynthetic pathways is referred to as the shikimate pathway.

213

Acid rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past five years, scientists at the Univ. of Colorado have been measuring acid precipitation in a subalpine watershed of the Colorado Rockies. Their measurements of snow and rain and creek water show a strong trend of increasing acidity that is traceable to the chemical reactions of burning fossil fuels. Possible effects of acid precipitation on the watershed's aquatic

Caile

2009-01-01

214

Rosmarinic acid.  

PubMed

Rosmarinic acid is an ester of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid. It is commonly found in species of the Boraginaceae and the subfamily Nepetoideae of the Lamiaceae. However, it is also found in species of other higher plant families and in some fern and hornwort species. Rosmarinic acid has a number of interesting biological activities, e.g. antiviral, antibacterial, antiinflammatory and antioxidant. The presence of rosmarinic acid in medicinal plants, herbs and spices has beneficial and health promoting effects. In plants, rosmarinic acid is supposed to act as a preformed constitutively accumulated defence compound. The biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid starts with the amino acids L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine. All eight enzymes involved in the biosynthesis are known and characterised and cDNAs of several of the involved genes have been isolated. Plant cell cultures, e.g. from Coleus blumei or Salvia officinalis, accumulate rosmarinic acid in amounts much higher than in the plant itself (up to 36% of the cell dry weight). For this reason a biotechnological production of rosmarinic acid with plant cell cultures has been proposed. PMID:12482446

Petersen, Maike; Simmonds, Monique S J

2003-01-01

215

Association between thyroid profile and perfluoroalkyl acids: data from NHNAES 2007-2008.  

PubMed

The effect of six perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), namely, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDE), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), 2-(N-methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamide) acetic acid (MPAH), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) on the levels of six thyroid function variables, namely, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free and total thyroxine (FT4, TT4), free and total triiodothyronine (FT3, TT3), and thyroglobulin (TGN) was evaluated. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2007-2008 were used for this evaluation. TSH levels increased with increase in levels of PFOA (p<0.01). There were no statistically significant associations between the levels of FT3, and FT4 with the levels of any of the six PFAAs. Levels of TT3 were found to increase with the levels of PFOA (p=0.01) and TT4 levels were found to increase with increase in PFHxS levels (p<0.01). Males had statistically significantly higher levels of FT3 than females and females had statistically significantly higher levels of TT4 than males. As compared to non-Hispanics whites and Hispanics, non-Hispanic blacks had lower levels of TSH, FT3, TT3, and TT4 but Hispanics had the lowest levels of TGN. Age was negatively associated with FT3 and TT3 but positively associated with FT4 and TT4. Non-smokers had higher levels of TSH and TT4 than smokers and smokers had higher levels of FT3 and TGN than non-smokers. Iodine deficiency was associated with increased levels of TSH, TT3, TT4, and TGN. PMID:24053974

Jain, Ram B

2013-10-01

216

GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING IN WILD-TYPE AND PPARa-NULL MICE EXPOSED TO PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE REVEALS PPARa-INDEPENDENT EFFECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a perfluoroalky1 acid (PFAA) and a persistent environmental contaminant found in the tissues of humans and wildlife. Although blood levels of PFOS have begun to decline, health concerns remain because of the long half-life of PFOS in humans. Li...

217

Evaluation of perfluoroalkyl acid activity using primary mouse and human hepatocytes.  

PubMed

While perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been studied at length, less is known about the biological activity of other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) detected in the environment. Using a transient transfection assay developed in COS-1 cells, our group has previously evaluated a variety of PFAAs for activity associated with activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?). Here we use primary heptatocytes to further assess the biological activity of a similar group of PFAAs using custom designed Taqman Low Density Arrays. Primary mouse and human hepatoyctes were cultured for 48h in the presence of varying concentrations of 12 different PFAAs or Wy14,643, a known activator of PPAR?. Total RNA was collected and the expression of 48 mouse or human genes evaluated. Gene selection was based on either in-house liver microarray data (mouse) or published data using primary hepatocytes (human). Gene expression in primary mouse hepatocytes was more restricted than expected. Genes typically regulated in whole tissue by PPAR? agonists were not altered in mouse cells including Acox1, Me1, Acaa1a, Hmgcs1, and Slc27a1. Cyp2b10, a gene regulated by the constitutive androstane receptor and a transcript normally up-regulated by in vivo exposure to PFAAs, was also unchanged in cultured mouse hepatocytes. Cyp4a14, Ehhadh, Pdk4, Cpt1b, and Fabp1 were regulated as expected in mouse cells. A larger group of genes were differentially expressed in human primary hepatocytes, however, little consistency was observed across compounds with respect to which genes produced a significant dose response making the determination of relative biological activity difficult. This likely reflects weaker activation of PPAR? in human versus rodent cells as well as variation among individual cell donors. Unlike mouse cells, CYP2B6 was up-regulated in human hepatocytes by a number of PFAAs as was PPAR?. Rankings were conducted on the limited dataset. In mouse hepatocytes, the pattern was similar to that previously observed in the COS-1 reporter cell assay. With the exception of PFHxA, longer chain PFAA carboxylates were the most active. The pattern was similar in human hepatocytes, although PFDA and PFOS showed higher activity than previously observed while PFOA showed somewhat less activity. These data reflect inherent challenges in using primary hepatocytes to predict toxicological response. PMID:23567314

Rosen, Mitchell B; Das, Kaberi P; Wood, Carmen R; Wolf, Cynthia J; Abbott, Barbara D; Lau, Christopher

2013-06-01

218

Acid rain  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the proceedings of the third annual conference sponsored by the Acid Rain Information Clearinghouse (ARIC). Topics covered include: Legal aspects of the source-receptor relationship: an energy perspective; Scientific uncertainty, agency inaction, and the courts; and Acid rain: the emerging legal framework.

White, J.C. (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (US))

1988-01-01

219

Tranexamic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

Tranexamic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken with or without food three times a day for up to 5 days during monthly menstruation. You should begin taking this medication each month when your period starts. Do not take tranexamic acid when you do not have a period. Take ...

220

Acid rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The causes and effects of acid rain are detailed. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions from anthropogenic sources are the primary causative agents. These emissions are transported over long distances and transformed into sulfates and nitrates and washed out of the atmosphere. Trends in acidity in precipitation water are reviewed for eastern portions of Canada and the U.S. Adverse effects

R. E. Ghelardi; B. L. Murphy

2009-01-01

221

Acid Rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the acidity of rain and snow reveal that in parts of the eastern U.S. and of western Europe precipitation has changed from a nearly neutral solution 200 years ago to a dilute solution of sulfuric and nitric acids today. The trend is a result of the emission of sulfur and nitrogen oxides to the atmosphere accompanying the rise

Gene E. Likens; Richard F. Wright; James N. Galloway; Thomas J. Butler

1979-01-01

222

Acid test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Baking soda can be used as an indicator of how much acid a substance contains. Lemons and limes have more acid in them than grapefruits and oranges. Indophenol can be used as an indicator of how much vitamin C is in a substance.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-06

223

Domoic Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online student report discusses the chemistry of domoic acid, a biotoxin that is produced by the diatom Psuedo-nitzschia and associated with Amnesiac Shellfish Poisoning (ASP). In addition to a descriptive summary and images, the report links to other areas of interest related to domoic acid poisoning including signs and symptoms, modes of action, and treatment.

Bailey, Christina; Kohlen, Corinne

2010-02-10

224

Asparagusic acid.  

PubMed

Asparagusic acid (1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid) is a simple sulphur-containing 5-membered heterocyclic compound that appears unique to asparagus, though other dithiolane derivatives have been identified in non-food species. This molecule, apparently innocuous toxicologically to man, is the most probable culprit responsible for the curious excretion of odorous urine following asparagus ingestion. The presence of the two adjacent sulphur atoms leads to an enhanced chemical reactivity, endowing it with biological properties including the ability to substitute potentially for ?-lipoic acid in ?-keto-acid oxidation systems. This brief review collects the scattered data available in the literature concerning asparagusic acid and highlights its properties, intermediary metabolism and exploratory applications. PMID:24099657

Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

2014-01-01

225

Acid Rain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Due to the presence of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide, rainfall is naturally acidic. The release of other gases and chemicals such as sulfur dioxide during the combustion of coal and oil can cause rainfall to become even more acidic, sometimes to the point of toxicity. In this activity, students will measure the pH of local rainfall to see what effect these gases have in their region. They will also check an online resource to see how the releases of acid rain-causing chemicals have varied over the past 20 years, and answer questions about the information they uncover.

Fox, Chris

226

Acid fog  

SciTech Connect

Fog in areas of southern California previously thought to be pollution-free has been shown to have a pH as low as 1.69. It has been found to be most acidic after smoggy days, suggesting that it forms on the aerosol associated with the previously exiting smog. Studies on Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondacks show that fog water is often 10 times as acidic as rainwater. As a result of their studies, California plans to spend $4 million on acid deposition research in the coming year. (JMT)

Hileman, B.

1983-03-01

227

ACID RAIN  

EPA Science Inventory

Acid precipitation has become one of the major environmental problems of this decade. It is a challenge to scientists throughout the world. Researchers from such diverse disciplines as plant pathology, soil science, bacteriology, meteorology and engineering are investigating diff...

228

Acidic precipitation  

SciTech Connect

At the International Symposium on Acidic Precipitation, over 400 papers were presented, and nearly 200 of them are included here. They provide an overview of the present state of the art of acid rain research. The Conference focused on atmospheric science (monitoring, source-receptor relationships), aquatic effects (marine eutrophication, lake acidification, impacts on plant and fish populations), and terrestrial effects (forest decline, soil acidification, etc.).

Martin, H.C.

1987-01-01

229

Acid sphingomyelinase.  

PubMed

The enzyme acid sphingomyelinase catalyzes the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to ceramide. The importance of the enzyme for cell functions was first recognized in Niemann-Pick disease type A and B, the genetic disorders with a massive accumulation of sphingomyelin in many organs. Studies in the last years demonstrated that the enzyme also has an important role in cell signalling. Thus, the acid sphingomyelinase has a central function for the re-organization of molecules within the cell upon stimulation and thereby for the response of cells to stress and the induction of cell death but also proliferation and differentiation. Here, we discuss the current state of the art of the structure, regulation, and function of the acid sphingomyelinase. PMID:23579450

Henry, Brian; Ziobro, Regan; Becker, Katrin Anne; Kolesnick, Richard; Gulbins, Erich

2013-01-01

230

Salicylic acids  

PubMed Central

Salicylic acid is well known phytohormone, emerging recently as a new paradigm of an array of manifestations of growth regulators. The area unleashed yet encompassed the applied agriculture sector to find the roles to strengthen the crops against plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses. The skipped part of integrated picture, however, was the evolutionary insight of salicylic acid to either allow or discard the microbial invasion depending upon various internal factors of two interactants under the prevailing external conditions. The metabolic status that allows the host invasion either as pathogenesis or symbiosis with possible intermediary stages in close systems has been tried to underpin here. PMID:22301975

Hayat, Shamsul; Irfan, Mohd; Wani, Arif; Nasser, Alyemeni; Ahmad, Aqil

2012-01-01

231

Acid Stomach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson is intended for a high-school, introductory chemistry class or health class. The lesson begins with an article on the history of the development of aspirin. Students will then complete a lab that compares the reaction of regular aspirin, buffered aspirin, and enteric aspirin in neutral, acidic, and basic solutions. They will then analyze the results of the experiment to gain insight into how this information was used by researchers to solve some of the problems associated with aspirin. To complete the lesson, students must understand acids and bases.

Science Netlinks;

2003-08-07

232

Acid rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The book describes numerous environmental problems which are the result of emissions from coal combustion, petroleum products combustion, petroleum refining, and non-ferrous smelting. The effects of acid rain on soils, plants, water, aquatic ecosystems, and building materials are described. Studies are discussed which show that wind currents are carrying emissions to locations far from the source, with social, economic, and

Ostmann; R. Jr

1982-01-01

233

Acid rain  

SciTech Connect

An overview is presented of acid rain and the problems it causes to the environment worldwide. The acidification of lakes and streams is having a dramatic effect on aquatic life. Aluminum, present in virtually all forest soils, leaches out readily under acid conditions and interferes with the gills of all fish, some more seriously than others. There is evidence of major damage to forests in European countries. In the US, the most severe forest damage appears to be in New England, New York's Adirondacks, and the central Appalachians. This small region is part of a larger area of the Northeast and Canada that appears to have more acid rainfall than the rest of the country. It is downwind from major coal burning states, which produce about one quarter of US SO/sub 2/ emissions and one sixth of nitrogen oxide emissions. Uncertainties exist over the causes of forest damage and more research is needed before advocating expensive programs to reduce rain acidity. The President's current budget seeks an expansion of research funds from the current $30 million per year to $120 million.

Not Available

1984-06-01

234

Domoic Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This highly detailed chemical information page features domoic acid, a toxin associated with Amnesic shellfish poisoning and naturally produced by the red algae Chondria armata and diatoms of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia. Created by the International Programme on Chemical Safety, this web page organizes information under the following sections: Name, Summary, Physio-Chemical Properties, Uses, Routes of Entry, Kinetics, Toxicology, Toxicological and Biomedical Investigations, Clinical Effects, Management, Illustrative Cases, Additional Information, References, and Authors.

Inchem; Safety, International P.

235

Acid Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The I2I-Acid Ocean virtual lab is an e-learning activity where students become virtual scientists studying the impact of ocean acidification on sea urchin larval growth. Students recreate a real, up-to-date climate change experiment. They also learn important general scientific principles, such as the importance of sample size and numbers of replicates, and discuss what this research into a specific impact of climate change may mean for the future of our oceans. There is a French translation available.

236

Methylmalonic acid blood test  

MedlinePLUS

... acid is a substance produced when proteins (called amino acids) in the body break down. A test can ... Cederbaum S, Berry GT. Inborn errors of carbohydrate, ammonia, amino acid, and organic acid metabolism. In: Gleason CA, Devaskar ...

237

Understanding Acid Rain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

Damonte, Kathleen

2004-01-01

238

Investigating sources and pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in aquifers in Tokyo using multiple tracers.  

PubMed

We employed a multi-tracer approach to investigate sources and pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in urban groundwater, based on 53 groundwater samples taken from confined aquifers and unconfined aquifers in Tokyo. While the median concentrations of groundwater PFAAs were several ng/L, the maximum concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 990 ng/L), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, 1800 ng/L) and perfluorononanoate (PFNA, 620 ng/L) in groundwater were several times higher than those of wastewater and street runoff reported in the literature. PFAAs were more frequently detected than sewage tracers (carbamazepine and crotamiton), presumably owing to the higher persistence of PFAAs, the multiple sources of PFAAs beyond sewage (e.g., surface runoff, point sources) and the formation of PFAAs from their precursors. Use of multiple methods of source apportionment including principal component analysis-multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid ratio analysis highlighted sewage and point sources as the primary sources of PFAAs in the most severely polluted groundwater samples, with street runoff being a minor source (44.6% sewage, 45.7% point sources and 9.7% street runoff, by PCA-MLR). Tritium analysis indicated that, while young groundwater (recharged during or after the 1970s, when PFAAs were already in commercial use) in shallow aquifers (<50 m depth) was naturally highly vulnerable to PFAA pollution, PFAAs were also found in old groundwater (recharged before the 1950s, when PFAAs were not in use) in deep aquifers (50-500 m depth). This study demonstrated the utility of multiple uses of tracers (pharmaceuticals and personal care products; PPCPs, tritium) and source apportionment methods in investigating sources and pathways of PFAAs in multiple aquifer systems. PMID:24814036

Kuroda, Keisuke; Murakami, Michio; Oguma, Kumiko; Takada, Hideshige; Takizawa, Satoshi

2014-08-01

239

Brnsted Acids The Strongest Isolable Acid**  

E-print Network

Brønsted Acids The Strongest Isolable Acid** Mark Juhasz, Stephan Hoffmann, Evgenii Stoyanov, Kee-Chan Kim, and Christopher A. Reed* Acids based on carborane anions as conjugate bases (Figure 1) are a new class of Brønsted (protic) acids, notable for their "strong yet gentle" qualities.[1] For example

Reed, Christopher A.

240

Acid rain  

SciTech Connect

Acid rain, says Boyle is a chemical leprosy eating into the face of North America and Europe, perhaps the major ecological problem of our time. Boyle describes the causes and scope of the phenomenon; the effects on man, wildlife, water, and our cultural heritage. He probes the delays of politicians and the frequent self-serving arguments advanced by industry in the face of what scientists have proved. The solutions he offers are to strengthen the Clean Air Act and require emission reductions that can be accomplished by establishing emission standards on a regional or bubble basis, burn low-sulfur coal, install scrubbers at critical plants, and invest in alternative energy sources. 73 references, 1 figure.

Boyle, R.H.; Boyle, R.A.

1983-01-01

241

New method of acidizing or acid fracturing: crosslinked acid gels  

SciTech Connect

Acid polymer gels having pH less than one have been crosslinked for retarding the chemical and physical activity of hydrochloric acid on calcareous formations. Hydrochloric acid concentrations from .0025 to 28% have been successfully crosslinked. This stimulation fluid offers high viscosity with adequate shear stability, perfect support for proppants, and clay stabilization. Additionally, the fluid provides effective fluid loss control and retardation of acid reaction enabling live acid to penetrate deeper into the formation for better formation conductivity and practically a residue-free break for rapid clean-up of the well after the job. Results of lab and field tests show the acid crosslinked system to be an effective stimulation fluid for acidizing and acid fracturing in calcareous and sandstone formations having low formation permeability.

Pabley, A.S.; Holcomb, D.L.

1980-01-01

242

Determination of perfluorinated alkyl acids in corn, popcorn and popcorn bags before and after cooking by focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction, liquid chromatography and quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An analytical method is proposed to determine ten perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) [nine perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)] in corn, popcorn and microwave popcorn packaging by focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction (FUSLE) and ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (QTOF-MS/MS). Selected PFAAs were extracted efficiently in only one 10-s cycle by FUSLE, a simple, safe and inexpensive technique. The developed method was validated for microwave popcorn bags matrix as well as corn and popcorn matrices in terms of linearity, matrix effect error, detection and quantification limits, repeatability and recovery values. The method showed good accuracy with recovery values around 100% except for the lowest chain length PFAAs, satisfactory reproducibility with RSDs under 16%, and sensitivity with limits of detection in the order of hundreds picograms per gram of sample (between 0.2 and 0.7ng/g). This method was also applied to the analysis of six microwave popcorn bags and the popcorn inside before and after cooking. PFCAs contents between 3.50ng/g and 750ng/g were found in bags, being PFHxA (perfluorohexanoic acid) the most abundant of them. However, no PFAAs were detected either corn or popcorn, therefore no migration was assumed. PMID:24986069

Moreta, Cristina; Tena, María Teresa

2014-08-15

243

Rediscovering Arsenoacetic Acid.  

E-print Network

??Arsonoacetic acid, H?O?As¹CH?COOH, and arsenoacetic acid, punitively [AsVCH?COOH]? have been synthesised according to historical literature methods, and have been characterised using modern techniques. Arsonoacetic acid… (more)

Wilson, Peter Stanley

2009-01-01

244

Organic acids tunably catalyze carbonic acid decomposition.  

PubMed

Density functional theory calculations predict that the gas-phase decomposition of carbonic acid, a high-energy, 1,3-hydrogen atom transfer reaction, can be catalyzed by a monocarboxylic acid or a dicarboxylic acid, including carbonic acid itself. Carboxylic acids are found to be more effective catalysts than water. Among the carboxylic acids, the monocarboxylic acids outperform the dicarboxylic ones wherein the presence of an intramolecular hydrogen bond hampers the hydrogen transfer. Further, the calculations reveal a direct correlation between the catalytic activity of a monocarboxylic acid and its pKa, in contrast to prior assumptions about carboxylic-acid-catalyzed hydrogen-transfer reactions. The catalytic efficacy of a dicarboxylic acid, on the other hand, is significantly affected by the strength of an intramolecular hydrogen bond. Transition-state theory estimates indicate that effective rate constants for the acid-catalyzed decomposition are four orders-of-magnitude larger than those for the water-catalyzed reaction. These results offer new insights into the determinants of general acid catalysis with potentially broad implications. PMID:24933150

Kumar, Manoj; Busch, Daryle H; Subramaniam, Bala; Thompson, Ward H

2014-07-10

245

Perfluorinated compounds in water and sediment from coastal regions of the northern Bohai Sea, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and other perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were measured in water and sediment from coastal Bohai Bay and surrounding rivers flowing into the bay. Of the 15 PFCs measured, PFOS and PFOA were detected with the greatest frequency. Concentrations in water ranged from<0.2 to 31 ng·L and<1.0 to 82 ng·L for PFOS and PFOA, respectively. Concentrations of

Chunli Chen; Tieyu Wang; Jong Seong Khim; Wei Luo; Wentao Jiao; Yonglong Lu; Jonathan E. Naile; Wenyou Hu; Xiang Zhang; Jing Geng; Cencen Bi; Jing Li; John P. Giesy

2011-01-01

246

Acid Rain Study Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid

Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

247

Formic Acid Mechanical,  

E-print Network

and engineering. Products will range from starch, to polylactic acid, to corn fiber, to motor fuels. ProgressiveFormic Acid Fire Ant Starch Mechanical, Industrial Chemical, Petroleum Biological What Do systems. Fire ants make formic acid. U of I researchers are developing fuel cells that use formic acid (1

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

248

Sulphuric Acid Manufacture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The raw material for sulphuric acid manufacture is clean SO2 gas. It comes from (i) burning molten by-product sulphur; (ii) roasting or smelting metal sulphide concentrates, and (iii) decomposing contaminated organic chemical process sulphuric acid catalyst. Efficient gas cleaning is required for metallurgical and contaminated acid decomposition gases, especially the former. Sulphuric acid is made from SO2 gas by (i)

W. G. Davenport; M. J. King; B. Rogers; A. Weissenberger

2006-01-01

249

Asphaltene damage in matrix acidizing  

E-print Network

were acidized with three stage treatments of 15% hydrochloric acid (HCl), 12% HCL-3% hydrofluoric acid (HF) and 15% HCL. No additives were used in the acid. Comparisons were made between cores acidized with a variety of saturating fluids. Petrographic...

Hinojosa, Roberto Antonio

2012-06-07

250

PPAR involvement in PFAA developmental toxicity  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are found in the environment and in serum of wildlife and humans. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are developmentally toxic in rodents. The effects of in utero exposure include increas...

251

Assessment of fetal exposure and maternal elimination of perfluoroalkyl substances.  

PubMed

In this study, we estimated the body burden (BB) of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in a fetus at the time of delivery, and elimination of PFASs in female adults during pregnancy; and explored the isomer branching pattern-related placental transfer of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). The mean BB of PFASs were 3980 ng for PFOS and 2320 ng for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), therefore, the average daily exposure doses via placental transfer were estimated to be 13.7 and 8.32 ng per day for PFOS and PFOA, respectively, by dividing the BB of PFASs by gestational age. The total daily elimination of PFOS and PFOA in female adults through pregnancy was 30.1 and 11.4 ng per day, which indicates that pregnancy and child birth may reduce the PFASs levels in female adults. Further, branched PFOS was more readily transferred through the placenta than linear PFOS. PMID:24882725

Zhang, Tao; Qin, Xiaolei

2014-08-01

252

Quantity of acid in acid fog  

SciTech Connect

This communication notes the actual magnitude of the acidity in acidic fog particles and suggests a possible line of inquiry into the health effects of such fog so that it can be determined whether a typical fog is detrimental or beneficial relative to dry air.

Deal, W.J.

1983-07-01

253

New bioactive fatty acids.  

PubMed

Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to the new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid (DOD) through 10-hydroxy-8-octadecenoic acid, and racinoleic acid to 7,10,12-trihydroxy-8-octadecenoic acid. DOD showed antibacterial activity including against food-borne pathogens. Bacillus megaterium ALA2 converted n-6 and n-3 PUFAs to many new oxygenated fatty acids. For example: linoleic acid was converted to12,13-epoxy-9-octadecenoic acid and then to 12,13-dihydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid (12,13-DHOA). From here, there are two bioconversion pathways. The major pathway is: 12,13-DHOA --> 12,13,17-trihydroxy-9(S)-octadecenoic acid (THOA) --> 12,17;13,17-diepoxy-16-hydroxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid (DEOA) --> 7-hydroxy-DEOA. The minor pathway is: 12,13-DHOA --> 12,13,16-THOA --> 12-hydroxy-13,16-epoxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid. 12,13,17-THOA has anti-plant pathogenic fungal activity. The tetrahydrofuranyl moiety is known in anti cancer drugs. Strain ALA2 also converts other n-3 and n-6 PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) to many new oxygenated unsaturated fatty acid products. All of these new products have high potential for antimicrobial agents or biomedical applications. We also screened 12 Mortierella fungal strains from the ARS Culture Collection for the production of bioactive fatty acids such as dihomo-gama-linolenic acid (DGLA) and arachidonic acid. All of the strains tested produced AA and DGLA from glucose or glycerol. The top five AA producers (mg AA/g CDW) were in the following order: M. alpina > M. zychae > M. hygrophila > M. minutissima > M. parvispora. Both AA and DGLA are important natural precursors of a large family of prostaglandin and thromboxane groups. PMID:18296335

Hou, Ching T

2008-01-01

254

Determination of Perfluorinated Compounds in Human Blood Samples by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in human whole blood samples, i.e., perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) and perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTA) were detected and separated by High performance Liquid chromatography\\/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS\\/MS) with C18 reversed-phase column, and 13C4-labeled PFOS (MPFOS) as the internal

Yuan-Yuan PAN; Ya-Li SHI; Ya-Qi CAI

2008-01-01

255

Fatty acid analogs  

DOEpatents

In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

Elmaleh, David R. (Newton Center, MA); Livni, Eli (Brookline, MA)

1985-01-01

256

Plasma amino acids  

MedlinePLUS

Plasma amino acids is a screening test done on infants that looks at the amounts of amino ... Laboratory error High or low amounts of individual plasma amino acids must be considered with other information. ...

257

Citric acid urine test  

MedlinePLUS

... usually done while you are on a normal diet. Ask your health care provider for more information. ... A low level of citric acid may mean renal tubular acidosis and a ... acid levels: A high carbohydrate diet Estrogen therapy Vitamin D

258

Plant fatty acid hydroxylases  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); Broun, Pierre (Burlingame, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

2001-01-01

259

Acid rain agreement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific working groups from Canada and the US have been established to prepare for acid rain negotiations scheduled for June 1981. The groups will take air samples and estimate impact of acid rain on the environment, determine the precise origin of acid rain, and develop a strategy for abatement. Some constraints on the negotiations are costs (potentially $400-500 million for

R. J. SMITH

1980-01-01

260

[alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

2010-01-01

261

What Is Acid Rain?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acid rain is the collective term for any type of acidified precipitation: rain, snow, sleet, and hail, as well as the presence of acidifying gases, particles, cloud water, and fog in the atmosphere. The increased acidity, primarily from sulfuric and nitric acids, is generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil.…

Likens, Gene E.

2004-01-01

262

Acid (and Base) Rainbows  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners use red cabbage juice and pH indicator paper to test the acidity and basicity of household materials. The activity links this concept of acids and bases to acid rain and other pollutants. Resource contains vocabulary definitions and suggestions for assessment, extensions, and scaling for different levels of learners.

Kolenbrander, Amy; Yowell, Janet; Mach, Natalie; Zarske, Malinda S.; Carlson, Denise; Perez, Sharon

2004-01-01

263

Quantity of acid in acid fog  

SciTech Connect

The chemical composition of fog particles has become of considerable interest, because of both the possibility of interpreting atmospheric- chemistry processes in fog particles in terms of the principles of aqueous chemistry and the potential health effects of species present in fog particles. The acidity of fog particles has received wide attention. This communication noted the actual magnitude of the excess acidity in acidic fog particles and suggested a possible line of inquiry into the health effects of such fog so that it can be determined whether a typical fog is detrimental or beneficial relative to dry air. (DP)

Deal, W.J.

1983-07-01

264

Acid Strengths of Some Substituted Picric Acids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aqueous dissociation constants for a number of substituted picric acids and related compounds were determined spectrophotometrically, and the values obtained correlated with the mid-equivalence potentials obtained by half-neutralization in acetone sol...

P. J. Pearce, R. J. J. Simkins

1968-01-01

265

Abscisic Acid ELISA: Organic Acid Interference 1  

PubMed Central

Consideration must be exercised in determination of buffers and solutions used when carrying out enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). A commercial monoclonal antibody kit for abscisic acid (Idetek, Inc.) gives significant false-positives with tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. The organic acids or contaminants interfered with ELISA assays for ABA as indicated by deviations in the slopes of standard curves of ABA in the organic acids. The interference, in the case of ?-ketoglutarate, was caused by a contaminant. Of the organic buffers tested—Tris, Tricine, and Hepes—only Hepes showed false-positive ABA. In addition, we present data indicating the presence of ABA in commercial mannitol and provide a simple procedure for removal of the ABA. PMID:16667202

Belefant, Helen; Fong, Franklin

1989-01-01

266

Editorial: Acid precipitation  

SciTech Connect

This editorial focuses on acid rain and the history of public and governmental response to acid rain. Comments on a book by Gwineth Howell `Acid Rain and Acid Waters` are included. The editor feels that Howells has provide a service to the environmental scientific community, with a textbook useful to a range of people, as well as a call for decision makers to learn from the acid rain issue and use it as a model for more sweeping global environmental issues. A balance is needed among several parameters such as level of evidence, probability that the evidence will lead to a specific direction and the cost to the global community. 1 tab.

NONE

1995-09-01

267

Amino acid analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (inventors)

1974-01-01

268

EXTRACTIONOFTERVALENTLANTHANIDESWITH ACIDIC ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The equilibrium.extraction behavior for a series of tervalent lanthanide ions (Ln) using a chloroform solution containing di(2-ethyl-hexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP), diphenylphosphinic acid (HDPP), dibutylphosphorothioic acid (HDBPT), di-n-octylphosphorodithoic acid (HDOPDT), or di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphorodithioic acid (HDEHPDT), either alone or combined with adduct forming agents is studied. The extracted species are Ln(DEHP) 3(HDEHP) 3, Ln(DPP)3 (HDPP)3, Ln(DBPT)3, and are Ln(DBPT)3(HDERP)3 in the presence of

Shoji Motomizu; Henry Freiser

1985-01-01

269

Selective extraction of succinic acid from binary mixture of succinic acid and acetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In production of succinic acid by fermentation, succinic acid and acetic acid are co-produced. To purify the succinic acid from binary-acid mixture of succinic acid and acetic acid, the tertiary amine-based extraction was used. In 1-octanol, the selectivity for succinic acid was proportional to the chain length of tertiary amine. But, the distribution of acids into organic phase was low

Yeon Ki Hong; Won Hi Hong; Ho Nam Chang

2000-01-01

270

Demospongic Acids Revisited  

PubMed Central

The well-known fatty acids with a ?5,9 unsaturation system were designated for a long period as demospongic acids, taking into account that they originally occurred in marine Demospongia sponges. However, such acids have also been observed in various marine sources with a large range of chain-lengths (C16–C32) and from some terrestrial plants with short acyl chains (C18–C19). Finally, the ?5,9 fatty acids appear to be a particular type of non-methylene-interrupted fatty acids (NMA FAs). This article reviews the occurrence of these particular fatty acids in marine and terrestrial organisms and shows the biosynthetic connections between ?5,9 fatty acids and other NMI FAs. PMID:21116406

Kornprobst, Jean-Michel; Barnathan, Gilles

2010-01-01

271

NRPSs and amide ligases producing homopoly(amino acid)s and homooligo(amino acid)s.  

PubMed

Microorganisms are capable of producing a wide variety of biopolymers. Homopoly(amino acid)s and homooligo(amino acid)s, which are made up of only a single type of amino acid, are relatively rare; in fact, only two homopoly(amino acid)s have been known to occur in nature: poly(?-L-lysine) (?-PL) and poly(?-glutamic acid) (?-PGA). Bacterial enzymes that produce homooligo(amino acid)s, such as L-?-lysine-, L-valine-, L-leucine-, L-isoleucine-, L-methionine-, and L-glutamic acid-oligopeptides and poly(?-l-glutamic acid) (?-PGA) have recently been identified, as well as ?-PL synthetase and ?-PGA synthetase. This article reviews the current knowledge about these unique enzymes producing homopoly(amino acid)s and homooligo(amino acid)s. PMID:23817633

Hamano, Yoshimitsu; Arai, Toshinobu; Ashiuchi, Makoto; Kino, Kuniki

2013-08-01

272

GENE PROFILING IN WILD-TYPE AND PPARa-NULL MICE EXPOSED TO PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA), is a persistent environmental contaminant found in the tissues of humans and wildlife. Over the last decade, health concerns have been raised, in part, because of the long half-life of PFOS and other PFAAs in humans,...

273

Inhibition of human and rat 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 activities by perfluoroalkylated substances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) including perfluorooctane acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been classified as persistent organic pollutants and are known to cause reduced testosterone production in human males. The objective of the present study was to compare the potencies of five different PFASs including PFOA, PFOS, potassium perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOSK), potassium perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxSK) and potassium perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBSK)

Binghai Zhao; Guo-Xin Hu; Yanhui Chu; Xiudong Jin; Shouliang Gong; Benson T. Akingbemi; Zhiqiang Zhang; Barry R. Zirkin; Ren-Shan Ge

2010-01-01

274

Acid rain reports  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three independent reports on acid precipitation issued in June reinforce each other and, taken together, support those seeking immediate action to curb man-generated acid deposition in northeastern North America by reducing emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. The Interagency Task Force on Acid Precipitation report concluded that manmade pollution is to blame for acid precipitation problems in the northeastern United States. A National Research Council (NRC) committee stated that reducing the manmade emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides will result in a proportional reduction in the deposition of acid precipitation. And an acid rain panel assembled by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) called for immediate action to curb the emissions despite incomplete scientific data.

Richman, Barbara T.

275

Lewis acid organocatalysts.  

PubMed

Abstract The term Lewis acid catalysts generally refers to metal salts like aluminium chloride, titanium chloride and zinc chloride. Their application in asymmetric catalysis can be achieved by the addition of enantiopure ligands to these salts. However, not only metal centers can function as Lewis acids. Compounds containing carbenium, silyl or phosphonium cations display Lewis acid catalytic activity. In addition, hypervalent compounds based on phosphorus and silicon, inherit Lewis acidity. Furthermore, ionic liquids, organic salts with a melting point below 100 degrees C, have revealed the ability to catalyze a range of reactions either in substoichiometric amount or, if used as the reaction medium, in stoichiometric or even larger quantities. The ionic liquids can often be efficiently recovered. The catalytic activity of the ionic liquid is explained by the Lewis acidic nature of their cations. This review covers the survey of known classes of metal-free Lewis acids and their application in catalysis. PMID:21494948

Sereda, Oksana; Tabassum, Sobia; Wilhelm, René

2010-01-01

276

Lewis Acid Organocatalysts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The term Lewis acid catalysts generally refers to metal salts like aluminium chloride, titanium chloride and zinc chloride. Their application in asymmetric catalysis can be achieved by the addition of enantiopure ligands to these salts. However, not only metal centers can function as Lewis acids. Compounds containing carbenium, silyl or phosphonium cations display Lewis acid catalytic activity. In addition, hypervalent compounds based on phosphorus and silicon, inherit Lewis acidity. Furthermore, ionic liquids, organic salts with a melting point below 100 °C, have revealed the ability to catalyze a range of reactions either in substoichiometric amount or, if used as the reaction medium, in stoichiometric or even larger quantities. The ionic liquids can often be efficiently recovered. The catalytic activity of the ionic liquid is explained by the Lewis acidic nature of their cations. This review covers the survey of known classes of metal-free Lewis acids and their application in catalysis.

Sereda, Oksana; Tabassum, Sobia; Wilhelm, René

277

Acid Rain Learning Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These suggestions for activities allow students to learn about acid deposition in new and interactive ways, both in and out of the classroom. The suggestions are for individuals and small groups, the class as a whole, or for field trips. Students may contact local experts about acid rain issues, investigate the energy sources used to generate electricity by their local power companies, collect cartoons about acid rain and air pollution, or play the roles of scientists or interested parties involved in investigations of acid rain issues. Field trip ideas include visiting a local museum or science center to see exhibits or resources on acid rain, and visiting a local cemetary to examine the effects of acid rain on the headstones.

278

Bile Acid Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Bile acids are physiological agents that facilitate biliary secretion of lipids and metabolites, and intestinal absorption\\u000a of fat and nutrients. Bile acids are also signaling molecules that activate nuclear receptors and cell signaling pathways\\u000a to regulate hepatic lipid metabolism and homeostasis. Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver, stored in\\u000a the gallbladder, secreted to the intestine and reabsorbed

John Y. L. Chiang

279

Acid rain on Bermuda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased acidity of precipitation due to combustion of fossil fuels has been well documented for both the eastern USA1 and Canada2. The SO2 and NOxemitted by the burning of coal, natural gas, fuel oil and petrol are oxidized in the atmosphere to sulphuric and nitric acids which subsequently give rise to acid precipitation1. However, the SO2 and NOx emitted, and

Timothy Jickells; Anthony Knap; Thomas Church; James Galloway; John Miller

1982-01-01

280

Acid-Base Solutions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do strong and weak acids differ? Use lab tools on your computer to find out! Dip the paper or the probe into solution to measure the pH, or put in the electrodes to measure the conductivity. Then see how concentration and strength affect pH. Can a weak acid solution have the same pH as a strong acid solution?

Simulations, Phet I.; Lancaster, Kelly; Malley, Chris; Loeblein, Patricia; Parson, Robert; Perkins, Kathy

2010-09-01

281

DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDS OF ACETIC ACID BACTERIA  

PubMed Central

De Ley, J. (State University, Ghent, Belgium), and S. Friedman. Deoxyribonucleic acid hybrids of acetic acid bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 88:937–945. 1964.—Deuterated N15-labeled deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from Acetobacter aceti (mesoxydans 4) forms hybrids with ordinary DNA from other species of this genus (A. xylinum, A. pasteurianus, A. estunensis, and possibly A. xylinoides) when the guanine plus cytosine base composition does not vary by more than 1 to 2%. Beyond this limit (A. aceti Ch31 and A. muciparus 5) no hybrids are formed. The hybrids are apparently derived from an asymmetrical part of the compositional distribution. The results lend strength to the concept of a genetic species rather than to a division of a genus into sharply separated species, based on small phenotypic differences. Taxonomic implications are discussed. PMID:14219057

De Ley, J.; Friedman, S.

1964-01-01

282

Uric Acid Test  

MedlinePLUS

... purine metabolism . Metastatic cancer, multiple myeloma , leukemias , and cancer chemotherapy can cause increased production of uric acid. Chronic renal disease , acidosis , toxemia of pregnancy , and alcoholism can cause ...

283

Perfluorinated Compounds in House Dust from Ohio and North Carolina, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), have come under increasing scrutiny due to their persistence in the environment, global distribution, and animal toxicity. Given that human exposure routes for these c...

284

Molecular Structure of Fumaric acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fumaric acid is odorless and colorless or white crystalline powder with a fruit acid taste. Fumaric acid is used as a substitute of tartaric acid in beverages and baking powders and as a replacement for citric acid in fruits drinks. It is also used as antioxidant to prevent rancidity in butter, cheese, powdered milk, and other foodstuff. In addition, fumaric acid is a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, synthetic resins and plastics. Fumaric acid can be prepared by catalytic oxidation of benzene or by bacterial action on glucose and it is involved in the production of energy from food. Fumaric acid (known as trans-butanedioic acid) is the trans isomer of maleic acid (also called cis-butanedioic acid). Fumaric acid is more stable than maleic acid and can be prepared by heating maleic acid.

2004-11-05

285

Perfluoroalkyl Acids and Their Precursors in Swedish Food: the Relative Importance of Direct and Indirect Dietary Exposure  

E-print Network

. Contribution of precursors to dietary exposure intakes (pg/kg/d) o PFOS, PFHxA, PFOA, and PFDA in food pools 80 120 160 200 1999 2005 2010 PFOA 0 25 50 75 100 1999 2005 2010 PFDA 8:2/8:2PFOA 6:2/8:2PFOA PFOA

286

Regioselective hydroxylation of quinolinic acid, lutidinic acid and isocinchomeronic acid by resting cells of pyridine dicarboxylic acid-degrading microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms aerobically degrading quinolinic acid, lutidinic acid or isocinchomeronic acid were isolated and the microbial regioselective hydroxylation of these pyridine dicarboxylic acids was studied. Alcaligenes sp. UK21 cells converted quinolinic acid into 6-hydroxypicolinic acid, suggesting the involvement of two enzyme reactions catalyzing hydroxylation at position C6 and decarboxylation at position C3 of quinolinic acid. Resting cells of Alcaligenes sp. UK21

A. Uchida; T. Yoshida; M. Ogawa; T. Nagasawa

2003-01-01

287

Neutralizing Acids and Bases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will use their knowledge of color changes with red cabbage indicator to neutralize an acidic solution with a base and then neutralize a basic solution with an acid. This website includes a student activity sheet and additional student readings.

2010-01-01

288

(Acid rain workshop)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traveler presented a paper entitled Susceptibility of Asian Ecosystems to Soil-Mediated Acid Rain Damage'' at the Second Workshop on Acid Rain in Asia. The workshop was organized by the Asian Institute of Technology (Bangkok, Thailand), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, Illinois), and Resource Management Associates (Madison, Wisconsin) and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the United Nations Environment

1990-01-01

289

Acid rain: Controllable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain is one of a growing number of environmental issues in which impacts are far removed from the source o f the irritants. Those who suffer may differ in geographical area from those who benefit from the activity which releases pollution to the atmosphere. Like the issue concerning the depletion of ozone by manufactured chemicals, the acid rain issue

Lester Machta

1983-01-01

290

Mounting acid rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of acid rain at some distance from the initial source of pollution is expected to increase as more plants are converted to burn coal and stacks are built higher to relieve local pollution problems. The alkaline soils of the West neutralize most of the effects of acid rain, making the problem less acute than in the eastern US.

1979-01-01

291

EFFECTS OF ACID PRECIPITATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent reviews of available data indicate that precipitation in a large region of North America is highly acidic when its pH is compared with the expected pH value of 5.65 for pure rain water in equilibrium with CO2. A growing body of evidence suggests that acid rain is responsib...

292

Iodinated humic acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humic acids are iodinated by elemental iodine and, if the iodine is present as iodide, by peroxidase-mediated reactions. It is demonstrated that iodination of humic acids leads to a product with a uniform distribution of iodine. It could not be unambiguously verified whether the enzymatically mediated iodination is a direct reaction between a peroxidase-iodine complex and the humic acid molecule or a two-step reaction in which the enzyme creates elemental iodine, which consecutively reacts with the humic acid. Based on a simple model of a reaction between sites in the humic acids available for iodination and the electrophilic iodinating species, it was concluded that the reaction should be described as an equilibrium with a logarithmic equilibrium constant of approximately 4. The number of sites available for iodination was, in the humic acids studied, determined to be approximately 4×10-4 per gram humic acid. The different parameters influencing the enzymatically controlled iodination of humic acids are discussed.

Christiansen, Jesper V.; Carlsen, Lars

293

Controlling acid rain  

E-print Network

High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn the northeastern USA are caused by the large scale combustion of fossil fuels within this region. Average precipitation acidity is pH 4.2, but spatial and temporal ...

Fay, James A.

1983-01-01

294

Bile acid transporters  

PubMed Central

In liver and intestine, transporters play a critical role in maintaining the enterohepatic circulation and bile acid homeostasis. Over the past two decades, there has been significant progress toward identifying the individual membrane transporters and unraveling their complex regulation. In the liver, bile acids are efficiently transported across the sinusoidal membrane by the Na+ taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide with assistance by members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide family. The bile acids are then secreted in an ATP-dependent fashion across the canalicular membrane by the bile salt export pump. Following their movement with bile into the lumen of the small intestine, bile acids are almost quantitatively reclaimed in the ileum by the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. The bile acids are shuttled across the enterocyte to the basolateral membrane and effluxed into the portal circulation by the recently indentified heteromeric organic solute transporter, OST?-OST?. In addition to the hepatocyte and enterocyte, subgroups of these bile acid transporters are expressed by the biliary, renal, and colonic epithelium where they contribute to maintaining bile acid homeostasis and play important cytoprotective roles. This article will review our current understanding of the physiological role and regulation of these important carriers. PMID:19498215

Dawson, Paul A.; Lan, Tian; Rao, Anuradha

2009-01-01

295

ACID AEROSOLS ISSUE PAPER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report evaluates scientific information on direct health effects associated with exposure to acid aerosols. The present report is not intended as a complete and detailed review of all literature pertaining to acid aerosols. Rather, an attempt has been made to focus on the eva...

296

Lead-acid batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of producing a lead-acid battery capable of activation by the addition of electrolyte thereto, comprises the steps of: starting with a battery container accommodating at least one pack of battery plate grids having insulating separators interposed between adjacent grids, each of said grids carrying the lead-acid battery paste required to produce a positive or a negative battery plate

J. A. Bant; V. J. Raban

1980-01-01

297

Urobilinogen AscorbicAcid  

E-print Network

Date Lot # Bilirubin Urobilinogen Ketone AscorbicAcid Glucose Protein Blood pH Nitrite Leukocytes Specific Gravity hCG: Method Lot # Acetest® (Ketone): Lot # Clinitest® (Glucose): Lot # Ictotest®(Bilirubin AND DATA ENTRY FORMS #12;Date Lot # Bilirubin Urobilinogen Ketone AscorbicAcid Glucose Protein Blood p

Rodriguez, Carlos

298

Acid Rain Revisited  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The results of a long term study of the effects of acidic deposition in the Northeast were published in Bioscience this week, and they suggest that forests, lakes, and streams of the Northeastern US are not recovering from the toxic effects of acid rain despite significant cuts in the power plant emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide -- two major contributors to the problem. "Acid rain," more accurately called acidic deposition, causes toxic forms of aluminum to concentrate in soil and water, vital calcium and magnesium to be leached from trees, and surface waters to become inhospitable to aquatic biota. The study showed that, after 30 years of federally mandated air emission reductions, sulfur dioxide emissions have decreased while nitrogen oxide emissions have remained the same and that acidic deposition-related problems continue to plague New York and New England.

Sanders, Hilary C.

2001-01-01

299

Acid rain trends summarized  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the northeastern United States, the acidity of precipitation has changed little in recent years, although the acidity is increasing in other regions. That's the latest word from a comprehensive review by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of more than 200 published reports of acid rain research from the past 30 years. The report contributes to the controversy over whether increased sulfur emissions from Midwest powerplants increase the acidity of precipitation in the Northeast.“When the results of the many individual studies are combined, they show that acidification of precipitation in the Northeast, which has the most damaging level of acidity on a regional basis, occurred primarily before the mid-1950's and has been largely stabilized since the mid-1960s,” said John T. Turk, a research hydrologist at the USGS Denver office and author of the 18-page summary report.

300

Fatty Acid Production from Amino Acids and ?-Keto Acids by Brevibacterium linens BL2†  

PubMed Central

Low concentrations of branched-chain fatty acids, such as isobutyric and isovaleric acids, develop during the ripening of hard cheeses and contribute to the beneficial flavor profile. Catabolism of amino acids, such as branched-chain amino acids, by bacteria via aminotransferase reactions and ?-keto acids is one mechanism to generate these flavorful compounds; however, metabolism of ?-keto acids to flavor-associated compounds is controversial. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of Brevibacterium linens BL2 to produce fatty acids from amino acids and ?-keto acids and determine the occurrence of the likely genes in the draft genome sequence. BL2 catabolized amino acids to fatty acids only under carbohydrate starvation conditions. The primary fatty acid end products from leucine were isovaleric acid, acetic acid, and propionic acid. In contrast, logarithmic-phase cells of BL2 produced fatty acids from ?-keto acids only. BL2 also converted ?-keto acids to branched-chain fatty acids after carbohydrate starvation was achieved. At least 100 genes are potentially involved in five different metabolic pathways. The genome of B. linens ATCC 9174 contained these genes for production and degradation of fatty acids. These data indicate that brevibacteria have the ability to produce fatty acids from amino and ?-keto acids and that carbon metabolism is important in regulating this event. PMID:15528496

Ganesan, Balasubramanian; Seefeldt, Kimberly; Weimer, Bart C.

2004-01-01

301

Conjugated Fatty Acid Synthesis  

PubMed Central

Conjugated linolenic acids (CLNs), 18:3 ?9,11,13, lack the methylene groups found between the double bonds of linolenic acid (18:3 ?9,12,15). CLNs are produced by conjugase enzymes that are homologs of the oleate desaturases FAD2. The goal of this study was to map the domain(s) within the Momordica charantia conjugase (FADX) responsible for CLN formation. To achieve this, a series of Momordica FADX-Arabidopsis FAD2 chimeras were expressed in the Arabidopsis fad3fae1 mutant, and the transformed seeds were analyzed for the accumulation of CLN. These experiments identified helix 2 and the first histidine box as a determinant of conjugase product partitioning into punicic acid (18:3 ?9cis,11trans,13cis) or ?-eleostearic acid (18:3 ?9cis,11trans,13trans). This was confirmed by analysis of a FADX mutant containing six substitutions in which the sequence of helix 2 and first histidine box was converted to that of FAD2. Each of the six FAD2 substitutions was individually converted back to the FADX equivalent identifying residues 111 and 115, adjacent to the first histidine box, as key determinants of conjugase product partitioning. Additionally, expression of FADX G111V and FADX G111V/D115E resulted in an approximate doubling of eleostearic acid accumulation to 20.4% and 21.2%, respectively, compared with 9.9% upon expression of the native Momordica FADX. Like the Momordica conjugase, FADX G111V and FADX D115E produced predominantly ?-eleostearic acid and little punicic acid, but the FADX G111V/D115E double mutant produced approximately equal amounts of ?-eleostearic acid and its isomer, punicic acid, implicating an interactive effect of residues 111 and 115 in punicic acid formation. PMID:22451660

Rawat, Richa; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Sweet, Marie; Shanklin, John

2012-01-01

302

Total syntheses of cis-cyclopropane fatty acids: dihydromalvalic acid, dihydrosterculic acid, lactobacillic acid, and 9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid.  

PubMed

cis-Cyclopropane fatty acids (cis-CFAs) are widespread constituents of the seed oils of subtropical plants, membrane components of bacteria and protozoa, and the fats and phospholipids of animals. We describe a systematic approach to the synthesis of enantiomeric pairs of four cis-CFAs: cis-9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid, lactobacillic acid, dihydromalvalic acid, and dihydrosterculic acid. The approach commences with Rh2(OAc)4-catalyzed cyclopropenation of 1-octyne and 1-decyne, and hinges on the preparative scale chromatographic resolution of racemic 2-alkylcycloprop-2-ene-1-carboxylic acids using a homochiral Evan's auxiliary. Saturation of the individual diastereomeric N-cycloprop-2-ene-1-carbonylacyloxazolidines, followed by elaboration to alkylcyclopropylmethylsulfones, allowed Julia-Kocienski olefination with various ?-aldehyde-esters. Finally, saponification and diimide reduction afforded the individual cis-CFA enantiomers. PMID:25321346

Shah, Sayali; White, Jonathan M; Williams, Spencer J

2014-12-14

303

Synthesis of (+)- and (?)-Phaselic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis of both enantiomers of phaselic acid (2-O-caffeoylmalate) is described. The previously unreported acetate protected caffeic acid anhydride was used with appropriately protected malic acid derivatives as coupling partners to provide fully protected phaselic acid. Sequential unmasking of the protecting groups afforded phaselic acid in an acceptable overall yield.

Wayne E. Zeller

2012-01-01

304

Tissue bioaccumulation patterns, xenobiotic biotransformation and steroid hormone levels in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed a diet containing perfluoroactane sulfonic or perfluorooctane carboxylic acids.  

PubMed

In the present study, groups of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were fed gelatine capsules containing fish-food spiked with PFOA or PFOS (0.2 mg kg(-1) fish) and solvent (methanol). The capsules were given at days 0, 3 and 6. Blood, liver and whole kidney samples were collected prior to exposure (no solvent control), and at days 2, 5, 8 and 14 after exposure (Note: that day 14 after exposure is equal to 7d recovery period). We report on the differences in the tissue bioaccumulation patterns of PFOS and PFOA, in addition to tissue and compound differences in modulation pattern of biotransformation enzyme genes. We observed that the level of PFOS and PFOA increased in the blood, liver and kidney during the exposure period. Different PFOS and PFOA bioaccumulation patterns were observed in the kidney and liver during exposure- and after the recovery periods. Particularly, after the recovery period, PFOA levels in the kidney and liver tissues were almost at the control level. On the contrary, PFOS maintained an increase with tissue-specific differences, showing a higher bioaccumulation potential (also in the blood), compared with PFOA. While PFOS and PFOA produced an apparent time-dependent increase in kidney CYP3A, CYP1A1 and GST expression, similar effects were only temporary in the liver, significantly increasing at sampling day 2. PFOA and PFOS exposure resulted in significant decreases in plasma estrone, testosterone and cortisol levels at sampling day 2, and their effects differed with 17?-methyltestostrerone showing significant decrease by PFOA (also for cholesterol) and increase by PFOS. PFOA significantly increased estrone and testosterone, and no effects were observed for cortisol, 17?-methyltestosterone and cholesterol at sampling day 5. Overall, the changes in plasma steroid hormone levels parallel changes in CYP3A mRNA levels. Given that there are no known studies that have demonstrated such tissue differences in bioaccumulation patterns with associated differences in toxicological responses in any fish species or lower vertebrate, the present findings provide some potential insights and basis for a better understanding of the possible mechanisms of PFCs toxicity that need to be studied in more detail. PMID:21354591

Mortensen, Anne S; Letcher, Robert J; Cangialosi, Maria V; Chu, Shaogang; Arukwe, Augustine

2011-05-01

305

Sulfuric Acid on Europa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain.

This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.

Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks.

Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

1999-01-01

306

Acid recovery from waste sulfuric acid by diffusion dialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the process of sulfuric acid production from pyrite, there is a lot of waste acid produced in fume washing with dilute\\u000a acid. Acid recovery from this sort of waste sulfuric acid by diffusion dialysis is studied in the paper. The mass transfer\\u000a dialysis coefficient of sulfuric acid of the membrane AFX is measured, the effect of the flowrate of

Guiqing Zhang; Qixiu Zhang; Kanggen Zhou

1999-01-01

307

Strongly Acidic Auxin Indole-3-Methanesulfonic Acid  

PubMed Central

A radiochemical synthesis is described for [14C]indole-3-methanesulfonic acid (IMS), a strongly acidic auxin analog. Techniques were developed for fractionation and purification of IMS using normal and reverse phase chromatography. In addition, the utility of both Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry for analysis of IMS has been demonstrated. IMS was shown to be an active auxin, stimulating soybean hypocotyl elongation, bean first internode curvature, and ethylene production. IMS uptake by thin sections of soybean hypocotyl was essentially independent of solution pH and, when applied at a 100 micromolar concentration, IMS exhibited a basipetal polarity in its transport in both corn coleoptile and soybean hypocotyl sections. [14C]IMS should, therefore, be a useful compound to study fundamental processes related to the movement of auxins in plant tissues and organelles. PMID:16664007

Cohen, Jerry D.; Baldi, Bruce G.; Bialek, Krystyna

1985-01-01

308

Ceric acid decontamination of nuclear reactors  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a composition, it consists of water; about 0.5 to about 3% by weight of a ceric acid selected from the group consisting of tetrasulfato ceric acid, hexasulfamato ceric acid, hexaperchlorato ceric acid, and mixtures thereof; and about 1 to about 5% by weight of an inorganic acid. The inorganic acid is sulfuric acid when the ceric acid is tetrasulfato ceric acid, sulfamic acid when the ceric acid is hexasulfamato ceric acid, perchloric acid when the ceric acid is a mixture selected from the group consisting of tetrasulfato ceric acid, hexasulfamato ceric acid, and hexaperchlorato ceric acid.

Murray, A.P; Slater, C.G.; White, R.W.

1989-11-14

309

Perfluoroalkyl acid contamination of follicular fluid and its consequence for in vitro oocyte developmental competence.  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been shown to induce negative effects in laboratory animals and in vitro experiments. Also, PFAAs have been detected in human tissues and body fluids. The ovarian follicle constitutes a fragile micro-environment where interactions between hormones, growth factors, the oocyte and surrounding somatic cells are essential to generate a fully competent oocyte. In vitro experiments suggest that PFAAs can influence this balance, but very scarce in vivo data are available to confirm this assumption. In fact, the potential PFAA-presence in the follicular micro-environment is currently unknown. Therefore, we investigated if PFAAs are present in human follicular fluid and if their presence could be a risk factor for in vivo exposed developing oocytes. Furthermore, we compared the PFAA-distribution within serum and follicular fluid. PFAAs were analyzed by LC/MS in follicular fluid (n=38) and serum (n=20) samples from women undergoing assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs). Statistical models were used to investigate PFAA-distribution in both body fluids, to compare this behavior with the distribution of lipophilic organic pollutants and to explore the relationship between patient characteristics, ART-results and follicular fluid contamination. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the PFAA found in the highest concentration in follicular fluid [7.5 (0.1-30.4) ng/mL] and serum [7.6 (2.8-12.5) ng/mL]. A new variable, Principal Component 1, representing the overall PFAA-contamination of the follicular fluid samples, was associated with a higher fertilization rate (p<0.05) and a higher proportion of top embryos relative to the amount of retrieved oocytes (p<0.05), after adjusting for age, estradiol-concentration, BMI, male subfertility and the presence of other organic pollutants as explanatory variables. To conclude, overall higher PFAA-contamination in the follicular micro-environment was associated with a higher chance of an oocyte to develop into a high quality embryo. Also, PFAAs have different distribution patterns between serum and follicular fluid compared to the lipophilic organic pollutants. Further research is of course crucial to confirm these new observations. PMID:25089690

Petro, Evi M L; D'Hollander, Wendy; Covaci, Adrian; Bervoets, Lieven; Fransen, Erik; De Neubourg, Diane; De Pauw, Ingrid; Leroy, Jo L M R; Jorssen, Ellen P A; Bols, Peter E J

2014-10-15

310

Stomach acid test  

MedlinePLUS

Gastric acid secretion test ... The test is done after a period of not eating so that fluid is all that remains in the ... the stomach through the esophagus (food pipe). To test the ability of the cells in the stomach ...

311

ACID RAIN CONTROL OPTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses acid rain control options available to the electric utility industry. They include coal switching, flue gas desulfurization, and such emerging lower cost technologies as Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) and Advanced Silicate (ADVACATE) both develo...

312

Acid-Base Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Website for anyone wanting to become more familiar with the physiology of acid-base balance in clinical medicine. Several pages are interactive. Numerical results are accompanied by text interpretations to facilitate recognition and understanding.

MD Alan W. Grogono (Tulane University School of Medicine Dept. of Anesthesiology)

2002-06-01

313

Folic acid in diet  

MedlinePLUS

... leafy vegetables Dried beans and peas (legumes) Citrus fruits and juices Fortified means that vitamins have been added to the food. Many foods are now fortified with folic acid, including enriched breads, cereals, flours, cornmeals, pastas, rice, ...

314

Acid Lipase Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease, Wolman’s Disease Table of Contents (click to ... include waxes, oils, and cholesterol. Two rare lipid storage diseases are caused by the deficiency of the ...

315

(Acid rain workshop)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler presented a paper entitled Susceptibility of Asian Ecosystems to Soil-Mediated Acid Rain Damage'' at the Second Workshop on Acid Rain in Asia. The workshop was organized by the Asian Institute of Technology (Bangkok, Thailand), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, Illinois), and Resource Management Associates (Madison, Wisconsin) and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the United Nations Environment Program, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, and the World Bank. Papers presented on the first day discussed how the experience gained with acid rain in North America and Europe might be applied to the Asian situation. Papers describing energy use projections, sulfur emissions, and effects of acid rain in several Asian countries were presented on the second day. The remaining time was allotted to discussion, planning, and writing plans for a future research program.

Turner, R.S.

1990-12-05

316

Aminolevulinic Acid Topical  

MedlinePLUS

... under the skin that result from exposure to sunlight and can develop into skin cancer) of the ... acid will make your skin very sensitive to sunlight (likely to get sunburn). Avoid exposure of treated ...

317

Fatty Acid Carcass Mapping  

E-print Network

FATTY ACID CARCASS MAPPING A Thesis by STACEY NICOLE TURK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2008... Major Subject: Animal Science FATTY ACID CARCASS MAPPING A Thesis by STACEY NICOLE TURK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE...

Turk, Stacey N.

2010-01-14

318

Acid-base chemistry  

SciTech Connect

The book is not a research compendium and there are no references to the literature. It is a teaching text covering the entire range of undergraduate subject matter dealing with acid-base chemistry (some of it remotely) as taught in inorganic, analytical, and organic chemistry courses. The excellent chapters VII through IX deal in detail with the quantitative aspects of aqueous acid-base equilibria (salt hydrolysis and buffer, titrations, polyprotic and amphoteric substances).

Hand, C.W.; Blewit, H.L.

1985-01-01

319

Acid Rain Lesson Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Five articulated lessons focus on air quality using classroom and field data collection activities. Case study in Great Smoky Mountains has broader application. Background and data for lessons on: the pH scale, understanding acid vs. base, collecting data, mapping relationship of weather events to acid rain. Links to NPS data on air quality, current values, atlas and reports, packaged datasets on ozone, meteorological conditions and other parameters. Also available: teacher resources; educator workshops.

320

Portable nucleic acid thermocyclers.  

PubMed

A nucleic acid thermal cycler is considered to be portable if it is under ten pounds, easily carried by one individual, and battery powered. Nucleic acid amplification includes both polymerase chain reaction (e.g. PCR, RT-PCR) and isothermal amplification (e.g. RPA, HDA, LAMP, NASBA, RCA, ICAN, SMART, SDA). There are valuable applications for portable nucleic acid thermocyclers in fields that include clinical diagnostics, biothreat detection, and veterinary testing. A system that is portable allows for the distributed detection of targets at the point of care and a reduction of the time from sample to answer. The designer of a portable nucleic acid thermocycler must carefully consider both thermal control and the detection of amplification. In addition to thermal control and detection, the designer may consider the integration of a sample preparation subsystem with the nucleic acid thermocycler. There are a variety of technologies that can achieve accurate thermal control and the detection of nucleic acid amplification. Important evaluation criteria for each technology include maturity, power requirements, cost, sensitivity, speed, and manufacturability. Ultimately the needs of a particular market will lead to user requirements that drive the decision between available technologies. PMID:24030680

Almassian, David R; Cockrell, Lisa M; Nelson, William M

2013-11-21

321

Mammalian Fatty Acid Elongases  

PubMed Central

Summary Very long chain fatty acids confer functional diversity on cells by variations in their chain length and degree of unsaturation. Microsomal fatty acid elongation represents the major pathway for determining the chain length of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids in cellular lipids. The overall reaction for fatty acid elongation involves four enzymes and utilizes malonyl CoA, NADPH, and fatty acyl CoA as substrates. While the fundamental pathway and its requirements have been known for many years, recent advances have revealed a family of enzymes involved in the first step of the reaction, i.e., the condensation reaction. Seven fatty acid elongase subtypes (Elovl #1–7) have been identified in the mouse, rat, and human genomes. These enzymes determine the rate of overall fatty acid elongation. Moreover, these enzymes also display differential substrate specificity, tissue distribution, and regulation, making them important regulators of cellular lipid composition as well as specific cellular functions. Herein, methods are described to measure elongase activity, analyze elongation products, and alter cellular elongase expression. PMID:19763486

Jump, Donald B.

2009-01-01

322

Reaction of caffeic acid derivatives with acidic nitrite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caffeic derivatives were reacted with acidic nitrite at controlled pH in order to mimic the gastric juice conditions. At pH 2, whereas caffeic acid reacts exclusively on the side chain, its esters are readily nitrated. Under more acidic conditions (pH 1), caffeic acid methyl ester undergoes a dimerisation into a norlignan derivative.

Philippe Cotelle; Hervé Vezin

2001-01-01

323

Export of Acidity in Drainage Water from Acid Sulphate Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disturbed acid sulphate soils are potent sources of acidity in coastal waterways. Monitoring studies of the drainage water for sites at East Trinity, Cairns and Pimpama, south-east Queensland indicate that considerable acidity is found in the drainage water from these sites. Hydrogen (H+), ferrous (Fe2+) and aluminium (Al) ions are the dominant acid cations involved. When drainage water is mixed

F. J Cook; W Hicks; E. A Gardner; G. D Carlin; D. W Froggatt

2000-01-01

324

What is Acid Rain? Explore the Acid Lake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acid rain is a type of air pollution that occurs when certain chemicals mix with water in the air. Most chemicals that cause acid rain come from the emissions from factories and cars. Acid rain looks just like 'normal' rain but when it falls, it can hurt plants and animals. For example, when acid rain falls into a lake or river, it makes that body of water more acidic. Many plants and animals cannot live in acidic water. Play this game, from Earth Day Canada's EcoKids program, to learn more about acid rain and its impact on the environment.

Canada, Earth D.

2010-01-01

325

Perfluorooctane sulfonate induces apoptosis in N9 microglial cell line.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is an environmental persistent acid found at low levels in human, wildlife, and environmental media samples. To study the apoptosis effects of PFOS on microglia, murine N9 cell line was used as a model in current research. The results showed that PFOS could reduce the cell viability significantly, and the cellular apoptosis induced by PFOS was closely accompanied with dissipation of mitochondria membrane potential, upregulation messenger RNAs (mRNAs) of p53, Bax, caspase 9, and caspase 3, and decreased expression of Bcl-2 mRNA. These results suggested that PFOS could disturb homeostasis of N9 cells, impact mitochondria, and affect gene expression of apoptotic regulators, all of which resulted in a start-up of apoptosis. PMID:21115943

Zhang, Ling; Li, Yuan-yuan; Zeng, Huai-cai; Li, Miao; Wan, Yan-Jian; Schluesener, Hermann J; Zhang, Zhi-yuan; Xu, Shun-qing

2011-03-01

326

Domoic acid epileptic disease.  

PubMed

Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. PMID:24663110

Ramsdell, John S; Gulland, Frances M

2014-03-01

327

Electrochemical Determination of Lipoic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Procedures for determining lipoic acid by voltammetry and coulometric titration with electrogenerated halogens using the biamperometric indication of the titration end-point were developed. Possible mechanisms of lipoic acid oxidation with electrogenerated halogens are discussed. Microgram amounts of lipoic acid were determined in model solutions with an RSD of 1–2%. The analytical range of lipoic acid found by voltammetry at a

G. K. Ziyatdinova; G. K. Budnikov; V. I. Pogorel'tsev

2004-01-01

328

Atmospheric Dust and Acid Rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why is acid rain still an environmental problem in Europe and North America despite antipollution reforms? The answer really is blowing in the wind: atmospheric dust. These airborne particles can help neutralize the acids falling on forests, but dust levels are unusually low these days. In the air dust particles can neutralize acid rain. What can we do about acid

Lars O. Hedin; Gene E. Likens

1996-01-01

329

Acid Catalysis in Modern Organic  

E-print Network

Acid Catalysis in Modern Organic Synthesis "Acid is one of the oldest, but the most important follows their earlier book "Lewis Acids in Organic Synthesis (2000)", and covers the new developments of university studies, in which an evil-smelling carbox- ylic acid and an alcohol were converted into a fragrant

Snyder, Scott A.

330

Ursodeoxycholic acid, 7-ketolithocholic acid, and chenodeoxycholic acid are primary bile acids of the nutria (Myocastor coypus).  

PubMed

Because ursodeoxycholic and chenodeoxycholic acids are interconverted in humans via 7-ketolithocholic acid, bile acid metabolism was studied in the nutria (Myocastor coypus), the bile of which is known to contain these three bile acids. Relative concentrations of ursodeoxycholic (37% +/- 20%), 7-ketolithocholic (33% +/- 17%), and chenodeoxycholic (17% +/- 9%) acids in gallbladder bile were unchanged by 5-20 h of complete biliary diversion (n = 7). Injection of either [14C]cholesterol, [14C]ursodeoxycholic, [14C]7-ketolithocholic acid, or a mixture of [7 beta-3H]chenodeoxycholic acid and [14C]chenodeoxycholic acid into bile fistula nutria demonstrated that all three bile acids can be synthesized hepatically from cholesterol, that they are interconverted sparingly (2%-5%) by the liver, but that 7-ketolithocholic acid is an intermediate in the hepatic transformation of chenodeoxycholic acid to ursodeoxycholic acid. An animal that had been fed antibiotics showed an unusually elevated concentration of ursodeoxycholic acid in gallbladder and hepatic bile, suggesting that bacterial transformation of ursodeoxycholic acid in the intestine may be a source of some biliary chenodeoxycholic acid and 7-ketolithocholic acid. PMID:3943698

Tint, G S; Bullock, J; Batta, A K; Shefer, S; Salen, G

1986-03-01

331

Nucleophilic reactions of sorbic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conjugated dienoic acid structure of sorbic acid renders it susceptible to nucleophilic attack. Nucleophiles known to react with sorbic acid include sulphite ion and amines. These attack the molecule in position 5 and, in the cse of amines, cyclization to form substituted dihydropyridones may follow. Recent investigations show that thiols in general can also add to sorbic acid. Cysteine,

G. D. Khandelwal; B. L. Wedzicha

1990-01-01

332

DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID AND ARACHIDONIC ACID PREVENT ESSENTIAL FATTY ACID DEFICIENCY AND HEPATIC STEATOSIS  

PubMed Central

Objectives Essential fatty acids are important for growth, development, and physiologic function. Alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid are the precursors of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid, respectively, and have traditionally been considered the essential fatty acids. However, we hypothesized that docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid can function as the essential fatty acids. Methods Using a murine model of essential fatty acid deficiency and consequent hepatic steatosis, we provided mice with varying amounts of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids to determine whether exclusive supplementation of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids could prevent essential fatty acid deficiency and inhibit or attenuate hepatic steatosis. Results Mice supplemented with docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids at 2.1% or 4.2% of their calories for 19 days had normal liver histology and no biochemical evidence of essential fatty acid deficiency, which persisted when observed after 9 weeks. Conclusion Supplementation of sufficient amounts of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids alone without alpha-linolenic and linoleic acids meets essential fatty acid requirements and prevents hepatic steatosis in a murine model. PMID:22038210

Le, Hau D.; Meisel, Jonathan A.; de Meijer, Vincent E.; Fallon, Erica M.; Gura, Kathleen M.; Nose, Vania; Bistrian, Bruce R.; Puder, Mark

2012-01-01

333

Short-term exposures of fish to perfluorooctane sulfonate: acute effects on fatty acyl-coa oxidase activity, oxidative stress, and circulating sex steroids.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of exposure to waterborne perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on oxidative stress and reproductive endpoints in fish. Exposures utilized species commonly used in toxicological testing, including the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), as well as relatively insensitive taxa such as creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus), spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius), and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni). In all fish species, short-term (14-28 d) exposure to PFOS produced only modest mortality at concentrations consistent with environmental spill scenarios. However, PFOS consistently increased hepatic fatty acyl-CoA oxidase activity and increased oxidative damage, as quantified using the 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances assay. Plasma testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, and 17beta-estradiol titers were often elevated with PFOS exposure. Vitellogenin, the egg yolk precursor protein, was occasionally altered in the plasma with PFOS exposure, but responses varied with maturity. Oviposition frequency and egg deposition in fathead minnow were not significantly impaired with PFOS exposure, despite a trend toward progressive impairment with increasing exposure concentrations. Although short-term PFOS exposure produced significant impacts on biochemical and reproductive endpoints in fish at concentrations consistent with environmental spills, the impact of long-term exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of PFOS is unclear. PMID:16110997

Oakes, Ken D; Sibley, Paul K; Martin, Jon W; MacLean, Dan D; Solomon, Keith R; Mabury, Scott A; Van Der Kraak, Glen J

2005-05-01

334

Molecular Structure of Succinic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Succinic acid is an odorless and colorless crystal, triclinic or monoclinic prism with a very acid taste. Succinic acid is one of the natural acids found in broccoli, rhubarb, beets, asparagus, fresh meat extracts, sauerkraut and cheese. It is also a constituent of almost all plant and animal tissues and plays an important role in intermediary metabolism. Succinic acid is produced commercially by catalytic hydrogenation of maleic or fumaric acid or by acid hydrolysis of succinonitrile. Succinic acid is used in flavoring for food and beverages, and in the manufacture of lacquers, dyes, esters for perfumes, succinates, in photography and in foods as a sequestrant, buffer and neutralizing agent. Succinic acid has uses in certain drug compounds and in agricultural production. An interesting fact, succcinic acid has also been found in meteorites.

2004-11-11

335

Thiol modified mycolic acids.  

PubMed

Patient serum antibodies to mycolic acids have the potential to be surrogate markers of active tuberculosis (TB) when they can be distinguished from the ubiquitously present cross-reactive antibodies to cholesterol. Mycolic acids are known to interact more strongly with antibodies present in the serum of patients with active TB than in patients with latent TB or no TB. Examples of single stereoisomers of mycolic acids with chain lengths corresponding to major homologues of those present in Mycobacterium tuberculosis have now been synthesised with a sulfur substituent on the terminal position of the ?-chain; initial studies have established that one of these binds to a gold electrode surface, offering the potential to develop second generation sensors for diagnostic patient antibody detection. PMID:23603063

Balogun, Mohammed O; Huws, Enlli H; Sirhan, Muthana M; Saleh, Ahmed D; Al Dulayymi, Juma'a R; Pilcher, Lynne; Verschoor, Jan A; Baird, Mark S

2013-01-01

336

Molecular Structure of Citric Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Citric Acid was first isolated in 1734 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele. Citric acid is found in many fruits, in particular lemons, grapefruit, and oranges. Several types of bacteria and fungi are also known to produce citric acid. In fact, the fungus Aspergillus niger produces the vast majority of citric acid, which is used in almost all carbonated sodas. Additionally, citric acid is also used to clean stainless steel.

2002-08-13

337

Acid rain degradation of nylon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain, precipitation with a pH less than 5.6, is known to damage lakes, vegetation and buildings. Degradation of outdoor textiles by acid rain is strongly suspected but not well documented. This study reports the effects of sunlight, aqueous acid, heat and humidity (acid rain conditions) on spun delustered nylon 6,6 fabric. Untreated nylon and nylon treated with sulfuric acid

Kyllo

1984-01-01

338

Liposomal spherical nucleic acids.  

PubMed

A novel class of metal-free spherical nucleic acid nanostructures was synthesized from readily available starting components. These particles consist of 30 nm liposomal cores, composed of an FDA-approved 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) lipid monomer. The surface of the liposomes was functionalized with DNA strands modified with a tocopherol tail that intercalates into the phospholipid layer of the liposomal core via hydrophobic interactions. The spherical nucleic acid architecture not only stabilizes these constructs but also facilitates cellular internalization and gene regulation in SKOV-3 cells. PMID:24983505

Banga, Resham J; Chernyak, Natalia; Narayan, Suguna P; Nguyen, SonBinh T; Mirkin, Chad A

2014-07-16

339

Polyvalent nucleic acid nanostructures.  

PubMed

Polyvalent oligonucleotide-nanoparticle conjugates possess several unique emergent properties, including enhanced cellular uptake, high antisense bioactivity, and nuclease resistance, which hypothetically originate from the dense packing and orientation of oligonucleotides on the surface of the nanoparticle. In this Communication, we describe a new class of polyvalent nucleic acid nanostructures (PNANs), which are comprised of only cross-linked and oriented nucleic acids. We demonstrate that these particles are capable of effecting high cellular uptake and gene regulation without the need of a cationic polymer co-carrier. The PNANs also exhibit cooperative binding behavior and nuclease resistance properties. PMID:21630678

Cutler, Joshua I; Zhang, Ke; Zheng, Dan; Auyeung, Evelyn; Prigodich, Andrew E; Mirkin, Chad A

2011-06-22

340

Polyvalent Nucleic Acid Nanostructures  

PubMed Central

Polyvalent oligonucleotide-nanoparticle conjugates possess several unique emergent properties including enhanced cellular uptake, high antisense bioactivity, and nuclease resistance, which hypothetically originate from the dense packing and orientation of oligonucleotides on the surface of the nanoparticle. In this communication, we describe a new class of polyvalent nucleic acid nanostructures (PNANs), which comprise only crosslinked and oriented nucleic acids. We demonstrate that these particles are capable of effecting high cellular uptake and gene regulation without the need of a cationic polymer co-carrier. The PNANs also exhibit cooperative binding behavior and nuclease resistance properties. PMID:21630678

Cutler, Joshua I.; Zhang, Ke; Zheng, Dan; Auyeung, Evelyn; Prigodich, Andrew E.

2011-01-01

341

The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

2012-01-01

342

[Studies on interaction of acid-treated nanotube titanic acid and amino acids].  

PubMed

Nanotube titanic acid (NTA) has distinct optical and electrical character, and has photocatalysis character. In accordance with these qualities, NTA was treated with acid so as to enhance its surface activity. Surface structures and surface groups of acid-treated NTA were characterized and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The interaction between acid-treated NTA and amino acids was investigated. Analysis results showed that the lengths of acid-treated NTA became obviously shorter. The diameters of nanotube bundles did not change obviously with acid-treating. Meanwhile, the surface of acid-treated NTA was cross-linked with carboxyl or esterfunction. In addition, acid-treated NTA can catch amino acid residues easily, and then form close combination. PMID:20649031

Zhang, Huqin; Chen, Xuemei; Jin, Zhensheng; Liao, Guangxi; Wu, Xiaoming; Du, Jianqiang; Cao, Xiang

2010-06-01

343

Plant fatty acid hydroxylase  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

2000-01-01

344

ACID AEROSOL MEASUREMENT WORKSHOP  

EPA Science Inventory

This report documents the discussion and results of the U.S. EPA Acid Aerosol Measurement Workshop, conducted February 1-3, 1989, in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. t was held in response to recommendations by the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) regarding ...

345

Deoxyribonucleic acid Genetic material  

E-print Network

salt to dissolve them) #12; Precipitate DNA (with ethanol) #12; Species identification VS. #12;Bag#12; Deoxyribonucleic acid Genetic material Chain of molecules linked together DNA contains in Protein Science Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. #12; Remove proteins that are bound to DNA (using

Rose, Michael R.

346

Federal Acid Rain Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Federal environmental policy, designed to control acid rain, is shaped after the hierarchy of the system, and is controlled simultaneously by regional and central governments. Each governmental level controls one of two policy instruments: pollution abatement production and pollution tax. In a two-stage game where regional governments are Stackelberg leaders and control pollution taxes, the subgame perfect equilibrium is socially

Arthur J. Caplan; Emilson C. D. Silva

1999-01-01

347

Acid monitoring kit  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An acid monitoring kit is provided which is especially useful for monitoring acid rain. The kit includes a base plate having three discrete areas. One area is provided with a plurality of discrete separable bibulous pH indicator strips, each strip being impregnated with a selected acid-base indicator which is visually recognizable as at least one unique color in each such bibulous pH indicator strip when the bibulous strip is dry, and as a different color upon being wetted with water, the different color being dependent on the pH of the water. A second discrete area is provided with a plurality of color comparison reference standards in a plurality of zones, each zone being of a unique color which corresponds to the color of the water-wetted bibulous pH indictor strip, whereby comparison of the unique color of the pH indicator strip with the unique color of the reference standard provides an indication of the pH of the water. A third discrete area is also labelled to provide the requisite information for the use of such acid monitoring kit to correlate the unique color developed in the bibulous pH indicator strip to a unique color of the reference standard to provide an indication of the pH of the water.

1990-10-02

348

Plant fatty acid hydroxylase  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related to the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

Somerville, C.; Loo, F. van de

2000-02-22

349

Alpha Hydroxy Acids  

MedlinePLUS

... skin or mucous membrane, such as the lips, bear a statement that conveys the following information: Sunburn Alert: This product contains an alpha hydroxy acid (AHA) that may increase your skin's sensitivity to the sun and particularly the possibility of sunburn. Use a ...

350

Molecular Structure of Aspartic Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Aspartate was first isolated in 1868 from legumin in plant seeds. Aspartic acid forms colorless crystals that are soluble in water and insoluble in alcohols and ethers. This is a naturally occurring nonessential amino acid that is produced in the liver from oxaloacetic acid, but is plentiful in meats and sprouting seeds. The amino acid is important in the Krebs cycle as well as the urea cycle, where it is vital in the elimination of dietary waste products. Aspartic acid is required for stamina, brain and neural health. This acid has been found to be important in the functioning of ribonucleic acid (RNA), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and in the production of immunoglobin and antibody synthesis. A deficiency of aspartate will lead to fatigue and depression. Aspartic acid has many uses that include biological and clinical studies, preparation of culture media, and it also functions as a detergent, fungicide, germicide, and metal complexation.

2002-08-20

351

Uric acid inhibits placental system A amino acid uptake.  

PubMed

Hyperuricemia, a common clinical characteristic of preeclamptic pregnancies, has historically been considered a marker of reduced renal function in preeclamptic women. More recently it has been suggested that uric acid may directly contribute to pathological cell signaling events involved in disease progression as well as maternal and fetal pregnancy outcomes including fetal growth restriction. We hypothesize that the increased frequency of restricted fetal growth seen in relation to increasing uric acid concentrations in preeclamptic women is in part the result of uric acid-induced reductions in amino acid transport across the placenta. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of uric acid on human placental System A amino acid transport using a primary placental villous explant model. Further, we examined the necessity of uric acid uptake and the role of redox signaling as a potential mechanism through which uric acid may attenuate System A activity. Placental uptake of a radiolabeled amino acid analogue, specific to the System A transporter, was reduced in a concentration-dependent fashion with increasing uric acid (0-7 mg/dL), corresponding to uric acid concentrations measured in healthy pregnant and preeclamptic women in the third trimester. Uric acid-induced reduction in System A activity was partially reversed by NADPH oxidase inhibition and completely eliminated by antioxidant treatment. This study demonstrates inhibition of placental System A amino acid transport with uric acid treatment, as a result of uric acid-induced stimulation of intracellular redox signaling cascades. These findings may be relevant to the increased frequency of fetal growth restriction observed in hyperuricemic preeclampsia. Additionally the results of this study, indicating a detrimental effect of hyperuricemia on amino acid transport in the placenta, at concentrations present in women with preeclampsia, also suggest a role for uric acid in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. PMID:19058847

Bainbridge, S A; von Versen-Höynck, F; Roberts, J M

2009-02-01

352

Uric Acid Inhibits Placental System A Amino Acid Uptake?  

PubMed Central

Hyperuricemia, a common clinical characteristic of preeclamptic pregnancies, has historically been considered a marker of reduced renal function in preeclamptic women. More recently it has been suggested that uric acid may directly contribute to pathological cell signaling events involved in disease progression as well as maternal and fetal pregnancy outcomes including fetal growth restriction. We hypothesize that the increased frequency of restricted fetal growth seen in relation to increasing uric acid concentrations in preeclamptic women is in part the result of uric acid-induced reductions in amino acid transport across the placenta. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of uric acid on human placental System A amino acid transport using a primary placental villous explant model. Further, we examined the necessity of uric acid uptake and the role of redox signaling as a potential mechanism through which uric acid may attenuate System A activity. Placental uptake of a radiolabeled amino acid analogue, specific to the System A transporter, was reduced in a concentration-dependent fashion with increasing uric acid (0?7 mg/dL), corresponding to uric acid concentrations measured in healthy pregnant and preeclamptic women in the third trimester. Uric acid-induced reduction in System A activity was partially reversed by NADPH oxidase inhibition and completely eliminated by antioxidant treatment. This study demonstrates inhibition of placental System A amino acid transport with uric acid treatment, as a result of uric acid-induced stimulation of intracellular redox signaling cascades. These findings may be relevant to the increased frequency of fetal growth restriction observed in hyperuricemic preeclampsia. Additionally the results of this study, indicating a detrimental effect of hyperuricemia on amino acid transport in the placenta, at concentrations present in women with preeclampsia, also suggest a role for uric acid in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. PMID:19058847

Bainbridge, S.A.; von Versen-Hoynck, F.; Roberts, J.M.

2009-01-01

353

Specific bile acids inhibit hepatic fatty acid uptake  

PubMed Central

Bile acids are known to play important roles as detergents in the absorption of hydrophobic nutrients and as signaling molecules in the regulation of metabolism. Here we tested the novel hypothesis that naturally occurring bile acids interfere with protein-mediated hepatic long chain free fatty acid (LCFA) uptake. To this end stable cell lines expressing fatty acid transporters as well as primary hepatocytes from mouse and human livers were incubated with primary and secondary bile acids to determine their effects on LCFA uptake rates. We identified ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA) as the two most potent inhibitors of the liver-specific fatty acid transport protein 5 (FATP5). Both UDCA and DCA were able to inhibit LCFA uptake by primary hepatocytes in a FATP5-dependent manner. Subsequently, mice were treated with these secondary bile acids in vivo to assess their ability to inhibit diet-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Administration of DCA in vivo via injection or as part of a high-fat diet significantly inhibited hepatic fatty acid uptake and reduced liver triglycerides by more than 50%. In summary, the data demonstrate a novel role for specific bile acids, and the secondary bile acid DCA in particular, in the regulation of hepatic LCFA uptake. The results illuminate a previously unappreciated means by which specific bile acids, such as UDCA and DCA, can impact hepatic triglyceride metabolism and may lead to novel approaches to combat obesity-associated fatty liver disease. PMID:22531947

Nie, Biao; Park, Hyo Min; Kazantzis, Melissa; Lin, Min; Henkin, Amy; Ng, Stephanie; Song, Sujin; Chen, Yuli; Tran, Heather; Lai, Robin; Her, Chris; Maher, Jacquelyn J.; Forman, Barry M.; Stahl, Andreas

2012-01-01

354

Fatty acid-producing hosts  

SciTech Connect

Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

2013-12-31

355

Polyfluorinated Compounds: Past, Present, and Future  

EPA Science Inventory

Interest and concern about polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), erfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and an increasing number of other related compounds is growing as more is learned about these ubiquitous anthropogenic substances. Many of these co...

356

REGULATORY ACTIONS - COMMUNITY RIGHT TO KNOW - PERFLUORINATED COMPOUNDS (PFCS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Increasing worldwide attention is being focused on a group of persistent organic pollutants known as the perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). This class of compounds includes the now well known perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), but it also includes ...

357

Multi-Platform Metabolomic Analyses of Rat Urine Following Exposure to Perfluorinated Chemicals (PFCs)  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), namely perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), represent an emerging class of persistent and bioaccumulative compounds. Global occurrence of these fluorochemicals, coupled with probable human exposure, has prompted inv...

358

Determination of Ten Perfluorinated Compounds in Bluegill Sunfish ( Lepomis macrochirus ) Fillets  

EPA Science Inventory

Limited information is known about the environmental distributions of the perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), in part due to a lack of well characterized analytical methods that can be used to accurately mea...

359

Determination of Perfluorinated Compounds in the Upper Mississippi River Basin  

EPA Science Inventory

Despite ongoing efforts to develop robust analytical methods for the determination of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) such as perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in surface water, comparatively little has been published on method performance, and the...

360

Acidizing of Sandstone Reservoirs Using HF and Organic Acids  

E-print Network

Mud acid, which is composed of HCl and HF, is commonly used to remove the formation damage in sandstone reservoirs. However, many problems are associated with HCl, especially at high temperatures. Formic-HF acids have served as an alternative...

Yang, Fei

2012-10-19

361

Thiobarbituric Acid Spray Reagent for Deoxy Sugars and Sialic Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

RECENTLY, new sensitive assays have been reported for deoxy sugars1, 2-keto,3-deoxy sugar acids2-4, and sialic acids5,6. In these assays, the products of periodate oxidation, malonaldehyde from deoxy sugars and beta-formylpyruvic acid from the latter two groups of compounds, are coupled with 2-thiobarbituric acid to produce a bright red chromophore. I wish to report an adaptation of these methods for spraying

Leonard Warren

1960-01-01

362

Preterm infant formula supplementation with ? linolenic acid and docosahexaenoic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To investigate if supplementation of preterm infant formula with a high docosahexaenoic acid\\/eicosapentaenoic acid (DHA\\/EPA) ratio together with ?-linolenic acid (ALA) was able to maintain plasma and red blood cell DHA levels similar to that obtained with breast milk feeding without altering n-6 fatty acid status.Design and subjects: Preterm infants of mothers who elected not to breast feed (n=13)

A Rodriguez; D Raederstorff; P Sarda; C Lauret; F Mendy; B Descomps

2003-01-01

363

Carboxylic Acid Unknowns and Titration 90 CARBOXYLIC ACID UNKNOWN  

E-print Network

Carboxylic Acid Unknowns and Titration 90 CARBOXYLIC ACID UNKNOWN A. Solubility Tests: Water, NaHCO3, and NaOH Test the solubility of your acid first in neutral water, in NaOH/H2O, and in NaHCO3 to 30 drops. Swirl/mix well. Use of small stir bar helps. · Water Test: Only acids with small numbers

Jasperse, Craig P.

364

Boswellic acid inhibits expression of acid sphingomyelinase in intestinal cells  

PubMed Central

Background Boswellic acid is a type of triterpenoids with antiinflammatory and antiproliferative properties. Sphingomyelin metabolism generates multiple lipid signals affecting cell proliferation, inflammation, and apoptosis. Upregulation of acid sphingomyelinase (SMase) has been found in several inflammation-related diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. Methods The present study is to examine the effect of 3-acetyl-11-keto-?-boswellic acids (AKBA), a potent boswellic acid, on acid SMase activity and expression in intestinal cells. Both transformed Caco-2 cells and non-transformed Int407 cells were incubated with AKBA. After incubation, the change of acid SMase activity was assayed biochemically, the enzyme protein was examined by Western blot, and acid SMase mRNA was quantified by qPCR. Results We found that AKBA decreased acid SMase activity in both intestinal cell lines in dose and time dependent manners without affecting the secretion of the enzyme to the cell culture medium. The effect of AKBA was more effective in the fetal bovine serum-free culture medium. Among different types of boswellic acid, AKBA was the most potent one. The inhibitory effect on acid SMase activity occurred only in the intact cells but not in cell-free extract in the test tubes. At low concentration, AKBA only decreased the acid SMase activity but not the quantity of the enzyme protein. However, at high concentration, AKBA decreased both the mass of acid SMase protein and the mRNA levels of acid SMase in the cells, as demonstrated by Western blot and qPCR, respectively. Under the concentrations decreasing acid SMase activity, AKBA significantly inhibited cell proliferation. Conclusion We identified a novel inhibitory effect of boswellic acids on acid SMase expression, which may have implications in human diseases and health. PMID:19951413

2009-01-01

365

Acid Earth--The Global Threat of Acid Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acid pollution is a major international problem, but the debate it has elicited has often clouded the distinction between myth and facts. This publication attempts to concerning the acid pollution situation. This publication attempts to identify available facts. It is the first global review of the problem of acid pollution and the first to…

McCormick, John

366

Focus Sheet | Hydrofluoric Acid Health hazards of hydrofluoric acid  

E-print Network

characterized by weight loss, brittle bones, anemia, and general ill health. Safe use If possible, avoid workingFocus Sheet | Hydrofluoric Acid Health hazards of hydrofluoric acid Hydrofluoric acid (HF bone. Skin exposure to highly concentrated HF (48% or greater) immediately results in serious

Wilcock, William

367

Acid placement and coverage in the acid jetting process  

E-print Network

Many open-hole acid treatments are being conducted by pumping acid through jetting ports placed at the end of coiled tubing or drill pipe. The filter-cake on the bore-hole is broken by the jet; the acid-soluble material is dissolved, creating...

Mikhailov, Miroslav I.

2009-05-15

368

Autohydrolysis of phytic acid.  

PubMed

The autohydrolysis of phytic acid at 120 degrees C resulted in the formation of most of the phosphate esters of myo-inositol in varying amounts depending upon the reaction time. Eighteen of the 39 chromatographically distinct myo-inositol mono-, bis-, tris-, tetrakis-, pentakis-, and hexakisphosphates have been characterized using two different HPLC systems. These myo-inositol phosphates were partially purified by preparative anion-exchange chromatography under acidic and alkaline elution conditions. The combination of these two methods provides a two-tiered chromatographic approach to the rapid and sensitive identification of inositol phosphates in complex mixtures. Identification of the products was confirmed by 1D and 2D (1)H NMR analysis. The analytical procedure was applied to the autohydrolysis of the mixture of inositol phosphates from corn steep water. PMID:10469496

Hull, S R; Gray, J S; Montgomery, R

1999-09-10

369

Acid hydrolysis of cellulose  

SciTech Connect

One of the alternatives to increase world production of etha nol is by the hydrolysis of cellulose content of agricultural residues. Studies have been made on the types of hydrolysis: enzimatic and acid. Data obtained from the sulphuric acid hydrolysis of cellulose showed that this process proceed in two steps, with a yield of approximately 95% glucose. Because of increases in cost of alternatives resources, the high demand of the product and the more economic production of ethanol from cellulose materials, it is certain that this technology will be implemented in the future. At the same time further studies on the disposal and reuse of the by-products of this production must be undertaken.

Salazar, H.

1980-12-01

370

(Radioiodinated free fatty acids)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler participated in the Second International Workshop on Radioiodinated Free Fatty Acids in Amsterdam, The Netherlands where he presented an invited paper describing the pioneering work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving the design, development and testing of new radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids for evaluation of heart disease. He also chaired a technical session on the testing of new agents in various in vitro and in vivo systems. He also visited the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, West Germany, to review, discuss, plan and coordinate collaborative investigations with that institution. In addition, he visited the Cyclotron Research Center in Liege, Belgium, to discuss continuing collaborative studies with the Osmium-191/Iridium-191m radionuclide generator system, and to complete manuscripts and plan future studies.

Knapp, Jr., F. F.

1987-12-11

371

The utilization of tricarboxylic acid cycle acids and the uptake of succinic acid by Neurospora crassa  

E-print Network

, Clavice s u urea and several species of ~dtlt . 1' ~ d 9' p ~ d t 1966 (69) th t ~C. PRL 1980 was able to grow with succinic acid as the sole carbon source in an acidic medium. The efficiency of total biomass synthesis on succinic acid was considerably..., Clavice s u urea and several species of ~dtlt . 1' ~ d 9' p ~ d t 1966 (69) th t ~C. PRL 1980 was able to grow with succinic acid as the sole carbon source in an acidic medium. The efficiency of total biomass synthesis on succinic acid was considerably...

Gilliland, Patti Lynn

2012-06-07

372

Molecular Structure of Sulfuric Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

H2SO4 was discovered by alchemists and made from heating a compound of iron sulfate. In 1740, sulfuric acid was produced for commercial sale. Sulfuric acid is a very strong acid which is used in car batteries. The acid disassociates in water to give two protons and sulfate. This acid can destroy flesh and cause blindness. It was discovered in the 19th century that adding sulfuric acid to soil produces phosphorus, which is beneficial to plants; hence, sulfuric acid is used as a fertilizer in the form of super phosphate and ammonium sulfate. Sulfuric acid is also used to refine petroleum and process metals, and is found in paints and car batteries.

2002-08-15

373

Molecular Structure of Maleic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maleic acid is colorless to white crystals with a faint acidulous odor and a characteristic repulsive, astringent taste. Maleic acid is used in making polyesters, surface coatings, lubricant additives, agricultural chemicals and paint vehicles. It is used in organic synthesis of fumaric acid, succinic, aspartic, tartaric, propionic, lactic, malonic, acrylic and hydrocarylic acids. Maleic acid and its anhydride are prepared industrially by the catalytic oxidation of benzene. Maleic acid may be released into waste water during its production and used in the manufacture of polymer products. Dust of maleic acid is irritating to the eyes, nose and throat. The general population is exposed to maleic acid in areas with heavy traffic since it is found in aerosols from auto exhaust.

2004-11-10

374

Crosslinked acid gels offer advantages  

SciTech Connect

Acid polymer gels having a pH less than one have been crosslinked for retarding the chemical and physical activity of hydrochloric acid on calcareous formations. Hydrochloric acid concentrations from /one quarter/% to 28% have been successfully crosslinked. This unique stimulation fluid offers high viscosity with adequate shear stability, perfect support for propants, and clay stabilization. Additionally, the fluid provided effective fluid loss control and retardation of acid reaction enabling live acid to penetrate deeper into the formation for better conductivity; furthermore, there is practically a residue free break for rapid cleanup of the well after the job. Results of lab and field tests show this new acid crosslinked system to be an effective stimulation fluid for acidizing and acid fracturing in calcareous and sandstone formations having low permeability. 5 refs.

Pabley, A.S.; Holcomb, D.L.

1981-09-28

375

Molecular Structure of Glutaric acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Glutaric acid is a colorless liquid and white crystals as a solid occurring in plants and animal tissues. It is used in organic synthesis and as an intermediate for the manufacture of polymers such as polyamides and polyesters, ester plasticizers and corrosion inhibitors. It is also useful in the application of decreasing polymer elasticity and in a variety of industrial applications. In addition glutaric acid plays an important role as an intermediary in the Krebs cycle and is used in medication against a large number of viruses and in animal diabetes. Glutaric acid can be prepared from cyclopentanone by oxidative ring fission with nitric acid and in the presence of a catalyst. Glutaric acid has the lowest melting point among dicarboxylic acids (98 C); it is very soluble in water and the solution in water is a medium strong acid. Short-term exposure to glutaric acid may cause irritation to the eyes, skin and the respiratory tract.

2004-11-10

376

Acid hydrolysis of chitosans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrolysis of the O-glycosidic linkages (depolymerization) and the N-acetyl linkage (de-N-acetylation) of partially N-acetylated chitosans were studied in dilute and concentrated HCl. The rate of hydrolysis of the glycosidic linkages was found to be equal to the rate of de-N-acetylation in dilute acid, while the glycosidic linkages was hydrolysed more than 10 times faster than the N-acetyl linkage in

K. M. Vårum; M. H. Ottøy; O. Smidsrød

2001-01-01

377

Acid rain in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain has been an issue of great concern in North America and Europe during the past several decades. However, due to\\u000a the passage of a number of recent regulations, most notably the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1990, there is an emerging\\u000a perception that the problem in these Western nations is nearing solution. The situation in

Neeloo Bhatti; David G. Streets; Wesley K. Foell

1992-01-01

378

Lipoic acid biosynthesis defects.  

PubMed

Lipoate is a covalently bound cofactor essential for five redox reactions in humans: in four 2-oxoacid dehydrogenases and the glycine cleavage system (GCS). Two enzymes are from the energy metabolism, ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase; and three are from the amino acid metabolism, branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase, 2-oxoadipate dehydrogenase, and the GCS. All these enzymes consist of multiple subunits and share a similar architecture. Lipoate synthesis in mitochondria involves mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis up to octanoyl-acyl-carrier protein; and three lipoate-specific steps, including octanoic acid transfer to glycine cleavage H protein by lipoyl(octanoyl) transferase 2 (putative) (LIPT2), lipoate synthesis by lipoic acid synthetase (LIAS), and lipoate transfer by lipoyltransferase 1 (LIPT1), which is necessary to lipoylate the E2 subunits of the 2-oxoacid dehydrogenases. The reduced form dihydrolipoate is reactivated by dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD). Mutations in LIAS have been identified that result in a variant form of nonketotic hyperglycinemia with early-onset convulsions combined with a defect in mitochondrial energy metabolism with encephalopathy and cardiomyopathy. LIPT1 deficiency spares the GCS, and resulted in a combined 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase deficiency and early death in one patient and in a less severely affected individual with a Leigh-like phenotype. As LIAS is an iron-sulphur-cluster-dependent enzyme, a number of recently identified defects in mitochondrial iron-sulphur cluster synthesis, including NFU1, BOLA3, IBA57, GLRX5 presented with deficiency of LIAS and a LIAS-like phenotype. As in DLD deficiency, a broader clinical spectrum can be anticipated for lipoate synthesis defects depending on which of the affected enzymes is most rate limiting. PMID:24777537

Mayr, Johannes A; Feichtinger, René G; Tort, Frederic; Ribes, Antonia; Sperl, Wolfgang

2014-07-01

379

Acid Deposition Sampling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides students with the opportunity to use analytical meters and instruments and perform acid deposition sampling. Students will collect samples from various sources over a period of time, then measure pH and develop graphs or charts. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Willey, Babe

2011-02-17

380

Modulation of membrane curvature by phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidic acid.  

PubMed

The local generation of phosphatidic acid plays a key role in the regulation of intracellular membrane transport through mechanisms which are largely unknown. Phosphatidic acid may recruit and activate downstream effectors, or change the biophysical properties of the membrane and directly induce membrane bending and/or destabilization. To evaluate these possibilities, we determined the phase properties of phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidic acid at physiological conditions of pH and ion concentrations. In single-lipid systems, unsaturated phosphatidic acid behaved as a cylindrical, bilayer-preferring lipid at cytosolic conditions (37 degrees C, pH 7.2, 0.5 mM free Mg2+), but acquired a type-II shape at typical intra-Golgi conditions, a mildly acidic pH and submillimolar free Ca2+ (pH 6.6-5.9, 0.3 mM Ca2+). Lysophosphatidic acid formed type-I lipid micelles in the absence of divalent cations, but anhydrous cation-lysophosphatidic acid bilayer complexes in their presence. These data suggest a similar molecular shape for phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidic acid at cytosolic conditions; however, experiments in mixed-lipid systems indicate that their shape is not identical. Lysophosphatidic acid stabilized the bilayer phase of unsaturated phosphatidylethanolamine, while the opposite effect was observed in the presence of phosphatidic acid. These results support the hypothesis that a conversion of lysophosphatidic acid into phosphatidic acid by endophilin or BARS (50 kDa brefeldin A ribosylated substrate) may induce negative spontaneous monolayer curvature and regulate endocytic and Golgi membrane fission. Alternative models for the regulation of membrane fission based on the strong dependence of the molecular shape of (lyso)phosphatidic acid on pH and divalent cations are also discussed. PMID:12656989

Kooijman, Edgar E; Chupin, Vladimir; de Kruijff, Ben; Burger, Koert N J

2003-03-01

381

Exposures to acidic aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Ambient monitoring of acid aerosols in four U.S. cities and in a rural region of southern Ontario clearly show distinct periods of strong acidity. Measurements made in Kingston, TN, and Steubenville, OH, resulted in 24-hr H+ ion concentrations exceeding 100 nmole/m/sup 3/ more than 10 times during summer months. Periods of elevated acidic aerosols occur less frequently in winter months. The H+ determined during episodic conditions in southern Ontario indicates that respiratory tract deposition can exceed the effects level reported in clinical studies. Observed 12-hr H+ concentrations exceeded 550 nmole/m/sup 3/ (approximately 27 micrograms/m/sup 3/ H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/). The maximum estimated 1-hr concentration exceeded 1500 nmole/m/sup 3/ for H+ ions. At these concentrations, an active child might receive more than 2000 nmole of H+ ion in 12 hr and in excess of 900 nmole during the hour when H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ exceeded 50 micrograms/m/sup 3/.

Spengler, J.D.; Keeler, G.J.; Koutrakis, P.; Ryan, P.B.; Raizenne, M.; Franklin, C.A.

1989-02-01

382

Exposures to acidic aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Ambient monitoring of acid aerosols in four U.S. cities and in a rural region of southern Ontario clearly show distinct periods of strong acidity. Measurements made in Kingston, TN, and Steubenville, OH, resulted in 24-hr H(+) ion concentrations exceeding 100 nmole/cu m more than 10 times during summer months. Periods of elevated acidic aerosols occur less frequently in winter months. The H(+) determined during episodic conditions in southern Ontario indicates that respiratory tract deposition can exceed the effects level reported in clinical studies. Observed 12-hr (H+) concentrations exceeded 550 nmole/cu m (approximately 27 microgram/cu m H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). The maximum estimated 1-hr concentration exceeded 1500 nmole/cu m for H(+) ions. At these concentrations, an active child might receive more than 2000 nmole of H(+) ion in 12 hr and in excess of 900 nmole during the hour when H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} exceeded 50 microgram/cu m.

Spengler, J.D.; Keeler, G.J.; Koutrakis, P.; Ryan, P.B.; Raizenne, M.

1989-01-01

383

Grading acid rain research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing concern with the environmental effects of acid rain has spawned a number of study groups in recent years, and now the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) has released what is essentially a study of a study. In January 1982, White House Science Advisor George Keyworth asked William Nierenberg, Director of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, and a panel of nine scientists to conduct a peer review of three separate reports on acid deposition in eastern North America that had been turned in by U.S.-Canadian scientific working groups.Those studies had been requisitioned by a 1980 Memorandum of Intent between the United States and Canada regarding transboundary air pollution. Overall, the Nierenberg peer review panel was “impressed with the efforts of the United States-Canadian Working Groups,” (labeled Groups 1, 2, and 3B), but it also found problems. While applauding the work groups' exhaustive search through the acid rain literature, the Nierenberg panel cited what they call an “overdependence on ‘soft’ literature,” or writings such as in-house reports and personal communications, which are outside the publicly available (and carefully scrutinized) body of scientific literature.

384

Microbial naphthenic Acid degradation.  

PubMed

Naphthenic acids (NAs) are an important group of trace organic pollutants predominantly comprising saturated aliphatic and alicyclic carboxylic acids. NAs are ubiquitous; occurring naturally in hydrocarbon deposits (petroleum, oil sands, bitumen, and crude oils) and also have widespread industrial uses. Consequently, NAs can enter the environment from both natural and anthropogenic processes. NAs are highly toxic, recalcitrant compounds that persist in the environment for many years, and it is important to develop efficient bioremediation strategies to decrease both their abundance and toxicity in the environment. However, the diversity of microbial communities involved in NA-degradation, and the mechanisms by which NAs are biodegraded, are poorly understood. This lack of knowledge is mainly due to the difficulties in identifying and purifying individual carboxylic acid compounds from complex NA mixtures found in the environment, for microbial biodegradation studies. This paper will present an overview of NAs, their origin and fate in the environment, and their toxicity to the biota. The review describes the microbial degradation of both naturally occurring and chemically synthesized NAs. Proposed pathways for aerobic NA biodegradation, factors affecting NA biodegradation rates, and possible bioremediation strategies are also discussed. PMID:20359455

Whitby, Corinne

2010-01-01

385

Acid rain: Reign of controversy  

SciTech Connect

Acid Rain is a primer on the science and politics of acid rain. Several introductory chapters describe in simple terms the relevant principles of water chemistry, soil chemistry, and plant physiology and discuss the demonstrated or postulated effects of acid rain on fresh waters and forests as well as on statuary and other exposed objects. There follow discussions on the economic and social implications of acid rain (for example, possible health effects) and on the sources, transport, and distribution of air pollutants.

Kahan, A.M.

1986-01-01

386

Enviropedia: Introduction to Acid Rain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides information about acid rain, a widespread term used to describe all forms of acid precipitation. The sources, nature, and chemistry of acid rain are discussed, along with its impact on buildings, soils, freshwater lakes, trees, and wildlife. Other topics include measuring, modeling, and monitoring acid rain; and vehicle and industrial emission controls. The problem of airborne pollutants migrating across international borders is also discussed.

387

Antioxidant properties of nitrocaffeic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of nitrodihydroxybenzenes and nitrocaffeic acids were prepared and their hydroxyl radical (OH°) and superoxide anion (O2?) scavenging activities and xanthine oxidase inhibition activities were evaluated. 2-Nitrocaffeic acid is the more potent O2? scavenger. 2- (and 5)-Nitrocaffeic acids are the more potent xanthine oxidase inhibitors.

Jean-Luc Grenier; Nicole Cotelle; Philippe Cotelle; Jean-Pierre Catteau

1996-01-01

388

Acid rain and dry deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book provides information on the formation of acid rain and the long-range transport of air pollutants. The effects of acid precipitation on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are highlighted and technical and policy issues associated with the delineation and implementation of control strategies for acid rain and dry deposition are covered. Dry deposition is addressed, with emphasis given to

Canter

1985-01-01

389

Acid rain: the international response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain or technically “acid deposition” has far reaching environmental, economic, political and international implications. It has been blamed for large?scale damage to aquatic ecosystems and forests in Scandinavia, southeastern Canada and the northeastern United States. A number of other countries have expressed concern about the possible affects of acid rain on water bodies, forests, agricultural crops and material structures.Never

Gordon L. Brady; Joseph C. Selle

1985-01-01

390

Carboxylic acid sorption regeneration process  

DOEpatents

Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks into an organic liquid phase or onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine thus forming an alkylammonium carboxylate which is dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); Poole, Loree J. (Baton Rouge, LA)

1995-01-01

391

Do We Need Gastric Acid?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from comparative anatomy and physiology studies indicates that gastric acid secretion developed during the evolution of vertebrates approximately 350 million years ago. The cellular mechanisms that produce gastric acid have been conserved over the millennia and therefore proton pump inhibitors have pharmacological effects in almost all relevant species. These observations suggest that gastric acid provides an important selective advantage;

D. Pohl; M. Fox; M. Fried; B. Göke; C. Prinz; H. Mönnikes; G. Rogler; M. Dauer; J. Keller; F. Lippl; I. Schiefke; U. Seidler; H. D. Allescher

2008-01-01

392

Carboxylic acid sorption regeneration process  

DOEpatents

Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks into an organic liquid phase or onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine thus forming an alkylammonium carboxylate which is dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine. 10 figs.

King, C.J.; Poole, L.J.

1995-05-02

393

Determination of the solubility products of nitrilotriacetic acid, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for the determination of solubility products for polyaminopolycarboxylic acids. The neutral protonated species of NTA (nitrilotriacetic acid), EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) were precipitated at low pH values. The amount of precipitate was quantified by gravimetry and complexometric titrations with a standard zinc(II) solution. The following solubility products were obtained: SH3NTA=10?16.36, SH4EDTA=10?24.66 and SH5DTPA=10?30.43.

Jouni Karhu; Leo Harju; Ari Ivaska

1999-01-01

394

Solvent extraction of inorganic acids  

E-print Network

and solubility of nitric acid and sulfuric acid with organic solvents have been published Olander, Donadieu, and Benedict (12) studied the 'istributlon of nitric acid between water and tributyl phosphate-hexane solvent nd dcharf and Gean. . oplis (1...(. ) reported on the system nit ic acid-water-n-butyl alcohols Distribution of sulfuric acid was m-de oy Bchlea and Gean- koplis (19) with n-butyl alcohol, by Gibby ( 7) with nitro- benzene and by Peakin (14) with pyri 'in~. Baldwin, Biggies an" Soldano (2...

Ysrael, Miguel Curie

2012-06-07

395

The politics of acid rain  

SciTech Connect

This work examines and compares the acid rain policies through the different political systems of Canada, Great Britain and the United States. Because the flow of acid rain can transcend national boundaries, acid rain has become a crucial international problem. According to the author, because of differences in governmental institutions and structure, the extent of governmental intervention in the industrial economy, the degree of reliance on coal for power generation, and the extent of acid rain damage, national responses to the acid rain problem have varied.

Wilcher, M.E. (Pennsylvania State Univ., New Kensington, PA (US))

1989-01-01

396

Tested Demonstrations: Color Oscillations in the Formic Acid-Nitric Acid-Sulfuric Acid System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are procedures for demonstrating the production of color oscillations when nitric acid is added to a formic acid/concentrated sulfuric acid mixture. Because of safety considerations, "Super-8" home movie of the color changes was found to be satisfactory for demonstration purposes. (JN)

Raw, C. J. G.; And Others

1983-01-01

397

Amino acids in Arctic aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amino acids are significant components of atmospheric aerosols, affecting organic nitrogen input to marine ecosystems, atmospheric radiation balance, and the global water cycle. The wide range of amino acid reactivities suggest that amino acids may serve as markers of atmospheric transport and deposition of particles. Despite this potential, few measurements have been conducted in remote areas to assess amino acid concentrations and potential sources. Polar regions offer a unique opportunity to investigate atmospheric processes and to conduct source apportionment studies of such compounds. In order to better understand the importance of amino acid compounds in the global atmosphere, we determined free amino acids (FAAs) in seventeen size-segregated aerosol samples collected in a polar station in the Svalbard Islands from 19 April until 14 September 2010. We used an HPLC coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS) to analyze 20 amino acids to quantify compounds at fmol m-3 levels. Mean total FAA concentration was 1070 fmol m-3 where serine and glycine were the most abundant compounds in almost all samples and accounted for 45-60% of the total amino acid relative abundance. The other eighteen compounds had average concentrations between 0.3 and 98 fmol m-3. The higher amino acid concentrations were present in the ultrafine aerosol fraction (<0.49 ?m) and accounted for the majority of the total amino acid content. Local marine sources dominate the boreal summer amino acid concentrations, with the exception of the regional input from Icelandic volcanics.

Scalabrin, E.; Zangrando, R.; Barbaro, E.; Kehrwald, N. M.; Gabrieli, J.; Barbante, C.; Gambaro, A.

2012-07-01

398

Amino acids in Arctic aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amino acids are significant components of atmospheric aerosols, affecting organic nitrogen input to marine ecosystems, atmospheric radiation balance, and the global water cycle. The wide range of amino acid reactivities suggest that amino acids may serve as markers of atmospheric transport and deposition of particles. Despite this potential, few measurements have been conducted in remote areas to assess amino acid concentrations and potential sources. Polar regions offer a unique opportunity to investigate atmospheric processes and to conduct source apportionment studies of such compounds. In order to better understand the importance of amino acid compounds in the global atmosphere, we determined free amino acids (FAAs) in seventeen size-segregated aerosol samples collected in a polar station in the Svalbard Islands from 19 April until 14 September 2010. We used an HPLC coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS) to analyze 20 amino acids and quantify compounds at fmol m-3 levels. Mean total FAA concentration was 1070 fmol m-3 where serine and glycine were the most abundant compounds in almost all samples and accounted for 45-60% of the total amino acid relative abundance. The other eighteen compounds had average concentrations between 0.3 and 98 fmol m-3. The higher amino acid concentrations were present in the ultrafine aerosol fraction (< 0.49 ?m) and accounted for the majority of the total amino acid content. Local marine sources dominate the boreal summer amino acid concentrations, with the exception of the regional input from Icelandic volcanic emissions.

Scalabrin, E.; Zangrando, R.; Barbaro, E.; Kehrwald, N. M.; Gabrieli, J.; Barbante, C.; Gambaro, A.

2012-11-01

399

Molecular Structure of Picric acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Picric Acid was first discovered in 1771 by a British Chemist named Peter Woulfe by treatment of indigo with nitric acid. It is most commonly seen in its yellow, water-soluble, crystalline form. For this reason, picric acid first saw use as a dyeing agent in textiles. However, around 1849 it was discovered (for obvious reasons) that picric acid is a shock, heat, and friction-sensitive explosive. Its first use as an explosive material came in military weaponry: torpedoes in particular due to its shock-sensitive nature not requiring a detonator to explode on contact with a target. However, picric acid was found to be highly corrosive to metals, making the weapons very difficult to handle and the acid itself difficult to store. Today, picric acid is used more widely as an ingredient in the manufacture of inert dyes and stable explosives such as dynamite.

2002-09-23

400

Molecular Structure of Sorbic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sorbic acid is a colorless or white crystalline powder, with a weak characteristic odor and slightly acidic taste. It may be obtained from berries of the mountain ash or prepared synthetically by condensing crotonaldehyde and malonic acid in pyridine solution. Sorbic acid is a polyunsaturated fat used to inhibit molds and yeast, is a fungistatic agent for foods (especially cheeses, wine and baked goods). The main use of sorbic acid is as a preservative in foods, animal feeds, tobacco, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, as well in packing materials for these substances and in other products that come in contact with human or animal skin in some way. Sorbic acid is also used as an intermediate for plasticizers and lubricants. Sorbic acid reacts with potassium to make potassium sorbate and with calcium to make calcium sorbate.

2004-11-11

401

Corals on Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The objective of this inquiry-based lesson is for learners to gain an understanding of how increasing ocean acidity can affect the calcification of marine organisms. During this activity, learners: (1) design an experiment to quantify the CaCO3 concentration of two invertebrate skeletal samples, one that has been soaked in normal seawater and another in a low pH solution, and (2) use critical thinking and discussion to evaluate possible explanations for the difference in the skeletal CaCO3 compositions. This lesson plan includes a post-activity demonstration, which shows how the dissolution of CO2 into the ocean lowers pH.

Boleman, Casey L.; Gravinese, Philip M.; Muse, Ellen N.; Marston, Andrea E.; Windsor, John G.

2013-01-01

402

Microbial hyaluronic acid production.  

PubMed

Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a commercially valuable medical biopolymer increasingly produced through microbial fermentation. Viscosity limits product yield and the focus of research and development has been on improving the key quality parameters, purity and molecular weight. Traditional strain and process optimisation has yielded significant improvements, but appears to have reached a limit. Metabolic engineering is providing new opportunities and HA produced in a heterologous host is about to enter the market. In order to realise the full potential of metabolic engineering, however, greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying chain termination is required. PMID:15599518

Chong, Barrie Fong; Blank, Lars M; Mclaughlin, Richard; Nielsen, Lars K

2005-01-01

403

Action of picolinic acid and structurally related pyridine carboxylic acids on quinolinic acid-induced cortical cholinergic damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Picolinic acid, a pyridine monocarboxylic acid derived from tryptophan metabolism by the kynurenine pathway, was shown to block cortical cholinergic neurotoxicity induced by quinolinic acid (QUIN), a pyridine dicarboxylic acid yielded by the same pathway. This study examined the specificity of the anti-toxic effect of picolinic acid by comparing its effect with several structurally related mono- and dicarboxylic acids, and

J. Cockhill; K. Jhamandas; R. J. Boegman; R. J. Beninger

1992-01-01

404

Solid-phase extraction of acidic herbicides.  

PubMed

A discussion of solid-phase extraction method development for acidic herbicides is presented that reviews sample matrix modification, extraction sorbent selection, derivatization procedures for gas chromatographic analysis, and clean-up procedures for high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis. Acidic herbicides are families of compounds that include derivatives of phenol (dinoseb, dinoterb and pentachlorophenol), benzoic acid (acifluorfen, chloramben, dicamba, 3,5-dichlorobenzoic acid and dacthal--a dibenzoic acid derivative), acetic acid [2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T)], propanoic acid [dichlorprop, fluazifop, haloxyfop, 2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propanoic acid (MCPP) and silvex], butanoic acid [4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)butanoic acid (2,4-DB) and 4-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)butanoic acid (MCPB)], and other miscellaneous acids such as pyridinecarboxylic acid (picloram) and thiadiazine dioxide (bentazon). PMID:10941675

Wells, M J; Yu, L Z

2000-07-14

405

Nucleic Acid Detection Methods  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3'-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated.

Smith, Cassandra L. (Boston, MA); Yaar, Ron (Brookline, MA); Szafranski, Przemyslaw (Boston, MA); Cantor, Charles R. (Boston, MA)

1998-05-19

406

Nucleic acid detection methods  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3{prime}-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated. 18 figs.

Smith, C.L.; Yaar, R.; Szafranski, P.; Cantor, C.R.

1998-05-19

407

Growth of nitric acid hydrates on thin sulfuric acid films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Type I polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are thought to nucleate and grow on stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSAs). To model this system, thin sulfuric acid films were exposed to water and nitric acid vapors (1-3 x 10(exp -4) Torr H2O and 1-2.5 x 10(exp -6) Torr HNO3) and subjected to cooling and heating cycles. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to probe the phase of the sulfuric acid and to identify the HNO3/H2O films that condensed. Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) was observed to grow on crystalline sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) films. NAT also condensed in/on supercooled H2SO4 films without causing crystallization of the sulfuric acid. This growth is consistent with NAT nucleation from ternary solutions as the first step in PSC formation.

Iraci, Laura T.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Wilson, Margaret A.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

1994-01-01

408

Sedimentation of sulfuric acid in acid tars from current production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid tars obtained in treating T-750, KhF-12, and I-8A oils were investigated for purposes of recovering sulfuric acid and asphalt binders from the compositions and of determining the effects of storage time on the recovery. The consumption and sedimentation levels of sulfuric acid during storage for different periods and at different temperatures were assessed. The characteristics of an asphalt binder

T. L. Denisova; A. F. Frolov; A. N. Aminov; S. P. Novosel'tsev

1987-01-01

409

[Modification of hyaluronic acid with aromatic amino acids].  

PubMed

Hyaluronic acid was modified with aromatic amino acids (5-aminosalicylic, 4-aminosalicylic, anthranilic, and p-aminobenzoic) in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide. The modified glycans contained 9-43% of arylamide groups and 10-33% of isoureidocarbonyl groups depending on the nature of the amino acid. Reduction with sodium borohydride allowed the conversion of isoureidocarbonyl groups into hydroxymethyl groups. PMID:15787219

Ponedel'kina, I Iu; Odinokov, V N; Vakhrusheva, E S; Golikova, M T; Khalilov, L M; Dzhemilov, U M

2005-01-01

410

Conversion of phenolics to lignans: Sinapic acid to thomasidioic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in sinapic acid when exposed to aqueous alkaline conditions were elucidated. Sinapic acid was exposed to a volatile\\u000a buffer (pH 8.5) for 24 h, lyophilized, acidified, extracted, and characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy.\\u000a The product obtained was identified as the lignan thomasidioic acid. This identification was confirmed by comparison with\\u000a a synthesized authentic sample of thomasidioic

M. I. Rubino; S. D. Arntfield; J. L. Charlton

1995-01-01

411

Molecular Structure of Butyric acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

n-Butyric acid is a substance that was isolated from butter in 1869. Butyric acid means, in Latin, the acid of butter as it was first discovered in rancid butter. It is found most commonly in butter, but can also be present in some fruits. Butyric acid is also produced synthetically, through fermentation of various carbohydrates, to be used as a flavoring agent in various food products. Applications of butyric acid are as an additive to food, flavorings, varnishes, perfumes, pharmaceuticals and disinfectants. It is also used for the production of plastics, plasticizers, surfactants and textile auxiliaries. Butyric acid and its derivatives are also being seriously considered around the world as potential anticancer agents.

2002-10-11

412

Shaping up nucleic acid computation  

PubMed Central

Summary of recent advances (abstract) Nucleic acid-based nanotechnology has always been perceived as novel, but has begun to move from theoretical demonstrations to practical applications. In particular, the large address spaces available to nucleic acids can be exploited to encode algorithms and/or act as circuits, and thereby process molecular information. In this review we revisit several milestones in the field of nucleic acid-based computation, but also highlight how the prospects for nucleic acid computation go beyond just a large address space. Functional nucleic acid elements (aptamers, ribozymes, and deoxyribozymes) can serve as inputs and outputs to the environment, and can act as logical elements. Into the future, the chemical dynamics of nucleic acids may prove as useful as hybridization for computation. PMID:20538451

Chen, Xi

2010-01-01

413

Molecular Structure of Salicylic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Salicylic acid is a colorless to white crystalline powder with a sweetish acrid taste that occurs naturally in many microorganisms and plants in very small amounts. It is also made synthetically and used as preservative of food products in some countries and as an antiseptic in mouthwashes and toothpastes. This chemical is also used in the manufacture of methyl salicylates, acetylasalicylic acid (aspirin) and other salicylates. Salicylic acid is a chemical intermediate in the synthesis of dyestuff, salicylate esters and salts. It is prepared commercially by heating sodium phenolate (the sodium salt of phenol) with carbon dioxide under pressure to form sodium salicylate, which is treated with sulfuric acid to liberate salicylic acid. Salicylic acid is quite irritating to skin and mucosa and it destroys epithelial cells. Absorption of large amounts can cause vomiting, abdominal pain, acidosis and mental disturbances.

2004-11-11

414

Clinical use of acid steatocrit.  

PubMed

Malabsorption of fat is an important gastrointestinal cause of malnutrition and growth retardation in childhood. The gold standard for the evaluation of fat malabsorption is the faecal fat balance method. The acid steatocrit method has recently been introduced as a simple method to evaluate faecal fat. The present study was aimed at evaluating the acid steatocrit in clinical practice. Faecal fat excretion and acid steatocrit results were determined in 42 children, half with and half without fat malabsorption. Acid steatocrit results correlated significantly with both faecal fat excretion (p < 0.01) and faecal fat concentration (p < 0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of the acid steatocrit for the diagnosis of malabsorption were 90% and 100%, respectively. We consider the acid steatocrit method useful for the screening and monitoring of patients with steatorrhoea. PMID:9183483

Van den Neucker, A; Pestel, N; Tran, T M; Forget, P P; Veeze, H J; Bouquet, J; Sinaasappel, M

1997-05-01

415

Production of polymalic acid and malic acid by Aureobasidium pullulans fermentation and acid hydrolysis.  

PubMed

Malic acid is a dicarboxylic acid widely used in the food industry and also a potential C4 platform chemical that can be produced from biomass. However, microbial fermentation for direct malic acid production is limited by low product yield, titer, and productivity due to end-product inhibition. In this work, a novel process for malic acid production from polymalic acid (PMA) fermentation followed by acid hydrolysis was developed. First, a PMA-producing Aureobasidium pullulans strain ZX-10 was screened and isolated. This microbe produced PMA as the major fermentation product at a high-titer equivalent to 87.6?g/L of malic acid and high-productivity of 0.61?g/L?h in free-cell fermentation in a stirred-tank bioreactor. Fed-batch fermentations with cells immobilized in a fibrous-bed bioreactor (FBB) achieved the highest product titer of 144.2?g/L and productivity of 0.74?g/L?h. The fermentation produced PMA was purified by adsorption with IRA-900 anion-exchange resins, achieving a ?100% purity and a high recovery rate of 84%. Pure malic acid was then produced from PMA by hydrolysis with 2?M sulfuric acid at 85°C, which followed the first-order reaction kinetics. This process provides an efficient and economical way for PMA and malic acid production, and is promising for industrial application. PMID:23436475

Zou, Xiang; Zhou, Yipin; Yang, Shang-Tian

2013-08-01

416

Racemization of Meteoritic Amino Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meteorites may have contributed amino acids to the prebiotic Earth, affecting the global ratio of right-handed to left-handed (D\\/L) molecules. We calculate D\\/L ratios for seven biological, alpha-hydrogen, protein amino acids over a variety of plausible parent body thermal histories, based on meteorite evidence and asteroid modeling. We show that amino acids in meteorites do not necessarily undergo complete racemization

Barbara A. Cohen; Christopher F. Chyba

2000-01-01

417

Certain derivatives of aminomethylphosphonic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1.Experiments on the acylatlon of aminomethylphosphonic acid show that it proceeds with greater difficulty than the acylation of glycine. Acetamidomethyl-, (chloroacetamido)methyl-, and phthalimidamethyl-phosphonic acids have been prepared.2.The methylation of aminomethylphosphonic acid has been effected by means of methyl iodide in a methanol mediums, and it has been shown that a quaternary iodide derived from the phosphonobetaine is formed. It

Me Io Kabachnik; T. Ya. Medved

1953-01-01

418

Polyaminopolycarboxylic Acids derived from Polyethyleneamines  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE effects of increasing length of the alkylene bridge on acid dissociation constants and metal chelate stability constants of homologues of ethylene-diaminetetra-acetic acid derived from polymethylene-diamines have been reported within recent years1. The effects of an increase in the polydentate and polyelectrolyte nature of polyaminopolycarboxylic acids derived from polyethylene polyamines have not been investigated except for a brief report on

Albert E. Frost

1956-01-01

419

All-trans retinoic acid regulates hepatic bile acid homeostasis.  

PubMed

Retinoic acid (RA) and bile acids share common roles in regulating lipid homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. In addition, the receptor for RA (retinoid x receptor) is a permissive partner of the receptor for bile acids, farnesoid x receptor (FXR/NR1H4). Thus, RA can activate the FXR-mediated pathway as well. The current study was designed to understand the effect of all-trans RA on bile acid homeostasis. Mice were fed an all-trans RA-supplemented diet and the expression of 46 genes that participate in regulating bile acid homeostasis was studied. The data showed that all-trans RA has a profound effect in regulating genes involved in synthesis and transport of bile acids. All-trans RA treatment reduced the gene expression levels of Cyp7a1, Cyp8b1, and Akr1d1, which are involved in bile acid synthesis. All-trans RA also decreased the hepatic mRNA levels of Lrh-1 (Nr5a2) and Hnf4? (Nr2a1), which positively regulate the gene expression of Cyp7a1 and Cyp8b1. Moreover, all-trans RA induced the gene expression levels of negative regulators of bile acid synthesis including hepatic Fgfr4, Fxr, and Shp (Nr0b2) as well as ileal Fgf15. All-trans RA also decreased the expression of Abcb11 and Slc51b, which have a role in bile acid transport. Consistently, all-trans RA reduced hepatic bile acid levels and the ratio of CA/CDCA, as demonstrated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The data suggest that all-trans RA-induced SHP may contribute to the inhibition of CYP7A1 and CYP8B1, which in turn reduces bile acid synthesis and affects lipid absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25175738

Yang, Fan; He, Yuqi; Liu, Hui-Xin; Tsuei, Jessica; Jiang, Xiaoyue; Yang, Li; Wang, Zheng-Tao; Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne

2014-10-15

420

Organic Acid Production by Basidiomycetes  

PubMed Central

Sixty-seven strains belonging to 47 species of Basidiomycetes were examined for their acid-producing abilities in glucose media, in both the presence and absence of CaCO3, in stationary and shake cultures. Some strains were found to produce large quantities of oxalic acid. The oxalic acid-producing strains could be separated into two groups. Strains of one group (mostly brown-rot fungi) were able to produce oxalic acid, regardless of whether CaCO3 was present in the medium. Strains of the other group (mostly white-rot fungi) were characterized by their ability to produce oxalic acid only when CaCO3 was added to the medium. With the latter group, shake-culturing was generally more effective than stationary culturing in respect to acid production. In the CaCO3-containing media, Schizophyllum commune, Merulius tremellosus, and Porodisculus pendulus were found to produce substantial amounts of L-malic acid as a main metabolic product, along with small quantities of oxalic and other acids in shake cultures. Especially, S. commune and M. tremellosus may be employed as malic acid-producing species. PMID:5867653

Takao, Shoichi

1965-01-01

421

[Ulcer therapy without acid inhibition].  

PubMed

The mechanism of action of ulcer drugs without acid inhibition appears to involve improvement of defensive factors of the gastroduodenal mucosa. The concept of ulcer healing without acid inhibition is attractive for theoretical reasons, because doubts have arisen about the safety of elevation of intragastric pH, especially in long-term treatment of peptic ulcer disease. Ulcer drugs that do not affect gastric acidity may therefore be preferred, provided they compare favorably to the best acid inhibitors available in terms of efficacy, adverse effects and other requirements. Among these drugs, sucralfate fulfills these criteria to a large extent. PMID:6547542

Koelz, H R

1984-05-19

422

Molecular Structure of Lauric acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lauric acid was first discovered in lauraceae seeds by Marsson T in 1849. The highest content of lauric acid is found in a mother's breast milk and lauraceae seeds. It is used in foods such as vegetable shortenings as a defoaming agent and industrially as a booster for soaps and detergents. Also it is used in cosmetics, insecticides, and food additives. Additionally, Lauric acid is a medium chain fatty acid, which forms monolaurin in the human or animal body. This compound is an antiviral, antibacterial, and antiprotozoal monoglyceride that destroys lipid coated viruses such as HIV, herpes, cytomegalovirus, and influenza.

2002-10-11

423

Acidic gas capture by diamines  

DOEpatents

Compositions and methods related to the removal of acidic gas. In particular, the present disclosure relates to a composition and method for the removal of acidic gas from a gas mixture using a solvent comprising a diamine (e.g., piperazine) and carbon dioxide. One example of a method may involve a method for removing acidic gas comprising contacting a gas mixture having an acidic gas with a solvent, wherein the solvent comprises piperazine in an amount of from about 4 to about 20 moles/kg of water, and carbon dioxide in an amount of from about 0.3 to about 0.9 moles per mole of piperazine.

Rochelle, Gary (Austin, TX); Hilliard, Marcus (Missouri City, TX)

2011-05-10

424

The History of Acid Inhibition  

E-print Network

I review here the history of inhibition of gastric acid. References are limited to books and reviews in which detailed citations can be found. ANTACIDS In ancient times, acids were not understood in the modem chemical sense but merely as bitter sour liquids [1]. Some foods were thought acidic, and if the stomach had an ulcer, everything acrid was to be avoided and soothing remedies such as starch and milk used. Antacids neutralize, rather than inhibit, acid secretion but could not be rationally prescribed until acids were understood in the modern chemical sense. Hydrochloric acid has been known since the early fifteenth century, thought to be in the stomach by Paracelsus in the sixteenth and by Van Helmont in the seventeenth century, but it was not until 1823 that Prout definitively identified free hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice of man and animals and made quantitative measurements of its concentration. Antacids became widely used only this century, especially in association with Sippytype diets for ulcers [2]. As recently as the 1960s, orthodox gastroenterologists believed that gastric acidity was reduced by minimizing the amount of acid-stimulating foods such

J. H. Barona

1994-01-01

425

Oxidative destruction of perfluorooctane sulfonate using boron-doped diamond film electrodes.  

PubMed

This research investigated the oxidative destruction of perfluorooctane sulfonate at boron-doped diamond film electrodes. Experiments measuring oxidation rates of PFOS were performed over a range in current densities and temperatures using a rotating disk electrode (RDE) reactor and a parallel plate flow-through reactor. The oxidation of PFOS yielded sulfate, fluoride, carbon dioxide, and trace levels of trifluoroacetic acid. Reaction rates in the RDE reactor were zeroth order in PFOS concentration. Reaction rates in the flow-through reactor were mass-transfer-limited and were pseudo-first-order in PFOS concentration, with a half-life of 5.3 min at a current density of 20 mA/cm2. Eyring analysis of the zeroth order rate constants at a fixed electrode potential yielded an apparent activation energy of 4.2 kJ/mol for PFOS oxidation. Density functional theory (DFT) simulations were used to calculate activation barriers for different possible reaction mechanisms, including oxidation by hydroxyl radicals at different sites on the PFOS molecule, and direct electron transfer. A comparison of the experimentally measured apparent activation energy with those calculated using DFT indicated that the most likely rate-limiting step for PFOS oxidation was direct electron transfer. PMID:18767674

Carter, Kimberly E; Farrell, James

2008-08-15

426

Acid rain on acid soil: a new perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain is widely believed to be responsible for acidifying soil and water in areas of North America and northern Europe. However, factors commonly considered to make landscapes susceptible to acidification by acid rain are the same factors long known to strongly acidify soils through the natural processes of soil formation. Recovery from extreme and widespread careless land use has

E. C. Krug; C. R. Frink

1983-01-01

427

Acid zeta function and ajoint acid zeta function  

E-print Network

In this paper we set up the theory of acid zeta function and ajoint acid zeta function, based on the theory, we point out a reason to doubt the truth of the Riemann hypothesis and also as a consequence, we give out some new RH equivalences.

Jining Gao

2010-03-16

428

Peptidases and amino acid catabolism in lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conversion of peptides to free amino acids and their subsequent utilization is a central metabolic activity in prokaryotes. At least 16 peptidases from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been characterized biochemically and\\/or genetically. Among LAB, the peptidase systems of Lactobacillus helveticus and Lactococcus lactis have been examined in greatest detail. While there are homologous enzymes common to both systems,

Jeffrey E. Christensen; Edward G. Dudley; Jeffrey A. Pederson; James L. Steele

1999-01-01

429

Fast HPLC-ECD analysis of ascorbic acid, dehydroascorbic acid and uric acid.  

PubMed

A robust and rapid high-pressure liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) method was developed and validated for the accurate determination of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA), in human plasma. Dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA) was indirectly measured by subtracting native ascorbic acid from total ascorbic acid concentrations; the latter was obtained after chemical reduction. A stable electrochemical active internal standard (homogentisic acid) was added for the accurate quantification of the analytes. The analyses were performed on a reverse-phase column with traditional HPLC and ultra-HPLC (UHPLC). The UHPLC method showed increased sensitivity with detection limit of 0.05ng for both AA and UA, 2 times lower compared to conventional HPLC. UHPLC also reduced run times fourfold with less waste generation. Both assays showed good accuracy and precision, the intra- and inter-day CVs of AA and UA analysis are less than 7%. PMID:19250886

Li, Xingnan; Franke, Adrian A

2009-04-01

430

Perfluorinated compounds in sediments from the Daliao River system of northeast China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have received much attention on their distributions in various matrixes of different areas globally, however, little is known about their existences in river sediments of China. In this study, eight target PFCs including perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA) and perfluorotetradecanoic acid

Jia Bao; Yihe Jin; Wei Liu; Xiaorong Ran; Zhixu Zhang

2009-01-01

431

Effects of elevated dissolved carbon dioxide and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, given singly and in combination, on steroidogenic and biotransformation pathways of Atlantic cod.  

PubMed

In the aquatic environments, the predicted changes in water temperature, pO2 and pCO2 could result in hypercapnic and hypoxic conditions for aquatic animals. These conditions are thought to affect several basic cellular and physiological mechanisms. Yet, possible adverse effects of elevated CO2 (hypercapnia) on teleost fish, as well as combined effects with emerging and legacy environmental contaminants are poorly investigated. In this study, juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were divided into groups and exposed to three different water bath PFOS exposure regimes (0 (control), 100 and 200 ?g L(-1)) for 5 days at 1h/day, followed by three different CO2-levels (normocapnia, moderate (0.3%) and high (0.9%)). The moderate CO2 level is the predicted near future (within year 2300) level, while 0.9% represent severe hypercapnia. Tissue samples were collected at 3, 6 and 9 days after initiated CO2 exposure. Effects on the endocrine and biotransformation systems were examined by analyzing levels of sex steroid hormones (E2, T, 11-KT) and transcript expression of estrogen responsive genes (ER?, Vtg-?, Vtg-?, ZP2 and ZP3). In addition, transcripts for genes encoding xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (cyp1a and cyp3a) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1?) were analyzed. Hypercapnia alone produced increased levels of sex steroid hormones (E2, T, 11-KT) with concomitant mRNA level increase of estrogen responsive genes, while PFOS produced weak and time-dependent effects on E2-inducible gene transcription. Combined PFOS and hypercapnia exposure produced increased effects on sex steroid levels as compared to hypercapnia alone, with transcript expression patterns that are indicative of time-dependent interactive effects. Exposure to hypercapnia singly or in combination with PFOS produced modulations of the biotransformation and hypoxic responses that were apparently concentration- and time-dependent. Loading plots of principal component analysis (PCA) produced a significant grouping of individual scores according to the exposure scenarios at day 6 and 9. Overall, the PCA analysis produced a unique clustering of variables that signifies a positive correlation between exposure to high PFOS concentration and mRNA expression of E2 responsive genes. Notably, this pattern was not evident for individuals exposed to PFOS concentrations in combination with elevated CO2 scenarios. To our knowledge, the present study is the first of its kind, to evaluate such effects using combined exposure to a perfluoroalkyl sulfonate and elevated levels of CO2 saturation, representative of future oceanic climate change, in any fish species or lower vertebrate. PMID:25063886

Preus-Olsen, Gunnhild; Olufsen, Marianne O; Pedersen, Sindre Andre; Letcher, Robert J; Arukwe, Augustine

2014-10-01

432

Molecular Structure of Isophthalic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Isophthalic acid is one of the three simple aromatic dicarboxylic acids with the carboxyl groups in the meta postions. It is used to produce isophthalic polyester that together with other components is used in resin systems for flame retardants and in corrosion prevention.

2008-01-10

433

Acetic Acid Catalyzed Carbon Aerogels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prepared carbon aerogels with a wide range of structural properties and densities using the weak acetic acid as a catalyst. Two series of acetic acid catalyzed carbon aerogels with different dilution of the catalyst and the monomers were investigated accurately. Structural investigation was performed via (U)SAXS, gas sorption and SEM. The pore and particle size can be tailored according

R. Brandt; R. Petricevic; H. Pröbstle; J. Fricke

2003-01-01

434

Acid rain & electric utilities II  

SciTech Connect

This document presents reports which were presented at the Acid Rain and Electric Utilities Conference. Topics include environmental issues and electric utilities; acid rain program overview; global climate change and carbon dioxide; emissions data management; compliance; emissions control; allowance and trading; nitrogen oxides; and assessment. Individual reports have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

NONE

1997-12-31

435

Ricinoleic acid-based biopolymers.  

PubMed

Polyanhydrides synthesized from pure ricinoleic acid half-esters with maleic and succinic anhydrides possess desired physicochemical and mechanical properties for use as drug carriers. Ricinoleic acid maleate or succinate diacid half-esters were prepared from the reaction of crude ricinoleic acid (85% content) with succinic or maleic anhydride. The pure diacid monomers were obtained by chromatography purification through silica gel using petroleum ether/ethyl acetate/acetic acid (80/30/1 v/v/v) mixture as eluent. The pure diacid monomers (>99%) were polymerized by melt condensation to yield film-forming polymers with molecular weights exceeding 40,000 with a polydispersity of 2. Extensive biocompatibility study demonstrated their toxicological inertness and biodegradability. Their rate of elimination from rats in the course of about 4-6 weeks was faster than that found for similar fatty acid-based polyanhydrides previously tested. In vitro studies showed that these polymers underwent rapid hydrolytic degradation in 10 days. Methotrexate release from the polymers was not affected by the initial polymer molecular weight in the range of 10,000-35,000. The in vitro drug release correlated with the degradation of the polymers. The fatty acid ester monomers were further degraded to its counterparts, ricinoleic acid and succinic or maleic acid. PMID:10397984

Teomim, D; Nyska, A; Domb, A J

1999-06-01

436

Acid Precipitation: Causes and Consequences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is the first of three articles in a series on the acid rain problem in recent years. Discussed are the causes of acid precipitation and its consequences for the abiotic and biotic components of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and for man-made materials. (Author/SA)

Babich, Harvey; And Others

1980-01-01

437

The Canadian acid rain strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In November 1994, Canadian Energy and Environment Ministers announced their intention to develop a long-term domestic acid rain strategy for post-2000. The strategy would address the need for further emission reductions within Canada as well as the need for further emission reductions in the United States for those sources and pollutants that result in continuing negative impacts from acid deposition

G Fenech

1998-01-01

438

The Acid Rain Differential Game  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers an acid rain differential game. Countries emit sulphur which is partly transferred to other countries. Depositions above critical loads ultimately destroy the soil. Countries face a trade-off between the costs of emission reductions and the damage to the soil due to the depletion of the acid buffers. Because of the transboundary externalities the outcome will depend on

Karl-Göran Mäler; Aart De Zeeuw

1998-01-01

439

Acid-Base Titration Applet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acid-Base titration applet that plots pH changes as student adds acid or base. Gives choice of indicators (only two right now). Compares plots for titration of traditional solution and a buffered solution (several choices for comparison). Can alter starting concentrations.

Usc