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1

Dietary intake estimate for perfluorooctanesulphonic acid (PFOS) and other perfluorocompounds (PFCs) in UK retail foods following determination using standard addition LC–MS\\/MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of 252 food samples (UK-produced and imported) purchased from a variety of retail outlets in the UK was undertaken for the presence of perfluorooctanesulphonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and nine other perfluorocompounds (PFCs). A limit of quantification (LOQ) of 1 µg\\/kg was achieved for all target analytes, in all samples. Standard addition was used for quantification of

D. B. Clarke; V. A. Bailey; A. Routledge; A. S. Lloyd; S. Hird; D. N. Mortimer; M. Gem

2010-01-01

2

Dietary intake estimate for perfluorooctanesulphonic acid (PFOS) and other perfluorocompounds (PFCs) in UK retail foods following determination using standard addition LC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

The analysis of 252 food samples (UK-produced and imported) purchased from a variety of retail outlets in the UK was undertaken for the presence of perfluorooctanesulphonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and nine other perfluorocompounds (PFCs). A limit of quantification (LOQ) of 1 microg/kg was achieved for all target analytes, in all samples. Standard addition was used for quantification of PFC levels. All 11 of the targeted PFCs were detected in 75 individual food items. In 70% of the samples, including all meat other than offal, none of the analytes were present above the LOD. The highest levels found were 59 microg/kg perfluorooctanesulphonic acid (PFOS) and 63 microg/kg total PFCs (SigmaPFCs) in an eel sample, and 40 microg/kg PFOS (62 microg/kg SigmaPFCs) in a whitebait sample. The highest level in an offal sample was 10 microg/kg, in a wild roe deer liver. There were six samples with SigmaPFCs >15 microg/kg (fish, shellfish, crustaceans), a further seven samples with SigmaPFCs ranging 11-15 microg/kg (including a liver), nine with SigmaPFCs ranging 6-10 microg/kg (fish and livers), 31 with SigmaPFCs in the range 2-5 microg/kg (including kidneys, popcorn and processed peas) and a further 22 with SigmaPFCs close to the LOD of 1 microg/kg (including eggs and potatoes). These concentrations indicate that UK consumers are being exposed to a low level of PFC contamination from food. The estimated upper bound dietary intake of 10 ng/kg bodyweight (bw)/day of PFOS for average adult consumers is well below the 0.15 microg (150 ng)/kg bw tolerable daily intake (TDI) set by the European Food Safety Authority. The lower bound adult dietary intake estimate of 1 ng/kg bw/day is similar to estimates undertaken and reported in countries such as Canada, Germany and Spain. PMID:20198525

Clarke, D B; Bailey, V A; Routledge, A; Lloyd, A S; Hird, S; Mortimer, D N; Gem, M

2010-04-01

3

Destruction of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) by ball milling.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have received high concerns due to their extreme persistence, and very few technologies have been reported for their complete destruction. For sound PFCs wastes disposal, mechanochemical method was employed using a planetary ball mill. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) was identified as the best comilling reagent and nearly complete destruction of both PFOS and PFOA was realized. The measured water-soluble fluoride accounted for most of the organic fluorine. The final products of PFOS after treatment were shown to be KF and K2SO4 by XRD analysis. The mass ratio between PFOS and KOH significantly affected the fluoride recovery but not for PFOS destruction and the sulfate recovery. The gradual formation of sulfate and fluoride reveals that the degradation of PFOS is initiated with the dissociation of the sulfonate group. FTIR spectra further showed the disappearance of the -CF3 and -CF2- groups with the generation of sulfate. The cleavage of C-F bonds in PFOS and the formation of fluoride ion were also identified by XPS spectra. On the basis of these results, possible reaction pathways were proposed. The approach was also successfully applied for the destruction of PFOS and PFOA homologues with different chain lengths. PMID:23676146

Zhang, Kunlun; Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang; Zhang, Qiwu; Deng, Shubo; Wang, Bin

2013-05-28

4

Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) in Water Environment of Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, there has been increasing concern about perfluorinated compounds, especially perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and\\u000a perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) due to their biotic and abiotic persistence and chronic toxicity. To characterize the spatial\\u000a distribution and seasonal variation of PFOS and PFOA in the aquatic and oceanic environment of Singapore, more than 100 water\\u000a samples from reservoirs, rivers\\/canals, coastal waters, and treated effluents

Jiangyong Hu; Jing Yu; Shuhei Tanaka; Shigeo Fujii

2011-01-01

5

Altered fatty acid homeostasis and related toxicologic sequelae in rats exposed to dietary potassium perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS).  

PubMed

Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is one of a class of industrial chemicals known as perfluoroalkyl acids, which have a wide variety of uses as surfactants and stain repellants. The presence of fluorochemical residues in human blood, plasma, or serum from sample populations worldwide is indicative of widespread human exposure. Previous studies demonstrated that PFOS alters fatty acid metabolism in the liver of rodents and that this leads to peroxisome proliferation. This study was undertaken to (1) confirm the effects of PFOS on rat liver, (2) identify additional target organs and systems, and (3) further explore the biochemical and molecular changes associated with PFOS exposure. The results confirmed that liver was a primary target for PFOS. Hepatomegaly, decreased serum triglycerides and cholesterol, and increased expression of the genes for acyl-coenzymeA oxidase 1 (ACOX1) and cytochrome P-450 4A22 (CYP4A22) were indicative of exposure to a peroxisome proliferator. Changes in liver fatty acid profiles included increased total monounsaturated fatty acid levels and decreased total polyunsaturated fatty acids, as well as an increase in linoleic acid levels and a decrease in longer chain fatty acids. These changes were similar to those induced by relatively weak peroxisome proliferators. Disruptions in hepatic fatty acid metabolism may contribute to changes in red blood cell membranes, resulting in increased lysis and cell fragility. Serum thyroid hormone levels were decreased in PFOS-treated rats, while the kidney and cardiovascular systems were not significant targets. Residue analyses indicated that PFOS accumulation in tissues was dose dependent, appearing preferentially in the liver at lower doses but increasing in serum and other organs relative to liver at higher doses. PMID:18923995

Curran, Ivan; Hierlihy, S Lynn; Liston, Virginia; Pantazopoulos, Peter; Nunnikhoven, Andrée; Tittlemier, Sheryl; Barker, Michael; Trick, Keith; Bondy, Genevieve

2008-01-01

6

Perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in human breast milk: Results of a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorinated compounds (PFC) are a large group of chemicals produced for several decades and widely used for many industrial and consumer applications. Because of their global occurrence in different environmental media, their persistence and their potential to bioaccumulate in organisms they are of toxicological and public concern.In the present study, perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were quantified in

W. Völkel; O. Genzel-Boroviczény; H. Demmelmair; C. Gebauer; B. Koletzko; D. Twardella; U. Raab; H. Fromme

2008-01-01

7

Association of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) with Uric Acid among Adults with Elevated Community Exposure to PFOA  

PubMed Central

Background Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are compounds that do not occur in nature, have been widely used since World War II, and persist indefinitely in most environments. Median serum levels in the United States are 4 ng/mL for PFOA and 21 ng/mL for PFOS. PFOA has been associated with elevated uric acid in two studies of chemical workers. Uric acid is a risk factor for hypertension and possibly other cardiovascular outcomes. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of PFOA and PFOS and uric acid among 54,951 adult community residents in Ohio and West Virginia, who lived or worked in six water districts contaminated with PFOA from a chemical plant. Analyses were conducted by linear and logistic regression, adjusted for confounders. Results Both PFOA and PFOS were significantly associated with uric acid. An increase of 0.2–0.3 mg/dL uric acid was associated with an increase from the lowest to highest decile of either PFOA or PFOS. Hyperuricemia risk increased modestly with increasing PFOA; the odds ratios by quintile of PFOA were 1.00, 1.33 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.24–1.43], 1.35 (95% CI, 1.26–1.45), 1.47 (95% CI, 1.37–1.58), and 1.47 (95% CI, 1.37–1.58; test for trend, p < 0.0001). We saw a less steep trend for PFOS. Inclusion of both correlated fluorocarbons in the model indicated PFOA was a more important predictor than was PFOS. Conclusion Higher serum levels of PFOA were associated with a higher prevalence of hyperuricemia, but the limitations of cross-sectional data and the possibility of noncausal mechanisms prohibit conclusions regarding causality.

Steenland, Kyle; Tinker, Sarah; Shankar, Anoop; Ducatman, Alan

2010-01-01

8

Characterisation of mixed lithium dodecyl sulphate/lithium perfluorooctanesulphonate pseudo-stationary phases in MEKC.  

PubMed

Lipophilicity and methylene selectivity of mixed pseudo-stationary phases (PSPs) (containing lithium dodecyl sulphate (LDS) and lithium perfluorooctanesulphonate (LiPFOS) in different molar ratios) applied in MEKC have been investigated. Micellar proportion (t(prop,mic), a quantity expressing that how much time is spent by the analyte in the micellar phase related to its whole migration time), CLOGP(50) value (showing the value of hydrophobicity of a molecule spending exactly 50% of its migration time in the PSP) and methylene selectivity have been determined for different LDS/LiPFOS mixed phases. Values of the above-mentioned parameters have been determined for analytes with different chemical structures (alkylbenzene and alkylphenone homologous series, alcohols). Good linear correlation was obtained between either the micellar proportion, CLOGP(50), or methylene selectivity and the phase composition for the mixed phases. Lipophilicity and methylene selectivity of the mixed LDS/LiPFOS PSPs can be calculated and can continuously be changed by mixing the two single phases (LDS and LiPFOS) in the appropriate (and calculable) portion. PMID:19517442

Varga, András; Huszár, Mónika; Dobos, Zsófia; Kiss, Eva; Horváth, Anikó; Idei, Miklós

2009-06-01

9

Removal of PFOS, PFOA and other perfluoroalkyl acids at water reclamation plants in South East Queensland Australia.  

PubMed

This paper examines the fate of perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs) and carboxylic acids (PFCAs) in two water reclamation plants in Australia. Both facilities take treated water directly from WWTPs and treat it further to produce high quality recycled water. The first plant utilizes adsorption and filtration methods alongside ozonation, whilst the second uses membrane processes and advanced oxidation to produce purified recycled water. At both facilities perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were the most frequently detected PFCs. Concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in influent (WWTP effluent) ranged up to 3.7 and 16 ng L?¹ respectively, and were reduced to 0.7 and 12 ng L?¹ in the finished water of the ozonation plant. Throughout this facility, concentrations of most of the detected perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) remained relatively unchanged with each successive treatment step. PFOS was an exception to this, with some removal following coagulation and dissolved air flotation/sand filtration (DAFF). At the second plant, influent concentrations of PFOS and PFOA ranged up to 39 and 29 ng L?¹. All PFCs present were removed from the finished water by reverse osmosis (RO) to concentrations below detection and reporting limits (0.4-1.5 ng L?¹). At both plants the observed concentrations were in the low parts per trillion range, well below provisional health based drinking water guidelines suggested for PFOS and PFOA. PMID:21051071

Thompson, Jack; Eaglesham, Geoff; Reungoat, Julien; Poussade, Yvan; Bartkow, Michael; Lawrence, Michael; Mueller, Jochen F

2010-11-03

10

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in surface waters, sediments, soils and wastewater - A review on concentrations and distribution coefficients.  

PubMed

The sorption of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) to soils and sediments determines their fate and distribution in the environment, but there is little consensus regarding distribution coefficients that should be used for assessing the environmental fate of these compounds. Here we reviewed sorption coefficients for PFCs derived from laboratory experiments and compared these values with the gross distribution between the concentrations of PFCs in surface waters and sediments or between wastewater and sewage sludge. Sorption experiments with perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) suggest that their sorption can be described reasonably well as a partitioning-like process with an average log K(oc) of approximately 2.8 for PFOA and 3.0 for PFOS. However, median concentrations in sediments (PFOA, 0.27 ng g(-1); PFOS, 0.54 ng g(-1)) or sewage sludge (PFOA, 37 ng g(-1); PFOS, 69 ng g(-1)) in relation to median concentrations in surface water (PFOA, 3ngl(-1); PFOS, 3ngl(-1)) or wastewater treatment effluent (PFOA, 24 ng l(-1); PFOS, 11 ng l(-1)), suggest that effective log K(oc) distribution coefficients for the field situation may be close to 3.7 for PFOA and 4.2 for PFOS. Applying lab-based log K(oc) distribution coefficients can therefore result in a serious overestimation of PFC concentrations in water and in turn to an underestimation of the residence time of PFOA and PFOS in contaminated soils. Irrespective of the dissipation kinetics, the majority of PFOA and PFOS from contaminated soils will be transported to groundwater and surface water bodies. PMID:23498059

Zareitalabad, P; Siemens, J; Hamer, M; Amelung, W

2013-03-14

11

Ecological risk assessment of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in marine environment using Isochrysis galbana, Paracentrotus lividus, Siriella armata and Psetta maxima.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) are anthropogenic substances classified as persistent bioaccumulative compounds and are found in various environmental compartments throughout the world, from industrialized regions to remote zones far from areas of production. In this study, we assessed the effects of PFOA and PFOS on early life stages of marine test species belonging to three different trophic levels: one microalga (Isochrysis galbana), a primary consumer (Paracentrotus lividus) and two secondary consumers (Siriella armata and Psetta maxima). Acute EC(50) values for PFOS were 0.11 mg L(-1) in P. maxima, 6.9 mg L(-1) in S. armata, 20 mg L(-1) in P. lividus and 37.5 mg L(-1) in I. galbana. In the case of PFOA, the toxicity was lower but the ranking was the same; 11.9 mg L(-1) in P. maxima, 15.5 mg L(-1) in S. armata, 110 mg L(-1) in P. lividus and 163.6 mg L(-1) in I. galbana. The Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) for PFOS and PFOA in marine water derived from these acute toxicity values are 1.1 ?g L(-1) for PFOS and 119 ?g L(-1) for PFOA. This study established a baseline dataset of toxicity of PFOS and PFOA on saltwater organisms. The data obtained suggest that PFOA pose a minor risk to these organisms through direct exposure. In the perspective of risk assessment, early life stage (ELS) endpoints provide rapid, cost-effective and ecologically relevant information, and links should be sought between these short-term tests and effects of long-term exposures in more realistic scenarios. PMID:22446617

Mhadhbi, Lazhar; Rial, Diego; Pérez, Sara; Beiras, Ricardo

2012-03-26

12

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in sewage treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in the biological units of various full-scale municipal sewage treatment plants were measured. Samples of influent, primary effluent, aeration tank effluent, final effluent and grab samples of primary, activated, secondary and anaerobically digested sludge were collected by 5 sampling events over one year. The two sewage treatment plants (STPs) selected for

Jing Yu; Jiangyong Hu; Shuhei Tanaka; Shigeo Fujii

2009-01-01

13

Identification of genes responsive to PFOS using gene expression profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) is widely distributed in the environment including in the tissues of wildlife and humans, however, its mechanism of action remains unclear. Here, the Affymetrix rat genome U34A genechip was used to identify alterations in gene expression due to PFOS exposure. Rat hepatoma cells were treated with PFOS at 2–50mg\\/L (4–100?M) for 96h. Sprague-Dawley rats were orally

Wenyue Hu; Paul D. Jones; Trine Celius; John P. Giesy

2005-01-01

14

Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) Induces Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Production in Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells: Role in Endothelial Permeability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a member of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) containing an eight-carbon backbone. PFOS is a man-made chemical with carbon–fluorine bonds that are among the strongest in organic chemistry, and PFOS is widely used in industry. Human occupational and environmental exposure to PFOS occurs globally. PFOS is non-biodegradable and is persistent in the human body and environment. In

Yong Qian; Alan Ducatman; Rebecca Ward; Steve Leonard; Valerie Bukowski; Nancy Lan Guo; Xianglin Shi; Val Vallyathan; Vincent Castranova

2010-01-01

15

Accumulation of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in the food chain of the Western Scheldt estuary: Comparing field measurements with kinetic modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmentally persistent perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a perfluoroalkylated acid (PFA), which has been found to accumulate and biomagnify through food webs all over the world. In the present investigation, the accumulation kinetics of PFOS was explored using the bioaccumulation model OMEGA. As accumulation behavior of PFOS may show similarities to fatty acids as well as to neutral organic compounds,

Martine G. de Vos; Mark A. J. Huijbregts; Martine J. van den Heuvel-Greve; A. Dick Vethaak; Kristin I. Van de Vijver; Pim E. G. Leonards; S. P. J. van Leeuwen; P. de Voogt; A. Jan Hendriks

2008-01-01

16

Evaluating the sub-lethal toxicity of PFOS and PFOA using rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus.  

PubMed

The acute and chronic effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus (B. calyciflorus) were investigated at the organismal and the population level. The acute toxicity of PFOS to rotifers was approximately 2.5-fold greater than that of PFOA. From 0.25 to 2.0 mg L(-1), PFOS exhibited higher toxicity than PFOA on the F0-generation of B. calyciflorus, including effects on body size, juvenile periods, net reproductive rate, and generation time. Both PFOS and PFOA exposure induced a smaller egg size in B. calyciflorus, suggesting that these risks can be transferred from mother to offspring. The 28-day population growth studies showed that PFOS and PFOA reduced the population density and increased the mictic ratio. Our results demonstrated that both PFOS and PFOA had adverse effects on B. calyciflorus, not only at the individual level but also at the population level. PMID:23727565

Zhang, Lilan; Niu, Junfeng; Li, Yang; Wang, Yujuan; Sun, Dong

2013-05-28

17

Behavior and Fate of PFOA and PFOS in Sandy Aquifer Sediment (journal)  

EPA Science Inventory

Microcosms were constructed with sediment from beneath a landfill that received waste containing PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid) and PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate). The microcosms were amended with PFOA and PFOS, and sampled after 91, 210, 343, 463, 574, and 740 days of incubat...

18

Removal of PFOS, PFOA and other perfluoroalkyl acids at water reclamation plants in South East Queensland Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the fate of perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs) and carboxylic acids (PFCAs) in two water reclamation plants in Australia. Both facilities take treated water directly from WWTPs and treat it further to produce high quality recycled water. The first plant utilizes adsorption and filtration methods alongside ozonation, whilst the second uses membrane processes and advanced oxidation to produce purified

Jack Thompson; Geoff Eaglesham; Julien Reungoat; Yvan Poussade; Michael Bartkow; Michael Lawrence; Jochen F. Mueller

2011-01-01

19

Developmental toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is not dependent on expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha (PPAR?) in the mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are members of a family of perfluorinated compounds. Both are environmentally persistent and found in the serum of wildlife and humans. PFOS and PFOA are developmentally toxic in laboratory rodents. Exposure to these chemicals in utero delays development and reduces postnatal survival and growth. Exposure to PFOS on the last 4 days of

Barbara D. Abbott; Cynthia J. Wolf; Kaberi P. Das; Robert D. Zehr; Judith E. Schmid; Andrew B. Lindstrom; Mark J. Strynar; Christopher Lau

2009-01-01

20

Gene expression profiling in the lung and liver of PFOS-exposed mouse fetuses  

EPA Science Inventory

The industrial surfactants perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are persistent environmental contaminants commonly found in the tissues of humans and wildlife. Both compounds are agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor a (PPARa) and...

21

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human microvascular endothelial cells: role in endothelial permeability  

PubMed Central

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a member of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) containing an 8-carbon backbone. PFOS is a man-made chemical with carbon-fluorine bonds that are one of the strongest in organic chemistry and widely used in industry. Human occupational and environmental exposure to PFOS occurs globally. PFOS is non-biodegradable and persistent in the human body and environment. In this study, data demonstrated that exposure of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) to PFOS induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at both high and low concentrations. Morphologically, it was found that exposure to PFOS induced actin filament remodeling and endothelial permeability changes in HMVEC. Furthermore, data demonstrated the production of ROS plays a regulatory role in PFOS-induced actin filament remodeling and the increase in endothelial permeability. Our results indicate that the generation of ROS may play a role in PFOS-induced aberrations of the endothelial permeability barrier. The results generated from this study may provide a new insight into the potential adverse effects of PFOS exposure on humans at the cellular level.

Qian, Yong; Ducatman, Alan; Ward, Rebecca; Leonard, Steve; Bukowski, Valerie; Guo, Nancy Lan; Shi, Xianglin; Vallyathan, Val; Castranova, Vincent

2011-01-01

22

Sonochemical degradation of peerfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in landfill groundwater: environmental matrix effects.  

PubMed

Perfluorinated chemicals such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are environmentally persistent and recalcitrant to most conventional chemical and microbial treatment technologies. In this paper, we show that sonolysis is able to decompose PFOS and PFOA present in groundwater beneath a landfill. However, the pseudo first-order rate constant for the sonochemical degradation in the landfill groundwater is reduced by 61 and 56% relative to MilliQ water for PFOS and PFOA, respectively, primarily due to the presence of other organic constituents. In this study, we evaluate the effect of various organic compounds on the sonochemical decomposition rates of PFOS and PFOA. Organic components in environmental matrices may reduce the sonochemical degradation rates of PFOS and PFOA by competitive adsorption onto the bubble-water interface or by lowering the average interfacial temperatures during transient bubble collapse events. The effect of individual organic compounds depends on the Langmuir adsorption constant the Henry's law constant the specific heat capacity, and the overall endothermic heat of dissociation. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are identified as the primary cause of the sonochemical rate reduction for PFOS and PFOA in landfill groundwater, whereas the effect of dissolved natural organic matter (DOM) is not significant Finally, a combined process of ozonation and sonolysis is shown to substantially recover the rate loss for PFOS and PFOA in landfill groundwater. PMID:19031902

Cheng, Jie; Vecitis, Chad D; Park, Hyunwoong; Mader, Brian T; Hoffmann, Michael R

2008-11-01

23

Comparison of human whole blood, plasma, and serum matrices for the determination of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and other fluorochemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in human exposure to perfluorinated acids, including perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHS), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) has led to their measurement in whole blood, plasma and serum. Comparison of measurements in these different blood-based matrices, however, has not been rigorously investigated to allow for across-matrix comparisons. This research evaluated concentrations of PFBS, PFHS, PFOS, and PFOA in whole blood

David J. Ehresman; John W. Froehlich; Geary W.. Olsen; Shu-Ching Chang; John L. Butenhoff

2007-01-01

24

Negative bias from analog methods used in the analysis of free thyroxine in rat serum containing perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decreases in serum total thyroxine (TT4) and free thyroxine (FT4) without a compensatory rise in thyroid stimulating hormone (thyrotropin or TSH) or histological changes of the thyroid have been observed in studies with perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) treatments in rats. Prior observations do not fit the clinical profile of a hypothyroid state. PFOS is known to compete with fatty acids for albumin

Shu-Ching Chang; Julie R. Thibodeaux; Mary L. Eastvold; David J. Ehresman; James A. Bjork; John W. Froehlich; Christopher S. Lau; Ravinder J. Singh; Kendall B. Wallace; John L. Butenhoff

2007-01-01

25

Levels of perfluorinated compounds in food and dietary intake of PFOS and PFOA in the Netherlands.  

PubMed

This study presents concentrations of perfluorinated compounds in food and the dietary intake of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in The Netherlands. The concentrations of perfluorinated compounds in food were analyzed in pooled samples of foodstuffs randomly purchased in several Dutch retail store chains with nation-wide coverage. The concentrations analyzed for PFOS and PFOA were used to assess the exposure to these compounds in The Netherlands. As concentrations in drinking water in The Netherlands were missing for these compounds, conservative default concentrations of 7 pg/g for PFOS and 9 pg/g for PFOA, as reported by European Food Safety Authority, were used in the exposure assessment. In food, 6 out of 14 analyzed perfluorinated compounds could be quantified in the majority of the food categories (perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), PFOA, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoro-1-hexanesulfonate (PFHxS), and PFOS). The highest concentration of the sum of these six compounds was found in crustaceans (825 pg/g product, PFOS: 582 pg/g product) and in lean fish (481 pg/g product, PFOS: 308 pg/g product). Lower concentrations were found in beef, fatty fish, flour, butter, eggs, and cheese (concentrations between 20 and 100 pg/g product; PFOS, 29-82 pg/g product) and milk, pork, bakery products, chicken, vegetable, and industrial oils (concentration lower than 10 pg/g product; PFOS not detected). The median long-term intake for PFOS was 0.3 ng/kg bw/day and for PFOA 0.2 ng/kg bw/day. The corresponding high level intakes (99th percentile) were 0.6 and 0.5 ng/kg bw/day, respectively. These intakes were well below the tolerable daily intake values of both compounds (PFOS, 150 ng/kg bw/day; PFOA, 1500 ng/kg bw/day). The intake calculations quantified the contribution of drinking water to the PFOS and PFOA intake in The Netherlands. Important contributors of PFOA intake were vegetables/fruit and flour. Milk, beef, and lean fish were important contributors of PFOS intake. PMID:21591675

Noorlander, Cornelle W; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J; Te Biesebeek, Jan Dirk; Mengelers, Marcel J B; Zeilmaker, Marco J

2011-06-10

26

Two-generation reproduction and cross-foster studies of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent acid found widely distributed in wildlife and humans. To understand the potential reproductive and developmental effects of PFOS, a two-generation reproduction study was conducted in rats. Male and female rats were dosed via oral gavage at dose levels of 0, 0.1, 0.4, 1.6, and 3.2mg\\/(kgday) for 6 weeks prior to mating, during mating, and, for

Deanna J. Luebker; Marvin T. Case; Raymond G. York; John A. Moore; Kristen J. Hansen; John L. Butenhoff

2005-01-01

27

Impact of a perfluorinated organic compound PFOS on the terrestrial pollinator Bombus terrestris (Insecta, Hymenoptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorinated organic chemicals like perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) are persistent environmental pollutants that have\\u000a been measured in a great diversity of wildlife worldwide, especially in the aquatic compartment. However, little information\\u000a is available on the presence and effects of PFOS in the terrestrial compartment. Therefore, we investigated in this project\\u000a the risks for effects, bioaccumulation and potential mechanisms of activity

Veerle Mommaerts; An Hagenaars; Johan Meyer; Wim De Coen; Luc Swevers; Hadi Mosallanejad; Guy Smagghe

2011-01-01

28

Consumption of Seafood, Serum Liver Enzymes, and Blood Levels of PFOS and PFOA in the Japanese Population.  

PubMed

Objective: Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) have been shown to accumulate in the human body. The purpose of the present study was to examine the factors associated with the blood levels of PFOS and PFOA. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 307 men and 301 women (aged 16-76 years) living in 15 prefectures in Japan. Blood levels of PFOS and PFOA were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Hepatic enzymes (?-GTP, GOT, and GPT) and ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (DHA and EPA) levels in serum were also measured. Associations between the levels of PFOS and PFOA in blood and the intake frequency of 41 kinds of dishes, foods and beverages and the serum levels of liver enzymes and ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were examined using rank correlations. Results: Frequency of intake of boiled fish in broth, sliced raw fish and coastal fish showed significant positive correlations with PFOS concentrations in blood after adjustments for potential confounders. Serum levels of GOT, GPT, DHA and EPA showed significant positive correlations with PFOS and PFOA in blood. There was also a significant regional difference in the blood levels of PFOS and 2013PFOA, with medians being highest in the Tokai/Hokuriku/Kinki region. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the concentrations of PFOS in blood were mainly associated with fish consumption and that the levels of PFOS and PFOA were associated with the serum levels of liver enzymes in Japanese populations. Further investigations are required to clarify the reason for the regional differences in blood levels of PFOS and PFOA in Japan. PMID:23574777

Yamaguchi, Miwa; Arisawa, Kokichi; Uemura, Hirokazu; Katsuura-Kamano, Sakurako; Takami, Hidenobu; Sawachika, Fusakazu; Nakamoto, Mariko; Juta, Tomoya; Toda, Eisaku; Mori, Kei; Hasegawa, Manabu; Tanto, Masaharu; Shima, Masayuki; Sumiyoshi, Yoshio; Morinaga, Kenji; Kodama, Kazunori; Suzuki, Takaichiro; Nagai, Masaki; Satoh, Hiroshi

2013-04-09

29

PFOS and PFC releases and associated pollution from a PFC production plant in Minnesota (USA).  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and PFOS-related substances have been listed as persistent organic pollutants in the Stockholm Convention. From August 2012, Parties to the Convention needed to address the use, storage, and disposal of PFOS-including production sites and sites where PFOS wastes have been deposited-in their national implementation plans. The paper describes the pollution in Minnesota (USA) caused by the 3M Company at one of the largest per/polyfluorinated chemical (PFC) production facilities. From early 1950s until the end of 2002, when 3M terminated PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) production, PFOS, PFOA, and other PFC production wastes were disposed around the plant and in local disposal sites. Discharges from the site and releases from deposits caused widespread contamination of ground and surface waters including local drinking water wells. Fish in the river downstream were contaminated with PFOS to levels that led to fish consumption advisories. Human exposures resulted from ingesting contaminated drinking water, requiring installation of water treatment facilities and alternate water supplies. The critical evaluation of the assessments done revealed a range of gaps in particular of human exposure where relevant exposure pathways including the entire exposure via food have not been taken into consideration. Currently, the exposure assessment of vulnerable groups such as children or Hmong minorities is inadequate and needs to be improved/validated by epidemiological studies. The assessment methodology described for this site may serve-with highlighted improvements-as a model for assessment of other PFOS/PFC production sites in the Stockholm Convention implementation. PMID:23128989

Oliaei, Fardin; Kriens, Don; Weber, Roland; Watson, Alan

2012-11-06

30

Development of PBPK models for PFOA and PFOS for human pregnancy and lactation life stages.  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl acid carboxylates and sulfonates (PFAA) have many consumer and industrial applications. Developmental toxicity studies in animals have raised concern about potential reproductive/developmental effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS); however, in humans conflicting results have been reported for associations between maternal PFAA levels and these outcomes. Risk assessments and interpretation of available human data during gestation and lactation are hindered due to lack of a framework for understanding and estimating maternal, fetal, and neonatal pharmacokinetics (PK). Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models were developed for PFOA and PFOS for the gestation and lactation life stages in humans to understand how the physiological changes associated with development affect pharmacokinetics of these compounds in the mother, fetus, and infant. These models were derived from PBPK models for PFOA/PFOS that were previously developed for adult humans and rats during gestation and lactation and from existing human pregnancy and lactation models developed for other chemicals. The models simulated PFOA and PFOS concentrations in fetal, infant, and maternal plasma and milk, were compared to available data in humans, and also were used to estimate maternal exposure. The models reported here identified several research needs, which include (1) the identification of transporters involved in renal resorption to explain the multiyear half-lives of these compounds in humans, (2) factors affecting clearance of PFOA/PFOS during gestation and lactation, and (3) data to estimate clearance of PFOA/PFOS in infants. These models may help address concerns regarding possible adverse health effects due to PFOA/PFOS exposure in the fetus and infant and may be useful in comparing pharmacokinetics across life stages. PMID:23151209

Loccisano, Anne E; Longnecker, Matthew P; Campbell, Jerry L; Andersen, Melvin E; Clewell, Harvey J

2013-01-01

31

Neonatal mortality from in utero exposure to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in Sprague–Dawley rats: Dose–response, and biochemical and pharamacokinetic parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is a widely distributed, environmentally persistent acid found at low levels in human, wildlife, and environmental media samples. Neonatal mortality has been observed following PFOS exposure in a two-generation reproduction study in rats and after dosing pregnant rats and mice during gestation. Objectives of the current study were to better define the dose–response curve for neonatal mortality in

Deanna J. Luebker; Raymond G. York; Kristen J. Hansen; John A. Moore; John L. Butenhoff

2005-01-01

32

Multiplicity of nuclear receptor activation by PFOA and PFOS in primary human and rodent hepatocytes.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) are surface active fluorochemicals that, due to their exceptional stability to degradation, are persistent in the environment. Both PFOA and PFOS are eliminated slowly in humans, with geometric mean serum elimination half-lives estimated at 3.5 and 4.8 years, respectively. The biological activity of PFOA and PFOS in rodents is attributed primarily to transactivation of the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARA), which is an important regulator of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. However, there are significant species-specific differences in the response to PFOA and PFOS exposure; non-rodent species, including humans, are refractory to several but not all of these effects. Many of the metabolic effects have been attributed to the activation of PPARA; however, recent studies using PPAR? knockout mice demonstrate residual PPARA-independent effects, some of which may involve the activation of alternate nuclear receptors, including NR1I2 (PXR), NR1I3 (CAR), NR1H3 (LXRA), and NR1H4 (FXR). The objective of this investigation was to characterize the activation of multiple nuclear receptors and modulation of metabolic pathways associated with exposure to PFOA and PFOS, and to compare and contrast the effects between rat and human primary liver cells using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR). Our results demonstrate that multiple nuclear receptors participate in the metabolic response to PFOA and PFOS exposure resulting in a substantial shift from carbohydrate metabolism to fatty acid oxidation and hepatic triglyceride accumulation in rat liver cells. This shift in intermediary metabolism was more pronounced for PFOA than PFOS. Furthermore, while there is some similarity in the activation of metabolic pathways between rat and humans, particularly in PPARA regulated responses; the changes in primary human cells were more subtle and possibly reflect an adaptive metabolic response rather than an overt metabolic regulation observed in rodents. PMID:21723365

Bjork, J A; Butenhoff, J L; Wallace, K B

2011-06-23

33

Chronic PFOS exposures induce life stage-specific behavioral deficits in adult zebrafish and produce malformation and behavioral deficits in F1 offspring.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) is an organic contaminant that is ubiquitous in the environment. Few studies have assessed the behavioral effects of chronic PFOS exposure in aquatic organisms. The present study defined the behavioral effects of varying life span chronic exposures to PFOS in zebrafish. Specifically, zebrafish were exposed to control or 0.5?µM PFOS during 1 to 20, 21 to 120, or 1 to 120 d postfertilization (dpf). Exposure to PFOS impaired the adult zebrafish behavior mode under the tapping stimulus. The movement speed of male and female fish exposed for 1 to 120 dpf was significantly increased compared with control before and after tapping, whereas in the groups exposed for 1 to 20 and 21 to 120 dpf, only the males exhibited elevated swim speed before tapping. Residues of PFOS in F1 embryos derived from parental exposure for 1 to 120 and 21 to 120 dpf were significantly higher than control, and F1 embryos in these two groups also showed high malformation and mortality. The F1 larvae of parental fish exposed to PFOS for 1 to 20 or 21 to 120 dpf exhibited a higher swimming speed than control larvae in a light-to-dark behavior assessment test. The F1 larvae derived from parental fish exposed to PFOS for 1 to 120 dpf showed a significantly lower speed in the light period and a higher speed in the dark period compared with controls. Although there was little PFOS residue in embryos derived from the 1- to 20-dpf parental PFOS-exposed group, the adverse behavioral effects on both adult and F1 larvae indicate that exposure during the first 21 dpf induces long-term neurobehaviorial toxicity. The authors' findings demonstrate that chronic PFOS exposure during different life stages adversely affects adult behavior and F1 offspring morphology, behavior, and survival. PMID:23059794

Chen, Jiangfei; Das, Siba R; La Du, Jane; Corvi, Margaret M; Bai, Chenglian; Chen, Yuanhong; Liu, Xiaojuan; Zhu, Guonian; Tanguay, Robert L; Dong, Qiaoxiang; Huang, Changjiang

2012-11-21

34

Estimating the contribution of precursor compounds in consumer exposure to PFOS and PFOA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exposure of humans to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was quantified with emphasis on assessing the relative importance of metabolic transformation of precursor compounds. A Scenario-Based Risk Assessment (SceBRA) approach was used to model the exposure to these compounds from a variety of different pathways, the uptake into the human body and resulting daily doses. To capture

Robin Vestergren; Ian T. Cousins; David Trudel; Matthias Wormuth; Martin Scheringer

2008-01-01

35

ACCUMULATION AND EFFECTS OF PFOS ON THE REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY OF THE FATHEAD MINNOW  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a globally-distributed contaminant in fish and wildlife. Comparatively little is known, however, concerning potential adverse effects of PFOS on reproduction and development of fish. There is some indication that PFOS could affect reproductive ...

36

Behavioral effects in adult mice exposed to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, very little information concerning the effects on behavior in mammals of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a widely distributed persistent environmental pollutant, is available. In the present study, we assessed the behavioral effects of PFOS on 3 months old mice after 1 month of exposure to this pollutant. Thirty adult mice were divided into three groups. Animals were given by gavage

Silvia Fuentes; Paloma Vicens; M. Teresa Colomina; José L. Domingo

2007-01-01

37

Differences in the isomer composition of perfluoroctanesulfonyl (PFOS) derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctanesulfonyl (PFOS)-based materials and related compounds are an emerging group of environmental pollutants. Perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride, the key intermediate for the production of these materials, was manufactured by an electrochemical fluorination process that resulted in complex mixtures containing linear and branched PFOS derivatives and other perfluorinated compounds. This study uses F-NMR spectroscopy to investigate differences in the composition between commercial samples

Sandhya M. Vyas; Izabela Kania-Korwel; Hans-Joachim Lehmler

2007-01-01

38

PFOS and PFOA in environmental and tap water in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a great concern about global contamination with persistent fluoroorganic compounds including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), however, few data are available on the environmental levels of these chemicals in China. In the present study, therefore, environmental or tap water samples collected from various regions of China were assayed for PFOS and PFOA by solid phase extraction and

Yi He Jin; Wei Liu; Itaru Sato; Shoji F. Nakayama; Kazuaki Sasaki; Norimitsu Saito; Shuji Tsuda

2009-01-01

39

Developmental toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is not dependent on expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha (PPAR alpha) in the mouse.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are members of a family of perfluorinated compounds. Both are environmentally persistent and found in the serum of wildlife and humans. PFOS and PFOA are developmentally toxic in laboratory rodents. Exposure to these chemicals in utero delays development and reduces postnatal survival and growth. Exposure to PFOS on the last 4 days of gestation in the rat is sufficient to reduce neonatal survival. PFOS and PFOA are weak agonists of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha (PPAR alpha). The reduced postnatal survival of neonatal mice exposed to PFOA was recently shown to depend on expression of PPAR alpha. This study used PPAR alpha knockout (KO) and 129S1/SvlmJ wild type (WT) mice to determine if PPAR alpha expression is required for the developmental toxicity of PFOS. After mating overnight, the next day was designated gestation day (GD) 0. WT females were weighed and dosed orally from GD15 to 18 with 0.5% Tween-20, 4.5, 6.5, 8.5, or 10.5mg PFOS/kg/day. KO females were dosed with 0.5% Tween-20, 8.5 or 10.5mg PFOS/kg/day. Dams and pups were observed daily and pups were weighed on postnatal day (PND) 1 and PND15. Eye opening was recorded from PND12 to 15. Dams and pups were killed on PND15, body and liver weights recorded, and serum collected. PFOS did not affect maternal weight gain or body or liver weights of the dams on PND15. Neonatal survival (PND1-15) was significantly reduced by PFOS in both WT and KO litters at all doses. WT and KO pup birth weight and weight gain from PND1 to 15 were not significantly affected by PFOS exposure. Relative liver weight of WT and KO pups was significantly increased by the 10.5mg/kg dose. Eye opening of PFOS-exposed pups was slightly delayed in WT and KO on PND13 or 14, respectively. Because results in WT and KO were comparable, it is concluded that PFOS-induced neonatal lethality and delayed eye opening are not dependent on activation of PPAR alpha. PMID:18595657

Abbott, Barbara D; Wolf, Cynthia J; Das, Kaberi P; Zehr, Robert D; Schmid, Judith E; Lindstrom, Andrew B; Strynar, Mark J; Lau, Christopher

2008-05-24

40

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other fluorochemicals in fish blood collected near the outfall of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Beijing.  

PubMed

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were measured in zooplankton and five fish species collected from Gaobeidian Lake, which receives discharge from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Beijing, China. The mean total PFCs in five fish were in the order: crucian carp>common carp>leather catfish>white semiknife carp>tilapia. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) occurred at the greatest concentrations, with mean concentrations ranging from 5.74 to 64.2 ng/ml serum. Perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) was the second dominant PFC in fish samples except for common carp in which perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) was dominant. A positive linear relationship (r(2)=0.85, p<0.05) was observed between lnPFOS concentrations (ln ng/ml) and trophic level (based on delta15N) if tilapia was excluded. The risk assessment showed that PFOS might not pose an immediate risk to fish in Gaobeidian Lake. PMID:18439735

Li, Xuemei; Yin Yeung, Leo Wai; Xu, Muqi; Taniyasu, Sachi; Lam, Paul K S; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Dai, Jiayin

2008-04-25

41

Comparative pharmacokinetics of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in rats, mice, and monkeys.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) has been found in biological samples in wildlife and humans. The geometric mean half-life of serum elimination of PFOS in humans has been estimated to be 4.8 years (95% CI, 4.0-5.8). A series of studies was undertaken to establish pharmacokinetic parameters for PFOS in rats, mice, and monkeys after single oral and/or IV administration of K(+)PFOS. Animals were followed for up to 23 weeks, and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by WinNonlin® software. Rats and mice appeared to be more effective at eliminating PFOS than monkeys. The serum elimination half-lives in the rodent species were on the order of 1-2 months; whereas, in monkeys, the serum elimination half lives approximated 4 months. Collectively, these studies provide valuable insight for human health risk assessment regarding the potential for accumulation of body burden in humans on repeated exposure to PFOS and PFOS-generating materials. PMID:21889587

Chang, Shu-Ching; Noker, Patricia E; Gorman, Gregory S; Gibson, Sheila J; Hart, Jill A; Ehresman, David J; Butenhoff, John L

2011-08-11

42

Prenatal Exposure to PFOS or PFOA Alters Motor Function in Mice in a Sex-Related Manner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are organic surfactants widely used in various industrial\\u000a and consumer applications. Due to their chemical properties, these perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have also become persistent\\u000a contaminants. The risk of possible intrauterine and lactational exposure to these chemicals poses a significant health concern\\u000a for potential developmental effects. In the present study we have found that

Natalia Onishchenko; Celia Fischer; Wan Norhamidah Wan Ibrahim; Sara Negri; Stefan Spulber; Danilo Cottica; Sandra Ceccatelli

2011-01-01

43

Gene Expression Profiling in the Liver and Lung of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate-Exposed Mouse Fetuses: Comparison to Changes Induced by Exposure to Perfluorooctanoic Acid  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are environmental contaminants found in the tissues of humans and wildlife. They are activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARα) and exhibit hepatocarcinogenic potential in rats. PFOS...

44

Absorption and excretion of 14C- perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in beef cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are industrial chemicals that are environmentally persistent. PFOS has recently been classified as a persistent organic pollutant under the Stockholm Convention. Both PFOS and PFOA can be found in biosolids, and the application of c...

45

Comparison of human whole blood, plasma, and serum matrices for the determination of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and other fluorochemicals.  

PubMed

Interest in human exposure to perfluorinated acids, including perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHS), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) has led to their measurement in whole blood, plasma and serum. Comparison of measurements in these different blood-based matrices, however, has not been rigorously investigated to allow for across-matrix comparisons. This research evaluated concentrations of PFBS, PFHS, PFOS, and PFOA in whole blood collected in heparin (lithium) and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), plasma samples collected in heparin and EDTA, and serum (from whole blood allowed to clot). Blood samples were collected from 18 voluntary participants employed at 3M Company. Solid phase extraction methods were used for all analytical sample preparations, and analyses were completed using high-pressure liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry methods. Serum concentrations ranged from: limit of quantitation (LOQ, 5 ng/mL) to 25 ng/mL for PFBS; LOQ (5 ng/mL) to 75 ng/mL for PFHS; LOQ (5 ng/mL) to 880 ng/mL for PFOS; and LOQ (5 or 10 ng/mL) to 7320 ng/mL for PFOA. Values less than the LOQ were not included in the statistical analyses of the mean of the ratios of individual values for the matrices. PFBS was not quantifiable in most samples. Serum to plasma ratios for PFHS, PFOS, and PFOA were 1:1 and this ratio was independent of the level of concentrations measured. Serum or plasma to whole blood ratios, regardless of the anticoagulant used, approximated 2:1. The difference between plasma and serum and whole blood corresponded to volume displacement by red blood cells, suggesting that the fluorochemicals are not found intracellularly or attached to the red blood cells. PMID:16893538

Ehresman, David J; Froehlich, John W; Olsen, Geary W; Chang, Shu-Ching; Butenhoff, John L

2006-08-08

46

Comparison of human whole blood, plasma, and serum matrices for the determination of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and other fluorochemicals  

SciTech Connect

Interest in human exposure to perfluorinated acids, including perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHS), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) has led to their measurement in whole blood, plasma and serum. Comparison of measurements in these different blood-based matrices, however, has not been rigorously investigated to allow for across-matrix comparisons. This research evaluated concentrations of PFBS, PFHS, PFOS, and PFOA in whole blood collected in heparin (lithium) and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), plasma samples collected in heparin and EDTA, and serum (from whole blood allowed to clot). Blood samples were collected from 18 voluntary participants employed at 3M Company. Solid phase extraction methods were used for all analytical sample preparations, and analyses were completed using high-pressure liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry methods. Serum concentrations ranged from: limit of quantitation (LOQ, 5 ng/mL) to 25 ng/mL for PFBS; LOQ (5 ng/mL) to 75 ng/mL for PFHS; LOQ (5 ng/mL) to 880 ng/mL for PFOS; and LOQ (5 or 10 ng/mL) to 7320 ng/mL for PFOA. Values less than the LOQ were not included in the statistical analyses of the mean of the ratios of individual values for the matrices. PFBS was not quantifiable in most samples. Serum to plasma ratios for PFHS, PFOS, and PFOA were 1:1 and this ratio was independent of the level of concentrations measured. Serum or plasma to whole blood ratios, regardless of the anticoagulant used, approximated 2:1. The difference between plasma and serum and whole blood corresponded to volume displacement by red blood cells, suggesting that the fluorochemicals are not found intracellularly or attached to the red blood cells.

Ehresman, David J. [Medical Department, 3M Company, Mail Stop 220-6W-08, St. Paul, MN 55144-1000 (United States); Froehlich, John W. [LabOps Division, Pace Analytical Service Inc., Minneapolis, MN (United States); Olsen, Geary W. [Medical Department, 3M Company, Mail Stop 220-6W-08, St. Paul, MN 55144-1000 (United States)]. E-mail: gwolsen@mmm.com; Chang, Shu-Ching [Medical Department, 3M Company, Mail Stop 220-6W-08, St. Paul, MN 55144-1000 (United States); Butenhoff, John L. [Medical Department, 3M Company, Mail Stop 220-6W-08, St. Paul, MN 55144-1000 (United States)

2007-02-15

47

Treatment technologies for aqueous perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorochemicals (FCs) are oxidatively recalcitrant, environmentally persistent, and resistant to most conventional treatment\\u000a technologies. FCs have unique physiochemical properties derived from fluorine which is the most electronegative element. Perfluorooctanesulfonate\\u000a (PFOS), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) have been detected globally in the hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere. Reducing treatment\\u000a technologies such as reverses osmosis, nano-filtration and activated carbon can remove FCs from water. However,

Chad D. Vecitis; Jie Cheng; Brian T. Mader; Michael R. Hoffmann

2009-01-01

48

Identification and pattern of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) isomers in human serum and plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human serum and plasma from Sweden (n=17), the United Kingdom (the UK) (n=13) and Australia (n=40) were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The objective was to identify different perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) isomers. Similar isomer patterns typical for the electrochemical fluorination (ECF) process were found for all samples. The linear PFOS (L-PFOS) was the major isomer

Anna Kärrman; Ingrid Langlois; Bert van Bavel; Gunilla Lindström; Michael Oehme

2007-01-01

49

Interactions in developmental toxicology: Concurrent exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and stress in pregnant mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maternal and developmental toxicity of combined exposure to restraint stress and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was assessed in mice. On gestation Days 6–18, four groups of plug-positive female mice were orally exposed to PFOS at 0, 1.5, 3 and 6mg\\/kg\\/day. Four additional groups of plug-positive animals received the same PFOS doses being restrained during 30min three times per day. A

Silvia Fuentes; M. Teresa Colomina; Judit Rodriguez; Paloma Vicens; José L. Domingo

2006-01-01

50

Chronic Effects of Waterborne PFOS Exposure on Growth, Development, Reproduction and Hepatotoxicity in Zebrafish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—To evaluate ,the potential effects on growth ,and reproduction ,of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), the zebrafish fry (F0, 14 d post-fertilization, dpf) were chronically exposed to various concentrations of PFOS (0, 10, 50 and 250 µg l, of PFOS treated groups and resulted in mortality. Taken together, the study suggested that long-term maternal exposure zebrafish tolower concentration of PFOS could impair

Yongbing DU; Xiongjie SHI; Ke YU; Chunsheng LIU; Bingsheng ZHOU

51

PFOS levels in the blood and liver of a small insectivorous songbird near a fluorochemical plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is the stable end product of the degradation of various perfluorinated compounds and is the predominant compound found in the environment and biota. PFOS is a widespread environmental contaminant that is found in a great diversity of wildlife species with more elevated tissue concentrations in animals from populated and industrialized areas. In this study we determined the

Tom Dauwe; Kristin Van de Vijver; Wim De Coen; Marcel Eens

2007-01-01

52

Toxicity evaluation of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in the liver of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has been manufactured for over 50 years in increasing quantities and has been used for several industrial and commercial aims. Due to persistence and bioaccumulation of this pollutant, it can be found worldwide in wildlife and humans. Biochemical effects of PFOS exposure are mainly studied in mammalian model species and information about effects on fish species remain

A. Hagenaars; D. Knapen; I. J. Meyer; K. van der Ven; P. Hoff; W. De Coen

2008-01-01

53

Effect of cationic and anionic surfactants on the sorption and desorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on natural sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorption and desorption of PFOS at water-sediment interfaces were investigated in the presence of a cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS). CTAB remarkably enhanced the sorption of PFOS on the sediment. In contrast, the influence of SDBS to the sorption of PFOS was concentration dependent. Two contrasting factors were responsible for the phenomenon.

Gang Pan; Chengxia Jia; Dongye Zhao; Chun You; Hao Chen; Guibin Jiang

2009-01-01

54

Binding of PFOS to serum albumin and DNA: insight into the molecular toxicity of perfluorochemicals  

PubMed Central

Background Health risk from exposure of perfluorochemicals (PFCs) to wildlife and human has been a subject of great interest for understanding their molecular mechanism of toxicity. Although much work has been done, the toxigenicity of PFCs remains largely unknown. In this work, the non-covalent interactions between perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and serum albumin (SA) and DNA were investigated under normal physiological conditions, aiming to elucidate the toxigenicity of PFCs. Results In equilibrium dialysis assay, the bindings of PFOS to SA correspond to the Langmuir isothermal model with two-step sequence model. The saturation binding number of PFOS was 45 per molecule of SA and 1 per three base-pairs of DNA, respectively. ITC results showed that all the interactions were spontaneous driven by entropy change. Static quenching of the fluorescence of SA was observed when interacting with PFOS, indicating PFOS bound Trp residue of SA. CD spectra of SA and DNA changed obviously in the presence of PFOS. At normal physiological conditions, 1.2 mmol/l PFOS reduces the binding ratio of Vitamin B2 to SA by more than 30%. Conclusion The ion bond, van der Waals force and hydrophobic interaction contributed to PFOS binding to peptide chain of SA and to the groove bases of DNA duplex. The non-covalent interactions of PFOS with SA and DNA alter their secondary conformations, with the physiological function of SA to transport Vitamin B2 being inhibited consequently. This work provides a useful experimental method for further studying the toxigenicity of PFCs.

Zhang, Xian; Chen, Ling; Fei, Xun-Chang; Ma, Yin-Sheng; Gao, Hong-Wen

2009-01-01

55

Estimation of PFOS emission from domestic sources in the eastern coastal region of China.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and related chemicals (collectively "PFOS equivalents") have been released to the environment through widespread consumer use and disposal of PFOS-containing products like carpet, leather, textiles, paper, food containers, household cleansers, etc. Accordingly, in addition to PFOS-related industries, domestic activities may also considerably contribute to the PFOS emissions in the eastern coastal region of China, which has been characterized by high industrial input. In the present study, domestic emissions of PFOS equivalents derived from municipal wastewater treatment plants were estimated at the county level, using a regression model of domestic emission density with population density and per capita disposable income as independent variables. The total emission load of PFOS equivalents from domestic sources in the eastern coastal region of China was 381kg in 2010, and large cities were prominent as the emission centers. The domestic emission density averaged 0.37g/km(2)·a for the entire study area. Generally, the Beijing-Tianjin area, Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta, as the most populous and economically developed areas in China, showed significantly higher emission density. Geographical variations within individual provinces were noteworthy. The average per capita discharge load of PFOS equivalents arising from domestic activities was 1.91?g/day per capita in the eastern coastal region of China, which is consistent with previous estimates in Korea, but lower than those calculated for developed countries. In comparison, the spatial distributions of provincial PFOS emissions from domestic and industrial sources were similar to each other; however, the latter was much larger for all the provinces. PMID:23892226

Xie, Shuangwei; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Liu, Shijie; Jones, Kevin; Sweetman, Andy

2013-07-25

56

Enhanced sorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on carbon nanotube-filled electrospun nanofibrous membranes.  

PubMed

Multi-walled carbon nanotube-filled electrospun nanofibrous membranes (MWCNT-ENFMs) were prepared by electrospinning. The addition of MWCNTs (0.5wt.% vs. ENFMs) doubled the specific surface area and tensile strength of the ENFMs. The MWCNT-ENFMs were used to adsorb perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in aqueous solutions. The sorption kinetics results showed that the sorption rate of PFOS onto the MWCNT-ENFMs was much higher than the sorption rate of PFOS onto the pure ENFMs control, and the pseudo-second-order model (PSOM) described the sorption kinetics well. The sorption isotherms indicated that the sorption capacity of the MWCNT-ENFMs for PFOS (16.29±0.26?molg(-1)) increased approximately 18 times, compared with the pure ENFMs (0.92±0.06?molg(-1)). Moreover, the solution pH significantly affected the sorption efficiency and sorption mechanism. The MWCNT-ENFMs were negatively charged from pH 2.0-10.0, but the electrostatic repulsion between the MWCNT-ENFMs and PFOS was overcome by the hydrophobic interactions between PFOS and the MWCNTs or nanofibers. The strong hydrophobic interactions between PFOS and the MWCNTs played a dominant role in the sorption process. For the pure ENFMs, the electrostatic repulsion was conquered by the hydrophobic interactions between PFOS and the nanofibers at pH>3.1. In addition to the hydrophobic interactions, an electrostatic attraction between PFOS and the pure ENFMs was involved in the sorption process at pH<3.1. PMID:24001664

Dai, Yunrong; Niu, Junfeng; Yin, Lifeng; Xu, Jiangjie; Sun, Kang

2013-08-31

57

Thyroid hormone status and pituitary function in adult rats given oral doses of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is widely distributed and persistent in humans and wildlife. Prior toxicological studies have reported decreased total and free thyroid hormones in serum without a major compensatory rise in thyrotropin (TSH) or altered thyroid gland histology. Alt...

58

Antioxidant defense system responses and DNA damage of earthworms exposed to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS).  

PubMed

The use of earthworms as a sublethal endpoint has significantly contributed to the ecological risk assessment of contaminated soils. Few studies have focused on the potential toxicity of PFOS to earthworms in the soil. In this work, artificial soils were tested, and contact filter paper studies were used. The results showed that earthworm growth was generally inhibited. The antioxidant activities of the enzymes superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were initially activated and then inhibited. Reduced glutathione content was observed, and malondialdehyde content was elevated over the duration of the exposure. These results suggested that PFOS induced oxidative stress in earthworms. In addition, the values of olive tail moment, tail DNA% and tail length using SCGE showed similar frequency distributions and increased with increases in the PFOS concentration. These results suggest that all concentrations of PFOS cause DNA damage. PMID:23257261

Xu, Dongmei; Li, Chandan; Wen, Yuezhong; Liu, Weiping

2012-12-17

59

Developmental toxicity and alteration of gene expression in zebrafish embryos exposed to PFOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent organic pollutant, the potential toxicity of which is causing great concern. In the present study, we employed zebrafish embryos to investigate the developmental toxicity of this compound. Four-hour post-fertilization (hpf) zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0.1, 0.5, 1, 3 and 5 mg\\/L PFOS. Hatching was delayed and hatching rates as well as larval survivorship were significantly

Xiongjie Shi; Yongbing Du; Paul K. S. Lam; Rudolf S. S. Wu; Bingsheng Zhou

2008-01-01

60

Comparison and evaluation of pharmacokinetics of PFOA and PFOS in the adult rat using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model.  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl acid carboxylates and sulfonates (PFAAs) have many consumer and industrial applications. The persistence and widespread distribution of PFAAs have brought them under intense scrutiny. Limited PK data for PFAAs is available for humans; however, toxicological and pharmacokinetic data exist for rats, which can be useful for cross-species extrapolation. In this work, PBPK models were developed for adult male and female rats to describe the pharmacokinetics of PFOA and PFOS. The models contain a description of saturable renal resorption, free fraction of chemical in plasma, and saturable binding in liver. Both male and female rat models for each chemical were consistent with available PK data resulting from IV, oral, and dietary dosing regimens. Predicted plasma concentration curves followed trends observed in experimental data, and model predictions were within a factor of two of experimental values. PFOA and PFOS rat model output is sensitive to parameters governing renal resorption, indicating that renal resorption is responsible for the long-half life. These models, along with the PFAA gestation and lactation models published in this issue, will help address concerns about possible health effects due to PFAA exposure in the fetus and neonate and will be useful in comparing PK across life stages. PMID:21565266

Loccisano, Anne E; Campbell, Jerry L; Butenhoff, John L; Andersen, Melvin E; Clewell, Harvey J

2011-05-04

61

Spatial, phase, and temporal distributions of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in Tokyo Bay, Japan.  

PubMed

The spatial distribution, partitioning, and time trends of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) were investigated in the water column and bottom sediment of Tokyo Bay, Japan, during 2004-2006. A total of 480 water and 60 sediment samples obtained by regular 20-station samplings ascertained the three-dimensional distributions of these compounds and changes in the seawater structure in the whole bay. The median of volume-based average water-borne concentrations of PFOS and PFOA was 3.7 and 12 ng/L, respectively. The median concentrations in sediment were 0.61 (PFOS) and 0.20 (PFOA) ng/g-dry. Vertical mixing of the water column probably affected the vertical distribution of these compounds. The negative correlations between PFOS and PFOA concentrations and water salinity and the horizontal distributions of their concentrations suggested that freshwater inputs into the bay were the source of these compounds. A mixing model estimated the average PFOS concentration in the freshwater inputs to be 29 ng/L. The common logarithm of the partition coefficients between the dissolved and suspended-particle-sorbed phases varied among samples, with the average of 4.2 (PFOS) and 3.5 (PFOA). Our analyses indicated no apparent time trends in the concentrations of these compounds during 2004-2006 in either the freshwater input or the bay. PMID:20429552

Sakurai, Takeo; Serizawa, Shigeko; Isobe, Tomohiko; Kobayashi, Jun; Kodama, Keita; Kume, Gen; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Maki, Hideaki; Imaizumi, Yoshitaka; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Horiguchi, Toshihiro; Morita, Masatoshi; Shiraishi, Hiroaki

2010-06-01

62

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) affects hormone receptor activity, steroidogenesis, and expression of endocrine-related genes in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a widespread and persistent chemical in the environment. We investigated the endocrine-disrupting effects of PFOS using a combination of in vitro and in vivo assays. Reporter gene assays were used to detect receptor-mediated (anti-)estrogenic, (anti-)androgenic, and (anti-)thyroid hormone activities. The effect of PFOS on steroidogenesis was assessed both at hormone levels in the supernatant and at expression levels of hormone-induced genes in the H295R cell. A zebrafish-based short-term screening method was developed to detect the effect of PFOS on endocrine function in vivo. The results indicate that PFOS can act as an estrogen receptor agonist and thyroid hormone receptor antagonist. Exposure to PFOS decreased supernatant testosterone (T), increased estradiol (E2) concentrations in H295R cell medium and altered the expression of several genes involved in steroidogenesis. In addition, PFOS increased early thyroid development gene (hhex and pax8) expression in a concentration-dependent manner, decreased steroidogenic enzyme gene (CYP17, CYP19a, CYP19b) expression, and changed the expression pattern of estrogen receptor production genes (esr1, esr2b) after 500?µg/L PFOS treatment in zebrafish embryos. These results indicate that PFOS has the ability to act as an endocrine disruptor both in vitro and in vivo by disrupting the function of nuclear hormone receptors, interfering with steroidogenesis, and altering the expression of endocrine-related genes in zebrafish embryo. PMID:23074026

Du, Guizhen; Hu, Jialei; Huang, Hongyu; Qin, Yufeng; Han, Xiumei; Wu, Di; Song, Ling; Xia, Yankai; Wang, Xinru

2012-12-27

63

Developmental toxicity in white leghorn chickens following in ovo exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Studies show that perfluorinated compounds cause various toxicological effects; nevertheless, effects on immune function and developmental endpoints have not been addressed at length. This study examined the effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in white leghorn hatchlings on various developmental, immunological, and clinical health parameters. In addition, serum PFOS concentrations were determined by LC/MS/MS. Embryonic day (ED) 0 eggs were injected with either safflower oil/10% DMSO (control, 0 mg/kg egg wt) or PFOS in safflower oil/10% DMSO at 1, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg egg wt, and the chicks were grown to post-hatch day (PHD) 14. Treatment with PFOS did not affect hatch rate. Following in ovo exposure chicks exhibited increases in spleen mass at all treatment levels, in liver mass at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg egg wt, and in body length (crown-rump length) at the 5 mg/kg treatment. Right wings were shorter in all treatments compared to control. Increases in the frequency of brain asymmetry were evident in all treatment groups. SRBC-specific immunoglobulin (IgM and IgY combined) titers were decreased significantly at all treatment levels, while plasma lysozyme activity was increased at all treatment levels. The PHA skin test response decreased in relation to increasing PFOS dose. Serum concentrations where significant immunological, morphological, and neurological effects were observed at the lowest dose (1 mg/kg egg wt) averaged 154 ng PFOS/g serum. These concentrations fall within environmental ranges reported in blood samples from wild caught avian species; thereby, verifying that the environmental egg concentrations used for the injections do indeed relate to serum levels in hatchlings that are also environmentally relevant. These data indicate that immune alterations and brain asymmetry can occur in birds following in ovo exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of PFOS and demonstrates the need for further research on the developmental effects of perfluorinated compounds in various species. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

Peden-Adams, M. M.; Stuckey, J. E.; Gaworecki, K. M.; Berger-Ritchie, J.; Bryant, K.; Jodice, P. G.; Scott, T. R.; Ferrario, J. B.; Guan, B.; Vigo, C.; Boone, J. S.; McGuinn, W. D.; DeWitt, J. C.; Keil, D. E.

2009-01-01

64

In vitro PFOS exposure on immune endpoints in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and mice.  

PubMed

Previous studies in our lab have shown that perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) modulates immune function in mice and correlates with many immune parameters in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). In this study, bottlenose dolphin peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and adult female B6C3F1 mouse splenocytes were exposed to environmentally relevant PFOS concentrations (0-5 µg ml(-1) ) in vitro; and natural killer (NK) cell activity and lymphocyte proliferation (T and B cell) were assessed using the parallelogram approach for risk assessment. The objectives were: to corroborate results from the correlative studies in bottlenose dolphins with in vitro PFOS exposures; to evaluate the sensitivity of the mouse model as compared with bottlenose dolphins; and to assess risk using the parallelogram approach. In mouse cells, NK cell activity was decreased at in vitro doses of 0.01, 0.5, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 µg PFOS ml(-1) and increased at 5 µg ml(-1) . Additionally, B cell proliferation was not altered, but T cell proliferation was decreased at all in vitro PFOS exposures. In dolphin cells, NK cell activity and T cell proliferation were not altered by in vitro PFOS exposure, but B cell proliferation exhibited a positive association in relation to PFOS dose. Overall, the data indicates that: the in vitro exposures of bottlenose dolphin PBLs exhibited results similar to reported correlative fields studies; that mice were generally more sensitive (for these selected endpoints) than were dolphins; and that the parallelogram approach could be used two-thirds of the time to predict the effects in bottlenose dolphins. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23722986

Wirth, Jena R; Peden-Adams, Margie M; White, Natasha D; Bossart, Gregory D; Fair, Patricia A

2013-05-30

65

Concentrations of perfluorinated acids in livers of birds from Japan and Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Livers of birds collected from Japan and Korea (n=83) were analyzed to determine the concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanesulfonamide (FOSA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHS). PFOS was found in the livers of 95% of the birds analyzed at concentrations greater than the limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 10 ng\\/g, wet weight. The greatest concentration of PFOS of 650 ng\\/g,

Kurunthachalam Kannan; Jae-Won Choi; Naomasa Iseki; Kurunthachalam Senthilkumar; Dong Hoon Kim; Shigeki Masunaga; John P. Giesy

2002-01-01

66

Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and Related Perfluorinated Compounds in Human Maternal and Cord Blood Samples: Assessment of PFOS Exposure in a Susceptible Population during Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Fluorinated organic compounds (FOCs), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorooctane sulfonylamide (PFOSA), are widely used in the manufacture of plastic, electronics, textile, and construction material in the apparel, leather, and upholstery industries. FOCs have been detected in human blood samples. Studies have indicated that FOCs may be detrimental to rodent development possibly by affecting thyroid hormone levels. In the present study, we determined the concentrations of FOCs in maternal and cord blood samples. Pregnant women 17–37 years of age were enrolled as subjects. FOCs in 15 pairs of maternal and cord blood samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography–electrospray mass spectrometry coupled with online extraction. The limits of quantification of PFOS, PFOA, and PFOSA in human plasma or serum were 0.5, 0.5, and 1.0 ng/mL, respectively. The method enables the precise determination of FOCs and can be applied to the detection of FOCs in human blood samples for monitoring human exposure. PFOS concentrations in maternal samples ranged from 4.9 to 17.6 ng/mL, whereas those in fetal samples ranged from 1.6 to 5.3 ng/mL. In contrast, PFOSA was not detected in fetal or maternal samples, whereas PFOA was detected only in maternal samples (range, < 0.5 to 2.3 ng/mL, 4 of 15). Our results revealed a high correlation between PFOS concentrations in maternal and cord blood (r2 = 0.876). However, we did not find any significant correlations between PFOS concentration in maternal and cord blood samples and age bracket, birth weight, or levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone or free thyroxine. Our study revealed that human fetuses in Japan may be exposed to relatively high levels of FOCs. Further investigation is required to determine the postnatal effects of fetal exposure to FOCs.

Inoue, Koichi; Okada, Fumio; Ito, Rie; Kato, Shizue; Sasaki, Seiko; Nakajima, Sonomi; Uno, Akiko; Saijo, Yasuaki; Sata, Fumihiro; Yoshimura, Yoshihiro; Kishi, Reiko; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki

2004-01-01

67

BINDING OF PERFLUORINATED FATTY ACIDS TO SERUM PROTEINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) accumulates in the liver and blood of exposed organisms. The potential for these surfactant molecules to interfere with hormone\\/protein interactions in blood is of concern given the importance of these interactions. The PFOS binding to serum proteins was investigated by assessing its ability to displace a variety of steroid hormones from specific binding proteins in the

Paul D. Jones; Wenyue Hu; Wim De Coen; John L. Newsted; John P. Giesy

2003-01-01

68

Effect of perfluorooctane sulfonate on the conformation of wheat germ Acid phosphatase.  

PubMed

Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to study the quenching mechanism, the type of force and the binding sites of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on wheat germ acid phosphatase (ACPase). The results showed that the quenching effect of PFOS on ACPase was mainly due to a static quenching mechanism that occurred via the formation of hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces. The results from synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy demonstrated that PFOS interacts with ACPase close to the tryptophan residues. In addition, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy also showed that PFOS increases the hydrophobicity of the microenvironment of the tyrosine residues, hence decreasing the local polarity. PMID:24068464

Xu, Dongmei; Jin, Jianchang; Shen, Tong; Wang, Yanhua

2013-09-26

69

Gestational and lactational exposure to potassium perfluorooctanesulfonate (K +PFOS) in rats: Toxicokinetics, thyroid hormone status, and related gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), a persistent and accumulative compound, is widely distributed in humans and wildlife. Human exposure can occur early in development, as evidenced by the detection of PFOS in umbilical cord blood and breast milk. As part of a developmental neurotoxicology study for which developmental endpoints, including those related to the developing nervous system, have been reported separately, groups of

Shu-Ching Chang; David J. Ehresman; James A. Bjork; Kendall B. Wallace; George A. Parker; Donald G. Stump; John L. Butenhoff

2009-01-01

70

Contamination of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in surface water of the Yodo River basin (Japan)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study concerned surface water contamination of two perfluorinated compounds: perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). Surveys were repeatedly conducted in the Yodo River basin in order to find out the contamination profiles and the sources of these compounds. Collected samples were analyzed for aqueous PFOS and PFOA concentrations, by solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled with LC\\/MS measurement, and other

Nguyen Pham Hong Lein; Shigeo Fujii; Shuhei Tanaka; Munehiro Nozoe; Hiroaki Tanaka

2008-01-01

71

Linear and branched perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) isomer patterns differ among several tissues and blood of polar bears.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a globally distributed persistent organic pollutant that has been found to bioaccumulate and biomagnify in aquatic food webs. Although principally in its linear isomeric configuration, 21-35% of the PFOS manufactured via electrochemical fluorination is produced as a branched structural isomer. PFOS isomer patterns were investigated in multiple tissues of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from East Greenland. The liver (n=9), blood (n=19), brain (n=16), muscle (n=5), and adipose (n=5) were analyzed for linear PFOS (n-PFOS), as well as multiple mono- and di-trifluoromethyl-substituted branched isomers. n-PFOS accounted for 93.0±0.5% of ?-PFOS isomer concentrations in the liver, whereas the proportion was significantly lower (p<0.05) in the blood (85.4±0.5%). Branched isomers were quantifiable in the liver and blood, but not in the brain, muscle, or adipose. In both the liver and blood, 6-perfluoromethylheptane sulfonate (P6MHpS) was the dominant branched isomer (2.61±0.10%, and 3.26±0.13% of ?-PFOS concentrations, respectively). No di-trifluoromethyl-substituted isomers were detectable in any of the tissues analyzed. These tissue-specific isomer patterns suggest isomer-specific pharmacokinetics, perhaps due to differences in protein affinities, and thus differences in protein interactions, as well transport, absorption, and/or metabolism in the body. PMID:23920361

Greaves, Alana K; Letcher, Robert J

2013-08-03

72

Preliminary screening of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other fluorochemicals in fish, birds and marine mammals from Greenland and the Faroe Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive screening analyses of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and related perfluorinated compounds in biota samples from all over the world have identified PFOS as a global pollutant and have shown its bioaccumulation into higher trophic levels in the food chain. Perfluorinated compounds have been found in remote areas as the Arctic. In this study a preliminary screening of PFOS and related

Rossana Bossi; Frank F. Riget; Rune Dietz; Christian Sonne; Patrik Fauser; Maria Dam; Katrin Vorkamp

2005-01-01

73

Toxicogenomic profiling of perfluorononanoic acid in wild-type and PPARa-null mice  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant and a developmental toxicant in laboratory animals. Like other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOA) and perfluoroalkyl acid (PFOS), PFNA is a known activator ofperoxisome prol...

74

EFFECTS OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) ON MATERNAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL THYROID STATUS IN THE RAT  

EPA Science Inventory

EFFECTS OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) ON MATERNAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL THYROID STATUS IN THE RAT. JR Thibodeaux1, R Hanson1, B Grey1, JM Rogers1, ME Stanton2, and C Lau1. 1Reproductive Toxicology Division; 2Neurotoxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, Research Triangle P...

75

ANALYTICAL METHODS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE CRITERIA FOR LC/ES/MS DETERMINATION OF PFOS IN FISH  

EPA Science Inventory

PFOS, perfluorooctanesulfonate, has recently received much attention from environmental researchers. Previous analytical methods were based upon complexing with a strong ion-pairing reagent and extraction into MTBE. Detection was done on a concentrate using negative ion LC/ES/MS/...

76

Thyroid hormone status and pituitary function in adult rats given oral doses of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionPerfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is widely distributed and persistent in humans and wildlife. Prior toxicological studies have reported decreased total and free thyroid hormones in serum without a major compensatory rise in thyrotropin (TSH) or altered thyroid gland histology. Although these animals (rats, mice and monkeys) might have maintained an euthyroid state, the basis for hypothyroxinemia remained unclear. We undertook this study

Shu-Ching Chang; Julie R. Thibodeaux; Mary L. Eastvold; David J. Ehresman; James A. Bjork; John W. Froehlich; Christopher Lau; Ravinder J. Singh; Kendall B. Wallace; John L. Butenhoff

2008-01-01

77

WINDOW OF SUSCEPTIBILITY TO PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS)-INDUCED NEONATAL MORTALITY IN THE RAT  

EPA Science Inventory

GRASTY1, 2, R.C., B.E. GREY1, C.S. LAU1 and J.M. ROGERS1, 2. 1Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC; and 2Curriculum in Toxicology, UNC Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC. Window of susceptibility to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)-induce...

78

Mechanisms of perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) toxicity: Involvement of peroxisome proliferator activator receptor alpha (PPAR) molecular signals.  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are members of a family of environmentally persistent perfluorinated compounds and are found in the serum of wildlife and humans. PFOS and PFOA are developmentally toxic in rats and mice. Exposure in utero reduces...

79

Cord Serum Concentrations of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in Relation to Weight and Size at Birth  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies have reported developmental toxicity among rodents dosed with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). Objectives We examined the relationship between concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in cord serum (surrogates for in utero exposures) and gestational age, birth weight, and birth size in humans. Methods We conducted a hospital-based cross-sectional epidemiologic study of singleton deliveries in Baltimore, Maryland. Cord serum samples (n = 293) were analyzed for PFOS and PFOA by online solid-phase extraction, coupled with reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography–isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Maternal characteristics and anthropometric measures were obtained from medical charts. Results After adjusting for potential confounders, both PFOS and PFOA were negatively associated with birth weight [per ln-unit: ? = ?69 g, 95% confidence interval (CI), ?149 to 10 for PFOS; ? = ?104 g, 95% CI, ?213 to 5 for PFOA], ponderal index (per ln-unit: ? = ?0.074 g/cm3 × 100, 95% CI, ?0.123 to ?0.025 for PFOS; ? = ?0.070 g/cm3 × 100, 95% CI, ?0.138 to ?0.001 for PFOA), and head circumference (per ln-unit: ? = ?0.32 cm, 95% CI, ?0.56 to ?0.07 for PFOS; ? = ?0.41 cm, 95% CI, ?0.76 to ?0.07 for PFOA). No associations were observed between either PFOS or PFOA concentrations and newborn length or gestational age. All associations were independent of cord serum lipid concentrations. Conclusions Despite relatively low cord serum concentrations, we observed small negative associations between both PFOS and PFOA concentrations and birth weight and size. Future studies should attempt to replicate these findings in other populations.

Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Witter, Frank R.; Herbstman, Julie B.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Halden, Rolf U.; Needham, Larry L.; Goldman, Lynn R.

2007-01-01

80

GC AND LC CHROMATOGRAPHIC AND EI, CE, +/- CI, AND ES MASS SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SALTS AND AMIDES OF PERFLUOROOCTANESULFONIC ACID  

EPA Science Inventory

In 1976, fluorine in human blood serum was thought to be present as perfluorooctanic acid; however, in the 1990s it was correctly identified by LC/MS as perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS). PFOS was both a commercial product and an end-stage metabolite of numerous substituted amides ...

81

Mechanisms for removal of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) from drinking water by conventional and enhanced coagulation.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are persistent organic pollutants that have been found to be ubiquitous in the environment. This article, for the first time, delineates removal areas of these polar compounds on a coagulation diagram that associates chemical conditions with different coagulation mechanisms. Variables considered were solution pH, coagulant dosage, coagulants (alum and ferric chloride), natural organic matter (NOM), initial turbidity, and flocculation time. The jar-test results show that conventional coagulation (alum dosage of 10-60 mg/L and final pH of 6.5-8.0) removed ?20% of PFOS and PFOA. These chemicals tended to be removed better by enhanced coagulation at higher coagulant dosages (>60 mg/L) and (thus) lower final pH (4.5-6.5). A coagulation diagram was developed to define the coagulant dosage and solution pH for PFOS/PFOA removal. The results suggest that the primary PFOS/PFOA removal mechanism is adsorption to fine Al hydroxide flocs freshly formed during the initial stage of coagulation; increasing flocculation time from 2 to 90 min could not further improve PFOS and PFOA removals. Furthermore, the effect of NOM on PFOS/PFOA removal by coagulation was examined, and possible removal mechanisms were discussed. PMID:23123052

Xiao, Feng; Simcik, Matt F; Gulliver, John S

2012-09-24

82

Effective sorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide immobilized mesoporous SiO2 hollow sphere.  

PubMed

The hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMAB) immobilized hollow mesoporous silica spheres were prepared for the efficient removal of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from aqueous solution. Besides the traditional sorption behavior including sorption kinetics as well as effect of solution pH and temperature, the effect of increasing volume which simulated the natural river where the rate of solute and solvent was relatively constant and solution volume was always changing was investigated. The result indicated that the residual PFOS concentrations in aqueous phase decreased with increasing solution pH and ionic strength, whereas they increased with increasing temperature. The HDTMAB immobilized material still maintained high efficiency after increasing volume, that is, the removal kept more than 99% after the treatment when the initial PFOS concentration was 1 mg L(-1). The uptake behavior and morphology of spheres which was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the additional HDTMAB and mesoporous shell were responsible for the enhanced sorption of PFOS. It was concluded that electrostatic interaction and Ca-bridge role played an important role in the sorption of PFOS on the mesoporous SiO(2) hollow spheres, whereas, hydrophobic interaction contributed to the nice sorption performance of PFOS on the HDTMAB immobilized sorbent. PMID:23219049

Zhou, Qin; Pan, Gang; Zhang, Jun

2012-12-05

83

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and related fluorochemicals in chicken egg in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ubiquitous occurrence of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in environmental samples has drawn much attention. Recent human\\u000a exposure studies found relatively high perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentrations in blood samples from several cities\\u000a in China when compared with other countries. The objectives of the present study were: (1) to measure PFC concentrations and\\u000a compositions in chicken egg samples from local markets in

Yuan Wang; Leo Wai Yin Yeung; Nobuyoshi Yamashita; Sachi Taniyasu; Man Ka So; Margaret B. Murphy; Paul Kwan Sing Lam

2008-01-01

84

Pharmacokinetics and Acute Lethality of Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) to Juvenile Mallard and Northern Bobwhite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten-day-old mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were fed perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in their diet for 5 days. The birds were then observed for 3 days while being given\\u000a uncontaminated feed, and half of the birds were sacrificed on Day 8 of the trial. The remaining birds were maintained for\\u000a an additional two weeks prior to being euthanized

John L. Newsted; Susan A. Beach; Sean P. Gallagher; John P. Giesy

2006-01-01

85

Chronic effects of water-borne PFOS exposure on growth, survival and hepatotoxicity in zebrafish: A partial life-cycle test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is widely distributed and persistent in the environment and wildlife. The main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of long-term exposure to low concentrations of PFOS in zebrafish. Zebrafish fry (F0, 14d post-fertilization, dpf) were exposed via the water for 70d to 0 (control), 10, 50 and 250?gL?1 PFOS, followed by a further 30d

Yongbing Du; Xiongjie Shi; Chunsheng Liu; Ke Yu; Bingsheng Zhou

2009-01-01

86

Subchronic effect of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) on the balance of type 1 and type 2 cytokine in adult C57BL6 mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a ubiquitous and highly persistent environmental contaminant, the clear mechanisms to explain any perfluorooctanesulfonate\\u000a (PFOS)-induced immunotoxicity are still unknown. This study here sought to examine the ability of PFOS to potentially perturb\\u000a T-helper (TH)-1 and TH-2 cell cytokine secreting activities, as well as to cause shifts in antibody isotype levels, and possible mechanisms involved\\u000a in PFOS-induced immunotoxicity. Adult male

Guang-Hui DongMiao-Miao; Miao-Miao Liu; Da Wang; Li Zheng; Zai-Fu Liang; Yi-He Jin

87

Evidence for the Involvement of Xenobiotic-response Nuclear Receptors in Transcriptional Effects Upon Perfluroroalkyl Acid Exposure in Diverse Species  

EPA Science Inventory

Humans and ecological species have been found to have detectable body burdens of a number of perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAA) including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). In mouse and rat liver these compounds elicit transcriptional and phenotyp...

88

Evidence for the Involvement of Xenobiotic-responsive Nuclear Receptors in Transcriptional Effects Upon Perfluoroalkyl Acid Exposure in Diverse Species.  

EPA Science Inventory

Humans and other species have detectable body burdens of a number of perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAA) including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). In mouse and rat liver these compounds elicit transcriptional and phenotypic effects similar to pe...

89

AROMATASE-B (CYP 19B) EXPRESSION IN FATHEAD MINNOWS (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS) EXPOSED TO PERFLUOROOCTANE (PFOS) AND THE AROMATASE INHIBITOR FADROZOLE  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a fluorinated organic contaminant that is globally distributed in both humans and wildlife. PFOS belongs to a family of perfluorinated sulfonates that are highly persistent in the environment and have been commercially produced for over 40 year...

90

Preliminary evidence of a decline in perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) concentrations in American Red Cross blood donors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS,C8F17SO3-) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA,C7F15CO2-) concentrations in American Red Cross blood donors from Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota have declined after the 2000–2002 phase-out of perfluorooctanesulfonyl-fluoride (POSF, C8F17SO2F)-based materials by the primary global manufacturer, 3M Company. Forty donor plasma samples, categorized by age and sex, were collected in 2005, and PFOS and

Geary W. Olsen; David C. Mair; William K. Reagen; Mark E. Ellefson; David J. Ehresman; John L. Butenhoff; Larry R. Zobel

2007-01-01

91

Prenatal and postnatal impact of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on rat development: a cross-foster study on chemical burden and thyroid hormone system.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), an environmentally persistent organic pollutant, has been reported to be transferred to the developing organisms via both placenta and breast milk. A cross-foster model was used to determine whether prenatal or postnatal exposure to PFOS alone can disturb the TH homeostasis in rat pups, and if so, which kind of exposure is a major cause of TH level alteration. Pregnant rats were fed standard laboratory rodent diet containing 0 (control) or 3.2 mg PFOS/kg throughout gestation and lactation period. On the day of birth, litters born to treated and control dams were cross-fostered, resulting in the following groups: unexposed control (CC), pups exposed only prenatally (TC), only postnatally (CT) or both prenatally and postnatally (TT). Serum and liver PFOS concentrations, serum total thyroxine (T4), total triiodothyronine (T3), reverse T3 (rT3) levels, and hepatic expression of genes involved in TH transport, metabolism, and receptors were evaluated in pups at the age of postnatal days (PNDs) 0, 7, 14, 21, or 35. PFOS body burden level in pups in group CT increased, while those in group TC dropped as they aged. Neither total T3 nor rT3 in pups was affected by PFOS exposure. Gestational exposure to PFOS alone (TC) significantly (p < 0.05) decreased T4 level in pups on PNDs 21 and 35, 20.3 and 19.4% lower than the control on the same PND, respectively. Postnatal exposure to PFOS alone (CT) also induced T4 depression on PNDs 21 and 35, 28.6 and 35.9% lower than controls, respectively. No significant difference in T4 level (p > 0.05) was observed between TC and CT on these two time points. None of the selected TH related transcripts was affected by PFOS in pups on PND 0. Only transcript level of transthyretin, TH binding protein, in group TT significantly increased to 150% of the control on PND 21. The results showed that prenatal PFOS exposure and postnatal PFOS exposure induced hypothyroxinemia in rat pups to a similar extent, which suggested that in utero PFOS exposure and postnatal PFOS accumulation, especially though maternal milk, are matters of great concern. PMID:19924978

Yu, Wen-Guang; Liu, Wei; Jin, Yi-He; Liu, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Fa-Qi; Liu, Li; Nakayama, Shoji F

2009-11-01

92

Preliminary screening of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other fluorochemicals in fish, birds and marine mammals from Greenland and the Faroe Islands.  

PubMed

Extensive screening analyses of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and related perfluorinated compounds in biota samples from all over the world have identified PFOS as a global pollutant and have shown its bioaccumulation into higher trophic levels in the food chain. Perfluorinated compounds have been found in remote areas as the Arctic. In this study a preliminary screening of PFOS and related compounds has been performed in liver samples of fish, birds and marine mammals from Greenland and the Faroe Islands. PFOS was the predominant fluorochemical in the biota analyzed, followed by perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA). PFOS was found at concentrations above LOQ (10 ng/g wet weight) in 13 out of 16 samples from Greenland and in all samples from the Faroe Islands. The results from Greenland showed a biomagnification of PFOS along the marine food chain (shorthorn sculpin < ringed seal < polar bear). The greatest concentration of PFOS was found in liver of polar bear from east Greenland (mean: 1285 ng/g wet weight, n = 2). The geographical distribution of perfluorinated compounds in Greenland was similar to that of persistent organohalogenated compounds (OHCs), with the highest concentrations in east Greenland, indicating a similar geographical distribution to that of OHCs, with higher concentrations in east Greenland than in west Greenland. PMID:15840540

Bossi, Rossana; Riget, Frank F; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Fauser, Patrik; Dam, Maria; Vorkamp, Katrin

2005-07-01

93

Genotoxic potential of the perfluorinated chemicals PFOA, PFOS, PFBS, PFNA and PFHxA in human HepG2 cells.  

PubMed

Synthetically produced perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) are widely used in industrial products because of their anti-wetting and surfactant properties. PFCs are suspected carcinogens and a possible mechanism of action is generation of oxidative stress. We have investigated the potential of five different PFCs to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to induce oxidative DNA damage in HepG2 cells. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) increased the intracellular ROS production by 1.52-fold (95% CI, 1.37-1.67) and 1.25-fold (95% CI, 1.10-1.40), respectively. However, the increase in ROS production was not concentration-dependent and the compounds did not generate DNA damage that could be detected by the alkaline comet assay as strand breakage and alkali-labile sites or formamidopyrimidine-DNA-glycosylase (FPG) sites. Perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) did not generate ROS or DNA damage. Only the exposure to perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) caused a modest increase in DNA damage at a cytotoxic concentration level, which was detected as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release into the cell medium. This was not related to ROS generation. Collectively, these results indicate that PFCs induce only modest effects in terms of ROS production and DNA damage in a cell line representing the human liver. PMID:20451658

Eriksen, Kirsten Thorup; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sørensen, Mette; Roursgaard, Martin; Loft, Steffen; Møller, Peter

2010-05-06

94

Concentrations and patterns of perfluoroalkyl acids in Georgia, USA surface waters near and distant to a major use source  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are widespread contaminants emanating from, among other sources, the production/degradation of fluorinated chemicals used in surface repellant applications, such as carpet manufacturing. The goal of the present study was to assess the concentrations of PFAAs, including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUA), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), in surface waters both near a wastewater land application system (LAS) in Dalton (GA, USA), home to North America's largest carpet manufacturing site, and distant to this location (Altamaha River, GA, USA) to understand the fate of PFAAs in freshwater. Levels of PFAAs were high in the Conasauga River (GA, USA) downstream of the LAS (PFOA, 253-1,150 ng/L; PFOS, 192-318 ng/L; PFNA, 202-369 ng/L; PFDA, 30.1-113 ng/L; PFUA, 58.0-99.2 ng/L; PFOSA, 162-283 ng/L) and in streams and ponds in Dalton (PFOA, 49.9-299 ng/L; PFOS, 15.8-120 ng/L), and were among the highest measured at a nonspill or directrelease location. Perfluoroalkyl acids in the Altamaha River were much lower (PFOA, 3.0-3.1 ng/L; PFOS, 2.6-2.7 ng/L), but were a source of PFAAs to Georgia's estuaries. A preliminary hazard assessment indicated that concentrations of PFOS at two sites in the Conasauga River exceeded the threshold effect predicted for birds consuming aquatic organisms that are exposed continuously to the PFOS levels at these sites. Assuming that toxicity for all PFAAs quantified is equal to that of PFOS, the sum total PFAAs at two sites within the Conasauga River exceeded PFOS thresholds for aquatic and avian species, warranting additional research. ?? 2008 SETAC Printed in the USA.

Konwick, B. J.; Tomy, G. T.; Ismail, N.; Peterson, J. T.; Fauver, R. J.; Higginbotham, D.; Fisk, A. T.

2008-01-01

95

Determination of perfluorooctanesulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid in sewage sludge samples using liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A new method is developed for the determination of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in sewage sludge samples. The analytes in sewage sludge samples are extracted by methanol and formic acid, cleaned by C18 solid-phase extraction, then separated, identified and quantitated by liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS). A C18 column (150 mm x 2.1 mm, 3.5 microm) with gradient elution of MeOH-H(2)O (60:40) containing 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate and MeOH-H(2)O (80:20) is used for the chromatographic separation. [M-K](-) ions at m/z 498.93 for PFOS and [M-COOH](-) ion at m/z 368.97 for PFOA are selected for QTOF-MS in the negative electrospray ionization mode. The detection limits for PFOS and PFOA in sewage sludge samples are 0.5 and 0.8 ng/g, respectively. The spiked recoveries are in the range of 85-114 and 71-98% for PFOS and PFOA, respectively. The proposed method is successfully applied to the analysis of PFOS and PFOA in 16 sewage sludge samples from China. PFOS and PFOA are detected in most sewage sludge samples and the concentrations of PFOS and PFOA are up to 5383 and 4780 ng/g (oven dry weight), respectively. PMID:18585230

Guo, Rui; Zhou, Qunfang; Cai, Yaqi; Jiang, Guibin

2008-02-03

96

Neonatal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) causes neurobehavioural defects in adult mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are found in applications such oil\\/water repellents for clothing fabrics, carpets, food packaging, lubricants, surfactants and fire extinguishers. PFCs are persistent in the environment. They have been found in humans and in wildlife.We reported earlier that persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as DDT, PCBs and BFRs, caused developmental neurotoxic defects in mice, manifested as persistent aberrations in

N. Johansson; A. Fredriksson; P. Eriksson

2008-01-01

97

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other fluorochemicals in fish blood collected near the outfall of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Beijing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were measured in zooplankton and five fish species collected from Gaobeidian Lake, which receives discharge from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Beijing, China. The mean total PFCs in five fish were in the order: crucian carp>common carp>leather catfish>white semiknife carp>tilapia. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) occurred at the greatest concentrations, with mean concentrations ranging from 5.74 to 64.2ng\\/ml serum.

Xuemei Li; Leo Wai Yin Yeung; Muqi Xu; Sachi Taniyasu; Paul K. S. Lam; Nobuyoshi Yamashita; Jiayin Dai

2008-01-01

98

Combined effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and maternal restraint stress on hypothalamus adrenal axis (HPA) function in the offspring of mice.  

PubMed

Although it is known that prenatal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) can cause developmental adverse effects in mammals, the disruptive effects of this compound on hormonal systems are still controversial. Information concerning the effects of PFOS on hypothalamus adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress and corticosterone levels is not currently available. On the other hand, it is well established that stress can enhance the developmental toxicity of some chemicals. In the present study, we assessed the combined effects of maternal restraint stress and PFOS on HPA axis function in the offspring of mice. Twenty plug-positive female mice were divided in two groups. Animals were given by gavage 0 and 6 mg PFOS/kg/day on gestation days 12-18. One half of the animals in each group were also subjected to restraint stress (30 min/session, 3 sessions/day) during the same period. Five plug-positive females were also included as non-manipulated controls. At 3 months of age, activity in an open-field and the stress response were evaluated in male and female mice by exposing them to 30 min of restraint stress. Male and female offspring were subsequently sacrificed and blood samples were collected to measure changes in corticosterone levels at four different moments related to stress exposure conditions: before stress exposure, immediately after 30 min of stress exposure, and recuperation levels at 60 and 90 min after stress exposure. Results indicate corticosterone levels were lower in mice prenatally exposed to restraint. In general terms, PFOS exposure decreased corticosterone levels, although this effect was only significant in females. The recuperation pattern of corticosterone was mainly affected by prenatal stress. Interactive effects between PFOS and maternal stress were sex dependent. The current results suggest that prenatal PFOS exposure induced long-lasting effects in mice. PMID:19909767

Ribes, Diana; Fuentes, Silvia; Torrente, Margarita; Colomina, M Teresa; Domingo, José L

2009-11-10

99

Combined effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and maternal restraint stress on hypothalamus adrenal axis (HPA) function in the offspring of mice  

SciTech Connect

Although it is known that prenatal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) can cause developmental adverse effects in mammals, the disruptive effects of this compound on hormonal systems are still controversial. Information concerning the effects of PFOS on hypothalamus adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress and corticosterone levels is not currently available. On the other hand, it is well established that stress can enhance the developmental toxicity of some chemicals. In the present study, we assessed the combined effects of maternal restraint stress and PFOS on HPA axis function in the offspring of mice. Twenty plug-positive female mice were divided in two groups. Animals were given by gavage 0 and 6 mg PFOS/kg/day on gestation days 12-18. One half of the animals in each group were also subjected to restraint stress (30 min/session, 3 sessions/day) during the same period. Five plug-positive females were also included as non-manipulated controls. At 3 months of age, activity in an open-field and the stress response were evaluated in male and female mice by exposing them to 30 min of restraint stress. Male and female offspring were subsequently sacrificed and blood samples were collected to measure changes in corticosterone levels at four different moments related to stress exposure conditions: before stress exposure, immediately after 30 min of stress exposure, and recuperation levels at 60 and 90 min after stress exposure. Results indicate corticosterone levels were lower in mice prenatally exposed to restraint. In general terms, PFOS exposure decreased corticosterone levels, although this effect was only significant in females. The recuperation pattern of corticosterone was mainly affected by prenatal stress. Interactive effects between PFOS and maternal stress were sex dependent. The current results suggest that prenatal PFOS exposure induced long-lasting effects in mice.

Ribes, Diana; Fuentes, Silvia; Torrente, Margarita; Colomina, M. Teresa [Department of Psychology and Research Center for Behavioral Assessment (CRAMC), 'Rovira i Virgili' University, Sescelades Campus, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain); Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, 'Rovira i Virgili' University, Sant Llorenc 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Domingo, Jose L., E-mail: joseluis.domingo@urv.ca [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, 'Rovira i Virgili' University, Sant Llorenc 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain)

2010-02-15

100

Sonochemical degradation of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in groundwater: kinetic effects of matrix inorganics.  

PubMed

Ultrasonic irradiation has been shown to effectively degrade perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in aqueous solution. Reduced PFC sonochemical degradation rates in organic-rich groundwater taken from beneath a landfill, however, testify to the negative kinetic effects of the organic groundwater constituents. In this study, the PFOX (X = S or A) sonochemical degradation rates in a groundwater sample with organic concentrations about 10 times lower than those in the groundwater taken from beneath a landfill are found to be 29.7% and 20.5% lower, respectively, than the rates in Milli-Q water, suggesting that inorganic groundwater constituents also negatively affect PFC sonochemical kinetics. To determine the source of the groundwater matrix effects, we evaluate the effects of various inorganic species on PFOX sonochemical kinetics. Anions over the range of 1-10 mM show Hofmeister effects on the sonochemical degradation rates of PFOX, kClO4(-) (-PFOX) > kNO3(-) (-PFOX) kCl(-) (-)PFOX > or = kMQ-PFOX > kHCO3(-) (-PFOX) kSO42(-) (-PFOX). In contrast, common cations at 5 mM have negligible effects. Initial solution pH enhances the degradation rates of PFOX at 3, but has negligible effects over the range of 4 to 11. The observed inorganic effects on sonochemical kinetics are hypothesized to be due to ions' partitioning to and interaction with the bubble-water interface. Finally, it is shown that the rate reduction in the groundwater in this study is primarily due to the presence of bicarbonate and thus can be fully rectified by pH adjustment prior to sonolysis. PMID:19950930

Cheng, Jie; Vecitis, Chad D; Park, Hyunwoong; Mader, Brian T; Hoffmann, Michael R

2010-01-01

101

Changes in morphometry and association between whole-body fatty acids and steroid hormone profiles in relation to bioaccumulation patterns in salmon larvae exposed to perfluorooctane sulfonic or perfluorooctane carboxylic acids.  

PubMed

In the present study, we have used salmon embryos whose continuous exposure to waterborne PFOA or PFOS at 100 ?g/L started as freshly fertilized eggs, and lasted for a total of 52 days. PFOS and PFOA were dissolved in methanol (carrier vehicle) whose concentration never exceeded 0.01% of total tank volume. Samples were collected at day 21, 28, 35, 52, 49 and 56 after the start of the exposure. Note that days 49 and 56 represent end of exposure and 1 week after a recovery period, respectively. Tissue bioaccumulations were determined by HPLC/MS/MS, steroid hormones, fatty acids (FAs) and lipids were determined by GC-MS, while mRNA expression levels of genes were determined by qPCR in whole body homogenate. We observed that PFOS and PFOA showed a steady increase in whole body burden during the exposure period, with a slight decrease after the recovery period. Calculated somatic indexes showed that PFOA produced increases in heart-, thymus-, liver- and kidney somatic indexes (HSI, TSI, LSI and KSI). PFOA and PFOS exposure produced significant decreases in whole body dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), estrone and testosterone at sampling day 21 and a strong increase of cortisol and cholesterol at the end of recovery period (day 56). PFOA and PFOS effects differed with DHEA and estrone. While PFOS decreased DHEA levels, PFOA produced an increase at day 49, and while PFOS decreased estrone, PFOA produced a slight increase at day 56. We observed changes in FA composition that predominantly involved increases in FA methyl esters (FAMEs), mono- and poly-unsaturated FA (MUFA and PUFA) and a decrease in n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio by both PFOA and PFOS. Particularly, an increase in - pentadecenoic MUFA (15:1), two n-3 PUFAs ?-linolenic acid [ALA: 18:3 n3] and eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA: 20:5 n-3] and n-6 PUFA: arachidonic acid [ARA: 20:4 n6], docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) by PFOA and PFOS were observed. These effects were associated with changes in mRNA expression of FA elongase (FAE), ?5-desaturase (FAD5) and ?6-desaturase (FAD6) genes. In summary, the changes in hormonal and FA profiles may represent cellular and/or physiological adaptation to continuous PFOS and PFOA exposure by increasing membrane fluidity, and/or overt developmental effects. The present findings provide some potential insights and basis for a better understanding on the possible mechanisms of PFCs toxicity in fish. PMID:23435358

Arukwe, Augustine; Cangialosi, Maria V; Letcher, Robert J; Rocha, Eduardo; Mortensen, Anne S

2013-01-11

102

Analysis of perfluorinated phosponic acids and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid in water, sludge and sediment by LC–MS\\/MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residues of perfluorinated phosphonic acids (PFPAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were investigated in various Dutch surface waters, sludge and sediments. For this purpose, a liquid chromatographic (LC) method was optimized by testing several columns with different mobile phases. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) was chosen for the LC tandem mass spectrometry (MS\\/MS) analysis. An ion-pair reagent was added to

X. Esparza; E. Moyano; J. de Boer; M. T. Galceran; S. P. J. van Leeuwen

2011-01-01

103

Biochemical Responses and Accumulation Properties of Long-Chain Perfluorinated Compounds (PFOS\\/PFDA\\/PFOA) in Juvenile Chickens ( Gallus gallus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-day-old male chickens were exposed via oral gavage to mixtures of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate\\u000a (PFOA), and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) at either a low dose (0.1 mg\\/kg body weight [b.w.]) or a high dose (1.0 mg\\/kg b.w.),\\u000a or a saline\\/ethanol vehicle control, three times a week for 3 weeks. After 3 weeks of exposure, half of the chicks were sacrificed\\u000a and the other half were

Leo W. Y. Yeung; Eva I. H. Loi; Vicky Y. Y. Wong; Keerthi S. Guruge; Noriko Yamanaka; Nobuhiko Tanimura; Jun Hasegawa; Nobuyoshi Yamashita; Shigeru Miyazaki; Paul K. S. Lam

2009-01-01

104

Gene expression changes in bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, skin cells following exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) or perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylmercury (MeHg) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) bioaccumulate and biomagnify in the environment and increasing concentrations of these pollutants have been found in wildlife and humans. Both chemicals are worldwide contaminants with wide ranging biological effects and have been identified in relatively high concentrations in apex level marine mammals such as bottlenose dolphins. The primary objective of this study was to

Meagan A. M. Mollenhauer; Barbara J. Carter; Margie M. Peden-Adams; Gregory D. Bossart; Patricia A. Fair

2009-01-01

105

Determination of perfluorinated alkylated substances in sediments and sediment core from the Gulf of Gda?sk, Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS) have been determined in surface sediments and sediment core from Gulf of Gda?sk, Baltic Sea. Perfluorooctanesulphonate (PFOS), perfluorohexanesulphonate (PFHxS), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), perfluoronanoate (PFNA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA), perfluoroundecanote (PFUnDA), perfluorododecanoate (PFDoDA) and perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA) were quantified after isotopic dilution (C4 PFOS and C4 PFOA), liquid-liquid extractions by methanol and acetonitrile, cleanup by Envi-Carb, OasisWAX and Envi-Carb

Jerzy Falandysz; Pawe? Rostkowski; Gra?yna Jarzy?ska; Jaromir J. Falandysz; Sachi Taniyasu; Nobuyoshi Yamashita

2012-01-01

106

Removal of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate via ozonation under alkaline condition.  

PubMed

The elimination of recalcitrant, ubiquitous perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is desirable for reducing potential human health and environmental risks. We here report the degradation of PFOA and PFOS by 85-100% via ozonation under alkaline condition being studied at environmentally relevant contaminant concentrations of 50 ?g L(-1) to 5 mg L(-1), with enhanced removal rates by addition of hydrogen peroxide. Enhanced removal is achieved by ozonation pretreatment for 15 min at the ambient pH (i.e. 4-5), followed by elevation of pH to 11 and continued ozonation treatment for 4h. The ozonation pretreatment resulted in increased degradation of PFOA by 56% and PFOS by 42%. The results indicated hydroxyl radical-driven degradation of PFOA and PFOS in both treatments by ozone and peroxone under alkaline conditions. Wastewaters from electronics and semiconductor fabrication plants in the Science Park of Hsinchu city, Taiwan containing PFOA and PFOS have been readily treated by ozonation under alkaline condition. Treatment of PFAAs by ozone or peroxone proves to be efficient in terms of energy requirement, contact time, and removal rate. PMID:23131499

Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Panchangam, Sri Chandana; Chang, Cheng-Yi; Hong, P K Andy; Hsueh, Han-Fang

2012-10-22

107

Laboratory evaluation of the toxicity of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) on Selenastrum capricornutum, Chlorella vulgaris, Lemna gibba, Daphnia magna, and Daphnia pulicaria.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is an anthropogenic compound found in trace amounts in many environmental compartments far from areas of production. This, along with the highly persistent nature of PFOS, presents a concern for possible effects in aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to determine the toxicity of PFOS in representative freshwater organisms. Toxicity testing using standard laboratory protocols was performed on the green algae Selenastrum capricornutum and Chlorella vulgaris, the floating macrophyte Lemna gibba, and the invertebrates Daphnia magna and Daphnia pulicaria. No observable effect concentration (NOEC) values were generated from the most sensitive endpoints for all organisms. Autotroph inhibition of growth NOEC values were 5.3, 8.2, and 6.6 mg/L for S. capricornutum, C. vulgaris, and L. gibba, respectively. The 48-h immobility NOEC values for D. magna and D. pulicaria were 0.8 and 13.6 mg/L, respectively. In comparison to immobility, the 21-day lethality NOEC for D. magna was 5.3 mg/L. Based on effect (immobility) values, the most sensitive of all test organisms was D. magna. The most sensitive organism based on 50% inhibition of growth (IC(50)) was L. gibba, with an IC(50) value of 31.1 mg/L determined from wet weight. This is 4.3 times less than the LC(50) for D. pulicaria, which was 134 mg/L. Significant adverse effects (p < or = 0.05) were observed for all organisms in concentrations >134 mg/L. The results indicate that under laboratory conditions PFOS is acutely toxic to freshwater organisms at concentrations at or near 100 mg/L. Based on known environmental concentrations of PFOS, which occur in the low ng/L to low microg/L range, there is no apparent risk to freshwater systems. However, further work is required to investigate long-term effects in these and other freshwater organisms. PMID:12712289

Boudreau, T M; Sibley, P K; Mabury, S A; Muir, D G C; Solomon, K R

2003-04-01

108

EVALUATION OF PERFLUOROALKYL ACID ACTIVITY USING PRIMARY MOUSE AND HUMAN HEPATOCYTES  

EPA Science Inventory

While perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been studied at length, less is know about the biological activity of other environmental perfluoroalkyl acids (pFAAs). Using a transient transfection assay developed in COS-l cells, our group has previ...

109

Evaluation of Perfluoroalkyl Acid Activity Using Primary Mouse and Human Hepatocytes.  

EPA Science Inventory

While perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been studied at length, less is known about the biological activity of other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the environment. Using a transient transfection assay developed in COS-1 cells, our group h...

110

Cytotoxicity and inhibition of intercellular interaction in N2a neurospheroids by perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid.  

PubMed

Effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) on the neuronal lineage marker expression, cell-cell interaction, caspase-3 mRNA transcription and reactive oxygen species production by N2a neuronal cells were assesses in 3-dimensional (3D) spheroid cultures, and the cytotoxicity were thoroughly compared with those of a conventional 2D monolayer-based toxicity assay. Increasing concentrations of PFOA or PFOS resulted in an increase in cell death. The half maximal inhibitory concentrations measured with spheroids were approximately one and a half times greater than the respective values for monolayer cells. Necrosis was prevalent in spheroids regardless of the dose, whereas the major injury mechanism in monolayers was dependent on compound concentration. Both PFOA and PFOS inhibited neuronal, astrocyte and oligodendrocyte marker gene expression by monolayers and spheroids grown under undifferentiated and all-trans-retinoic acid-induced differentiating conditions. In the presence of PFOA or PFOS, expression levels of E-cadherin and connexin-43 mRNAs were significantly downregulated, and spheroids were dissociated into single cell populations, indicating that the compounds affect the synthesis of E-cadherin and connexin-43 at the transcriptional level. Results from 3D cultures may provide an insight into potential inhibitory mode of action on gap junctional intercellular communication. PMID:23948355

Choi, Seong-Kyoon; Kim, Jung-Hee; Park, Jin-Kyu; Lee, Kyeong-Min; Kim, Eunjoo; Jeon, Won Bae

2013-08-12

111

Aquatic predicted no-effect-concentration derivation for perfluorooctane sulfonic acid.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), a representative perfluorinated surfactant, is an anthropogenic pollutant detected in various environmental and biological matrices. Some laboratory and field work has been conducted to assess the aquatic toxicity of PFOS, but little is known regarding its toxicity threshold to the aquatic ecosystem. In the present study, predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) were derived by four different approaches. The interspecies correlation estimation (ICE) program and final acute-to-chronic ratio (FACR) were applied to the development of PNEC based on the toxic mode of action (MOA) of PFOS. By comparison of the different PNECs, the recommended aquatic toxicity thresholds for PFOS are in the range of 0.61 to 6.66?µg/L. Based on comparison of PNEC values, microcosm results, and reported environmental concentrations, PFOS appears not to pose a serious threat to aquatic organisms. The present results demonstrate that MOA is an important consideration for the derivation of reliable PNECs; moreover, the ICE-based species sensitivity distribution (SSD) method can be used to derive PNECs when toxicological data are limited. The application of MOA and ICE for deriving PNEC values in the present study may facilitate studies on using a combination of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models and ICE to estimate PNECs. PMID:21207445

Qi, Ping; Wang, Ying; Mu, Jingli; Wang, Juying

2011-02-08

112

Increasing levels of long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) in Arctic and North Atlantic marine mammals, 1984–2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporal variations in concentrations of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and sulfonic acids (PFSAs), including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) structural isomers, were examined in livers of pilot whale (Globicephala melas), ringed seal (Phoca hisida), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus) and in muscle tissue of fin whales (Balaenoptera

Anna Rotander; Anna Kärrman; Bert van Bavel; Anuschka Polder; Frank Rigét; Guðjón Atli Auðunsson; Gísli Víkingsson; Geir Wing Gabrielsen; Dorete Bloch; Maria Dam

113

Polar herbicides, pharmaceutical products, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and nonylphenol and its carboxylates and ethoxylates in surface and tap waters around Lake Maggiore in Northern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of contamination of surface and drinking waters around Lake Maggiore in Northern Italy with polar anthropogenic environmental\\u000a pollutants has been conducted. The target analytes were polar herbicides, pharmaceuticals (including antibiotics), steroid\\u000a estrogens, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (including perfluorooctanoate PFOA), nonylphenol and\\u000a its carboxylates and ethoxylates (NPEO surfactants), and triclosan, a bactericide used in personal-care products. Analysis\\u000a of water

Robert Loos; Jan Wollgast; Tania Huber; Georg Hanke

2007-01-01

114

Associations of in Utero Exposure to Perfluorinated Alkyl Acids with Human Semen Quality and Reproductive Hormones in Adult Men  

PubMed Central

Background: Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs), persistent chemicals with unique water-, dirt-, and oil-repellent properties, are suspected of having endocrine-disrupting activity. The PFAA compounds perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) are found globally in humans; because they readily cross the placental barrier, in utero exposure may be a cause for concern. Objectives: We investigated whether in utero exposure to PFOA and PFOS affects semen quality, testicular volume, and reproductive hormone levels. Methods: We recruited 169 male offspring (19–21 years of age) from a pregnancy cohort established in Aarhus, Denmark, in 1988–1989, corresponding to 37.6% of the eligible sons. Each man provided a semen sample and a blood sample. Semen samples were analyzed for sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility, and morphology, and blood samples were used to measure reproductive hormones. As a proxy for in utero exposure, PFOA and PFOS were measured in maternal blood samples from pregnancy week 30. Results: Multivariable linear regression analysis suggested that in utero exposure to PFOA was associated with lower adjusted sperm concentration (ptrend = 0.01) and total sperm count (ptrend = 0.001) and with higher adjusted levels of luteinizing hormone (ptrend = 0.03) and follicle-stimulating hormone (ptrend = 0.01). PFOS did not appear to be associated with any of the outcomes assessed, before or after adjustment. Conclusions: The results suggest that in utero exposure to PFOA may affect adult human male semen quality and reproductive hormone levels.

Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia H?st; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Bonde, Jens Peter; Kristensen, Susanne Lund; Halldorsson, Thorhallur Ingi; Becher, Georg; Haug, Line Smastuen; Ernst, Emil Hagen; Toft, Gunnar

2013-01-01

115

Toxicogenomic Study of Triazole Fungicides and Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Rat Livers Predicts Toxicity and Categorizes Chemicals Based on Mechanisms of Toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicogenomic analysis of five environmental chemicals was performed to investigate the ability of genomics to predict toxicity, categorize chemicals, and elucidate mechanisms of toxicity. Three triazole antifungals (myclobutanil, propiconazole, and triadime- fon) and two perfluorinated chemicals (perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)) were administered daily via oral gavage for one, three, or five consecutive days to male Sprague-Dawley rats

Matthew T. Martin; Richard J. Brennan; Wenyue Hu; Eser Ayanoglu; Christopher Lau; Hongzu Ren; Carmen R. Wood; J. Christopher Corton; Robert J. Kavlock; David J. Dix

2007-01-01

116

Using blood gene signatures for assessing effects of exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in humans: the NOWAC postgenome study  

PubMed Central

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are ubiquitously present in human blood samples and the effects of these compounds on human health are not fully characterized. This study was conducted in order to investigate the applicability of peripheral blood gene expressions for exploring the impact of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) exposure on the general population. PFOS, PFOA and PFHxS were analyzed in blood samples from a representative group of 270 healthy, postmenopausal Norwegian women (48-62 years). Gene expression was measured in the same samples using the Applied Biosystems microarray platform. Forty-eight different gene sets, all previously linked to PFAA exposure were explored in relation to the selected PFAAs. Two gene sets, both related to the citric acid cycle, were differentially expressed between the “PFOS high” (>30ng/ml, n=42) and the “PFOS low” (<30ng/ml, n=228) group. Based on the results of this study we believe that blood gene signatures have a large potential for elucidating which biological pathways are being affected by environmental pollutants. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first assessment of the impact of PFAAs on blood gene expressions in humans from the general population.

Rylander, Charlotta; Dumeaux, Vanessa; Olsen, Karina Standahl; Waaseth, Marit; Sandanger, Torkjel M; Lund, Eiliv

2011-01-01

117

Serum Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Concentrations in Relation to Birth Outcomes in the Mid-Ohio Valley, 2005-2010  

PubMed Central

Background: Previous research suggests perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Objective: We conducted a population-based study of PFOA and PFOS and birth outcomes from 2005 through 2010 in a Mid-Ohio Valley community exposed to high levels of PFOA through drinking-water contamination. Methods: Women provided serum for PFOA and PFOS measurement in 2005–2006 and reported reproductive histories in subsequent follow-up interviews. Reported singleton live births among 1,330 women after 1 January 2005 were linked to birth records (n = 1,630) to identify the outcomes of preterm birth (< 37 weeks gestation), pregnancy-induced hypertension, low birth weight (< 2,500 g), and birth weight (grams) among full-term infants. Results: We observed little or no evidence of association between maternal serum PFOA or PFOS and preterm birth (n = 158) or low birth weight (n = 88). Serum PFOA and PFOS were both positively associated with pregnancy-induced hypertension (n = 106), with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) per log unit increase in PFOA and PFOS of 1.27 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.55) and 1.47 (95% CI: 1.06, 2.04), respectively, but associations did not increase monotonically when categorized by quintiles. Results of subanalyses restricted to pregnancies conceived after blood collection were consistent with the main analyses. There was suggestion of a modest negative association between PFOS and birth weight in full-term infants (–29 g per log unit increase; 95% CI: –66, 7), which became stronger when restricted to births conceived after the blood sample collection (–49 g per log unit increase; 95% CI: –90, –8). Conclusion: Results provide some evidence of positive associations between measured serum perfluorinated compounds and pregnancy-induced hypertension and a negative association between PFOS and birth weight among full-term infants. Citation: Darrow LA, Stein CR, Steenland K. 2013. Serum perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate concentrations in relation to birth outcomes in the Mid-Ohio Valley, 2005–2010. Environ Health Perspect 121:1207–1213; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206372

Stein, Cheryl R.; Steenland, Kyle

2013-01-01

118

Use of simple pharmacokinetic modeling to characterize exposure of Australians to perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid.  

PubMed

Perflurooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) have been used for a variety of applications including fluoropolymer processing, fire-fighting foams and surface treatments since the 1950s. Both PFOS and PFOA are polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs), man-made compounds that are persistent in the environment and humans; some PFCs have shown adverse effects in laboratory animals. Here we describe the application of a simple one compartment pharmacokinetic model to estimate total intakes of PFOA and PFOS for the general population of urban areas on the east coast of Australia. Key parameters for this model include the elimination rate constants and the volume of distribution within the body. A volume of distribution was calibrated for PFOA to a value of 170ml/kgbw using data from two communities in the United States where the residents' serum concentrations could be assumed to result primarily from a known and characterized source, drinking water contaminated with PFOA by a single fluoropolymer manufacturing facility. For PFOS, a value of 230ml/kgbw was used, based on adjustment of the PFOA value. Applying measured Australian serum data to the model gave mean+/-standard deviation intake estimates of PFOA of 1.6+/-0.3ng/kgbw/day for males and females >12years of age combined based on samples collected in 2002-2003 and 1.3+/-0.2ng/kg bw/day based on samples collected in 2006-2007. Mean intakes of PFOS were 2.7+/-0.5ng/kgbw/day for males and females >12years of age combined based on samples collected in 2002-2003, and 2.4+/-0.5ng/kgbw/day for the 2006-2007 samples. ANOVA analysis was run for PFOA intake and demonstrated significant differences by age group (p=0.03), sex (p=0.001) and date of collection (p<0.001). Estimated intake rates were highest in those aged >60years, higher in males compared to females, and higher in 2002-2003 compared to 2006-2007. The same results were seen for PFOS intake with significant differences by age group (p<0.001), sex (p=0.001) and date of collection (p=0.016). PMID:20236705

Thompson, Jack; Lorber, Matthew; Toms, Leisa-Maree L; Kato, Kayoko; Calafat, Antonia M; Mueller, Jochen F

2010-03-16

119

High-dose, short-term exposure of mice to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) affects the number of circulating neutrophils differently, but enhances the inflammatory responses of macrophages to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a similar fashion.  

PubMed

Having found previously that high-dose, short-term dietary exposure of mice to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) suppresses adaptive immunity, in the present study we characterize the effects of these fluorochemicals on the innate immune system. Male C57BL/6 mice receiving 0.02% (w/w) PFOS or PFOA in their diet for 10 days exhibited a significant reduction in the numbers of total white blood cells (WBC), involving lymphopenia in both cases, but neutropenia only in response to treatment with PFOA. Moreover, both compounds also markedly reduced the number of macrophages (CD11b(+) cells) in the bone marrow, but not in the spleen or peritoneal cavity. The ex vivo production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) by peritoneal macrophages isolated from animals treated with PFOA or PFOS was increased modestly. Moreover, both fluorochemicals markedly enhanced the ex vivo production of these same cytokines by peritoneal and bone marrow macrophages stimulated either in vitro or in vivo with lipopolysaccharide (LPS); whereas there was no such effect on splenic macrophages. The serum levels of these inflammatory cytokines observed in response to in vivo stimulation with LPS were elevated substantially by prior exposure to PFOA, but not by PFOS. None of these parameters of innate immunity were altered in animals receiving a dietary dose of these compounds that was 20-fold lower (0.001%, w/w). These findings reveal that in addition to suppressing adaptive immunity, high-dose, short-term exposure of mice to either PFOS or PFOA augments inflammatory responses to LPS, a potent activator of innate immunity. PMID:19540903

Qazi, Mousumi R; Bogdanska, Jasna; Butenhoff, John L; Nelson, B Dean; DePierre, Joseph W; Abedi-Valugerdi, Manuchehr

2009-06-21

120

Evaluation of placental and lactational pharmacokinetics of PFOA and PFOS in the pregnant, lactating, fetal and neonatal rat using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model.  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and sulfonates (PFAAs) have many consumer and industrial applications. Developmental toxicity studies in animals have raised concern about potential developmental effects of PFOA and PFOS in humans. We have developed PBPK models for PFAAs in the rat to help define a relationship between external dose, internal tissue concentrations, and observed adverse effects, and to understand how physiological changes that occur during gestation and lactation affect tissue distribution of PFAAs in the mother, fetus, and neonate. The models developed here expand upon a PBPK model for PFAAs in the adult female rat, and are consistent with available PK data. These models, along with the adult rat PFAA models, published in the companion paper, will help address concerns about possible health effects due to PFAA exposure in the fetus and neonate and will be useful in comparing PK across life stages. PMID:21872655

Loccisano, Anne E; Campbell, Jerry L; Butenhoff, John L; Andersen, Melvin E; Clewell, Harvey J

2011-08-18

121

Interactions of fluorochemicals with rat liver fatty acid-binding protein.  

PubMed

Liver-fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) is an abundant intracellular lipid-carrier protein. The hypothesis that perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and certain related perfluorooctanesulfonamide-based fluorochemicals (PFOSAs) can interfere with the binding affinity of L-FABP for fatty acids was tested. The relative effectiveness of PFOA, PFOS, N-ethylperfluorooctanesulfonamide (N-EtFOSA), N-ethylperfluorooctanesulfonamido ethanol (N-EtFOSE), and of the strong peroxisome proliferator Wyeth-14643 (WY) to inhibit 11-(5-dimethylaminonapthalenesulphonyl)-undecanoic acid (DAUDA) binding to-L-FABP was determined. The dissociation constant (Kd) of the DAUDA-L-FABP complex was 0.47 nM. PFOS exhibited the highest level of inhibition of DAUDA-L-FABP binding in the competitive binding assays, followed by N-EtFOSA, WY, and, with equal IC(50)s, N-EtFOSE and PFOA. The in vitro data presented in this study support the hypothesis that these fluorochemicals may interfere with the binding of fatty acids or other endogenous ligands to L-FABP. Furthermore, this work provides evidence to support the hypothesis that displacement of endogenous ligands from L-FABP may contribute to toxicity in rodents fed these fluorochemicals. PMID:12093614

Luebker, Deanna J; Hansen, Kris J; Bass, Nathan M; Butenhoff, John L; Seacat, Andrew M

2002-07-15

122

Impact of treatment processes on the removal of perfluoroalkyl acids from the drinking water production chain.  

PubMed

The behavior of polyfluoralkyl acids (PFAAs) from intake (raw source water) to finished drinking water was assessed by taking samples from influent and effluent of the several treatment steps used in a drinking water production chain. These consisted of intake, coagulation, rapid sand filtration, dune passage, aeration, rapid sand filtration, ozonation, pellet softening, granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration, slow sand filtration, and finished drinking water. In the intake water taken from the Lek canal (a tributary of the river Rhine), the most abundant PFAA were PFBA (perfluorobutanoic acid), PFBS (perfluorobutane sulfonate), PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate), and PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid). During treatment, longer chain PFAA such as PFNA (perfluorononanoic acid) and PFOS were readily removed by the GAC treatment step and their GAC effluent concentrations were reduced to levels below the limits of quantitation (LOQ) (0.23 and 0.24 ng/L for PFOS and PFNA, respectively). However, more hydrophilic shorter chain PFAA (especially PFBA and PFBS) were not removed by GAC and their concentrations remained constant through treatment. A decreasing removal capacity of the GAC was observed with increasing carbon loading and with decreasing carbon chain length of the PFAAs. This study shows that none of the treatment steps, including softening processes, are effective for PFAA removal, except for GAC filtration. GAC can effectively remove certain PFAA from the drinking water cycle.The enrichment of branched PFOS and PFOA isomers relative to non branched isomers during GAC filtration was observed during treatment. The finished water contained 26 and 19 ng/L of PFBA and PFBS. Other PFAAs were present in concentrations below 4.2 ng/L The concentrations of PFAA observed in finished waters are no reason for concern for human health as margins to existing guidelines are sufficiently large. PMID:22201258

Eschauzier, Christian; Beerendonk, Erwin; Scholte-Veenendaal, Petra; De Voogt, Pim

2012-01-13

123

Toxic effect of serial perfluorosulfonic and perfluorocarboxylic acids on the membrane system of a freshwater alga measured by flow cytometry.  

PubMed

Flow cytometric measurements were used to investigate the toxic effect of perfluorobutanoic sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA), and perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTeA) on some membrane systems of the freshwater alga species Scenedesmus obliquus. Among the test compounds, PFOS, PFDoA, and PFTeA inhibited algal growth rate in a concentration-dependent manner while PFBS, PFHxA, and PFOA did not inhibit algal growth within the test concentration ranges. An enhancement of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and cell membrane permeability in S. obliquus was observed caused by exposure to PFOS, PFOA, PFDoA, and PFTeA. Both carbon chain length and acid group influenced the toxicity of PFAAs, where the toxicity increased with increasing carbon chain length for the compounds belonging to the same class. The observed effective concentrations lie in the micromole range and the test compounds disrupted membrane properties at concentrations below those associated with algal growth inhibition. Flow cytometry is proved to be a useful technique for toxicity testing with microalgae and provide additional information regarding the mode of action of PFAAs to algal species. PMID:18269298

Liu, Wei; Chen, Shuo; Quan, Xie; Jin, Yi-He

2008-07-01

124

Perfluorinated acids in Arctic snow: new evidence for atmospheric formation.  

PubMed

Perfluorinated acids (PFAs) are ubiquitously found in water and biota, including remote regions such as the High Arctic. Under environmental conditions, PFAs exist mainly as anions and are not expected to be subject to long-range atmospheric transport in the gas phase. Fluorinated telomer alcohols (FTOHs) are volatile and can be atmospherically oxidized to form perfluorocarboxylic acids. Analogously, fluorosulfamido alcohols can be oxidized to form perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). High Arctic ice caps experience contamination solely from atmospheric sources. By examining concentrations of PFAs in ice cap samples, it is possible to determine atmospheric fluxes to the Arctic. Ice samples were collected from high Arctic ice caps in the spring of 2005 and 2006. Samples were concentrated using solid-phase extraction and analyzed by LC-MS-MS. PFAs were observed in all samples, dating from 1996 to 2005. Concentrations were in the low-mid pg L(-1) range and exhibited seasonality, with maximum concentrations in the spring-summer. The presence of perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA) on the ice cap was indicative of atmospheric oxidation as a source. Ratios of PFAs to sodium concentrations were highly variable, signifying PFA concentrations on the ice cap were unrelated to marine chemistry. Fluxes of the PFAs were estimated to the area north of 65 degrees N for the 2005 season, which ranged from 114 to 587 kg year(-1) for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), 73 to 860 kg year(-1) for perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), 16 to 84 kg year(-1) for PFDA, 26 to 62 kg year(-1) for PFUnA, and 18 to 48 kg year(-1) for PFOS. The PFOA and PFNA fluxes agreed with FTOH modeling estimations. A decrease in PFOS concentrations through time was observed, suggesting a fast response to changes in production. These data suggest that atmospheric oxidation of volatile precursors is a primary source of PFAs to the Arctic. PMID:17547163

Young, Cora J; Furdui, Vasile I; Franklin, James; Koerner, Roy M; Muir, Derek C G; Mabury, Scott A

2007-05-15

125

Biogeochemical dynamics of perfluorinated alkyl acids and sulfonates in the River Seine (Paris, France) under contrasting hydrological conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biogeochemical dynamics of 15 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were investigated in a heavily urbanised river (River Seine, Paris, France). The target compounds included C4-C10 sulfonates and C5-C14 acids; eleven PFCs were detected and ?PFCs ranged between 31 and 91 ng L?1 (median: 47 ng L?1). The molecular pattern was dominated by the perfluoroalkyl sulfonates PFHxS and PFOS (>54% of ?PFCs), which were the only

Pierre Labadie; Marc Chevreuil

2011-01-01

126

Lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress responses of salmon fed a diet containing perfluorooctane sulfonic or perfluorooctane carboxylic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on lipid ?-oxidation and oxidative stress responses in Atlantic salmon liver and kidney tissues. We quantified changes in the expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACOX1) enzyme whose transcription is induced by PPARs. In addition, we analyzed gene expression

Augustine Arukwe; Anne S. Mortensen

2011-01-01

127

Response of the zooplankton community and environmental fate of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid in aquatic microcosms.  

PubMed

Little is known regarding perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) toxicity to freshwater organisms. This field evaluation aims to assess the toxicological risk associated with exposure to PFOS across levels of biological organization. The analysis of variance study was conducted in replicate (n = 3) 12,000 L outdoor microcosms. Multivariate techniques were used to assess the response of zooplankton community structure and dynamics, as well as a floating macrophyte, Lemna gibba. The zooplankton community was significantly affected (p < 0.05) by the treatment regime given by the Monte Carlo permutations for all sampling times. A community-level no-observable-effect concentration ([NOEC]community) of 3.0 mg/L was determined for the 35-day study, however, longer term studies are recommended. The most sensitive taxonomic groups, Cladocera and Copepoda, were virtually eliminated in 30 mg/L treatments after 7 d. The 42-d 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) for L. gibba frond number was 19.1 mg/L and the NOEC was 0.2 mg/L. Furthermore, we investigated the persistence of PFOS over 285 d in microcosms under natural conditions. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid concentration showed no drastic reduction in any treatment microcosm over the entire study period, confirming that this compound undergoes little degradation in aquatic systems. Presently, there appears to be little hazard to these freshwater organisms at reported environmental concentrations. PMID:14587916

Boudreau, Timothy M; Wilson, Christian J; Cheong, Woo Jay; Sibley, Paul K; Mabury, Scott A; Muir, Derek C G; Solomon, Keith R

2003-11-01

128

Bioaccumulation and distribution of perfloroalkyl acids in seafood products from Bohai Bay, China.  

PubMed

Ten perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were measured in seafood collected from Bohai Bay, China in 2010. The summed concentrations of the PFAAs were in the ranges of not detected to 194 ng/g dry weight and 4.0 to 304 ng/g dry weight for invertebrates and fish, respectively. The levels of perflurooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in the seafood were lower than those from North America, the Mediterranean Sea, and South Korea. Living habitat, trophic level, and feeding habits had important impacts on the bioaccumulation and distribution of PFAAs in the seafood. The species at higher trophic levels had the potential to accumulate more PFAAs than benthic invertebrates. Tidal-flat organisms tended to accumulate more PFOA than PFOS, whereas the opposite was seen for shallow-water species. For all the species, PFOS and PFOA were partitioned preferentially in the liver or viscera. Risk assessment indicated that the current level of PFAAs in the seafood of Bohai Bay does not represent an immediate source of harm to public health. PMID:22707313

Yang, Liping; Tian, Shengyan; Zhu, Lingyan; Liu, Zhengtao; Zhang, Yahui

2012-07-21

129

Increasing Concentrations of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Scandinavian Otters (Lutra lutra) between 1972 and 2011: A New Threat to the Otter Population?  

PubMed

Liver samples from 140 otters (Lutra lutra) from Sweden and Norway were analyzed for 10 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs; C6-C15), 4 perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs; C4,C6,C8,C10) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA). Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was the dominant compound accounting for approximately 80% of the fluorinated contaminants and showing concentrations up to 16 ?g/g wet weight. Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) was the dominant PFCA (up to 640 ng/g wet weight) closely followed by the C10 and C11 homologues. A spatial comparison between otters from southwestern Norway, southern and northern Sweden sampled between 2005 and 2011 revealed that the samples from southern Sweden had generally the largest contaminant load, but two PFCAs and FOSA were higher concentrated in the Norwegian samples. A temporal trend study was performed on otters from southern Sweden collected between 1972 and 2011. Seven PFCAs (C8-C14), PFOS and perfluorodecane sulfonic acid (PFDS) showed significantly increasing trends with doubling times between 5.5 and 13 years. The PFCAs also showed significantly increasing trends over the period 2002 to 2011. These findings together with the exceptionally high liver concentrations of PFOS are of great concern for the Scandinavian otter populations. PMID:24033312

Roos, Anna; Berger, Urs; Järnberg, Ulf; van Dijk, Jiska; Bignert, Anders

2013-09-27

130

Dietary exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids for the Swedish population in 1999, 2005 and 2010.  

PubMed

Dietary intake has been hypothesized to be the major pathway of human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). However, difficulties associated with the analysis of PFAAs at ultra trace levels in food samples have prevented the confirmation of this hypothesis. In this study, the dietary intake of PFAAs for the general Swedish population was estimated by applying a highly sensitive analytical method to a set of archived food market basket samples from 1999, 2005 and 2010. Dietary exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) (860-1440 pg kg?¹ day?¹), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) (90-210 pg kg?¹ day?¹), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) (50-110 pg kg?¹ day?¹) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) (70-80 pg kg?¹ day?¹) was dominated by the consumption of fish and meat. In contrast, dietary exposure to PFOA (350-690 pg kg?¹ day?¹) originated from low levels (8-62 pg g?¹) found in several high consumption food categories including cereals, dairy products, vegetables and fruit. The dietary intakes of PFOS and PFOA estimated in this study were 4 to 10 times lower compared to previous exposure modeling studies. Nevertheless, the dietary intake of PFOS and PFOA was still a factor of 6 to 10 higher than exposure through ingestion of household dust and drinking water estimated for the general Swedish population. For perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) drinking water intake was the major exposure pathway (36-53% of the total exposure) whereas dust ingestion made a significant contribution (27-49%) to the total exposure for PFHxA, PFHpA, PFNA, perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA) and perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTeDA). Dietary intakes varied by less than a factor of three for all PFAAs during the different sampling years which demonstrates that dietary intake has been fairly constant over the past decade when many manufacturing changes occurred. PMID:23018201

Vestergren, Robin; Berger, Urs; Glynn, Anders; Cousins, Ian T

2012-09-24

131

Simple, high throughput ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry trace analysis of perfluorinated alkylated substances in food of animal origin: milk and fish.  

PubMed

The present study documents development and validation of a novel approach for determination of 23 perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) in food of animal origin represented by milk and fish. The list of target analytes comprises four classes of PFASs, both ionic and non-ionic: 11 perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs), 4 perfluorosulphonic acids (PFSAs), 5 perfluorosulphonamides (FOSAs) and 3 perfluorophosphonic acids (PFPAs). Fast sample preparation procedure is based on an extraction of target analytes with acetonitrile (MeCN) and their transfer (supported by inorganic salts and acidification) into the organic phase. Removing of matrix co-extracts by a simple dispersive solid phase extraction (SPE) employing ENVI-Carb and C18 sorbents is followed by an efficient sample pre-concentration performed by acetonitrile evaporation and subsequent dilution of residue in a small volume of methanol (matrix equivalent in the final extracts was 16 and 8 g mL(-1), for milk and fish respectively). Using modern instrumentation consisting of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) hyphenated with a tandem mass spectrometer (MS/MS), limits of quantification (LOQs) as low as 0.001-0.006 ?g kg(-1) for milk and 0.002-0.013 ?g kg(-1) for fish can be achieved. Under these conditions, a wide spectrum of PFASs, including minor representatives, can be determined which enables collecting data required for human exposure studies. The pilot study employing the new method for examination of milk and canned fish samples was realized. Whereas in majority of canned fish products a wide spectrum of PFCAs, perfluorooctanesulphonic acid (PFOS) and perfluoro-1-octanesulphonamide (PFOSA) was detected, only in a few milk samples very low concentrations (LOQ levels) of PFOS and perfluorooctansulphonic acid (PFDS) were found. PMID:21621213

Lacina, Ondrej; Hradkova, Petra; Pulkrabova, Jana; Hajslova, Jana

2011-05-07

132

Promotion of Hepatocarcinogenesis by Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Rainbow Trout  

PubMed Central

Previously, we reported that perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) promotes liver cancer in a manner similar to that of 17?-estradiol (E2) in rainbow trout. Also, other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are weakly estrogenic in trout and bind the trout liver estrogen receptor. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether multiple PFAAs enhance hepatic tumorigenesis in trout, an animal model that represents human insensitivity to peroxisome proliferation. A two-stage chemical carcinogenesis model was employed in trout to evaluate PFOA, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2FtOH) as complete carcinogens or promoters of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)- and/or N-methyl-N?-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced liver cancer. A custom trout DNA microarray was used to assess hepatic transcriptional response to these dietary treatments in comparison with E2 and the classic peroxisome proliferator, clofibrate (CLOF). Incidence, multiplicity, and size of liver tumors in trout fed diets containing E2, PFOA, PFNA, and PFDA were significantly higher compared with AFB1-initiated animals fed control diet, whereas PFOS caused a minor increase in liver tumor incidence. E2 and PFOA also enhanced MNNG-initiated hepatocarcinogenesis. Pearson correlation analyses, unsupervised hierarchical clustering, and principal components analyses showed that the hepatic gene expression profiles for E2 and PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, and PFOS were overall highly similar, though distinct patterns of gene expression were evident for each treatment, particularly for PFNA. Overall, these data suggest that multiple PFAAs can promote liver cancer and that the mechanism of promotion may be similar to that of E2.

Benninghoff, Abby D.; Orner, Gayle A.; Buchner, Clarissa H.; Hendricks, Jerry D.; Duffy, Aaron M.; Williams, David E.

2012-01-01

133

Association between Serum Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Thyroid Disease in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, also known as C8) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are stable compounds with many industrial and consumer uses. Their persistence in the environment plus toxicity in animal models has raised concern over low-level chronic exposure effects on human health. Objectives We estimated associations between serum PFOA and PFOS concentrations and thyroid disease prevalence in representative samples of the U.S. general population. Methods Analyses of PFOA/PFOS versus disease status in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for 1999–2000, 2003–2004, and 2005–2006 included 3,974 adults with measured concentrations for perfluorinated chemicals. Regression models were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, smoking status, body mass index, and alcohol intake. Results The NHANES-weighted prevalence of reporting any thyroid disease was 16.18% (n = 292) in women and 3.06% (n = 69) in men; prevalence of current thyroid disease with related medication was 9.89% (n = 163) in women and 1.88% (n = 46) in men. In fully adjusted logistic models, women with PFOA ? 5.7 ng/mL [fourth (highest) population quartile] were more likely to report current treated thyroid disease [odds ratio (OR) = 2.24; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.38–3.65; p = 0.002] compared with PFOA ? 4.0 ng/mL (quartiles 1 and 2); we found a near significant similar trend in men (OR = 2.12; 95% CI, 0.93–4.82; p = 0.073). For PFOS, in men we found a similar association for those with PFOS ? 36.8 ng/mL (quartile 4) versus ? 25.5 ng/mL (quartiles 1 and 2: OR for treated disease = 2.68; 95% CI, 1.03–6.98; p = 0.043); in women this association was not significant. Conclusions Higher concentrations of serum PFOA and PFOS are associated with current thyroid disease in the U.S. general adult population. More work is needed to establish the mechanisms involved and to exclude confounding and pharmacokinetic explanations.

Melzer, David; Rice, Neil; Depledge, Michael H.; Henley, William E.; Galloway, Tamara S.

2010-01-01

134

Activation of Mouse and Human Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (a, b\\/d, c) by Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the potential for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) to activate peroxi- some proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), using a transient transfection cell assay. Cos-1 cells were cultured in Dulbecco's Minimal Essential Medium (DMEM) with fetal bovine serum in 96-well plates and transfected with mouse or human PPARa, b\\/d, or g reporter plasmids. Transfected cells were exposed to

Margy L. Takacs; Barbara D. Abbott

2007-01-01

135

Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate and Perfluorooctanoic Acid in Fish Fillet Samples  

PubMed Central

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic (PFOA) acid are persistent contaminants which can be found in environmental and biological samples. A new and fast analytical method is described here for the analysis of these compounds in the edible part of fish samples. The method uses a simple liquid extraction by sonication, followed by a direct determination using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The linearity of the instrumental response was good, with average regression coefficients of 0.9971 and 0.9979 for PFOS and PFOA, respectively, and the coefficients of variation (CV) of the method ranged from 8% to 20%. Limits of detection (LOD) were 0.04?ng/g for both the analytes and recoveries were 90% for PFOS and 76% for PFOA. The method was applied to samples of homogenized fillets of wild and farmed fish from the Mediterranean Sea. Most of the samples showed little or no contamination by perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid, and the highest concentrations detected among the fish species analyzed were, respectively, 5.96?ng/g and 1.89?ng/g. The developed analytical methodology can be used as a tool to monitor and to assess human exposure to perfluorinated compounds through sea food consumption.

Paiano, Viviana; Fattore, Elena; Carra, Andrea; Generoso, Caterina; Fanelli, Roberto; Bagnati, Renzo

2012-01-01

136

Determination of polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters, perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids, perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids in lake trout from the Great Lakes region.  

PubMed

A comprehensive method to extract perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids, and polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters simultaneously from fish samples has been developed. The recoveries of target compounds ranged from 78 % to 121 %. The new method was used to analyze lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the Great Lakes region. The results showed that the total perfluoroalkane sulfonate concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 145 ng/g (wet weight) with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) as the dominant contaminant. Concentrations in fish between lakes were in the order of Lakes Ontario ? Erie > Huron > Superior ? Nipigon. The total perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 18.2 ng/g wet weight. The aggregate mean perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentration in fish across all lakes was 0.045 ± 0.023 ng/g. Mean concentrations of PFOA were not significantly different (p > 0.1) among the five lakes. Perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids were detected in lake trout from Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, and Lake Huron with concentration ranging from non-detect (ND) to 0.032 ng/g. Polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters were detected only in lake trout from Lake Huron, at levels similar to perfluorooctanoic acid. PMID:22722738

Guo, Rui; Reiner, Eric J; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Helm, Paul A; Mabury, Scott A; Braekevelt, Eric; Tittlemier, Sheryl A

2012-06-22

137

A global survey of perfluorinated acids in oceans.  

PubMed

Perfluorinated acids and their salts have emerged as an important class of global environmental contaminants. Biological monitoring surveys conducted using tissues of marine organisms reported the occurrence of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and related perfluorinated compounds in biota from various seas and oceans, including the Arctic and the Antarctic Oceans. Occurrence of perfluorinated compounds in remote marine locations is of concern and indicates the need for studies to trace sources and pathways of these compounds to the oceans. Determination of sub-parts-per-trillion (ng/L) or parts-per-quadrillion (pg/L) concentrations of aqueous media has been impeded by relatively high background levels arising from procedural or instrumental blanks. Our research group has developed a reliable and highly sensitive analytical method by which to monitor perfluorinated compounds in oceanic waters. The method developed is capable of detecting PFOS, perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHS), perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), and perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA) at a few pg/L in oceanic waters. The method was applied to seawater samples collected during several international research cruises undertaken during 2002-2004 in the central to eastern Pacific Ocean (19 locations), South China Sea and Sulu Seas (five), north and mid Atlantic Ocean (12), and the Labrador Sea (20). An additional 50 samples of coastal seawater from several Asian countries (Japan, China, Korea) were analyzed. PFOA was found at levels ranging from several thousands of pg/L in water samples collected from coastal areas in Japan to a few tens of pg/L in the central Pacific Ocean. PFOA was the major contaminant detected in oceanic waters, followed by PFOS. Further studies are being conducted to elucidate the distribution and fate of perfluorinated acids in oceans. PMID:15913661

Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Taniyasu, Sachi; Horii, Yuichi; Petrick, Gert; Gamo, Toshitaka

2005-01-01

138

Immunotoxicity of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate and the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are environmentally widespread and persistent chemicals with multiple toxicities reported in experimental animals and humans. These compounds can trigger biological activity by activating the alpha isotype of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate gene expression; however, some biological effects may occur independently of the receptor. Activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) modulates lipid and glucose homeostasis, cell proliferation and differentiation, and inflammation. Reported immunomodulation in experimental animals exposed to PFOA and PFOS has included altered inflammatory responses, production of cytokines and other proteins, reduced lymphoid organ weights, and altered antibody synthesis. Mounting experimental animal evidence suggests PPARalpha independence of some immune effects. This evidence originates primarily from studies with PPARalpha knockout models exposed to PFOA that demonstrate hepatic peroxisome proliferation, reduced lymphoid organ weights, and altered antibody synthesis. As human PPARalpha expression is significantly less than that of rodents, potential PPARalpha independence indicates that future research must explore mechanisms of action of these compounds, including PPARalpha-dependent and -independent pathways. This multiauthored review contains brief descriptions of current and recently published work exploring immunomodulation by PFOA and PFOS, as well as a short overview of other PPARalpha ligands of therapeutic and environmental interest. PMID:18802816

DeWitt, Jamie C; Shnyra, Alexander; Badr, Mostafa Z; Loveless, Scott E; Hoban, Denise; Frame, Steven R; Cunard, Robyn; Anderson, Stacey E; Meade, B Jean; Peden-Adams, Margie M; Luebke, Robert W; Luster, Michael I

2009-01-01

139

Effects of perfluoroalkyl acids on the function of the thyroid hormone and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are perfluorinated compounds that widely exist in the environment and can elicit adverse effects including endocrine disruption in humans and animals. This study investigated the effect of seven PFAAs on the thyroid hormone (TH) system assessing the proliferation of the 3,3',5-triiodo-L-thryonine (T3)-dependent rat pituitary GH3 cells using the T-screen assay and the effect on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) transactivation in the AhR-luciferase reporter gene bioassay. A dose-dependent impact on GH3 cells was observed in the range 1?×?10(-9)-1?×?10(-4) M: seven PFAAs (perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA), and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA)) inhibited the GH3 cell growth, and four PFAAs (PFOS, PFHxS, PFNA, and PFUnA) antagonized the T3-induced GH3 cell proliferation. At the highest test concentration, PFHxS showed a further increase of the T3-induced GH3 growth. Among the seven tested PFAAs, only PFDoA and PFDA elicited an activating effect on the AhR. In conclusion, PFAAs possess in vitro endocrine-disrupting potential by interfering with TH and AhR functions, which need to be taken into consideration when assessing the impact on human health. PMID:23539207

Long, Manhai; Ghisari, Mandana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

2013-03-29

140

An optimized method for the determination of perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorooctane sulfonate and other perfluorochemicals in different matrices using liquid chromatography/ion-trap mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Perfluorochemicals (PFC's) are widely spread in the environment and have been detected in blood of wildlife and humans world-wide. Recently, various toxic effects of PFC's in laboratory rats have been demonstrated, resulting in increased government concerns regarding the presence of PFC's in the environment and the implications they have on human health. In the last decade, various analytical methods have been developed for the analysis of PFC's in different matrices whereby the majority of methods have utilised liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Here we describe an optimized method for the quantitation of PFC's, including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), in food packaging, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sealant tape and drinking water. The method involved PFC's extraction via off-line SPE followed by separation using reversed-phase liquid chromatography on a Phenyl-Hexyl column coupled with ion-trap (IT) mass spectrometric detection. The optimized approach minimized ion-suppression effects commonly seen with conventional elution buffers, improving detection limits down to 25 pg/mL and allowed effective quantitation down to 50 pg/mL for PFOA and PFOS. The optimized LC-MS method detected PFOA and other PFC's in microwave popcorn packaging and PFOA in PTFE sealant tape in the low ?g/kg. In all samples, PFOS was not detected. PMID:21700512

Dolman, Sebastiaan; Pelzing, Matthias

2011-05-30

141

Endocrine and developmental effects in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) exposed to perfluorooctane sulfonic or perfluorooctane carboxylic acids.  

PubMed

In this study, we have investigated the effect of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on endocrine signalling, growth and development in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) embryos and larvae. Expression of genes related to the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, growth-hormone/insulin-like growth factor (GH/IGF) axis and the steroid hormone axis were used as indicators of endocrine disruption. We also studied bone development in larvae, both by observing skeletal structure formation and by investigating expression of genes involved in ossification process. Atlantic salmon embryos, kept in plastic tanks at 5-7°C, were exposed to 100 ?g/L PFOA or PFOS from egg stage for a period of 52 days, followed by one-week recovery period. Sampling was performed at day 21, 35, 49 and 56 representing age 549, 597, 679 and 721 dd (dd or day degrees = number of days × temperature in degree Celsius:°C). Note that day 56 or 721 dd is the end of the 1-week recovery period. Larvae were divided into designated head and body regions for the purpose of gene expression analysis, except for genes that regulate ossification that were analyzed in whole larvae. Expression of thyroid receptor ? and ? (TR? and TR?), thyroid-stimulating hormone ? (TSH?), T(4) outer-ring deiodinase (T(4)ORD), growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-I and II (IGF-I and II), insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR), and estrogen receptor ? and ? (ER? and ER?) were investigated using quantitative PCR. Both PFOS and PFOA exposure produced non-significant alterations in larvae weight (except after the recovery period when a decrease was observed), while larvae length was unaffected. PFOS and PFOA exposure produced body- and head region-specific alterations in expression of all the investigated gene transcripts. Expression of IGF-I and IGF-IR paralleled that of GH, indicating that perturbation of GH expression is a possible end point for disruption of the GH-IGF axis. We did not observe developmental changes related to angiogenesis, ossification and chondrogenesis after exposure to PFOS and PFOA. Transcriptional abnormalities may serve as indicators of chronic exposure, although the concrete mechanisms causing the observed effects remain ambiguous. The implications of these findings for the complete lifecycle, including other developmental and/or reproductive damage, are areas of future study. PMID:22265611

Spachmo, Bård; Arukwe, Augustine

2011-08-04

142

Partial life-cycle and acute toxicity of perfluoroalkyl acids to freshwater mussels.  

PubMed

Freshwater mussels are among the most sensitive aquatic organisms to many contaminants and have complex life-cycles that include several distinct life stages with unique contaminant exposure pathways. Standard acute (24-96 h) and chronic (28 d) toxicity tests with free larva (glochidia) and juvenile mussels are effective at generating data on contaminant effects at two discrete life stages but do not incorporate effects on brooded glochidia. We developed a novel partial life-cycle assay that incorporates exposures to brooding adult female mussels and used this method in combination with acute toxicity tests to assess adverse effects of perfluoroctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluoroctanoic acid (PFOA) on freshwater mussels. Fatmucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) were exposed to PFOS at two life stages: brooding glochidia (in marsupia) for 36 d and free glochidia in water for 24 h. In standard acute tests with glochidia (24-48 h exposures) and juveniles (48-96 h exposures) of fatmucket and black sandshell (Ligumia recta), glochidia were 8 to 25 times more sensitive than juveniles. Perfluoroctanesulfonic acid significantly reduced the duration of glochidia viability and reduced probability of metamorphosis at concentrations 3,000 times lower than the most sensitive acute endpoint (24-h EC50). The partial life-cycle test is adaptable to a variety of endpoints and research objectives and is useful for identifying adverse effects at contaminant concentrations below those required for an acute lethal response. PMID:22553110

Hazelton, Peter D; Cope, W Gregory; Pandolfo, Tamara J; Mosher, Shad; Strynar, Mark J; Barnhart, M Christopher; Bringolf, Robert B

2012-05-22

143

Determination of perfluorinated alkylated substances in sediments and sediment core from the Gulf of Gda?sk, Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS) have been determined in surface sediments and sediment core from Gulf of Gda?sk, Baltic Sea. Perfluorooctanesulphonate (PFOS), perfluorohexanesulphonate (PFHxS), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), perfluoronanoate (PFNA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA), perfluoroundecanote (PFUnDA), perfluorododecanoate (PFDoDA) and perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA) were quantified after isotopic dilution ((13)C(4) PFOS and (13)C(4) PFOA), liquid-liquid extractions by methanol and acetonitrile, cleanup by Envi-Carb, OasisWAX and Envi-Carb and final measurement by HPLC-MS/MS. PFOS, PFHxS, PFUnDA, PFDA, PFNA and PFOA were found in Baltic Sea sediments in concentrations exceeding the method limit of quantification (LOQ) of 2 pg/g. PFOS was detected in concentration up to 0.896 ng/g dry weight and PFHxS up to 0.326 ng/g dw, which shows on a weak pollution. PFOS (48-74%) or PFHxS (45-56%) dominated in PFAS composition of sediments surveyed. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of the Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A to view the free supplemental file. PMID:22320695

Falandysz, Jerzy; Rostkowski, Pawe?; Jarzy?ska, Gra?yna; Falandysz, Jaromir J; Taniyasu, Sachi; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi

2012-01-01

144

Toxicogenomic study of triazole fungicides and perfluoroalkyl acids in rat livers predicts toxicity and categorizes chemicals based on mechanisms of toxicity.  

PubMed

Toxicogenomic analysis of five environmental chemicals was performed to investigate the ability of genomics to predict toxicity, categorize chemicals, and elucidate mechanisms of toxicity. Three triazole antifungals (myclobutanil, propiconazole, and triadimefon) and two perfluorinated chemicals [perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)] were administered daily via oral gavage for one, three, or five consecutive days to male Sprague-Dawley rats at single doses of 300, 300, 175, 20, or 10 mg/kg/day, respectively. Clinical chemistry, hematology, and histopathology were measured at all time points. Gene expression profiling of livers from three rats per treatment group at all time points was performed on the CodeLink Uniset Rat I Expression array. Data were analyzed in the context of a large reference toxicogenomic database containing gene expression profiles for over 630 chemicals. Genomic signatures predicting hepatomegaly and hepatic injury preceded those results for all five chemicals, and further analysis segregated chemicals into two distinct classes. The triazoles caused similar gene expression changes as other azole antifungals, particularly the induction of pregnane X receptor (PXR)-regulated xenobiotic metabolism and oxidative stress genes. In contrast, PFOA and PFOS exhibited peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha agonist-like effects on genes associated with fatty acid homeostasis. PFOA and PFOS also resulted in downregulation of cholesterol biosynthesis genes, matching an in vivo decrease in serum cholesterol, and perturbation of thyroid hormone metabolism genes matched by serum thyroid hormone depletion in vivo. The concordance of in vivo observations and gene expression findings demonstrated the ability of genomics to accurately categorize chemicals, identify toxic mechanisms of action, and predict subsequent pathological responses. PMID:17383973

Martin, Matthew T; Brennan, Richard J; Hu, Wenyue; Ayanoglu, Eser; Lau, Christopher; Ren, Hongzu; Wood, Carmen R; Corton, J Christopher; Kavlock, Robert J; Dix, David J

2007-03-22

145

A matrix effect-free method for reliable quantification of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids at low parts per trillion levels in dietary samples.  

PubMed

In recent exposure modeling studies diet has been identified as the dominant pathway of human exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS). However, the paucity of highly sensitive and accurate analytical data to support these studies means that their conclusions are open to question. Here a novel matrix effect-free method is described for ultra-trace analysis of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids in dietary samples of varied composition. The method employs ion pair extraction of the analytes into methyl tert-butyl ether and subsequent solid phase extraction clean-up on Florisil and graphitized carbon. The target compounds are separated and detected using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Special care was taken to avoid procedural blank contamination and potential contamination sources were elucidated. The performance of the method was validated for five different food test matrices including a duplicate diet sample. Method detection limits in the low to sub pgg(-1) range were obtained for all target analytes, which is 5-100 times more sensitive than previously reported for duplicate diet samples. Total method recoveries were consistently between 50 and 80% for all analytes in all tested food matrices and effects of co-extracted matrix constituents on ionization of the target compounds were found to be negligible. The precision of the method (defined as percentage relative standard deviation) at concentrations close to the respective method limits of quantification was <15% for all analytes. Accurate quantification at ultra-trace levels was demonstrated by laboratory control spike experiments. For the first time the presence of long-chain PFCAs in duplicate diet samples is reported. The method presented here can thus support an improved assessment of human exposure from dietary intake for a range of PFCA and PFSA homologues. Re-analysis of duplicate diet samples, which had been analyzed earlier using another analytical methodology, indicated that dietary intake of PFOA and PFOS may previously have been overestimated. PMID:22464003

Vestergren, Robin; Ullah, Shahid; Cousins, Ian T; Berger, Urs

2012-03-14

146

Bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl acids in dairy cows in a naturally contaminated environment.  

PubMed

Beef and dairy products may be important vectors of human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), but the understanding of how PFAAs are accumulated and transferred through agricultural food chains is very limited. Here, the bioaccumulation of PFAAs in dairy cows receiving naturally contaminated feed and drinking water was investigated by conducting a mass balance of PFAAs for a herd of dairy cows in a barn on a typical Swedish dairy farm. It was assumed that the cows were able to reach steady state with their dietary intake of PFAAs. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) with 8 to 12 carbons were detected in cow tissue samples (liver, muscle, and blood) at concentrations up to 130 ng kg(-1). Mass balance calculations demonstrated an agreement between total intake and excretion within a factor of 1.5 and consumption of silage was identified as the dominant intake pathway for all PFAAs. Biomagnification factors (BMFs) were highly tissue and homologue specific. While BMFs of PFOS and PFCAs with 9 and 10 fluorinated carbons in liver ranged from 10 to 20, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was not biomagnified (BMF?PFOS in muscle. Overall, the results of this study suggest that long-chain PFAAs have a relatively high potential for transfer to milk and beef from the diet of dairy cows. However, a low input of PFAAs to terrestrial systems via atmospheric deposition and low bioavailability of PFAAs in soil limits the amount of PFAAs that enter terrestrial agricultural food chains in background contaminated environments and makes this pathway less important than aquatic exposure pathways. The BTFs estimated here provide a useful tool for predicting human exposure to PFAAs via milk and beef under different contamination scenarios. PMID:23644948

Vestergren, Robin; Orata, Francis; Berger, Urs; Cousins, Ian T

2013-05-01

147

Oxidative conversion as a means of detecting precursors to perfluoroalkyl acids in urban runoff.  

PubMed

A new method was developed to quantify concentrations of difficult-to-measure and unidentified precursors of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic (PFCA) and sulfonic (PFSA) acids in urban runoff. Samples were exposed to hydroxyl radicals generated by thermolysis of persulfate under basic pH conditions and perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) precursors were transformed to PFCAs of related perfluorinated chain length. By comparing PFCA concentrations before and after oxidation, the concentrations of total PFAA precursors were inferred. Analysis of 33 urban runoff samples collected from locations around the San Francisco Bay, CA indicated that PFOS (2.6-26 ng/L), PFOA (2.1-16 ng/L), and PFHxA (0.9-9.7 ng/L) were the predominant perfluorinated compounds detected prior to sample treatment. Following oxidative treatment, the total concentrations of PFCAs with 5-12 membered perfluoroalkyl chains increased by a median of 69%, or between 2.8 and 56 ng/L. Precursors that produced PFHxA and PFPeA upon oxidation were more prevalent in runoff samples than those that produced PFOA, despite lower concentrations of their corresponding perfluorinated acids prior to oxidation. Direct measurements of several common precursors to PFOS and PFOA (e.g., perfluorooctanesulfonamide and 8:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate) accounted for less than 25% of the observed increase in PFOA, which increased by a median value of 37%. Exposure of urban runoff to sunlight, advanced oxidation processes, or microbes could result in modest, but measurable, increases in concentrations of PFCAs and PFSAs. PMID:22900587

Houtz, Erika F; Sedlak, David L

2012-08-17

148

High levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in eggs and embryo livers of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) and herring gull (Larus argentatus) from Lake Vänern, Sweden.  

PubMed

In the eggs and developing chick livers in the two wild bird species, great cormorant and herring gull, the concentrations of a range of 15 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were determined. Eggs of the two species were collected from Lake Vänern, Sweden, and analysed either as undeveloped egg (whole egg or separated into yolk and albumen) or incubated until start of the hatching process when the chick liver was removed and analysed. High levels of PFAAs were found in all matrixes except albumen. The predominant PFAA was perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), which was found in the ?g/g wet weight (ww) range in some samples of cormorant whole egg, yolk and liver and herring gull egg yolk and liver. The average concentration in yolk was 1,506 ng/g ww in cormorant and 589 ng/g ww in herring gull. The average liver concentrations of PFOS were 583 ng/g ww in cormorant and 508 ng/g ww in herring gull. At these concentrations, biochemical effects in the developing embryo or effects on embryo survival cannot be ruled out. For perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), the liver/egg and liver/yolk concentration ratios increased with PFCA chain length in cormorant but not in herring gull, indicating that chain length could possibly affect egg-to-liver transfer of PFCAs and that species differences may exist. PMID:23463275

Nordén, Marcus; Berger, Urs; Engwall, Magnus

2013-03-06

149

Estrogen-Like Activity of Perfluoroalkyl Acids In Vivo and Interaction with Human and Rainbow Trout Estrogen Receptors In Vitro  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study were to determine the structural characteristics of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) that confer estrogen-like activity in vivo using juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as an animal model and to determine whether these chemicals interact directly with the estrogen receptor (ER) using in vitro and in silico species comparison approaches. Perfluorooctanoic (PFOA), perfluorononanoic (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoic (PFUnDA) acids were all potent inducers of the estrogen-responsive biomarker protein vitellogenin (Vtg) in vivo, although at fairly high dietary exposures. A structure-activity relationship for PFAAs was observed, where eight to ten fluorinated carbons and a carboxylic acid end group were optimal for maximal Vtg induction. These in vivo findings were corroborated by in vitro mechanistic assays for trout and human ER. All PFAAs tested weakly bound to trout liver ER with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 15.2–289?M. Additionally, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, and perlfuorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) significantly enhanced human ER?-dependent transcriptional activation at concentrations ranging from 10–1000nM. Finally, we employed an in silico computational model based upon the crystal structure for the human ER? ligand-binding domain complexed with E2 to structurally investigate binding of these putative ligands to human, mouse, and trout ER?. PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, and PFOS all efficiently docked with ER? from different species and formed a hydrogen bond at residue Arg394/398/407 (human/mouse/trout) in a manner similar to the environmental estrogens bisphenol A and nonylphenol. Overall, these data support the contention that several PFAAs are weak environmental xenoestrogens of potential concern.

Benninghoff, Abby D.; Bisson, William H.; Koch, Daniel C.; Ehresman, David J.; Kolluri, Siva K.; Williams, David E.

2011-01-01

150

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) acts as a tumor promoter on Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (C(8)F(17)SO(3)) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (C(8)HF(15)O(2)) are synthetic chemicals widely used in industrial applications for their hydrophobic and oleophobic properties. They are persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic to mammalian species. Their widespread distribution on earth and contamination of human serum raised concerns about long-term side effects. They are suspected to be carcinogenic through a nongenotoxic mode of action, a mechanism supported by recent findings that PFOS induced cell transformation but no genotoxicity in Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells. In the present study, we evaluated carcinogenic potential of PFOA using the cell transformation assay on SHE cells. The chemical was applied alone or in combination with a nontransformant concentration of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP, 0.4 ?M) in order to detect PFOA ability to act as tumor initiator or tumor promoter. The results showed that PFOA tested alone in the range 3.7?×?10(-5) to 300 ?M did not induce SHE cell transformation frequency in a 7-day treatment. On the other side, the combination BaP/PFOA induced cell transformation at all PFOA concentrations tested, which revealed synergistic effects. No genotoxicity of PFOA on SHE cells was detected using the comet assay after 5 and 24 h of exposure. No significant increase in DNA breakage was found in BaP-initiated cells exposed to PFOA in a 7-day treatment. The whole results showed that PFOA acts as a tumor promoter and a nongenotoxic carcinogen. Cell transformation in initiated cells was observed at concentrations equivalent to the ones found in human serum of nonoccupationally and occupationally exposed populations. An involvement of PFOA in increased incidence of cancer recorded in occupationally exposed population cannot be ruled out. PMID:22828883

Jacquet, N; Maire, M A; Rast, C; Bonnard, M; Vasseur, P

2012-08-31

151

GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING IN WILD-TYPE AND PPARa-NULL MICE EXPOSED TO PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE REVEALS PPARa-INDEPENDENT EFFECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a perfluoroalky1 acid (PFAA) and a persistent environmental contaminant found in the tissues of humans and wildlife. Although blood levels of PFOS have begun to decline, health concerns remain because of the long half-life of PFOS in humans. Li...

152

Phosphorus-containing fluorinated organics: polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters (diPAPs), perfluorophosphonates (PFPAs), and perfluorophosphinates (PFPIAs) in residential indoor dust.  

PubMed

Indoor dust is thought to be a source of human exposure to perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluorosulfonates (PFSAs), but exposures to emerging organofluorine compounds, including precursors to PFCAs and PFSAs via indoor dust, remain unknown. We report an analytical method for measuring several groups of emerging phosphorus-containing fluorinated compounds, including polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters (diPAP), perfluorophosphonates (PFPA), and perfluorophosphinates (PFPIA), as well as perfluoroethylcyclohexane sulfonate (PFECHS) in indoor dust. This method was used to analyze diPAP, PFPA, and PFPIA levels in 102 residential dust samples collected in 2007-2008 from Vancouver, Canada. The results indicated a predominant and ubiquitous presence of diPAPs (frequency of detection 100%, mean and median ?diPAPs 7637 and 2215 ng/g). Previously measured median concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) in the same samples were 14-74 times lower than ?diPAP levels, i.e. 71 ng/g PFOS, 30 ng/g PFOA, and 152 ng/g ?FTOHs. PFPAs and PFPIAs were detected in 62% and 85% of samples, respectively, at concentrations nearly 3 orders of magnitude lower than diPAPs (median 2.3 ng/g ?PFPAs and 2.3 ng/g ?PFPIAs). PFECHS was detected in only 8% of dust samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of these compounds in indoor dust. In this study, diPAP concentrations represented 98% ± 7% of the total measured analytes in the dust samples. Detection of diPAPs at such high concentrations in indoor dust may represent an important and as-yet unrecognized indirect source of PFCA exposure in humans, given the identified biotransformation pathways. Identifying the sources of diPAPs to the indoor environment is a priority for future research to improve air quality in households. PMID:23102111

De Silva, Amila O; Allard, Cody N; Spencer, Christine; Webster, Glenys M; Shoeib, Mahiba

2012-11-08

153

Association between thyroid profile and perfluoroalkyl acids: Data from NHNAES 2007-2008.  

PubMed

The effect of six perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), namely, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDE), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), 2-(N-methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamide) acetic acid (MPAH), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) on the levels of six thyroid function variables, namely, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free and total thyroxine (FT4, TT4), free and total triiodothyronine (FT3, TT3), and thyroglobulin (TGN) was evaluated. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2007-2008 were used for this evaluation. TSH levels increased with increase in levels of PFOA (p<0.01). There were no statistically significant associations between the levels of FT3, and FT4 with the levels of any of the six PFAAs. Levels of TT3 were found to increase with the levels of PFOA (p=0.01) and TT4 levels were found to increase with increase in PFHxS levels (p<0.01). Males had statistically significantly higher levels of FT3 than females and females had statistically significantly higher levels of TT4 than males. As compared to non-Hispanics whites and Hispanics, non-Hispanic blacks had lower levels of TSH, FT3, TT3, and TT4 but Hispanics had the lowest levels of TGN. Age was negatively associated with FT3 and TT3 but positively associated with FT4 and TT4. Non-smokers had higher levels of TSH and TT4 than smokers and smokers had higher levels of FT3 and TGN than non-smokers. Iodine deficiency was associated with increased levels of TSH, TT3, TT4, and TGN. PMID:24053974

Jain, Ram B

2013-09-18

154

Fluorinated alkyl compounds including long chain carboxylic acids in wild bird livers from Japan.  

PubMed

A wide range of fluorinated alkyl compounds (FACs) has been reported in wildlife in various locations in the world. However, such information regarding Japanese wildlife is rarely found. In the present study, we investigated the occurrence of 21 FACs, including perfluorinated alkyl sulfonates (PFASs), perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs), and fluorotelomer acids, in the livers of 10 wild bird species from two regions in northern Japan. To avoid interferences, FACs were quantified by a recently developed method using acetonitrile and solid-phase extraction followed by an ion exchange HPLC column separation. Apart from perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), which was found at the highest levels of all the compounds detected, several long chain perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) from C8 to C16, particularly perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTeDA) and perfluorohexadecanoic acid (PFHxDA), were detected for the first time. Additionally, 7:3 FTCA, a fluorotelomer acid, was also detected in most swan livers from Miyagi prefecture and all the birds from Tochigi prefecture. However, none of the sulfonamides and unsaturated telomer acids were detected in any species. Swans seem to be the least exposed wild birds to FACs among the investigated birds, signifying that feeding habits may reflect FAC accumulation in wild birds. The highest total concentration of detected FACs was 405ngg(-1)wet wt., which was found in a Japanese sparrowhawk, indicating that the top predatory wild birds can accumulate several long chain carboxylic acids. However, the current FAC concentrations found in livers may suggest that these compounds alone would not cause a severe toxic effect in these species. PMID:21190717

Guruge, Keerthi S; Yeung, Leo W Y; Li, Peng; Taniyasu, Sachi; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Nakamura, Mayumi

2010-12-28

155

Determination of perfluorinated alkyl acid concentrations in biological standard reference materials.  

PubMed

Standard reference materials (SRMs) are homogeneous, well-characterized materials used to validate measurements and improve the quality of analytical data. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has a wide range of SRMs that have mass fraction values assigned for legacy pollutants. These SRMs can also serve as test materials for method development, method validation, and measurement for contaminants of emerging concern. Because inter-laboratory comparison studies have revealed substantial variability of measurements of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), future analytical measurements will benefit from determination of consensus values for PFAAs in SRMs to provide a means to demonstrate method-specific performance. To that end, NIST, in collaboration with other groups, has been measuring concentrations of PFAAs in a variety of SRMs. Here we report levels of PFAAs and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) determined in four biological SRMs: fish tissue (SRM 1946 Lake Superior Fish Tissue, SRM 1947 Lake Michigan Fish Tissue), bovine liver (SRM 1577c), and mussel tissue (SRM 2974a). We also report concentrations for three in-house quality-control materials: beluga whale liver, pygmy sperm whale liver, and white-sided dolphin liver. Measurements in SRMs show an array of PFAAs, with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) being the most frequently detected. Reference and information values are reported for PFAAs measured in these biological SRMs. PMID:22476786

Reiner, Jessica L; O'Connell, Steven G; Butt, Craig M; Mabury, Scott A; Small, Jeff M; De Silva, Amila O; Muir, Derek C G; Delinsky, Amy D; Strynar, Mark J; Lindstrom, Andrew B; Reagen, William K; Malinsky, Michelle; Schäfer, Sandra; Kwadijk, Christiaan J A F; Schantz, Michele M; Keller, Jennifer M

2012-04-04

156

Spatial distribution of perfluoroalkyl acids in the Pearl River of Southern China.  

PubMed

An intensive campaign was conducted in September 2012 to collect surface water samples along the tributaries of the Pearl River in southern China. Thirteen perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs, C4-C11) and perfluorosulfonates (PFSAs, C4, C6-C8, and C10), were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography/negative electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/(-)ESI-MS/MS). The concentrations of total PFAAs (?PFAAs) ranged from 3.0 to 52ngL(-1), with an average of 19±12ngL(-1). The highest concentrations of ?PFAAs were detected in the surface water of the Dong Jiang tributary (17-52ngL(-1)), followed by the main stream (13-26ngL(-1)) and the Sha Wan stream (3.0-4.5ngL(-1)). Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were the three most abundant PFAAs and on average accounted for 20%, 24%, and 19% of ?PFAAs, respectively. PFBS was the most abundant PFAA in the Dong Jiang tributary, and PFOA was the highest PFAA in the samples from the main stream of the Pearl River. A correlation was found between PFBS and PFOA, which suggests that both of these PFAAs originate from common source(s) in the region. Nevertheless, the slope of PFBS/PFOA was different in the different tributaries sampled, which indicates a spatial difference in the source profiles of the PFAAs. PMID:23973287

Zhang, Yingyi; Lai, Senchao; Zhao, Zhen; Liu, Fobang; Chen, Hongwei; Zou, Shichun; Xie, Zhiyong; Ebinghaus, Ralf

2013-08-22

157

Sorption of PFOA and PFOS to Aquifer Sediment  

EPA Science Inventory

During its years of operation, the Washington County Sanitary Landfill near St. Paul, Minnesota accepted both municipal and industrial solid waste. Several years of ground water monitoring performed by the MPCA indicates that, some of the waste disposed of at this landfill contai...

158

Sorption of PFOA and PFOS to Ground Water Sediment  

EPA Science Inventory

During its years of operation, the Washington County Sanitary Landfill near St. Paul, Minnesota accepted both municipal and industrial solid waste. Several years of ground water monitoring performed by the MPCA indicates that, some of the waste disposed of at this landfill contai...

159

Mycophenolic Acid  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Publications on Genomics. -. Mycophenolic Acid. Pharmacogenomic Information. ... Mycophenolic Acid, Transplantation, HGPRT, Precautions. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/scienceresearch/researchareas

160

Acid rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid precipitation is a global problem. The effects were first seen in Europe; it affects the Great Lakes and the Midwest because higher-than-normal levels of acidity in rain are found in these areas. Several bays of the Great Lakes are now known to receive substantial runoff from freshwater streams that have been made acidic by acid rains. These areas may

1979-01-01

161

Perfluorinated compounds in water and sediment from coastal regions of the northern Bohai Sea, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and other perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were measured in water and sediment from coastal Bohai Bay and surrounding rivers flowing into the bay. Of the 15 PFCs measured, PFOS and PFOA were detected with the greatest frequency. Concentrations in water ranged from<0.2 to 31 ng·L and<1.0 to 82 ng·L for PFOS and PFOA, respectively. Concentrations of

Chunli Chen; Tieyu Wang; Jong Seong Khim; Wei Luo; Wentao Jiao; Yonglong Lu; Jonathan E. Naile; Wenyou Hu; Xiang Zhang; Jing Geng; Cencen Bi; Jing Li; John P. Giesy

2011-01-01

162

Acid rain  

SciTech Connect

A series of definitions for the field of acid rain studies are presented. Protocols for acid rain sampling and monitoring are also presented. A procedure for calculatory precipitation pH is discussed. 11 references, 1 table.

Stensland, G.J.

1983-11-01

163

Oleanolic acid.  

PubMed

Oleanolic acid (3?-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid) is a pentacyclic triterpenoid compound with a widespread occurrence throughout the plant kingdom. In nature, the compound exists either as a free acid or as an aglycone precursor for triterpenoid saponins, in which it can be linked to one or more sugar chains. Oleanolic acid and its derivatives possess several promising pharmacological activities, such as hepatoprotective effects, and anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, or anticancer activities. With the recent elucidation of its biosynthesis and the imminent commercialization of the first oleanolic acid-derived drug, the compound promises to remain important for various studies. In this review, the recent progress in understanding the oleanolic acid biosynthesis and its pharmacology are discussed. Furthermore, the importance and potential application of synthetic oleanolic acid derivatives are highlighted, and research perspectives on oleanolic acid are given. PMID:22377690

Pollier, Jacob; Goossens, Alain

2012-02-28

164

Aminocaproic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

165

Ethacrynic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

166

Acid Reflux  

MedlinePLUS

... end of the esophagus called the lower esophageal sphincter or “LES” — keeps the acid in the stomach ... moderately symptomatic GERD. These drugs increase lower esophageal sphincter pressure, which helps prevent acid reflux, and improves ...

167

Acidizing method  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for acidizing a subterranean formation, comprising the steps of: (a) forming an acidizing composition by mixing an aqueous acid component with at least one water-soluble organosilicon compound; and (b) injecting the composition into the formation.

Watkins, D.R.; Kalfayan, L.J.; Hewgill, G.S.

1987-03-03

168

Presence and sources of anthropogenic perfluoroalkyl acids in high-consumption tap-water based beverages.  

PubMed

This study investigates the presence and sources of perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) in tap water and corresponding tap-water based beverages such as coffee and cola collected in the city of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Exposure pathways studies have shown that low concentrations of PFAA in tap water already may pose a high contribution to daily human exposure. Tap water samples (n=4) had higher concentrations of PFAAs than the corresponding post-mixed cola (n=4). The lower PFAA levels in the cola were attributed to the pre-treatment of tap water in the mixing machines and dilution with cola syrup. In coffee samples from a coffee machine perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) at 4 ng L(-1) was the dominating analyte (n=12). The concentrations of PFHpA, PFOA and non branched PFOS were found to be significantly higher in manually (self) brewed coffee than in the corresponding tap water (n=4). The contribution from short-chain PFAA analogs could not be quantified due to low recoveries. Leaching experiments at different temperatures were performed with fluoropolymers-containing tubes to investigate the potential of leaching from tubes used in beverage preparation (n=16). Fluoropolymer tubes showed leaching of PFAAs at high (80°C) temperature but its relevance for contamination of beverages in practice is small. The specific contribution from perfluoropolymer tubing inside the beverage preparation machines could not be assessed since no information was available from the manufacturers. The present study shows that although different beverage preparation processes possibly affect the concentrations of PFAAs encountered in the final consumed product, the water used for preparation remains the most important source of PFAAs. This in turn has implications for areas where drinking water is contaminated. Tap-water based beverages will possibly be an additional source of human exposure to PFAAs and need to be considered in exposure modeling. PMID:22939265

Eschauzier, Christian; Hoppe, Maria; Schlummer, Martin; de Voogt, Pim

2012-08-28

169

Basically Acids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn the basics of acid/base chemistry in a fun, interactive way by studying instances of acid/base chemistry found in popular films such as Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban and National Treasure. Students learn what acids, bases and indicators are and how they can be used, including invisible ink. They also learn how engineers use acids and bases every day to better our quality of life. Students' interest is piqued by the use of popular culture in the classroom.

University Of Houston

170

Mefenamic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

... any of the following symptoms, stop taking mefenamic acid and call your doctor: stomach pain, heartburn, vomit that is bloody or looks ... Mefenamic acid may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these ... nervousness ringing in the ears Some side effects can be serious. If you ...

171

Acid test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Baking soda can be used as an indicator of how much acid a substance contains. Lemons and limes have more acid in them than grapefruits and oranges. Indophenol can be used as an indicator of how much vitamin C is in a substance.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-06

172

Acid Rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the acidity of rain and snow reveal that in parts of the eastern U.S. and of western Europe precipitation has changed from a nearly neutral solution 200 years ago to a dilute solution of sulfuric and nitric acids today. The trend is a result of the emission of sulfur and nitrogen oxides to the atmosphere accompanying the rise

Gene E. Likens; Richard F. Wright; James N. Galloway; Thomas J. Butler

1979-01-01

173

Acid rain  

SciTech Connect

This book was written in a concise and readable style for the lay public. It's purpose was to make the public aware of the damage caused by acid rain and to mobilize public opinion to favor the elimination of the causes of acid rain.

Elsworth, S.

1985-01-01

174

Acid rain  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the proceedings of the third annual conference sponsored by the Acid Rain Information Clearinghouse (ARIC). Topics covered include: Legal aspects of the source-receptor relationship: an energy perspective; Scientific uncertainty, agency inaction, and the courts; and Acid rain: the emerging legal framework.

White, J.C. (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (US))

1988-01-01

175

Hydrochloric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of a single instillation of acid and pepsin on the cell proliferation in the distal esophageal mucosa was investigated in four dogs. The doses of acid and pepsin used were lower than those provoking acute esophagitis and erosions. Usingin vitro labeling with [3H]thymidine and autoradiography, the epithelial mitotic and DNA synthesis indices were determined at 0, 4, 8,

A. De Backer; P. Haentjens; G. Willems

1985-01-01

176

Acids (GCMP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acids: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". We will observe the reaction of sodium bicarbonate with three acid solutions. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

177

Domoic Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online student report discusses the chemistry of domoic acid, a biotoxin that is produced by the diatom Psuedo-nitzschia and associated with Amnesiac Shellfish Poisoning (ASP). In addition to a descriptive summary and images, the report links to other areas of interest related to domoic acid poisoning including signs and symptoms, modes of action, and treatment.

Kohlen, Corinne; Bailey, Christina

2010-02-10

178

Acid Precipitation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acid precipitation will be defined. At different points in the lesson students will write balanced reactions for the formation acid precipitation from atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen oxides and the neutralization of acids by limestone. Students will determine which states are most at risk from acid precipitation and assess how that risk has changed from 1996 to 2006. Sources of atmospheric sulfur (burning of high-sulfur coal) and nitrogen oxides (automobile exhaust) will be listed. The buffering effect of limestone soils and its mitigating effect on acid precipitation will be discussed. Students will correlate these areas with sulfur and nitrogen oxide production, population, composition of coal fields, and soil composition. This resource includes both a teaching guide and student worksheets.

Tyser, Jim

2011-09-15

179

Acid rain  

SciTech Connect

Acid precipitation has become one of the major environmental problems of this decade. It is a challenge to scientists throughout the world. Researchers from such diverse disciplines as plant pathology, soil science, bacteriology, meteorology and engineering are investigating different aspects of acid precipitation. Despite some unknowns, the preponderance of our evidence to date points to the need to control the emissions of acid-forming sulfur and nitrogen compounds. Given the potential for damage from acid precipitation, prudence dictates that we act soon to avoid far more serious problems in the future. EPA's regulatory standards for new power plants and motor vehicles are a major step in the right direction. Further steps may be required in the near future. This background document tells what we know - and don't know - about acid precipitation.

Not Available

1980-07-01

180

GENE PROFILING IN WILD-TYPE AND PPARa-NULL MICE EXPOSED TO PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA), is a persistent environmental contaminant found in the tissues of humans and wildlife. Over the last decade, health concerns have been raised, in part, because of the long half-life of PFOS and other PFAAs in humans,...

181

Acid Rain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Due to the presence of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide, rainfall is naturally acidic. The release of other gases and chemicals such as sulfur dioxide during the combustion of coal and oil can cause rainfall to become even more acidic, sometimes to the point of toxicity. In this activity, students will measure the pH of local rainfall to see what effect these gases have in their region. They will also check an online resource to see how the releases of acid rain-causing chemicals have varied over the past 20 years, and answer questions about the information they uncover.

Fox, Chris

182

Tranexamic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

... or lower legs hoarseness changes in vision, including color vision chest pain shortness of breath leg pain, swelling, tenderness, redness, or warmth Tranexamic acid may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual ...

183

Valproic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

... with other medications to treat certain types of seizures. Valproic acid is also used to treat mania ( ... a severe, long-lasting and possibly life-threatening seizure. Your doctor will probably decrease your dose gradually.

184

?-Amino acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1.It has been established that by the decarboxylation of the glycidic acid, obtained by Darzens' method from cis-decahydro-2-naphthol of m.p. 105°, a mixture of stereoisomeric decahydro-2-naphthaldehydes is formed; these have not been investigated further.2.The synthesis has been affected, by Rodionov's method, of ß-(2-decalyl)-ß-alanine (ß-aminodecahydro-2-naphthalenepropionic acid), which also appeared to be a mixture of isomers, the separation of which was

V. M. Rodionov; L. V. Antik

1953-01-01

185

Acidizing with chemically heated weak acid  

SciTech Connect

Materials in and around a well are acidized with chemically heated, hot acid by injecting a solution of both nitrogen and heat generating reactants and a mixture of weak acid and weak acid salt that both buffers the relation and provides a weak acid acidizing solution.

Richardson, E. A.

1984-11-13

186

Efficient decomposition of environmentally persistent perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorochemicals using zerovalent iron in subcritical water.  

PubMed

Decomposition of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and related chemicals in subcritical water was investigated. Although PFOS demonstrated little reactivity in pure subcritical water, addition of zerovalent metals to the reaction system enhanced the PFOS decomposition to form F-ions, with an increasing order of activity of no metal approximately equal Al < Cu < Zn < Fe. Use of iron led to the most efficient PFOS decomposition: When iron powder was added to an aqueous solution of PFOS (93-372 microM) and the mixture was heated at 350 degrees C for 6 h, PFOS concentration in the reaction solution fell below 2.2 microM (detection limit of HPLC with conductometric detection), with formation of F-ions with yields [i.e., (moles of F- formed)/(moles of fluorine content in initial PFOS) x 100] of 46.2-51.4% and without any formation of perfluorocarboxylic acids. A small amount of CHF3 was detected in the gas phase with a yield [i.e., (moles of CHF3)/(moles of carbon content in initial PFOS) x 100] of 0.7%, after the reaction of PFOS (372 microM) with iron at 350 degree C for 6 h. Spectroscopic measurements indicated that PFOS in water markedly adsorbed on the iron surface even at room temperature, and the adsorbed fluorinated species on the iron surface decomposed with rising temperature, with prominent release of F- ions to the solution phase above 250 degrees C. This method was also effective in decomposing other perfluoroalkylsulfonates bearing shorter chain (C2-C6) perfluoroalkyl groups and was successfully applied to the decomposition of PFOS contained in an antireflective coating agent used in semiconductor manufacturing. PMID:16509356

Hori, Hisao; Nagaoka, Yumiko; Yamamoto, Ari; Sano, Taizo; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Taniyasu, Sachi; Kutsuna, Shuzo; Osaka, Issey; Arakawa, Ryuichi

2006-02-01

187

Stearic Acid  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) is presented for the chemical, stearic acid. The profile lists the chemical's physical and harmful characteristics, exposure limits, and symptoms of major exposure, for the benefit of teachers and students, who use the chemical in the laboratory.|

Young, Jay A.

2004-01-01

188

Acid rain  

SciTech Connect

An overview is presented of acid rain and the problems it causes to the environment worldwide. The acidification of lakes and streams is having a dramatic effect on aquatic life. Aluminum, present in virtually all forest soils, leaches out readily under acid conditions and interferes with the gills of all fish, some more seriously than others. There is evidence of major damage to forests in European countries. In the US, the most severe forest damage appears to be in New England, New York's Adirondacks, and the central Appalachians. This small region is part of a larger area of the Northeast and Canada that appears to have more acid rainfall than the rest of the country. It is downwind from major coal burning states, which produce about one quarter of US SO/sub 2/ emissions and one sixth of nitrogen oxide emissions. Uncertainties exist over the causes of forest damage and more research is needed before advocating expensive programs to reduce rain acidity. The President's current budget seeks an expansion of research funds from the current $30 million per year to $120 million.

Not Available

1984-06-01

189

Short-term exposures of fish to perfluorooctane sulfonate: acute effects on fatty acyl-coa oxidase activity, oxidative stress, and circulating sex steroids.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of exposure to waterborne perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on oxidative stress and reproductive endpoints in fish. Exposures utilized species commonly used in toxicological testing, including the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), as well as relatively insensitive taxa such as creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus), spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius), and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni). In all fish species, short-term (14-28 d) exposure to PFOS produced only modest mortality at concentrations consistent with environmental spill scenarios. However, PFOS consistently increased hepatic fatty acyl-CoA oxidase activity and increased oxidative damage, as quantified using the 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances assay. Plasma testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, and 17beta-estradiol titers were often elevated with PFOS exposure. Vitellogenin, the egg yolk precursor protein, was occasionally altered in the plasma with PFOS exposure, but responses varied with maturity. Oviposition frequency and egg deposition in fathead minnow were not significantly impaired with PFOS exposure, despite a trend toward progressive impairment with increasing exposure concentrations. Although short-term PFOS exposure produced significant impacts on biochemical and reproductive endpoints in fish at concentrations consistent with environmental spills, the impact of long-term exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of PFOS is unclear. PMID:16110997

Oakes, Ken D; Sibley, Paul K; Martin, Jon W; MacLean, Dan D; Solomon, Keith R; Mabury, Scott A; Van Der Kraak, Glen J

2005-05-01

190

Carbonate acidizing  

SciTech Connect

The authors present the first quantitative study and complete model of the wormholing phenomenon, leading to a means of predicting and optimizing carbonate acidizing treatments. Laboratory experiments on a gypsum model system and computer simulations show that for a given geometry, wormholes can be quantified by a unique parameter, their equivalent hydraulic length. The behavior of this quantifying parameter vs. all the system parameters is studied and allows the quantitative prediction of the efficiency of an acidizing treatment. This study highlights the fractal nature of the phenomenon, which is accounted for in the equations, and the strong effect of the sample geometry. Three types of etching can be obtained: compact, wormhole type, or homogeneous. The optimum conditions for achieving the best skin decrease correspond to the creation of wormholes and can then be defined in terms of fluid reactivity and injection rate.

Daccord, G.; Touboul, E.; Lenormand, R.

1989-02-01

191

Acidizing sandstone formations with fluoboric acid  

SciTech Connect

The continuing search for an effective deep-penetrating sandstone acidizing system recently has focused on fluoboric acid (HBF/sub 4/). Because this acid first must hydrolyze in water to produce HF, it was believed that deeper radial penetration of live acid could be achieved during matrix acidizing operations. However, a thorough experimental study has shown that typical formation temperatures will cause fluoboric acid to spend at a rapid rate similar to that of conventional hydrofluoric acid (HF), thereby severly limiting its usefulness in most sandstone formations. Furthermore, the same silica reprecipitation potential associated with HF acidizing is also inherent in the HBF/sub 4/ system.

Kunze, K.R.; Shaughnessy, C.M.

1983-02-01

192

Understanding Acid Rain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

Damonte, Kathleen

2004-01-01

193

Acidizing concepts - Matrix vs. fracture acidizing  

SciTech Connect

Acidizing involves a wide range of stimulation treatments that can yield impressive production increases in many wells if properly applied. Acidizing treatments are divided into two categories: matrix acidizing and fracture acidizing. To use either treatment properly, an understanding is required of what the treatments do and what is necessary to stimulate the well.

King, G.E.

1986-05-01

194

New method of acidizing or acid fracturing: crosslinked acid gels  

SciTech Connect

Acid polymer gels having pH less than one have been crosslinked for retarding the chemical and physical activity of hydrochloric acid on calcareous formations. Hydrochloric acid concentrations from .0025 to 28% have been successfully crosslinked. This stimulation fluid offers high viscosity with adequate shear stability, perfect support for proppants, and clay stabilization. Additionally, the fluid provides effective fluid loss control and retardation of acid reaction enabling live acid to penetrate deeper into the formation for better formation conductivity and practically a residue-free break for rapid clean-up of the well after the job. Results of lab and field tests show the acid crosslinked system to be an effective stimulation fluid for acidizing and acid fracturing in calcareous and sandstone formations having low formation permeability.

Pabley, A.S.; Holcomb, D.L.

1980-01-01

195

Determination of Perfluorinated Compounds in the Upper Mississippi River Basin  

EPA Science Inventory

Despite ongoing efforts to develop robust analytical methods for the determination of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) such as perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in surface water, comparatively little has been published on method performance, and the...

196

Determination of Ten Perfluorinated Compounds in Bluegill Sunfish ( Lepomis macrochirus ) Fillets  

EPA Science Inventory

Limited information is known about the environmental distributions of the perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), in part due to a lack of well characterized analytical methods that can be used to accurately mea...

197

Acid rain  

SciTech Connect

Deposition of acidic substances from the atmosphere is considered by many to be, along with increasing CO/sub 2/ concentrations in the atmosphere, one of the most serious environmental problems of this generation. Despite the limited title of this small book, it touches, in a nontechnical and elementary way, on all of the important aspects of this subject: definitions, history, suspected causes and harmful effects, proposed remedial actions, the case for additional research, and political and economic impacts. The material is presented largely as statements and opinions of scientists and governmental officials. The book is reportorial in style and reasonably balanced in its presentation of contrasting and opposing opinions about causes, effects, and remedies, although the final chapter, What Citizens Can Do, includes the names and addresses of organizations involved in efforts to protect clean air, forestry and wilderness areas. Also included are school projects and examples of what individuals and groups have done to help us understand the problem and/or to promote action.

Gay, K.

1983-01-01

198

Uric acid test (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

199

Bioavailability of phenolic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two large classes of phenolic acids were comprised in this review: benzoic acid derivatives and cinnamic acid derivatives.\\u000a They have been found to be very extended in fruits and vegetables at different concentrations. For example, hydroxycinnamic\\u000a acids concentration was higher than that found for hydroxybenzoic acids. Concerning their consumption, hydroxycinnamic acids\\u000a provide larger contributions to the total polyphenol intake than

Sophie Lafay; Angel Gil-Izquierdo

2008-01-01

200

BBB - Domoic Acid Structure  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BBB - Domoic Acid Structure. Bad Bug Book: Foodborne Pathogenic Microorganisms and Natural Toxins Handbook Domoic Acid. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/causesofillnessbadbugbook

201

BBB - Okadaic Acid Structure  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BBB - Okadaic Acid Structure. Bad Bug Book: Foodborne Pathogenic Microorganisms and Natural Toxins Handbook Okadaic Acid. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/causesofillnessbadbugbook

202

Oxidative destruction of perfluorooctane sulfonate using boron-doped diamond film electrodes.  

PubMed

This research investigated the oxidative destruction of perfluorooctane sulfonate at boron-doped diamond film electrodes. Experiments measuring oxidation rates of PFOS were performed over a range in current densities and temperatures using a rotating disk electrode (RDE) reactor and a parallel plate flow-through reactor. The oxidation of PFOS yielded sulfate, fluoride, carbon dioxide, and trace levels of trifluoroacetic acid. Reaction rates in the RDE reactor were zeroth order in PFOS concentration. Reaction rates in the flow-through reactor were mass-transfer-limited and were pseudo-first-order in PFOS concentration, with a half-life of 5.3 min at a current density of 20 mA/cm2. Eyring analysis of the zeroth order rate constants at a fixed electrode potential yielded an apparent activation energy of 4.2 kJ/mol for PFOS oxidation. Density functional theory (DFT) simulations were used to calculate activation barriers for different possible reaction mechanisms, including oxidation by hydroxyl radicals at different sites on the PFOS molecule, and direct electron transfer. A comparison of the experimentally measured apparent activation energy with those calculated using DFT indicated that the most likely rate-limiting step for PFOS oxidation was direct electron transfer. PMID:18767674

Carter, Kimberly E; Farrell, James

2008-08-15

203

MODEL AND CELL MEMBRANE PARTITIONING OF PERFLUOROOCTANESULFONATE IS INDEPENDENT OF THE LIPID CHAIN LENGTH  

PubMed Central

Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) is a persistent environmental pollutant that may cause adverse health effects in humans and animals by interacting with and disturbing of the normal properties of biological lipid assemblies. To gain further insights into these interactions, we investigated the effect of PFOS potassium salt on dimyristoyl- (DMPC), dipalmitoyl- (DPPC) and distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC) model membranes using fluorescence anisotropy measurements and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and on the cell membrane of HL-60 human leukemia cells and freshly isolated rat alveolar macrophages using fluorescence anisotropy measurements. PFOS caused a concentration-dependent decrease of the main phase transition temperature (Tm) and an increased peak width (?Tw) in both the fluorescence anisotropy and the DSC experiments, with a rank order DMPC > DPPC > DSPC. PFOS caused a fluidization of the gel phase of all phosphatidylcholines investigated, but had the opposite effect on the liquid crystalline phase. The apparent partition coefficients of PFOS between the phosphatidylcholine bilayer and the bulk aqueous phase were largely independent of the phosphatidylcholine chain length and ranged from 4.4 × 104 to 8.8 × 104. PFOS also significantly increased the fluidity of membranes of cells. These findings suggest that PFOS readily partitions into lipid assemblies, independent of their composition, and may cause adverse biological effects by altering their fluidity in a manner that depends on the membrane cooperativity and state (e.g., gel versus liquid crystalline phase) of the lipid assembly.

Xie, Wei; Ludewig, Gabriele; Wang, Kai; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

2009-01-01

204

Refining Lurgi tar acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is disclosed a process for removing tar bases and neutral oils from the Lurgi tar acids by treating the tar acids with aqueous sodium bisulfate to change the tar bases to salts and to hydrolyze the neutral oils to hydrolysis products and distilling the tar acids to obtain refined tar acid as the distillate while the tar base salts

Greco

1984-01-01

205

Acid-Base Equilibria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 9-page PDF document is part of an environmental geochemistry course taught by Dr. David Sherman at the University of Bristol. Topics include acid-base theories, aqueous systems, strong and weak acids and bases, acid-base properties of minerals, the pH of weak acid and buffered systems, and the calculation of titration curves.

Sherman, David W.; Bristol, University O.

206

Perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorochemicals in human blood samples from China.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctanesulfonylfluoride (POSF)-based compounds have been manufactured and used in a variety of industrial applications. These compounds degrade to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) which is regarded as a persistent end-stage metabolite and is found to accumulate in tissues of humans and wildlife. PFOS, perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA) have been found in human sera from the United States. In this study, concentrations of PFHxS, perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), PFOS, perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), PFOA, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA), and PFOSA were measured in 85 samples of whole human blood collected from nine cities (eight provinces) in China, including Shenyang (Liaoning), Beijing (Hebei), Zhengzhou (Henan), Jintan (Jiangsu), Wuhan (Hubei), Zhoushan (Zhejiang), Guiyang (Guizhou), Xiamen (Fujian), and Fuzhou (Fujian). Among the 10 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) measured, PFOS was the predominant compound. The mean concentration of PFOS was greatest in samples collected from Shenyang (79.2 ng/mL) and least in samples from Jintan (3.72 ng/mL). PFHxS was the next most abundant perfluorochemical in the samples. No age-related differences in the concentrations of PFOA, PFOS, PFOSA, and PFHxS were observed. Gender-related differences were found,with males higher for PFOS and PFHxS, and females higher in PFUnDA. Concentrations of PFHxS were positively correlated with those of PFOS, while concentrations of PFNA, PFDA, and PFUnDA were positively correlated with those of PFOA. There were differences in the concentration profiles (percentage composition) of various PFCs in the samples among the nine cities. PMID:16509308

Yeung, Leo W Y; So, M K; Jiang, Guibin; Taniyasu, S; Yamashita, N; Song, Maoyong; Wu, Yongning; Li, Jingguang; Giesy, J P; Guruge, K S; Lam, Paul K S

2006-02-01

207

21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...acids and their associated fatty acids manufactured from fats and oils derived from edible sources: Capric acid, caprylic acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid. (b) The food additive meets the...

2013-04-01

208

21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...acids and their associated fatty acids manufactured from fats and oils derived from edible sources: Capric acid, caprylic acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid. (b) The food additive meets the...

2009-04-01

209

21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...acids and their associated fatty acids manufactured from fats and oils derived from edible sources: Capric acid, caprylic acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid. (b) The food additive meets the...

2010-01-01

210

Uric acid nephrolithiasis.  

PubMed

Uric acid nephrolithiasis may be the final manifestation of various pathophysiological processes. Recent advances in renal urate transport have elucidated mechanisms by which hyperuricosuria occurs. However, in most uric acid stone formers the primary pathophysiologic defect is an excessively acidic urine pH rather than hyperuricosuria. Insulin resistance may contribute to the development of acidic urine by augmenting endogenous acid production and decreasing renal ammonium excretion. Medical management strategies focus primarily on alkali treatment or decreasing hyperuricosuria. PMID:17678984

Cameron, Mary Ann; Sakhaee, Khashayar

2007-08-01

211

Acids and Bases (Netorials)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acids and Bases: this is a resource in the collection "Netorials". In this module there is an introduction to the chemical properties of acids and bases. Afterwards, the sections include topics such as Molecular Structures of Acids and Bases, Ionization constants, properties of salts, buffers and Lewis theory of Acids and Bases. The Netorials cover selected topics in first-year chemistry including: Chemical Reactions, Stoichiometry, Thermodynamics, Intermolecular Forces, Acids & Bases, Biomolecules, and Electrochemistry.

212

Detection of bound phenolic acids: prevention by ascorbic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid of degradation of phenolic acids during alkaline hydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experimental conditions commonly used to detect bound phenolic acids by alkaline hydrolysis result in loss of several phenolic acids, particularly dihydroxy-derivatives (caffeic acid, dihydrocaffeic acid, homogentisic acid). In this study we show that the addition of ascorbic acid, a strong antioxidant, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, a metal chelator, totally prevent the loss of phenolic acids during alkaline hydrolysis. In these

M Nardini; E Cirillo; F Natella; D Mencarelli; A Comisso; C Scaccini

2002-01-01

213

Gas-phase Acidities of Aspartic Acid, Glutamic Acid, and their Amino Acid Amides.  

SciTech Connect

Gas-phase acidities (GA or ?Gacid) for the two most acidic common amino acids, aspartic acid and glutamic acid, have been determined for the first time. Because of the amide linkage’s importance in peptides and as an aid in studying side chain versus main chain deprotonation, aspartic acid amide and glutamic acid amide were also studied. Experimental GA values were measured by proton transfer reactions in an electrospray ionization/Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Calculated GAs were obtained by density functional and molecular orbital theory approaches. The best agreement with experiment was found at the G3MP2 level; the MP2/CBS and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ results are 3–4 kcal/mol more acidic than the G3MP2 results. Experiment shows that aspartic acid is more acidic than glutamic acid by ca. 3 kcal/mol whereas the G3MP2 results show a smaller acidity difference of 0.2 kcal/mol. Similarly, aspartic acid amide is experimentally observed to be ca. 2 kcal/mol more acidic than glutamic acid amide whereas the G3MP2 results show a correspondingly smaller energy difference of 0.7 kcal/mol. The computational results clearly show that the anions are all ring-like structures with strong hydrogen bonds between the OH or NH2 groups and the CO2? group from which the proton is removed. The two amino acids are main-chain deprotonated. In addition, use of the COSMO model for the prediction of the free energy differences in aqueous solution gave values in excellent agreement with the most recent experimental values for pKa. Glutamic acid is predicted to be more acidic than aspartic acid in aqueous solution due to differential solvation effects.

Li, Zhong; Matus, Myrna H.; Velazquez, Hector A.; Dixon, David A.; Cassady, Carolyn J.

2007-02-14

214

Resonance Light Scattering Method for Study on the Interaction Between Fluorinated Surfactant Potassium Perfluorooctanesulfonate and DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resonance light-scattering (RLS) characteristics of the interactions between fluorinated surfactant potassium perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) with calf thymus nucleic acid (ct DNA) were studied. After DNA was added, aggregation of PFOS on the molecular surface of DNA occurred in the pH 3.5 ?6.0, which resulted in an enhanced RLS peak at 370 nm. The RLS intensity was found to be proportional to the concentration

Ling Li; Quan Pan; Zu Shun Xu; Gong Wu Song

2010-01-01

215

Perfluorinated compounds in the Pearl River and Yangtze River of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 14 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were quantified in river water samples collected from tributaries of the Pearl River (Guangzhou Province, south China) and the Yangtze River (central China). Among the PFCs analyzed, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were the two compounds with the highest concentrations. PFOS concentrations ranged from 0.90 to 99ng\\/l and <0.01–14ng\\/l in samples

M. K. So; Y. Miyake; W. Y. Yeung; Y. M. Ho; S. Taniyasu; P. Rostkowski; N. Yamashita; B. S. Zhou; X. J. Shi; J. X. Wang; J. P. Giesy; H. Yu; P. K. S. Lam

2007-01-01

216

Acid Inhibition and the Acid Rebound Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid secretion from gastric parietal cells is a result of a complex interaction between different stimulatory and inhibitory mediators. One of the most important mediators is gastrin, which stimulates gastric acid secretion from parietal cells mostly indirectly, by the release of histamine from enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells. Therapy with antisecretory agents leads to hypergastrinemia, mucosal hyperplasia and increased ECL cell mass,

Marko Duvnjak

2011-01-01

217

Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

2006-01-01

218

Purification of oleic acid and linoleic acid  

SciTech Connect

To permit kinetic studies of the reactivity of unsaturated fatty acids towards oxygen radicals, it is essential to remove traces of hydroperoxides and other conjugated lipid impurities commonly present in commercial samples. Removal of these impurities has been satisfactorily achieved for oleic and linoleic acids by anaerobic low temperature recrystallization from acetonitrile. The uv spectra of commercial and purified samples are compared.

Arudi, R.L.; Sutherland, M.W.; Bielski, B.H.J.

1983-01-01

219

New bioactive fatty acids.  

PubMed

Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to the new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid (DOD) through 10-hydroxy-8-octadecenoic acid, and racinoleic acid to 7,10,12-trihydroxy-8-octadecenoic acid. DOD showed antibacterial activity including against food-borne pathogens. Bacillus megaterium ALA2 converted n-6 and n-3 PUFAs to many new oxygenated fatty acids. For example: linoleic acid was converted to12,13-epoxy-9-octadecenoic acid and then to 12,13-dihydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid (12,13-DHOA). From here, there are two bioconversion pathways. The major pathway is: 12,13-DHOA --> 12,13,17-trihydroxy-9(S)-octadecenoic acid (THOA) --> 12,17;13,17-diepoxy-16-hydroxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid (DEOA) --> 7-hydroxy-DEOA. The minor pathway is: 12,13-DHOA --> 12,13,16-THOA --> 12-hydroxy-13,16-epoxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid. 12,13,17-THOA has anti-plant pathogenic fungal activity. The tetrahydrofuranyl moiety is known in anti cancer drugs. Strain ALA2 also converts other n-3 and n-6 PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) to many new oxygenated unsaturated fatty acid products. All of these new products have high potential for antimicrobial agents or biomedical applications. We also screened 12 Mortierella fungal strains from the ARS Culture Collection for the production of bioactive fatty acids such as dihomo-gama-linolenic acid (DGLA) and arachidonic acid. All of the strains tested produced AA and DGLA from glucose or glycerol. The top five AA producers (mg AA/g CDW) were in the following order: M. alpina > M. zychae > M. hygrophila > M. minutissima > M. parvispora. Both AA and DGLA are important natural precursors of a large family of prostaglandin and thromboxane groups. PMID:18296335

Hou, Ching T

2008-01-01

220

Effect of potassium perfluorooctanesulfonate, perfluorooctanoate and octanesulfonate on the phase transition of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers  

PubMed Central

Summary Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) is a persistent environmental pollutant that may cause adverse effects by inhibiting pulmonary surfactant. To gain further insights in this potential mechanism of toxicity, we investigated the interaction of PFOS potassium salt with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) – the major component of pulmonary surfactant – using steady-state fluorescence anisotropy spectroscopy and DSC (differential scanning calorimetry). In addition, we investigated the interactions of two structurally related compounds, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and octanesulfonic acid (OS) potassium salt, with DPPC. In the fluorescence experiments a linear depression of the main phase transition temperature of DPPC (Tm) and an increased peak width was observed with increasing concentration of all three compounds, both using 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) and 1-(4-trimethylammoniumphenyl)-6-phenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene p-toluenesulfonate (TMA-DPH) as fluorescent probes. PFOS caused an effect on Tm and peak width at much lower concentrations because of its increased tendency to partition onto DPPC bilayers, i.e., the partition coefficients decrease in the K(PFOS) > K(PFOA) ? K(OS). Similar to the fluorescence anisotropy measurements, all three compounds caused a linear depression in the onset of the main phase transition temperature and a significant peak broadening in the DSC experiments, with PFOS having the most pronounced effect of the peak width. The effect of PFOS and other fluorinated surfactants on DPPC in both mono- and bilayers may be one mechanism by which these compounds causes adverse biological effects.

Xie, W.; Kania-Korwel, I.; Bummer, P. M.; Lehmler, H.-J.

2007-01-01

221

Zoledronic Acid Injection  

MedlinePLUS

... acid (Reclast) is used to prevent or treat osteoporosis (condition in which the bones become thin and ... Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is also used to treat osteoporosis in men, and to prevent or treat osteoporosis ...

222

Mixed Acid Oxidation  

SciTech Connect

Several non-thermal processes have been developed to destroy organic waste compounds using chemicals with high oxidation potentials. These efforts have focused on developing technologies that work at low temperatures, relative to incineration, to overcome many of the regulatory issues associated with obtaining permits for waste incinerators. One such technique with great flexibility is mixed acid oxidation. Mixed acid oxidation, developed at the Savannah River Site, uses a mixture of an oxidant (nitric acid) and a carrier acid (phosphoric acid). The carrier acid acts as a non-volatile holding medium for the somewhat volatile oxidant. The combination of acids allows appreciable amounts of the concentrated oxidant to remain in the carrier acid well above the oxidant''s normal boiling point.

Pierce, R.A.

1999-10-26

223

Hydrochloric acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Hydrocholoric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This is for information only and not for ...

224

Acid-fast stain  

MedlinePLUS

The acid-fast stain is a laboratory test that determines if a sample of tissue, blood, or other body ... lab team member washes the slide with an acid solution and applies a different stain. The bacteria ...

225

Carbolic acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Phenol poisoning; Phenylic acid poisoning; Hydroxybenzene poisoning; Phenic acid poisoning; Benzenol poisoning ... Phenol ... and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 2008. Toxicological profile for Phenol. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human ...

226

Lactic acid test  

MedlinePLUS

Lactate test ... test. Exercise can cause a temporary increase in lactic acid levels. ... oxygen. See: Oxygen deprivation Conditions that can increase lactic acid levels include: Heart failure Liver problems Lung disease ...

227

Aminocaproic Acid Injection  

MedlinePLUS

Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

228

Polymerization of Itaconic Acid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Itaconic acid has various uses in chain copolymerization reactions, because of its two carboxylic groups and relatively good reactivity with different comonomers. As an unsaturated dicarboxylic acid it also has applications in grafting reactions and polyc...

J. Ahlgren

1990-01-01

229

Acid inhibition and the acid rebound effect.  

PubMed

Acid secretion from gastric parietal cells is a result of a complex interaction between different stimulatory and inhibitory mediators. One of the most important mediators is gastrin, which stimulates gastric acid secretion from parietal cells mostly indirectly, by the release of histamine from enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells. Therapy with antisecretory agents leads to hypergastrinemia, mucosal hyperplasia and increased ECL cell mass, which results in increase of gastric acid secretion capacity. This increased secretion capacity has been shown to manifest itself after antisecretory therapy withdrawal as rebound acid hypersecretion (RAH). Various studies have quantified acid hypersecretion after the cessation of therapy with H(2) antagonists and proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs). While most of those studies had small patient numbers, the findings generally demonstrate that RAH after H(2) antagonist therapy is of low magnitude, short duration, and has questionable clinical significance. On the contrary, acid hypersecretion after PPI therapy is more pronounced, lasts longer, and could possibly be the cause of acid-related symptoms. Potential for causing symptoms has recently been confirmed in two randomized placebo-controlled studies, and while we witness the increasing use of PPIs, RAH could become a proven cause of failure to withdraw therapy in a proportion of patients with reflux or dyspeptic symptoms. PMID:22095014

Leroti?, Ivan; Barši?, Neven; Stojsavljevi?, Sanja; Duvnjak, Marko

2011-11-16

230

Nucleic acid molecule  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention relates to an isolated nucleic acid molecule encoding a polypeptide capable of producing a triterpenoid hydrocarbon. The invention also relates to the encoded polypeptide, a vector comprising the nucleic acid molecule, a recombinant non-human organism comprising the nucleic acid molecule, and to methods of producing a triterpenoid hydrocarbon or an intermediate of biofuel using the nucleic acid molecule, polypeptide or recombinant organism.

Ball; Andrew (Bedford Park, AU); Moore; Robert (Bedford Park, AU); Knowles; Gregory (Bedford Park, AU); Qin; Jian (Bedford Park, AU)

2011-10-11

231

Plant fatty acid hydroxylases  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); Broun, Pierre (Burlingame, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

2001-01-01

232

Quinolinic acid, ?-picolinic acid, fusaric acid, and 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid enhance the Fenton reaction in phosphate buffer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quinolinic acid, ?-picolinic acid, fusaric acid, and 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid enhanced the Fenton reaction in phosphate buffer, respectively. The enhancement by quinolinic acid, ?-picolinic acid, fusaric acid, and 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid of the Fenton reaction may be partly related to their respective actions in the biological systems such as a neurotoxic effect (quinolinic acid), a marked growth-inhibitory action on rice seeding (?-picolinic

Hideo Iwahashi; Hiroyuki Kawamori; Kazuaki Fukushima

1999-01-01

233

The Acid Rain Reader.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

234

What Is Acid Rain?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Acid rain is the collective term for any type of acidified precipitation: rain, snow, sleet, and hail, as well as the presence of acidifying gases, particles, cloud water, and fog in the atmosphere. The increased acidity, primarily from sulfuric and nitric acids, is generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil.…

Likens, Gene E.

2004-01-01

235

Bile acid diarrhea.  

PubMed

Bile acids normally undergo enterohepatic circulation. When this circulation is interrupted, bile acids enter the colon in increased concentrations. Here, they produce Cl- secretion by a calcium- and cyclic AMP-dependent mechanism, resulting in diarrhea. Cholestasis may lead to serum bile acid concentrations high enough to produce colonic secretion by serosal surface effects. When resection or disease interferes with ileal function, the resulting diarrhea can be clearly attributed to bile acid malabsorption. In other states, such as postcholecystectomy diarrhea and idiopathic bile acid diarrhea, the role of bile acids is less well defined. 23-75Selena-25-homotaurocholic acid provides a way of tracing the metabolism of bile acids and their enterohepatic circulation in vivo. Metabolized similarly to natural bile acids, its circulation is easily traced by scintigraphy. Barium x-rays, serum concentrations of bile acids or bile acid intermediates, and tests of vitamin B12 absorption provide indirect measures of ileal function. Careful history and examination combined with one of many the available tests of ileal function allow a diagnosis. A therapeutic trial with a bile acid binding resin confirms the impression and treats the diarrhea. PMID:9571377

Potter, G D

236

Acid (and Base) Rainbows  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners use red cabbage juice and pH indicator paper to test the acidity and basicity of household materials. The activity links this concept of acids and bases to acid rain and other pollutants. Resource contains vocabulary definitions and suggestions for assessment, extensions, and scaling for different levels of learners.

Kolenbrander, Amy; Yowell, Janet; Mach, Natalie; Zarske, Malinda S.; Carlson, Denise; Perez, Sharon

2004-01-01

237

[alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

2010-01-01

238

Quantitative characterization of trace levels of PFOS and PFOA in the Tennessee River.  

PubMed

Although there is evidence of widespread distribution of organic fluorochemicals such as perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate, in the environment, the versatility of these compounds in industrial and commercial applications complicates characterization of pathways into the environment. A solid-phase extraction method coupled with HPLC-negative-ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry was developed to quantitatively measure trace levels of organic fluorochemicals in drinking water and surface water. Using this method, certain fluorochemicals can be quantitatively measured in water samples down to 25 ppt, a level well below calculated drinking water advisory levels. To assess fluorochemical distribution in a localized geography and to ascertain whether fluorochemical manufacturing facilities contribute to environmental levels of fluorochemicals, 40 water samples were collected on an 80-mi stretch of the Tennessee River, near a fluorochemical manufacturing site in Decatur, AL. Low levels (ppt) of perfluorooctane sulfonate were determined throughout the stretch of river sampled. Concentrations of the measured fluorochemicals increased downstream of the fluorochemical manufacturing facility, indicating that effluent from manufacturing is one likely source of organic fluorochemicals into the river. PMID:11993863

Hansen, K J; Johnson, H O; Eldridge, J S; Butenhoff, J L; Dick, L A

2002-04-15

239

PFOS and PFOSA in Bottlenose Dolphins: An Investigation into Two Unusually High Mortality Events  

EPA Science Inventory

Along the Atlantic coast of the United States during 1987 and 1988, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) suffered one of this country's largest marine mammal mass mortality events. An estimated 50% of all near-shore bottlenose died during this short period. Two years later a ...

240

PFOS and PFOSA in Bottlenose Dolphins: An Investigation into Two Unusual Mortality Epizootics (WDA)  

EPA Science Inventory

Along the Atlantic coast of the United States during 1987 and 1988, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) suffered one of this country's largest marine mammal mass mortality events. An estimated 50% of all near-shore bottlenose died during this short period. Two years later a ...

241

PFOS and PFOSA in Bottlenose Dolphins: An Investigation into Two High Mortality Epizootics (NRMMSTSN2009)  

EPA Science Inventory

Along the Atlantic coast of the United States during 1987 and 1988, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) suffered one of this country's largest marine mammal mass mortality events. An estimated 50% of all near-shore bottlenose died during this short period. Two years later a ...

242

PFOS and PFOSA in Bottlenose Dolphins: An Investigation into Two Unusually High Mortality Epizootics  

EPA Science Inventory

Along the Atlantic coast of the United States during 1987 and 1988, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) suffered one of this country's largest marine mammal mass mortality events. An estimated 50% of all near-shore bottlenose died during this short period. Two years later a ...

243

Uric acid nephrolithiasis.  

PubMed

Uric acid is the end-product of purine nucleotide metabolism in man. The renal handling of urate is a complicated process, resulting in a fractional clearance of 8.2-10.3%. The anhydrous form is thermodynamically the most stable uric acid crystal. Uric acid is a weak acid that ionizes with a Pka at pH 5.75. At the normal acidic region, uric acid solubility is strongly increased by urinary pH. The prevalence of uric acid stones varies between countries, reflecting climatic, dietary, and ethnical differences, ranging from 2.1% (in Texas) to 37.7% (in Iran). The risk for uric acid stone formation correlates with the degree of uric acid supersaturation in the urine, depending on uric acid concentration and urinary pH. Hyperuricosuria is the major risk factor, the most common cause being increased purine intake in the diet. Acquired and hereditary diseases accompanied by hyperuricosuria and stone disease include: gout, in strong correlation with the amount of uric acid excreted, myelo- and lymphoproliferative disorders, multiple myeloma, secondary polycythemia, pernicious anemia and hemolytic disorders, hemoglobinopathies and thalassemia, the complete or partial deficiency of HGPRT, superactivity of PRPP synthetase, and hereditary renal hypouricemia. A common denominator in patients with idiopathic and gouty stone formers is a low urinary pH. Uric acid nephrolithiasis is indicated in the presence of a radiolucent stone, a persistent undue urine acidity and uric acid crystals in fresh urine samples. A radiolucent stone in combination with normal or acidic pH should raise the possibility of urate stones.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7783706

Halabe, A; Sperling, O

1994-01-01

244

Acid Strengths of Some Substituted Picric Acids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aqueous dissociation constants for a number of substituted picric acids and related compounds were determined spectrophotometrically, and the values obtained correlated with the mid-equivalence potentials obtained by half-neutralization in acetone sol...

P. J. Pearce R. J. J. Simkins

1968-01-01

245

Editorial: Acid precipitation  

SciTech Connect

This editorial focuses on acid rain and the history of public and governmental response to acid rain. Comments on a book by Gwineth Howell `Acid Rain and Acid Waters` are included. The editor feels that Howells has provide a service to the environmental scientific community, with a textbook useful to a range of people, as well as a call for decision makers to learn from the acid rain issue and use it as a model for more sweeping global environmental issues. A balance is needed among several parameters such as level of evidence, probability that the evidence will lead to a specific direction and the cost to the global community. 1 tab.

NONE

1995-09-01

246

Equilibrium fracture acidizing  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for acidizing a formation penetrated by a well comprising: injecting acid into the formation at a pressure sufficient to initiate and propagate a fracture in the formation; reducing the injection rate of the acid into the fracture to a rate sufficient to hold the fracture open without significant further extension, such that the acid contacts and etches the fracture; and reducing the injection rate of the acid into the fracture to a rate that is sufficient to hold the fracture open.

Tinker, S.J.

1989-06-06

247

[Uric acid nephrolithiasis].  

PubMed

Uric acid nephrolithiasis is frequent accounting for 10% of urinary stones in industrialized countries. Its frequency will increase in the next decades because of the ageing and the increasing prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The pathophysiologic defect is an excessively acidic urine pH rather than hyperuricosuria. Undissociated uric acid is poorly soluble in acidic urines (pH < 5.5) but solubility increases when sodium urate forms at higher pH. Insulin resistance may contribute to the development of acidic urine because of higher net acid excretion. Because uric acid kidney stones are radiolucent, diagnosis is based on echography and tomodensitometry. Medical management strategies focus primarily on alkali treatment and/or decreasing hyper-uricosuria. PMID:21563421

Dussol, Bertrand

2011-03-01

248

Gene Expression Profiling in Wild-Type and PPAR?-Null Mice Exposed to Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Reveals PPAR?-Independent Effects  

PubMed Central

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) and a persistent environmental contaminant found in the tissues of humans and wildlife. Although blood levels of PFOS have begun to decline, health concerns remain because of the long half-life of PFOS in humans. Like other PFAAs, such as, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), PFOS is an activator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR?) and exhibits hepatocarcinogenic potential in rodents. PFOS is also a developmental toxicant in rodents where, unlike PFOA, its mode of action is independent of PPAR?. Wild-type (WT) and PPAR?-null (Null) mice were dosed with 0, 3, or 10?mg/kg/day PFOS for 7 days. Animals were euthanized, livers weighed, and liver samples collected for histology and preparation of total RNA. Gene profiling was conducted using Affymetrix 430_2 microarrays. In WT mice, PFOS induced changes that were characteristic of PPAR? transactivation including regulation of genes associated with lipid metabolism, peroxisome biogenesis, proteasome activation, and inflammation. PPAR?-independent changes were indicated in both WT and Null mice by altered expression of genes related to lipid metabolism, inflammation, and xenobiotic metabolism. Such results are similar to studies done with PFOA and are consistent with modest activation of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), and possibly PPAR? and/or PPAR?/?. Unique treatment-related effects were also found in Null mice including altered expression of genes associated with ribosome biogenesis, oxidative phosphorylation, and cholesterol biosynthesis. Of interest was up-regulation of Cyp7a1, a gene which is under the control of various transcription regulators. Hence, in addition to its ability to modestly activate PPAR?, PFOS induces a variety of PPAR?-independent effects as well.

Rosen, Mitchell B.; Schmid, Judith R.; Corton, J. Christopher; Zehr, Robert D.; Das, Kaberi P.; Abbott, Barbara D.; Lau, Christopher

2010-01-01

249

Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid  

DOEpatents

Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

2008-12-02

250

The Enzymic Conversion of the Tartaric Acids to Oxaloacetic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: Certain bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas attack the tartaric acids by means of inducible stereospecific dehydrases. Each dehydrase converts its specific isomeric substrate to oxaloacetic acid ; in crude cell-free extracts the oxaloacetic acid is in turn converted to pyruvic acid, which accumulates. By treatment of the crude extracts with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), substantial accumulations of oxaloacetic acid can

M. SHILO

1957-01-01

251

Isoprenoid Acids in Recent Sediments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Phytanic acid, pristanic acid, and 4,8,12-trimethyltridecanoic acid have been isolated from three recent marine sediments. The ratio of palmitic to pristanic acid is similar to that encountered in typical marine lipids. This suggests a biochemical origin ...

M. Blumer W. J. Cooper

1968-01-01

252

Fatty acids and neurodevelopment.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the importance of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), arachidonic acid (AA), and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) in neurodevelopment was originally obtained from animal studies. These fatty acids are rapidly accreted in brain during the first postnatal year in animal and human infants, and they are found in high concentrations in breast milk. Reports of enhanced intellectual development in breast-fed children, and reports linking LCPUFA deficiency with neurodevelopmental disorders have stressed the physiological importance of DHA in visual and neural systems. In addition to high concentrations of fatty acids in breast milk, they are also present in fish and algae oil and have recently been added to infant formulas. Esterified poplyunsaturated fatty acids act in cellular membranes, in signal transduction, in neurotransmission, and in the formation of lipid rafts. Nonesterified polyunsaturated fatty acids can modulate gene expression and ion channel activities, thus becoming neuroprotective agents. The conversion of linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid into ARA and DHA have led to randomized clinical trials that have studied whether infant formulas supplemented with DHA or both DHA and ARA would enhance visual and cognitive development. This review gives an overview of fatty acids and neurodevelopment, focusing on the findings from these studies. PMID:18667917

Belkind-Gerson, J; Carreón-Rodríguez, A; Contreras-Ochoa, C O; Estrada-Mondaca, S; Parra-Cabrera, M S

2008-08-01

253

Lewis Acid Organocatalysts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The term Lewis acid catalysts generally refers to metal salts like aluminium chloride, titanium chloride and zinc chloride. Their application in asymmetric catalysis can be achieved by the addition of enantiopure ligands to these salts. However, not only metal centers can function as Lewis acids. Compounds containing carbenium, silyl or phosphonium cations display Lewis acid catalytic activity. In addition, hypervalent compounds based on phosphorus and silicon, inherit Lewis acidity. Furthermore, ionic liquids, organic salts with a melting point below 100 °C, have revealed the ability to catalyze a range of reactions either in substoichiometric amount or, if used as the reaction medium, in stoichiometric or even larger quantities. The ionic liquids can often be efficiently recovered. The catalytic activity of the ionic liquid is explained by the Lewis acidic nature of their cations. This review covers the survey of known classes of metal-free Lewis acids and their application in catalysis.

Sereda, Oksana; Tabassum, Sobia; Wilhelm, René

254

Acid rain reports  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three independent reports on acid precipitation issued in June reinforce each other and, taken together, support those seeking immediate action to curb man-generated acid deposition in northeastern North America by reducing emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. The Interagency Task Force on Acid Precipitation report concluded that manmade pollution is to blame for acid precipitation problems in the northeastern United States. A National Research Council (NRC) committee stated that reducing the manmade emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides will result in a proportional reduction in the deposition of acid precipitation. And an acid rain panel assembled by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) called for immediate action to curb the emissions despite incomplete scientific data.

Richman, Barbara T.

255

Kidney amino acid transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near complete reabsorption of filtered amino acids is a main specialized transport function of the kidney proximal tubule.\\u000a This evolutionary conserved task is carried out by a subset of luminal and basolateral transporters that together form the\\u000a transcellular amino acid transport machinery similar to that of small intestine. A number of other amino acid transporters\\u000a expressed in the basolateral membrane

François Verrey; Dustin Singer; Tamara Ramadan; Raphael N. Vuille-dit-Bille; Luca Mariotta; Simone M. R. Camargo

2009-01-01

256

Chronic valproic acid intoxication.  

PubMed

Valproic acid intoxication may be associated with cerebral, cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and hematologic complications. We report a case of a 7-year-old girl, epilepsy-treated chronically with valproic acid, sulthiame, and clonazepam, who presented to the emergency room because of a global deterioration during the preceding 2 months, including poorer feeding and worsened general responsiveness. The girl was later diagnosed to have chronic valproic acid intoxication. PMID:23736073

Weiner, Dror; Nir, Vered; Klein-Kremer, Adi; Kassem, Eiass

2013-06-01

257

Acid rain on Bermuda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased acidity of precipitation due to combustion of fossil fuels has been well documented for both the eastern USA1 and Canada2. The SO2 and NOxemitted by the burning of coal, natural gas, fuel oil and petrol are oxidized in the atmosphere to sulphuric and nitric acids which subsequently give rise to acid precipitation1. However, the SO2 and NOx emitted, and

Timothy Jickells; Anthony Knap; Thomas Church; James Galloway; John Miller

1982-01-01

258

Preparation of petroselinic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroselinic acid of a grade which is suitable for most laboratory applications has been prepared by a single crystallization\\u000a of the mixed fatty acids of parsley seed oil from 90% ethanol. A product of higher purity has been prepared from this acid\\u000a by application of urea segregation techniques for the removal of saturated materials. No evidence of the presence of

Sara P. Fore; Raiford L. Holmes; W. G. Bickford

1960-01-01

259

Well acidization with alpha-hydroxysulfonic acid  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a well treating process in which fluid is injected into a well and flowed into contact with acidifiable material in and around a portion of the well within a subterranean earth formation in order to contact the acidifiable material with at least one strong acid. An improved process for controlling the rate of the acidification reaction comprises: flowing fluid inclusive of water, SO/sub 2/ and carbonyl compound into the well and into and out of contact with the acidifiable material with the composition of the fluid arranged so that, in contact with the acidifiable material, the fluid consists essentially of an acidic solution of water, SO/sub 2/ and carbonyl compound in equilibrium with at least one reactively formed alpha-hydroxysulfonic acid.

Slaugh, L.H.

1987-06-02

260

Automated solid-phase extraction and measurement of perfluorinated organic acids and amides in human serum and milk.  

PubMed

Organic fluorochemicals are used in multiple commercial applications including surfactants, lubricants, paints, polishes, food packaging, and fire-retarding foams. Recent scientific findings suggest that several perfluorochemicals (PFCs), a group of organic fluorochemicals, are ubiquitous contaminants in humans and animals world wide. Furthermore, concern has increased about the toxicity of these compounds. Therefore, monitoring human exposure to PFCs is important. We have developed a high-throughput method for measuring trace levels of 13 PFCs (2 perfluorosulfonates, 8 perfluorocarboxylates, and 3 perfluorosulfonamides) in serum and milk using an automated solid-phase extraction (SPE) cleanup followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method is sensitive, with limits of detection between 0.1 and 1 ng in 1 mL of serum or milk, is not labor intensive, involves minimal manual sample preparation, and uses a commercially available automated SPE system. Our method is suitable for large epidemiologic studies to assess exposure to PFCs. We measured the serum levels of these 13 PFCs in 20 adults nonoccupationally exposed to these compounds. Nine of the PFCs were detected in at least 75% of the subjects. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), 2-(N-methylperfluorooctane-sulfonamido)acetate (Me-PFOSA-AcOH), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) were found in all of the samples. The concentration order and measured levels of PFOS, PFOA, Me-PFOSA-AcOH, and PFHxS compared well with human serum levels previously reported. Although no human data are available for the perfluorocarboxylates (except PFOA), the high frequency of detection of PFNA and other carboxylates in our study suggests that human exposure to long-alkyl-chain perfluorocarboxylates may be widespread. We also found PFOS in the serum and milk of rats administered PFOS by gavage, but not in the milk of rats not dosed with PFOS. Furthermore, we did not detect most PFCs in two human milk samples. These findings suggest that PFCs may not be as prevalent in human milk as they are in serum. Additional studies are needed to determine whether environmental exposure to PFCs can result in PFCs partitioning into milk. Large epidemiological studies to determine the levels of PFCs among the U.S. general population are warranted. PMID:15296323

Kuklenyik, Zsuzsanna; Reich, John Adam; Tully, Jason S; Needham, Larry L; Calafat, Antonia M

2004-07-01

261

Aristolochic Acid: Safety Alert  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Section Contents Menu. Recalls, Outbreaks & Emergencies. Safety Alerts & Advisories. -. Aristolochic Acid: Safety Alert. FDA ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/recallsoutbreaksemergencies/safetyalertsadvisories

262

Recovery of organic acids  

SciTech Connect

A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

Verser, Dan W. (Menlo Park, CA); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

2011-11-01

263

Recovery of organic acids  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

Verser, Dan W. (Golden, CO); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

2009-10-13

264

Perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorochemicals in human blood from several countries.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride based compounds have been used in a wide variety of consumer products, such as carpets, upholstery, and textiles. These compounds degrade to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), a persistent metabolite that accumulates in tissues of humans and wildlife. Previous studies have reported the occurrence of PFOS, perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA) in human sera collected from the United States. In this study, concentrations of PFOS, PFHxS, PFOA, and PFOSA were measured in 473 human blood/serum/plasma samples collected from the United States, Colombia, Brazil, Belgium, Italy, Poland, India, Malaysia, and Korea. Among the four perfluorochemicals measured, PFOS was the predominant compound found in blood. Concentrations of PFOS were the highest in the samples collected from the United States and Poland (>30 ng/mL); moderate in Korea, Belgium, Malaysia, Brazil, Italy, and Colombia (3 to 29 ng/mL); and lowest in India (<3 ng/mL). PFOA was the next most abundant perfluorochemical in blood samples, although the frequency of occurrence of this compound was relatively low. No age- or gender-related differences in the concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were found in serum samples. The degree of association between the concentrations of four perfluorochemicals varied, depending on the origin of the samples. These results suggested the existence of sources with varying levels and compositions of perfluorochemicals, and differences in exposure patterns to these chemicals, in various countries. In addition to the four target fluorochemicals measured, qualitative analysis of selected blood samples showed the presence of other perfluorochemicals such as perfluorodecanesulfonate (PFDS), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) in serum samples, at concentrations approximately 5- to 10-fold lower than the concentration of PFOS. Further studies should focus on identifying sources and pathways of human exposure to perfluorochemicals. PMID:15461154

Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Corsolini, Simonetta; Falandysz, Jerzy; Fillmann, Gilberto; Kumar, Kurunthachalam Senthil; Loganathan, Bommanna G; Mohd, Mustafa Ali; Olivero, Jesus; Van Wouwe, Nathalie; Yang, Jae Ho; Aldoust, Kenneth M

2004-09-01

265

Acidizing concentrates for oil well acidizing systems  

SciTech Connect

An acidizing composition is described for treating oil-bearing formations comprising: (a) from about 90 to about 99.99 percent by volume of an aqueous acid solution; and (b) from about 0.01 to about 10 percent by weight of an acidizing concentrate consisting of: a mixture of a branched-aliphatic C/sub 3/-C/sub 6/ alcohol and a branched aliphatic C/sub 7/-C/sub 10/ alcohol; and an effective amount of a non-ionic polyether surfactant to render the alcohols soluble in the acid. The surfactant has the formula: R is the oxyalkylation residue of a C/sub 2/-C/sub 10/ diol or triol; n is an integer of 2 or 3, X and Y are numbers such that the ratio of X to Y is from 8:1 to 0.3:1; and the total molecular weight of the molecule is from 1,000 to 15,000. The weight ratio of the mixture of alcohols to the nonionic surfactant is from 10:1 to 1:10. The composition is capable of dissolving sludge deposits in the oil-bearing formations.

Crema, S.C.

1987-06-30

266

Distribution of perfluorooctane sulfonate and other perfluorochemicals in the ambient environment around a manufacturing facility in China.  

PubMed

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) can be released to the surrounding environment during manufacturing and usage of PFC containing products, which are considered as main direct sources of PFCs in the environment. This study evaluates the release of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other PFCs to the ambient environment around a manufacturing plant. Among the nine PFCs analyzed, only PFOS, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) were found in dust, water, soil, and chicken eggs. Very high concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were found in dust from the production storage, raw material stock room, and sulfonation workshop in the manufacturing facility, with the highest value at 4962 ?g/g (dry weight) for PFOS and 160 ?g/g for PFOA. A decreasing trend of the three PFCs concentrations in soils, water, and chicken eggs with increasing distance from the plant was found, indicating the production site to be the primary source of PFCs in this region. Risk quotients (RQs) assessment for surface water >500 m away from the plant were less than unity. Risk assessment of PFOS using predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC, 3.23 ng/g on a logarithmic scale) indicated no immediate ecological risk of a reduction in offspring survival. PFOS concentrations in most egg samples did not exceed the benchmark concentration derived in setting a reference dose for noncancer health effects (0.025 ?g/(kgxd)). PMID:20879709

Wang, Yawei; Fu, Jianjie; Wang, Thanh; Liang, Yong; Pan, Yuanyuan; Cai, Yaqi; Jiang, Guibin

2010-11-01

267

Strong Acids (GCMP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Strong Acids: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". This problem will explore the properties of common strong acids. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

268

Acids and Salts (GCMP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acids and Salts: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". This problem will explore a few properties of common acids and their salts. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

269

Facts about Folic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

... INFO (800-232-4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348 Contact CDC-INFO flo@cdc.gov Folic Acid Homepage Facts Quiz Questions & Answers Cereals with Folic Acid Data and Statistics Research Global Initiative Articles & Key Findings Recommendations Free Materials Links ...

270

Folic Acid Quiz  

MedlinePLUS

... INFO (800-232-4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348 Contact CDC-INFO flo@cdc.gov Folic Acid Homepage Facts Quiz Questions & Answers Cereals with Folic Acid Data and Statistics Research Global Initiative Articles & Key Findings Recommendations Free Materials Links ...

271

Acid rain options  

SciTech Connect

A number of contributions made to a series of seminars on acid rain options held by the Air Pollution Control Association are presented. They include statements on US and Canadian policy and legislation, and views from coal producers, electric utilities and motor vehicle manufacturers on measures to counteract or prevent the effects of acid rain.

Perhac, R.M.

1985-03-01

272

Azelaic Acid Topical  

MedlinePLUS

Finacea® Gel ... Azelaic acid gel is used to clear the bumps, lesions, and swelling caused by rosacea (a skin disease that causes redness, ... Azelaic acid comes as a gel and a cream to apply to the skin. It is usually applied twice a day, in the morning and the evening. ...

273

EFFECTS OF ACID PRECIPITATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent reviews of available data indicate that precipitation in a large region of North America is highly acidic when its pH is compared with the expected pH value of 5.65 for pure rain water in equilibrium with CO2. A growing body of evidence suggests that acid rain is responsib...

274

(Acid rain workshop)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traveler presented a paper entitled Susceptibility of Asian Ecosystems to Soil-Mediated Acid Rain Damage'' at the Second Workshop on Acid Rain in Asia. The workshop was organized by the Asian Institute of Technology (Bangkok, Thailand), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, Illinois), and Resource Management Associates (Madison, Wisconsin) and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the United Nations Environment

1990-01-01

275

Acid in water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Plants and animals that live in water create some amount of acid in the water. The carbon dioxide that plants and animals release into the water makes the water acidic and unsafe for living organisms. This is why the water of captive aquatic animals and plants must be changed often.

Laszlo Ilyes (None;)

2007-05-16

276

Amino acids: Analytical aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This workshop was organized as a direct response to concerns and queries raised by laboratory personnel, both in Europe and in the United States, about the imminent withdrawal of Beckman Coulter from the amino acid analysis market. The topics covered included external quality control schemes, standard operating procedures for amino acid analysis and instrumentation, both from a user's perspective and

P. D. Mayne; G. Roche; D. Deverell

2001-01-01

277

EXPOSURES TO ACIDIC AEROSOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Ambient monitoring of acid aerosol in four U.S. cities and in a rural region of southern Ontario clearly show distinct periods of strong acidity. easurements made in Kingston, TN, and Stuebenville, OH, resulted in 24-hr H+ ion concentrations exceeding 100 nmole/m3 more than 10 ti...

278

Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl acids  

EPA Science Inventory

The Perfluoroalkyl acids(PFAAs) area a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perflurinated carbon backbone (4-12in length) and a acidic functional moiety (Carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds have excellent surface-tension reducing properties and have numerous industr...

279

Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl Acids*  

EPA Science Inventory

The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perfluorinated carbon backbone (4-12 in length) and an acidic functional moiety (carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds are chemically stable, have excellent surface-tension reducing properties...

280

Fats and fatty acids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The absolute fat requirement of the human species is the amount of essential fatty acids needed to maintain optimal fatty acid composition of all tissues and normal eicosanoid synthesis. At most, this requirement is no more than about 5% of an adequate energy intake. However, fat accounts for appro...

281

Metabolism of Acid Mucopolysaccharides  

PubMed Central

The biosynthesis of the acid mucopolysaccharides, hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfuric acid, occurs by way of uridine nucleotides which contain the monosaccharide units of the respective polysaccharides. The mechanism of alternation of groups is as yet unknown. Certain of the acid mucopolysaccharides are covalently bound to protein by way of serine. In the case of the protein-polysaccharide complex of cartilage, there is evidence to suggest that the polysaccharide may be linked to the serine by way of galactose. Chondroitin sulfuric acid B may be isolated almost free of amino acids from the tissues and urine of patients with the Hurler syndrome without the use of proteolytic enzymes, acid, or alkali. This contrasts markedly with the tight binding of this compound to protein in normal tissue. It is suggested that the metabolic defect in this disease may reside in a defect of the peptide or linkage of the peptide to polysaccharide resulting in failure of the acid mucopolysaccharide to be fixed normally in connective tissue. Such a defect may result in interference with normal regulation of polysaccharide synthesis with a resultant increased synthesis. It is proposed that such a mechanism may obtain in other heritable connective tissue diseases as well as other storage diseases.

Dorfman, Albert

1964-01-01

282

Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

Sims, Paul A.

2011-01-01

283

Gelatinization with formic acid.  

PubMed

1. A study has been made of the gelatins obtained by treating a number of fresh and fossil collagens with dilute formic acid. 2. Compositions of their peptides separated by filtration through polyacrylamide gels has been established. 3. Solubilization results in the freeing of much aspartic acid and less glycine, the amounts being determined for the collagens investigated. PMID:318457

Wyckoff, R W; Davidson, F D

1979-01-01

284

Silicic acid: boric acid complexes as wood preservatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood was treated with a low molecular-weight silicic acid: boric acid agent and examined for increased resistance to termites and combustion. Wood treated with silicic acid only exhibited increased termite resistance, but not to the marked extent observed after treatment with a mixture of silicic and boric acids. Increasing the quantity of boric acid also increased the termite mortality rate

Haruhiko Yamaguchi

2003-01-01

285

Docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid in infant development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Docosahaxaenoic acid and arachidonic acid are highly concentrated in the central nervous system. The amount of these fatty acids in the central nervous system increases dramatically during the last intrauterine trimester and the first year of life. A central question of research conducted during the past 20 years is if the essential fatty acid precursor of docosahexaenoic acid is sufficient

Susan E. Carlson

2001-01-01

286

Acid rain trends summarized  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the northeastern United States, the acidity of precipitation has changed little in recent years, although the acidity is increasing in other regions. That's the latest word from a comprehensive review by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of more than 200 published reports of acid rain research from the past 30 years. The report contributes to the controversy over whether increased sulfur emissions from Midwest powerplants increase the acidity of precipitation in the Northeast.“When the results of the many individual studies are combined, they show that acidification of precipitation in the Northeast, which has the most damaging level of acidity on a regional basis, occurred primarily before the mid-1950's and has been largely stabilized since the mid-1960s,” said John T. Turk, a research hydrologist at the USGS Denver office and author of the 18-page summary report.

287

Energy and acid rain  

SciTech Connect

Acid rain is one of the foremost environmental issues of the 1980s and will be of continuining importance to energy policy for several reasons. First, the pollutants that cause acid rain are projected to increase through the end of the century as the demand for energy grows and as coal replaces oil. Second, many of the effects of acid rain are cumulative, so that even at current levels of emissions the problem is expected to intensify and to spread geographically. Third, the transport of air pollutants across state and national boundaries has raised fundamental issues of equity that are likely to be disputed for some time. Finally, any serious program for reducing acid rain will exert a profound influence on the future development of energy supplies. This review summarizes the causes, effects, and transport of acid rain, and discusses possible strategies for mitigating the problem.

Gould, R.R.

1984-01-01

288

Acid Rain Revisited  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The results of a long term study of the effects of acidic deposition in the Northeast were published in Bioscience this week, and they suggest that forests, lakes, and streams of the Northeastern US are not recovering from the toxic effects of acid rain despite significant cuts in the power plant emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide -- two major contributors to the problem. "Acid rain," more accurately called acidic deposition, causes toxic forms of aluminum to concentrate in soil and water, vital calcium and magnesium to be leached from trees, and surface waters to become inhospitable to aquatic biota. The study showed that, after 30 years of federally mandated air emission reductions, sulfur dioxide emissions have decreased while nitrogen oxide emissions have remained the same and that acidic deposition-related problems continue to plague New York and New England.

Sanders, Hilary C.

2001-01-01

289

Fatty Acid Production from Amino Acids and ?-Keto Acids by Brevibacterium linens BL2†  

PubMed Central

Low concentrations of branched-chain fatty acids, such as isobutyric and isovaleric acids, develop during the ripening of hard cheeses and contribute to the beneficial flavor profile. Catabolism of amino acids, such as branched-chain amino acids, by bacteria via aminotransferase reactions and ?-keto acids is one mechanism to generate these flavorful compounds; however, metabolism of ?-keto acids to flavor-associated compounds is controversial. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of Brevibacterium linens BL2 to produce fatty acids from amino acids and ?-keto acids and determine the occurrence of the likely genes in the draft genome sequence. BL2 catabolized amino acids to fatty acids only under carbohydrate starvation conditions. The primary fatty acid end products from leucine were isovaleric acid, acetic acid, and propionic acid. In contrast, logarithmic-phase cells of BL2 produced fatty acids from ?-keto acids only. BL2 also converted ?-keto acids to branched-chain fatty acids after carbohydrate starvation was achieved. At least 100 genes are potentially involved in five different metabolic pathways. The genome of B. linens ATCC 9174 contained these genes for production and degradation of fatty acids. These data indicate that brevibacteria have the ability to produce fatty acids from amino and ?-keto acids and that carbon metabolism is important in regulating this event.

Ganesan, Balasubramanian; Seefeldt, Kimberly; Weimer, Bart C.

2004-01-01

290

Airborne haloacetic acids.  

PubMed

Haloacetic acid (HAA) concentrations were measured in air samples from a semi-rural and a highly urbanized site in southern Ontario throughout 2000 to investigate their sources and gas-particle partitioning behavior. Denuders were efficient for collection of gaseous HAAs, and the particle phase was collected on a downstream quartz filter with negligible breakthrough. Total HAA concentrations (i.e., gas + particles) ranged between <0.025 and 19 ng m(-3) for individual HAAs at both sites. The dominant airborne HAA was monochloroacetic acid (MCA), followed in decreasing order by dichloroacetic acid (DCA), trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), and trichloroacetic acid (TCA). Difluoroacetic acid (DFA), monofluoroacetic acid (MFA), and chlorodifluoroacetic acid (CDFA) were also frequently detected at lower concentrations. Between sites, TFA, DFA, MFA, and TCA concentrations were significantly higher in Toronto, while CDFA concentrations were higher in Guelph. HAAs were primarily in the gas phase all year; however, during colder months, particle-phase HAA concentrations increased relative to the gas phase. Trichloroacetic acid had the highest particle fraction (phi) for all detected HAAs, with a mean phi of 0.51 and 0.56 for Guelph and Toronto, respectively, and both vapor pressure and acid strength appeared to influence gas-particle partitioning. Temporal trends at both sites were partially explained by temperature, short-wave radiation, and particle mass (PM10), leading to indications of the respective sources. A simple deposition model indicated that dry deposition of TFA and TCA should not be neglected in temperate mid-latitude environments and that precipitation concentrations can be successfully predicted by the Henry's law constant. PMID:12875391

Martin, Jonathan W; Mabury, Scott A; Wong, Charles S; Noventa, Francis; Solomon, Keith R; Alaee, Mehran; Muir, Derek C G

2003-07-01

291

Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals in the U.S. Population: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004 and Comparisons with NHANES 1999-2000  

PubMed Central

Background Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) have been used since the 1950s in numerous commercial applications. Exposure of the general U.S. population to PFCs is widespread. Since 2002, the manufacturing practices for PFCs in the United States have changed considerably. Objectives We aimed to assess exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and eight other PFCs in a representative 2003–2004 sample of the general U.S. population ? 12 years of age and to determine whether serum concentrations have changed since the 1999–2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods By using automated solid-phase extraction coupled to isotope dilution–high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, we analyzed 2,094 serum samples collected from NHANES 2003–2004 participants. Results We detected PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, and PFNA in > 98% of the samples. Concentrations differed by race/ethnicity and sex. Geometric mean concentrations were significantly lower (approximately 32% for PFOS, 25% for PFOA, 10% for PFHxS) and higher (100%, PFNA) than the concentrations reported in NHANES 1999–2000 (p < 0.001). Conclusions In the general U.S. population in 2003–2004, PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, and PFNA serum concentrations were measurable in each demographic population group studied. Geometric mean concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, and PFHxS in 2003–2004 were lower than in 1999–2000. The apparent reductions in concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, and PFHxS most likely are related to discontinuation in 2002 of industrial production by electrochemical fluorination of PFOS and related perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride compounds.

Calafat, Antonia M.; Wong, Lee-Yang; Kuklenyik, Zsuzsanna; Reidy, John A.; Needham, Larry L.

2007-01-01

292

Temporal trends of perfluoroalkyl contaminants in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from two locations in the North American Arctic, 1972-2002.  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl substances are globally distributed anthropogenic contaminants. Their production and use have increased dramatically from the early 1980s. While many recent publications have reported concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAs) in biotic and abiotic samples, only limited work has addressed temporal trends. In this study we analyzed archived polar bear(Ursus maritimus) livertissue samples from two geographic locations in the North American Arctic, collected from 1972 to 2002. The eastern group, taken from the vicinity of northern Baffin Island, Canada, comprised 31 samples, and the western group, from the vicinity of Barrow, Alaska, comprised 27 samples. Samples were analyzed for perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) from carbon chain length C8 to C15, perfluorohexane sulfonate, PFOS, the neutral precursor perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), as well as 8:2 and 10:2 fluorotelomer acids and their alpha,beta unsaturated acid counterparts. Concentrations of PFOS and PFCAs with carbon chain lengths from C9 to C11 showed an exponential increase between 1972 and 2002 at both locations. Doubling times ranged from 3.6 +/- 0.9 years for perfluorononanoic acid in the eastern group to 13.1 +/- 4.0 years for PFOS in the western group. PFOSA showed decreasing concentrations over time at both locations, while the remaining PFAs showed no significant trends or were not detected in any sample. The doubling time for PFOS was similar to the doubling time of production of perfluoroctylsulfonyl-fluoride-based products during the 1990s. PMID:16572767

Smithwick, Marla; Norstrom, Ross J; Mabury, Scott A; Solomon, Keith; Evans, Thomas J; Stirling, Ian; Taylor, Mitch K; Muir, Derek C G

2006-02-15

293

Glycidyl Esters of Aromatic Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction of substituted benzoic acids, dicarboxylic acids such as phthalic, terephthalic, and isophthalic acids, and the sodium or potassium salts of these acids with equimolar or excess epichlorohydrin in the presence of benzyltrimethylammonium chloride has been studied using various solvents such as toluene, dioxane, monochlorobenzene, and tetrachloroethylene. Use of the free carboxylic acids gave only fair to low yields

Yoshio Tanaka; Hiroshi Kakiuchi

1967-01-01

294

Strongly Acidic Auxin Indole-3-Methanesulfonic Acid  

PubMed Central

A radiochemical synthesis is described for [14C]indole-3-methanesulfonic acid (IMS), a strongly acidic auxin analog. Techniques were developed for fractionation and purification of IMS using normal and reverse phase chromatography. In addition, the utility of both Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry for analysis of IMS has been demonstrated. IMS was shown to be an active auxin, stimulating soybean hypocotyl elongation, bean first internode curvature, and ethylene production. IMS uptake by thin sections of soybean hypocotyl was essentially independent of solution pH and, when applied at a 100 micromolar concentration, IMS exhibited a basipetal polarity in its transport in both corn coleoptile and soybean hypocotyl sections. [14C]IMS should, therefore, be a useful compound to study fundamental processes related to the movement of auxins in plant tissues and organelles.

Cohen, Jerry D.; Baldi, Bruce G.; Bialek, Krystyna

1985-01-01

295

Antioxidant activity of caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid) is among the major hydroxycinnamic acids present in wine; sinapic acid, which is a potent antioxidant. It has also been identified as one of the active antioxidant. In the present study, the antioxidant properties of the caffeic acid were evaluated by using different in vitro antioxidant assays such as 2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free

?lhami Gülçin

2006-01-01

296

Ceric acid decontamination of nuclear reactors  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a composition, it consists of water; about 0.5 to about 3% by weight of a ceric acid selected from the group consisting of tetrasulfato ceric acid, hexasulfamato ceric acid, hexaperchlorato ceric acid, and mixtures thereof; and about 1 to about 5% by weight of an inorganic acid. The inorganic acid is sulfuric acid when the ceric acid is tetrasulfato ceric acid, sulfamic acid when the ceric acid is hexasulfamato ceric acid, perchloric acid when the ceric acid is a mixture selected from the group consisting of tetrasulfato ceric acid, hexasulfamato ceric acid, and hexaperchlorato ceric acid.

Murray, A.P; Slater, C.G.; White, R.W.

1989-11-14

297

Acid rain agreement  

SciTech Connect

Scientific working groups from Canada and the US have been established to prepare for acid rain negotiations scheduled for June 1981. The groups will take air samples and estimate impact of acid rain on the environment, determine the precise origin of acid rain, and develop a strategy for abatement. Some constraints on the negotiations are costs (potentially $400-500 million for Canada and 5 to 8 times that for the US between now and 2000), the relative independence of Canada's provinces, and the US utility lobby.

Smith, R.J.

1980-08-22

298

Citric acid production.  

PubMed

Citric acid is a commodity chemical produced and consumed throughout The World. It is used mainly in the food and beverage industry, primarily as an acidulant. Although it is one of the oldest industrial fermentations, its World production is still in rapid increasing. Global production of citric acid in 2007 was over 1.6 million tones. Biochemistry of citric acid fermentation, various microbial strains, as well as various substrates, technological processes and product recovery are presented. World production and economics aspects of this strategically product of bulk biotechnology are discussed. PMID:17875481

Berovic, Marin; Legisa, Matic

2007-01-01

299

WASTE ACID DETOXIFICATION AND RECLAMATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) project demonstrated the Waste Acid Detoxification and Reclamation (WADR) systems ability to recover waste electropolish acid solutions generated during the manufacturing of gun-tubes, and reuse the clean acid. ...

300

Atmospheric chemistry: Natural atmospheric acidity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formic acid exerts a significant influence on atmospheric chemistry and rainwater acidity. Satellite observations and model simulations suggest that terrestrial vegetation accounts for around 90% of the formic acid produced annually.

Millet, Dylan B.

2012-01-01

301

Hydroxy-Conjugated Fatty Acids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention relates to a method of producing hydroxy-conjugated octadecadienoic acid from linoleic acid contained in vegetable oils and soap stocks from alkali-refined vegetable oils. Linoleic acid soaps are dispersed in an aqueous medium containing di...

E. A. Emkeu

1973-01-01

302

Acid Hydrolysis of Wood.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of investigations into the acid hydrolysis of pinus radiata (Monterey pine) and the results therefrom are described. Main objectives of the investigation were to establish, using the most promising routes, the conditions of hydrolysis that would ...

A. L. Titchener B. K. Guha

1981-01-01

303

Aristolochic Acid: Safety Alert  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Section Contents Menu. Recalls, Outbreaks & Emergencies. Safety Alerts & Advisories. -. Aristolochic Acid: Safety Alert. FDA ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/recalls,%20outbreaks%20&%20emergencies/safetyalertsadvisories

304

Uric acid - blood  

MedlinePLUS

... blood. High levels of uric acid can cause gout or kidney disease. Your doctor may also order ... hyperuricemia) may be due to: Acidosis Alcoholism Diabetes Gout Hypoparathyroidism Lead poisoning Leukemia Nephrolithiasis Polycythemia vera Renal ...

305

Trans fatty acids (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Trans fatty acids are manufactured fats created during a process called hydrogenation, which is aimed at stabilizing polyunsaturated oils to prevent them from becoming rancid and to keep them solid at room temperature. They may ...

306

Nucleic Acids for Computation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nucleic acids have many features that are ideal for molecular computation. Using nucleic acids, we have constructed a full set of molecular logic gates, with modular stem-loop-controlled deoxyribozymes as switches and single-stranded oligonucleotides as inputs and outputs. These gates have been combined to form basic computational circuits, including a half- and a full-adder, and can also be assembled into automata to perform complex computational tasks such as game playing. Our most advanced automaton to-date integrates more than 100 nucleic acid logic gates to play a complete game of tic-tac-toe encompassing 76 possible game plays. Inputs and outputs can also be coupled with upstream and downstream components, such as aptamers, sensors, secondary gate activation, and small-molecule release, indicating the potential for nucleic acid computation in the engineering of autonomous therapeutic and diagnostic molecular devices.

MacDonald, Joanne; Stojanovic, Milan N.

307

Zoledronic Acid Written Request  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... dated April 18, 2006, requesting changes to FDA's August 19, 2002, Written Request for pediatric studies for zoledronic acid, as amended ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess

308

Polymers for acid thickening  

SciTech Connect

Acids, thickened with branched emulsion or suspension polymers of diallyldimethylammonium chloride are useful as oil well drilling and fracturing fluids for stimulating well production and in other applications, such as thickeners for cosmetics, paints, adhesives, textiles and printing inks.

Dixon, K.W.

1980-09-30

309

(Acid rain workshop)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler presented a paper entitled Susceptibility of Asian Ecosystems to Soil-Mediated Acid Rain Damage'' at the Second Workshop on Acid Rain in Asia. The workshop was organized by the Asian Institute of Technology (Bangkok, Thailand), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, Illinois), and Resource Management Associates (Madison, Wisconsin) and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the United Nations Environment Program, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, and the World Bank. Papers presented on the first day discussed how the experience gained with acid rain in North America and Europe might be applied to the Asian situation. Papers describing energy use projections, sulfur emissions, and effects of acid rain in several Asian countries were presented on the second day. The remaining time was allotted to discussion, planning, and writing plans for a future research program.

Turner, R.S.

1990-12-05

310

Acid Precipitation: A Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bibliography contains 3197 references to information on various aspects of acid precipitation that have been included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base through February 1983. The references cover research reports, journal articles, books...

P. S. Blackburn

1983-01-01

311

Valproic Acid and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... valproic acid and then had a relapse of bipolar disorder during my pregnancy? Recurrence of depression or mania ... 7. Yonkers KA et al. 2004. Management of bipolar disorders during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Am J ...

312

Acid Mine Drainage Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contaminated water flowing from abandoned coal mines is one of the most significant contributors to water pollution in former and current coal- producing areas. Acid mine drainage (AMD) can have severe impacts to aquatic resources, can stunt terrestrial p...

J. Fripp P. F. Ziemkiewicz H. Charkavorki

2000-01-01

313

Acid prehydrolysis of wood  

Treesearch

Acid pretreatment of wood provides significant energy savings during refining ... reduction in specific refiner energy consumption, with a minor sacrifice in brightness. ... The similarity in behavior of these two pretreatments suggests a common ...

314

Acid Lipase Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease, Wolman’s Disease Table of Contents (click to ... include waxes, oils, and cholesterol. Two rare lipid storage diseases are caused by the deficiency of the ...

315

Acid-Base Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Website for anyone wanting to become more familiar with the physiology of acid-base balance in clinical medicine. Several pages are interactive. Numerical results are accompanied by text interpretations to facilitate recognition and understanding.

MD Alan W. Grogono (Tulane University School of Medicine Dept. of Anesthesiology)

2002-06-01

316

Salicylic Acid Topical  

MedlinePLUS

... skin dryness and scaling), dandruff, corns, calluses, and warts on the hands or feet. Topical salicylic acid should not be used to treat genital warts, warts on the face, warts with hair growing ...

317

Folic acid in diet  

MedlinePLUS

... certain types of anemias . Folate works along with vitamin B12 and vitamin C to help the body break ... Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. National Academy Press, ...

318

Perfluorooctane sulfonate-induced changes in fetal rat liver gene expression.  

PubMed

In utero exposure of laboratory rats to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, C(8)F(17)SO(3)(-)), a chemically stable surfactant that is widely disseminated in the environment and present in serum samples from wildlife and humans, is associated with decreased neonatal survival, and growth deficits as well as hepatomegaly. This hepatomegaly in newborn rats exposed to PFOS in utero resembles that observed in adults and is characterized by peroxisome proliferation and decreased liver triglycerides, both of which are suspected to be manifested through PPARalpha-mediated transcriptional regulation. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether these changes in metabolic status are a reflection of transcriptional changes in fetal rat liver using global gene expression array analyses. Gravid Sprague-Dawley rats were administered 3mg/kg PFOS by gavage daily from gestational day 2-20 and terminated on day 21. Although there was no treatment-related frank terata, there was a substantial effect of PFOS on the perinatal hepatic transcriptome-225 unique transcripts were identified as statistically increased and 220 decreased by PFOS exposure; few transcripts were changed by more than two-fold. Although the PPARalpha transcript (Ppara) itself was not affected, there was a significant increase in expression of gene transcripts associated with hepatic peroxisomal proliferation as well as those responsible for fatty acid activation, transport and oxidation pathways (both mitochondrial and peroxisomal). Additional metabolic pathways altered by in utero PFOS exposure were a stimulation of fetal hepatic fatty acid biosynthesis and a net reduction of Cyp7a1 transcript, which is required for bile acid synthesis. There were minimal effects on the expression of thyroid-related gene transcripts. In conclusion, gene expression analysis provides strong evidence indicating transcriptional control of the altered metabolic status of neonates following PFOS exposure in utero, much of which appears to be under the influence of a functional perinatal PPARalpha regulatory pathway. PMID:18692542

Bjork, James A; Lau, Christopher; Chang, Sue C; Butenhoff, John L; Wallace, Kendall B

2008-06-28

319

Perfluorinated Compounds in Umbilical Cord Blood and Adverse Birth Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background Previous animal studies have shown that perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have adverse impacts on birth outcomes, but the results have been inconclusive in humans. We investigated associations between prenatal exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctyl sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUA) and birth outcomes. Methods In total, 429 mother-infant pairs were recruited from the Taiwan Birth Panel Study (TBPS). Demographic data were obtained by interviewing mothers using a structured questionnaire and birth outcomes were extracted from medical records. Cord blood was collected for PFOA, PFOS, PFNA, and PFUA analysis by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Results The geometric mean (standard deviation) levels of PFOA, PFOS, PFNA, and PFUA in cord blood plasma were 1.84 (2.23), 5.94 (1.95), 2.36(4.74), and 10.26 (3.07) ng/mL, respectively. Only PFOS levels were found to be inversely associated with gestational age, birth weight, and head circumference [per ln unit: adjusted ? (95% confidence interval, CI)?=??0.37 (?0.60, ?0.13) wks, ?110.2 (?176.0, ?44.5) gm and ?0.25 (?0.46, ?0.05) cm]. Additionally, the odds ratio of preterm birth, low birth weight, and small for gestational age increased with PFOS exposure [per ln unit: adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95%CI)?=?2.45 (1.47, 4.08), 2.61(0.85, 8.03) and 2.27 (1.25, 4.15)]. When PFOS levels were divided into quartiles, a dose-response relation was observed. However, PFOA, PFNA, and PFUA were not observed to have any convincing impact on birth outcomes. Conclusions An adverse dose-dependent association was observed between prenatal PFOS exposure and birth outcomes. However, no associations were found for the other examined PFCs.

Chen, Mei-Huei; Ha, Eun-Hee; Wen, Ting-Wen; Su, Yi-Ning; Lien, Guang-Wen; Chen, Chia-Yang; Chen, Pau-Chung; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun

2012-01-01

320

Nucleic Acids for Computation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Nucleic acids have many features that are ideal for molecular computation. Using nucleic acids, we have constructed a full\\u000a set of molecular logic gates, with modular stem-loop-controlled deoxyribozymes as switches and single-stranded oligonucleotides\\u000a as inputs and outputs. These gates have been combined to form basic computational circuits, including a half- and a full-adder,\\u000a and can also be assembled into automata

Joanne MacDonald; Milan N. Stojanovic

2009-01-01

321

Biodegradation of polyhydroxyalkanoic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stimulated by the commercial availability of bacteriologically produced polyesters such as poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid], and encouraged by the discovery of new constituents of polyhydroxyalkanoic acids (PHA), a considerable\\u000a body of knowledge on the metabolism of PHA in microorganisms has accumulated. The objective of this essay is to give an overview\\u000a on the biodegradation of PHA. The following topics are discussed: (i)

D. Jendrossek; A. Schirmer; H. G. Schlegel

1996-01-01

322

Acids of pomegranate peel  

Microsoft Academic Search

the substance were identical with those of ellagic acid. On the basis of the results of a determination of the maximum intensities of the spots (SF-4a at 440 nm) revealed with a 1% solution of iron ammonium alum, it was established that the peel contains0.55% of ellagic acid on the air-dry raw material. The ethereal extract was evaporated to dryness

E. P. Nosacheva; Yu. B. Kerimov; T. N. Bikbulatova

1973-01-01

323

Nucleic acid detection method  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method of detecting a target nucleotide sequence in a nucleic acid molecule, which comprises: (a) binding of an oligonucleotide probe to said nucleic acid molecule; (b) selective labelling of the bound oligonucleotide probe in the presence of said target nucleotide sequence; (c) hybridization of the labelled oligonucleotide to a complementary sequence; and (d) subsequent detection of the label; such methods being suitable for qualitative and quantitative assays of microbiological populations.

Rudi; Knut (Oslo, NO); Jakobsen; Kjetill Sigurd (Olso, NO)

2003-09-09

324

Acid Rain Lesson Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Five articulated lessons focus on air quality using classroom and field data collection activities. Case study in Great Smoky Mountains has broader application. Background and data for lessons on: the pH scale, understanding acid vs. base, collecting data, mapping relationship of weather events to acid rain. Links to NPS data on air quality, current values, atlas and reports, packaged datasets on ozone, meteorological conditions and other parameters. Also available: teacher resources; educator workshops.

325

Molecular Structure of Gallic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gallic acid is found in its free state and combined with the tannin molecule, from which it can be extracted by the hydrolysis of tannic acid with sulfuric acid. Since one molecule of gallic acid has a carboxylic acid group and hydroxyl groups, it can react with another molecule of gallic acid to form an ester, digallic acid. When heated above 200 degrees C, gallic acid loses carbon dioxide to form pyrogallol (1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene, C6H3(OH)3), which is used in the production of azo dyes, photographic developers, and in laboratories for absorbing oxygen.

2003-05-08

326

Portable nucleic acid thermocyclers.  

PubMed

A nucleic acid thermal cycler is considered to be portable if it is under ten pounds, easily carried by one individual, and battery powered. Nucleic acid amplification includes both polymerase chain reaction (e.g. PCR, RT-PCR) and isothermal amplification (e.g. RPA, HDA, LAMP, NASBA, RCA, ICAN, SMART, SDA). There are valuable applications for portable nucleic acid thermocyclers in fields that include clinical diagnostics, biothreat detection, and veterinary testing. A system that is portable allows for the distributed detection of targets at the point of care and a reduction of the time from sample to answer. The designer of a portable nucleic acid thermocycler must carefully consider both thermal control and the detection of amplification. In addition to thermal control and detection, the designer may consider the integration of a sample preparation subsystem with the nucleic acid thermocycler. There are a variety of technologies that can achieve accurate thermal control and the detection of nucleic acid amplification. Important evaluation criteria for each technology include maturity, power requirements, cost, sensitivity, speed, and manufacturability. Ultimately the needs of a particular market will lead to user requirements that drive the decision between available technologies. PMID:24030680

Almassian, David R; Cockrell, Lisa M; Nelson, William M

2013-10-21

327

Acidification and Acid Rain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air pollution by acids has been known as a problem for centuries (Ducros, 1845; Smith, 1872; Camuffo, 1992; Brimblecombe, 1992). Only in the mid-1900s did it become clear that it was a problem for more than just industrially developed areas, and that precipitation quality can affect aquatic resources ( Gorham, 1955). The last three decades of the twentieth century saw tremendous progress in the documentation of the chemistry of the atmosphere, precipitation, and the systems impacted by acid atmospheric deposition. Chronic acidification of ecosystems results in chemical changes to soil and to surface waters and groundwater as a result of reduction of base cation supply or an increase in acid (H+) supply, or both. The most fundamental changes during chronic acidification are an increase in exchangeable H+ or Al3+ (aluminum) in soils, an increase in H+ activity (˜concentration) in water in contact with soil, and a decrease in alkalinity in waters draining watersheds. Water draining from the soil is acidified and has a lower pH (=-log [H+]). As systems acidify, their biotic community changes.Acidic surface waters occur in many parts of the world as a consequence of natural processes and also due to atmospheric deposition of strong acid (e.g., Canada, Jeffries et al. (1986); the United Kingdom, Evans and Monteith (2001); Sweden, Swedish Environmental Protection Board (1986); Finland, Forsius et al. (1990); Norway, Henriksen et al. (1988a); and the United States (USA), Brakke et al. (1988)). Concern over acidification in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere has been driven by the potential for accelerating natural acidification by pollution of the atmosphere with acidic or acidifying compounds. Atmospheric pollution ( Figure 1) has resulted in an increased flux of acid to and through ecosystems. Depending on the ability of an ecosystem to neutralize the increased flux of acidity, acidification may increase only imperceptibly or be accelerated at a rate that endangers the existing biota. Concerns about acid (or acidic) rain in its modern sense were publicized by the Swedish soil scientist Svante Odén (1968). He argued, initially in the Swedish press, that long-term increases in the atmospheric deposition of acid could lower the pH of surface waters, cause a decline in fish stocks, deplete soils of nutrients, and accelerate damage to materials. By the 1970s, acidification of surface waters was reported in many countries in Europe as well as in North America. The late twentieth-century rush to understand the impact of acid rain was driven by: (i) reports of damaged or threatened freshwater fisheries and (ii) damaged forests. Perhaps the earliest linkage between acidic surface water and damage to fish was made by Dahl (1921) in southern Norway. There, spring runoff was sufficiently acidic to kill trout. It was not until the 1970s that a strong link was established between depressed pH, mobilization of aluminum from soil, and fish status ( Schofield and Trojnar,1980). The relationship between acidification of soils and forest health started with hypotheses in the 1960s and has slowly developed. Acid rain enhances the availability of some nutrients (e.g., nitrogen), and may either enhance or diminish the availability of others (e.g., calcium, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus). Damage to anthropogenic structures, human health, and visibility have also raised concerns. The history of these early developments was summarized by Cowling (1982). Since the 1970s, sulfur and nitrogen emissions to the atmosphere have been reduced by 50-85% and 0-30%, respectively, both in North America and Europe. The emission reductions have occurred as a consequence of knowledge gained and economic factors. While recovery of water quality is underway in some areas, problems of acidification persist, and are now complicated by the effects of climate change ( Schindler, 1997).

Norton, S. A.; Veselã½, J.

2003-12-01

328

Nitric acid-formic acid compatibility in DWPF  

SciTech Connect

The addition of the Nitric Acid Flowsheet to the DWPF feed preparation process introduces nitric acid into a vessel which will subsequently receive a formic acid solution. The combination of these two acids suggests that a denitration reaction might occur. This memorandum reviews the conditions under which a denitration reaction is possible and compares these conditions to DWPF operating conditions.

Eibling, R.E.

1992-10-20

329

Export of Acidity in Drainage Water from Acid Sulphate Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disturbed acid sulphate soils are potent sources of acidity in coastal waterways. Monitoring studies of the drainage water for sites at East Trinity, Cairns and Pimpama, south-east Queensland indicate that considerable acidity is found in the drainage water from these sites. Hydrogen (H+), ferrous (Fe2+) and aluminium (Al) ions are the dominant acid cations involved. When drainage water is mixed

F. J Cook; W Hicks; E. A Gardner; G. D Carlin; D. W Froggatt

2000-01-01

330

CONVERSION OF OLEIC ACID TO BRANCHED-CHAIN FATTY ACIDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Oleic acid and linoleic acid are the most abundant fatty acids of cottonseed oil. As part of a project to develop new value-added industrial applications for cottonseed oil (such as biodiesel, fuel additives, and lubricants), studies were conducted in the synthetic conversion of oleic acid to branc...

331

Kidney amino acid transport.  

PubMed

Near complete reabsorption of filtered amino acids is a main specialized transport function of the kidney proximal tubule. This evolutionary conserved task is carried out by a subset of luminal and basolateral transporters that together form the transcellular amino acid transport machinery similar to that of small intestine. A number of other amino acid transporters expressed in the basolateral membrane of proximal kidney tubule cells subserve either specialized metabolic functions, such as the production of ammonium, or are part of the cellular housekeeping equipment. A new finding is that the luminal Na(+)-dependent neutral amino acid transporters of the SLC6 family require an associated protein for their surface expression as shown for the Hartnup transporter B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) and suggested for the L: -proline transporter SIT1 (IMINO(B), SLC6A20) and for B(0)AT3 (XT2, SLC6A18). This accessory subunit called collectrin (TMEM27) is homologous to the transmembrane anchor region of the renin-angiotensin system enzyme ACE2 that we have shown to function in small intestine as associated subunit of the luminal SLC6 transporters B(0)AT1 and SIT1. Some mutations of B(0)AT1 differentially interact with these accessory subunits, providing an explanation for differential intestinal phenotypes among Hartnup patients. The basolateral efflux of numerous amino acids from kidney tubular cells is mediated by heteromeric amino acid transporters that function as obligatory exchangers. Thus, other transporters within the same membrane need to mediate the net efflux of exchange substrates, controlling thereby the net basolateral amino transport and thus the intracellular amino acid concentration. PMID:19184091

Verrey, François; Singer, Dustin; Ramadan, Tamara; Vuille-dit-Bille, Raphael N; Mariotta, Luca; Camargo, Simone M R

2009-01-28

332

Transformation of some hydroxy amino acids to other amino acids.  

PubMed

It has been observed that beta-hydroxy-alpha-amino acids are transformed into other amino acids, when heated in dilute solutions with phosphorous acid, phosphoric acid or their ammonium salts. It has been shown that as in the case of previously reported glycine-aldehyde reactions, glycine also reacts with acetone to give beta-hydroxyvaline under prebiologically feasible conditions. It is suggested, therefore, that the formation of beta-hydroxy-alpha-amino acids and their transformation to other amino acids may have been a pathway for the synthesis of amino acids under primitive earth conditions. PMID:1208100

Choughuley, A S; Subbaraman, A S; Kazi, Z A; Chadha, M S

1975-10-01

333

Adsorption of humic acid on acid-activated Greek bentonite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of humic acid on bentonite from Milos Island (Greece) acid-treated with dilute H2SO4 solutions over a concentration range between 0.25 and 13M has been studied. Bentonite activated with 3M sulfuric acid (AAS) showed a higher efficiency in removing humic acid from aqueous solutions and was selected for further investigation. The specific surface area of acid-activated bentonite was estimated

Danae Doulia; Ch. Leodopoulos; K. Gimouhopoulos; F. Rigas

2009-01-01

334

Analysis of Bile Acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bile acids constitute a large family of steroids in vertebrates, normally formed from cholesterol and carrying a carboxyl group in a side-chain of variable length. Bile alcohols, also formed from cholesterol, have similar structures as bile acids, except for the absence of a carboxyl group in the steroid skeleton. The conversion of cholesterol to bile acids and/or bile alcohols is of major importance for maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis, both from quantitative and regulatory points of view (Chiang, 2004; Kalaany and Mangelsdorf, 2006; Moore, Kato, Xie, et al., 2006; Scotti, Gilardi, Godio, et al., 2007). Appropriately conjugated bile acids and bile alcohols (also referred to as bile salts) are secreted in bile and serve vital functions in the absorption of lipids and lipid-soluble compounds (Hofmann, 2007). Reliable analytical methods are required for studies of the functions and pathophysiological importance of the variety of bile acids and bile alcohols present in living organisms. When combined with genetic and proteomic studies, analysis of these small molecules (in today's terminology: metabolomics, steroidomics, sterolomics, cholanoidomics, etc.) will lead to a deeper understanding of the integrated metabolic processes in lipid metabolism.

Sjövall, Jan; Griffiths, William J.; Setchell, Kenneth D. R.; Mano, Nariyasu; Goto, Junichi

335

Optical high acidity sensor  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber. 10 figs.

Jorgensen, B.S.; Nekimken, H.L.; Carey, W.P.; O`Rourke, P.E.

1997-07-22

336

78 FR 20029 - Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2013-0057; FRL-9381-2] Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic...tolerance for residues of castor oil, polymer with adipic acid, linoleic acid, oleic...ingredient in a pesticide formulation. Advance Polymer Technology submitted a petition to...

2013-04-03

337

Oleanane acid from Myrica cerifera.  

PubMed

From the twigs of Myrica cerifera L. (Myricaceae), a new oleanane triterpenic acid named myrica acid was isolated along with myricalactone and several other known constituents. The structure of the acid was determined as 3beta-hydroxy-1-oxoolean-11,13(18)-dien-28-oic acid on the basis of chemical and spectral evidence. PMID:11045444

Nagai, M; Sakurai, N; Yumoto, N; Nagumo, S; Seo, S

2000-10-01

338

Ursodeoxycholic acid, 7-ketolithocholic acid, and chenodeoxycholic acid are primary bile acids of the nutria (Myocastor coypus).  

PubMed

Because ursodeoxycholic and chenodeoxycholic acids are interconverted in humans via 7-ketolithocholic acid, bile acid metabolism was studied in the nutria (Myocastor coypus), the bile of which is known to contain these three bile acids. Relative concentrations of ursodeoxycholic (37% +/- 20%), 7-ketolithocholic (33% +/- 17%), and chenodeoxycholic (17% +/- 9%) acids in gallbladder bile were unchanged by 5-20 h of complete biliary diversion (n = 7). Injection of either [14C]cholesterol, [14C]ursodeoxycholic, [14C]7-ketolithocholic acid, or a mixture of [7 beta-3H]chenodeoxycholic acid and [14C]chenodeoxycholic acid into bile fistula nutria demonstrated that all three bile acids can be synthesized hepatically from cholesterol, that they are interconverted sparingly (2%-5%) by the liver, but that 7-ketolithocholic acid is an intermediate in the hepatic transformation of chenodeoxycholic acid to ursodeoxycholic acid. An animal that had been fed antibiotics showed an unusually elevated concentration of ursodeoxycholic acid in gallbladder and hepatic bile, suggesting that bacterial transformation of ursodeoxycholic acid in the intestine may be a source of some biliary chenodeoxycholic acid and 7-ketolithocholic acid. PMID:3943698

Tint, G S; Bullock, J; Batta, A K; Shefer, S; Salen, G

1986-03-01

339

Atmospheric Dust and Acid Rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why is acid rain still an environmental problem in Europe and North America despite antipollution reforms? The answer really is blowing in the wind: atmospheric dust. These airborne particles can help neutralize the acids falling on forests, but dust levels are unusually low these days. In the air dust particles can neutralize acid rain. What can we do about acid

Lars O. Hedin; Gene E. Likens

1996-01-01

340

BIOSYNTHESIS OF TETRAHYDROFURANYL FATTY ACIDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Clavibacter sp. ALA2 converts linoleic acid into many novel oxygenated products including hydroxy fatty acids and tetrahydrofuranyl unsaturated fatty acids (THFAs). One of them was tentatively identified by GC/MS as 12,13,16-trihydroxy-9(z)-octadecenoic acid (12,13,16-THOA, Hou et al. J Am. Oil Che...

341

Acid rain: a background report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Staff Brief was prepared for the Wisconsin Legislative Council's Special Committee on Acid Rain to provide an introduction to the issue of acid rain. It is divided into four parts. Part I provides an overview on the controversies surrounding the measurement, formation and effects of acid rain. As described in Part I, the term acid rain is used to

L. Glustrom; J. Stolzenberg

1982-01-01

342

Diversity of bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is provided on the diversity of biosynthetic polyhydroxyalkanoic acids, and all hitherto known constituents of these microbial storage compounds are listed. The occurrence of 91 different hydroxyalkanoic acids reflects the low substrate specificity of polyhydroxyalkanoic acid synthases which are the key enzymes of polyhydroxyalkanoic acid biosynthesis. In addition, the importance of bacterial anabolism and catabolism, which provide the

Alexander Steinbüchel; Henry E. Valentin

1995-01-01

343

Method for acidizing siliceous formations  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for treating a subterranean formation surrounding a wellbore which comprises injecting into the formation an aqueous acidizing solution. The aqueous acidizing solution contains hydrofluoric acid and excess fluoride. The excess fluoride is present in an amount greater than the amount of fluoride stoichiometrically required to form hydrofluoric acid, and thereafter fluids are produced from the wellbore.

Lamb, W.J.; Kunze, K.R.

1987-03-10

344

Corrosion inhibitors used in acidizing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of the development of oil well acidizing and acid corrosion inhibitors used by this industry is reviewed. As deeper and hotter wells were drilled, stimulation acids were exposed to hotter conditions and the organic inhibitors required intensifiers. High-temperature acid corrosion inhibitors are also discussed.

Cizek

1994-01-01

345

Perfluorinated acid isomer profiling in water and quantitative assessment of manufacturing source.  

PubMed

A method for isomer profiling of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in water was developed and applied to quantitatively assess the contributions from electrochemical (ECF) and telomer manufacturing processes around source regions of North America, Asia, and Europe. With the exception of 3 sites in Japan, over 80% of total perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, C(7)F(15)COO(-)) was from ECF, with the balance attributable to strictly linear (presumably telomer) manufacturing source(s). Comparing PFOA isomer profiles in samples from China, with PFOA obtained from a local Chinese manufacturer, indicated <3% difference in overall branched isomer content; thus, exclusive contribution from local ECF production cannot be ruled out. In Tokyo Bay, ECF, linear-telomer, and isopropyl-telomer sources contributed to 33%, 53%, and 14% of total PFOA, respectively. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, C(8)F(17)SO(3)(-)) isomer profiles were enriched in branched content (i.e., >50% branched) in the Mississippi River but in all other locations were similar or only slightly enriched in branched content relative to historical ECF PFOS. Isomer profiles of other PFCs are also reported. Overall, these data suggest that, with the exception of Tokyo Bay, ECF manufacturing has contributed to the bulk of contamination around these source regions, but other sources are significant, and remote sites should be monitored. PMID:21058746

Benskin, Jonathan P; Yeung, Leo W Y; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Taniyasu, Sachi; Lam, Paul K S; Martin, Jonathan W

2010-11-09

346

Thiol modified mycolic acids.  

PubMed

Patient serum antibodies to mycolic acids have the potential to be surrogate markers of active tuberculosis (TB) when they can be distinguished from the ubiquitously present cross-reactive antibodies to cholesterol. Mycolic acids are known to interact more strongly with antibodies present in the serum of patients with active TB than in patients with latent TB or no TB. Examples of single stereoisomers of mycolic acids with chain lengths corresponding to major homologues of those present in Mycobacterium tuberculosis have now been synthesised with a sulfur substituent on the terminal position of the ?-chain; initial studies have established that one of these binds to a gold electrode surface, offering the potential to develop second generation sensors for diagnostic patient antibody detection. PMID:23603063

Balogun, Mohammed O; Huws, Enlli H; Sirhan, Muthana M; Saleh, Ahmed D; Al Dulayymi, Juma'a R; Pilcher, Lynne; Verschoor, Jan A; Baird, Mark S

2013-04-18

347

Acid rain in Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acid rain has been an issue of great concern in North America and Europe during the past several decades. However, due to the passage of a number of recent regulations, most notably the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1990, there is an emerging perception that the problem in these Western nations is nearing solution. The situation in the developing world, particularly in Asia, is much bleaker. Given the policies of many Asian nations to achieve levels of development comparable with the industrialized world—which necessitate a significant expansion of energy consumption (most derived from indigenous coal reserves)—the potential for the formation of, and damage from, acid deposition in these developing countries is very high. This article delineates and assesses the emissions patterns, meteorology, physical geology, and biological and cultural resources present in various Asian nations. Based on this analysis and the risk factors to acidification, it is concluded that a number of areas in Asia are currently vulnerable to acid rain. These regions include Japan, North and South Korea, southern China, and the mountainous portions of Southeast Asia and southwestern India. Furthermore, with accelerated development (and its attendant increase in energy use and production of emissions of acid deposition precursors) in many nations of Asia, it is likely that other regions will also be affected by acidification in the near future. Based on the results of this overview, it is clear that acid deposition has significant potential to impact the Asian region. However, empirical evidence is urgently needed to confirm this and to provide early warning of increases in the magnitude and spread of acid deposition and its effects throughout this part of the world.

Bhatti, Neeloo; Streets, David G.; Foell, Wesley K.

1992-07-01

348

Molecular Structure of Citric Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Citric Acid was first isolated in 1734 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele. Citric acid is found in many fruits, in particular lemons, grapefruit, and oranges. Several types of bacteria and fungi are also known to produce citric acid. In fact, the fungus Aspergillus niger produces the vast majority of citric acid, which is used in almost all carbonated sodas. Additionally, citric acid is also used to clean stainless steel.

2002-08-13

349

Eucomic acid methanol monosolvate  

PubMed Central

In the crystal structure of the title compound [systematic name: 2-hy­droxy-2-(4-hy­droxy­benz­yl)butane­dioic acid methanol monosolvate], C11H12O6·CH3OH, the dihedral angles between the planes of the carboxyl groups and the benzene ring are 51.23?(9) and 87.97?(9)°. Inter­molecular O—H?O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions involving the hy­droxy and carb­oxy­lic acid groups and the methanol solvent mol­ecule give a three-dimensional structure.

Li, Guo-Qiang; Li, Yao-Lan; Wang, Guo-Cai; Liang, Zhi-Hong; Jiang, Ren-Wang

2011-01-01

350

Polyvalent Nucleic Acid Nanostructures  

PubMed Central

Polyvalent oligonucleotide-nanoparticle conjugates possess several unique emergent properties including enhanced cellular uptake, high antisense bioactivity, and nuclease resistance, which hypothetically originate from the dense packing and orientation of oligonucleotides on the surface of the nanoparticle. In this communication, we describe a new class of polyvalent nucleic acid nanostructures (PNANs), which comprise only crosslinked and oriented nucleic acids. We demonstrate that these particles are capable of effecting high cellular uptake and gene regulation without the need of a cationic polymer co-carrier. The PNANs also exhibit cooperative binding behavior and nuclease resistance properties.

Cutler, Joshua I.; Zhang, Ke; Zheng, Dan; Auyeung, Evelyn; Prigodich, Andrew E.

2011-01-01

351

Acid rain information clearinghouse  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-one research institutions, environmental organizations, trade associations and government agencies from the United States and Canada are co-sponsoring Acid Rain: The Relationship Between Sources and Receptors, a conference to be held December 3-4, 1986 at the Sheraton National Hotel in Arlington, Virginia. The conference, designed for a nontechnical audience as well as specialists in acid rain research, will cover the nature and scope of scientific understanding and research programs, identify areas of consensus and disagreement, and assess policy options in the light of current understanding. A special session on December 3 will address the legal aspects of source-receptor relationships.

Not Available

1986-11-01

352

Acid rain revisited  

SciTech Connect

This article reviews calculations of the estimates reported in this Newletter in 1983 on the contributions of nitric and sulfuric acids to deposition that may originate with motor vehicles. Previous estimates can now be updated, based on the recently released 1985 emissions inventory that was compiled by the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). This inventory relied in turn on the US Environmental Protection Agency's National emissions Data System (NEDS), the 1985 version of which is the latest containing both point source and area source information in sufficient detail to be useful for this purpose.

Not Available

1990-06-01

353

The second acidic constant of salicylic acid.  

PubMed

The second dissociation constant of salicylic acid (H2L) has been determined, at 25 degrees C, in NaCl ionic media by UV spectrophotometric measurements. The investigated ionic strength values were 0.16, 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 M. The protolysis constants calculated at the different ionic strengths yielded, with the Specific Interaction Theory, the infinite dilution constant, log beta1(0) = 13.62 +/- 0.03, for the equilibrium L2- + H+ <==> HL-. The interaction coefficient between Na+ and L2-, b(Na+, L2-) = 0.02 +/- 0.07, has been also calculated. PMID:16235788

Porto, Raffaella; De Tommaso, Gaetano; Furia, Emilia

354

Perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorochemicals in albatrosses, elephant seals, penguins, and polar skuas from the Southern Ocean.  

PubMed

Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) have been used as surfactants in industrial and commercial products for over 50 years. Earlier studies of the geographical distribution of PFCs focused primarily on the Northern Hemisphere, while little attention was paid to the Southern Hemisphere. In this study, livers from eight species of albatrosses, blood from elephant seal, and blood and eggs from penguins and polar skua collected from the Southern Ocean and the Antarctic during 1995-2005 were analyzed for 10 PFCs. In addition, for comparison with the Southern Ocean samples, we analyzed liver, sera, and eggs from two species of albatrosses from Midway Atoll in the North Pacific Ocean. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were found in livers of albatrosses from the Southern Ocean. PFOS was the major contaminant, although the concentrations were <5 ng/g, wet wt, in 92% of the albatross livers analyzed. PFOA was detected in 30% of the albatross livers, with a concentration range of <0.6-2.45 ng/g,wet wt. Other PFCs, including long-chain perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs), were below the limits of quantitation in livers of albatrosses from the Southern Ocean. In liver, sera, and eggs of albatrosses from the North Pacific Ocean, long-chain PFCAs (perfluorononanoate, perfluorodecanoate, perfluoroundecanoate, and perfluorododecanoate) were found at concentrations similar to those of PFOS and PFOA. The mean concentration of PFOS in livers of Laysan albatrosses from the North Pacific Ocean (5.1 ng/g, wet wt) was higher than that in several species of albatrosses from the Southern Ocean (2.2 ng/g, wetwt). Species-specific differences in the concentrations of PFOS were noted among Southern Ocean albatrosses, whereas geographical differences in PFOS concentrations among the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean, and South Atlantic Ocean were insignificant. Concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were, respectively, 2- and 17-fold higher in liver than in sera of Laysan albatrosses. PFOS was found in the blood of elephant seals from Antarctica at concentrations ranging from <0.08 to 3.52 ng/mL. PFOS was found in eggs (2.1-3.1 ng/g) and blood (<0.24-1.4 ng/ mL) of polar skuas but was not detected in penguins from Antarctica. Our study documents the existence of low but detectable levels of PFOS and PFOA in Southern Hemisphere fauna, suggesting distribution of these compounds on a global scale. PMID:17256507

Tao, Lin; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Costa, Monica M; Fillmann, Gilberto; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke

2006-12-15

355

The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

2012-01-01

356

Acid neutralizing capacity, alkalinity, and acid-base status of natural waters containing organic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The terms acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and alkalinity (Alk) are extensively employed in the characterization of natural waters, including soft circumneutral or acidic waters. However, in the presence of organic acids, ANC measurements are inconsistent with many conceptual definitions of ANC or Alk and do not provide an adequate characterization of the acid-base chemistry of water. Knowledge of Gran ANC

Harold F. Hemond

1990-01-01

357

Oxalic acid excretion after intravenous ascorbic acid administration  

PubMed Central

Ascorbic acid is frequently administered intravenously by alternative health practitioners and, occasionally, by mainstream physicians. Intravenous administration can greatly increase the amount of ascorbic acid that reaches the circulation, potentially increasing the risk of oxalate crystallization in the urinary space. To investigate this possibility, we developed gas chromatography mass spectrometry methodology and sampling and storage procedures for oxalic acid analysis without interference from ascorbic acid and measured urinary oxalic acid excretion in people administered intravenous ascorbic acid in doses ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 g/kg body weight. In vitro oxidation of ascorbic acid to oxalic acid did not occur when urine samples were brought immediately to pH less than 2 and stored at –30°C within 6 hours. Even very high ascorbic acid concentrations did not interfere with the analysis when oxalic acid extraction was carried out at pH 1. As measured during and over the 6 hours after ascorbic acid infusions, urinary oxalic acid excretion increased with increasing doses, reaching approximately 80 mg at a dose of approximately 100 g. We conclude that, when studied using correct procedures for sample handling, storage, and analysis, less than 0.5% of a very large intravenous dose of ascorbic acid is recovered as urinary oxalic acid in people with normal renal function.

Robitaille, Line; Mamer, Orval A.; Miller, Wilson H.; Levine, Mark; Assouline, Sarit; Melnychuk, David; Rousseau, Caroline; Hoffer, L. John

2012-01-01

358

Prediction of effective acid penetration and acid volume for matrix acidizing treatments in naturally fractured carbonates  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses a new method and a corresponding computer model developed to investigate matrix acidizing in naturally fractured carbonates. With this method, the effective acid penetration distance and acid volume needed for acid treatments in naturally fractured carbonates can be predicted. The new model simulates acid flowing in the natural fracture network and the acid/rock reaction. During the simulation, the model considers the influence of formation temperature, reaction heat, and common ion effect on acid penetration. A set of graphs showing the relationship between acid penetration and the acid volume needed in different formations was developed from numerical simulation results. From these plots, the acid volume that should be used to remove the formation damage can be determined easily when the formation temperature and the damage radius are known or can be estimated.

Xiong, H. (S.A. Holditch and Associates, Inc., College Station, TX (United States))

1994-08-01

359

[Studies on interaction of acid-treated nanotube titanic acid and amino acids].  

PubMed

Nanotube titanic acid (NTA) has distinct optical and electrical character, and has photocatalysis character. In accordance with these qualities, NTA was treated with acid so as to enhance its surface activity. Surface structures and surface groups of acid-treated NTA were characterized and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The interaction between acid-treated NTA and amino acids was investigated. Analysis results showed that the lengths of acid-treated NTA became obviously shorter. The diameters of nanotube bundles did not change obviously with acid-treating. Meanwhile, the surface of acid-treated NTA was cross-linked with carboxyl or esterfunction. In addition, acid-treated NTA can catch amino acid residues easily, and then form close combination. PMID:20649031

Zhang, Huqin; Chen, Xuemei; Jin, Zhensheng; Liao, Guangxi; Wu, Xiaoming; Du, Jianqiang; Cao, Xiang

2010-06-01

360

Alkyl phosphonic acids and sulfonic acids in the Murchison meteorite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Homologous series of alkyl phosphonic acids and alkyl sulfonic acids, along with inorganic orthophosphate and sulfate, are identified in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite after conversion to their t-butyl dimethylsilyl derivatives. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl compounds are observed in both series. Five of the eight possible alkyl phosphonic acids and seven of the eight possible alkyl sulfonic acids through C4 are identified. Abundances decrease with increasing carbon number as observed of other homologous series indigenous to Murchison. Concentrations range downward from approximately 380 nmol/gram in the alkyl sulfonic acid series, and from 9 nmol/gram in the alkyl phosphonic acid series.

Cooper, George W.; Onwo, Wilfred M.; Cronin, John R.

1992-11-01

361

Lysergic Acid Diethylamide: Radioimmunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radioimmunoassay for d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is described. Antibodies to LSD were obtained by immunizing rabbits with a conjugate of LSD and human serum albumin. The specificity of the antibody was shown by competitive binding studies. The method has been used to detect the presence of LSD in human urines. Picogram amounts can be measured by this assay.

Alison Taunton-Rigby; Stephanie E. Sher; Paul R. Kelley

1973-01-01

362

Acidification and Acid Rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution by acids has been known as a problem for centuries (Ducros, 1845; Smith, 1872; Camuffo, 1992; Brimblecombe, 1992). Only in the mid-1900s did it become clear that it was a problem for more than just industrially developed areas, and that precipitation quality can affect aquatic resources ( Gorham, 1955). The last three decades of the twentieth century saw

S. A. Norton

2003-01-01

363

Basically Acidic Ink  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students hypothesize whether vinegar and ammonia-based glass cleaner are acids or bases. They create designs on index cards using these substances as invisible inks. After the index cards have dried, they apply red cabbage juice as an indicator to reveal the designs.

University Of Houston

364

Beyond acid rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discussed the effects of the interactions of soluble oxidants and organic toxins with sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. It suggested that these chemical reactions in the atmosphere produced a more potent acid rain which was harmful not only because it had a low pH but because it contained oxidants and organic toxins which were harmful to surface vegetation

J. S. Gaffney; G. E. Streit; W. D. Spall; J. H. Hall

1987-01-01

365

Gallic acid pyridine monosolvate  

PubMed Central

In the title compound (systenatic name: 3,4,5-trihy­droxy­benzoic acid pyridine monosolvate), C5H5N·C7H6O5, the gallic acid mol­ecule is essentially planar (r.m.s deviation = 0.0766?Å for non-H atoms) and is linked to the pyridine mol­ecule by an O—H?N hydrogen bond. An intra­molecular O—H?O hydrogen bond occurs in the gallic acid mol­ecule. The gallic acid and pyridine mean planes make a dihedral angle 12.6?(3)°. Inter­molecular O—H?O and O—H?N hydrogen bonding involving the hy­droxy and carboxyl groups and the pyridine mol­ecule, and ?–? inter­actions between inversion-related pyridines [centroid–centroid distance = 3.459?(6)?Å] and between pyridine and benzene rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.548?(6)?Å], lead to a three-dimensional network in the crystal.

Dong, Fu-Yue; Wu, Jie; Tian, Hai-Yan; Ye, Qing-Mei; Jiang, Ren-Wang

2011-01-01

366

Federal Acid Rain Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Federal environmental policy, designed to control acid rain, is shaped after the hierarchy of the system, and is controlled simultaneously by regional and central governments. Each governmental level controls one of two policy instruments: pollution abatement production and pollution tax. In a two-stage game where regional governments are Stackelberg leaders and control pollution taxes, the subgame perfect equilibrium is socially

Arthur J. Caplan; Emilson C. D. Silva

1999-01-01

367

Acid rain bibliography  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography identifies 900 citations on various aspects of Acid Rain, covering published bibliographies, books, reports, conference and symposium proceedings, audio visual materials, pamphlets and newsletters. It includes five sections: citations index (complete record of author, title, source, order number); KWIC index; title index; author index; and source index. 900 references.

Sayers, C.S.

1983-09-01

368

Acid rain in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain has been an issue of great concern in North America and Europe during the past several decades. However, due to the passage of a number of recent regulations, most notably the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1990, there is an emerging perception that the problem in these Western nations is nearing solution. The situation in

N. Bhatti; D. G. Streets; W. K. Foell

2009-01-01

369

Acid rain in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain has been an issue of widespread concern in North America and Europe for more than fifteen years. However, there is an emerging feeling that the problem in Europe and North America is nearing solution, largely as a result of existing and newly enacted legislation, decreased energy use due to conservation and efficiency improvements, and\\/or trends in energy policy

N. Bhatti; D. G. Streets; W. K. Foell

1991-01-01

370

Immunostimulatory Nucleic Acid Molecules.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nucleic acids containing unmethylated CpG dinucleotides and therapeutic utilities based on their ability to stimulate an immune response and to redirect a Th2 response to a Th1 response in a subject are disclosed. Methods for treating atopic diseases, inc...

A. D. Steinberg A. M. Krieg D. Klinman J. Kline

2005-01-01

371

Optimize acid gas removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Innovative design of physical solvent plants for acid gas removal can materially reduce both installation and operating costs. A review of the design considerations for one physical solvent process (Selexol) points to numerous arrangements for potential improvement. These are evaluated for a specific case in four combinations that identify an optimum for the case in question but, more importantly, illustrate

D. M. Nicholas; J. T. Wilkins

1983-01-01

372

Fumaric acid esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several clinical studies have shown that systemic therapy with fumaric acid esters (FAEs) in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis is effective and has a good long-term safety profile. For therapeutic use, tablets with a defined mixture of FAEs (dimethylfumarate [DMF] and three different salts of monoethylfumarate) are registered in Germany. There is evidence that DMF is the most essential

Martin Rostami Yazdi; Ulrich Mrowietz

2008-01-01

373

Water surface is acidic  

PubMed Central

Water autoionization reaction 2H2O ? H3O? + OH? is a textbook process of basic importance, resulting in pH = 7 for pure water. However, pH of pure water surface is shown to be significantly lower, the reduction being caused by proton stabilization at the surface. The evidence presented here includes ab initio and classical molecular dynamics simulations of water slabs with solvated H3O+ and OH? ions, density functional studies of (H2O)48H+ clusters, and spectroscopic isotopic-exchange data for D2O substitutional impurities at the surface and in the interior of ice nanocrystals. Because H3O+ does, but OH? does not, display preference for surface sites, the H2O surface is predicted to be acidic with pH < 4.8. For similar reasons, the strength of some weak acids, such as carbonic acid, is expected to increase at the surface. Enhanced surface acidity can have a significant impact on aqueous surface chemistry, e.g., in the atmosphere.

Buch, Victoria; Milet, Anne; Vacha, Robert; Jungwirth, Pavel; Devlin, J. Paul

2007-01-01

374

Acid Mine Drainage Remediation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video, an environmental technologist visits an abandoned coal mine in Kentucky to talk about how a remediation system (a series of settling ponds and treatment cells) is neutralizing the acid drainage flowing from the mine and keeping it from damaging a creek downstream.

Ket

2011-01-11

375

Spermatotoxicity of dichloroacetic acid  

EPA Science Inventory

The testicular toxicity of dichloroacetic acid (DCA), a disinfection byproduct of drinking water, was evaluated in adult male rats given both single and multiple (up to 14 d) oral doses. Delayed spermiation and altered resorption of residual bodies were observed in rats given sin...

376

Bile acid coenzyme A: amino acid N-acyltransferase in the amino acid conjugation of bile acids.  

PubMed

Bile acids are converted to their glycine and taurine N-acyl amidates by enzymes in the liver in a two-step process. This increases their aqueous solubility, particularly in the acidic environment of the upper part of the small intestine. Bile acid coenzyme A (CoA) thioesters synthesized by bile acid CoA ligase (see Shonsey et al., 2005) are substrates of bile acid CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferases (BAT) in the formation of bile acid N-acyl amidates. This chapter describes the methods used to purify BAT from human liver, to isolate and clone cDNAs encoding BAT from human, mouse, and rat liver cDNA libraries, the expression of BAT, the assays used to measure BAT activity, and the chemical syntheses of bile acid N-acylamidates. In addition, an enzyme that catalyzes further metabolism of glycine-conjugated bile acids is described. PMID:16399361

Shonsey, Erin M; Sfakianos, Mindan; Johnson, Michelle; He, Dongning; Falany, Charles N; Falany, Josie; Merkler, David J; Barnes, Stephen

2005-01-01

377

Tranexamic acid and thrombosis.  

PubMed

Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic drug. It therefore reduces bleeding but, in certain situations, it may expose patients to a risk of thrombosis. It is used for the treatment of various types of bleeding, including menorrhagia, haematuria, certain surgical procedures and trauma. Its harm-benefit balance is favourable in certain situations associated with serious bleeding.The harm-benefit balance is different in minor bleeding: the expected benefits are smaller because the condition is not serious, and the risk of thromboembolism may be higher without the haemodilution associated with severe bleeding. Various drug regulatory agencies have received reports of thrombotic events attributed to tranexamic acid. In a case-control study using data from the British General Practice Research Database, women taking tranexamic acid had a 3-fold higher risk of developing deep vein thrombosis. There was a wide 95% confidence interval, ranging from 0.7 to 15.8; thus, a major increase in the risk of thrombosis cannot be ruled out. Only one comparative randomised trial assessed thrombotic events in 53 women receiving tranexamic acid for menorrhagia; too few patients were studied to determine the risk. Clinical trials conducted in serious haemorrhage or in patients undergoing surgery with a high risk of bleeding have not shown an increased risk of thrombosis with tranexamic acid. In practice, as of early 2013, the harm-benefit balance of tranexamic acidis favourable in severe traumatic bleeding. But when bleeding is not life-threatening, the thrombotic risk is too poorly documented to justify exposing patients to a plausible and inadequately evaluated risk. PMID:23951593

2013-07-01

378

Specific bile acids inhibit hepatic fatty acid uptake  

PubMed Central

Bile acids are known to play important roles as detergents in the absorption of hydrophobic nutrients and as signaling molecules in the regulation of metabolism. Here we tested the novel hypothesis that naturally occurring bile acids interfere with protein-mediated hepatic long chain free fatty acid (LCFA) uptake. To this end stable cell lines expressing fatty acid transporters as well as primary hepatocytes from mouse and human livers were incubated with primary and secondary bile acids to determine their effects on LCFA uptake rates. We identified ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA) as the two most potent inhibitors of the liver-specific fatty acid transport protein 5 (FATP5). Both UDCA and DCA were able to inhibit LCFA uptake by primary hepatocytes in a FATP5-dependent manner. Subsequently, mice were treated with these secondary bile acids in vivo to assess their ability to inhibit diet-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Administration of DCA in vivo via injection or as part of a high-fat diet significantly inhibited hepatic fatty acid uptake and reduced liver triglycerides by more than 50%. In summary, the data demonstrate a novel role for specific bile acids, and the secondary bile acid DCA in particular, in the regulation of hepatic LCFA uptake. The results illuminate a previously unappreciated means by which specific bile acids, such as UDCA and DCA, can impact hepatic triglyceride metabolism and may lead to novel approaches to combat obesity-associated fatty liver disease.

Nie, Biao; Park, Hyo Min; Kazantzis, Melissa; Lin, Min; Henkin, Amy; Ng, Stephanie; Song, Sujin; Chen, Yuli; Tran, Heather; Lai, Robin; Her, Chris; Maher, Jacquelyn J.; Forman, Barry M.; Stahl, Andreas

2012-01-01

379

Effects of acidic precipitation and acidity on soil microbial processes  

SciTech Connect

Effects of oil acidity on microbial decomposition of organic matter and transformation of nitrogen in an acid forest soil were investigated. In the oak-leaf-amended pH-adjusted acid soils, CO/sub 2/ production in 14- and 150-day preincubated samples decreased by about 6 and 37%, respectively. In the control (unamended) acidified soils, reductions in CO/sub 2/ production of 14% in 14-day preincubated samples and 52% in 150-day samples were observed. Ammonia formation in the pH-adjusted acid soil was about 50% less than in the naturally acid soil. Increased rates of ammonification and nitrification were observed in the pH-adjusted neutral soil. Little autotrophic and heterotrophic nitrifying activity was detected in naturally acid and acidified forest soils. The rate of denitrification was rather slow in acid soils, and at greater acidities N/sub 2/O was the predominant end product. The abundance of nitrogen-fixing free-living bacteria was very low in acidic and acidified forest soils, and nitrogen gains by asymbiotic bacterial fixation in an acid forest ecosystem may be insignificant. These results suggest that further acidification of acid forest soils by addition of sulfuric acid or by acid precipitation may lead to significant reductions in the leaf litter decomposition, ammonification, nitrification, and denitrification and thus reduce nutrient recycling in the forest ecosystem.

Francis, A.J.

1981-01-01

380

Measurement of ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid in biological samples.  

PubMed

Ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid are commonly used biomarkers of oxidative stress in a variety of experimental models. However, the accurate measurement of these labile compounds remains a challenge both in terms of sample collection and analysis. Determination of dehydroascorbic acid most commonly involves indirect measurement. The concentration is calculated by subtraction of the measured ascorbic acid concentration from that of total ascorbic acid analyzed after reduction of the dehydroascorbic acid present; a method referred to as the subtraction method. Consequently, successful determination of dehydroascorbic acid is dependent upon proper sample handling, quantitative reduction of the compound, and accurate quantification of both ascorbic acid and total ascorbic acid. The unit presents a detailed introduction to ascorbate analysis in biological samples and discusses common problems and pitfalls. The analytical method described is based on reversed-phase HPLC with coloumetric detection. This method includes co-analysis of isoascorbic acid and uric acid. Where applicable, uric acid can conveniently be used as an endogenous intrasample standard that significantly improves the accuracy of the subsequent dehydroascorbic acid calculation. PMID:20954159

Lykkesfeldt, Jens

2002-08-01

381

Radioenzymatic assay for quinolinic acid  

SciTech Connect

A new and rapid method for the determination of the excitotoxic tryptophan metabolite quinolinic acid is based on its enzymatic conversion to nicotinic acid mononucleotide and, in a second step utilizing (/sup 3/H)ATP, further to (/sup 3/H) deamido-NAD. Specificity of the assay is assured by using a highly purified preparation of the specific quinolinic acid-catabolizing enzyme, quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase, in the initial step. The limit of sensitivity was found to be 2.5 pmol of quinolinic acid, sufficient to conveniently determine quinolinic acid levels in small volumes of human urine and blood plasma.

Foster, A.C.; Okuno, E.; Brougher, D.S.; Schwarcz, R.

1986-10-01

382

Linoleic acid requirement of rats fed trans fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of linoleic acid required to prevent undesirable effects of C18trans fatty acids was investigated. In a first experiment, six groups of rats were fed diets with a high content oftrans fatty acids (20% of energy [en%]), and increasing amounts of linoleic acid (0.4 to 7.1 en%). In a second experiment, four\\u000a groups of rats were fed diets designed

J. L. Zevenbergen; U. M. T. Houtsmuller; J. J. Gottenbos

1988-01-01

383

Do trans Fatty Acids Impair Linoleic Acid Metabolism in Children?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trans isomeric fatty acids disturb themetabolism of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in animals and in premature infants. We assessed whether similar effects may also occur in healthy children. Plasma phospholipid fatty acid composition was analysed in 53 apparently healthy children aged 1-15 years (mean 7.5 years). Trans fatty acids were found in all samples and contributed 1.78 ± 0.10% (w\\/w,

Tamås Decsi; Berthold Koletzko

1995-01-01

384

Thiobarbituric Acid Spray Reagent for Deoxy Sugars and Sialic Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

RECENTLY, new sensitive assays have been reported for deoxy sugars1, 2-keto,3-deoxy sugar acids2-4, and sialic acids5,6. In these assays, the products of periodate oxidation, malonaldehyde from deoxy sugars and beta-formylpyruvic acid from the latter two groups of compounds, are coupled with 2-thiobarbituric acid to produce a bright red chromophore. I wish to report an adaptation of these methods for spraying

Leonard Warren

1960-01-01

385

Effect of phenolic acids on glucose and organic acid metabolism by lactic acid bacteria from wine.  

PubMed

The influence of phenolic (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, gallic and protocatechuic) acids on glucose and organic acid metabolism by two strains of wine lactic acid bacteria (Oenococcus oeni VF and Lactobacillus hilgardii 5) was investigated. Cultures were grown in modified MRS medium supplemented with different phenolic acids. Cellular growth was monitored and metabolite concentrations were determined by HPLC-RI. Despite the strong inhibitory effect of most tested phenolic acids on the growth of O. oeni VF, the malolactic activity of this strain was not considerably affected by these compounds. While less affected in its growth, the capacity of L. hilgardii 5 to degrade malic acid was clearly diminished. Except for gallic acid, the addition of phenolic acids delayed the metabolism of glucose and citric acid in both strains tested. It was also found that the presence of hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic) increased the yield of lactic and acetic acid production from glucose by O. oeni VF and not by L. hilgardii 5. The results show that important oenological characteristics of wine lactic acid bacteria, such as the malolactic activity and the production of volatile organic acids, may be differently affected by the presence of phenolic acids, depending on the bacterial species or strain. PMID:19376463

Campos, Francisco M; Figueiredo, Ana R; Hogg, Tim A; Couto, José A

2009-02-07

386

A Variation in Acid-Catalyzed Isomerization of Abietadienoic Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heating the individual common abietadienoic acid methyl esters with p-toluene sulfonic acid in chloroform led to the formation of methyl abietadienoates other than the equilibrium mixture of methyl abietate, palustrate, and neoabietate that is usually formed by acid-catalyzed isomerization. Of these other methyl abietadienoates, the three principal constituents comprised 10%, 4% and 2% of the monomers; these compounds were isolated

Duane F. Zinkel

1991-01-01

387

College Chemistry Students' Mental Models of Acids and Acid Strength  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The central goal of this study was to characterize the mental models of acids and acid strength expressed by advanced college chemistry students when engaged in prediction, explanation, and justification tasks that asked them to rank chemical compounds based on their relative acid strength. For that purpose we completed a qualitative research…

McClary, LaKeisha; Talanquer, Vicente

2011-01-01

388

NAPAP (National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program) results on acid rain  

SciTech Connect

The National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) was mandated by Congress in 1980 to study the effects of acid rain. The results of 10 years of research on the effect of acid deposition and ozone on forests, particularly high elevation spruce and fir, southern pines, eastern hardwoods and western conifers, will be published this year.

Not Available

1990-06-01

389

Acid Earth--The Global Threat of Acid Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Acid pollution is a major international problem, but the debate it has elicited has often clouded the distinction between myth and facts. This publication attempts to concerning the acid pollution situation. This publication attempts to identify available facts. It is the first global review of the problem of acid pollution and the first to…

McCormick, John

390

College Chemistry Students' Mental Models of Acids and Acid Strength  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central goal of this study was to characterize the mental models of acids and acid strength expressed by advanced college chemistry students when engaged in prediction, explanation, and justification tasks that asked them to rank chemical compounds based on their relative acid strength. For that purpose we completed a qualitative research…

McClary, LaKeisha; Talanquer, Vicente

2011-01-01

391

Acid Earth--The Global Threat of Acid Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acid pollution is a major international problem, but the debate it has elicited has often clouded the distinction between myth and facts. This publication attempts to concerning the acid pollution situation. This publication attempts to identify available facts. It is the first global review of the problem of acid pollution and the first to…

McCormick, John

392

Acid rain abatement  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of obtaining acid rain abatement from a flue gas containing nitrogen oxides (NOX) and sulfur oxides (SOX). It comprises the steps of treating the flue gas with a reducing agent to remove the remaining oxygen and produce an effluent, the reducing agent being selected from group consisting of natural gas, methane, a mixture of CO and hydrogen derived from steam, hydrocarbon, and hydrogen, passing effluent over a catalyst to simultaneously reduce the NOX to water and elemental nitrogen and the SOX to H{sub 2}S or elemental sulfur, the catalyst being selected from the group consisting of heteropoly acids and their salts, the reduction of the NOX and SOX taking place in a temperature range of 200{degrees} - 900{degrees} C., and removing the sulfur or sulfur compounds from the reduced flue gas to thereby remove essentially all of the NOX and SOX.

Stiles, A.B.

1991-06-11

393

Weak Acid Equilibrium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are asked to calculate the pH of a weak acid aqueous solution. The problems involve a series of generic acids with assigned equilibrium constants (Ka) and total concentrations (Ct). Initially, students are required to hand calculate all problems by algebraic manipulation of the mathematical relationships of the system. The solution is a cubic equation. Through a series of assumptions, the solution is simplified. The assumptions are based on the chemistry of the system given the Ka and Ct for the problem. The problems are then graphically solved. Ultimately, the students develop an Excel worksheet to solve the problems and a Bjerrum plot to display the speciation as a function of pH.

Stapleton, Michael

394

(Radioiodinated free fatty acids)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler participated in the Second International Workshop on Radioiodinated Free Fatty Acids in Amsterdam, The Netherlands where he presented an invited paper describing the pioneering work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving the design, development and testing of new radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids for evaluation of heart disease. He also chaired a technical session on the testing of new agents in various in vitro and in vivo systems. He also visited the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, West Germany, to review, discuss, plan and coordinate collaborative investigations with that institution. In addition, he visited the Cyclotron Research Center in Liege, Belgium, to discuss continuing collaborative studies with the Osmium-191/Iridium-191m radionuclide generator system, and to complete manuscripts and plan future studies.

Knapp, Jr., F. F.

1987-12-11

395

Molecular Structure of Glutaric acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Glutaric acid is a colorless liquid and white crystals as a solid occurring in plants and animal tissues. It is used in organic synthesis and as an intermediate for the manufacture of polymers such as polyamides and polyesters, ester plasticizers and corrosion inhibitors. It is also useful in the application of decreasing polymer elasticity and in a variety of industrial applications. In addition glutaric acid plays an important role as an intermediary in the Krebs cycle and is used in medication against a large number of viruses and in animal diabetes. Glutaric acid can be prepared from cyclopentanone by oxidative ring fission with nitric acid and in the presence of a catalyst. Glutaric acid has the lowest melting point among dicarboxylic acids (98 C); it is very soluble in water and the solution in water is a medium strong acid. Short-term exposure to glutaric acid may cause irritation to the eyes, skin and the respiratory tract.

2004-11-10

396

Mycolic Acids of Mycobacterium porcinum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The type strain of Mycobacterium porcinum had a characteristic pattern of a-, a'-, and epoxymycolic acids. This pattern of mycolic acids has been found previously only in representatives of M. farcinogenes, M. fortuitum, \\

M. LUQUIN; L. MARGARIT; M. J. CONDOM; V. AUSINA

1987-01-01

397

Omega-3 fatty acids (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

398

Crosslinked acid gels offer advantages  

SciTech Connect

Acid polymer gels having a pH less than one have been crosslinked for retarding the chemical and physical activity of hydrochloric acid on calcareous formations. Hydrochloric acid concentrations from /one quarter/% to 28% have been successfully crosslinked. This unique stimulation fluid offers high viscosity with adequate shear stability, perfect support for propants, and clay stabilization. Additionally, the fluid provided effective fluid loss control and retardation of acid reaction enabling live acid to penetrate deeper into the formation for better conductivity; furthermore, there is practically a residue free break for rapid cleanup of the well after the job. Results of lab and field tests show this new acid crosslinked system to be an effective stimulation fluid for acidizing and acid fracturing in calcareous and sandstone formations having low permeability. 5 refs.

Pabley, A.S.; Holcomb, D.L.

1981-09-28

399

Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

KLM Technologies' personnel have identified a Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS) utilizing reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration to produce a recyclable grade of otherwise waste boric acid at PWRs, thus reducing a major source of low-level radwaste. The d...

B. G. Kniazewycz J. Markind

1986-01-01

400

Ideas about Acids and Alkalis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigates students' ideas, conceptions, and misconceptions about acids and alkalis before and after a teaching sequence in a small-scale research project. Concludes that student understanding of acids and alkalis is lacking. (DDR)|

Toplis, Rob

1998-01-01

401

Biopolymers: Protein and Nucleic Acids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The work focuses on learning the principles that govern interactions between proteins and nucleic acids. With these principles as guides we are synthesizing peptides (of about 50 amino acids) that bind to specific regions of DNA. Various reactive function...

J. H. Richards J. N. Abelson L. E. Hood M. I. Simon J. L. Campbell

1987-01-01

402

Acid rain options modeled  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results from new computer models that could allow policymakers to compare different strategies for controlling acid rain will be presented at the AGU Spring Meeting in Baltimore, Md., May 18-21, 1987. The optimization models, developed by scientists from the Johns Hopkins University (Baltimore, Md.), are set up so that competing goals—for instance, reducing the deposition of sulfur without wiping out the high-sulfur coal industry— can be taken into account.

Katzoff, Judith A.

403

Acid rain in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain has been an issue of great concern in North America and Europe during the past several decades. However, due to\\u000a the passage of a number of recent regulations, most notably the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1990, there is an emerging\\u000a perception that the problem in these Western nations is nearing solution. The situation in

Neeloo Bhatti; David G. Streets; Wesley K. Foell

1992-01-01

404

Lna (Locked Nucleic Acid)  

Microsoft Academic Search

LNA (Locked Nucleic Acid) forms duplexes with complementary DNA, RNA or LNA with unprecedented thermal affinities. CD spectra show that duplexes involving fully modified LNA (especially LNA:RNA) structurally resemble an A-form RNA:RNA duplex. NMR examination of an LNA:DNA duplex confirm the 3?-endo conformation of an LNA monomer. Recognition of double-stranded DNA is demonstrated suggesting strand invasion by LNA. Lipofectin-mediated efficient

Jesper Wengel; Alexei Koshkin; Sanjay K. Singh; Poul Nielsen; Michael Meldgaard; Vivek K. Rajwanshi; Ravindra Kumar; Jan Skouv; Christina B. Nielsen; Jens Peter Jacobsen; Nana Jacobsen; Carl E. Olsen

1999-01-01

405

Acid Rain Effects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners conduct a simple experiment to model and explore the harmful effects of acid rain (vinegar) on living (green leaf and eggshell) and non-living (paper clip) objects. Learners observe the effects over a period of days. This activity has links to other activities which can be combined to make a larger lesson. Resource contains vocabulary definitions and suggestions for assessment, extensions, and scaling for different levels of learners.

Kolenbrander, Amy; Yowell, Janet; Mach, Natalie; Zarske, Malinda S.; Carlson, Denise

2004-01-01

406

Optimize acid gas removal  

SciTech Connect

Innovative design of physical solvent plants for acid gas removal can materially reduce both installation and operating costs. A review of the design considerations for one physical solvent process (Selexol) points to numerous arrangements for potential improvement. These are evaluated for a specific case in four combinations that identify an optimum for the case in question but, more importantly, illustrate the mechanism for use for such optimization elsewhere.

Nicholas, D.M.; Wilkins, J.T.

1983-09-01

407

Grading acid rain research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing concern with the environmental effects of acid rain has spawned a number of study groups in recent years, and now the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) has released what is essentially a study of a study. In January 1982, White House Science Advisor George Keyworth asked William Nierenberg, Director of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, and a panel of nine scientists to conduct a peer review of three separate reports on acid deposition in eastern North America that had been turned in by U.S.-Canadian scientific working groups.Those studies had been requisitioned by a 1980 Memorandum of Intent between the United States and Canada regarding transboundary air pollution. Overall, the Nierenberg peer review panel was “impressed with the efforts of the United States-Canadian Working Groups,” (labeled Groups 1, 2, and 3B), but it also found problems. While applauding the work groups' exhaustive search through the acid rain literature, the Nierenberg panel cited what they call an “overdependence on ‘soft’ literature,” or writings such as in-house reports and personal communications, which are outside the publicly available (and carefully scrutinized) body of scientific literature.

408

Acid rain in Asia  

SciTech Connect

In Asia, fossil fuels are used in large quantities, such that local air pollution is becoming a serious problem and high deposition levels are being measured. Emission regulations in most countries (with the exception of Japan) are not very stringent. Energy plans in many countries call for very large increases in coal combustion in the future. Finally, there is not presently a strong constituency for action to mitigate the potential effects of acid deposition. These factors imply potentially serious problems in the future for long-range transport and deposition of sulfur and nitrogen species and consequent damage to ecosystems and materials. The political ramifications of transboundary environmental pollution in this region are also potentially serious. A predictive tool could be built to help decision makers project future trends in emissions, estimate the regional consequences for acid deposition levels, evaluate the vulnerability of natural and man-made systems, and determine the costs and effectiveness of alternative mitigative actions that might be taken. Such a policy analysis exercise can start to raise environmental awareness in the region and begin a dialogue that could help ameliorate an environmental problem in its early stages. The purpose of this paper is to provide background information on the acid deposition situation in Asia, with the intention of laying the foundation for the design of a possible research program for this region. 41 refs., 10 figs., 9 tabs.

Bhatti, N.; Streets, D.G. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Foell, W.K. (Resource Management Associates, Madison, WI (USA) Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA))

1989-01-01

409

Acid rain in Asia  

SciTech Connect

Acid rain has been an issue of widespread concern in North America and Europe for more than fifteen years. However, there is an emerging feeling that the problem in Europe and North America is nearing solution, largely as a result of existing and newly enacted legislation, decreased energy use due to conservation and efficiency improvements, and/or trends in energy policy away from fossil fuels. The situation in Asia appears much bleaker. Fossil fuels are already used in large quantities, such that local air pollution is becoming a serious problem and high deposition levels are being measured. Emission regulations in most countries (with the notable exception of Japan) are not very stringent. Energy plans in many countries (particularly PRC, India, Thailand, and South Korea) call for very large increases in coal combustion in the future. Finally, there is not presently a strong scientific or public constituency for action to mitigate the potential effects of acid deposition. These factors imply potentially serious problems in the future for long-range transport and deposition of sulfur and nitrogen species and consequent damage to ecosystems and materials. The political ramifications of transboundary environmental pollution in this region are also potentially serious. The purpose of this paper is to provide background information on the acid deposition situation in Asia, with the intention of laying the foundation for the development of a possible research program for this region. 36 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

Bhatti, N.; Streets, D.G. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Foell, W.K. (Resource Management Associates, Madison, WI (USA))

1991-01-01

410

An amino acid transporter involved in gastric acid secretion.  

PubMed

Gastric acid secretion is regulated by a variety of stimuli, in particular histamine and acetyl choline. In addition, dietary factors such as the acute intake of a protein-rich diet and the subsequent increase in serum amino acids can stimulate gastric acid secretion only through partially characterized pathways. Recently, we described in mouse stomach parietal cells the expression of the system L heteromeric amino acid transporter comprised of the LAT2-4F2hc dimer. Here we address the potential role of the system L amino acid transporter in gastric acid secretion by parietal cells in freshly isolated rat gastric glands. RT-PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry confirmed the expression of 4F2-LAT2 amino acid transporters in rat parietal cells. In addition, mRNA was detected for the B(0)AT1, ASCT2, and ATB(0+) amino acid transporters. Intracellular pH measurements in parietal cells showed histamine-induced and omeprazole-sensitive H+-extrusion which was enhanced by about 50% in the presence of glutamine or cysteine (1 mM), two substrates of system L amino acid transporters. BCH, a non-metabolizable substrate and a competitive inhibitor of system L amino acid transport, abolished the stimulation of acid secretion by glutamine or cysteine suggesting that this stimulation required the uptake of amino acids by system L. In the absence of histamine glutamine also stimulated H+-extrusion, whereas glutamate did not. Also, phenylalanine was effective in stimulating H+/K+-ATPase activity. Glutamine did not increase intracellular Ca2+ levels indicating that it did not act via the recently described amino acid modulated Ca2+-sensing receptor. These data suggest a novel role for heterodimeric amino acid transporters and may elucidate a pathway by which protein-rich diets stimulate gastric acid secretion. PMID:16308696

Kirchhoff, Philipp; Dave, Mital H; Remy, Christine; Kosiek, Ortrud; Busque, Stephanie M; Dufner, Matthias; Geibel, John P; Verrey, Francois; Wagner, Carsten A

2005-11-25

411

Molecular Structure of Acetic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acetic Acid commonly associated with vinegar; it is the most commercially important organic acid and is used to manufacture a wide range of chemical products, such as plastics and insecticides. Acetic acid is produced naturally by Aceto bacteria but, except for making vinegar, is usually made through synthetic processes. Ethanoic acid is used as herbicide, as a micro-biocide, as a fungicide and for pH adjustment.

2003-06-02

412

Fatty acid signaling in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Many organisms use fatty acid derivatives as biological regulators. In plants, for example, fatty acid-derived signals have\\u000a established roles in the regulation of developmental and defense gene expression. Growing numbers of these compounds, mostly\\u000a derived from fatty acid hydroperoxides, are being characterized. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana is serving a vital role in the discovery of fatty acid-derived signal

Edward E. Farmer; Hans Weber; Sabine Vollenweider

1998-01-01

413

Molecular Structure of Octanoic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Caprylic acid is a colorless oil manufactured from 1-heptene or 1-octanol. Octanoic acid has an unpleasant rancid taste. When converted from the carboxlic acid to an ester, it has a pleasant taste. In addition, esters of caprylic acid are used in the preparation of dyes, perfumes, and food preservatives. This compound has also been found to have antifungal activity and is used to treat yeast infections.

2002-10-11

414

Acid rain: Reign of controversy  

SciTech Connect

Acid Rain is a primer on the science and politics of acid rain. Several introductory chapters describe in simple terms the relevant principles of water chemistry, soil chemistry, and plant physiology and discuss the demonstrated or postulated effects of acid rain on fresh waters and forests as well as on statuary and other exposed objects. There follow discussions on the economic and social implications of acid rain (for example, possible health effects) and on the sources, transport, and distribution of air pollutants.

Kahan, A.M.

1986-01-01

415

A radioimmunoassay for abscisic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for abscisic acid (ABA) in the 0.1 ng to 2.5 ng range. Antibodies were obtained from rabbits immunized with ABA bound via its carboxyl group to bovine serum albumin. Cross-reactivity studies indicate that ABA esters are completely cross-reactive with ABA, while trans, trans abscisic acid (t-ABA) phaseic acid (PA) and dihydrophaseic acid (DPA) have

Daniel Walton; William Dashek; Eva Galson

1979-01-01

416

Molecular Structure of Trimesic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Trimesic Acid is made up of a benzene ring with three carboxylic groups at the 1, 3, and 5 positions, and it can be synthesized from the oxidation of 1,3,5-trimethyl benzene. The acid is an important building block in crystal engineering which is used to form honeycomb structures, but it has the ability to form diverse supramolecular structures. Also, trimesic acid salt and the free trimesic acid are useful as a plasticizer.

2003-05-08

417

Radioenzymatic assay for quinolinic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new and rapid method for the determination of the excitotoxic tryptophan metabolite quinolinic acid is based on its enzymatic conversion to nicotinic acid mononucleotide and, in a second step utilizing (³H)ATP, further to (³H) deamido-NAD. Specificity of the assay is assured by using a highly purified preparation of the specific quinolinic acid-catabolizing enzyme, quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase, in the initial

A. C. Foster; E. Okuno; D. S. Brougher; R. Schwarcz

1986-01-01

418

Levulinic acid in organic synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data concerning the methods of synthesis, chemical transformations and application of levulinic acid are analysed and generalised. The wide synthetic potential of levulinic acid, particularly as a key compound in the synthesis of various heterocyclic systems, saturated and unsaturated ketones and diketones, difficultly accessible acids and other compounds is demonstrated. The accessibility of levulinic acid from hexose-containing wood-processing and agricultural wastes is noted. The bibliography includes 260 references.

Timokhin, Boris V.; Baransky, V. A.; Eliseeva, G. D.

1999-01-01

419

Determination of Mine Waste Acidity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pollution from acid mine drainage is a chronic problem. The current vigorous interest has led to a re-examination of the methods of measuring total acidity, which are clearly based on the limited laboratory capabilities of prior years. Defined acid-metal ...

B. V. Salotto E. F. Barth M. B. Ettinger W. E. Tolliver

1967-01-01

420

Carboxylic acid sorption regeneration process  

DOEpatents

Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks into an organic liquid phase or onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine thus forming an alkylammonium carboxylate which is dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); Poole, Loree J. (Baton Rouge, LA)

1995-01-01

421

Acidic compounds in biodegraded petroleum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve oil samples have been characterised by titration, FT-IR and chromatographic analysis to determine the differences between the organic acid composition of biodegraded and non-biodegraded oils. The biodegraded oils have higher total acid and total base contents, both by titration and extraction. The molecular weight ranges of the extracted acids are lowest in the biodegraded oils, and the equivalent weight

Tanja Barth; Sylvi Høiland; Per Fotland; Kjell Magne Askvik; Bent Skaare Pedersen; Anna Elisabet Borgund

2004-01-01

422

New politics of acid rain  

SciTech Connect

The acid rain problem is not nationwide across the USA but the politicians want to spread the cost of emission reductions. An overview of acid rain and its environmental impacts is given, and a cost-benefit analysis of acid rain control is outlined. USA policies are discussed. 6 references.

Trisko, E.M.

1983-07-01

423

Synthesis of Acetylsalicylic Acid (Aspirin)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this experiment was to synthesize acetylsalicylic acid via an esterification reaction between salicylic acid and acetic anhydride. The product was recrystallized using 95% ethanol. This percent yield of this synthesized product was 68.4%. Using ethanol again as a recrystallizing solvent, acetylsalicylic acid was also extracted from commercial aspirin tablets. This commercial product did not have a percent

Jamie Yeadon; Leah Monroe

424

Serum Uric Acid in Smokers  

PubMed Central

Objectives To demonstrate the possible effect of smoking on serum uric acid. Methods Subjects enrolled in study were divided into two groups; nonsmokers and smokers, each with 60 male volunteers of the same social class and dietary habit without history of alcohol consumption, diabetes mellitus, hyperuricemia and gout, renal, joint, lung or heart diseases. Fasting blood and random urine samples were obtained from both groups for measurement of uric acid and creatinine. Calculation of both urine uric acid/urine creatinine ratio and fraction excretion of uric acid were done. The results were statistically evaluated by standard statistical methods. Results No significant differences in the age, serum creatinine, spot urine uric acid/urine creatinine ratio and fraction excretion of uric acid between the two groups, serum uric acid was significantly lower in smokers. In smokers there was significant negative correlation of smoking status (average number of cigarette smoked/day, duration of smoking and cumulative amount of smoking) with serum uric acid. Conclusion After exclusion of other factors affecting uric acid level, the significant low serum uric acid level in smokers was attributed to reduce endogenous production as a result of chronic exposure to cigarette smoke that is a significant source of oxidative stress. As this reduction is proportionate with smoking status and predisposes to cardiovascular disease, it is, therefore, recommended for smokers to stop or reduce smoking and introduce serum uric acid estimation as routine test since its cheap and simple to reflect their antioxidant level. Keywords Smokers; Uric acid; CVD.

Hanna, Bassam E.; Hamed, Jamal M.; Touhala, Luma M.

2008-01-01

425

Stimulation with inhibited acidizing fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production and injection wells are stimulated with an inhibited acidizing microemulsion containing hydrocarbon (external phase), surfactant, and acid. The acid is inhibited from reacting with the reservoir rock until it has penetrated the rock face. About 5 to 500 gal of the microemulsion per vertical foot of formation are useful to stimulate the wells. Carbonate reservoirs are particulary suited for

C. T. Presley; R. E. Smith

1974-01-01

426

Bacterial Degradation of Nicotinic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A BACTERIUM utilizing nicotinic acid was isolated from culture media made up of a solution of nicotinic acid and dilute sodium sulphide and inoculated with a small amount of Potomac mud. After allowing the bacteria to grow anaerobically, several successive transfers were made into a medium containing nicotinic acid, peptone, yeast extract, metals, phosphate and sodium sulphide. The mixed bacterial

Isaac Harary

1956-01-01

427

An Umbrella for Acid Rain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Environmental Protection Agency has awarded several grants to study effects of and possible solutions to the problem of "acid rain"; pollution from atmospheric nitric and sulfuric acids. The research program is administered through North Carolina State University at Raleigh and will focus on biological effects of acid rain. (JMF)|

Randal, Judith

1979-01-01

428

Scientists Puzzle Over Acid Rain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports on a growing concern over increased acidity in atmospheric percipitation. Explores possible causes of the increased acidity, identifies chemical components of precipitation in various parts of the world, and presents environmental changes that might be attributed to the acidity. (GS)|

Chemical and Engineering News, 1975

1975-01-01

429

Acid-hydrolysis of fish wastes for lactic acid fermentation.  

PubMed

In this study, two acid-hydrolysis processes, process A and process B, were proposed to produce low-cost nutrients for the production of lactic acid. Process A was a direct way to hydrolyze protein with diluted acid while process B was process A plus fish wastes pretreatment (an extraction by water). The two methods could both treat fish wastes to be suitable nutrient sources for promoting lactic acid production. As the pretreatment indicated some favorable effect on fish waste hydrolyzate (FWH), process B increased lactic acid productivity by 22%. Compared with 20 g/L yeast extract (YE), 6.8% FWH hydrolyzed by process B had more efficiency in lactic acid production, indicating that process B was suitable to produce high performance nutrients for lactic acid production and FWH hydrolyzed by process B would be an substitute for YE. PMID:16293413

Gao, Min-Tian; Hirata, Makoto; Toorisaka, Eiichi; Hano, Tadashi

2005-11-15

430

Caffeic acid derivatives from Eupatorium perfoliatum L.  

PubMed

From the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of a methanol/water extract of the herb Eupatorium perfoliatum L. (Asteraceae) six caffeic acid derivatives have been isolated and identified by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic data. Besides the common quinic acid derivatives 5-caffeoylquinic acid (chlorogenic acid), 3-caffeoylquinic acid (neochlorogenic acid) and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, three up to now unknown depsides of caffeic acid with glucaric acid have been isolated: 2,5-dicaffeoylglucaric acid, 3,4-dicaffeoylglucaric acid, and 2,4- or 3,5-dicaffeoylglucaric acid. PMID:19104484

Maas, Mareike; Petereit, Frank; Hensel, Andreas

2008-12-23

431

Composition for nucleic acid sequencing  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

Korlach, Jonas (Ithaca, NY); Webb, Watt W. (Ithaca, NY); Levene, Michael (Ithaca, NY); Turner, Stephen (Ithaca, NY); Craighead, Harold G. (Ithaca, NY); Foquet, Mathieu (Ithaca, NY)

2008-08-26

432

Degradation of Phthalic Acids and Benzoic Acid from Terephthalic Acid Wastewater by Advanced Oxidation Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terephthalic acid (TPA) wastewater is traditionally being treated by biological method. This study investigates the degradation of three major toxic target organic species, namely terephthalic acid (TPA), isophthalic acid (IPA), benzoic acid (BA), present in the TPA wastewater, by several advanced oxidation processes. The performance of three main oxidation processes such as photofenton oxidation (UV-H2O2-Fe), photocatalytic ozonation (UV-O3-Fe) and photofenton

Ramesh Thiruvenkatachari; Tae Ouk Kwon; Il Shik Moon

2006-01-01

433

The politics of acid rain  

SciTech Connect

This work examines and compares the acid rain policies through the different political systems of Canada, Great Britain and the United States. Because the flow of acid rain can transcend national boundaries, acid rain has become a crucial international problem. According to the author, because of differences in governmental institutions and structure, the extent of governmental intervention in the industrial economy, the degree of reliance on coal for power generation, and the extent of acid rain damage, national responses to the acid rain problem have varied.

Wilcher, M.E. (Pennsylvania State Univ., New Kensington, PA (US))

1989-01-01

434

Tested Demonstrations: Color Oscillations in the Formic Acid-Nitric Acid-Sulfuric Acid System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented are procedures for demonstrating the production of color oscillations when nitric acid is added to a formic acid/concentrated sulfuric acid mixture. Because of safety considerations, "Super-8" home movie of the color changes was found to be satisfactory for demonstration purposes. (JN)|

Raw, C. J. G.; And Others

1983-01-01

435

Some Physical Properties of Binary Liquid Systems: (Ethanoic Acid or Propanoic Acid or Butanoic Acid + Ethanenitrile)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Density, viscosity and surface tension of three binary liquid systems: ethanoic acid + ethanenitrile, propanoic acid + ethanenitrile, butanoic acid + ethanenitrile have been determined at 25, 35 and 45°C, over the whole compositional range. The excess values of molar volume, viscosity, Gibbs free energy for the activation of flow and surface tension were evaluated. The excess values were fitted

R. Ahluwalia; R. K. Wanchoo; J. L. Vashisht

1995-01-01

436

Amino acids in Arctic aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amino acids are significant components of atmospheric aerosols, affecting organic nitrogen input to marine ecosystems, atmospheric radiation balance, and the global water cycle. The wide range of amino acid reactivities suggest that amino acids may serve as markers of atmospheric transport and deposition of particles. Despite this potential, few measurements have been conducted in remote areas to assess amino acid concentrations and potential sources. Polar regions offer a unique opportunity to investigate atmospheric processes and to conduct source apportionment studies of such compounds. In order to better understand the importance of amino acid compounds in the global atmosphere, we determined free amino acids (FAAs) in seventeen size-segregated aerosol samples collected in a polar station in the Svalbard Islands from 19 April until 14 September 2010. We used an HPLC coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS) to analyze 20 amino acids and quantify compounds at fmol m-3 levels. Mean total FAA concentration was 1070 fmol m-3 where serine and glycine were the most abundant compounds in almost all samples and accounted for 45-60% of the total amino acid relative abundance. The other eighteen compounds had average concentrations between 0.3 and 98 fmol m-3. The higher amino acid concentrations were present in the ultrafine aerosol fraction (< 0.49 ?m) and accounted for the majority of the total amino acid content. Local marine sources dominate the boreal summer amino acid concentrations, with the exception of the regional input from Icelandic volcanic emissions.

Scalabrin, E.; Zangrando, R.; Barbaro, E.; Kehrwald, N. M.; Gabrieli, J.; Barbante, C.; Gambaro, A.

2012-11-01

437

Allelopathic interactions involving phenolic acids.  

PubMed

A major concern regarding allelopathic interactions involving phenolic acids in no-till systems pertains to the fact that concentrations of individual phenolic acids recoverable from field soils are well below levels required for inhibition of germination and seedling growth in laboratory bioassays. Field soils contain a variety of phenolic acids as well as other toxic and nontoxic organic compounds that are available to interact with seeds and roots; whereas in laboratory bioassays, with few exceptions, single phenolic acids have been tested. Studies of mixtures of phenolic acids and other toxic (e.g., methionine) and nontoxic (e.g., glucose) organic compounds in laboratory bioassays indicate that the action of a single phenolic acid is not representative of the actions of such mixtures. Specifically, as the number of phenolic acids added to soil increased, concentrations of the individual phenolic acids required to bring about a growth inhibition declined. The addition of other organic compounds (e.g., glucose, methionine) to the soil also reduced the concentration of a phenolic acid (e.g., p-coumaric acid) required for growth inhibition. These results support the hypothesis that in the field mixtures of phenolic acids and other organic compounds can cause inhibitory effects even though the concentrations of individual compounds are well below their inhibitory levels. PMID:19277143

Blum, U

1996-09-01

438

Do we need gastric acid?  

PubMed

Evidence from comparative anatomy and physiology studies indicates that gastric acid secretion developed during the evolution of vertebrates approximately 350 million years ago. The cellular mechanisms that produce gastric acid have been conserved over the millennia and therefore proton pump inhibitors have pharmacological effects in almost all relevant species. These observations suggest that gastric acid provides an important selective advantage; however, in modern-day humans the need for gastric acid can be questioned in light of the widespread use of safe and effective pharmacologic acid suppression. The Kandahar Working Group addressed questions concerning the need, production and effects of gastric acid, specifically: (1) motility in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract; (2) neuroendocrine factors; (3) digestive and mucosal processes; (4) microbiology, and (5) central processes and psychological involvement. We addressed each topic with the individual models available to answer our questions including animal versus human studies, pharmacologic, surgical as well as pathophysiologic states of acid suppression. PMID:18594142

Pohl, D; Fox, M; Fried, M; Göke, B; Prinz, C; Mönnikes, H; Rogler, G; Dauer, M; Keller, J; Lippl, F; Schiefke, I; Seidler, U; Allescher, H D

2008-07-02

439

Molecular Structure of Picric acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Picric Acid was first discovered in 1771 by a British Chemist named Peter Woulfe by treatment of indigo with nitric acid. It is most commonly seen in its yellow, water-soluble, crystalline form. For this reason, picric acid first saw use as a dyeing agent in textiles. However, around 1849 it was discovered (for obvious reasons) that picric acid is a shock, heat, and friction-sensitive explosive. Its first use as an explosive material came in military weaponry: torpedoes in particular due to its shock-sensitive nature not requiring a detonator to explode on contact with a target. However, picric acid was found to be highly corrosive to metals, making the weapons very difficult to handle and the acid itself difficult to store. Today, picric acid is used more widely as an ingredient in the manufacture of inert dyes and stable explosives such as dynamite.

2002-09-23

440

Pathophysiology of uric acid nephrolithiasis.  

PubMed

Humans although a predominantly ureotylic organism, has preserved the ability to excrete nitrogen as uric acid and ammonia. An imbalance between these two secondary modes of nitrogen excretion has resulted in uric acid precipitation in human urine. Uric acid nephrolithiasis can arise from diverse etiologies all with distinct underlying defects converging to one or more of three defects of hyperuricosuria, acidic urine pH, and low urinary volume, originating from secondary, genetic or heretofore undefined (idiopathic) causes. A subset of idiopathic uric acid nephrolithiasis (gouty diathesis) may be the "tip of the icebergp" of a broader systemic illness characterized by insulin resistance. A novel renal manifestation of insulin resistance is a mild defect in ammonium excretion, which is not severe enough to disturb acid-base homeostasis, but is sufficient to set up the chemical milieu for uric acid nephrolithiasis. PMID:12474637

Moe, Orson W; Abate, Nicola; Sakhaee, Khashayar

2002-12-01

441

Molecular Structure of Sorbic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sorbic acid is a colorless or white crystalline powder, with a weak characteristic odor and slightly acidic taste. It may be obtained from berries of the mountain ash or prepared synthetically by condensing crotonaldehyde and malonic acid in pyridine solution. Sorbic acid is a polyunsaturated fat used to inhibit molds and yeast, is a fungistatic agent for foods (especially cheeses, wine and baked goods). The main use of sorbic acid is as a preservative in foods, animal feeds, tobacco, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, as well in packing materials for these substances and in other products that come in contact with human or animal skin in some way. Sorbic acid is also used as an intermediate for plasticizers and lubricants. Sorbic acid reacts with potassium to make potassium sorbate and with calcium to make calcium sorbate.

2004-11-11

442

Mycophenolic Acid in Silage  

PubMed Central

We examined 233 silage samples and found that molds were present in 206 samples with counts between 1 × 103 and 8.9 × 107 (mean, 4.7 × 106) CFU/g. Mycophenolic acid, a metabolite of Penicillium roqueforti, was detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in 74 (32%) of these samples at levels ranging from 20 to 35,000 (mean, 1,400) ?g/kg. This compound has well-known immunosuppressive properties, so feeding with contaminated silage may promote the development of infectious diseases in livestock.

Schneweis, Isabell; Meyer, Karsten; Hormansdorfer, Stefan; Bauer, Johann

2000-01-01

443

Cytenamide acetic acid solvate  

PubMed Central

In the crystal structure of the title compound (systematic name: 5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclo­hepta­triene-5-carboxamide ethanoic acid solvate), C16H13NO·C2H4O2, the cytenamide and solvent mol­ecules form a hydrogen-bonded R 2 2(8) dimer motif, which is further connected to form a centrosymmetric double ring motif arrangement. The cycloheptene ring adopts a boat conformation and the dihedral angle between the least-squares planes through the two aromatic rings is 54.7?(2)°.

Johnston, Andrea; Florence, Alastair J.; Fabianni, Francesca J. A.; Shankland, Kenneth; Bedford, Colin T.

2008-01-01

444

Cytenamide acetic acid solvate.  

PubMed

IN THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE TITLE COMPOUND (SYSTEMATIC NAME: 5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclo-hepta-triene-5-carboxamide ethanoic acid solvate), C(16)H(13)NO·C(2)H(4)O(2), the cytenamide and solvent mol-ecules form a hydrogen-bonded R(2) (2)(8) dimer motif, which is further connected to form a centrosymmetric double ring motif arrangement. The cycloheptene ring adopts a boat conformation and the dihedral angle between the least-squares planes through the two aromatic rings is 54.7?(2)°. PMID:21202682

Johnston, Andrea; Florence, Alastair J; Fabianni, Francesca J A; Shankland, Kenneth; Bedford, Colin T

2008-05-30

445

Synthesis of amino acids  

DOEpatents

A method is described for synthesizing amino acids preceding through novel intermediates of the formulas: R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(OSOC1)CN, R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(C1)CN and (R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(CN)O)/sub 2/SO wherein R/sub 1/ and R/sub 2/ are each selected from hydrogen and monovalent hydrocarbon radicals of 1 to 10 carbon atoms. The use of these intermediates allows the synthesis steps to be exothermic and results in an overall synthesis method which is faster than the synthesis methods of the prior art.

Davis, J.W. Jr.

1979-09-21

446

Beyond acid rain  

SciTech Connect

This paper discussed the effects of the interactions of soluble oxidants and organic toxins with sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. It suggested that these chemical reactions in the atmosphere produced a more potent acid rain which was harmful not only because it had a low pH but because it contained oxidants and organic toxins which were harmful to surface vegetation and the organisms found in surface waters. It was stressed that air pollution is a global problem and that is is necessary to develop a better fundamental understanding of how air pollution is causing damage to the streams and forests of the world. 50 references.

Gaffney, J.S.; Streit, G.E.; Spall, W.D.; Hall, J.H.

1987-06-01

447

Conformational studies of hydantoin-5-acetic acid and orotic acid.  

PubMed

Hydantoin-5-acetic acid [2-(2,5-dioxoimidazolidin-4-yl)acetic acid] and orotic acid (2,6-dioxo-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyrimidine-4-carboxylic acid) each contain one rigid acceptor-donor-acceptor hydrogen-bonding site and a flexible side chain, which can adopt different conformations. Since both compounds may be used as coformers for supramolecular complexes, they have been crystallized in order to examine their conformational preferences, giving solvent-free hydantoin-5-acetic acid, C(5)H(6)N(2)O(4), (I), and three crystals containing orotic acid, namely, orotic acid dimethyl sulfoxide monosolvate, C(5)H(4)N(2)O(4)·C(2)H(6)OS, (IIa), dimethylammonium orotate-orotic acid (1/1), C(2)H(8)N(+)·C(5)H(3)N(2)O(4)(-)·C(5)H(4)N(2)O(4), (IIb), and dimethylammonium orotate-orotic acid (3/1), 3C(2)H(8)N(+)·3C(5)H(3)N(2)O(4)(-)·C(5)H(4)N(2)O(4), (IIc). The crystal structure of (I) shows a three-dimensional network, with the acid function located perpendicular to the ring. Interestingly, the hydroxy O atom acts as an acceptor, even though the carbonyl O atom is not involved in any hydrogen bonds. However, in (IIa), (IIb) and (IIc), the acid functions are only slightly twisted out of the ring planes. All H atoms of the acidic functions are directed away from the rings and, with respect to the carbonyl O atoms, they show an antiperiplanar conformation in (I) and synperiplanar conformations in (IIa), (IIb) and (IIc). Furthermore, in (IIa), (IIb) and (IIc), different conformations of the acid O=C-C-N torsion angle are observed, leading to different hydrogen-bonding arrangements depending on their conformation and composition. PMID:22307261

Gerhardt, Valeska; Tutughamiarso, Maya; Bolte, Michael

2012-01-18

448

Circulating folic acid in plasma: relation to folic acid fortification  

PubMed Central

Background The implementation of folic acid fortification in the United States has resulted in unprecedented amounts of this synthetic form of folate in the American diet. Folic acid in circulation may be a useful measure of physiologic exposure to synthetic folic acid, and there is a potential for elevated concentrations after fortification and the possibility of adverse effects. Objective We assessed the effect of folic acid fortification on circulating concentrations of folic acid and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in the Framingham Offspring Cohort. Design This is a cross-sectional study that used plasma samples from fasting subjects before and after fortification. Samples were measured for folate distribution with the use of an affinity-HPLC method with electrochemical detection. Results Among nonsupplement users, the median concentration of folic acid in plasma increased from 0.25 to 0.50 nmol/L (P < 0.001) after fortification, and among supplement users the median increased from 0.54 to 0.68 nmol/L (P = 0.001). Among nonsupplement users, the prevalence of high circulating folic acid (?85th percentile) increased from 9.4% to 19.1% (P = 0.002) after fortification. Among supplement users, the prevalence of high circulating folic acid increased from 15.9% to 24.3% (P = 0.02). Folic acid intake and total plasma folate were positively and significantly related to high circulating folic acid after adjustment for potential confounding factors (P for trend < 0.001). Conclusions Folic acid fortification has resulted in increased exposure to circulating folic acid. The biochemical and physiologic consequences of this are unknown, but these findings highlight the need to understand the effects of chronic exposure to circulating folic acid.

Kalmbach, Renee D; Choumenkovitch, Silvina F; Troen, Aron M; D'Agostino, Ralph; Jacques, Paul F; Selhub, Jacob

2013-01-01

449

Lipid metabolism in the perfused chicken liver. The uptake and metabolism of oleic acid, elaidic acid, cis-vaccenic acid, trans-vaccenic acid and stearic acid  

PubMed Central

Comparative studies were made of the uptake and metabolism of cis- and trans-octadecenoic acids by the perfused chicken liver. No differences were observed in the rates of uptake of the isomers. There was considerable incorporation of radioactivity into triglycerides and phospholipids, and some release of labelled lipid into the perfusate was observed. The cis-fatty acids were more readily incorporated into triglycerides than phospholipids, the reverse being true of the trans-fatty acids. Examination of the intramolecular distribution of fatty acids in triglycerides showed that the trans-fatty acid and stearate mainly occupied the 1- and 3-positions, and cis-fatty acids the 2-position. In the phospholipids phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine the trans-fatty acids again behaved like stearic acid and favoured the 1-position. No evidence was obtained of atypical patterns of uptake or metabolism of the trans-fatty acids.

Bickerstaffe, R.; Annison, E. F.

1970-01-01

450

Preparation of the 3-monosulphates of cholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid and deoxycholic acid.  

PubMed Central

1. The 3-sulphates of cholic, chenodeoxycholic and deoxycholic acids were prepared as crystalline disodium salts. 2. The method described shows that it is possible to prepare specific sulphate esters of polyhydroxy bile acids and to remove protecting acyl groups without removing the sulphate. 3. A study of bile acid sulphate solvolysis showed that none of the usual methods give the original bile acid in major yield in a single step. 4. An understanding of the preparation, properties and methods of solvolysis of bile acid sulphates is basic for investigations of cholestasis and liver disease.

Haslewood, E S; Haslewood, G A

1976-01-01

451

Action of picolinic acid and structurally related pyridine carboxylic acids on quinolinic acid-induced cortical cholinergic damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Picolinic acid, a pyridine monocarboxylic acid derived from tryptophan metabolism by the kynurenine pathway, was shown to block cortical cholinergic neurotoxicity induced by quinolinic acid (QUIN), a pyridine dicarboxylic acid yielded by the same pathway. This study examined the specificity of the anti-toxic effect of picolinic acid by comparing its effect with several structurally related mono- and dicarboxylic acids, and

J. Cockhill; K. Jhamandas; R. J. Boegman; R. J. Beninger

1992-01-01

452

21 CFR 184.1069 - Malic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...referred to as L-malic acid, occurs naturally in...foods. Racemic DL-malic acid does not occur naturally...commercially by hydration of fumaric acid or maleic acid...percent for nonalcoholic beverages as defined in §...

2009-04-01

453

21 CFR 184.1069 - Malic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...referred to as L-malic acid, occurs naturally in...foods. Racemic DL-malic acid does not occur naturally...commercially by hydration of fumaric acid or maleic acid...percent for nonalcoholic beverages as defined in §...

2010-01-01

454

An orsellinic acid glucoside from syzygium aromatica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The buds of Syzygium aromatica yielded two triterpenoid acids, oleanolic acid and crategolic acid, and a new phenolic glucoside, orsellinic-2-O-?-d-glucopyranoside, from its methanolic extract. The structure was elucidated by spectroscopic methods and acid hydrolysis.

Reena Charles; Shri Niwas Garg; Sushil Kumar

1998-01-01

455

Solid-phase extraction of acidic herbicides.  

PubMed

A discussion of solid-phase extraction method development for acidic herbicides is presented that reviews sample matrix modification, extraction sorbent selection, derivatization procedures for gas chromatographic analysis, and clean-up procedures for high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis. Acidic herbicides are families of compounds that include derivatives of phenol (dinoseb, dinoterb and pentachlorophenol), benzoic acid (acifluorfen, chloramben, dicamba, 3,5-dichlorobenzoic acid and dacthal--a dibenzoic acid derivative), acetic acid [2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T)], propanoic acid [dichlorprop, fluazifop, haloxyfop, 2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propanoic acid (MCPP) and silvex], butanoic acid [4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)butanoic acid (2,4-DB) and 4-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)butanoic acid (MCPB)], and other miscellaneous acids such as pyridinecarboxylic acid (picloram) and thiadiazine dioxide (bentazon). PMID:10941675

Wells, M J; Yu, L Z

2000-07-14

456

21 CFR 184.1091 - Succinic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...acid, is the chemical 1,4-butanedioic acid. It is commercially prepared by hydrogenation of maleic or fumaric acid. It can also be produced by aqueous alkali or acid hydrolysis of succinonitrile....

2010-01-01

457

Cryoprotection from lipoteichoic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous chemical additives lower the freezing point of water, but life at sub-zero temperatures is sustained by a limited number of biological cryoprotectants. Antifreeze proteins in fish, plants, and insects provide protection to a few degrees below freezing. Microbes have been found to survive at even lower temperatures, and with a few exceptions, antifreeze proteins are missing. Survival has been attributed to external factors, such as the high salt concentration of brine veins and adhesion to particulates or ice crystal defects. We have discovered an endogenous cryoprotectant in the cell wall of bacteria, lipoteichoic acid biopolymers. Adding 1% LTA to bacteria cultures immediately prior to freezing provides 50% survival rate, similar to the results obtained with 1% glycerol. In the absence of an additive, bacterial survival is negligible as measured with the resazurin cell viability assay. The mode of action for LTA cryoprotection is unknown. With a molecular weight of 3-5 kDa, it is unlikely to enter the cell cytoplasm. Our observations suggest that teichoic acids could provide a shell of liquid water around biofilms and planktonic bacteria, removing the need for brine veins to prevent bacterial freezing.

Rice, Charles V.; Middaugh, Amy; Wickham, Jason R.; Friedline, Anthony; Thomas, Kieth J.; Johnson, Karen; Zachariah, Malcolm; Garimella, Ravindranth

2012-10-01

458

Nucleic acid detection methods  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3{prime}-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated. 18 figs.

Smith, C.L.; Yaar, R.; Szafranski, P.; Cantor, C.R.

1998-05-19

459

Ozone and acid rain  

SciTech Connect

The roles of ozone and other oxidizing agents are discussed. The major polluting emissions are SO/sub 2/, NO, and volatile organic chemicals. In the usual ambient concentrations, these substances are relatively harmless. However, when SO/sub 2/ and NO are oxidized, they are converted into more acid, more toxic, substances. Oxidants, including OH, H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, HO/sub 2/, and organic peroxides, arise out of complex photochemistry that involves the ozone, the nitrogen oxides, and volatile organic chemicals. Were SO/sub 2/ the only pollutant, most of it would escape unchanged to the western Atlantic Ocean where it would be so diluted as to have no effect. At present about 35 percent of the SO/sub 2/ produced in the United States leaves the continent. In contrast, because of higher rates of reaction with oxidants, most of the NO is converted into nitric acid and deposited on land. The nitrogen oxides are involved in the production of ozone, some of which is naturally present. But particularly in urban settings where concentrations of NO/sub x/ are elevated and volatile organic chemicals such as those in gasoline are present, ozone concentrations may rise to levels deleterious to health. The Environmental Protection Agency has set standards for levels not to be exceeded, but nearly half of urban communities are not in compliance. The NO/sub x/ involved in the formation of urban ozone comes mostly from vehicular emissions.

Not Available

1987-10-09

460