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1

Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) in Water Environment of Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, there has been increasing concern about perfluorinated compounds, especially perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and\\u000a perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) due to their biotic and abiotic persistence and chronic toxicity. To characterize the spatial\\u000a distribution and seasonal variation of PFOS and PFOA in the aquatic and oceanic environment of Singapore, more than 100 water\\u000a samples from reservoirs, rivers\\/canals, coastal waters, and treated effluents

Jiangyong Hu; Jing Yu; Shuhei Tanaka; Shigeo Fujii

2011-01-01

2

Concentrations of PFOS, PFOA and other perfluorinated alkyl acids in Australian drinking water.  

PubMed

Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) are persistent environmental pollutants, found in the serum of human populations internationally. Due to concerns regarding their bioaccumulation, and possible health effects, an understanding of routes of human exposure is necessary. PFAAs are recalcitrant in many water treatment processes, making drinking water a potential source of human exposure. This study was conducted with the aim of assessing the exposure to PFAAs via potable water in Australia. Sixty-two samples of potable water, collected from 34 locations across Australia, including capital cities and regional centers. The samples were extracted by solid phase extraction and analyzed via liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry for a range of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and sulfonates. PFOS and PFOA were the most commonly detected PFAAs, quantifiable in 49% and 44% of all samples respectively. The maximum concentration in any sample was seen for PFOS with a concentration of 16 ng L(-1), second highest maximums were for PFHxS and PFOA at 13 and 9.7 ng L(-1). The contribution of drinking water to daily PFOS and PFOA intakes in Australia was estimated. Assuming a daily intake of 1.4 and 0.8 ng kg(-1) bw for PFOS and PFOA the average contribution from drinking water was 2-3% with a maximum of 22% and 24% respectively. PMID:21531441

Thompson, Jack; Eaglesham, Geoff; Mueller, Jochen

2011-05-01

3

Removal of PFOS, PFOA and other perfluoroalkyl acids at water reclamation plants in South East Queensland Australia.  

PubMed

This paper examines the fate of perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs) and carboxylic acids (PFCAs) in two water reclamation plants in Australia. Both facilities take treated water directly from WWTPs and treat it further to produce high quality recycled water. The first plant utilizes adsorption and filtration methods alongside ozonation, whilst the second uses membrane processes and advanced oxidation to produce purified recycled water. At both facilities perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were the most frequently detected PFCs. Concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in influent (WWTP effluent) ranged up to 3.7 and 16 ng L?¹ respectively, and were reduced to 0.7 and 12 ng L?¹ in the finished water of the ozonation plant. Throughout this facility, concentrations of most of the detected perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) remained relatively unchanged with each successive treatment step. PFOS was an exception to this, with some removal following coagulation and dissolved air flotation/sand filtration (DAFF). At the second plant, influent concentrations of PFOS and PFOA ranged up to 39 and 29 ng L?¹. All PFCs present were removed from the finished water by reverse osmosis (RO) to concentrations below detection and reporting limits (0.4-1.5 ng L?¹). At both plants the observed concentrations were in the low parts per trillion range, well below provisional health based drinking water guidelines suggested for PFOS and PFOA. PMID:21051071

Thompson, Jack; Eaglesham, Geoff; Reungoat, Julien; Poussade, Yvan; Bartkow, Michael; Lawrence, Michael; Mueller, Jochen F

2011-01-01

4

ACTIVATION OF MOUSE AND HUMAN PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTORS (PPAR ALPHA, GAMMA, BETA DELTA) BY PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID (PFOA) AND PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS)  

EPA Science Inventory

This study evaluates the potential for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) to activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), using a transient transfection cell assay. Cos-1 cells were cultured in DMEM with fetal bovine serum (FBS) in ...

5

Exposure and effective dose biomarkers for perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in infertile subjects: preliminary results of the PREVIENI project.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have been used as surfactants in various industry and consumer products. PFOS/PFOA are very persistent in the environment and bioaccumulate in humans. They are potential reproductive and developmental toxicants and are considered to be emerging endocrine disrupters (EDs). The Italian project PREVIENI, funded by the Italian Environment Ministry, aims to link environment and human health through the investigation of selected endocrine disrupters (EDs) exposure and associated biomarkers related to human infertility conditions. In the early PREVIENI phase, PFOS and PFOA were determined in 53 couples affected by an infertility status, enrolled in a metropolitan area, according to established inclusion criteria and informed consensus. Nuclear receptors related to chemical compounds interactions were selected as biomarkers of effect and their gene expression modulations were analyzed in human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC). Among couples, subjects not presenting infertility factors (IF--) were separated from affected subjects (IF++). Most IF-- serum samples showed PFOS and PFOA concentrations overlapping the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.5 ng/g wet weight (ww). A substantial percentage of IF++ serum samples showed PFOS concentrations >20-fold the LOD, i.e. from 3 to 50 ng/g ww. In male (50%, n=26) and from 3 to 144 ng/g ww in female (37%, n=30) samples. PFOA values were below the LOD levels in 90% of the total samples. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR?) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) showed a low level of expression in PBMC of both IF++ and IF-- groups. Whereas alpha and beta estrogen receptors (ER? and ER?), androgen receptor (AR), and pregnane X receptor (PXR) were all upregulated in IF++ of both sexes with respect to IF-- group. Our preliminary results related to the metropolitan area indicate that subjects affected by infertility factors tend to have both higher PFOS levels and higher gene expression of specific nuclear receptors. PMID:22197512

La Rocca, Cinzia; Alessi, Eva; Bergamasco, Bruno; Caserta, Donatella; Ciardo, Francesca; Fanello, Emiliano; Focardi, Silvano; Guerranti, Cristiana; Stecca, Laura; Moscarini, Massimo; Perra, Guido; Tait, Sabrina; Zaghi, Carlo; Mantovani, Alberto

2012-02-01

6

Carryover of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from soil to plant and distribution to the different plant compartments studied in cultures of carrots (Daucus carota ssp. Sativus), potatoes (Solanum tuberosum), and cucumbers (Cucumis Sativus).  

PubMed

A vegetation study was carried out to investigate the carryover of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) from soil mixed with contaminated sewage sludge to potato, carrot, and cucumber plants. Analysis was done by liquid-extraction using acetonitrile with dispersive SPE cleanup and subsequent HPLC-MS/MS. In order to assess the transfer potential from soil, transfer factors (TF) were calculated for the different plant compartments: TF = [PFC](plant (wet substance))/[PFC](soil (dry weight)). The highest TF were found for the vegetative plant compartments with average values for PFOS below those for PFOA: cucumber, 0.17 (PFOS), 0.88 (PFOA); potato, 0.36 (PFOS), 0.40 (PFOA); carrot, 0.38 (PFOS), 0.53 (PFOA). Transfer of PFOA and PFOS into potato peelings (average values of TF: PFOA 0.03, PFOS 0.04) exceeded the carryover to the peeled tubers (PFOA 0.01, PFOS < 0.01). In carrots, this difference did not occur (average values of TF: PFOA 0.04, PFOS 0.04). Transfer of PFOS into the unpeeled cucumbers was low and comparable to that of peeled potatoes (TF < 0.01). For PFOA, it was higher (TF: 0.03). PMID:21905714

Lechner, Mareike; Knapp, Holger

2011-10-26

7

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) but not perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) showed DNA damage in comet assay on Paramecium caudatum.  

PubMed

Persistent perfluorinated organic compounds such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are distributed widely in the global environment including wildlife and human. In this study, we investigated the genotoxicity of PFOS and PFOA using the novel in vivo comet assay developed for Paramecium caudatum. For the comet assay, large nuclei squeezed out of the paramecia with 0.25 M sucrose containing 0.6% Triton X-100 were embedded in a layer of agarose gel placed over the slide glass. N-methyl-N´-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA) were successfully used for positive controls. Productions of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also measured in paramecia. PFOS did not cause DNA damage on any conditions examined. On the other hand, 12 and 24 hr exposure to PFOA (100 µM) increased DNA migration in electrophoresis condition at pH 13, but not at pH 12.1, suggesting that the DNA damage may be alkali labile site (such as apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site). Exposure of paramecia to 100 µM PFOA for 1, 3 and 24 hr and to 10 µM PFOA for 24 hr significantly increased intracellular ROS. Under the same condition, however, 8-OH-dG level was not affected by PFOA. The PFOA-induced DNA damage was not abolished by the application of 100 µM GSH which completely inhibited the increase of intracellular ROS. In conclusion, the PFOA-induced in vivo DNA damage was first shown in paramecia, and the DNA damage might not be directly attributable to increase in intracellular ROS. PMID:21139333

Kawamoto, Kosuke; Oashi, Takahiro; Oami, Kazunori; Liu, Wei; Jin, Yihe; Saito, Norimitsu; Sato, Itaru; Tsuda, Shuji

2010-12-01

8

Transcription of genes involved in fat metabolism in chicken embryos exposed to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) agonist GW7647 or to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA).  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are developmental toxicants in various animal classes, including birds. Both compounds interact with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), but it is not known whether activation of PPARs is involved in their embryo toxicity in birds. We exposed chicken embryos via egg injection at a late developmental stage to GW7647, a potent PPAR? agonist in mammals, and to PFOS or PFOA. Mortality was induced by PFOS and PFOA but not by GW7647. Transcripts of a number of genes activated by PPAR? agonists in mammals were analyzed in liver and kidney of 18-day-old embryos. Several of the genes were induced in both liver and kidney following exposure to GW7647. Treatment with PFOA resulted in induction of acyl-coenzyme A oxidase mRNA in liver, whereas none of the genes were significantly induced by PFOS treatment. No up-regulation of gene transcription was found in kidney following treatment with PFOS or PFOA. Principal component analysis showed that PFOA caused an mRNA expression pattern in liver more similar to the pattern induced by GW7647 than PFOS did. Our findings do not support that the embryo mortality by PFOS and PFOA in chicken embryos involves PPAR? activation. PMID:22465071

Strömqvist, Marie; Olsson, Jan A; Kärrman, Anna; Brunström, Björn

2012-06-01

9

Identification of genes responsive to PFOS using gene expression profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) is widely distributed in the environment including in the tissues of wildlife and humans, however, its mechanism of action remains unclear. Here, the Affymetrix rat genome U34A genechip was used to identify alterations in gene expression due to PFOS exposure. Rat hepatoma cells were treated with PFOS at 2–50mg\\/L (4–100?M) for 96h. Sprague-Dawley rats were orally

Wenyue Hu; Paul D. Jones; Trine Celius; John P. Giesy

2005-01-01

10

MEASUREMENT OF THYROID HORMONES IN THE RAT SERA CONTAINING PERFLUOROOCTANESULFONATE (PFOS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), a persistent and bioaccumulative acid, is widely distributed in humans and wildlife. Prior studies with PFOS (rats and monkeys) have observed decreased total and free thyroid hormones (TH) in serum without a rise in thyrotropin (TSH). Measuremen...

11

Concentrations of PFOS, PFOA and other perfluorinated alkyl acids in Australian drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) are persistent environmental pollutants, found in the serum of human populations internationally. Due to concerns regarding their bioaccumulation, and possible health effects, an understanding of routes of human exposure is necessary. PFAAs are recalcitrant in many water treatment processes, making drinking water a potential source of human exposure. This study was conducted with the aim of

Jack Thompson; Geoff Eaglesham; Jochen Mueller

2011-01-01

12

Accumulation of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in the food chain of the Western Scheldt estuary: Comparing field measurements with kinetic modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmentally persistent perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a perfluoroalkylated acid (PFA), which has been found to accumulate and biomagnify through food webs all over the world. In the present investigation, the accumulation kinetics of PFOS was explored using the bioaccumulation model OMEGA. As accumulation behavior of PFOS may show similarities to fatty acids as well as to neutral organic compounds,

Martine G. de Vos; Mark A. J. Huijbregts; Martine J. van den Heuvel-Greve; A. Dick Vethaak; Kristin I. Van de Vijver; Pim E. G. Leonards; S. P. J. van Leeuwen; P. de Voogt; A. Jan Hendriks

2008-01-01

13

CHRONIC ZEBRAFISH PFOS EXPOSURE ALTERS SEX RATIO AND MATERNAL RELATED EFFECTS IN F1 OFFSPRING  

PubMed Central

Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) is an organic contaminant ubiquitous in the environment, wildlife, and humans. Few studies have assessed its chronic toxicity on aquatic organisms. The present study defined the effects of long-term exposure to PFOS on zebrafish development and reproduction. Specifically, zebrafish at 8 h postfertilization (hpf) were exposed to PFOS at 0, 5, 50, and 250 ?g/L for five months. Growth suppression was observed in the 250 ?g/L PFOS-treated group. The sex ratio was altered, with a significant female dominance in the high-dose PFOS group. Male gonad development was also impaired in a dose-dependent manner by PFOS exposure. Although female fecundity was not impacted, the F1 embryos derived from high-dose exposed females paired with males without PFOS exposure developed severe deformity at early development stages and resulted in 100% larval mortality at 7 d postfertilization (dpf). Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid quantification in embryos indicated that decreased larval survival in F1 offspring was directly correlated to the PFOS body burden, and larval lethality was attributable to maternal transfer of PFOS to the eggs. Lower-dose parental PFOS exposure did not result in decreased F1 survival; however, the offspring displayed hyperactivity of basal swimming speed in a light-to-dark behavior assessment test. These findings demonstrate that chronic exposure to PFOS adversely impacts embryonic growth, reproduction, and subsequent offspring development. Environ.

Wang, Mingyong; Chen, Jiangfei; Lin, Kuanfei; Chen, Yuanhong; Hu, Wei; Tanguay, Robert L.; Huang, Changjiang; Dong, Qiaoxiang

2012-01-01

14

Evaluating the sub-lethal toxicity of PFOS and PFOA using rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus.  

PubMed

The acute and chronic effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus (B. calyciflorus) were investigated at the organismal and the population level. The acute toxicity of PFOS to rotifers was approximately 2.5-fold greater than that of PFOA. From 0.25 to 2.0 mg L(-1), PFOS exhibited higher toxicity than PFOA on the F0-generation of B. calyciflorus, including effects on body size, juvenile periods, net reproductive rate, and generation time. Both PFOS and PFOA exposure induced a smaller egg size in B. calyciflorus, suggesting that these risks can be transferred from mother to offspring. The 28-day population growth studies showed that PFOS and PFOA reduced the population density and increased the mictic ratio. Our results demonstrated that both PFOS and PFOA had adverse effects on B. calyciflorus, not only at the individual level but also at the population level. PMID:23727565

Zhang, Lilan; Niu, Junfeng; Li, Yang; Wang, Yujuan; Sun, Dong

2013-09-01

15

PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) - IRIS ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

An assessment of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is underway that will establish the RfD/RfC as appropriate which will be made available to the public through the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)....

16

Behavior and Fate of PFOA and PFOS in Sandy Aquifer Sediment (journal)  

EPA Science Inventory

Microcosms were constructed with sediment from beneath a landfill that received waste containing PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid) and PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate). The microcosms were amended with PFOA and PFOS, and sampled after 91, 210, 343, 463, 574, and 740 days of incubat...

17

Modeling Bioaccumulation as a Potential Route of Riverine Foodweb Exposures to PFOS  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluorinated acids are compounds of interest as bioaccumulators; these persistent chemicals have been found in humans and animals throughout the world. Perfluoroctane sulfonate (PFOS) has an especially high bioconcentration factor in fish, due to the stability of PFOS in the e...

18

Developmental toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is not dependent on expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha (PPAR?) in the mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are members of a family of perfluorinated compounds. Both are environmentally persistent and found in the serum of wildlife and humans. PFOS and PFOA are developmentally toxic in laboratory rodents. Exposure to these chemicals in utero delays development and reduces postnatal survival and growth. Exposure to PFOS on the last 4 days of

Barbara D. Abbott; Cynthia J. Wolf; Kaberi P. Das; Robert D. Zehr; Judith E. Schmid; Andrew B. Lindstrom; Mark J. Strynar; Christopher Lau

2009-01-01

19

Immunomodulatory Effects of Dietary Potassium Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) Exposure in Adult Sprague-Dawley Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is a stable and environmentally persistent metabolic or degradation product of perfluorooctanyl compounds that were manufactured for a variety of industrial and consumer applications. PFOS itself was sold for use as a surfactant. The structurally related contaminants perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamide (N-EtPFOSA) were shown to suppress immune responses in laboratory rodents. Relatively

David E. Lefebvre; Ivan Curran; Cheryl Armstrong; Laurie Coady; Monique Parenteau; Virginia Liston; Michael Barker; Syed Aziz; Kathryn Rutherford; Pascale Bellon-Gagnon; Jacintha Shenton; Rekha Mehta; Genevieve Bondy

2008-01-01

20

Depuration kinetics and tissue disposition of PFOA and PFOS in white leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus) administered by subcutaneous implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elimination kinetics and tissue disposition of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in male chickens (Gallus gallus) was determined following exposure by subcutaneous implantation. Chickens were exposed to two levels of PFOA or PFOS for 4 wk and then allowed to depurate for an additional 4 wk. These exposures did not cause any statistically significant changes in body index,

Hoon Yoo; Keerthi S. Guruge; Noriko Yamanaka; Chihiro Sato; Osamu Mikami; Shigeru Miyazaki; Nobuyoshi Yamashita; John P. Giesy

2007-01-01

21

Negative bias from analog methods used in the analysis of free thyroxine in rat serum containing perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decreases in serum total thyroxine (TT4) and free thyroxine (FT4) without a compensatory rise in thyroid stimulating hormone (thyrotropin or TSH) or histological changes of the thyroid have been observed in studies with perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) treatments in rats. Prior observations do not fit the clinical profile of a hypothyroid state. PFOS is known to compete with fatty acids for albumin

Shu-Ching Chang; Julie R. Thibodeaux; Mary L. Eastvold; David J. Ehresman; James A. Bjork; John W. Froehlich; Christopher S. Lau; Ravinder J. Singh; Kendall B. Wallace; John L. Butenhoff

2007-01-01

22

Impact of a perfluorinated organic compound PFOS on the terrestrial pollinator Bombus terrestris (Insecta, Hymenoptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorinated organic chemicals like perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) are persistent environmental pollutants that have\\u000a been measured in a great diversity of wildlife worldwide, especially in the aquatic compartment. However, little information\\u000a is available on the presence and effects of PFOS in the terrestrial compartment. Therefore, we investigated in this project\\u000a the risks for effects, bioaccumulation and potential mechanisms of activity

Veerle Mommaerts; An Hagenaars; Johan Meyer; Wim De Coen; Luc Swevers; Hadi Mosallanejad; Guy Smagghe

2011-01-01

23

Two-generation reproduction and cross-foster studies of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent acid found widely distributed in wildlife and humans. To understand the potential reproductive and developmental effects of PFOS, a two-generation reproduction study was conducted in rats. Male and female rats were dosed via oral gavage at dose levels of 0, 0.1, 0.4, 1.6, and 3.2mg\\/(kgday) for 6 weeks prior to mating, during mating, and, for

Deanna J. Luebker; Marvin T. Case; Raymond G. York; John A. Moore; Kristen J. Hansen; John L. Butenhoff

2005-01-01

24

Enantiospecific perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) analysis reveals evidence for the source contribution of PFOS-precursors to the Lake Ontario foodweb.  

PubMed

Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) may arise directly, from emission and exposure to PFOS itself, or indirectly via the environmental release and degradation of PFOS-precursors. Human serum enantiomer fractions (EFs) of 1m-PFOS have been shown to be nonracemic, suggesting that PFOS-precursors are a significant source of PFOS in humans, but little is known about the importance of PFOS-precursors in ecosystems. In the current work, concentrations of PFOS, perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), PFOS isomer profiles, and EFs of 1m-PFOS were determined in Lake Ontario water, sediment, fishes and invertebrates. Concentrations of PFOS and PFOSA were highest in slimy sculpin and Diporeia, and concentrations of the two compounds were often correlated. 1m-PFOS was racemic in sediment, water, sculpin and rainbow smelt, but nonracemic in the top predator, lake trout, and all invertebrate species. Furthermore, EFs were correlated with the relative concentrations of PFOS and PFOSA in invertebrates. Overall, these empirical observations with a new analytical tool confirm previous suggestions that PFOS-precursors contribute to PFOS in the food web, likely via sediment. Implications are that future PFOS exposures in this ecosystem will be influenced by an in situ source, and that the apparent environmental behavior of PFOS (e.g., bioaccumulation potential) can be confounded by precursors. PMID:22676298

Asher, Brian J; Wang, Yuan; De Silva, Amila O; Backus, Sean; Muir, Derek C G; Wong, Charles S; Martin, Jonathan W

2012-07-17

25

PFOS and PFC releases and associated pollution from a PFC production plant in Minnesota (USA).  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and PFOS-related substances have been listed as persistent organic pollutants in the Stockholm Convention. From August 2012, Parties to the Convention needed to address the use, storage, and disposal of PFOS-including production sites and sites where PFOS wastes have been deposited-in their national implementation plans. The paper describes the pollution in Minnesota (USA) caused by the 3M Company at one of the largest per/polyfluorinated chemical (PFC) production facilities. From early 1950s until the end of 2002, when 3M terminated PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) production, PFOS, PFOA, and other PFC production wastes were disposed around the plant and in local disposal sites. Discharges from the site and releases from deposits caused widespread contamination of ground and surface waters including local drinking water wells. Fish in the river downstream were contaminated with PFOS to levels that led to fish consumption advisories. Human exposures resulted from ingesting contaminated drinking water, requiring installation of water treatment facilities and alternate water supplies. The critical evaluation of the assessments done revealed a range of gaps in particular of human exposure where relevant exposure pathways including the entire exposure via food have not been taken into consideration. Currently, the exposure assessment of vulnerable groups such as children or Hmong minorities is inadequate and needs to be improved/validated by epidemiological studies. The assessment methodology described for this site may serve-with highlighted improvements-as a model for assessment of other PFOS/PFC production sites in the Stockholm Convention implementation. PMID:23128989

Oliaei, Fardin; Kriens, Don; Weber, Roland; Watson, Alan

2013-04-01

26

Development of PBPK models for PFOA and PFOS for human pregnancy and lactation life stages.  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl acid carboxylates and sulfonates (PFAA) have many consumer and industrial applications. Developmental toxicity studies in animals have raised concern about potential reproductive/developmental effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS); however, in humans conflicting results have been reported for associations between maternal PFAA levels and these outcomes. Risk assessments and interpretation of available human data during gestation and lactation are hindered due to lack of a framework for understanding and estimating maternal, fetal, and neonatal pharmacokinetics (PK). Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models were developed for PFOA and PFOS for the gestation and lactation life stages in humans to understand how the physiological changes associated with development affect pharmacokinetics of these compounds in the mother, fetus, and infant. These models were derived from PBPK models for PFOA/PFOS that were previously developed for adult humans and rats during gestation and lactation and from existing human pregnancy and lactation models developed for other chemicals. The models simulated PFOA and PFOS concentrations in fetal, infant, and maternal plasma and milk, were compared to available data in humans, and also were used to estimate maternal exposure. The models reported here identified several research needs, which include (1) the identification of transporters involved in renal resorption to explain the multiyear half-lives of these compounds in humans, (2) factors affecting clearance of PFOA/PFOS during gestation and lactation, and (3) data to estimate clearance of PFOA/PFOS in infants. These models may help address concerns regarding possible adverse health effects due to PFOA/PFOS exposure in the fetus and infant and may be useful in comparing pharmacokinetics across life stages. PMID:23151209

Loccisano, Anne E; Longnecker, Matthew P; Campbell, Jerry L; Andersen, Melvin E; Clewell, Harvey J

2013-01-01

27

Neonatal mortality from in utero exposure to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in Sprague–Dawley rats: Dose–response, and biochemical and pharamacokinetic parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is a widely distributed, environmentally persistent acid found at low levels in human, wildlife, and environmental media samples. Neonatal mortality has been observed following PFOS exposure in a two-generation reproduction study in rats and after dosing pregnant rats and mice during gestation. Objectives of the current study were to better define the dose–response curve for neonatal mortality in

Deanna J. Luebker; Raymond G. York; Kristen J. Hansen; John A. Moore; John L. Butenhoff

2005-01-01

28

Determination of energies and sites of binding of PFOA and PFOS to human serum albumin.  

PubMed

Structure and energies of the binding sites of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) to human serum albumin (HSA) were determined through molecular modeling. The calculations consisted of a compound approach based on docking, followed by molecular dynamics simulations and by the estimation of the free binding energies adopting WHAM-umbrella sampling and semiempirical methodologies. The binding sites so determined are common either to known HSA fatty acids sites or to other HSA sites known to bind to pharmaceutical compounds such as warfarin, thyroxine, indole, and benzodiazepin. Among the PFOA binding sites, five have interaction energies in excess of -6 kcal/mol, which become nine for PFOS. The calculated binding free energy of PFOA to the Trp 214 binding site is the highest among the PFOA complexes, -8.0 kcal/mol, in good agreement with literature experimental data. The PFOS binding site with the highest energy, -8.8 kcal/mol, is located near the Trp 214 binding site, thus partially affecting its activity. The maximum number of ligands that can be bound to HSA is 9 for PFOA and 11 for PFOS. The calculated data were adopted to predict the level of complexation of HSA as a function of the concentration of PFOA and PFOS found in human blood for different levels of exposition. The analysis of the factors contributing to the complex binding energy permitted to outline a set of guidelines for the rational design of alternative fluorinated surfactants with a lower bioaccumulation potential. PMID:21028884

Salvalaglio, Matteo; Muscionico, Isabella; Cavallotti, Carlo

2010-11-25

29

Contamination of food by fluorinated surfactants – Distribution in emulsions and impact on the interfacial protein behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctanesulphonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are the final products of degradation of numerous fluorochemicals, intensively used in industry. Due to their high stability and low level of biodegradability, they remain in the environment. Their occurrence in milk constitutes one of the numerous initial steps of contamination of many manufactured food products. We contributed to the understanding of the

M. H. Ropers; S. Durand; B. Veyrand; V. Beaumal; P. Marchand; M. Anton; B. Le Bizec

2009-01-01

30

Perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) throughout the food production chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) is a persistent organic pollutant with adverse effects on human health. Since dietary intake plays an important role in human exposure, the transfer of PFOS throughout the food chain needs further investigation. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of PFOS concentrations and transfer for the various chain steps from farm-to-fork. This reveals that

Asselt van E. D; R. P. J. J. Rietra; P. F. A. M. Romkens; Fels-Klerx van der H. J

2011-01-01

31

Preliminary Lists of PFOS, PFAS, PFOA and Related Compounds and Chemicals that May Degrade to PFCA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The OECD conducted a survey in 2004 on Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS), Perfluoroalkyl Sulfonate (PFAS), Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA), related substances and products\\/mixtures containing these substances within OECD and non-OECD member countries. The information sought were quantities manufactured or imported, concentration of the chemicals in the products or mixtures, uses, use in consumer products, availability of alternatives or substitutes and essential uses

2006-01-01

32

ACCUMULATION AND EFFECTS OF PFOS ON THE REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY OF THE FATHEAD MINNOW  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a globally-distributed contaminant in fish and wildlife. Comparatively little is known, however, concerning potential adverse effects of PFOS on reproduction and development of fish. There is some indication that PFOS could affect reproductive ...

33

Risk Report on Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) as a Component of Mist Suppressants in Chrome-Plating Tanks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is a synthetic perfluorinated surfactant recently discovered to be ubiquitous in the environment. Animal data suggest a high tolerance for PFOS, as does epidemiological analysis of workers in PFOS manufacturing plants. A su...

A. J. Bobb K. R. Still

2003-01-01

34

Effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) exposure on markers of inflammation in female B6C3F1 mice.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS; 1,1,2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,8-heptadecafluoro-1-octanesulfonic acid) has been reported to alter humoral immune functions, but inflammatory processes following PFOS exposure have not been fully characterized. Therefore, the current study, assessed TNF-? and IL-6 concentrations in serum and peritoneal lavage fluid, numbers of splenoctyes expressing intracellular TNF-?, IL-6, IL-10 or IL-1, and ex vivo TNF-? and IL-6 production by peritoneal macrophages following either in vivo or in vitro LPS exposure. Adult female B6C3F1 mice were exposed orally for 28 days to 0, 1, 3, or 300 mg PFOS/kg total administered dose [TAD] (e.g., 0, 0.0331, 0.0993 or 9.93 mg/kg/day). Body and spleen masses were significantly reduced in the highest PFOS treatment group compared to the control group, whereas liver mass was significantly increased. Serum TNF-? levels were significantly decreased following exposure to 1 mg PFOS/kg TAD as compared to controls, while serum IL-6 levels were increased. IL-6 concentrations in peritoneal lavage fluid decreased with increasing dose. PFOS treatment did not alter numbers of splenocytes expressing intracellular levels of TNF-?, IL-10 or IL-1. Numbers of splenocytes expressing intracellular levels of IL-6 were significantly decreased in the 3 mg/kg treatment as compared to controls. Overall, these data suggest that PFOS exposure can alter some inflammatory processes, which could potentially lead to misdirected inflammatory responses. PMID:21170772

Mollenhauer, Meagan A M; Bradshaw, Sarah G; Fair, Patricia A; McGuinn, W David; Peden-Adams, Margie M

2011-01-01

35

PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) DISRUPTS THE THYROID STATUS IN LABORATORY RODENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) DISRUPTS THE THYROID STATUS IN LABORATORY RODENTS. C. Lau, J.R. Thibodeaux, R.G. Hanson, B.E. Gray and J.M. Rogers. Reprod. Tox. Div. NHEERL, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC. PFOS is an environmental contaminant ubiquitously found in h...

36

Biodegradation of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) as an emerging contaminant.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is a compound of global concern because of its persistence and bioaccumulation in the environment. Nevertheless, little is known of the potential for PFOS biodegradation, even though the importance of characterizing the function and activity of microbial populations detected in the environment has been discussed. This study focused on the biodegradation of PFOS by a specific microorganism. Through this study, we have identified the aerobic microorganism for the specific decomposition of PFOS from wastewater treatment sludge, as a well-known sink for environmental PFOS. This species was Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain HJ4 with a 99% similarity, a mesophilic rod type bacteria (30-37°C). A pH range of 7-9 was determined to be optimal for the growth of strain HJ4. In this study approximately 67% over a range of concentrations (1400-1800?gL(-)(1)) for PFOS was biologically decomposed by P. aeruginosa after 48h incubation. This result is reported here for the first time, which strongly pertains to the efficient biodegradation of PFOS. Therefore, our study is considered a major advancement in sustainable PFOS treatment. PMID:24556541

Kwon, Bum Gun; Lim, Hye-Jung; Na, Suk-Hyun; Choi, Bong-In; Shin, Dong-Soo; Chung, Seon-Yong

2014-08-01

37

Differences in the isomer composition of perfluoroctanesulfonyl (PFOS) derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctanesulfonyl (PFOS)-based materials and related compounds are an emerging group of environmental pollutants. Perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride, the key intermediate for the production of these materials, was manufactured by an electrochemical fluorination process that resulted in complex mixtures containing linear and branched PFOS derivatives and other perfluorinated compounds. This study uses F-NMR spectroscopy to investigate differences in the composition between commercial samples

Sandhya M. Vyas; Izabela Kania-Korwel; Hans-Joachim Lehmler

2007-01-01

38

Behavioral effects in adult mice exposed to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, very little information concerning the effects on behavior in mammals of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a widely distributed persistent environmental pollutant, is available. In the present study, we assessed the behavioral effects of PFOS on 3 months old mice after 1 month of exposure to this pollutant. Thirty adult mice were divided into three groups. Animals were given by gavage

Silvia Fuentes; Paloma Vicens; M. Teresa Colomina; José L. Domingo

2007-01-01

39

Effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) exposure on markers of inflammation in female B6C3F1 mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS; 1,1,2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,8-heptadecafluoro-1-octanesulfonic acid) has been reported to alter humoral immune functions, but inflammatory processes following PFOS exposure have not been fully characterized. Therefore, the current study, assessed TNF-? and IL-6 concentrations in serum and peritoneal lavage fluid, numbers of splenoctyes expressing intracellular TNF-?, IL-6, IL-10 or IL-1, and ex vivo TNF-? and IL-6 production by peritoneal macrophages following

Meagan A. M. Mollenhauer; Sarah G. Bradshaw; Patricia A. Fair; W. David McGuinn; Margie M. Peden-Adams

2011-01-01

40

Phytotoxicity of PFOS and PFOA to Brassica chinensis in different Chinese soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

PFOS and PFOA are potential persistent organic pollutants that have raised many concerns in recent years. Research focusing on phytotoxicity of PFOS and PFOA to higher plants is necessary for their risk assessments. However, few toxicity data exist for PFOS or PFOA and higher plants. Here we investigated phytotoxicity of PFOS and PFOA to Brassica chinensis root growth in six

Hongxia Zhao; Chuanbin Chen; Xin Zhang; Jingwen Chen; Xie Quan

2011-01-01

41

Comparative pharmacokinetics of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in rats, mice, and monkeys.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) has been found in biological samples in wildlife and humans. The geometric mean half-life of serum elimination of PFOS in humans has been estimated to be 4.8 years (95% CI, 4.0-5.8). A series of studies was undertaken to establish pharmacokinetic parameters for PFOS in rats, mice, and monkeys after single oral and/or IV administration of K(+)PFOS. Animals were followed for up to 23 weeks, and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by WinNonlin® software. Rats and mice appeared to be more effective at eliminating PFOS than monkeys. The serum elimination half-lives in the rodent species were on the order of 1-2 months; whereas, in monkeys, the serum elimination half lives approximated 4 months. Collectively, these studies provide valuable insight for human health risk assessment regarding the potential for accumulation of body burden in humans on repeated exposure to PFOS and PFOS-generating materials. PMID:21889587

Chang, Shu-Ching; Noker, Patricia E; Gorman, Gregory S; Gibson, Sheila J; Hart, Jill A; Ehresman, David J; Butenhoff, John L

2012-07-01

42

Mechanism of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS)-induced apoptosis in the immunocyte.  

PubMed

As a new type of persistent organic pollutant, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has raised great concern in recent years due to its ubiquitous distribution in the general environment and its long elimination half-life in humans. PFOS has toxic and carcinogenic effects in animals and humans, but the effects of PFOS on apoptosis are still not clear. The present study aimed to determine the mode of cell death and its mechanism in splenocytes and thymocytes from adult male C57BL/6 mice administered 0, 1, 5, or 10 mg PFOS/kg/day by gavage daily for 7 days. The results showed that more apoptotic cells were present in PFOS-treated mice than in control mice. PFOS induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), dissipation of mitochondria membrane potential, and apoptosis of splenocytes and thymocytes. Moreover, activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase were increased, whereas activities of glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase were decreased, in splenocytes. Glutathione contents were reduced as well. Differential expressions of proteins such as p53, Bax, caspase-3, and caspase-9 were significantly up-regulated in PFOS-exposed hosts, whereas Bcl-2 expression was significantly down-regulated. One possible mechanism for the findings here was that PFOS could overwhelm homeostasis of anti-oxidative systems, boost ROS generation, impact on mitochondria, and affect protein expression of apoptotic regulators, the latter of which resulted in initiation of the apoptosis program. Results from this study may provide a new insight into the potential adverse effects of PFOS exposure on humans, at the cellular level. PMID:22953760

Zhang, Ying-Hua; Wang, Jing; Dong, Guang-Hui; Liu, Miao-Miao; Wang, Da; Zheng, Li; Jin, Yi-He

2013-01-01

43

Enhanced adsorption of PFOA and PFOS on multiwalled carbon nanotubes under electrochemical assistance.  

PubMed

Removal of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from aqueous solution has attracted wide attention in light of their environmental persistence, bioaccumulation, and potential toxicity. Although various destructive technologies were developed, removal of PFOX (X = A and S) under mild conditions are still desirable. In this work, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were applied to remove PFOX in electrochemically assistant adsorption. Electrosorption kinetics and isotherms were investigated relative to open circuit (OC) adsorption and adsorption on powder MWNTs. Compared with powder MWNTs adsorption, the initial adsorption rate (?(0)) of 100 ?g/L PFOX at 0.6 V increased 60-fold (PFOA) and 41-fold (PFOS) according to pseudosecond-order kinetics model and the maximum electrosorption capacity (q(m)) of PFOX (50 ?g/L to 10 mg/L) increased 150-fold (PFOA) and 94-fold (PFOS) simulated with Langmuir model. These significant improvements were assumed to benefit from enhanced electrostatic attraction under electrochemical assistance. Furthermore, the used MWNTs were found to be regenerative and reusable. This work provides not only a new approach to effective removal of perfluorochemicals from aqueous solution but also a low energy-consumption and environmentally-friendly strategy for application of carbon nanotubes in water treatment. PMID:21861476

Li, Xiaona; Chen, Shuo; Quan, Xie; Zhang, Yaobin

2011-10-01

44

Contribution to the evaluation of reference values for PFOA and PFOS in plasma of children and adults from Germany.  

PubMed

Perfluorinated compounds (PFC) are a large group of chemicals produced for several decades and widely used for many industrial and consumer applications. Human Biomonitoring studies reveal a background exposure of the general population to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and pefluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in many parts of the world. Reference values for PFOS and PFOA in the German population are currently not available. However, the data of three PFC human biomonitoring studies are taken as basis for deriving a preliminary reference value. The first two studies were performed in southern Germany with 105 (sampling period 2003-2004) and 356 adults (sampling period 2005). The third study was performed in North Rhine-Westphalia (sampling period October and November 2006) in connection with the high PFOA contamination of drinking water in the Sauerland region. Non PFOA exposed control groups comprised of 80 children and 153 females from Siegen and 103 men from Brilon. The whole study which could be taken as a basis for PFOS reference considerations comprised of 170 children, 317 females and 204 men. Though the studies are not representative for the German population, they provide at present the best available data basis for deriving reference values. The 95th percentile values of the studies were used and the following preliminary reference values are recommended: PFOA, 10microg/l for all groups; for PFOS 10microg/l for children at school beginner age, 15microg/l for adult females and 25microg/l for adult males. PMID:18162439

Wilhelm, Michael; Angerer, Jürgen; Fromme, Hermann; Hölzer, Jürgen

2009-01-01

45

Adsorption behavior of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) on boehmite.  

PubMed

Understanding the interaction of perfluorochemicals, persistent pollutants with known human health effects, with mineral compounds in surface water and groundwater environments is essential to determining their fate and transport. Kinetic experiments showed that adsorption equilibrium can be achieved within 48 h and the boehmite (AlOOH) surface is receptive to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) adsorption. The adsorption isotherms estimated the maximum adsorption capacities of PFOS and PFOA on boehmite as 0.877 ?g m(-2) and 0.633 ?g m(-2), respectively. Compared to the adsorption capacity on ?-alumina, the abundant hydroxyl groups on boehmite surfaces resulted in the 2-3 times higher adsorption of PFOS and PFOA. Increasing solution pH led to a moderate decrease in PFOS and PFOA adsorption, owing to an increase in ligand exchange reactions and the decrease of electrostatic interactions. The presence of NaCl and CaCl(2) in solution demonstrated negative effects for PFOS and PFOA adsorption on boehmite surfaces, with potential mechanisms being electrical double layer compression, competitive adsorption of chloride, and the Ca(2+) bridging effect between perfluorochemicals. PMID:22897837

Wang, Fei; Liu, Chengshuai; Shih, Kaimin

2012-11-01

46

EFFECTS OF PRENATAL PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) EXPOSURE ON LUNG MATURATION IN THE PERINATAL RAT  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), found widely in wildlife and humans, is environmentally and metabolically stable. Environmental PFOS may be from its use as a surfactant, hydrolysis of perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride, and degradation of N-alkyl-perfluorooctanesulfon...

47

TOXICITY AND BIOACCUMULATION OF PFOS IN A PARTIAL LIFE CYCLE TEST WITH THE NORTHERN LEOPARD FROG  

EPA Science Inventory

A number of recent monitoring studies have demonstrated elevated concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in humans and wildlife throughout the world. Although no longer actively manufactured, the global distribution and relative persistence of PFOS indicates a need to...

48

Toxicity, uptake kinetics and behavior assessment in zebrafish embryos following exposure to perfluorooctanesulphonicacid (PFOS)  

PubMed Central

Perfluorooctanesulphonicacid (PFOS), a persistent organic contaminant, has been widely detected in the environment, wildlife and humans, but few studies have assessed its effect on aquatic organisms. The present study evaluated the effect of PFOS on zebrafish embryos. Zebrafish embryos exhibited bent spine and developmental toxicity after exposure to various PFOS concentrations (0.01-16.0 ?M) from 6 to 120 hour post-fertilization (hpf). The LC50 at 120 hpf was 4.39 ?M and the EC50 at 120 hpf was 2.23 ?M. PFOS induced apoptosis at 24 hpf was consistently located in the brain, eye, and tail region of embryos. PFOS elevated the basal rate of swimming after 4 days of exposure, and larvae exposed to PFOS (0.5-8.0?M) for only 1 h at 6 dpf swam faster with increasing PFOS concentration. Larvae exposed to 16.0 ?M PFOS for 24 h periods from 1 to 121 hpf showed the highest incidence of malformations in the 97-121 hpf window. Continuous exposure to PFOS from 1 to 121 hpf resulted in a steady accumulation with no evidence of elimination. Our results further the understanding of the health risks of PFOS to aquatic organisms and identify additional research needed on PFOS toxicology.

Huang, Haihua; Huang, Changjiang; Wang, Lijun; Ye, Xiaowei; Bai, Chenglian; Simonich, Michael T.; Tanguay, Robert L.; Dong, Qiaoxiang

2014-01-01

49

AVIAN TOXICITY REFERENCE VALUES (TRVs) FOR PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicity Reference Values (TRVs) and Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNECs) were derived for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) based on the characteristics of a top avian predator. The benchmarks are protective of avian populations and were based on acute and chronic dietary exposures of northern bobwhite quail and mallard. Toxicological endpoints included mortality, growth, feed consumption, and histopathology. Reproductive endpoints included egg

John L. Newsted; John P. Giesy; Paul D. Jones

50

Emission Inventory for PFOS in China: Review of Past Methodologies and Suggestions  

PubMed Central

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic chemical that has the potential for long-range transport in the environment. Its use in a wide variety of consumer products and industrial processes makes a detailed characterization of its emissions sources very challenging. These varied emissions sources all contribute to PFOS' existence within nearly all environmental media. Currently, China is the only country documented to still be producing PFOS, though there is no China PFOS emission inventory available. This study reviews the inventory methodologies for PFOS in other countries to suggest a China-specific methodology framework for a PFOS emission inventory. The suggested framework combines unknowns for PFOS-containing product penetration into the Chinese market with product lifecycle assumptions, centralizing these diverse sources into municipal sewage treatment plants. Releases from industrial sources can be quantified separately using another set of emission factors. Industrial sources likely to be relevant to the Chinese environment are identified.

Lim, Theodore Chao; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jun; Deng, Shubo; Yu, Gang

2011-01-01

51

Phytotoxicity of PFOS and PFOA to Brassica chinensis in different Chinese soils.  

PubMed

PFOS and PFOA are potential persistent organic pollutants that have raised many concerns in recent years. Research focusing on phytotoxicity of PFOS and PFOA to higher plants is necessary for their risk assessments. However, few toxicity data exist for PFOS or PFOA and higher plants. Here we investigated phytotoxicity of PFOS and PFOA to Brassica chinensis root growth in six different Chinese soils varying widely in soil properties using a standardized root length assay. The effective concentrations of added PFOS and PFOA causing 50% inhibition (EC??) ranged from 95 to > 200 mg kg?¹ for PFOS and from 107 to 246 mg kg?¹ for PFOA, respectively, representing more than 2.1- and 2.3-fold variation among the tested soils. Regressions of soil PFOS and PFOA toxicity threshold values (EC(x) and NOECs) with various soil properties showed that the amount of organic matter was the most significant factor affecting their toxicity to B. chinensis. PMID:21440938

Zhao, Hongxia; Chen, Chuanbin; Zhang, Xin; Chen, Jingwen; Quan, Xie

2011-07-01

52

Emission inventory for PFOS in China: review of past methodologies and suggestions.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic chemical that has the potential for long-range transport in the environment. Its use in a wide variety of consumer products and industrial processes makes a detailed characterization of its emissions sources very challenging. These varied emissions sources all contribute to PFOS' existence within nearly all environmental media. Currently, China is the only country documented to still be producing PFOS, though there is no China PFOS emission inventory available. This study reviews the inventory methodologies for PFOS in other countries to suggest a China-specific methodology framework for a PFOS emission inventory. The suggested framework combines unknowns for PFOS-containing product penetration into the Chinese market with product lifecycle assumptions, centralizing these diverse sources into municipal sewage treatment plants. Releases from industrial sources can be quantified separately using another set of emission factors. Industrial sources likely to be relevant to the Chinese environment are identified. PMID:22125449

Lim, Theodore Chao; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jun; Deng, Shubo; Yu, Gang

2011-01-01

53

DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PFOS AND PFOA  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) are fully-fluorinated organic chemicals with a carbon backbone (typically varying from C-4 to C-14) and a functional group (usually carboxylic acid or sulfonic acid). These chemicals are man-made, exceptionally stable to metabolic and environmental de...

54

Concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and their associations with human semen quality measurements.  

PubMed

A total of 256 men were studied to evaluate whether serum concentrations of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) impacted semen quality or reproductive hormones. Blood and semen were collected and analyzed for perfluorochemicals and reproductive and thyroid hormones. Semen quality was assessed using standard clinical methods. Linear and logistic modeling was performed with semen profile measurements as outcomes and PFOS and PFOA in semen and plasma as explanatory variables. Adjusting for age, abstinence, and tobacco use, there was no indication that PFOA or PFOS was significantly associated with volume, sperm concentration, percent motility, swim-up motility and concentration, and directional motility (a function of motility and modal progression). Follicle-stimulating hormone was not associated with either PFOA or PFOS. Luteinizing hormone was positively correlated with plasma PFOA and PFOS, but not semen PFOS. Important methodological concerns included the lack of multiple hormonal measurements necessary to address circadian rhythms. PMID:21736937

Raymer, James H; Michael, Larry C; Studabaker, William B; Olsen, Geary W; Sloan, Carol S; Wilcosky, Timothy; Walmer, David K

2012-07-01

55

Multiplicity of nuclear receptor activation by PFOA and PFOS in primary human and rodent hepatocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) are surface active fluorochemicals that, due to their exceptional stability to degradation, are persistent in the environment. Both PFOA and PFOS are eliminated slowly in humans, with geometric mean serum elimination half-lives estimated at 3.5 and 4.8 years, respectively. The biological activity of PFOA and PFOS in rodents is attributed primarily to transactivation of the

J. A. Bjork; J. L. Butenhoff; K. B. Wallace

2011-01-01

56

Chronic Effects of Waterborne PFOS Exposure on Growth, Development, Reproduction and Hepatotoxicity in Zebrafish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—To evaluate ,the potential effects on growth ,and reproduction ,of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), the zebrafish fry (F0, 14 d post-fertilization, dpf) were chronically exposed to various concentrations of PFOS (0, 10, 50 and 250 µg l, of PFOS treated groups and resulted in mortality. Taken together, the study suggested that long-term maternal exposure zebrafish tolower concentration of PFOS could impair

Yongbing DU; Xiongjie SHI; Ke YU; Chunsheng LIU; Bingsheng ZHOU

57

Embryonic exposure to PFOS induces immunosuppression in the fish larvae of marine medaka.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a global pollutant that has been studied because of its health risks. PFOS has been shown to have immune toxicity. However, few studies have focused on the immune responses of fish larvae exposed to PFOS at early embryonic stages. In this study, the larvae of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) were evaluated for postnatal immune toxicity after embryonic exposure to PFOS (0, 1, 4 and 16mg/L) from 2 days post fertilization (dpf). The physiological indices, survival rates, PFOS elimination kinetics, liver histology and gene transcription in the fish larvae were examined after depuration. The elimination rate constant (ke) of PFOS in the fish larvae ranged from 0.04±0.00 to 0.07±0.01d(-1). Embryonic exposure to PFOS severely compromised the postnatal survival of fish larvae after depuration. The survival rate and body width decreased in a concentration dependent manner. PFOS impaired the liver structure in the fish larvae by enlarging the cell nuclei and damaging the cell structure. To explore the toxic mechanisms that affect the immune responses, fish larvae at 27 days post hatch (dph) were exposed to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to elicit an inflammatory response. The inflammatory response and immune-related genes were generally up-regulated in the fish larvae following embryonic exposure to 0mg/L PFOS. In contrast, the genes were all markedly down-regulated in the fish larvae following embryonic exposure to 1 and 4mg/L PFOS. These results suggest that early life exposure to PFOS could alter immunoregulation functions, leading to functional dysfunction or weakness of the immune system in fish larvae. The immunosuppression effects caused by PFOS could reduce the efficiency of immune defense mechanisms and increase the susceptibility to infectious agents, which may contribute to various detrimental health effects in the fish larvae. PMID:23545396

Fang, Chao; Huang, Qiansheng; Ye, Ting; Chen, Yajie; Liu, Liangpo; Kang, Mei; Lin, Yi; Shen, Heqing; Dong, Sijun

2013-06-01

58

Interactions in developmental toxicology: Concurrent exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and stress in pregnant mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maternal and developmental toxicity of combined exposure to restraint stress and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was assessed in mice. On gestation Days 6–18, four groups of plug-positive female mice were orally exposed to PFOS at 0, 1.5, 3 and 6mg\\/kg\\/day. Four additional groups of plug-positive animals received the same PFOS doses being restrained during 30min three times per day. A

Silvia Fuentes; M. Teresa Colomina; Judit Rodriguez; Paloma Vicens; José L. Domingo

2006-01-01

59

Identification and pattern of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) isomers in human serum and plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human serum and plasma from Sweden (n=17), the United Kingdom (the UK) (n=13) and Australia (n=40) were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The objective was to identify different perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) isomers. Similar isomer patterns typical for the electrochemical fluorination (ECF) process were found for all samples. The linear PFOS (L-PFOS) was the major isomer

Anna Kärrman; Ingrid Langlois; Bert van Bavel; Gunilla Lindström; Michael Oehme

2007-01-01

60

Global liver proteome analysis using iTRAQ labeling quantitative proteomic technology to reveal biomarkers in mice exposed to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS).  

PubMed

Proteomic analysis allows detection of changes of proteins expression in organisms exposed to environmental pollutants, leading to the discovery of biomarkers of exposure and understanding of the action mechanism of toxicity. In the present study, we applied iTRAQ labeling quantitative proteomic technology for global characterization of the liver proteome in mice exposed to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). This successfully identified and quantified 1038 unique proteins. Seventy-one proteins showed a significant expression change in the treated groups (1.0, 2.5, 5.0 mg/kg of body weight) compared with the control group, and 16 proteins displayed strong dose-dependent changes. Gene ontology analysis showed that these differential proteins were significantly enriched and mainly involved in lipid metabolism, transport, biosynthetic processes, and response to stimulus. We detected significantly increased expression levels of enzymes regulating peroxisomal ?-oxidation-including long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase, acyl-CoA oxidase 1, bifunctional enzyme, and 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase A. PFOS also significantly induced cytochrome P450s and glutathione S-transferases that are responsible for the metabolism of xenobiotic compounds. The expressions of several proteins with important biological functions-such as cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, and apolipoprotein A-I, also correlated with PFOS exposure. Together, the present results provide insight into the molecular mechanism and biomarkers for PFOS-induced effects. PMID:23046066

Tan, Feng; Jin, Yihe; Liu, Wei; Quan, Xie; Chen, Jingwen; Liang, Zhen

2012-11-01

61

PFOS induced precocious hatching of Oryzias melastigma--from molecular level to individual level.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) showed a risk of causing adverse effects including hatching of animals. However, there are no systematical studies about the effects of PFOS on fish embryo hatching. In this study, a precocious hatching was detected in Oryzias melastigma embryos upon PFOS exposure. The average hatching time was shortened and the hatching rate increased after PFOS exposure. The subsequent survival rate decreased significantly in the larvae hatching from the PFOS-treated embryos compared to the control. The influence occurred in a PFOS concentration-dependent manner. To further elucidate the inner molecular change, full length cDNAs of hatching enzymes HCE and LCE were first cloned in O. melastigma by degenerate RT-PCR and RACE. PFOS elicited a transcriptional response of both HCE and LCE. The expressions of both genes were significantly up-regulated earlier in the PFOS-treated group than in the control group. The activity of hatching enzyme also significantly increased upon exposure. In all, our results showed that exposure to PFOS could induce the hatching enzyme both at transcriptional and enzymatic activity level and further lead to the precocious hatching of O. melastigma embryos, which induced the decrease of the subsequent larvae survival. PMID:22273185

Wu, Xinlong; Huang, Qiansheng; Fang, Chao; Ye, Ting; Qiu, Ling; Dong, Sijun

2012-05-01

62

Ultrasonic-induced tonic convulsion in rats after subchronic exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS).  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is one of the persistent organic pollutants distributed widely in the global environment. We have found that a single oral administration of PFOS induced tonic convulsion in mice and rats when a brief ultrasonic stimulus was applied to the animals. The aim of this study is to examine whether the neurotoxicity is caused by subchronic dietary exposure to PFOS. Rats were treated with dietary PFOS at 0, 2, 8, 32 and 128 ppm for 13 weeks. Animals were carefully observed for pharmacotoxic signs and responses to the ultrasonic stimulus applied biweekly. PFOS increased liver weight and decreased food consumption and body weight. PFOS concentrations in the serum, brain, liver and kidney were increased almost proportional to its total dose, although the ratios of PFOS concentrations in tissues to total doses in the group treated with the highest concentration were a little lower. The ranges of relative concentrations in the brain, liver and kidney to serum concentration were 0.13 to 0.24, 2.7 to 6.3 and 0.82 to 1.6, respectively. PFOS alone did not cause any neurotoxic symptoms; however, 5 rats out of 6 showed tonic convulsion in the 6th week when ultrasonic stimulus was applied to the 128 ppm rats with the total PFOS dose of 338 mg/kg. The ultrasonic stimulus did not cause convulsion in the other groups. Histopathological examination including electron microscopic examination could not detect any abnormality in the brain. Because the acute oral dose of PFOS causing the convulsion was 250 mg/kg (Sato et al., 2009), the convulsion induced by PFOS seemed to depend on its total dose regardless of treatment schedule. PMID:21297341

Kawamoto, Kosuke; Sato, Itaru; Tsuda, Shuji; Yoshida, Midori; Yaegashi, Kaori; Saito, Norimitsu; Liu, Wei; Jin, Yihe

2011-01-01

63

Thyroid disruption effects of environmental level perfluorooctane sulfonates (PFOS) in Xenopus laevis.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), one of the emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs), has caused growing international concern especially related to the potential disruption in the development and function of thyroid system. Xenopus laevis is an amphibian species widely used as a suitable amphibian model for thyroid disruption research. To study the thyroid disruption effects related to PFOS exposure at environmental low levels, X. laevis tadpoles were exposed to 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 ?g/l PFOS in water respectively from stage 46/47 to stage 62. The results showed that the time to metamorphosis (presented by forelimb emergence, FLE) did not significantly change with PFOS exposure, but exhibited an increasing trend (except for 10 ?g/l exposure). Partial colloid depletion was observed for PFOS exposure, but no significant histological abnormality was observed in treatment groups. In addition, PFOS exposure resulted in up-regulation of thyroid hormone-regulated genes-thyroid receptor beta A (TR?A), basic transcription element-binding protein (BTEB) and type II deiodinase (DI2) mRNA expression, presented as an inverted U-shaped dose response pattern. However, the mRNA expression of type III deiodinase (DI3) remained unaffected compared with the control. These results demonstrated that PFOS might disrupt the thyroid system in X. laevis tadpoles regarding FLE changes and regulation alternation of thyroid hormone-regulated genes. Our study has raised new concerns for possible thyroid disruption of PFOS in amphibians at environmental relevant levels. PMID:21809121

Cheng, Yan; Cui, Yuan; Chen, Hui-ming; Xie, Wen-ping

2011-11-01

64

Toxicity evaluation of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in the liver of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has been manufactured for over 50 years in increasing quantities and has been used for several industrial and commercial aims. Due to persistence and bioaccumulation of this pollutant, it can be found worldwide in wildlife and humans. Biochemical effects of PFOS exposure are mainly studied in mammalian model species and information about effects on fish species remain

A. Hagenaars; D. Knapen; I. J. Meyer; K. van der Ven; P. Hoff; W. De Coen

2008-01-01

65

PFOS levels in the blood and liver of a small insectivorous songbird near a fluorochemical plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is the stable end product of the degradation of various perfluorinated compounds and is the predominant compound found in the environment and biota. PFOS is a widespread environmental contaminant that is found in a great diversity of wildlife species with more elevated tissue concentrations in animals from populated and industrialized areas. In this study we determined the

Tom Dauwe; Kristin Van de Vijver; Wim De Coen; Marcel Eens

2007-01-01

66

Effect of cationic and anionic surfactants on the sorption and desorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on natural sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorption and desorption of PFOS at water-sediment interfaces were investigated in the presence of a cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS). CTAB remarkably enhanced the sorption of PFOS on the sediment. In contrast, the influence of SDBS to the sorption of PFOS was concentration dependent. Two contrasting factors were responsible for the phenomenon.

Gang Pan; Chengxia Jia; Dongye Zhao; Chun You; Hao Chen; Guibin Jiang

2009-01-01

67

PFOS Induces Behavioral Alterations, Including Spontaneous Hyperactivity That Is Corrected by Dexamfetamine in Zebrafish Larvae.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a widely spread environmental contaminant. It accumulates in the brain and has potential neurotoxic effects. The exposure to PFOS has been associated with higher impulsivity and increased ADHD prevalence. We investigated the effects of developmental exposure to PFOS in zebrafish larvae, focusing on the modulation of activity by the dopaminergic system. We exposed zebrafish embryos to 0.1 or 1 mg/L PFOS (0.186 or 1.858 µM, respectively) and assessed swimming activity at 6 dpf. We analyzed the structure of spontaneous activity, the hyperactivity and the habituation during a brief dark period (visual motor response), and the vibrational startle response. The findings in zebrafish larvae were compared with historical data from 3 months old male mice exposed to 0.3 or 3 mg/kg/day PFOS throughout gestation. Finally, we investigated the effects of dexamfetamine on the alterations in spontaneous activity and startle response in zebrafish larvae. We found that zebrafish larvae exposed to 0.1 mg/L PFOS habituate faster than controls during a dark pulse, while the larvae exposed to 1 mg/L PFOS display a disorganized pattern of spontaneous activity and persistent hyperactivity. Similarly, mice exposed to 0.3 mg/kg/day PFOS habituated faster than controls to a new environment, while mice exposed to 3 mg/kg/day PFOS displayed more intense and disorganized spontaneous activity. Dexamfetamine partly corrected the hyperactive phenotype in zebrafish larvae. In conclusion, developmental exposure to PFOS in zebrafish induces spontaneous hyperactivity mediated by a dopaminergic deficit, which can be partially reversed by dexamfetamine in zebrafish larvae. PMID:24740186

Spulber, Stefan; Kilian, Pascal; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Norhamidah; Onishchenko, Natalia; Ulhaq, Mazhar; Norrgren, Leif; Negri, Sara; Di Tuccio, Marcello; Ceccatelli, Sandra

2014-01-01

68

Ecotoxicological effects of waterborne PFOS exposure on swimming performance and energy expenditure in juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus).  

PubMed

The potential risks of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are of increasing ecological concern. Swimming performance is linked to the fitness and health of fish. However, the impacts of PFOS on swimming performance remain largely unknown. We investigated the ecotoxicological effects of acute exposure to PFOS on the swimming performance and energy expenditure of juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus). The fish were exposed to a range of PFOS concentrations (0, 0.5, 2, 8 and 32 mg/L) for 48 hr. The spontaneous swimming activity, fast-start swimming performance, critical swimming speed (U(crit)) and active metabolic rate (AMR) of the goldfish were examined after exposure to PFOS. PFOS exposure resulted in remarkable effects on spontaneous activity. Motion distance was reduced, and the proportion of motionless time increased with increasing concentrations of PFOS. However, no significant alterations in the fast-start performance-related kinematic parameters, such as latency time, maximum linear velocity, maximum linear acceleration or escape distance during the first 120 msec after stimulus, were observed after PFOS exposure. Unexpectedly, although PFOS exposure had marked influences on the swimming oxygen consumption rates and AMR of goldfish, the U(crit) of the goldfish was not significantly affected by PFOS. This may result in a noteworthy increase in the energetic cost of transport. The overall results indicate that, in contrast to spontaneous activity, underlying swimming capabilities are maintained in goldfish after short-term exposure to PFOS, but energy expenditure during the process of swimming is dramatically aggravated. PMID:24520707

Xia, Jigang; Fu, Shijian; Cao, Zhendong; Peng, Jianglan; Peng, Jing; Dai, Tingting; Cheng, Lili

2013-08-01

69

Ecotoxicoproteomics in gills of the sentinel fish species, Cottus gobio, exposed to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS).  

PubMed

The environmental persistence, bioaccumulative tendency and potential toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have generated great concern. This study aimed at evaluating the toxicity of short-term PFOS exposure in gills of the European bullhead Cottus gobio, a candidate sentinel species, by monitoring the response of some enzymes (citrate synthase CS, cytochrome c oxidase CCO, and lactate dehydrogenase LDH), and by undertaking a proteomic analysis using 2D-DIGE. First, a 96-h exposure to 1mg PFOS/L significantly altered the activity of mitochondrial CS and CCO. Second, 2D-DIGE gels were used to compare gills from the control fish group with tissues from fish exposed for 96h to either 0.1 or 1mg PFOS/L. From the 27 protein spots displaying significant changes in abundance following PFOS exposure, a total of 20 different proteins were identified using nano LC-MS/MS and the Peptide and Protein Prophet of Scaffold software. The differentially expressed proteins that were identified are involved in the general stress response, ubiquitin-proteasome system, energy metabolism, and actin cytoskeleton, which provide clues on the cellular pathways and components mainly affected by PFOS. Moreover, our results showed that most proteins were differentially expressed at the low but not at the high PFOS concentration. This work provides insights into the biochemical and molecular events in PFOS-induced toxicity in gill tissue, and suggests that further studies on the identified proteins could provide crucial information to better understand the mechanisms of PFOS toxicity in fish. PMID:21392490

Dorts, Jennifer; Kestemont, Patrick; Marchand, Pierre-André; D'Hollander, Wendy; Thézenas, Marie-Laetitia; Raes, Martine; Silvestre, Frédéric

2011-05-01

70

Comparing measured and modelled PFOS concentrations in a UK freshwater catchment and estimating emission rates.  

PubMed

The lifecycle, sources and fate of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) continue to generate scientific and political interest, particularly since PFOS was listed by the Stockholm Convention and largely restricted in Europe. It continues to be detected in aquatic environments, with only limited studies into the on-going sources. This paper explores PFOS emissions discharged by the general population into a small catchment comprising two rivers in the UK. A sampling campaign was undertaken to improve our understanding of population-derived PFOS sources from sewage treatment plants (STPs) and in rivers. A corresponding modelling exercise allowed an emission estimate of 13?g/day/per capita to be derived for the Aire and Calder rivers. PFOS emission was linked to STP discharges bylinear regression of measured and modelled concntrations (R(2)=0.49-0.85). The model was able to accurately estimate the spatial trends of PFOS in the rivers, while predicted concentrations were within a factor of three based on per capita emission values taken from the literature. Measured PFOS concentrations in rivers suggested that emissions from STPs are partially dependent on treatment type, where plants with secondary or tertiary treatment such as activated sludge processes emit less PFOS, possibly due to increased partitioning and retention. With refinements based on the type of treatment at each STP, predictions were further improved. The total PFOS mass discharged annually via rivers from the UK has been estimated to be between 215 and 310kg, based on the per capita emission range derived in this study. PMID:24879369

Earnshaw, Mark R; Paul, Alexander G; Loos, Robert; Tavazzi, Simona; Paracchini, Bruno; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andrew J

2014-09-01

71

Developmental Toxicity of Perfluoroalkyl Acid Mixtures in CD-1 Mice  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) belong to a family of fluoro-organic compounds known as perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). PFAAs have been widely used in industrial and commercial applications, and have been found to be...

72

All-organic non-PFOS nonionic photoacid generating compounds with functionalized fluoroorganic sulfonate motif for chemically amplified resists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonionic photoacid generators (PAGs) based on photosensitive fluoroorganic sulfonate esters of imide and nitrobenzyl have been prepared and characterized. These new compounds produce fluoroorganic sulfonic acids that contain very few fluorine atoms (non-PFOS), which make them attractive PAGs for all advanced and emerging lithography. The structural influence of these new PAGs on sensitivity, resolution and line edge roughness (LER) was investigated by using DUV (254 nm) and e-beam lithography with ESCAP and ACRYLIC type positive tone resists. E-beam lithography evaluation indicates that these new fluroorganic sulfonic acids are sensitive and capable of providing image profiles down to 80 nm. The variation observed in sensitivity and LER at e-beam lithography was analyzed in terms of the structures of the photogenerated acids, chromophores and resists.

Ayothi, Ramakrishnan; Yi, Yi; Ober, Christopher K.; Putna, Steve; Yueh, Wang; Cao, Heidi

2006-03-01

73

Occurrence of perfluoroalkyl acids including perfluorooctane sulfonate isomers in Huai River Basin and Taihu Lake in Jiangsu Province, China.  

PubMed

The spatial distribution of 10 perfluoroalkyl acids including linear and branched (six monotrifluoromethyl isomers) perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in surface water was investigated in Huai River Basin and Taihu Lake in Jiangsu Province, China. In the water samples from Huai River Basin, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and PFOS were the predominant compounds (mean 18 ng/L and 4.7 ng/L, respectively), while in samples from Taihu Lake, PFOA, perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), and PFOS were the predominant compounds (mean 56 ng/L, 19 ng/L, and 15 ng/L, respectively). Branched PFOS (Br-PFOS) isomers accounting for 48.1% to 62.5% of total PFOS were enriched in all samples from Taihu Lake, compared to technical electrochemical fluorination (ECF) PFOS (Br-PFOS ?30.0%), while the similar phenomena were not found in samples from Huai River Basin (Br-PFOS 29.0-35.0%). Principal component analysis (PCA) on the percentages of the individual isomer showed that the first two components accounted for 78.4% and 15.3% of the overall observed data variance. Samples from Huai River Basin were grouped together with the ECF PFOS standard suggesting the profiles were similar, while samples from Taihu Lake were grouped by themselves, suggesting that isomer profiles in these samples were different from that of Huai River Basin. The obvious difference in isomer profiles probably results from the different environmental behaviors of PFOS isomers and/or unknown sources (PFOS or PFOS precursors). PMID:23253185

Yu, Nanyang; Shi, Wei; Zhang, Beibei; Su, Guanyong; Feng, Jianfang; Zhang, Xiaowei; Wei, Si; Yu, Hongxia

2013-01-15

74

Investigation of DNA damage treated with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on ZrO2/DDAB active nano-order film.  

PubMed

The interactions between DNA and small molecules with planar heterocyclic structure were indicated in previous researches. This study investigated the interactions between PFOS with linear chain structure and DNA. A new phenomenon of DNA damage due to PFOS using electrochemistry technique was proved. The data was obtained on a modified glassy carbon electrode, on which didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB), ZrO(2) and calf thymus DNA were immobilized layer-by-layer. Electrochemical response of DNA damage caused by PFOS was detected by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) using methylene blue (MB) as electro-active indicator. The current of MB attenuated obviously after DNA/ZrO(2)/DDAB/GCE were incubated in PFOS. The shift of MB reduction peak potential indicates that PFOS is bound with DNA in groove probably by the first step of hydrophobic interaction and then the second step of intercalation into the base of DNA. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) was used to elucidate in detail the intercalation of PFOS into DNA and the formation of hydrogen bond between PFOS and DNA base. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) proved the formation of adducts of DNA and PFOS. Moreover, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) indicates that the PFOS influence DNA structure and attenuate DNA charge transport. These results demonstrate that PFOS intercalated into DNA do induce DNA base damage. PMID:22459586

Lu, Liping; Xu, Laihui; Kang, Tianfang; Cheng, Shuiyuan

2012-05-15

75

Thyroid hormone status and pituitary function in adult rats given oral doses of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is widely distributed and persistent in humans and wildlife. Prior toxicological studies have reported decreased total and free thyroid hormones in serum without a major compensatory rise in thyrotropin (TSH) or altered thyroid gland histology. Alt...

76

Antioxidant defense system responses and DNA damage of earthworms exposed to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS).  

PubMed

The use of earthworms as a sublethal endpoint has significantly contributed to the ecological risk assessment of contaminated soils. Few studies have focused on the potential toxicity of PFOS to earthworms in the soil. In this work, artificial soils were tested, and contact filter paper studies were used. The results showed that earthworm growth was generally inhibited. The antioxidant activities of the enzymes superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were initially activated and then inhibited. Reduced glutathione content was observed, and malondialdehyde content was elevated over the duration of the exposure. These results suggested that PFOS induced oxidative stress in earthworms. In addition, the values of olive tail moment, tail DNA% and tail length using SCGE showed similar frequency distributions and increased with increases in the PFOS concentration. These results suggest that all concentrations of PFOS cause DNA damage. PMID:23257261

Xu, Dongmei; Li, Chandan; Wen, Yuezhong; Liu, Weiping

2013-03-01

77

Environmental contamination, human exposure and body loadings of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), focusing on Asian countries.  

PubMed

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are man-made fluorinated hydrocarbons, which are very persistent in the environment. Since the early 1980s, the usage of PFCs has sharply increased for a wide array of industrial and commercial applications. Being the most important PFC, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has received much attention. In the past decades, increasing surveys have been focused on this compound, to study its sources, fates and effects in the environment. According to the large production volume and wide usage in industrial and commercial products in the past, PFOS can be detected in various environmental media and matrix, even in human tissues. This article attempted to review the current status of PFOS contaminations in Asia, focusing on water systems, sediments, wide animals and human tissues. A special section is devoted to examine the pathways of human exposure to this compound, as well as human body loadings of PFOS and their possible association with diseases. PMID:22794940

Zhao, Y G; Wong, C K C; Wong, M H

2012-10-01

78

Comparison and evaluation of pharmacokinetics of PFOA and PFOS in the adult rat using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model.  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl acid carboxylates and sulfonates (PFAAs) have many consumer and industrial applications. The persistence and widespread distribution of PFAAs have brought them under intense scrutiny. Limited PK data for PFAAs is available for humans; however, toxicological and pharmacokinetic data exist for rats, which can be useful for cross-species extrapolation. In this work, PBPK models were developed for adult male and female rats to describe the pharmacokinetics of PFOA and PFOS. The models contain a description of saturable renal resorption, free fraction of chemical in plasma, and saturable binding in liver. Both male and female rat models for each chemical were consistent with available PK data resulting from IV, oral, and dietary dosing regimens. Predicted plasma concentration curves followed trends observed in experimental data, and model predictions were within a factor of two of experimental values. PFOA and PFOS rat model output is sensitive to parameters governing renal resorption, indicating that renal resorption is responsible for the long-half life. These models, along with the PFAA gestation and lactation models published in this issue, will help address concerns about possible health effects due to PFAA exposure in the fetus and neonate and will be useful in comparing PK across life stages. PMID:21565266

Loccisano, Anne E; Campbell, Jerry L; Butenhoff, John L; Andersen, Melvin E; Clewell, Harvey J

2012-07-01

79

[Effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) exposure on vitellogenin mRNA level in zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio)].  

PubMed

To study the endocrine disrupting effects and action mechanism of environmental levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on the aquatic species, the research for the effects of PFOS exposure on vitellogenin (VTG) mRNA level in livers of zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio) was conducted. Zebrafish were exposed to PFOS at four environmental low concentrations (0.1, 1, 10, 100 microg x L(-1)) for 21 days. Livers from male and female zebrafish were collected for RNA extraction, VTG1 and VTG3 mRNA levels were measured respectively using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results show that: 1) The VTG1 and VTG3 mRNA level in the livers of male zebrafish increased after PFOS exposure. The VTG1 mRNA level increased with a positive dose response pattern, with the maximum response at 100 microg x L(-1) PFOS exposure where a significant difference compared with the control was observed. The VTG3 mRNA level increased as an inverted U-shaped dose response pattern, indicated as hormesis effects, where significant differences compared with the control were observed at 10 and 100 microg x L(-1) PFOS exposure. 2) The VTG1 mRNA level in the livers of female zebrafish increased where a significant difference compared with the control was observed at 10 microg x L(-1) PFOS exposure, but the standard errors for mRNA level at 10 and 100 microg x L(-1) PFOS exposure were distinct. The VTG3 mRNA level in the livers of female zebrafish increased at 10 microg L(-1) PFOS exposure but had no significant difference compared with the control. Thus, it deduced that PFOS exposure could be active on the endocrine system of zebrafish with the oestrogenic simulation action mechanism, and the VTG1 and VTG3 mRNA level in the livers of zebrafish might be sensitive biomarkers for the endocrine disrupting effects evaluation after PFOS exposure, with different responding patterns related to the gene subtypes and sex. PMID:22946167

Cheng, Yan; Cui, Yuan; Dang, Zhi-Chao; Xie, Wen-Ping; Li, Hai-Shan; Yin, Huan-Huan; Chen, Hui-Ming

2012-06-01

80

Thyroid disruption effects of environmental level perfluorooctane sulfonates (PFOS) in Xenopus laevis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), one of the emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs), has caused growing international\\u000a concern especially related to the potential disruption in the development and function of thyroid system. Xenopus laevis is an amphibian species widely used as a suitable amphibian model for thyroid disruption research. To study the thyroid disruption\\u000a effects related to PFOS exposure at environmental low

Yan Cheng; Yuan Cui; Hui-ming Chen; Wen-ping Xie

81

Carcinogenic potency of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is the degradation product of many fluoroderivatives and a widespread environmental contaminant. Its persistence, its long half-life in humans and its toxicity explain high concerns on human health side effects in future. PFOS is suspected to be a non-genotoxic carcinogen. In the present work, we assessed carcinogenic potential of PFOS by studying morphological transformation in Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells; cell transformation of SHE cells is an in vitro assay recommended by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development to detect carcinogens, genotoxic or not. Genotoxicity of PFOS and expression of PPARs genes in SHE cells were also measured. PFOS was shown to induce cell transformation (P < 0.05) at non-cytotoxic concentrations (0.2 and 2 ?g/mL) (P ? 0.01). No genotoxic effect was recorded in the range of PFOS concentrations tested (2 × 10(-4) to 50 ?g/mL) using the single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay after 5 and 24 h of exposure. The expression of PPARs genes was measured by qPCR within the first 24 h and after 7 days of PFOS treatment. Results indicated an increased expression of ppar-?/? isoform as early as 24 h. After 7 days, the increase of ppar-?/? mRNA was significant at the concentrations inducing cell transformation (0.2 and 2 ?g/mL), while overexpression of ppar-? and ppar-? did not closely relate to effective concentrations. The results indicate that PFOS behave as a non-genotoxic carcinogen and impacted PPARs genes. Its cell transforming potential paralleled an increased expression of ppar-?/?. PMID:22057587

Jacquet, N; Maire, M A; Landkocz, Y; Vasseur, P

2012-02-01

82

Toxic effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxic effects of different concentrations (0.1–200mgL?1) of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on wheat (Triticumaestivum L.) were investigated using the growing and developmental indexes of wheat, including length and biomass of roots and leaves, chlorophyll, soluble protein, peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the seedlings and permeability of root cells. The results showed that PFOS had significant (p<0.05) effects on the growth

Baocheng Qu; Hongxia Zhao; Jiti Zhou

2010-01-01

83

Developmental toxicity and alteration of gene expression in zebrafish embryos exposed to PFOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent organic pollutant, the potential toxicity of which is causing great concern. In the present study, we employed zebrafish embryos to investigate the developmental toxicity of this compound. Four-hour post-fertilization (hpf) zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0.1, 0.5, 1, 3 and 5 mg\\/L PFOS. Hatching was delayed and hatching rates as well as larval survivorship were significantly

Xiongjie Shi; Yongbing Du; Paul K. S. Lam; Rudolf S. S. Wu; Bingsheng Zhou

2008-01-01

84

BINDING OF PERFLUORINATED FATTY ACIDS TO SERUM PROTEINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) accumulates in the liver and blood of exposed organisms. The potential for these surfactant molecules to interfere with hormone\\/protein interactions in blood is of concern given the importance of these interactions. The PFOS binding to serum proteins was investigated by assessing its ability to displace a variety of steroid hormones from specific binding proteins in the

Paul D. Jones; Wenyue Hu; Wim De Coen; John L. Newsted; John P. Giesy

2003-01-01

85

Immunotoxic changes associated with a 7-day oral exposure to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in adult male C57BL\\/6 mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is a widespread contaminant in the environment, as well as in wildlife and in humans. Toxicity\\u000a tests in rodents have raised concerns about potential developmental, reproductive, and systemic effects of PFOS. However,\\u000a there is little information about the effect of PFOS on immune system. In this study, adult male C57BL\\/6 mice were given by\\u000a gavage 0, 5, 20

Li Zheng; Guang-Hui Dong; Yi-He Jin; Qin-Cheng He

2009-01-01

86

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) affects hormone receptor activity, steroidogenesis, and expression of endocrine-related genes in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a widespread and persistent chemical in the environment. We investigated the endocrine-disrupting effects of PFOS using a combination of in vitro and in vivo assays. Reporter gene assays were used to detect receptor-mediated (anti-)estrogenic, (anti-)androgenic, and (anti-)thyroid hormone activities. The effect of PFOS on steroidogenesis was assessed both at hormone levels in the supernatant and at expression levels of hormone-induced genes in the H295R cell. A zebrafish-based short-term screening method was developed to detect the effect of PFOS on endocrine function in vivo. The results indicate that PFOS can act as an estrogen receptor agonist and thyroid hormone receptor antagonist. Exposure to PFOS decreased supernatant testosterone (T), increased estradiol (E2) concentrations in H295R cell medium and altered the expression of several genes involved in steroidogenesis. In addition, PFOS increased early thyroid development gene (hhex and pax8) expression in a concentration-dependent manner, decreased steroidogenic enzyme gene (CYP17, CYP19a, CYP19b) expression, and changed the expression pattern of estrogen receptor production genes (esr1, esr2b) after 500?µg/L PFOS treatment in zebrafish embryos. These results indicate that PFOS has the ability to act as an endocrine disruptor both in vitro and in vivo by disrupting the function of nuclear hormone receptors, interfering with steroidogenesis, and altering the expression of endocrine-related genes in zebrafish embryo. PMID:23074026

Du, Guizhen; Hu, Jialei; Huang, Hongyu; Qin, Yufeng; Han, Xiumei; Wu, Di; Song, Ling; Xia, Yankai; Wang, Xinru

2013-02-01

87

In vitro PFOS exposure on immune endpoints in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and mice.  

PubMed

Previous studies in our lab have shown that perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) modulates immune function in mice and correlates with many immune parameters in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). In this study, bottlenose dolphin peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and adult female B6C3F1 mouse splenocytes were exposed to environmentally relevant PFOS concentrations (0-5 µg ml(-1)) in vitro; and natural killer (NK) cell activity and lymphocyte proliferation (T and B cell) were assessed using the parallelogram approach for risk assessment. The objectives were: to corroborate results from the correlative studies in bottlenose dolphins with in vitro PFOS exposures; to evaluate the sensitivity of the mouse model as compared with bottlenose dolphins; and to assess risk using the parallelogram approach. In mouse cells, NK cell activity was decreased at in vitro doses of 0.01, 0.5, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 µg PFOS ml(-1) and increased at 5 µg ml(-1). Additionally, B cell proliferation was not altered, but T cell proliferation was decreased at all in vitro PFOS exposures. In dolphin cells, NK cell activity and T cell proliferation were not altered by in vitro PFOS exposure, but B cell proliferation exhibited a positive association in relation to PFOS dose. Overall, the data indicates that: the in vitro exposures of bottlenose dolphin PBLs exhibited results similar to reported correlative fields studies; that mice were generally more sensitive (for these selected endpoints) than were dolphins; and that the parallelogram approach could be used two-thirds of the time to predict the effects in bottlenose dolphins. PMID:23722986

Wirth, Jena R; Peden-Adams, Margie M; White, Natasha D; Bossart, Gregory D; Fair, Patricia A

2014-06-01

88

Developmental toxicity in white leghorn chickens following in ovo exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Studies show that perfluorinated compounds cause various toxicological effects; nevertheless, effects on immune function and developmental endpoints have not been addressed at length. This study examined the effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in white leghorn hatchlings on various developmental, immunological, and clinical health parameters. In addition, serum PFOS concentrations were determined by LC/MS/MS. Embryonic day (ED) 0 eggs were injected with either safflower oil/10% DMSO (control, 0 mg/kg egg wt) or PFOS in safflower oil/10% DMSO at 1, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg egg wt, and the chicks were grown to post-hatch day (PHD) 14. Treatment with PFOS did not affect hatch rate. Following in ovo exposure chicks exhibited increases in spleen mass at all treatment levels, in liver mass at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg egg wt, and in body length (crown-rump length) at the 5 mg/kg treatment. Right wings were shorter in all treatments compared to control. Increases in the frequency of brain asymmetry were evident in all treatment groups. SRBC-specific immunoglobulin (IgM and IgY combined) titers were decreased significantly at all treatment levels, while plasma lysozyme activity was increased at all treatment levels. The PHA skin test response decreased in relation to increasing PFOS dose. Serum concentrations where significant immunological, morphological, and neurological effects were observed at the lowest dose (1 mg/kg egg wt) averaged 154 ng PFOS/g serum. These concentrations fall within environmental ranges reported in blood samples from wild caught avian species; thereby, verifying that the environmental egg concentrations used for the injections do indeed relate to serum levels in hatchlings that are also environmentally relevant. These data indicate that immune alterations and brain asymmetry can occur in birds following in ovo exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of PFOS and demonstrates the need for further research on the developmental effects of perfluorinated compounds in various species. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

Peden-Adams, M. M.; Stuckey, J. E.; Gaworecki, K. M.; Berger-Ritchie, J.; Bryant, K.; Jodice, P. G.; Scott, T. R.; Ferrario, J. B.; Guan, B.; Vigo, C.; Boone, J. S.; McGuinn, W. D.; DeWitt, J. C.; Keil, D. E.

2009-01-01

89

Toxic effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plant.  

PubMed

Toxic effects of different concentrations (0.1-200mgL(-1)) of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on wheat (Triticumaestivum L.) were investigated using the growing and developmental indexes of wheat, including length and biomass of roots and leaves, chlorophyll, soluble protein, peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the seedlings and permeability of root cells. The results showed that PFOS had significant (p<0.05) effects on the growth of wheat seedlings under the experimental conditions. At the low concentration (less than 10mgL(-1)), PFOS could slightly stimulate the growth of wheat seedlings and induce the synthesis of chlorophyll and soluble protein in wheat seedlings, and whereas exceeding 10mgL(-1) PFOS treatment could exert inhibition to the elongation and biomass of roots and leaves, and lead to damage to chlorophyll accumulation and soluble protein synthesis. Furthermore, the activities of SOD and POD in wheat roots and leaves were enhanced in the tested PFOS concentrations of 0.1-10mgL(-1). However, when the concentration of PFOS was raised up to 200mgL(-1), the activity of SOD and POD decreased significantly with 12.6% and 33.7% inhibition for roots compared to the control respectively, which indicated the antioxidative defensive system in wheat seedlings might be damaged by PFOS. In addition, the permeability of wheat root cells was enhanced at the tested concentration of 0.1-200mgL(-1). When the concentration was increased to 200mgL(-1), the electrolyte leakage was promoted 2.73 times higher than in the control. PMID:20193959

Qu, Baocheng; Zhao, Hongxia; Zhou, Jiti

2010-04-01

90

THE DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROALKYL ACIDS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Perfluoroalkyl acids such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have applications in numerous industrial and consumer products. Although the toxicology of some of these compounds has been investigated in the past, the widespread pr...

91

Toxicogenomic profiling of perfluorononanoic acid in wild-type and PPARa-null mice  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant and a developmental toxicant in laboratory animals. Like other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOA) and perfluoroalkyl acid (PFOS), PFNA is a known activator ofperoxisome prol...

92

Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and Related Perfluorinated Compounds in Human Maternal and Cord Blood Samples: Assessment of PFOS Exposure in a Susceptible Population during Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Fluorinated organic compounds (FOCs), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorooctane sulfonylamide (PFOSA), are widely used in the manufacture of plastic, electronics, textile, and construction material in the apparel, leather, and upholstery industries. FOCs have been detected in human blood samples. Studies have indicated that FOCs may be detrimental to rodent development possibly by affecting thyroid hormone levels. In the present study, we determined the concentrations of FOCs in maternal and cord blood samples. Pregnant women 17–37 years of age were enrolled as subjects. FOCs in 15 pairs of maternal and cord blood samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography–electrospray mass spectrometry coupled with online extraction. The limits of quantification of PFOS, PFOA, and PFOSA in human plasma or serum were 0.5, 0.5, and 1.0 ng/mL, respectively. The method enables the precise determination of FOCs and can be applied to the detection of FOCs in human blood samples for monitoring human exposure. PFOS concentrations in maternal samples ranged from 4.9 to 17.6 ng/mL, whereas those in fetal samples ranged from 1.6 to 5.3 ng/mL. In contrast, PFOSA was not detected in fetal or maternal samples, whereas PFOA was detected only in maternal samples (range, < 0.5 to 2.3 ng/mL, 4 of 15). Our results revealed a high correlation between PFOS concentrations in maternal and cord blood (r2 = 0.876). However, we did not find any significant correlations between PFOS concentration in maternal and cord blood samples and age bracket, birth weight, or levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone or free thyroxine. Our study revealed that human fetuses in Japan may be exposed to relatively high levels of FOCs. Further investigation is required to determine the postnatal effects of fetal exposure to FOCs.

Inoue, Koichi; Okada, Fumio; Ito, Rie; Kato, Shizue; Sasaki, Seiko; Nakajima, Sonomi; Uno, Akiko; Saijo, Yasuaki; Sata, Fumihiro; Yoshimura, Yoshihiro; Kishi, Reiko; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki

2004-01-01

93

Deep sequencing-based transcriptome profiling analysis of Oryzias melastigma exposed to PFOS.  

PubMed

Oryzias melastigma is a newly emerging marine fish model. However, the application of this model has been restricted because of the lack of genomic information. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a persistent organic pollutant, is widely distributed in the estuarine/marine environment. The toxicological effects of PFOS on organisms, especially on marine fish species, remain largely unknown. In this study, the transcriptome of O. melastigma was sequenced using newly developed sequencing technology (Illumina RNA-seq). A total of 145,394 unigenes were obtained with 565 bp of unigene N50. These genes were further enriched in various molecular pathways involved in the toxicological response. We also investigated the transcriptional response of O. melastigma embryos after PFOS exposure from 2 days post fertilization (dpf) to 6 dpf by digital gene expression (DGE) technology. The differentially expressed genes were related to neurobehavioral defects, mitochondrial dysfunction and the metabolism of proteins and fats. A further quantitative RT-PCR study showed the down-regulation of ATP synthase and the up-regulation of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), which indicated mitochondrial dysfunction. In all, the transcriptome data represent the most comprehensive expressed gene catalog for O. melastigma and will serve as an important reference for various marine fish that are yet to be sequenced. The transcriptome profiling of O. melastigma embryos after exposure to PFOS are also expected to improve our current understanding of the molecular toxicology of PFOS. PMID:22613580

Huang, Qiansheng; Dong, Sijun; Fang, Chao; Wu, Xinlong; Ye, Ting; Lin, Yi

2012-09-15

94

Prenatal PFOS exposure induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in the lung of rat off-spring.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) could induce neonatal pulmonary injuries in rodents. The aim of this study was to investigate the underlying mode of action. Pregnant rats were dosed orally with PFOS (0, 0.1 and 2.0mg/kgd) from gestation days (GD) 1 to 21. Lung samples from postnatal day (PND) 0 and 21 pups were analyzed for the toxic effects of PFOS. The results showed that maternal exposure to 2.0mg/kgd PFOS caused severe histopathological changes along with marked oxidative injuries and cell apoptosis in offspring lungs; at the same time, the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2, release of cytochrome c (Cyt c) from mitochondria to cytoplasm, expressions of Fas and Fas-L, and activities of caspase-3, -8 and -9 were up-regulated correspondingly. The results indicate that oxidative stress and both intrinsic and extrinsic cell death pathways were involved in prenatal PFOS exposure-induced injuries in postnatal lungs. PMID:21440054

Chen, Tian; Zhang, Ling; Yue, Jun-qiu; Lv, Zi-quan; Xia, Wei; Wan, Yan-jian; Li, Yuan-yuan; Xu, Shun-qing

2012-07-01

95

A comparative study on sorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) by chars, ash and carbon nanotubes.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), as one of emerging contaminants, has been attracting increasing concerns in recent years. Sorption of PFOS by maize straw- and willow-derived chars (M400 and W400), maize straw-origin ash (MA) as well as three carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was studied in this work. The sorption kinetics of PFOS by the six adsorbents was well fitted by the pseudo-second-order model. CNTs reached equilibrium in 2h, much faster than those by chars (384 h) and ash (48 h). According to the sorption isotherms, both single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and MA had high sorption capacities (over 700 mg g(-1)), while the two chars had low sorption capacities (below 170 mg g(-1)) caused by their small BET surface area. In the case of MA, due to its positively charged surface, both hydrophobic interaction and electrostatic attraction involved in the sorption, and the formation of hemi-micelles further favored the sorption. This study suggested that SWCNT and MA were effective adsorbents for PFOS removal from water. Compared to SWCNT, MA is low cost and easy to obtain, so it could be a preferred adsorbent for PFOS removal. PMID:21531440

Chen, Xi; Xia, Xinghui; Wang, Xilong; Qiao, Jinping; Chen, Huiting

2011-05-01

96

Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Increases the Genotoxicity of Cyclophosphamide in the Micronucleus Assay with V79 Cells: Further Proof of Alterations in Cell Membrane Properties Caused by PFOS (3 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Aim and Scope  \\u000a Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS; C8F17SO3-) is a fully fluorinated organic compound which has been manufactured for decades\\u000a and was used widely in industrial and commercial products. The recent toxicological knowledge of PFOS mainly concerns mono-substance\\u000a exposures of PFOS to biological systems, leaving the potential interactive effects of PFOS with other compounds as an area\\u000a where understanding is

Harald Färber; Paul Jones; John Giesy; Magnus Engwall

2007-01-01

97

Evaluation of the toxicological effects of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study we evaluated the toxicological effects of a scarcely documented environmental pollutant, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), on selected biochemical endpoints in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Juvenile organisms were exposed to PFOS through a single intraperitoneal injection (liver concentrations ranging from 16 to 864 ng\\/g after 5 days of exposure) and after 1 and 5 days effects

P. T Hoff; W Van Dongen; E. L Esmans; R Blust; W. M De Coen

2003-01-01

98

Microcosm Evaluation of the Toxicity and Risk to Aquatic Macrophytes from Perfluorooctane Sulfonic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) is an anthropogenic contaminant detected in various environmental and biologic matrices. This compound is a fluorinated surfactant, a class of molecules renowned for their persistence and their global distribution but for which few ecotoxicological data are currently available, especially under field conditions. The toxicity of PFOS to the aquatic macrophytes Myriophyllum sibiricum and M. spicatum was

M. L. Hanson; P. K. Sibley; R. A. Brain; S. A. Mabury; K. R. Solomon

2005-01-01

99

Linear and branched perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) isomer patterns differ among several tissues and blood of polar bears.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a globally distributed persistent organic pollutant that has been found to bioaccumulate and biomagnify in aquatic food webs. Although principally in its linear isomeric configuration, 21-35% of the PFOS manufactured via electrochemical fluorination is produced as a branched structural isomer. PFOS isomer patterns were investigated in multiple tissues of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from East Greenland. The liver (n = 9), blood (n = 19), brain (n = 16), muscle (n = 5), and adipose (n = 5) were analyzed for linear PFOS (n-PFOS), as well as multiple mono- and di-trifluoromethyl-substituted branched isomers. n-PFOS accounted for 93.0 ± 0.5% of ?-PFOS isomer concentrations in the liver, whereas the proportion was significantly lower (p<0.05) in the blood (85.4 ± 0.5%). Branched isomers were quantifiable in the liver and blood, but not in the brain, muscle, or adipose. In both the liver and blood, 6-perfluoromethylheptane sulfonate (P6MHpS) was the dominant branched isomer (2.61 ± 0.10%, and 3.26 ± 0.13% of ?-PFOS concentrations, respectively). No di-trifluoromethyl-substituted isomers were detectable in any of the tissues analyzed. These tissue-specific isomer patterns suggest isomer-specific pharmacokinetics, perhaps due to differences in protein affinities, and thus differences in protein interactions, as well transport, absorption, and/or metabolism in the body. PMID:23920361

Greaves, Alana K; Letcher, Robert J

2013-09-01

100

PARTIAL LIFE-CYCLE TOXICITY AND BIOCONCENTRATION MODELLING OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE NORTHERN LEOPARD FROG (RANA PIPIENS)  

EPA Science Inventory

A number of recent monitoring studies have demonstrated elevated concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in humans and wildlife throughout the world. Although no longer manufactured in the U.S., the global distribution and relative persistence of PFOS indicates a need ...

101

Gestational and lactational exposure to potassium perfluorooctanesulfonate (K +PFOS) in rats: Toxicokinetics, thyroid hormone status, and related gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), a persistent and accumulative compound, is widely distributed in humans and wildlife. Human exposure can occur early in development, as evidenced by the detection of PFOS in umbilical cord blood and breast milk. As part of a developmental neurotoxicology study for which developmental endpoints, including those related to the developing nervous system, have been reported separately, groups of

Shu-Ching Chang; David J. Ehresman; James A. Bjork; Kendall B. Wallace; George A. Parker; Donald G. Stump; John L. Butenhoff

2009-01-01

102

Preliminary screening of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other fluorochemicals in fish, birds and marine mammals from Greenland and the Faroe Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive screening analyses of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and related perfluorinated compounds in biota samples from all over the world have identified PFOS as a global pollutant and have shown its bioaccumulation into higher trophic levels in the food chain. Perfluorinated compounds have been found in remote areas as the Arctic. In this study a preliminary screening of PFOS and related

Rossana Bossi; Frank F. Riget; Rune Dietz; Christian Sonne; Patrik Fauser; Maria Dam; Katrin Vorkamp

2005-01-01

103

Mineralization behavior of fluorine in perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) during thermal treatment of lime-conditioned sludge.  

PubMed

The fate and transport of the fluorine in perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) during the thermal treatment of lime-conditioned sludge were observed using both qualitative and quantitative X-ray diffraction techniques. Two main fluorine mineralization mechanisms leading to the substantial formation of CaF2 and Ca5(PO4)3F phases were observed. They had a close relationship with the thermal treatment condition and the PFOS content of the sludge. At low temperatures (300-600 °C), CaF2 dominated in the product and increases in treatment time and temperature generally enhanced the fluorine transformation. However, at higher temperatures (700-900 °C), increases in treatment time and temperature had a negative effect on the overall efficiency of the fluorine crystallization. The results suggest that in the high temperature environment there were greater losses of gaseous products such as HF and SiF4 in the transformation of CaF2 to Ca5(PO4)3F, the hydrolysis of CaF2, and the reaction with SiO2. The quantitative analysis also showed that when treating sludge with low PFOS content at high temperatures, the formation of Ca5(PO4)3F may be the primary mechanism for the mineralization of the fluorine in PFOS. The overall results clearly indicate the variations in the fate and transport of fluorine in PFOS when the sludge is subject to different PFOS contents and treatment types, such as heat drying or incineration. PMID:23360134

Wang, Fei; Shih, Kaimin; Lu, Xingwen; Liu, Chengshuai

2013-03-19

104

PFOS induced lipid metabolism disturbances in BALB/c mice through inhibition of low density lipoproteins excretion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Male BALB/c mice fed with either a regular or high fat diet were exposed to 0, 5 or 20 mg/kg perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) for 14 days. Increased body weight, serum glucose, cholesterol and lipoprotein levels were observed in mice given a high fat diet. However, all PFOS-treated mice got reduced levels of serum lipid and lipoprotein. Decreasing liver glycogen content was also observed, accompanied by reduced serum glucose levels. Histological and ultrastructural examination detected more lipid droplets accumulated in hepatocytes after PFOS exposure. Moreover, transcripitonal activity of lipid metabolism related genes suggests that PFOS toxicity is probably unrelevant to PPAR?'s transcription. The present study demonstrates a lipid disturbance caused by PFOS and thus point to its role in inhibiting the secretion and normal function of low density lipoproteins.

Wang, Ling; Wang, Yu; Liang, Yong; Li, Jia; Liu, Yuchen; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Aiqian; Fu, Jianjie; Jiang, Guibin

2014-04-01

105

PFOS and PFOA in influents, effluents, and biosolids of Chinese wastewater treatment plants and effluent-receiving marine environments.  

PubMed

Concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in influents, effluents and sludges were investigated by analyzing the samples from twelve wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in China. The highest concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in influents were found to occur in municipal and industrial WWTPs, respectively. Relative to PFOS and PFOA concentrations in influents, elevated concentrations were observed in effluents from WWTPs applying anaerobic-anoxic-oxic wastewater treatment process. Importantly, application of previously reported organic carbon normalized partition coefficients (K(OC)) derived from sediment-based sorption experiments appear to underestimate the PFOS and PFOA levels in biosolids quantified in the current study. PFOS and PFOA levels in effluents were found to be approximately 27 and 2 times higher than those detected in the effluent-receiving seawater, respectively. However, their levels in this area of seawater haven't exceeded the provisional short-term health advisories in drinking water issued by U.S. EPA yet. PMID:22763327

Chen, Hong; Zhang, Can; Han, Jianbo; Yu, Yixuan; Zhang, Peng

2012-11-01

106

PFOS induced lipid metabolism disturbances in BALB/c mice through inhibition of low density lipoproteins excretion  

PubMed Central

Male BALB/c mice fed with either a regular or high fat diet were exposed to 0, 5 or 20?mg/kg perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) for 14 days. Increased body weight, serum glucose, cholesterol and lipoprotein levels were observed in mice given a high fat diet. However, all PFOS-treated mice got reduced levels of serum lipid and lipoprotein. Decreasing liver glycogen content was also observed, accompanied by reduced serum glucose levels. Histological and ultrastructural examination detected more lipid droplets accumulated in hepatocytes after PFOS exposure. Moreover, transcripitonal activity of lipid metabolism related genes suggests that PFOS toxicity is probably unrelevant to PPAR?'s transcription. The present study demonstrates a lipid disturbance caused by PFOS and thus point to its role in inhibiting the secretion and normal function of low density lipoproteins.

Wang, Ling; Wang, Yu; Liang, Yong; Li, Jia; Liu, Yuchen; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Aiqian; Fu, Jianjie; Jiang, Guibin

2014-01-01

107

GC AND LC CHROMATOGRAPHIC AND EI, CE, +/- CI, AND ES MASS SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SALTS AND AMIDES OF PERFLUOROOCTANESULFONIC ACID  

EPA Science Inventory

In 1976, fluorine in human blood serum was thought to be present as perfluorooctanic acid; however, in the 1990s it was correctly identified by LC/MS as perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS). PFOS was both a commercial product and an end-stage metabolite of numerous substituted amides ...

108

MATERNAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE MOUSE  

EPA Science Inventory

MATERNAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE MOUSE. J.R. Thibodeaux1, R.G. Hanson1, B.E. Grey1, B.D. Barbee1, J.H. Richards2, J.L. Butenhoff3, J.M. Rogers1, C. Lau1. 1Reprod. Tox. Div., 2Exp. Tox. Div., NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, Research Triangle Pa...

109

Binding of PFOS to serum albumin and DNA: insight into the molecular toxicity of perfluorochemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Health risk from exposure of perfluorochemicals (PFCs) to wildlife and human has been a subject of great interest for understanding their molecular mechanism of toxicity. Although much work has been done, the toxigenicity of PFCs remains largely unknown. In this work, the non-covalent interactions between perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and serum albumin (SA) and DNA were investigated under normal physiological

Xian Zhang; Ling Chen; Xun-Chang Fei; Yin-Sheng Ma; Hong-Wen Gao

2009-01-01

110

EFFECTS OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) ON THYROID HORMONE STATUS IN ADULT AND NEONATAL RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

EFFECTS OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) ON THYROID HORMONE STATUS IN ADULT AND NEONATAL RATS. M.N. Logan1, J.R. Thibodeaux2, R.G. Hanson2, C. Lau2. 1North Carolina Central University, Durham, NC, 2Reprod. Tox. Div. NHEERL, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC. Perfluor...

111

EFFECTS OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) ON MATERNAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL THYROID STATUS IN THE RAT  

EPA Science Inventory

EFFECTS OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) ON MATERNAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL THYROID STATUS IN THE RAT. JR Thibodeaux1, R Hanson1, B Grey1, JM Rogers1, ME Stanton2, and C Lau1. 1Reproductive Toxicology Division; 2Neurotoxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, Research Triangle P...

112

Thyroid hormone status and pituitary function in adult rats given oral doses of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionPerfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is widely distributed and persistent in humans and wildlife. Prior toxicological studies have reported decreased total and free thyroid hormones in serum without a major compensatory rise in thyrotropin (TSH) or altered thyroid gland histology. Although these animals (rats, mice and monkeys) might have maintained an euthyroid state, the basis for hypothyroxinemia remained unclear. We undertook this study

Shu-Ching Chang; Julie R. Thibodeaux; Mary L. Eastvold; David J. Ehresman; James A. Bjork; John W. Froehlich; Christopher Lau; Ravinder J. Singh; Kendall B. Wallace; John L. Butenhoff

2008-01-01

113

HEPATIC GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES OF RATS EXPOSED TO PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN UTERO  

EPA Science Inventory

Hepatic Gene Expression Profiles of Rats Exposed to Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in utero. J.A. Bjork1, J.M. Berthiaume1, C. Lau2, J. L. Butenhoff3, and K.B. Wallace1 1Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Minnesota School of Medicine, Dulut...

114

Solid-phase extraction of PFOA and PFOS from surface waters on functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes followed by UPLC-ESI-MS.  

PubMed

This is the first report on the analytical application of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbents for determination in surface waters, at the nanograms per litre level, of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), the two predominant contaminants among the perfluorinated compounds detected. After the preconcentration step, the quantification was achieved by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. To increase the extraction efficiency towards these amphiphilic compounds, MWCNTs were derivatized with amino-terminated alkyl chains, thus producing a mixed-mode material (MWCNT-R-NH2) combining hydrophobic affinity and anion-exchange properties. Experiments with distilled, tap and river water (pH 3) spiked at different concentrations (10, 15, 30, 100, 200 and 500 ng L(-1)) provided absolute recoveries in the range 71-102 % (n?=?3, relative standard deviations less than 10 %). Analytes were eluted in a single fraction with 6 mL methanol (3?×?10(-4) M NaOH). The within-laboratory reproducibility of the MWCNT-R-NH2 SPE sorbent was evaluated with raw river water, and relative standard deviations less than 15 % were obtained (n?=?4). Preconcentration factors up to 125 (500-mL sample) made it possible to quantify PFOA and PFOS at low nanograms per litre levels in naturally contaminated river water. The method quantification limits of 10 ng L(-1) for PFOA and 15 ng L(-1) for PFOS were well below the advisory levels for drinking and surface waters. Comparison with non-derivatized MWCNTs highlighted the role of functionalization in improving the adsorption affinity towards these contaminants. MWCNT-R-NH2 maintained their extraction capability for at least eight repeated adsorption/desorption cycles. PMID:24652153

Speltini, Andrea; Maiocchi, Mattia; Cucca, Lucia; Merli, Daniele; Profumo, Antonella

2014-06-01

115

Serum Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) Concentrations and Liver Function Biomarkers in a Population with Elevated PFOA Exposure  

PubMed Central

Background: Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) persist in the environment and are found in relatively high concentrations in animal livers. Studies in humans have reported inconsistent associations between PFOA and liver enzymes. Objectives: We examined the cross-sectional association between serum PFOA and PFOS concentrations with markers of liver function in adults. Methods: The C8 Health Project collected data on 69,030 persons; of these, a total of 47,092 adults were included in the present analysis. Linear regression models were fitted for natural log (ln)-transformed values of alanine transaminase (ALT), ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and direct bilirubin on PFOA, PFOS, and potential confounders. Logistic regression models were fitted comparing deciles of PFOA or PFOS in relation to high biomarker levels. A multilevel analysis comparing the evidence for association of PFOA with liver function at the individual level within water districts to that at the population level between water districts was also performed. Results: ln-PFOA and ln-PFOS were associated with ln-ALT in linear regression models [PFOA: coefficient, 0.022; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.018, 0.025; PFOS: coefficient, 0.020; 95% CI: 0.014, 0.026] and with raised ALT in logistic regression models [with a steady increase in the odds ratio (OR) estimates across deciles of PFOA and PFOS; PFOA: OR = 1.10; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.13; PFOS: OR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.18]. There was less consistent evidence of an association of PFOA and GGT or bilirubin. The relationship with bilirubin appears to rise at low levels of PFOA and to fall again at higher levels. Conclusions: These results show a positive association between PFOA and PFOS concentrations and serum ALT level, a marker of hepatocellular damage.

Gallo, Valentina; Leonardi, Giovanni; Genser, Bernd; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Frisbee, Stephanie J.; Karlsson, Lee; Ducatman, Alan M.

2012-01-01

116

Chronic PFOS exposures induce life stage-specific behavioral deficits in adult zebrafish and produce malformations in F1 offspring  

PubMed Central

Perfluorooctanesulphonicacid (PFOS) is an organic contaminant that is ubiquitous in the environment, wildlife, and humans. Few studies have assessed the effects of chronic PFOS exposure on central nervous system function in aquatic organisms. The present study defined the behavioral effects of varying life span chronic exposures to low dose PFOS in zebrafish. The zebrafish were treated with vehicle control or 0.5?M PFOS during 1–21, 21–120, or 1–120 day post fertilization (dpf). Chronic PFOS exposure impaired the adult zebrafish behavior mode under the tapping stimulus. The movement speed of 1–120 dpf exposed fish was significantly increased compared with control, while 1–21 and 21–120 dpf exposed groups were not severely affected. PFOS residues in F1 embryos derived from parental exposure during both the 1–120 and 21–120 dpf groups was significantly higher than control, and F1 embryos in these two groups showed obvious malformations, such as uninflated swim bladder (USB) and bent spine (BS). Larvae of the parental exposed to PFOS from 1–21 or 21–120 dpf elicited a higher swim rate than control in both the light and dark periods. Embryos derived from the 1–120 dpf group showed a statistically lower speed in the light period and a higher speed in the dark period as compared with control. Though there is little PFOS residue in 1–21 dpf group, the adverse behavioral effects on both adult and F1 larvae indicate that exposure during the first 21 dpf induce long-term neurobehavior toxicity. Our findings demonstrate that chronic exposure to low dose PFOS in different life stage adversely impacts adult behavior, subsequent offspring malformation, and larval behavior.

Chen, Jiangfei; Huang, Changjiang; Das, Siba R.; La Du, Jane; Corvi, Margaret M.; Bai, Chenglian; Chen, Yuanhong; Tanguay, Robert L.; Dong, Qiaoxiang

2014-01-01

117

Toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid to plants and aquatic invertebrates.  

PubMed

Acute toxicities of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were tested on four freshwater species and three plant species. PFOS was more toxic than PFOA for all species tested in this study. Similar time-response patterns of PFOS and PFOA toxicity were observed for each tested species. Values of the 48-h LC(50) of PFOS for all test species ranged from 27 to 233 mg/L and values of the 96-h LC(50) for three of the species ranged from 10 to 178 mg/L. Values of the 48-h LC(50) of PFOA for all test species ranged from 181 to 732 mg/L and values of the 96-h LC(50) for three of the species ranged from 337 to 672 mg/L. The most sensitive freshwater species to PFOS was green neon shrimp (Neocaridina denticulate) with a 96-h LC(50) of 10 mg/L. Of the aquatic organisms tested, the aquatic snail (Physa acuta) always has the highest resistance to PFOS or PFOA toxicity over each exposure period. Both PFOS and PFOA had no obvious adverse effect on seed germination for all three plant species. Five-day EC(50) of root elongation was more sensitive to LC(50) of seed germination in this study. Based on EC(10), EC(50), and NOECs, the 5-day root elongation sensitivity of test plants to both PFOS and PFOA was in the order of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) > pakchoi (Brassica rapa chinensis) > cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Based on the results of this study and other published literature, it is suggested that current PFOS and PFOA levels in freshwater may have no acute harmful ecological impact on the aquatic environment. However, more research on the long-term ecological effects of PFOS and PFOA on aquatic fauna are needed to provide important information to adequately assess ecological risk of PFOS and PFOA. PMID:18461560

Li, Mei-Hui

2009-02-01

118

Long-term effects of a binary mixture of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and bisphenol A (BPA) in zebrafish (Danio rerio).  

PubMed

Previous in vitro studies have reported the potential of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) to increase the toxicity of other compounds. Given the complex nature of mixtures of environmental pollutants in aquatic systems together with the persistent and bioaccumulative properties of PFOS, this study aimed at evaluating the long-term effects and toxicity-increasing behavior of PFOS in vivo using the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Fish were maintained in flow-through conditions and exposed to single and binary mixtures of PFOS and the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) at nominal concentrations of 0.6, 100 and 300 ?g/L and 10, 200 and 400 ?g/L, respectively. F1 and F2 generations were evaluated from 0 to 180 days post-fertilization (dpf) and F3 generation was evaluated from 0 to 14 dpf. Survival was documented in all generations, whereas growth, fecundity, fertilization rate, histological alterations (in liver, thyroid and gonads) and vitellogenin (Vtg) induction in males were evaluated for F1 and F2 generations. Data for growth were collected at 30, 90 and 180 dpf and data for histological evaluations and Vtg induction were analyzed at 90 and 180 dpf. No significant effects on survival were seen in the F1 generation in any treatment following 180 d exposure; however, in the F2 generation, 300 ?g/L PFOS both alone and in combination with BPA (10, 200 and 400 ?g/L) induced 100% mortality within 14 dpf. PFOS (0.6 and 300 ?g/L) did not increase the Vtg-inducing potential of BPA (10, 200 and 400 ?g/L) in a binary mixture. In contrast, binary mixtures with 300 ?g/L PFOS suppressed the Vtg levels in F1 males at 90 dpf when compared to single BPA exposures. Whereas the lowest tested PFOS concentration (0.6 ?g/L) showed an estrogenic potential in terms of significant Vtg induction, Vtg levels were generally found to decrease with increasing PFOS-exposure in both F1 and F2 generations. In F1 generation, BPA-exposure was found to increase Vtg levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Histological analyses of F1 and F2 fish revealed hepatocellular vacuolization, predominantly in males, following PFOS-exposure both alone and in combination with BPA. Hepatotoxicity by PFOS might explain the suppressed Vtg response seen in PFOS-exposed F1 and F2 males. PFOS-exposed fish also showed granulomas, mainly in the liver. Given previous reports of the immunosuppressive potential of PFOS, the granulomas could be a consequence of a PFOS-induced reduction of the immune response potential. In conclusion, the hypothesis that the presence of PFOS increases the endocrine potential of BPA could not be confirmed in zebrafish. Adverse effects on liver structure and survival were only seen at concentrations well above ecologically relevant concentrations; however, the decline in survival rates following PFOS-exposure seen over generations again documents the importance of long-term studies for the investigation of persistent environmental pollutants. PMID:22542737

Keiter, Su; Baumann, L; Färber, H; Holbech, H; Skutlarek, D; Engwall, M; Braunbeck, T

2012-08-15

119

Use of simple pharmacokinetic modeling to characterize exposure of Australians to perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perflurooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) have been used for a variety of applications including fluoropolymer processing, fire-fighting foams and surface treatments since the 1950s. Both PFOS and PFOA are polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs), man-made compounds that are persistent in the environment and humans; some PFCs have shown adverse effects in laboratory animals. Here we describe the application of

Jack Thompson; Matthew Lorber; Leisa-Maree L. Toms; Kayoko Kato; Antonia M. Calafat; Jochen F. Mueller

2010-01-01

120

Induction of p53-mediated apoptosis in splenocytes and thymocytes of C57BL/6 mice exposed to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)  

SciTech Connect

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent environmental contaminant found in human and wildlife tissues. It has been reported that PFOS can cause atrophy of the immune organs and apoptosis of immunocytes in rodents. However, the mechanism behind such cause is still unclear. To understand the model of cell death and its mechanism on lymphoid cells in vivo, we conducted a dose/response experiment in which 4 groups of male adult C57BL/6 mice (12 mice per group) were dosed daily by oral gavage with PFOS at 0, 0.0167, 0.0833, or 0.8333 mg/kg/day, yielding targeted Total Administered Dose (TAD) of 0, 1, 5, or 50 mg PFOS/kg, respectively, over 60 days. The results showed that spleen and thymus weight were significantly reduced in the highest PFOS-dose-group (TAD 50 mg PFOS/kg) compared to the control group, whereas liver weight was significantly increased. We analyzed the cell death via apoptosis with an annexin-V/propidium iodide assay by flow cytometry, and observed that both the percentage of apoptosis and the expression of the pro-apoptotic proteins p53 in splenocytes and thymocytes increased in a dose-related manner after PFOS treatment. We also observed that PFOS induced p53-dependent apoptosis through the cooperation between the Bcl-xl down regulation without changing the Bcl-2 and Bax expression. The down regulation of Bcl-xl was strongly indicating mitochondrial involvement in apoptosis. It is confirmed by the release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase-3. All of these findings establish an important role of p53 and mitochondrial function in PFOS induced toxic environment in the host. -- Highlights: ? PFOS immunotoxicity is caused by induction of apoptosis via the p53 activation. ? PFOS exposure can induce down regulation of Bcl-xl. ? Mitochondria are involved in PFOS-induced apoptosis. ? PFOS exposure can cause the release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase-3.

Dong, Guang-Hui, E-mail: ghdong@mail.cmu.edu.cn [School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China)] [School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Wang, Jing [Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Zhang, Ying-Hua; Liu, Miao-Miao; Wang, Da [School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China)] [School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Zheng, Li [Department of Immunology, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China)] [Department of Immunology, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Jin, Yi-He [School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China) [School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Ministry of Education, Dalian 116024 (China)

2012-10-15

121

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) distribution and effect factors in the water and sediment of the Yellow River Estuary, China.  

PubMed

The distribution of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was investigated in a total of 15 water and sediment samples from the Yellow River Estuary, China in April 2011. The results indicated that the concentrations of PFOS in the water and sediment samples averaged 157.5 ng/L and 198.8 ng/g and ranged from 82.30 to 261.8 ng/L and 75.48 to 457.0 ng/g, respectively. The concentrations of PFOS in the sediment column increased from 45.32 to 379.98 ng/g with the decrease of the sampling depth, which showed that the increased PFOS pollution in the sediment appeared in this region in over recent years. The distribution coefficient (K d) of PFOS between water and sediment linearly increased from 0.37 to 4.80 L/g as the salinity (S‰) increased from 0.18 to 4.47. Correlation analysis revealed that K d was significantly and positively correlated to the contents of total organic carbon and clay of the sediment, and salinity. Therefore, salinity was an important parameter in controlling the sediment-water interactions and the fate or transport of PFOS in the aquatic environment. The results of this study showed that the estuary was an important sink for PFOS and suggested that PFOS might be carried with the river water and transported for long distances before it reached to the sea and largely scavenged to the sediment in the estuaries due to the change in salinity. PMID:23591678

Wang, Shiliang; Wang, Hui; Deng, Wenjing

2013-10-01

122

[Occurrence of PFOA and PFOS in the aquatic environments and their ecological toxicities in the aquatic environments].  

PubMed

Based on current researches, described the sources, toxicities, analytical methods and occurrence of PFOA and PFOS in wastewater treatment plants, lakes, rivers, coastal areas and tap waters in different countries in the world. According to the limited concentrations of PFOA + PFOS in effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) put forward by Germany, the concentrations of PFOA + PFOS in WTP effluents in Singapore, Germany, Korea and England were assessed. The results showed that the concentrations of PFOA + PFOS in WTP effluents in Singapore were higher than the liminted concentration of 300 microg/L. Researches done by China, Japan, USA, and other countries showed that the concentrations of POFA and PFOS in rivers and coastal areas reached to ng/L, and the concentrations in Tennessee River, USA were the highest, reached to 100 ng/L. The risk assessments of PFOA and PFOS in tap water in some cities in China were assessed according to the risk quotients(RQ). The assessment results showed that tap waters from 19 cities in China were all below the risk level. PMID:22279887

Cao, Jin-Ling; Xi, Bei-Dou; Xu, Qi-Gong; Wang, Ze-Bin; Jiang, Tian-Tian; Jiang, Lei; Mao, Jing-Ying

2011-10-01

123

Effective sorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide immobilized mesoporous SiO2 hollow sphere.  

PubMed

The hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMAB) immobilized hollow mesoporous silica spheres were prepared for the efficient removal of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from aqueous solution. Besides the traditional sorption behavior including sorption kinetics as well as effect of solution pH and temperature, the effect of increasing volume which simulated the natural river where the rate of solute and solvent was relatively constant and solution volume was always changing was investigated. The result indicated that the residual PFOS concentrations in aqueous phase decreased with increasing solution pH and ionic strength, whereas they increased with increasing temperature. The HDTMAB immobilized material still maintained high efficiency after increasing volume, that is, the removal kept more than 99% after the treatment when the initial PFOS concentration was 1 mg L(-1). The uptake behavior and morphology of spheres which was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the additional HDTMAB and mesoporous shell were responsible for the enhanced sorption of PFOS. It was concluded that electrostatic interaction and Ca-bridge role played an important role in the sorption of PFOS on the mesoporous SiO(2) hollow spheres, whereas, hydrophobic interaction contributed to the nice sorption performance of PFOS on the HDTMAB immobilized sorbent. PMID:23219049

Zhou, Qin; Pan, Gang; Zhang, Jun

2013-03-01

124

Partitioning of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) between water and sediment.  

PubMed

Laboratory partitioning experiments were conducted to elucidate the sorption behaviour and partitioning of perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs). Three different sediment types were used and separately spiked with perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) at low environmentally realistic concentrations. PFOA, PFOS and PFOSA were mainly distributed in the dissolved phase at low suspended solid concentrations, indicating their long-range transport potential in the marine environment. In all cases, the equilibrium isotherms were linear and the organic carbon normalised partition coefficients (K(OC)) decreased in the following order: PFOSA (log K(OC) = 4.1 ± 0.35 cm³ g?¹)>PFOS (3.7 ± 0.56 cm³ g?¹) > PFOA (2.4 ± 0.12 cm³ g?¹). The level of organic content had a significant influence on the partitioning. For the sediment with negligible organic content the density of the sediment became the most important factor influencing the partitioning. Ultimately, data on the partitioning of PFCs between aqueous media and suspended solids are essential for modelling their transport and environmental fate. PMID:21742366

Ahrens, Lutz; Yeung, Leo W Y; Taniyasu, Sachi; Lam, Paul K S; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi

2011-10-01

125

Laboratory Evaluation of the Toxicity of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) on Selenastrum capricornutum , Chlorella vulgaris , Lemna gibba , Daphnia magna , and Daphnia pulicaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is an anthropogenic compound found in trace amounts in many environmental compartments far\\u000a from areas of production. This, along with the highly persistent nature of PFOS, presents a concern for possible effects in\\u000a aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to determine the toxicity of PFOS in representative freshwater organisms.\\u000a Toxicity testing using standard laboratory protocols

T. M. Boudreau; P. K. Sibley; S. A. Mabury; D. G. C. Muir; K. R. Solomon

2003-01-01

126

Chronic effects of water-borne PFOS exposure on growth, survival and hepatotoxicity in zebrafish: A partial life-cycle test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is widely distributed and persistent in the environment and wildlife. The main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of long-term exposure to low concentrations of PFOS in zebrafish. Zebrafish fry (F0, 14d post-fertilization, dpf) were exposed via the water for 70d to 0 (control), 10, 50 and 250?gL?1 PFOS, followed by a further 30d

Yongbing Du; Xiongjie Shi; Chunsheng Liu; Ke Yu; Bingsheng Zhou

2009-01-01

127

Association between plasma PFOA and PFOS levels and total cholesterol in a middle-aged Danish population.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are used in a variety of consumer products and have been detected worldwide in human blood. Recent studies mainly of highly exposed populations have indicated that PFOA and PFOS may affect serum cholesterol levels, but the magnitude of the effect may be inconsistent across exposure levels. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between plasma PFOA and PFOS and total cholesterol in a general, middle-aged Danish population. The study population comprised 753 individuals (663 men and 90 women), 50-65 years of age, nested within a Danish cohort of 57,053 participants. Blood samples were taken from all cohort members at enrolment (1993-1997) and stored in a biobank at -150°C. Plasma levels of PFOA and PFOS and serum levels of total cholesterol were measured. The associations between plasma PFOA and PFOS levels and total cholesterol levels were analysed by generalized linear models, both crude and adjusted for potential confounders. We observed statistically significant positive associations between both perfluorinated compounds and total cholesterol, e.g. a 4.4 [95% CI ?=? 1.1-7.8] higher concentration of total cholesterol (mg/dL) per interquartile range of PFOA plasma level. Sex and prevalent diabetes appeared to modify the association between PFOA and PFOS, respectively, and cholesterol. In conclusion, this study indicated positive associations between plasma PFOA and PFOS levels and total cholesterol in a middle-aged Danish population, although whether the observed pattern of results reflects a causal association is unclear. PMID:23441227

Eriksen, Kirsten T; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; McLaughlin, Joseph K; Lipworth, Loren; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Sørensen, Mette

2013-01-01

128

Association between Plasma PFOA and PFOS Levels and Total Cholesterol in a Middle-Aged Danish Population  

PubMed Central

Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are used in a variety of consumer products and have been detected worldwide in human blood. Recent studies mainly of highly exposed populations have indicated that PFOA and PFOS may affect serum cholesterol levels, but the magnitude of the effect may be inconsistent across exposure levels. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between plasma PFOA and PFOS and total cholesterol in a general, middle-aged Danish population. The study population comprised 753 individuals (663 men and 90 women), 50–65 years of age, nested within a Danish cohort of 57,053 participants. Blood samples were taken from all cohort members at enrolment (1993–1997) and stored in a biobank at -150°C. Plasma levels of PFOA and PFOS and serum levels of total cholesterol were measured. The associations between plasma PFOA and PFOS levels and total cholesterol levels were analysed by generalized linear models, both crude and adjusted for potential confounders. We observed statistically significant positive associations between both perfluorinated compounds and total cholesterol, e.g. a 4.4 [95% CI ?=? 1.1–7.8] higher concentration of total cholesterol (mg/dL) per interquartile range of PFOA plasma level. Sex and prevalent diabetes appeared to modify the association between PFOA and PFOS, respectively, and cholesterol. In conclusion, this study indicated positive associations between plasma PFOA and PFOS levels and total cholesterol in a middle-aged Danish population, although whether the observed pattern of results reflects a causal association is unclear.

Eriksen, Kirsten T.; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; McLaughlin, Joseph K.; Lipworth, Loren; Tj?nneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; S?rensen, Mette

2013-01-01

129

Perfluoroalkyl acids and the isomers of perfluorooctanesulfonate and perfluorooctanoate in the sera of 50 new couples in Tianjin, China.  

PubMed

A total of 100 serum samples from 50 new couples (none of the females in this study has ever been pregnant) in Tianjin, North China, were analyzed for eleven perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) with isomer-specific method. Among all samples, total perfluorooctanesulfonate (?PFOS, mean 11.3 ng/mL) was predominant followed by total perfluorooctanoate (?PFOA, 2.95 ng/mL), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA, 1.17 ng/mL), perfluorononanoate (PFNA, 0.93 ng/mL) and perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS, 0.67 ng/mL). The mean concentrations of ?PFOS and PFHxS in males (14.2 and 0.89 ng/mL) were significantly higher (p=0.001) than in females (8.36 and 0.45 ng/mL). No statistical difference between genders was observed for the other PFAAs. This suggests that menstruation is one important elimination pathway for ?PFOS and PFHxS in females. Linear PFOA was the dominant isomer with mean proportion of 99.7%, suggesting that telomeric PFOA (and its precursors), which contains almost pure linear isomer, might be the dominant exposure source of PFOA in Tianjin. On average, the proportion of linear PFOS (n-PFOS) was 59.2% of ?PFOS, which was lower than that in technical PFOS products (ca. 70% linear). Except perfluoroisopropyl PFOS, all the other monomethyl branched PFOS isomers were enriched in human serum compared to the commercial products, suggesting the monomethyl branched PFOS precursors were preferentially biotransformed in humans. PMID:24747327

Zhang, Yifeng; Jiang, Weiwei; Fang, Shuhong; Zhu, Lingyan; Deng, Jimin

2014-07-01

130

AROMATASE-B (CYP 19B) EXPRESSION IN FATHEAD MINNOWS (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS) EXPOSED TO PERFLUOROOCTANE (PFOS) AND THE AROMATASE INHIBITOR FADROZOLE  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a fluorinated organic contaminant that is globally distributed in both humans and wildlife. PFOS belongs to a family of perfluorinated sulfonates that are highly persistent in the environment and have been commercially produced for over 40 year...

131

Sub-chronic effect of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) on the balance of type 1 and type 2 cytokine in adult C57BL6 mice.  

PubMed

As a ubiquitous and highly persistent environmental contaminant, the clear mechanisms to explain any perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS)-induced immunotoxicity are still unknown. This study here sought to examine the ability of PFOS to potentially perturb T-helper (T(H))-1 and T(H)-2 cell cytokine secreting activities, as well as to cause shifts in antibody isotype levels, and possible mechanisms involved in PFOS-induced immunotoxicity. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to PFOS daily via gavage for 60 days [0, 0.5, 1, 5, 25, or 50 mg/kg total administered dose (TAD)]. One day after the final exposure, the ex vivo production of the T(H)1-type cytokines (IL-2 and IFN-?), T(H)2-type (IL-4), and IL-10 cytokines by isolated splenocytes, serum levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) were assessed via ELISA or ELISPOT. The results showed that IL-4 secretion was increased at exposure ?5 mg PFOS/kg TAD in a dose-dependent manner. PFOS exposure increased IL-10 but decreased IL-2 and IFN-? formation markedly at 50 mg PFOS/kg TAD. Serum levels of sheep red blood cells (SRBC)-specific IgM synthesis decreased significantly with PFOS exposure in a dose-related manner; serum SRBC-specific IgG, IgG1, and IgE levels increased with 50 mg PFOS/kg TAD regimens. These results indicated that, after a long-term exposure to PFOS, a host's immune state is likely to be characterized by a shift toward a more T(H)2-like state that, in turn, may lead to enhancement of their humoral response and suppression of their cellular response at levels of upper range for occupationally exposed workers or approximately 150-fold for general human population. PMID:21327619

Dong, Guang-Hui; Liu, Miao-Miao; Wang, Da; Zheng, Li; Liang, Zai-Fu; Jin, Yi-He

2011-10-01

132

Prenatal and postnatal impact of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on rat development: a cross-foster study on chemical burden and thyroid hormone system.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), an environmentally persistent organic pollutant, has been reported to be transferred to the developing organisms via both placenta and breast milk. A cross-foster model was used to determine whether prenatal or postnatal exposure to PFOS alone can disturb the TH homeostasis in rat pups, and if so, which kind of exposure is a major cause of TH level alteration. Pregnant rats were fed standard laboratory rodent diet containing 0 (control) or 3.2 mg PFOS/kg throughout gestation and lactation period. On the day of birth, litters born to treated and control dams were cross-fostered, resulting in the following groups: unexposed control (CC), pups exposed only prenatally (TC), only postnatally (CT) or both prenatally and postnatally (TT). Serum and liver PFOS concentrations, serum total thyroxine (T4), total triiodothyronine (T3), reverse T3 (rT3) levels, and hepatic expression of genes involved in TH transport, metabolism, and receptors were evaluated in pups at the age of postnatal days (PNDs) 0, 7, 14, 21, or 35. PFOS body burden level in pups in group CT increased, while those in group TC dropped as they aged. Neither total T3 nor rT3 in pups was affected by PFOS exposure. Gestational exposure to PFOS alone (TC) significantly (p < 0.05) decreased T4 level in pups on PNDs 21 and 35, 20.3 and 19.4% lower than the control on the same PND, respectively. Postnatal exposure to PFOS alone (CT) also induced T4 depression on PNDs 21 and 35, 28.6 and 35.9% lower than controls, respectively. No significant difference in T4 level (p > 0.05) was observed between TC and CT on these two time points. None of the selected TH related transcripts was affected by PFOS in pups on PND 0. Only transcript level of transthyretin, TH binding protein, in group TT significantly increased to 150% of the control on PND 21. The results showed that prenatal PFOS exposure and postnatal PFOS exposure induced hypothyroxinemia in rat pups to a similar extent, which suggested that in utero PFOS exposure and postnatal PFOS accumulation, especially though maternal milk, are matters of great concern. PMID:19924978

Yu, Wen-Guang; Liu, Wei; Jin, Yi-He; Liu, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Fa-Qi; Liu, Li; Nakayama, Shoji F

2009-11-01

133

Concentrations and patterns of perfluoroalkyl acids in Georgia, USA surface waters near and distant to a major use source  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are widespread contaminants emanating from, among other sources, the production/degradation of fluorinated chemicals used in surface repellant applications, such as carpet manufacturing. The goal of the present study was to assess the concentrations of PFAAs, including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUA), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), in surface waters both near a wastewater land application system (LAS) in Dalton (GA, USA), home to North America's largest carpet manufacturing site, and distant to this location (Altamaha River, GA, USA) to understand the fate of PFAAs in freshwater. Levels of PFAAs were high in the Conasauga River (GA, USA) downstream of the LAS (PFOA, 253-1,150 ng/L; PFOS, 192-318 ng/L; PFNA, 202-369 ng/L; PFDA, 30.1-113 ng/L; PFUA, 58.0-99.2 ng/L; PFOSA, 162-283 ng/L) and in streams and ponds in Dalton (PFOA, 49.9-299 ng/L; PFOS, 15.8-120 ng/L), and were among the highest measured at a nonspill or directrelease location. Perfluoroalkyl acids in the Altamaha River were much lower (PFOA, 3.0-3.1 ng/L; PFOS, 2.6-2.7 ng/L), but were a source of PFAAs to Georgia's estuaries. A preliminary hazard assessment indicated that concentrations of PFOS at two sites in the Conasauga River exceeded the threshold effect predicted for birds consuming aquatic organisms that are exposed continuously to the PFOS levels at these sites. Assuming that toxicity for all PFAAs quantified is equal to that of PFOS, the sum total PFAAs at two sites within the Conasauga River exceeded PFOS thresholds for aquatic and avian species, warranting additional research. ?? 2008 SETAC Printed in the USA.

Konwick, B. J.; Tomy, G. T.; Ismail, N.; Peterson, J. T.; Fauver, R. J.; Higginbotham, D.; Fisk, A. T.

2008-01-01

134

Perfluoroalkyl acids in marine organisms from Lake Shihwa, Korea.  

PubMed

To our knowledge, this is the first report of concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAs) in marine organisms from the industrialized region of Korea. Concentrations of eight PFAs were determined in three species of fish (mullet, shad, and rockfish) and three species of marine invertebrates (blue crab, oyster, and mussel) from Lake Shihwa, Korea. This is an area in which relatively great concentrations of PFAs in water and in adjacent industrial effluents have been reported. PFOS was the dominant PFA in marine organisms and most PFOS concentrations were greater than the sum of all other PFAs. The mean concentrations of PFOS were 8.1 x 10 and 3.6 x 10 ng/g, wet weight in liver and blood of fish, respectively. Perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) were also found in fish, but their concentrations were 10-fold less than those for PFOS. Of the PFCAs measured in fish, concentrations of the longer-chain perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA) were the greatest. Concentrations of PFOS in soft tissues of blue crabs decreased as a function of distance from the shore where inputs from the industrialized areas are discharged into Lake Shihwa. PFOS was the only PFA detectable in mussels and oysters with a mean of 0.5 +/- 0.2 and 1.1 +/- 0.3 ng/g, wet weight, respectively. Concentrations of PFUnA were positively correlated with perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) in both the liver and blood of fish, which suggests a common source of these two PFCAs in this area. Hazard quotients developed for fish species were all less than 1.0 for fish collected in Lake Shihwa. PMID:19152061

Yoo, Hoon; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Taniyasu, Sachi; Lee, Kyu Tae; Jones, Paul D; Newsted, John L; Khim, Jong Seong; Giesy, John P

2009-10-01

135

Induction of p53-mediated apoptosis in splenocytes and thymocytes of C57BL/6 mice exposed to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS).  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent environmental contaminant found in human and wildlife tissues. It has been reported that PFOS can cause atrophy of the immune organs and apoptosis of immunocytes in rodents. However, the mechanism behind such cause is still unclear. To understand the model of cell death and its mechanism on lymphoid cells in vivo, we conducted a dose/response experiment in which 4 groups of male adult C57BL/6 mice (12 mice per group) were dosed daily by oral gavage with PFOS at 0, 0.0167, 0.0833, or 0.8333mg/kg/day, yielding targeted Total Administered Dose (TAD) of 0, 1, 5, or 50mg PFOS/kg, respectively, over 60days. The results showed that spleen and thymus weight were significantly reduced in the highest PFOS-dose-group (TAD 50mg PFOS/kg) compared to the control group, whereas liver weight was significantly increased. We analyzed the cell death via apoptosis with an annexin-V/propidium iodide assay by flow cytometry, and observed that both the percentage of apoptosis and the expression of the pro-apoptotic proteins p53 in splenocytes and thymocytes increased in a dose-related manner after PFOS treatment. We also observed that PFOS induced p53-dependent apoptosis through the cooperation between the Bcl-xl down regulation without changing the Bcl-2 and Bax expression. The down regulation of Bcl-xl was strongly indicating mitochondrial involvement in apoptosis. It is confirmed by the release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase-3. All of these findings establish an important role of p53 and mitochondrial function in PFOS induced toxic environment in the host. PMID:22959464

Dong, Guang-Hui; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Ying-Hua; Liu, Miao-Miao; Wang, Da; Zheng, Li; Jin, Yi-He

2012-10-15

136

Type 1 and Type 2 cytokines imbalance in adult male C57BL/6 mice following a 7-day oral exposure to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS).  

PubMed

Previous studies indicate that exposure to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), a ubiquitous and highly persistent environmental contaminant induces immunotoxicity in mice. However, clear mechanisms to explain any PFOS-induced immunotoxicity are still unknown. The study here sought to examine the ability of PFOS to potentially perturb T-helper (T(H))-1 and -2 cell cytokine secreting activities, as well as to cause shifts in antibody isotype levels, as possible mechanisms involved in PFOS-induced immunotoxicity. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were given by gavage 0, 5, or 20 mg PFOS/kg/d for 7 days. One day after the final exposure, spleens from these hosts were isolated and used for analyses of the ex vivo production of T(H)1-type (interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-? (IFN?), T(H)2-type (IL-4), and IL-10 cytokines by isolated splenocytes. In addition, serum was isolated from these mice in order to assess their levels of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies. In all studies, levels of the cytokines of the antibodies were quantified via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot. The results here showed that IL-2 and IFN? formation was reduced, but that IL-4 production increased by the 5 and 20 mg PFOS/kg/d treatments. Serum IgM levels decreased significantly (in dose-related manner) as a result of the PFOS exposures; serum IgG levels increased markedly with 5 mg PFOS/kg/d, but decreased slightly with the 20 mg PFOS/kg/d regimens PFOS exposure increased serum corticosterone levels in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicated that, after a high-dose short-term exposure to PFOS, a host's immune state is likely to be characterized by a shift toward a more T(H)2-like state that, in turn, may lead to suppression of their cellular response and enhancement of their humoral response. PMID:21299352

Zheng, Li; Dong, Guang-Hui; Zhang, Ying-Hua; Liang, Zai-Fu; Jin, Yi-He; He, Qin-Cheng

2011-01-01

137

Observation of a novel PFOS-precursor, the perfluorooctane sulfonamido ethanol-based phosphate (SAmPAP) diester, in marine sediments.  

PubMed

The environmental occurrence of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) can arise from its direct use as well as from transformation of precursors ((N-alkyl substituted) perfluorooctane sulfonamides; FOSAMs). Perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanol-based phosphate (SAmPAP) esters are among numerous potential PFOS-precursors which have not been previously detected in the environment and for which little is known about their stability. Based on their high production volume during the 1970s-2002 and widespread use in food contact paper and packaging, SAmPAP esters may be potentially significant sources of PFOS. Here we report for the first time on the environmental occurrence of SAmPAP diester in marine sediments from an urbanized marine harbor in Vancouver, Canada. SAmPAP diester concentrations in sediment (40-200 pg/g dry weight) were similar to those of PFOS (71-180 pg/g). A significant (p < 0.05) correlation was observed between SAmPAP diester and N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamido acetate (an anticipated degradation product of SAmPAP diester). ?PFOS-precursor (FOSAM) concentrations in sediment (120-1100 pg/g) were 1.6-24 times greater than those of PFOS in sediment. Although SAmPAP diester was not detected in water, PFOS was observed at concentrations up to 710 pg/L. Among the per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances monitored in the present work, mean log-transformed sediment/water distribution coefficients ranged from 2.3 to 4.3 and increased with number of CF(2) units and N-alkyl substitution (in the case of FOSAMs). Overall, these results highlight the importance of FOSAMs as potentially significant sources of PFOS, in particular for urban marine environments. PMID:22591467

Benskin, Jonathan P; Ikonomou, Michael G; Gobas, Frank A P C; Woudneh, Million B; Cosgrove, John R

2012-06-19

138

Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) in Surface Water From the Langat River, Peninsular Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are not degradable and persistent compounds, bioacculumative and possess toxic characteristics. The compounds have been produced in large quantities and then applied and disposed without proper monitoring and regulation within the past half-century. Although the PFCs productions were to end today, the compounds would continue to persist in the environment for many years to come. Currently in

Khairunnisa Zainuddin; Mohamad Pauzi Zakaria; Najat Ahmed Al-Odaini; Alireza Riyahi Bakhtiari; Puziah Abdul Latif

2012-01-01

139

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other fluorochemicals in fish blood collected near the outfall of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Beijing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were measured in zooplankton and five fish species collected from Gaobeidian Lake, which receives discharge from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Beijing, China. The mean total PFCs in five fish were in the order: crucian carp>common carp>leather catfish>white semiknife carp>tilapia. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) occurred at the greatest concentrations, with mean concentrations ranging from 5.74 to 64.2ng\\/ml serum.

Xuemei Li; Leo Wai Yin Yeung; Muqi Xu; Sachi Taniyasu; Paul K. S. Lam; Nobuyoshi Yamashita; Jiayin Dai

2008-01-01

140

First report of a Chinese PFOS alternative overlooked for 30 years: its toxicity, persistence, and presence in the environment.  

PubMed

This is the first report on the environmental occurrence of a chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (locally called F-53B, C8ClF16O4SK). It has been widely applied as a mist suppressant by the chrome plating industry in China for decades but has evaded the attention of environmental research and regulation. In this study, F-53B was found in high concentrations (43-78 and 65-112 ?g/L for the effluent and influent, respectively) in wastewater from the chrome plating industry in the city of Wenzhou, China. F-53B was not successfully removed by the wastewater treatments in place. Consequently, it was detected in surface water that receives the treated wastewater at similar levels to PFOS (ca. 10-50 ng/L) and the concentration decreased with the increasing distance from the wastewater discharge point along the river. Initial data presented here suggest that F-53B is moderately toxic (Zebrafish LC50-96 h 15.5 mg/L) and is as resistant to degradation as PFOS. While current usage is limited to the chrome plating industry, the increasing demand for PFOS alternatives in other sectors may result in expanded usage. Collectively, the results of this work call for future assessments on the effects of this overlooked contaminant and its presence and fate in the environment. PMID:23952109

Wang, Siwen; Huang, Jun; Yang, Yang; Hui, Yamei; Ge, Yuxi; Larssen, Thorjørn; Yu, Gang; Deng, Shubo; Wang, Bin; Harman, Christopher

2013-09-17

141

Combined effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and maternal restraint stress on hypothalamus adrenal axis (HPA) function in the offspring of mice  

SciTech Connect

Although it is known that prenatal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) can cause developmental adverse effects in mammals, the disruptive effects of this compound on hormonal systems are still controversial. Information concerning the effects of PFOS on hypothalamus adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress and corticosterone levels is not currently available. On the other hand, it is well established that stress can enhance the developmental toxicity of some chemicals. In the present study, we assessed the combined effects of maternal restraint stress and PFOS on HPA axis function in the offspring of mice. Twenty plug-positive female mice were divided in two groups. Animals were given by gavage 0 and 6 mg PFOS/kg/day on gestation days 12-18. One half of the animals in each group were also subjected to restraint stress (30 min/session, 3 sessions/day) during the same period. Five plug-positive females were also included as non-manipulated controls. At 3 months of age, activity in an open-field and the stress response were evaluated in male and female mice by exposing them to 30 min of restraint stress. Male and female offspring were subsequently sacrificed and blood samples were collected to measure changes in corticosterone levels at four different moments related to stress exposure conditions: before stress exposure, immediately after 30 min of stress exposure, and recuperation levels at 60 and 90 min after stress exposure. Results indicate corticosterone levels were lower in mice prenatally exposed to restraint. In general terms, PFOS exposure decreased corticosterone levels, although this effect was only significant in females. The recuperation pattern of corticosterone was mainly affected by prenatal stress. Interactive effects between PFOS and maternal stress were sex dependent. The current results suggest that prenatal PFOS exposure induced long-lasting effects in mice.

Ribes, Diana; Fuentes, Silvia; Torrente, Margarita; Colomina, M. Teresa [Department of Psychology and Research Center for Behavioral Assessment (CRAMC), 'Rovira i Virgili' University, Sescelades Campus, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain); Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, 'Rovira i Virgili' University, Sant Llorenc 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Domingo, Jose L., E-mail: joseluis.domingo@urv.ca [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, 'Rovira i Virgili' University, Sant Llorenc 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain)

2010-02-15

142

Determination of perfluorinated alkylated substances in sediments and sediment core from the Gulf of Gda?sk, Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS) have been determined in surface sediments and sediment core from Gulf of Gda?sk, Baltic Sea. Perfluorooctanesulphonate (PFOS), perfluorohexanesulphonate (PFHxS), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), perfluoronanoate (PFNA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA), perfluoroundecanote (PFUnDA), perfluorododecanoate (PFDoDA) and perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA) were quantified after isotopic dilution (C4 PFOS and C4 PFOA), liquid-liquid extractions by methanol and acetonitrile, cleanup by Envi-Carb, OasisWAX and Envi-Carb

Jerzy Falandysz; Pawe? Rostkowski; Gra?yna Jarzy?ska; Jaromir J. Falandysz; Sachi Taniyasu; Nobuyoshi Yamashita

2012-01-01

143

Effect of temperature on the sorption and desorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate on humic acid.  

PubMed

Sorption and desorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on humic acid at different temperatures were studied. It was found that the sorption process could be modeled with power kinetic equation very well, suggesting that diffusion predominated the sorption of PFOS on the humic acid. The sorption capacity was doubled when the temperature increased from 5 to 35 degrees C, and thermodynamics parameters deltaG0 was calculated to be -7.11 to -5.04 kJ/mol, AHo was 14.2 kJ/mol, and deltaS0 was 69.5 J/(mol x K), indicating that the sorption was a spontaneous, endothermic, and entropy driven process. Desorption hysteresis occurred at all studied temperatures which suggested that humic acid may be an important sink of PFOS in the environment. PMID:20614776

Jia, Chengxia; You, Chun; Pan, Gang

2010-01-01

144

Influence of membrane organization on the interactions between persistent pollutants and model membranes.  

PubMed

Langmuir monolayer studies and electrochemical methods were employed to investigate the effect of model membrane organization on the interactions with persistent pollutants such as perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanoloamine (DMPE) was employed to construct the model lipid membrane and perfluorooctanesulphonic acid (PFOS) was chosen as the representative of perfluorinated pollutants. We demonstrate that perfluorinated compounds penetrate a model membrane only when it is less condensed. Such liquid-expanded phase was achieved by compressing the Langmuir monolayer to lower surface pressures. PFOS incorporation into model DMPE membrane during membrane formation was observed in liquid-expanded region, while at higher surface pressures, in the well-organized monolayer the expulsion of perfluorinated compound occurred as the result of a strong attraction between the DMPE molecules. The DMPE monolayers prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett/Langmuir-Schaefer method were transferred onto gold electrode under surface pressure of 3 mN/m and 20 mN/m. The model membrane organization depends on surface pressure during transfer and time of exposure to PFOS solution and is shown to affect the electrode accessibility by three electroactive compounds used as the probes of the blocking properties of the monolayer: menadione, potassium ferricyanide and hexaamineruthenium chloride, differing in the properties and kinetics of electron transfer. PMID:22209490

Matyszewska, Dorota; Wypijewska, Ewa; Bilewicz, Renata

2012-10-01

145

In utero exposure to perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) or perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) did not increase body weight or intestinal tumorigenesis in multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min/+) mice.  

PubMed

We examined whether perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) or perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) had obesogenic effects and if they increased spontaneous intestinal tumorigenesis in the mouse model C57BL/6J-Min/+ (multiple intestinal neoplasia) after in utero exposure. The dams were exposed to PFOA or PFOS (0.01, 0.1 or 3.0mg/kg bw/day) by po gavage on GD1-17. The Min/+ and wild-type offspring were terminated at week 11 for examination of intestinal tumorigenesis or at week 20 for obesogenic effect, respectively. Body weights of the dams and pups were recorded throughout life. Food intake was determined at week 6 and 10. Blood glucose (non-fasted) was measured at week 6 and 11. No obesogenic effect of PFOA or PFOS was observed up to 20 weeks of age. PFOA or PFOS did not increase the incidence or number of tumors in the small intestine or colon of the Min/+ mice or affect their location along the intestines. Feed intake was not affected. There were some indications of toxicity of PFOA, but not of PFOS. There was lower survival of pups after 3.0mg/kg PFOA, lower body weight in pups after 3.0 and possibly 0.1mg/kg PFOA, and increased relative liver weight after 0.01 and possibly 0.1mg/kg PFOA. Plasma glucose was lower after 0.01 and 0.1mg/kg PFOA. In conclusion, exposure to PFOA and PFOS in utero with the doses used did not have obesogenic effect on either Min/+ or wild-type mice, at least not up to 11 or 20 weeks of age, nor increased intestinal tumorigenesis in Min/+ mice. PMID:24834819

Ngo, Ha Thi; Hetland, Ragna Bogen; Sabaredzovic, Azemira; Haug, Line Småstuen; Steffensen, Inger-Lise

2014-07-01

146

Removal of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate via ozonation under alkaline condition.  

PubMed

The elimination of recalcitrant, ubiquitous perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is desirable for reducing potential human health and environmental risks. We here report the degradation of PFOA and PFOS by 85-100% via ozonation under alkaline condition being studied at environmentally relevant contaminant concentrations of 50 ?g L(-1) to 5 mg L(-1), with enhanced removal rates by addition of hydrogen peroxide. Enhanced removal is achieved by ozonation pretreatment for 15 min at the ambient pH (i.e. 4-5), followed by elevation of pH to 11 and continued ozonation treatment for 4h. The ozonation pretreatment resulted in increased degradation of PFOA by 56% and PFOS by 42%. The results indicated hydroxyl radical-driven degradation of PFOA and PFOS in both treatments by ozone and peroxone under alkaline conditions. Wastewaters from electronics and semiconductor fabrication plants in the Science Park of Hsinchu city, Taiwan containing PFOA and PFOS have been readily treated by ozonation under alkaline condition. Treatment of PFAAs by ozone or peroxone proves to be efficient in terms of energy requirement, contact time, and removal rate. PMID:23131499

Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Panchangam, Sri Chandana; Chang, Cheng-Yi; Hong, P K Andy; Hsueh, Han-Fang

2012-12-01

147

Temporal trends of perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids and their sulfonamide-based precursors in herring from the Swedish west coast 1991-2011 including isomer-specific considerations.  

PubMed

A method was developed for simultaneous analysis of perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and their sulfonamide-based precursors (perfluoroalkane sulfonamidoacetic acids (FASAAs), sulfonamides (FASAs), and sulfonamidoethanols (FASEs)) in fish muscle. Extraction was performed with acetonitrile followed by a clean-up and fractionation step and instrumental analysis by UPLC/MS/MS and GC/MS. Time trends of PFSAs and their precursors in herring muscle samples originating from the Kattegat at the west coast of Sweden were investigated covering the years 1991-2011. The following analytes were detected, all with decreasing or unchanged trends between 1991 and 2011: Perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS, below the method detection limit (acid (PFHxS, 9-38pg/g), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS, 240-930pg/g), perfluorodecane sulfonic acid (PFDS, acid (MeFOSAA and EtFOSAA, 2-39 and 2-31pg/g, respectively) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA, 78-920pg/g). The highest concentrations were found for PFOS and FOSA around the turn of the century. Shorter disappearance half-lives were observed for precursors compared to PFSAs. Assuming that these trend differences are representative for fish consumed by the general Swedish population, this observation suggests that the relative contribution of precursors to total human exposure to PFOS via fish intake has decreased in Sweden over the study period. PFOS precursors in fish may have constituted a significant indirect exposure pathway for PFOS in the 1990s. Isomer-specific analysis of PFOS and FOSA revealed <10% relative contributions of branched isomers to total PFOS and total FOSA. Furthermore, the percentage branched isomers decreased over time for both compounds. These findings are contrary to patterns and temporal trends of PFOS isomers commonly found in human serum. In combination with literature data on isomer patterns in other edible fish species and on isomer-specific human toxicokinetics, our results suggest that fish consumption alone cannot account for the PFOS isomer patterns and trends observed in humans. PMID:24468635

Ullah, Shahid; Huber, Sandra; Bignert, Anders; Berger, Urs

2014-04-01

148

Increasing levels of long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) in Arctic and North Atlantic marine mammals, 1984-2009.  

PubMed

Temporal variations in concentrations of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and sulfonic acids (PFSAs), including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) structural isomers, were examined in livers of pilot whale (Globicephala melas), ringed seal (Phoca hisida), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus) and in muscle tissue of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus). The sampling spanned over 20 years (1984-2009) and covered a large geographical area of the North Atlantic and West Greenland. Liver and muscle samples were homogenized, extracted with acetonitrile, cleaned up using hexane and solid phase extraction (SPE), and analyzed by liquid chromatography with negative electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In general, the levels of the long-chained PFCAs (C9-C12) increased whereas the levels of PFOS remained steady over the studied period. The PFOS isomer pattern in pilot whale liver was relatively constant over the sampling years. However, in ringed seals there seemed to be a decrease in linear PFOS (L-PFOS) with time, going from 91% in 1984 to 83% in 2006. PMID:22051347

Rotander, Anna; Kärrman, Anna; van Bavel, Bert; Polder, Anuschka; Rigét, Frank; Auðunsson, Guðjón Atli; Víkingsson, Gísli; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Bloch, Dorete; Dam, Maria

2012-01-01

149

Laboratory evaluation of the toxicity of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) on Selenastrum capricornutum, Chlorella vulgaris, Lemna gibba, Daphnia magna, and Daphnia pulicaria.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is an anthropogenic compound found in trace amounts in many environmental compartments far from areas of production. This, along with the highly persistent nature of PFOS, presents a concern for possible effects in aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to determine the toxicity of PFOS in representative freshwater organisms. Toxicity testing using standard laboratory protocols was performed on the green algae Selenastrum capricornutum and Chlorella vulgaris, the floating macrophyte Lemna gibba, and the invertebrates Daphnia magna and Daphnia pulicaria. No observable effect concentration (NOEC) values were generated from the most sensitive endpoints for all organisms. Autotroph inhibition of growth NOEC values were 5.3, 8.2, and 6.6 mg/L for S. capricornutum, C. vulgaris, and L. gibba, respectively. The 48-h immobility NOEC values for D. magna and D. pulicaria were 0.8 and 13.6 mg/L, respectively. In comparison to immobility, the 21-day lethality NOEC for D. magna was 5.3 mg/L. Based on effect (immobility) values, the most sensitive of all test organisms was D. magna. The most sensitive organism based on 50% inhibition of growth (IC(50)) was L. gibba, with an IC(50) value of 31.1 mg/L determined from wet weight. This is 4.3 times less than the LC(50) for D. pulicaria, which was 134 mg/L. Significant adverse effects (p < or = 0.05) were observed for all organisms in concentrations >134 mg/L. The results indicate that under laboratory conditions PFOS is acutely toxic to freshwater organisms at concentrations at or near 100 mg/L. Based on known environmental concentrations of PFOS, which occur in the low ng/L to low microg/L range, there is no apparent risk to freshwater systems. However, further work is required to investigate long-term effects in these and other freshwater organisms. PMID:12712289

Boudreau, T M; Sibley, P K; Mabury, S A; Muir, D G C; Solomon, K R

2003-04-01

150

Prenatal and neonatal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid results in changes in miRNA expression profiles and synapse associated proteins in developing rat brains.  

PubMed

We previously identified a number of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS)-responsive transcripts in developing rat brains using microarray analysis. However, the underlying mechanisms and functional consequences remain unclear. We hypothesized that microRNAs (miRNAs), which have emerged as powerful negative regulators of mRNA and protein levels, might be responsible for PFOS-induced mRNA changes and consequent neural dysfunctions. We used eight miRNA arrays to profile the expression of brain miRNAs in neonatal rats on postnatal days (PND) 1 and 7 with maternal treatment of 0 (Control) and 3.2 mg/kg of PFOS feed from gestational day 1 to PND 7, and subsequently examined six potentially altered synapse-associated proteins to evaluate presumptive PFOS-responsive functions. Twenty-four brain miRNAs on PND 1 and 17 on PND 7 were significantly altered with PFOS exposure (P < 0.05), with miR-466b, -672, and -297, which are critical in neurodevelopment and synapse transmission, showing a more than 5-fold reduction. Levels of three synapse-involved proteins, NGFR, TrkC, and VGLUT2, were significantly decreased with no protein up-regulated on PND 1 or 7. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid might affect calcium actions during synapse transmission in the nervous system by interfering with SYNJ1, ITPR1, and CALM1 via their targeting miRNAs. Our results indicated that miRNA had little direct regulatory effect on the expression of mRNAs and synapse-associated proteins tested in the developing rat brain exposed to PFOS, and it seems that the PFOS-induced synaptic dysfunctions and changes in transcripts resulted from a combinatory action of biological controllers and processes, rather than directed by one single factor. PMID:22594572

Wang, Faqi; Liu, Wei; Ma, Junsheng; Yu, Mingxi; Jin, Yihe; Dai, Jiayin

2012-06-19

151

Determination of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate in cooking oil and pig adipose tissue using reversed-phase liquid-liquid extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) are two perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) ubiquitously present in the environment, which could pose potential adverse effects on human health. Contamination and presence of PFOA and PFOS should be eliminated or rigidly restricted in food stuffs such as cooking oils and lard (from pig adipose tissue). This work describes a rapid, simple, reliable and sensitive method for quantitative analysis of PFOA and PFOS in cooking oils and pig adipose tissue with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The pretreatment mainly included a one-step reversed-phase liquid-liquid extraction using the mixture of basified water/methanol as the aqueous system, and dichloromethane (DCM) as the non-polar system. PFOA and PFOS can be successfully separated from the two lipid-rich matrices, i.e., cooking oil and adipose tissue, and extracted into the aqueous system, and then directly analyzed with LC-MS/MS. This method was validated in terms of accuracy (both intra- and inter-batch), precision, recovery, linearity, sensitivity and applicability. The intra-batch accuracies for PFOA and PFOS in cooking oil samples were within 93.9-101.9% with relative standard deviation (RSD) no more than 10.9%, and the inter-batch accuracies were 91.2-96.2% with RSD not exceeding 10.0%. The intra-batch accuracies of the analytes in pig adipose tissue samples were 102.9-113.0% with RSD of 8.8-13.1%. And the quantification ranges of PFOA and PFOS were 0.01-25ng/mL. This method has been applied to the analysis of PFOA and PFOS in real samples collected from local markets in Guangzhou, China. PMID:24679825

Tang, Caiming; Tan, Jianhua; Wang, Chunwei; Peng, Xianzhi

2014-05-01

152

Associations of in Utero Exposure to Perfluorinated Alkyl Acids with Human Semen Quality and Reproductive Hormones in Adult Men  

PubMed Central

Background: Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs), persistent chemicals with unique water-, dirt-, and oil-repellent properties, are suspected of having endocrine-disrupting activity. The PFAA compounds perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) are found globally in humans; because they readily cross the placental barrier, in utero exposure may be a cause for concern. Objectives: We investigated whether in utero exposure to PFOA and PFOS affects semen quality, testicular volume, and reproductive hormone levels. Methods: We recruited 169 male offspring (19–21 years of age) from a pregnancy cohort established in Aarhus, Denmark, in 1988–1989, corresponding to 37.6% of the eligible sons. Each man provided a semen sample and a blood sample. Semen samples were analyzed for sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility, and morphology, and blood samples were used to measure reproductive hormones. As a proxy for in utero exposure, PFOA and PFOS were measured in maternal blood samples from pregnancy week 30. Results: Multivariable linear regression analysis suggested that in utero exposure to PFOA was associated with lower adjusted sperm concentration (ptrend = 0.01) and total sperm count (ptrend = 0.001) and with higher adjusted levels of luteinizing hormone (ptrend = 0.03) and follicle-stimulating hormone (ptrend = 0.01). PFOS did not appear to be associated with any of the outcomes assessed, before or after adjustment. Conclusions: The results suggest that in utero exposure to PFOA may affect adult human male semen quality and reproductive hormone levels.

Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia H?st; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Bonde, Jens Peter; Kristensen, Susanne Lund; Halldorsson, Thorhallur Ingi; Becher, Georg; Haug, Line Smastuen; Ernst, Emil Hagen; Toft, Gunnar

2013-01-01

153

High levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in sport fish species downstream of a firefighting training facility at Hamilton International Airport, Ontario, Canada.  

PubMed

A recent study reported elevated concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in surface water, snapping turtles, and amphipods in Lake Niapenco, downstream of Hamilton International Airport, Ontario, Canada. Here, our goals were to 1) determine the extent of PFAA contamination in sport fish species collected downstream of the airport, 2) explore if the airport could be a potential source, and 3) compare fish PFOS concentrations to consumption advisory benchmarks. The PFOS levels in several sport fish collected from the three locations closest to the airport (<40km) were among the highest previously published in the peer-reviewed literature and also tended to exceed consumption benchmarks. The only other fish that had comparable concentrations were collected in a region affected by inputs from a major fluorinated chemical production facility. In contrast, PFOS concentrations in the two most downstream locations (>70km) were comparable to or below the average concentrations in fish as observed in the literature and were generally below the benchmarks. With regards to perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs), there was no significant decrease in concentrations in fish with distance from the airport and levels were comparable to or below the average concentrations observed in the literature, suggesting that the airport is not a significant source of PFCAs in these fish species. PFOS-based aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) was used at a firefighting training facility at the airport in the 1980s to mid-1990s. Taken together, our results provide evidence that the historical use of AFFF at the airport has resulted in fish PFOS concentrations that exceed the 95th percentile concentration of values reported in the literature to date. PMID:24632327

Gewurtz, Sarah B; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Petro, Steve; Mahon, Chris G; Zhao, Xiaoming; Morse, Dave; Reiner, Eric J; Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Braekevelt, Eric; Drouillard, Ken

2014-06-01

154

Toxicogenomic Study of Triazole Fungicides and Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Rat Livers Predicts Toxicity and Categorizes Chemicals Based on Mechanisms of Toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicogenomic analysis of five environmental chemicals was performed to investigate the ability of genomics to predict toxicity, categorize chemicals, and elucidate mechanisms of toxicity. Three triazole antifungals (myclobutanil, propiconazole, and triadime- fon) and two perfluorinated chemicals (perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)) were administered daily via oral gavage for one, three, or five consecutive days to male Sprague-Dawley rats

Matthew T. Martin; Richard J. Brennan; Wenyue Hu; Eser Ayanoglu; Christopher Lau; Hongzu Ren; Carmen R. Wood; J. Christopher Corton; Robert J. Kavlock; David J. Dix

2007-01-01

155

Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Marine Organisms from Lake Shihwa, Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

To our knowledge, this is the first report of concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and other perfluoroalkyl acids\\u000a (PFAs) in marine organisms from the industrialized region of Korea. Concentrations of eight PFAs were determined in three\\u000a species of fish (mullet, shad, and rockfish) and three species of marine invertebrates (blue crab, oyster, and mussel) from\\u000a Lake Shihwa, Korea. This is an

Hoon Yoo; Nobuyoshi Yamashita; Sachi Taniyasu; Kyu Tae Lee; Paul D. Jones; John L. Newsted; Jong Seong Khim; John P. Giesy

2009-01-01

156

28Day dietary exposure of mice to a low total dose (7 mg\\/kg) of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) alters neither the cellular compositions of the thymus and spleen nor humoral immune responses: Does the route of administration play a pivotal role in PFOS-induced immunotoxicity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-term exposure of mice to high doses of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), an ubiquitous and highly persistent environmental contaminant, induces various metabolic changes and toxic effects, including immunotoxicity. However, extrapolation of these findings to the long-term, low-dose exposures to which humans are subject is highly problematic. In this connection, recent studies have concluded that sub-chronic (28-day) exposure of mice by oral gavage

Mousumi Rahman Qazi; B. Dean Nelson; Joseph W. DePierre; Manuchehr Abedi-Valugerdi

2010-01-01

157

Using blood gene signatures for assessing effects of exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in humans: the NOWAC postgenome study  

PubMed Central

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are ubiquitously present in human blood samples and the effects of these compounds on human health are not fully characterized. This study was conducted in order to investigate the applicability of peripheral blood gene expressions for exploring the impact of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) exposure on the general population. PFOS, PFOA and PFHxS were analyzed in blood samples from a representative group of 270 healthy, postmenopausal Norwegian women (48-62 years). Gene expression was measured in the same samples using the Applied Biosystems microarray platform. Forty-eight different gene sets, all previously linked to PFAA exposure were explored in relation to the selected PFAAs. Two gene sets, both related to the citric acid cycle, were differentially expressed between the “PFOS high” (>30ng/ml, n=42) and the “PFOS low” (<30ng/ml, n=228) group. Based on the results of this study we believe that blood gene signatures have a large potential for elucidating which biological pathways are being affected by environmental pollutants. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first assessment of the impact of PFAAs on blood gene expressions in humans from the general population.

Rylander, Charlotta; Dumeaux, Vanessa; Olsen, Karina Standahl; Waaseth, Marit; Sandanger, Torkjel M; Lund, Eiliv

2011-01-01

158

Occurrence of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in N.E. Spanish surface waters and their removal in a drinking water treatment plant that combines conventional and advanced treatments in parallel lines.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are two emerging contaminants that have been detected in all environmental compartments. However, while most of the studies in the literature deal with their presence or removal in wastewater treatment, few of them are devoted to their detection in treated drinking water and fate during drinking water treatment. In this study, analyses of PFOS and PFOA have been carried out in river water samples and in the different stages of a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) which has recently improved its conventional treatment process by adding ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis in a parallel treatment line. Conventional and advanced treatments have been studied in several pilot plants and in the DWTP, which offers the opportunity to compare both treatments operating simultaneously. From the results obtained, neither preoxidation, sand filtration, nor ozonation, removed both perfluorinated compounds. As advanced treatments, reverse osmosis has proved more effective than reverse electrodialysis to remove PFOA and PFOS in the different configurations of pilot plants assayed. Granular activated carbon with an average elimination efficiency of 64±11% and 45±19% for PFOS and PFOA, respectively and especially reverse osmosis, which was able to remove ?99% of both compounds, were the sole effective treatment steps. Trace levels of PFOS (3.0-21 ng/L) and PFOA (<4.2-5.5 ng/L) detected in treated drinking water were significantly lowered in comparison to those measured in precedent years. These concentrations represent overall removal efficiencies of 89±22% for PFOA and 86±7% for PFOS. PMID:23764674

Flores, Cintia; Ventura, Francesc; Martin-Alonso, Jordi; Caixach, Josep

2013-09-01

159

Use of simple pharmacokinetic modeling to characterize exposure of Australians to perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid.  

PubMed

Perflurooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) have been used for a variety of applications including fluoropolymer processing, fire-fighting foams and surface treatments since the 1950s. Both PFOS and PFOA are polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs), man-made compounds that are persistent in the environment and humans; some PFCs have shown adverse effects in laboratory animals. Here we describe the application of a simple one compartment pharmacokinetic model to estimate total intakes of PFOA and PFOS for the general population of urban areas on the east coast of Australia. Key parameters for this model include the elimination rate constants and the volume of distribution within the body. A volume of distribution was calibrated for PFOA to a value of 170ml/kgbw using data from two communities in the United States where the residents' serum concentrations could be assumed to result primarily from a known and characterized source, drinking water contaminated with PFOA by a single fluoropolymer manufacturing facility. For PFOS, a value of 230ml/kgbw was used, based on adjustment of the PFOA value. Applying measured Australian serum data to the model gave mean+/-standard deviation intake estimates of PFOA of 1.6+/-0.3ng/kgbw/day for males and females >12years of age combined based on samples collected in 2002-2003 and 1.3+/-0.2ng/kg bw/day based on samples collected in 2006-2007. Mean intakes of PFOS were 2.7+/-0.5ng/kgbw/day for males and females >12years of age combined based on samples collected in 2002-2003, and 2.4+/-0.5ng/kgbw/day for the 2006-2007 samples. ANOVA analysis was run for PFOA intake and demonstrated significant differences by age group (p=0.03), sex (p=0.001) and date of collection (p<0.001). Estimated intake rates were highest in those aged >60years, higher in males compared to females, and higher in 2002-2003 compared to 2006-2007. The same results were seen for PFOS intake with significant differences by age group (p<0.001), sex (p=0.001) and date of collection (p=0.016). PMID:20236705

Thompson, Jack; Lorber, Matthew; Toms, Leisa-Maree L; Kato, Kayoko; Calafat, Antonia M; Mueller, Jochen F

2010-05-01

160

Perfluoroalkyl Acid contamination and polyunsaturated Fatty Acid composition of French freshwater and marine fishes.  

PubMed

In this study, French marine and freshwater fish perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) contamination are presented along with their fatty acid (FA) composition to provide further elements for a risk/benefit balance of fish consumption to be assessed. The 29 most consumed marine fish species were collected in four metropolitan French coastal areas in 2004 to constitute composite samples. Geographical differences in terms of consumed species and contamination level were taken into account. Three hundred and eighty-seven composite samples corresponding to 16 freshwater fish species collected between 2008 and 2010 in the six major French rivers or their tributaries were selected among the French national agency for water and aquatic environments freshwater fish sample library. The raw edible parts were analyzed for FA composition and PFAA contamination. Results show that freshwater fishes are more contaminated by PFAAs than marine fishes and do not share the same contamination profile. Freshwater fish contamination is mostly driven by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (75%), whereas marine fish contamination is split between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (24%), PFOS (20%), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) (15%), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFHpA) (11%), and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) (11%). Common carp, pike-perch, European perch, thicklip grey mullet, and common roach presented the most unfavorable balance profile due to their high level of PFAAs and low level of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). These data could be used, if needed, in an updated opinion on fish consumption that takes into account PFAA contamination. PMID:25004121

Yamada, Ami; Bemrah, Nawel; Veyrand, Bruno; Pollono, Charles; Merlo, Mathilde; Desvignes, Virginie; Sirot, Véronique; Oseredczuk, Marine; Marchand, Philippe; Cariou, Ronan; Antignac, Jean-Phillippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

2014-07-30

161

Perfluoroalkyl acids in the Atlantic and Canadian Arctic Oceans.  

PubMed

We report here on the spatial distribution of C(4), C(6), and C(8) perfluoroalkyl sulfonates, C(6)-C(14) perfluoroalkyl carboxylates, and perfluorooctanesulfonamide in the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans, including previously unstudied coastal waters of North and South America, and the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were typically the dominant perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in Atlantic water. In the midnorthwest Atlantic/Gulf Stream, sum PFAA concentrations (?PFAAs) were low (77-190 pg/L) but increased rapidly upon crossing into U.S. coastal water (up to 5800 pg/L near Rhode Island). ?PFAAs in the northeast Atlantic were highest north of the Canary Islands (280-980 pg/L) and decreased with latitude. In the South Atlantic, concentrations increased near Rio de la Plata (Argentina/Uruguay; 350-540 pg/L ?PFAAs), possibly attributable to insecticides containing N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamide, or proximity to Montevideo and Buenos Aires. In all other southern hemisphere locations, ?PFAAs were <210 pg/L. PFOA/PFOS ratios were typically ?1 in the northern hemisphere, ?1 near the equator, and ?1 in the southern hemisphere. In the Canadian Arctic, ?PFAAs ranged from 40 to 250 pg/L, with perfluoroheptanoate, PFOA, and PFOS among the PFAAs detected at the highest concentrations. PFOA/PFOS ratios (typically ?1) decreased from Baffin Bay to the Amundsen Gulf, possibly attributable to increased atmospheric inputs. These data help validate global emissions models and contribute to understanding of long-range transport pathways and sources of PFAAs to remote regions. PMID:22548373

Benskin, Jonathan P; Muir, Derek C G; Scott, Brian F; Spencer, Christine; De Silva, Amila O; Kylin, Henrik; Martin, Jonathan W; Morris, Adam; Lohmann, Rainer; Tomy, Gregg; Rosenberg, Bruno; Taniyasu, Sachi; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi

2012-06-01

162

Evaluation of placental and lactational pharmacokinetics of PFOA and PFOS in the pregnant, lactating, fetal and neonatal rat using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model.  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and sulfonates (PFAAs) have many consumer and industrial applications. Developmental toxicity studies in animals have raised concern about potential developmental effects of PFOA and PFOS in humans. We have developed PBPK models for PFAAs in the rat to help define a relationship between external dose, internal tissue concentrations, and observed adverse effects, and to understand how physiological changes that occur during gestation and lactation affect tissue distribution of PFAAs in the mother, fetus, and neonate. The models developed here expand upon a PBPK model for PFAAs in the adult female rat, and are consistent with available PK data. These models, along with the adult rat PFAA models, published in the companion paper, will help address concerns about possible health effects due to PFAA exposure in the fetus and neonate and will be useful in comparing PK across life stages. PMID:21872655

Loccisano, Anne E; Campbell, Jerry L; Butenhoff, John L; Andersen, Melvin E; Clewell, Harvey J

2012-07-01

163

Comparison of in vitro cytotoxicity, estrogenicity and anti-estrogenicity of triclosan, perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid.  

PubMed

Concern with increasing levels of emerging contaminants exists on a global scale. Three commonly observed emerging environmental contaminants: triclosan (2,4,4-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenyl ether), a synthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial agent, and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), used in stain- and water-resistant treatments, have become distributed ubiquitously across ecosystems and have been detected in wildlife and humans. MCF-7 BOS human breast cancer cells were used to investigate the potential for cytotoxicity, estrogenicity and anti-estrogenicity of these three compounds at environmentally relevant concentrations using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt assay (MTS) and the E-SCREEN bioassay. The doses used were 0.002-200 µg ml(-1) for triclosan and 0.03-30 µg ml(-1) for PFOS and PFOA. Quantitative results from the MTS assay revealed no significant cytotoxicity at lower concentrations for any of the test compounds; however, both triclosan and PFOA were cytotoxic at the highest concentrations examined (100-200 and 30 µg ml(-1), respectively), while PFOS showed no significant cytotoxicity at any of the concentrations tested. Positive estrogenic responses (P < 0.05) were elicited from the E-SCREEN at all concentrations examined for triclosan and PFOA and at 30 µg ml(-1) for PFOS. Further, significant anti-estrogenic activity (P < 0.05) was detected for all compounds tested at all concentrations when cells were co-exposed with 10(-9) m 17-? estradiol (E(2)). The overall results demonstrated that triclosan, PFOS and PFOA have estrogenic activities and that co-exposure to contaminants and E(2) produced anti-estrogenic effects. Each of these compounds could provide a source of xenoestrogens to humans and wildlife in the environment. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:21935973

Henry, Natasha D; Fair, Patricia A

2013-04-01

164

Increasing concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids in Scandinavian otters (Lutra lutra) between 1972 and 2011: a new threat to the otter population?  

PubMed

Liver samples from 140 otters (Lutra lutra) from Sweden and Norway were analyzed for 10 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs; C6-C15), 4 perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs; C4,C6,C8,C10) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA). Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was the dominant compound accounting for approximately 80% of the fluorinated contaminants and showing concentrations up to 16 ?g/g wet weight. Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) was the dominant PFCA (up to 640 ng/g wet weight) closely followed by the C10 and C11 homologues. A spatial comparison between otters from southwestern Norway, southern and northern Sweden sampled between 2005 and 2011 revealed that the samples from southern Sweden had generally the largest contaminant load, but two PFCAs and FOSA were higher concentrated in the Norwegian samples. A temporal trend study was performed on otters from southern Sweden collected between 1972 and 2011. Seven PFCAs (C8-C14), PFOS and perfluorodecane sulfonic acid (PFDS) showed significantly increasing trends with doubling times between 5.5 and 13 years. The PFCAs also showed significantly increasing trends over the period 2002 to 2011. These findings together with the exceptionally high liver concentrations of PFOS are of great concern for the Scandinavian otter populations. PMID:24033312

Roos, Anna; Berger, Urs; Järnberg, Ulf; van Dijk, Jiska; Bignert, Anders

2013-10-15

165

Thyroid Function and Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Children Living Near a Chemical Plant  

PubMed Central

Background: Animal studies suggest that some perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) may impair thyroid function. Epidemiological findings, mostly related to adults, are inconsistent. Objectives: We investigated whether concentrations of PFAAs were associated with thyroid function among 10,725 children (1–17 years of age) living near a Teflon manufacturing facility in the Mid-Ohio Valley (USA). Methods: Serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total thyroxine (TT4), and PFAAs were measured during 2005–2006, and information on diagnosed thyroid disease was collected by questionnaire. Modeled in utero PFOA concentrations were based on historical information on PFOA releases, environmental distribution, pharmacokinetic modeling, and residential histories. We performed multivariate regression analyses. Results: Median concentrations of modeled in utero PFOA and measured serum PFOA, PFOS, and PFNA were 12, 29, 20, and 1.5 ng/mL, respectively. The odds ratio for hypothyroidism (n = 39) was 1.54 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 2.37] for an interquartile range (IQR) contrast of 13 to 68 ng/mL in serum PFOA measured in 2005–2006. However, an IQR shift in serum PFOA was not associated with TSH or TT4 levels in all children combined. IQR shifts in serum PFOS (15 to 28 ng/mL) and serum PFNA (1.2 to 2.0 ng/mL) were both associated with a 1.1% increase in TT4 in children 1–17 years old (95% CIs: 0.6, 1.5 and 0.7, 1.5 respectively). Conclusions: This is the first large-scale report in children suggesting associations of serum PFOS and PFNA with thyroid hormone levels and of serum PFOA and hypothyroidism.

Mondal, Debapriya; Armstrong, Ben; Bloom, Michael S.; Fletcher, Tony

2012-01-01

166

Promotion of Hepatocarcinogenesis by Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Rainbow Trout  

PubMed Central

Previously, we reported that perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) promotes liver cancer in a manner similar to that of 17?-estradiol (E2) in rainbow trout. Also, other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are weakly estrogenic in trout and bind the trout liver estrogen receptor. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether multiple PFAAs enhance hepatic tumorigenesis in trout, an animal model that represents human insensitivity to peroxisome proliferation. A two-stage chemical carcinogenesis model was employed in trout to evaluate PFOA, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2FtOH) as complete carcinogens or promoters of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)- and/or N-methyl-N?-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced liver cancer. A custom trout DNA microarray was used to assess hepatic transcriptional response to these dietary treatments in comparison with E2 and the classic peroxisome proliferator, clofibrate (CLOF). Incidence, multiplicity, and size of liver tumors in trout fed diets containing E2, PFOA, PFNA, and PFDA were significantly higher compared with AFB1-initiated animals fed control diet, whereas PFOS caused a minor increase in liver tumor incidence. E2 and PFOA also enhanced MNNG-initiated hepatocarcinogenesis. Pearson correlation analyses, unsupervised hierarchical clustering, and principal components analyses showed that the hepatic gene expression profiles for E2 and PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, and PFOS were overall highly similar, though distinct patterns of gene expression were evident for each treatment, particularly for PFNA. Overall, these data suggest that multiple PFAAs can promote liver cancer and that the mechanism of promotion may be similar to that of E2.

Benninghoff, Abby D.; Orner, Gayle A.; Buchner, Clarissa H.; Hendricks, Jerry D.; Duffy, Aaron M.; Williams, David E.

2012-01-01

167

Promotion of hepatocarcinogenesis by perfluoroalkyl acids in rainbow trout.  

PubMed

Previously, we reported that perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) promotes liver cancer in a manner similar to that of 17?-estradiol (E2) in rainbow trout. Also, other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are weakly estrogenic in trout and bind the trout liver estrogen receptor. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether multiple PFAAs enhance hepatic tumorigenesis in trout, an animal model that represents human insensitivity to peroxisome proliferation. A two-stage chemical carcinogenesis model was employed in trout to evaluate PFOA, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2FtOH) as complete carcinogens or promoters of aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1))- and/or N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced liver cancer. A custom trout DNA microarray was used to assess hepatic transcriptional response to these dietary treatments in comparison with E2 and the classic peroxisome proliferator, clofibrate (CLOF). Incidence, multiplicity, and size of liver tumors in trout fed diets containing E2, PFOA, PFNA, and PFDA were significantly higher compared with AFB(1)-initiated animals fed control diet, whereas PFOS caused a minor increase in liver tumor incidence. E2 and PFOA also enhanced MNNG-initiated hepatocarcinogenesis. Pearson correlation analyses, unsupervised hierarchical clustering, and principal components analyses showed that the hepatic gene expression profiles for E2 and PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, and PFOS were overall highly similar, though distinct patterns of gene expression were evident for each treatment, particularly for PFNA. Overall, these data suggest that multiple PFAAs can promote liver cancer and that the mechanism of promotion may be similar to that of E2. PMID:21984479

Benninghoff, Abby D; Orner, Gayle A; Buchner, Clarissa H; Hendricks, Jerry D; Duffy, Aaron M; Williams, David E

2012-01-01

168

Effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) exposure to pregnant mice on reproduction.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has similar characteristics to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in reproduction toxicity featured by neonatal death. We found that PFOS exposure to mice during pregnancy led to intracranial blood vessel dilatation of fetuses accompanied by severe lung collapse which caused neonatal mortality. Thus, we adopted the corresponding experimental design to PFOS in order to characterize the neonatal death by PFOA. Pregnant ICR mice were given 1, 5 and 10 mg/kg PFOA daily by gavage from gestational day (GD) 0 to 17 and 18 for prenatal and postnatal evaluations, respectively. Five to nine dams per group were sacrificed on GD 18 for prenatal evaluation; other 10 dams were left to give birth. No maternal death was observed. The liver weight increased dose-dependently, with hepatocellular hypertrophy, necrosis, increased mitosis and mild calcification at 10 mg/kg. PFOA at 10 mg/kg increased serum enzyme activities (GGT, ALT, AST and ALP) with hypoproteinemia and hypolipidemia. PFOA treatment reduced the fetal body weight at 5 and 10 mg/kg. Teratological evaluation showed delayed ossification of the sternum and phalanges and delayed eruption of incisors at 10 mg/kg, but did not show intracranial blood vessel dilatation. Postnatal evaluation revealed that PFOA reduced the neonatal survival rate at 5 and 10 mg/kg. At 5 mg/kg pups were born alive and active and 16% died within 4 days observation, while all died within 6 hr after birth at 10 mg/kg without showing intracranial blood vessel dilatation. The cause of neonatal death by PFOA may be different from PFOS. PMID:20686339

Yahia, Doha; El-Nasser, Mahmoud Abd; Abedel-Latif, Manal; Tsukuba, Chiaki; Yoshida, Midori; Sato, Itaru; Tsuda, Shuji

2010-08-01

169

Activation of Mouse and Human Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (a, b\\/d, c) by Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the potential for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) to activate peroxi- some proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), using a transient transfection cell assay. Cos-1 cells were cultured in Dulbecco's Minimal Essential Medium (DMEM) with fetal bovine serum in 96-well plates and transfected with mouse or human PPARa, b\\/d, or g reporter plasmids. Transfected cells were exposed to

Margy L. Takacs; Barbara D. Abbott

2007-01-01

170

Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate and Perfluorooctanoic Acid in Fish Fillet Samples  

PubMed Central

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic (PFOA) acid are persistent contaminants which can be found in environmental and biological samples. A new and fast analytical method is described here for the analysis of these compounds in the edible part of fish samples. The method uses a simple liquid extraction by sonication, followed by a direct determination using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The linearity of the instrumental response was good, with average regression coefficients of 0.9971 and 0.9979 for PFOS and PFOA, respectively, and the coefficients of variation (CV) of the method ranged from 8% to 20%. Limits of detection (LOD) were 0.04?ng/g for both the analytes and recoveries were 90% for PFOS and 76% for PFOA. The method was applied to samples of homogenized fillets of wild and farmed fish from the Mediterranean Sea. Most of the samples showed little or no contamination by perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid, and the highest concentrations detected among the fish species analyzed were, respectively, 5.96?ng/g and 1.89?ng/g. The developed analytical methodology can be used as a tool to monitor and to assess human exposure to perfluorinated compounds through sea food consumption.

Paiano, Viviana; Fattore, Elena; Carra, Andrea; Generoso, Caterina; Fanelli, Roberto; Bagnati, Renzo

2012-01-01

171

Effects of perfluoroalkyl acids on the function of the thyroid hormone and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are perfluorinated compounds that widely exist in the environment and can elicit adverse effects including endocrine disruption in humans and animals. This study investigated the effect of seven PFAAs on the thyroid hormone (TH) system assessing the proliferation of the 3,3',5-triiodo-L-thryonine (T3)-dependent rat pituitary GH3 cells using the T-screen assay and the effect on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) transactivation in the AhR-luciferase reporter gene bioassay. A dose-dependent impact on GH3 cells was observed in the range 1×10(-9)-1×10(-4) M: seven PFAAs (perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA), and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA)) inhibited the GH3 cell growth, and four PFAAs (PFOS, PFHxS, PFNA, and PFUnA) antagonized the T3-induced GH3 cell proliferation. At the highest test concentration, PFHxS showed a further increase of the T3-induced GH3 growth. Among the seven tested PFAAs, only PFDoA and PFDA elicited an activating effect on the AhR. In conclusion, PFAAs possess in vitro endocrine-disrupting potential by interfering with TH and AhR functions, which need to be taken into consideration when assessing the impact on human health. PMID:23539207

Long, Manhai; Ghisari, Mandana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

2013-11-01

172

Perfluoroalkyl acids in blood serum samples from children in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Severe perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) contamination resulting from the fast-growing semiconductor, electrochemical, and optoelectronic industries has been determined in the river water in the vicinity of the Taipei area, Taiwan, during recent years. However, little is known about body burdens of the PFAA contaminations in local residents, especially children living in the Taipei area recently. In this study, ten target PFAA analytes consisted of three perfluorosulfonates (PFSAs) and seven perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) in the blood serum samples, collected from 225 healthy children with an average age of 13.6 years in the Taipei area from 2009 to 2010, were analyzed via high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). As the dominant PFAA contaminant in the blood serum samples from Taiwanese children, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) contributed 86 % of all the target PFAA analytes, while the other nine analytes contributed less than 5 % individually. PFOS showed the highest median up to 29 ng/mL, ranging from 0.03 to 148 ng/mL, which was higher than that observed in the serum samples collected from Taiwanese children between 2006 and 2008. Statistically, serum concentrations of perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) had significantly positive correlations with ages of children (p?

Bao, Jia; Lee, Yungling Leo; Chen, Pau-Chung; Jin, Yi-He; Dong, Guang-Hui

2014-06-01

173

Occurrence of selected perfluorinated alkyl acids in lunch meals served at school canteens in Italy and their relevance for children's intake.  

PubMed

Ready-to-eat servings may be more contaminated with perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) than the corresponding unprocessed foods due to the presence of PFAAs in and transfer from food contact materials (FCM) and cookware. Therefore, the presence of selected PFAAs in meals served weekly at lunch time in six Italian school canteens was assessed. Five towns were selected representing different areas with local water and food supply. Daily lunch menus were sampled and pooled to form a composite. Analyses were carried out on the weekly composite from each canteen. UPLC-MS/MS quantification limits were in the 6.0-12 pg g?¹ range for the selected PFAAs (PFHxA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFHxS, branched and non-branched PFOS). Non-branched PFOS was quantified in four out of six composites, with levels ranging from 14 to 25 pg g?¹, while PFOA and PFDA were determined in two out of six in the range 6.5-8.2 pg g?¹. Theoretical estimates and analytical results in the same order of magnitude indicate a negligible contribution from food processing and serving to meal contamination. When composite analytical data are transposed into dietary estimates, it is shown that Italian school-age children have intakes in the range of 0.3-1.1 and 0.5-1.4 ng kg?¹ bw day?¹ for PFOA and PFOS respectively, well below the corresponding tolerable daily intakes (TDIs). PMID:23859821

Dellatte, Elena; Brambilla, Gianfranco; De Filippis, Stefania Paola; di Domenico, Alessandro; Pulkrabova, Jana; Eschauzier, Christian; Klenow, Stefanie; Heinemeyer, Gerhard; de Voogt, Pim

2013-01-01

174

An optimized method for the determination of perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorooctane sulfonate and other perfluorochemicals in different matrices using liquid chromatography/ion-trap mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Perfluorochemicals (PFC's) are widely spread in the environment and have been detected in blood of wildlife and humans world-wide. Recently, various toxic effects of PFC's in laboratory rats have been demonstrated, resulting in increased government concerns regarding the presence of PFC's in the environment and the implications they have on human health. In the last decade, various analytical methods have been developed for the analysis of PFC's in different matrices whereby the majority of methods have utilised liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Here we describe an optimized method for the quantitation of PFC's, including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), in food packaging, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sealant tape and drinking water. The method involved PFC's extraction via off-line SPE followed by separation using reversed-phase liquid chromatography on a Phenyl-Hexyl column coupled with ion-trap (IT) mass spectrometric detection. The optimized approach minimized ion-suppression effects commonly seen with conventional elution buffers, improving detection limits down to 25 pg/mL and allowed effective quantitation down to 50 pg/mL for PFOA and PFOS. The optimized LC-MS method detected PFOA and other PFC's in microwave popcorn packaging and PFOA in PTFE sealant tape in the low ?g/kg. In all samples, PFOS was not detected. PMID:21700512

Dolman, Sebastiaan; Pelzing, Matthias

2011-07-15

175

Dietary exposure to selected perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in four European regions.  

PubMed

The dietary exposure to selected PFAAs was estimated in four selected European states (Belgium, the Czech Republic, Italy and Norway) representing Western, Southern, Eastern and Northern Europe. The harmonised sampling programme designed in the European Union project PERFOOD was targeted at identifying seven selected PFAAs, including perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), in food items that are most important both in terms of consumption and based on known high contamination patterns. The estimated average dietary exposure for adults (18-64 years) and children (3-9 years) is generally below or close to 1 ng kg(-1) BW day(-1) for all seven PFAAs. Considering the high consumption of food groups that contribute most to the exposure does not result in estimates exceeding 4 ng  kg(-1) BW day(-1). Thus, based on the TDIs proposed by EFSA for PFOS (150 ng kg(-1) BW day(-1)) and PFOA (1500 ng kg(-1) BW day(-1)), no concern can be identified. There are distinct dietary exposure patterns from region to region as a result of different food consumption and contamination patterns. Foods of plant origin (e.g. fruit and vegetables) are most important for the dietary exposure to PFHxA, PFOA and PFHxS, while the consumption of foods of animal origin (particularly fish and seafood) mostly contributes to the dietary exposure to PFDA and PFUnDA. For the dietary exposure to PFNA and PFOS, food of animal and plant origin contributes with equal importance. In conclusion, region-to-region differences as well as the relative importance of food of different origin for each PFAA should be paid more attention in further research. PMID:24279394

Klenow, Stefanie; Heinemeyer, Gerhard; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Dellatte, Elena; Herzke, Dorte; de Voogt, Pim

2013-01-01

176

Parameters affecting the formation of perfluoroalkyl acids during wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

This study examined the fate and behaviour of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in liquid and solid samples from five different wastewater treatment types: facultative and aerated lagoons, chemically assisted primary treatment, secondary aerobic biological treatment, and advanced biological nutrient removal treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest data set from a single study available in the literature to date for PFAAs monitoring study in wastewater treatment. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the predominant PFAA in wastewater with levels from 2.2 to 150ng/L (influent) and 1.9 to 140ng/L (effluent). Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) was the predominant compound in primary sludge, waste biological sludge, and treated biosolids with concentrations from 6.4 to 2900ng/g dry weight (dw), 9.7 to 8200ng/gdw, and 2.1 to 17,000ng/gdw, respectively. PFAAs were formed during wastewater treatment and it was dependant on both process temperature and treatment type; with higher rates of formation in biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) operating at longer hydraulic retention times and higher temperatures. PFAA removal by sorption was influenced by different sorption tendencies; median log values of the solid-liquid distribution coefficient estimated from wastewater biological sludge and final effluent were: PFOS (3.73)>PFDA (3.68)>PFNA (3.25)>PFOA (2.49)>PFHxA (1.93). Mass balances confirmed the formation of PFAAs, low PFAA removal by sorption, and high PFAA levels in effluents. PMID:24691135

Guerra, P; Kim, M; Kinsman, L; Ng, T; Alaee, M; Smyth, S A

2014-05-15

177

Association of perfluorooctanoic acid with HDL cholesterol and circulating miR-26b and miR-199-3p in workers of a fluorochemical plant and nearby residents.  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) are stable man-made compounds with many industrial and commercial uses. Concern has been raised that they may exert deleterious effects, especially on lipid regulation. We aimed to assess exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), and seven other PFCs in occupational workers from a fluorochemical plant and nearby community residents, and to investigate the association between PFOA and serum biomarkers. Serum biomarkers included not only biochemical parameters, such as lipids and enzymes, but also circulating microRNAs (miRNAs). Samples were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Circulating miRNA levels were detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Analyses were conducted by correlation and linear regression. We detected PFOS, PFOA, perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) in all samples. The median levels of serum PFOA and PFOS were 284.34 ng/mL and 34.16 ng/mL in residents and 1635.96 ng/mL and 33.46 ng/mL in occupational participants, respectively. To our knowledge, we found for the first time that PFOA was negatively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in workers using linear regression after adjusting for potential confounders. Circulating miR-26b and miR-199a-3p were elevated with serum concentration of PFOA. Although the limitations of small sample size and the cross-sectional nature of the current study constrained causal inferences, the observed associations between PFOA and these serum biomarkers warrant further study. PMID:22862179

Wang, Jianshe; Zhang, Yating; Zhang, Wei; Jin, Yihe; Dai, Jiayin

2012-09-01

178

Maternal exposure to perfluorinated acids and fetal growth.  

PubMed

The widespread detection of perfluorinated acids (PFAs) in humans and known developmental toxicity in animals has raised concern about their potential effects on human reproductive health. Our objective was to determine whether increasing maternal exposure to PFAs is associated with adverse effects on fetal growth and length of gestation in women giving birth in Alberta, Canada. We examined the concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) in a cohort of 252 pregnant women who gave birth to live singletons. Each of the women had undergone an early second trimester prenatal screen, and her serum was analyzed for PFA concentrations. Data on infant and maternal variables were collected from the delivery record completed at birth. Adjusted changes in birth weight per natural log (ng/ml) of PFOA (median 1.5 ng/ml), PFHxS (median 0.97 ng/ml), and PFOS (median 7.8 ng/ml) were -37.4 g (95% confidence interval (CI): -86.0 to 11.2 g), 21.9 g (-23.4 to 67.2 g), and 31.3 g (-43.3 to 105.9 g), respectively. Mean birth weight z-score, standardized for gestational age and gender, length of gestation, and risk of preterm birth did not appear to be influenced by maternal PFA exposure. When PFA concentrations were divided into tertiles, similar patterns were observed. These results suggest that maternal PFA exposure has no substantial effect on fetal weight and length of gestation at the concentrations observed in this population. PMID:19865074

Hamm, Michele P; Cherry, Nicola M; Chan, Emily; Martin, Jonathan W; Burstyn, Igor

2010-11-01

179

Toxicogenomic study of triazole fungicides and perfluoroalkyl acids in rat livers predicts toxicity and categorizes chemicals based on mechanisms of toxicity.  

PubMed

Toxicogenomic analysis of five environmental chemicals was performed to investigate the ability of genomics to predict toxicity, categorize chemicals, and elucidate mechanisms of toxicity. Three triazole antifungals (myclobutanil, propiconazole, and triadimefon) and two perfluorinated chemicals [perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)] were administered daily via oral gavage for one, three, or five consecutive days to male Sprague-Dawley rats at single doses of 300, 300, 175, 20, or 10 mg/kg/day, respectively. Clinical chemistry, hematology, and histopathology were measured at all time points. Gene expression profiling of livers from three rats per treatment group at all time points was performed on the CodeLink Uniset Rat I Expression array. Data were analyzed in the context of a large reference toxicogenomic database containing gene expression profiles for over 630 chemicals. Genomic signatures predicting hepatomegaly and hepatic injury preceded those results for all five chemicals, and further analysis segregated chemicals into two distinct classes. The triazoles caused similar gene expression changes as other azole antifungals, particularly the induction of pregnane X receptor (PXR)-regulated xenobiotic metabolism and oxidative stress genes. In contrast, PFOA and PFOS exhibited peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha agonist-like effects on genes associated with fatty acid homeostasis. PFOA and PFOS also resulted in downregulation of cholesterol biosynthesis genes, matching an in vivo decrease in serum cholesterol, and perturbation of thyroid hormone metabolism genes matched by serum thyroid hormone depletion in vivo. The concordance of in vivo observations and gene expression findings demonstrated the ability of genomics to accurately categorize chemicals, identify toxic mechanisms of action, and predict subsequent pathological responses. PMID:17383973

Martin, Matthew T; Brennan, Richard J; Hu, Wenyue; Ayanoglu, Eser; Lau, Christopher; Ren, Hongzu; Wood, Carmen R; Corton, J Christopher; Kavlock, Robert J; Dix, David J

2007-06-01

180

Temporal trends of perfluoroalkyl acids in plasma samples of pregnant women in Hokkaido, Japan, 2003-2011.  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are persistent organic pollutants that are used in a wide range of consumer products. Recent epidemiological studies have shown that prenatal exposure to toxic levels of PFAAs in the environment may adversely affect fetal growth and humoral immune response in infants and children. Here we have characterized levels of prenatal exposure to PFAA between 2003 and 2011 in Hokkaido, Japan, by measuring PFAA concentrations in plasma samples from pregnant women. The study population comprised 150 women who enrolled in a prospective birth cohort study conducted in Hokkaido. Eleven PFAAs were measured in maternal plasma samples using simultaneous analysis by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. At the end of the study, in 2011, age- and parity-adjusted mean concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA), perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were 1.35ng/mL, 1.26ng/mL, 0.66ng/mL, 1.29ng/mL, 0.25ng/mL, 0.33ng/mL, 0.28ng/mL, and 3.86ng/mL, respectively. Whereas PFOS and PFOA concentrations declined 8.4%/y and 3.1%/y, respectively, PFNA and PFDA levels increased 4.7%/y and 2.4%/y, respectively, between 2003 and 2011. PFUnDA, PFDoDA, and PFTrDA were detected in the vast majority of maternal samples, but no significant temporal trend was apparent. Future studies must involve a larger population of pregnant women and their children to determine the effects of prenatal exposure to PFAA on health outcomes in infants and children. PMID:24013022

Okada, Emiko; Kashino, Ikuko; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Sasaki, Seiko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Yamamoto, Jun; Ikeno, Tamiko; Ito, Yoichi M; Matsumura, Toru; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Kishi, Reiko

2013-10-01

181

Occurrence and Distribution of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate and Perfluorooctanoic Acid in the Rivers of Tokyo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comprehensive survey of major rivers in the Tokyo metropolitan area was conducted for clarifying the emission sources of perfluorooctane\\u000a sulfonate (PFOS) in Tokyo. PFOS was found at all sampling sites at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 58 ng L?1; in addition to this, it was also indicated that unknown PFOS emission sources are present in the midstream of the Tama River

Y. Takazawa; T. Nishino; Y. Sasaki; H. Yamashita; N. Suzuki; K. Tanabe; Y. Shibata

2009-01-01

182

Perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate released from a waste water treatment plant in Bavaria, Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and precursors and derivatives thereof have been employed as\\u000a surfactants and anti-adhesives. PFOA and PFOS are environmentally persistent and the discharge of municipal waste waters is\\u000a one of the principal routes of these compounds into the aquatic environment. In a previous study, the concentrations of PFOA\\u000a and PFOS in grab samples collected from the waste

Anna M. Becker; Magdalena Suchan; Silke Gerstmann; Hartmut Frank

2010-01-01

183

Lipophilic organic pollutants induce changes in phospholipid and membrane protein composition leading to Vero cell morphological change.  

PubMed

Membrane damage related to morphological change in Vero cells is a sensitive index of the composite biotoxicity of trace lipophilic chemicals. However, judging whether the morphological change in Vero cells happens and its ratio are difficult because it is not a quantitative characteristic. To find biomarkers of cell morphological change for quantitatively representing the ratio of morphological changed cell, the mechanism of cell membrane damage driven by typical lipophilic chemicals, such as trichlorophenol (TCP) and perfluorooctanesulphonate (PFOS), was explored. The ratio of morphologically changed cells generally increased with increased TCP or PFOS concentrations, and the level of four major components of phospholipids varied with concentrations of TCP or PFOS, but only the ratio of phosphatidylcholine (PC)/phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) decreased regularly as TCP or PFOS concentrations increased. Analysis of membrane proteins showed that the level of vimentin in normal cell membranes is high, while it decreases or vanishes after TCP exposure. These variations in phospholipid and membrane protein components may result in membrane leakage and variation in rigid structure, which leads to changes in cell morphology. Therefore, the ratio of PC/PE and amount of vimentin may be potential biomarkers for representing the ratio of morphological changed Vero cell introduced by trace lipophilic compounds, thus their composite bio-toxicity. PMID:25065828

Liao, Ting T; Wang, Lei; Jia, Ru W; Fu, Xiao H; Chua, Hong

2014-10-01

184

Oxidative conversion as a means of detecting precursors to perfluoroalkyl acids in urban runoff.  

PubMed

A new method was developed to quantify concentrations of difficult-to-measure and unidentified precursors of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic (PFCA) and sulfonic (PFSA) acids in urban runoff. Samples were exposed to hydroxyl radicals generated by thermolysis of persulfate under basic pH conditions and perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) precursors were transformed to PFCAs of related perfluorinated chain length. By comparing PFCA concentrations before and after oxidation, the concentrations of total PFAA precursors were inferred. Analysis of 33 urban runoff samples collected from locations around the San Francisco Bay, CA indicated that PFOS (2.6-26 ng/L), PFOA (2.1-16 ng/L), and PFHxA (0.9-9.7 ng/L) were the predominant perfluorinated compounds detected prior to sample treatment. Following oxidative treatment, the total concentrations of PFCAs with 5-12 membered perfluoroalkyl chains increased by a median of 69%, or between 2.8 and 56 ng/L. Precursors that produced PFHxA and PFPeA upon oxidation were more prevalent in runoff samples than those that produced PFOA, despite lower concentrations of their corresponding perfluorinated acids prior to oxidation. Direct measurements of several common precursors to PFOS and PFOA (e.g., perfluorooctanesulfonamide and 8:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate) accounted for less than 25% of the observed increase in PFOA, which increased by a median value of 37%. Exposure of urban runoff to sunlight, advanced oxidation processes, or microbes could result in modest, but measurable, increases in concentrations of PFCAs and PFSAs. PMID:22900587

Houtz, Erika F; Sedlak, David L

2012-09-01

185

Umbilical cord blood levels of perfluoroalkyl acids and polybrominated flame retardants.  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent organic pollutants representing two classes of environmental contaminants of toxicological concern, especially for infants. Canadian biomonitoring data on these chemicals are limited. The objectives of this study were to measure PFAAs and PBDEs in umbilical cord blood from approximately 100 hospital deliveries in Ottawa (Ontario, Canada) and examine associations with characteristics of the mother and infant. Geometric means were 1.469 ng/mL for perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) (95% confidence interval of 1.292-1.671 ng/mL), 4.443 ng/mL for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (95% CI of 3.735-5.285 ng/mL), 0.359 ng/mL for perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) (95% CI of 0.318-0.404 ng/mL), and 0.579 ng/mL for perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) (95% CI of 0.473-0.709 ng/mL). The final multiple regression models indicated that lower gravida, term gestational age, smoking during pregnancy and vaginal delivery were significantly associated with higher levels of PFOS. Similarly, a vaginal delivery was significantly associated with higher PFOA, while weak associations were found with lower gravida and birth weight less than 2500 g. Furthermore, higher PFNA concentrations were significantly associated with older mothers, and vaginal delivery, while weakly associated with term gestational age. Elevated PFHxS concentrations were significantly associated with smoking during pregnancy and lower gravida. Similar to reports from other countries, the preponderant PBDE congener measured in the cord blood was PBDE-47. Questions remain on why various studies have reported conflicting results on the association between PFAAs and birth weight. PMID:22494936

Arbuckle, Tye E; Kubwabo, Cariton; Walker, Mark; Davis, Karelyn; Lalonde, Kaela; Kosarac, Ivana; Wen, Shi Wu; Arnold, Douglas L

2013-03-01

186

Photo-generated Acid Diffusion in Polymer Photoresist Thin Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced photoresist formulations make use of photosensitive molecules, photoacid generators (PAGs), which decompose to form acids after illumination with UV radiation. The photo-generated acids then catalytically alter the solubility of the resist polymer during a post-exposure bake so that the exposed areas of an image can be removed with an appropriate solvent. One of the limitations in resist performance is the diffusion of small molecules such as the photoacid generators (PAG), photo-generated acids (PGAs), solvents, and performance enhancing additives, in the photoresist formulation. We utilize the high spatial resolution of neutron reflectometry over length scales relevant to line width broadening (10 nm to 20 nm) to measure the diffusion rates of PAGs, PGAs, and polymers in model resist materials. In this study, the model polymer matrix material is monodisperse poly(hydroxystyrene)(PHS) and the photoacid generator is bis(p-tert-butylphenyl) iodonium perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS). By measuring the profiles of the PGAs in the PHS layer and into an overlaying poly(methyl methacrylate) layer as a function of post-exposure bake temperature and time, the initial rates of diffusion may be determined.

Lin, Eric; Soles, Christopher; Wu, Wen-Li; Lin, Qinghuang

2000-03-01

187

Phthalates and Perfluorooctanesulfonic Acid in Human Amniotic Fluid: Temporal Trends and Timing of Amniocentesis in Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background: Measures of prenatal environmental exposures are important, and amniotic fluid levels may directly reflect fetal exposures during hypothesized windows of vulnerability. Objectives: We aimed to detect various phthalate metabolites and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in human amniotic fluid, to study temporal exposure trends, and to estimate potential associations with gestational week of amniocentesis and maternal age and parity at amniocentesis. Methods: We studied 300 randomly selected second-trimester amniotic fluid samples from a Danish pregnancy-screening biobank covering 1980 through 1996. We used only samples from male offspring pregnancies. We assayed the environmental pollutants by liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry and analyzed data using generalized linear regression models. Results: We detected the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolite mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (5cx-MEPP) at a median concentration of 0.27 ng/mL [interquartile range (IQR): 0.20–0.37 ng/mL], the diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) metabolite mono(4-methyl-7-carboxyheptyl) phthalate (7cx-MMeHP) at 0.07 ng/mL (IQR: 0.05–0.11 ng/mL), and PFOS at 1.1 ng/mL (IQR: 0.66–1.60 ng/mL). An increase of 1 calendar year was associated with 3.5% lower [95% confidence interval (CI): –4.8%, –2.1%] 5cx-MEPP levels and with 7.1% higher (95% CI: 5.3%, 9.0%) 7cx-MMeHP levels. For each later gestational week of amniocentesis, 5cx-MEPP was 9.9% higher (95% CI: 4.8%, 15.2%), 7cx-MMeHP was 8.6% higher (95: CI: 2.7%, 14.9%), and PFOS was 9.4% higher (95: CI: 3.3%, 15.9%). We observed no associations with maternal age or parity. Conclusions: Measured metabolite levels appeared to parallel decreasing DEHP exposure and increasing DiNP exposure during the study period. The environmental pollutant levels were positively associated with later gestational age at amniocentesis during pregnancy weeks 12–22.

N?rgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Toft, Gunnar; Hougaard, David M.; Bonde, Jens Peter; Cohen, Arieh; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Ivell, Richard; Anand-Ivell, Ravinder; Lindh, Christian H.; Jonsson, Bo A.G.

2012-01-01

188

Subsurface transport potential of perfluoroalkyl acids at aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF)-impacted sites.  

PubMed

Subsurface transport potential of a suite of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) was studied in batch sorption experiments with various soils and in the presence of co-contaminants relevant to aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF)-impacted sites. Specifically, PFAA sorption to multiple soils in the presence of nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) and nonfluorinated AFFF surfactants was examined. This study is the first to report on sorption of perfluorobutanoate (PFBA) and perfluoropentanoate (PFPeA) (log Koc = 1.88 and 1.37, respectively) and found that sorption of these compounds does not follow the chain-length dependent trend observed for longer chain-length PFAAs. Sorption of PFBA was similar to that of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, log Koc = 1.89). NAPL and nonfluorinated AFFF surfactants all had varying impacts on sorption of longer chain (>6 CF2 groups) PFAAs. The primary impact of NAPL was observed in low foc soil (soil A) where Freundlich n-values increased when NAPL was present. Impacts of nonfluorinated AFFF surfactants varied with surfactant and soil. The anionic surfactant sodium decyl sulfate (SDS) illicited PFAA chain-length dependent impacts in two negatively charged soils with varying foc. In soil A, Kd values for perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA) increased 91% with SDS, whereas values for perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) increased only 28%. An amphoteric surfactant, n,n-dimethyldodecylamine n-oxide (AO), had the most notable impact on PFAA sorption to a positively charged soil (soil C). In this soil, AO oxide significantly increased sorption for the longer chain PFAAs (i.e., 528% increase in Kd for PFDA). Changes in sorption caused by SDS and AO may be due to mixed hemimicelle formation, competitive sorption, or changes to PFAA solubility. Short-chain PFAA behavior in the presence of NAPL, SDS, and AO was again notable. Co-contaminants generally increased the sorption of these compounds to all soils. Log Kd values of PFBA in soil A increased 85%, 372%, and 32% in the presence of NAPL, SDS, and AO, respectively. Use of Kd values to calculate retardation factors (Rf) of PFAAs demonstrates the variability of co-contaminant impacts on PFAA transport. Whereas NAPL and nonfluorinated surfactants decreased the sorption of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) at lower PFOS concentrations (1 ?g/L), they led to increases in sorption at higher PFOS concentrations (500 ?g/L). These results demonstrate that PFAA groundwater transport will depend on the solid phase characteristics as well as PFAA concentration and chain length. Detailed site-specific information will likely be needed to accurately predict PFAA transport at AFFF-impacted sites. PMID:23566120

Guelfo, Jennifer L; Higgins, Christopher P

2013-05-01

189

Estrogen-Like Activity of Perfluoroalkyl Acids In Vivo and Interaction with Human and Rainbow Trout Estrogen Receptors In Vitro  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study were to determine the structural characteristics of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) that confer estrogen-like activity in vivo using juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as an animal model and to determine whether these chemicals interact directly with the estrogen receptor (ER) using in vitro and in silico species comparison approaches. Perfluorooctanoic (PFOA), perfluorononanoic (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoic (PFUnDA) acids were all potent inducers of the estrogen-responsive biomarker protein vitellogenin (Vtg) in vivo, although at fairly high dietary exposures. A structure-activity relationship for PFAAs was observed, where eight to ten fluorinated carbons and a carboxylic acid end group were optimal for maximal Vtg induction. These in vivo findings were corroborated by in vitro mechanistic assays for trout and human ER. All PFAAs tested weakly bound to trout liver ER with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 15.2–289?M. Additionally, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, and perlfuorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) significantly enhanced human ER?-dependent transcriptional activation at concentrations ranging from 10–1000nM. Finally, we employed an in silico computational model based upon the crystal structure for the human ER? ligand-binding domain complexed with E2 to structurally investigate binding of these putative ligands to human, mouse, and trout ER?. PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, and PFOS all efficiently docked with ER? from different species and formed a hydrogen bond at residue Arg394/398/407 (human/mouse/trout) in a manner similar to the environmental estrogens bisphenol A and nonylphenol. Overall, these data support the contention that several PFAAs are weak environmental xenoestrogens of potential concern.

Benninghoff, Abby D.; Bisson, William H.; Koch, Daniel C.; Ehresman, David J.; Kolluri, Siva K.; Williams, David E.

2011-01-01

190

Estrogen-like activity of perfluoroalkyl acids in vivo and interaction with human and rainbow trout estrogen receptors in vitro.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to determine the structural characteristics of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) that confer estrogen-like activity in vivo using juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as an animal model and to determine whether these chemicals interact directly with the estrogen receptor (ER) using in vitro and in silico species comparison approaches. Perfluorooctanoic (PFOA), perfluorononanoic (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoic (PFUnDA) acids were all potent inducers of the estrogen-responsive biomarker protein vitellogenin (Vtg) in vivo, although at fairly high dietary exposures. A structure-activity relationship for PFAAs was observed, where eight to ten fluorinated carbons and a carboxylic acid end group were optimal for maximal Vtg induction. These in vivo findings were corroborated by in vitro mechanistic assays for trout and human ER. All PFAAs tested weakly bound to trout liver ER with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of 15.2-289 ?M. Additionally, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, and perlfuorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) significantly enhanced human ER?-dependent transcriptional activation at concentrations ranging from 10-1000 nM. Finally, we employed an in silico computational model based upon the crystal structure for the human ER? ligand-binding domain complexed with E2 to structurally investigate binding of these putative ligands to human, mouse, and trout ER?. PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, and PFOS all efficiently docked with ER? from different species and formed a hydrogen bond at residue Arg394/398/407 (human/mouse/trout) in a manner similar to the environmental estrogens bisphenol A and nonylphenol. Overall, these data support the contention that several PFAAs are weak environmental xenoestrogens of potential concern. PMID:21163906

Benninghoff, Abby D; Bisson, William H; Koch, Daniel C; Ehresman, David J; Kolluri, Siva K; Williams, David E

2011-03-01

191

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) acts as a tumor promoter on Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (C(8)F(17)SO(3)) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (C(8)HF(15)O(2)) are synthetic chemicals widely used in industrial applications for their hydrophobic and oleophobic properties. They are persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic to mammalian species. Their widespread distribution on earth and contamination of human serum raised concerns about long-term side effects. They are suspected to be carcinogenic through a nongenotoxic mode of action, a mechanism supported by recent findings that PFOS induced cell transformation but no genotoxicity in Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells. In the present study, we evaluated carcinogenic potential of PFOA using the cell transformation assay on SHE cells. The chemical was applied alone or in combination with a nontransformant concentration of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP, 0.4 ?M) in order to detect PFOA ability to act as tumor initiator or tumor promoter. The results showed that PFOA tested alone in the range 3.7?×?10(-5) to 300 ?M did not induce SHE cell transformation frequency in a 7-day treatment. On the other side, the combination BaP/PFOA induced cell transformation at all PFOA concentrations tested, which revealed synergistic effects. No genotoxicity of PFOA on SHE cells was detected using the comet assay after 5 and 24 h of exposure. No significant increase in DNA breakage was found in BaP-initiated cells exposed to PFOA in a 7-day treatment. The whole results showed that PFOA acts as a tumor promoter and a nongenotoxic carcinogen. Cell transformation in initiated cells was observed at concentrations equivalent to the ones found in human serum of nonoccupationally and occupationally exposed populations. An involvement of PFOA in increased incidence of cancer recorded in occupationally exposed population cannot be ruled out. PMID:22828883

Jacquet, N; Maire, M A; Rast, C; Bonnard, M; Vasseur, P

2011-08-01

192

Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Acids and Markers of Kidney Function among Children and Adolescents Living near a Chemical Plant  

PubMed Central

Background: Serum levels of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have been associated with decreased renal function in cross-sectional analyses, but the direction of the association is unclear. Objectives: We examined the association of measured and model-predicted serum PFOA concentrations with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), a marker of kidney function, in a highly exposed population (median serum PFOA, 28.3 ng/mL). Methods: We measured serum creatinine, PFOA, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and calculated eGFR in 9,660 children 1 to < 18 years of age at study enrollment. We predicted concurrent and historical serum PFOA concentrations using a validated environmental, exposure, and pharmacokinetic model based on individual residential histories, and used linear regression to estimate the association between eGFR and measured and predicted serum PFOA concentrations. We hypothesized that predicted serum PFOA levels would be less susceptible to reverse causation than measured levels. Results: An interquartile range increase in measured serum PFOA concentrations [IQR ln(PFOA) = 1.63] was associated with a decrease in eGFR of 0.75 mL/min/1.73 m2 (95% CI: –1.41, –0.10; p = 0.02). Measured serum levels of PFOS, PFNA, and PFHxS were also cross-sectionally associated with decreased eGFR. In contrast, predicted serum PFOA concentrations at the time of enrollment were not associated with eGFR (–0.10; 95% CI: –0.80, 0.60; p = 0.78). Additionally, predicted serum PFOA levels at birth and during the first ten years of life were not related to eGFR. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the cross-sectional association between eGFR and serum PFOA observed in this and prior studies may be a consequence of, rather than a cause of, decreased kidney function.

Josson, Jyoti; Elston, Beth; Bartell, Scott M.; Shin, Hyeong-Moo; Vieira, Veronica M.; Savitz, David A.; Fletcher, Tony; Wellenius, Gregory A.

2013-01-01

193

GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING IN WILD-TYPE AND PPARa-NULL MICE EXPOSED TO PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE REVEALS PPARa-INDEPENDENT EFFECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a perfluoroalky1 acid (PFAA) and a persistent environmental contaminant found in the tissues of humans and wildlife. Although blood levels of PFOS have begun to decline, health concerns remain because of the long half-life of PFOS in humans. Li...

194

Alternative Eluent Composition for LC-MS Analysis of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Raw Fish Samples.  

PubMed

A wide range of anthropogenic pollutants that possess serious environmental and health risks are known. One type of these harmful substances that have become a focus of interest during the past decade are perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), which are extensively used in industry for different purposes. Due to the harmful effects that these compounds might cause in living organisms, EFSA and EU CONTAM panel have issued a monitoring program for PFAAs in foodstuffs. This has given rise to intense research dedicated to the analysis of PFAAs over the past few years. This work focuses on chromatographic analysis of three PFAAs in fish. The analytes, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), are commonly associated with the production of fluoropolymers. Fluorinated alcohols are used as eluent components, and their possible advantages as eluent modifiers in LC-MS analysis of PFAAs, alternative retention mechanism and enhanced ionization efficiency, are examined. The analyzed fish samples originating from Estonian fresh and marine waters had low contents of PFAAs. PMID:24845542

Haljasorg, Tõiv; Saame, Jaan; Kipper, Karin; Teearu, Anu; Herodes, Koit; Reinik, Mari; Leito, Ivo

2014-06-11

195

Tissue distribution of 35S-labelled perfluorobutanesulfonic acid in adult mice following dietary exposure for 1-5 days.  

PubMed

Perfluorobutanesulfonyl fluoride (PBSF) has been introduced as a replacement for its eight-carbon homolog perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride (POSF) in the manufacturing of fluorochemicals. Fluorochemicals derived from PBSF may give rise to perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS) as a terminal degradation product. Although basic mammalian toxicokinetic data exist for PFBS, information on its tissue distribution has only been reported in one study focused on rat liver. Therefore, here we characterized the tissue distribution of PFBS in mice in the same manner as we earlier examined its eight-carbon homolog perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) to allow direct comparisons. Following dietary exposure of adult male C57/BL6 mice for 1, 3 or 5d to 16 mg (35)S-PFBS kg(-1) d(-1), both scintillation counting and whole-body autoradiography (WBA) revealed the presence of PFBS in all of the 20 different tissues examined, demonstrating its ability to leave the bloodstream and enter tissues. After 5d of treatment the highest levels were detected in liver, gastrointestinal tract, blood, kidney, cartilage, whole bone, lungs and thyroid gland. WBA revealed relatively high levels of PFBS in male genital organs as well, with the exception of the testis. The tissue levels increased from 1 to 3 d of exposure but appeared thereafter to level-off in most cases. The estimated major body compartments were whole bone, liver, blood, skin and muscle. This exposure to PFBS resulted in 5-40-fold lower tissue levels than did similar exposure to PFOS, as well as in a different pattern of tissue distribution, including lower levels in liver and lungs relative to blood. PMID:24238775

Bogdanska, Jasna; Sundström, Maria; Bergström, Ulrika; Borg, Daniel; Abedi-Valugerdi, Manuchehr; Bergman, Åke; DePierre, Joseph; Nobel, Stefan

2014-03-01

196

Dietary exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids of specific French adult sub-populations: High seafood consumers, high freshwater fish consumers and pregnant women.  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are globally found in various media, including food and especially fishery products. In the present study, the dietary exposure to 15 perfluoroalkyl acids was assessed for 3 French adult populations, namely high seafood consumers, high freshwater fish consumers, and pregnant women. Purified food extracts were analysed by LC-MS/MS and PFBA, PFPA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFTrDA, PFTeDA, PFBS, PFHxS, PFHpS, PFOS and PFDS were monitored and quantified according to the isotope dilution principle. Under lower bound (LB) hypothesis (i.e. contamination valuesPFOS (7.5ng.kg(-1) bw.d(-1)), PFUnA (1.3ng.kg(-1) bw.d(-1)), PFDA (0.4ng.kg(-1) bw.d(-1)) and PFHpS (0.03ng.kg(-1) bw.d(-1)) while high seafood consumers appear as the most exposed to PFOA (1.2ng.kg(-1) bw.d(-1)), PFNA (0.2ng.kg(-1) bw.d(-1)) and PFHxS (0.06ng.kg(-1) bw.d(-1)). For all considered populations, the major exposure contributors are fish, seafood and water under LB hypothesis, while dairy products, bread and crispbread are the main contributors under upper bound (UB) hypothesis. Besides this food exposure assessment, further studies are needed to assess the more global PFAA exposure, taking into account indoor and outdoor air, dust and cutaneous contact, which could be other important contributors for this particular class of chemicals. PMID:24530183

Yamada, A; Bemrah, N; Veyrand, B; Pollono, C; Merlo, M; Desvignes, V; Sirot, V; Marchand, P; Berrebi, A; Cariou, R; Antignac, J P; Le Bizec, B; Leblanc, J C

2014-09-01

197

Amino acids  

MedlinePLUS

Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . Amino acids and proteins are the building blocks of life. When proteins are digested or broken down, amino acids are left. The human body uses amino acids ...

198

Major perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) concentrations and influence of food consumption among the general population of Daegu, Korea.  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been used in various industrial and consumer products for decades, and have consequently been detected in human blood worldwide. In the present study, general adult population in Daegu, Korea (n=140, >20 years of old) was recruited, collected for serum, and analyzed for 13 major PFAAs. The influence of dietary and water consumption on serum PFAA levels was also evaluated. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) were frequently detected with relatively higher concentrations in blood serum. Most PFAA concentrations except for PFOA were detected in higher concentrations among males, and were positively correlated with age and body mass index (BMI). PFOA concentrations were relatively higher among the female of childbearing age, e.g., 20-49years old, raising concerns on potential impacts on fetus through transplacental transfer or lactation. In addition, the concentrations of PFOA in Daegu population were higher than other areas of Korea, suggesting a presence of distinctive sources in the area. Among food items, potato consumption was identified to be significant contributor to serum PFOA. For PFUnDA and PFTrDA levels, intake of fish/shellfish was positively associated. The results of this study will be useful in developing public health management options for PFAAs. PMID:22964400

Ji, Kyunghee; Kim, Sunmi; Kho, Younglim; Sakong, Joon; Paek, Domyung; Choi, Kyungho

2012-11-01

199

Association between thyroid profile and perfluoroalkyl acids: data from NHNAES 2007-2008.  

PubMed

The effect of six perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), namely, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDE), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), 2-(N-methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamide) acetic acid (MPAH), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) on the levels of six thyroid function variables, namely, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free and total thyroxine (FT4, TT4), free and total triiodothyronine (FT3, TT3), and thyroglobulin (TGN) was evaluated. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2007-2008 were used for this evaluation. TSH levels increased with increase in levels of PFOA (p<0.01). There were no statistically significant associations between the levels of FT3, and FT4 with the levels of any of the six PFAAs. Levels of TT3 were found to increase with the levels of PFOA (p=0.01) and TT4 levels were found to increase with increase in PFHxS levels (p<0.01). Males had statistically significantly higher levels of FT3 than females and females had statistically significantly higher levels of TT4 than males. As compared to non-Hispanics whites and Hispanics, non-Hispanic blacks had lower levels of TSH, FT3, TT3, and TT4 but Hispanics had the lowest levels of TGN. Age was negatively associated with FT3 and TT3 but positively associated with FT4 and TT4. Non-smokers had higher levels of TSH and TT4 than smokers and smokers had higher levels of FT3 and TGN than non-smokers. Iodine deficiency was associated with increased levels of TSH, TT3, TT4, and TGN. PMID:24053974

Jain, Ram B

2013-10-01

200

Folic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

Folic acid is used to treat or prevent folic acid deficiency. It is a B-complex vitamin needed by ... Folic acid comes in tablets. It usually is taken once a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label ...

201

Folic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

202

Acid rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid precipitation is a global problem. The effects were first seen in Europe; it affects the Great Lakes and the Midwest because higher-than-normal levels of acidity in rain are found in these areas. Several bays of the Great Lakes are now known to receive substantial runoff from freshwater streams that have been made acidic by acid rains. These areas may

1979-01-01

203

Associations between serum concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids and serum lipid levels in a Chinese population.  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been used in a variety of products for many years and have been detected worldwide in human serum. Previous studies have suggested the potential effects of PFAAs on serum lipids. To investigate the associations between serum concentrations of PFAAs and serum lipid levels, 133 participants were randomly selected from the people coming for health check-up in Yuanyang Red Cross Hospital of Henan, China. Linear regression analysis revealed that perfluoro-octanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), with a median concentration of 1.43, 0.37, and 0.19ng/mL, respectively, were positively associated with total cholesterol (TC). Those in the highest quartile of PFOA exposure had ln-TC levels 0.24mmol/L higher than those in the lowest quartile. For PFNA and PFDA, effect estimates were 0.25 and 0.16mmol/L, respectively. A positive association between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) and PFDA was found, and there was a 0.18mmol/L increase of HDLC for the top PFDA quartile compared with the lowest quartile. PFOA and PFNA were positively associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC). Ln-LDLC levels of people in both top PFOA and PFNA quartiles were 0.33mmol/L higher than those in the lowest quartiles. Logistic regression analysis indicated that increased PFOA and PFOS quartiles were positively associated with an increased risk of abnormal TC and LDLC when controlling for no confounding factors. PMID:24863755

Fu, Yaning; Wang, Tieyu; Fu, Quanliang; Wang, Pei; Lu, Yonglong

2014-08-01

204

Mefenamic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

Mefenamic acid is used to relieve mild to moderate pain, including menstrual pain (pain that happens before or during a menstrual period). Mefenamic acid is in a class of medications called NSAIDs. ...

205

Aminocaproic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

206

Ascorbic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops ...

207

Shikimic Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The molecule for this month comes from the article Isolation of Shikimic Acid from Star Aniseed by Richard Payne and Michael Edmonds. Shikimic acid plays a key role in the biosynthesis of many important natural products including aromatic amino acids, alkaloids, phenolics, and phenylpropanoids. It plays such an important role that one of the key biosynthetic pathways is referred to as the shikimate pathway.

208

Basically Acids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn the basics of acid/base chemistry in a fun, interactive way by studying instances of acid/base chemistry found in popular films such as Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban and National Treasure. Students learn what acids, bases and indicators are and how they can be used, including invisible ink. They also learn how engineers use acids and bases every day to better our quality of life. Students' interest is piqued by the use of popular culture in the classroom.

University Of Houston

209

Identification of perfluorooctane sulfonate binding protein in the plasma of tiger pufferfish Takifugu rubripes.  

PubMed

It is well known that perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) preferentially accumulates in the plasma of wildlife and humans. Although earlier studies have suggested that this was due to binding of PFOS to a plasma protein, definite characterization of the protein in in vivo exposure studies was not conducted thus far. In this study, we conducted both in vitro and in vivo experiments to identify PFOS binding protein in the plasma of fish. For the in vivo studies, PFOS was administered intraperitoneally to tiger pufferfish, Takifugu rubripes, and the plasma was separated by ammonium sulfate fractionation. High concentrations of PFOS were found in the 65-70 percent ammonium sulfate fraction (190ng/mL). After SDS-PAGE and N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis, the PFOS-binding protein was identified as an apolipoprotein A-I, which was confirmed on the basis of a significant correlation to the PFOS concentration in each fraction. The plasma samples fractionated by ammonium sulfate from untreated pufferfish were subjected to PFOS binding assay by the equilibrium dialysis method. The results further confirmed that the 60-65 percent ammonium sulfate fraction showed a high PFOS-binding ratio, similar to that found from in vivo studies. We demonstrated that PFOS is likely bound to an apolipoprotein A-I in the plasma of tiger pufferfish in in vivo and in vitro studies. PMID:24635910

Honda, Masato; Muta, Akemi; Akasaka, Taiki; Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Shimasaki, Yohei; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Okino, Nozomu; Oshima, Yuji

2014-06-01

210

Biogeochemical dynamics of perfluorinated alkyl acids and sulfonates in the River Seine (Paris, France) under contrasting hydrological conditions.  

PubMed

The biogeochemical dynamics of 15 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were investigated in a heavily urbanised river (River Seine, Paris, France). The target compounds included C4-C10 sulfonates and C5-C14 acids; eleven PFCs were detected and ?PFCs ranged between 31 and 91 ng L(-1) (median: 47 ng L(-1)). The molecular pattern was dominated by the perfluoroalkyl sulfonates PFHxS and PFOS (>54% of ?PFCs), which were the only PFCs quantified in both the dissolved and particulate phases. For these PFCs, the sorbed fraction positively correlated with suspended sediment levels. Total PFC levels negatively correlated with river flow rate, which varied between 150 and 640 m(3) s(-1). This suggests the predominance of point sources (likely WWTP effluent discharge), but a contribution of non-point sources such as combined sewer overflow could not be excluded. The annual PFC mass flow was estimated at 500 kg, which is less than observed for other large European rivers. PMID:21899936

Labadie, Pierre; Chevreuil, Marc

2011-12-01

211

Perfluorinated compounds in water and sediment from coastal regions of the northern Bohai Sea, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and other perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were measured in water and sediment from coastal Bohai Bay and surrounding rivers flowing into the bay. Of the 15 PFCs measured, PFOS and PFOA were detected with the greatest frequency. Concentrations in water ranged from<0.2 to 31 ng·L and<1.0 to 82 ng·L for PFOS and PFOA, respectively. Concentrations of

Chunli Chen; Tieyu Wang; Jong Seong Khim; Wei Luo; Wentao Jiao; Yonglong Lu; Jonathan E. Naile; Wenyou Hu; Xiang Zhang; Jing Geng; Cencen Bi; Jing Li; John P. Giesy

2011-01-01

212

Acid clusters  

SciTech Connect

Molecular clusters can be considered to be the smallest size range of an aerosol particle size distribution. Nucleation from the gas phase to particles or droplets involves the formation of clusters in the initial stages. Consequently, knowledge of the properties and formation of clusters containing acids contribute to an understanding of acid rain. This paper presents an overview of results obtained in the laboratory on the formation and stability of both neutral and ionized acid clusters. With free jet expansion techniques, the authors have produced clusters of aqueous nitric acid, aqueous hydrochloric acid, aqueous sulfuric acid, acetic acid and aqueous sulfur dioxide. For analogy to buffering, the formation of clusters containing ammonia have also been examined. These have included ammonia with aqueous nitric acid, hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide. The basic experiment involves expansion of vapor through a nozzle, collimation of the jet with a skimmer to form a well-directed molecular beam, and detection of clusters via electron impact ionization and mass spectrometry. Some variations include the introduction of a reactive gas into vacuum near the expansion as described elsewhere and the implementation of an electrostatic quadrupolar field to examine the polarity of the neutral clusters.

Keesee, R.G.; Castleman, A.W. Jr.

1986-04-01

213

Domoic Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online student report discusses the chemistry of domoic acid, a biotoxin that is produced by the diatom Psuedo-nitzschia and associated with Amnesiac Shellfish Poisoning (ASP). In addition to a descriptive summary and images, the report links to other areas of interest related to domoic acid poisoning including signs and symptoms, modes of action, and treatment.

Bailey, Christina; Kohlen, Corinne

2010-02-10

214

Acid rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The causes and effects of acid rain are detailed. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions from anthropogenic sources are the primary causative agents. These emissions are transported over long distances and transformed into sulfates and nitrates and washed out of the atmosphere. Trends in acidity in precipitation water are reviewed for eastern portions of Canada and the U.S. Adverse effects

R. E. Ghelardi; B. L. Murphy

2009-01-01

215

Acids (GCMP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acids: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". We will observe the reaction of sodium bicarbonate with three acid solutions. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

216

Acid rain  

SciTech Connect

This book was written in a concise and readable style for the lay public. It's purpose was to make the public aware of the damage caused by acid rain and to mobilize public opinion to favor the elimination of the causes of acid rain.

Elsworth, S.

1985-01-01

217

Usnic acid.  

PubMed

Since its first isolation in 1844, usnic acid [2,6-diacetyl-7,9-dihydroxy-8,9b-dimethyl-1,3(2H,9bH)-dibenzo-furandione] has become the most extensively studied lichen metabolite and one of the few that is commercially available. Usnic acid is uniquely found in lichens, and is especially abundant in genera such as Alectoria, Cladonia, Usnea, Lecanora, Ramalina and Evernia. Many lichens and extracts containing usnic acid have been utilized for medicinal, perfumery, cosmetic as well as ecological applications. Usnic acid as a pure substance has been formulated in creams, toothpaste, mouthwash, deodorants and sunscreen products, in some cases as an active principle, in others as a preservative. In addition to antimicrobial activity against human and plant pathogens, usnic acid has been shown to exhibit antiviral, antiprotozoal, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Ecological effects, such as antigrowth, antiherbivore and anti-insect properties, have also been demonstrated. A difference in biological activity has in some cases been observed between the two enantiomeric forms of usnic acid. Recently health food supplements containing usnic acid have been promoted for use in weight reduction, with little scientific support. The emphasis of the current review is on the chemistry and biological activity of usnic acid and its derivatives in addition to rational and ecologically acceptable methods for provision of this natural compound on a large scale. PMID:12453567

Ingólfsdóttir, K

2002-12-01

218

Acid test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Baking soda can be used as an indicator of how much acid a substance contains. Lemons and limes have more acid in them than grapefruits and oranges. Indophenol can be used as an indicator of how much vitamin C is in a substance.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-06

219

Acid rain  

SciTech Connect

Acid precipitation includes not only rain but also acidified snow, hail and frost, as well as sulfur and nitrogen dust. The principal source of acid precipitation is pollution emitted by power plants and smelters. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds contained in the emissions combine with moisture to form droplets with a high acid content - sometimes as acidic as vinegar. When sufficiently concentrated, these acids can kill fish and damage material structures. Under certain circumstances they may reduce crop and forest yields and cause or aggravate respiratory diseases in humans. During the summer, especially, pollutants tend to collect over the Great Lakes in high pressure systems. Since winds typically are westerly and rotate clockwise around high pressure systems, the pollutants gradually are dispersed throughout the eastern part of the continent.

Sweet, W.

1980-06-20

220

Presence and sources of anthropogenic perfluoroalkyl acids in high-consumption tap-water based beverages.  

PubMed

This study investigates the presence and sources of perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) in tap water and corresponding tap-water based beverages such as coffee and cola collected in the city of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Exposure pathways studies have shown that low concentrations of PFAA in tap water already may pose a high contribution to daily human exposure. Tap water samples (n=4) had higher concentrations of PFAAs than the corresponding post-mixed cola (n=4). The lower PFAA levels in the cola were attributed to the pre-treatment of tap water in the mixing machines and dilution with cola syrup. In coffee samples from a coffee machine perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) at 4 ng L(-1) was the dominating analyte (n=12). The concentrations of PFHpA, PFOA and non branched PFOS were found to be significantly higher in manually (self) brewed coffee than in the corresponding tap water (n=4). The contribution from short-chain PFAA analogs could not be quantified due to low recoveries. Leaching experiments at different temperatures were performed with fluoropolymers-containing tubes to investigate the potential of leaching from tubes used in beverage preparation (n=16). Fluoropolymer tubes showed leaching of PFAAs at high (80°C) temperature but its relevance for contamination of beverages in practice is small. The specific contribution from perfluoropolymer tubing inside the beverage preparation machines could not be assessed since no information was available from the manufacturers. The present study shows that although different beverage preparation processes possibly affect the concentrations of PFAAs encountered in the final consumed product, the water used for preparation remains the most important source of PFAAs. This in turn has implications for areas where drinking water is contaminated. Tap-water based beverages will possibly be an additional source of human exposure to PFAAs and need to be considered in exposure modeling. PMID:22939265

Eschauzier, Christian; Hoppe, Maria; Schlummer, Martin; de Voogt, Pim

2013-01-01

221

Investigating sources and pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in aquifers in Tokyo using multiple tracers.  

PubMed

We employed a multi-tracer approach to investigate sources and pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in urban groundwater, based on 53 groundwater samples taken from confined aquifers and unconfined aquifers in Tokyo. While the median concentrations of groundwater PFAAs were several ng/L, the maximum concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 990 ng/L), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, 1800 ng/L) and perfluorononanoate (PFNA, 620 ng/L) in groundwater were several times higher than those of wastewater and street runoff reported in the literature. PFAAs were more frequently detected than sewage tracers (carbamazepine and crotamiton), presumably owing to the higher persistence of PFAAs, the multiple sources of PFAAs beyond sewage (e.g., surface runoff, point sources) and the formation of PFAAs from their precursors. Use of multiple methods of source apportionment including principal component analysis-multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid ratio analysis highlighted sewage and point sources as the primary sources of PFAAs in the most severely polluted groundwater samples, with street runoff being a minor source (44.6% sewage, 45.7% point sources and 9.7% street runoff, by PCA-MLR). Tritium analysis indicated that, while young groundwater (recharged during or after the 1970s, when PFAAs were already in commercial use) in shallow aquifers (<50 m depth) was naturally highly vulnerable to PFAA pollution, PFAAs were also found in old groundwater (recharged before the 1950s, when PFAAs were not in use) in deep aquifers (50-500 m depth). This study demonstrated the utility of multiple uses of tracers (pharmaceuticals and personal care products; PPCPs, tritium) and source apportionment methods in investigating sources and pathways of PFAAs in multiple aquifer systems. PMID:24814036

Kuroda, Keisuke; Murakami, Michio; Oguma, Kumiko; Takada, Hideshige; Takizawa, Satoshi

2014-08-01

222

Association between thyroid profile and perfluoroalkyl acids: Data from NHNAES 2007–2008  

SciTech Connect

The effect of six perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), namely, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDE), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), 2-(N-methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamide) acetic acid (MPAH), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) on the levels of six thyroid function variables, namely, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free and total thyroxine (FT4, TT4), free and total triiodothyronine (FT3, TT3), and thyroglobulin (TGN) was evaluated. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2007–2008 were used for this evaluation. TSH levels increased with increase in levels of PFOA (p<0.01). There were no statistically significant associations between the levels of FT3, and FT4 with the levels of any of the six PFAAs. Levels of TT3 were found to increase with the levels of PFOA (p=0.01) and TT4 levels were found to increase with increase in PFHxS levels (p<0.01). Males had statistically significantly higher levels of FT3 than females and females had statistically significantly higher levels of TT4 than males. As compared to non-Hispanics whites and Hispanics, non-Hispanic blacks had lower levels of TSH, FT3, TT3, and TT4 but Hispanics had the lowest levels of TGN. Age was negatively associated with FT3 and TT3 but positively associated with FT4 and TT4. Non-smokers had higher levels of TSH and TT4 than smokers and smokers had higher levels of FT3 and TGN than non-smokers. Iodine deficiency was associated with increased levels of TSH, TT3, TT4, and TGN. -- Highlights: • Levels of total triiodothyronine were found to increase with the levels of PFOA. • Total thyroxine increased with increase in levels of perfluorohexane sulfonic acid. • There was a positive association between the levels of PFOA and TSH. • Iodine deficiency was associated with elevated levels of TSH, total T3 and T4. • Iodine deficiency was associated with elevated levels of thyroglobulin.

Jain, Ram B., E-mail: Jain.ram.b@gmail.com

2013-10-15

223

Determination of perfluorinated alkyl acids in corn, popcorn and popcorn bags before and after cooking by focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction, liquid chromatography and quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An analytical method is proposed to determine ten perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) [nine perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)] in corn, popcorn and microwave popcorn packaging by focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction (FUSLE) and ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (QTOF-MS/MS). Selected PFAAs were extracted efficiently in only one 10-s cycle by FUSLE, a simple, safe and inexpensive technique. The developed method was validated for microwave popcorn bags matrix as well as corn and popcorn matrices in terms of linearity, matrix effect error, detection and quantification limits, repeatability and recovery values. The method showed good accuracy with recovery values around 100% except for the lowest chain length PFAAs, satisfactory reproducibility with RSDs under 16%, and sensitivity with limits of detection in the order of hundreds picograms per gram of sample (between 0.2 and 0.7ng/g). This method was also applied to the analysis of six microwave popcorn bags and the popcorn inside before and after cooking. PFCAs contents between 3.50ng/g and 750ng/g were found in bags, being PFHxA (perfluorohexanoic acid) the most abundant of them. However, no PFAAs were detected either corn or popcorn, therefore no migration was assumed. PMID:24986069

Moreta, Cristina; Tena, María Teresa

2014-08-15

224

Acid Rain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Due to the presence of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide, rainfall is naturally acidic. The release of other gases and chemicals such as sulfur dioxide during the combustion of coal and oil can cause rainfall to become even more acidic, sometimes to the point of toxicity. In this activity, students will measure the pH of local rainfall to see what effect these gases have in their region. They will also check an online resource to see how the releases of acid rain-causing chemicals have varied over the past 20 years, and answer questions about the information they uncover.

Fox, Chris

225

Folic Acid  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... register. I'm interested in: Pregnancy Baby growth & care Research Volunteer opportunities Advocacy in government For health ... acid During your pregnancy Your pregnant body Prenatal care Eating and nutrition Physical activity Emotional and life ...

226

ACID RAIN  

EPA Science Inventory

Acid precipitation has become one of the major environmental problems of this decade. It is a challenge to scientists throughout the world. Researchers from such diverse disciplines as plant pathology, soil science, bacteriology, meteorology and engineering are investigating diff...

227

PPAR involvement in PFAA developmental toxicity  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are found in the environment and in serum of wildlife and humans. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are developmentally toxic in rodents. The effects of in utero exposure include increas...

228

Acid Stomach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson is intended for a high-school, introductory chemistry class or health class. The lesson begins with an article on the history of the development of aspirin. Students will then complete a lab that compares the reaction of regular aspirin, buffered aspirin, and enteric aspirin in neutral, acidic, and basic solutions. They will then analyze the results of the experiment to gain insight into how this information was used by researchers to solve some of the problems associated with aspirin. To complete the lesson, students must understand acids and bases.

Science Netlinks;

2003-08-07

229

Salicylic acids  

PubMed Central

Salicylic acid is well known phytohormone, emerging recently as a new paradigm of an array of manifestations of growth regulators. The area unleashed yet encompassed the applied agriculture sector to find the roles to strengthen the crops against plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses. The skipped part of integrated picture, however, was the evolutionary insight of salicylic acid to either allow or discard the microbial invasion depending upon various internal factors of two interactants under the prevailing external conditions. The metabolic status that allows the host invasion either as pathogenesis or symbiosis with possible intermediary stages in close systems has been tried to underpin here.

Hayat, Shamsul; Irfan, Mohd; Wani, Arif; Nasser, Alyemeni; Ahmad, Aqil

2012-01-01

230

Occurrence of perfluoroalkyl surfactants in water, fish, and birds from New York State.  

PubMed

Concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and several other perfluoroalkyl surfactants (PASs) were determined in nine major water bodies (n = 51) of New York State (NYS). These PASs were also measured in the livers of two species of sport fish (n = 66) from 20 inland lakes in NYS. Finally, perfluorinated compounds were measured in the livers of 10 species of waterfowl (n = 87) from the Niagara River region in NYS. PFOS, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHS) were ubiquitous in NYS waters. PFOA was typically found at higher concentrations than were PFOS and PFHS. Elevated concentrations of PFOS were found in surface waters of Lake Onondaga, and elevated concentrations of PFOA were found in the Hudson River. PFOS was the most abundant perfluorinated compound in all fish and bird samples. PFOS concentrations in the livers of fishes ranged from 9 to 315 ng/g wet weight. PFOS, PFOA, and PFOSA (perfluorooctanesulfonamide) concentrations in smallmouth and largemouth bass (taken together) caught in remote mountain lakes with no known point sources of PAS contamination were 14 to 207, < 1.5 to 6.1, and < 1.5 to 9.8 ng/g wet weight, respectively. PFOS concentrations in the livers of birds ranged from 11 to 882 ng/g wet weight. PFOS concentrations were 2.5-fold greater (p = 0.001) in piscivorous birds than in non-piscivorous birds. However, PFOA, PFOSA, and PFHS were not found in bird livers. Overall, average concentrations of PFOS in fish were 8850-fold greater than those in surface water. An average biomagnification factor of 8.9 was estimated for PFOS in common merganser relative to that in fish. This study highlights the significance of dietary fish in PFOS accumulation in the food chain. Furthermore, our results provide information on the distribution of PASs in natural waters, fish, and several bird species in NYS. PMID:16435086

Sinclair, Ewan; Mayack, David T; Roblee, Kenneth; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

2006-04-01

231

Stearic Acid  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) is presented for the chemical, stearic acid. The profile lists the chemical's physical and harmful characteristics, exposure limits, and symptoms of major exposure, for the benefit of teachers and students, who use the chemical in the laboratory.

Young, Jay A.

2004-01-01

232

Amino Acids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Featured Molecules this month are the 20 standard α-amino acids found in proteins and serve as background to the paper by Barone and Schmidt on the Nonfood Applications of Proteinaceous Renewable Materials. The molecules are presented in two formats, the neutral form and the ionized form found in solution at physiologic pH.

233

Ethacrynic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

... or any of the ingredients in ethacrynic acid tablets. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for a list of the ingredients.tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements and herbal products you are taking or plan to take. ...

234

Tranexamic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

... or any of the ingredients in tranexamic acid tablets. Ask your pharmacist for a list of the ingredients.tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take. ...

235

Distribution and fate of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in a pilot constructed wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removals of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in pilot-scale constructed wetland were investigated in this study. Phytoextraction by four aquatic plants (Hygrophila pogonocalyx Hayata, Ipomoea aquatic Forssk, Ludwigia (x) taiwanensis and Eleocharis dulcis) and sorption onto soil were determined. Both PFOA and PFOS were fairly phytoextracted by four aquatic plants; the uptake capacity was found in the following

Ying-Chin Chen; Shang-Lian Lo; Yu-Chi Lee

2012-01-01

236

Transcriptional effects of perfluorinated compounds in rat hepatoma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is the terminal degradation product of many commercially used perfluorinated compounds, and most of the toxicity testing to date has focused on its potential biological effects. While PFOS has been extensively studied, other PFCs including replacement chemicals such as perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS) and perfluorobutyric acid (PFBA), have not been well characterized. Despite the relative lack of data available on

Jonathan E. Naile; Steve Wiseman; Kali Bachtold; Paul D. Jones; John P. Giesy

237

Carbonate acidizing  

SciTech Connect

The authors present the first quantitative study and complete model of the wormholing phenomenon, leading to a means of predicting and optimizing carbonate acidizing treatments. Laboratory experiments on a gypsum model system and computer simulations show that for a given geometry, wormholes can be quantified by a unique parameter, their equivalent hydraulic length. The behavior of this quantifying parameter vs. all the system parameters is studied and allows the quantitative prediction of the efficiency of an acidizing treatment. This study highlights the fractal nature of the phenomenon, which is accounted for in the equations, and the strong effect of the sample geometry. Three types of etching can be obtained: compact, wormhole type, or homogeneous. The optimum conditions for achieving the best skin decrease correspond to the creation of wormholes and can then be defined in terms of fluid reactivity and injection rate.

Daccord, G.; Touboul, E.; Lenormand, R.

1989-02-01

238

Levulinic acid  

PubMed Central

The title compound (systematic name: 4-oxo­penta­noic acid), C5H8O3, is close to planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0762?Å). In the crystal, the mol­ecules inter­act via O—H?O hydrogen bonds in which the hy­droxy O atoms act as donors and the ketone O atoms in adjacent mol­ecules as acceptors, forming C(7) chains along [20-1].

Hachula, Barbara; Polasz, Anna; Dzida, Marzena; Nowak, Maria; Kusz, Joachim

2013-01-01

239

Domoic Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This highly detailed chemical information page features domoic acid, a toxin associated with Amnesic shellfish poisoning and naturally produced by the red algae Chondria armata and diatoms of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia. Created by the International Programme on Chemical Safety, this web page organizes information under the following sections: Name, Summary, Physio-Chemical Properties, Uses, Routes of Entry, Kinetics, Toxicology, Toxicological and Biomedical Investigations, Clinical Effects, Management, Illustrative Cases, Additional Information, References, and Authors.

Inchem; Safety, International P.

240

Acid Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The I2I-Acid Ocean virtual lab is an e-learning activity where students become virtual scientists studying the impact of ocean acidification on sea urchin larval growth. Students recreate a real, up-to-date climate change experiment. They also learn important general scientific principles, such as the importance of sample size and numbers of replicates, and discuss what this research into a specific impact of climate change may mean for the future of our oceans. There is a French translation available.

241

Methylmalonic acid blood test  

MedlinePLUS

... acid is a substance produced when proteins (called amino acids) in the body break down. A test can ... Cederbaum S, Berry GT. Inborn errors of carbohydrate, ammonia, amino acid, and organic acid metabolism. In: Gleason CA, Devaskar ...

242

Folic acid - test  

MedlinePLUS

Folic acid is a type of B vitamin. This article discusses the test to measure the amount of folic acid in the blood. ... that may interfere with test results, including folic acid supplements. Drugs that can decrease folic acid measurements ...

243

New method of acidizing or acid fracturing: crosslinked acid gels  

SciTech Connect

Acid polymer gels having pH less than one have been crosslinked for retarding the chemical and physical activity of hydrochloric acid on calcareous formations. Hydrochloric acid concentrations from .0025 to 28% have been successfully crosslinked. This stimulation fluid offers high viscosity with adequate shear stability, perfect support for proppants, and clay stabilization. Additionally, the fluid provides effective fluid loss control and retardation of acid reaction enabling live acid to penetrate deeper into the formation for better formation conductivity and practically a residue-free break for rapid clean-up of the well after the job. Results of lab and field tests show the acid crosslinked system to be an effective stimulation fluid for acidizing and acid fracturing in calcareous and sandstone formations having low formation permeability.

Pabley, A.S.; Holcomb, D.L.

1980-01-01

244

Automobiles and acid rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In his editorial Acid rain Philip H. Abelson writes that everyone who drives an automobile is a contributor to acid rain. Examination of emissions data indicates that controlling automobile emissions will contribute little to solving acid precipitation problems. Of the strong acid anions associated with precipitation acidity, sulfate accounts for about 60% and nitrate for about 40%, on an equivalence

Hendrey

1985-01-01

245

Association between perfluorinated compounds and pathological conditions in southern sea otters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concentrations of four perfluorinated contaminants, including perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), were measured in liver tissue from 80 adult female sea otters collected from the California coast during 1992a??2002. Concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were in the ranges of <1a??884 and <5a??147 ng/g, wet wt, respectively. Concentrations of PFOA in the livers of these sea otters were among the highest values reported for marine mammals to date. Liver tissue from 6 male sea otters also was analyzed and contained significantly higher concentrations of PFOS than did tissues from female otters. To examine the association between exposures and potential effects, concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were compared among the adult female otters that died from infectious diseases, noninfectious causes, and from apparent emaciation. Concentrations of both PFOA and PFOS were significantly higher in sea otters in the infectious disease category than in the noninfectious category. Concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were not significantly different between noninfectious and emaciated otters, suggesting that the poor nutritive (body) status of emaciated otters did not affect the concentrations of perfluorochemicals in livers. Concentrations of PFOA increased significantly from 1992 to 2002, whereas PFOS concentrations increased from 1992 to 1998 and then decreased after 2000. Significant association between infectious diseases and elevated concentrations of PFOS/PFOA in the livers of sea otters is a cause for concern and suggests the need for further studies.

Kannan, K.; Perrotta, E.; Thomas, N. J.

2006-01-01

246

Tissue bioaccumulation patterns, xenobiotic biotransformation and steroid hormone levels in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed a diet containing perfluoroactane sulfonic or perfluorooctane carboxylic acids.  

PubMed

In the present study, groups of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were fed gelatine capsules containing fish-food spiked with PFOA or PFOS (0.2 mg kg(-1) fish) and solvent (methanol). The capsules were given at days 0, 3 and 6. Blood, liver and whole kidney samples were collected prior to exposure (no solvent control), and at days 2, 5, 8 and 14 after exposure (Note: that day 14 after exposure is equal to 7d recovery period). We report on the differences in the tissue bioaccumulation patterns of PFOS and PFOA, in addition to tissue and compound differences in modulation pattern of biotransformation enzyme genes. We observed that the level of PFOS and PFOA increased in the blood, liver and kidney during the exposure period. Different PFOS and PFOA bioaccumulation patterns were observed in the kidney and liver during exposure- and after the recovery periods. Particularly, after the recovery period, PFOA levels in the kidney and liver tissues were almost at the control level. On the contrary, PFOS maintained an increase with tissue-specific differences, showing a higher bioaccumulation potential (also in the blood), compared with PFOA. While PFOS and PFOA produced an apparent time-dependent increase in kidney CYP3A, CYP1A1 and GST expression, similar effects were only temporary in the liver, significantly increasing at sampling day 2. PFOA and PFOS exposure resulted in significant decreases in plasma estrone, testosterone and cortisol levels at sampling day 2, and their effects differed with 17?-methyltestostrerone showing significant decrease by PFOA (also for cholesterol) and increase by PFOS. PFOA significantly increased estrone and testosterone, and no effects were observed for cortisol, 17?-methyltestosterone and cholesterol at sampling day 5. Overall, the changes in plasma steroid hormone levels parallel changes in CYP3A mRNA levels. Given that there are no known studies that have demonstrated such tissue differences in bioaccumulation patterns with associated differences in toxicological responses in any fish species or lower vertebrate, the present findings provide some potential insights and basis for a better understanding of the possible mechanisms of PFCs toxicity that need to be studied in more detail. PMID:21354591

Mortensen, Anne S; Letcher, Robert J; Cangialosi, Maria V; Chu, Shaogang; Arukwe, Augustine

2011-05-01

247

Folic Acid and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... before conception and during early pregnancy . About Folic Acid Folic acid, sometimes called folate, is a B ... well as tissue formation. Continue Getting Enough Folic Acid The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) ...

248

Acid Lipase Disease  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease, Wolman’s Disease Table of Contents (click to jump ... research is being done? Clinical Trials What is Acid Lipase Disease ? Acid lipase disease occurs when the ...

249

Uric acid test (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... for testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

250

Organic acids tunably catalyze carbonic Acid decomposition.  

PubMed

Density functional theory calculations predict that the gas-phase decomposition of carbonic acid, a high-energy, 1,3-hydrogen atom transfer reaction, can be catalyzed by a monocarboxylic acid or a dicarboxylic acid, including carbonic acid itself. Carboxylic acids are found to be more effective catalysts than water. Among the carboxylic acids, the monocarboxylic acids outperform the dicarboxylic ones wherein the presence of an intramolecular hydrogen bond hampers the hydrogen transfer. Further, the calculations reveal a direct correlation between the catalytic activity of a monocarboxylic acid and its pKa, in contrast to prior assumptions about carboxylic-acid-catalyzed hydrogen-transfer reactions. The catalytic efficacy of a dicarboxylic acid, on the other hand, is significantly affected by the strength of an intramolecular hydrogen bond. Transition-state theory estimates indicate that effective rate constants for the acid-catalyzed decomposition are four orders-of-magnitude larger than those for the water-catalyzed reaction. These results offer new insights into the determinants of general acid catalysis with potentially broad implications. PMID:24933150

Kumar, Manoj; Busch, Daryle H; Subramaniam, Bala; Thompson, Ward H

2014-07-10

251

Acid Rain Study Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid

Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

252

Acid-Base Equilibria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 9-page PDF document is part of an environmental geochemistry course taught by Dr. David Sherman at the University of Bristol. Topics include acid-base theories, aqueous systems, strong and weak acids and bases, acid-base properties of minerals, the pH of weak acid and buffered systems, and the calculation of titration curves.

Sherman, David W.; Bristol, University O.

253

Acid tolerance in amphibians  

SciTech Connect

Studies of amphibian acid tolerance provide information about the potential effects of acid deposition on amphibian communities. Amphibians as a group appear to be relatively acid tolerant, with many species suffering increased mortality only below pH 4. However, amphibians exhibit much intraspecific variation in acid tolerance, and some species are sensitive to even low levels of acidity. Furthermore, nonlethal effects, including depression of growth rates and increases in developmental abnormalities, can occur at higher pH.

Pierce, B.A.

1985-04-01

254

Application of WWTP Biosolids and Resulting Perfluorinated Compound Contamination of Surface and Well Water in Decatur, Alabama, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been produced and used in a wide range of industrial and consumer products for many decades. Their resistance to degradation has led to their widespread distribution in...

255

REGULATORY ACTIONS - COMMUNITY RIGHT TO KNOW - PERFLUORINATED COMPOUNDS (PFCS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Increasing worldwide attention is being focused on a group of persistent organic pollutants known as the perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). This class of compounds includes the now well known perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), but it also includes ...

256

Gas-phase Acidities of Aspartic Acid, Glutamic Acid, and their Amino Acid Amides.  

SciTech Connect

Gas-phase acidities (GA or ?Gacid) for the two most acidic common amino acids, aspartic acid and glutamic acid, have been determined for the first time. Because of the amide linkage’s importance in peptides and as an aid in studying side chain versus main chain deprotonation, aspartic acid amide and glutamic acid amide were also studied. Experimental GA values were measured by proton transfer reactions in an electrospray ionization/Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Calculated GAs were obtained by density functional and molecular orbital theory approaches. The best agreement with experiment was found at the G3MP2 level; the MP2/CBS and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ results are 3–4 kcal/mol more acidic than the G3MP2 results. Experiment shows that aspartic acid is more acidic than glutamic acid by ca. 3 kcal/mol whereas the G3MP2 results show a smaller acidity difference of 0.2 kcal/mol. Similarly, aspartic acid amide is experimentally observed to be ca. 2 kcal/mol more acidic than glutamic acid amide whereas the G3MP2 results show a correspondingly smaller energy difference of 0.7 kcal/mol. The computational results clearly show that the anions are all ring-like structures with strong hydrogen bonds between the OH or NH2 groups and the CO2? group from which the proton is removed. The two amino acids are main-chain deprotonated. In addition, use of the COSMO model for the prediction of the free energy differences in aqueous solution gave values in excellent agreement with the most recent experimental values for pKa. Glutamic acid is predicted to be more acidic than aspartic acid in aqueous solution due to differential solvation effects.

Li, Zhong; Matus, Myrna H.; Velazquez, Hector A.; Dixon, David A.; Cassady, Carolyn J.

2007-02-14

257

Gas-phase acidities of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and their amino acid amides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas-phase acidities (GA or [Delta]Gacid) for the two most acidic common amino acids, aspartic acid and glutamic acid, have been determined for the first time. Because of the amide linkage's importance in peptides and as an aid in studying side chain versus main chain deprotonation, aspartic acid amide and glutamic acid amide were also studied. Experimental GA values were measured by proton transfer reactions in an electrospray ionization/Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Calculated GAs were obtained by density functional and molecular orbital theory approaches. The best agreement with experiment was found at the G3MP2 level; the MP2/CBS and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ results are 3-4 kcal/mol more acidic than the G3MP2 results. Experiment shows that aspartic acid is more acidic than glutamic acid by ca. 3 kcal/mol whereas the G3MP2 results show a smaller acidity difference of 0.2 kcal/mol. Similarly, aspartic acid amide is experimentally observed to be ca. 2 kcal/mol more acidic than glutamic acid amide whereas the G3MP2 results show a correspondingly smaller energy difference of 0.7 kcal/mol. The computational results clearly show that the anions are all ring-like structures with strong hydrogen bonds between the OH or NH2 groups and the CO2- group from which the proton is removed. The two amino acids are main-chain deprotonated. In addition, use of the COSMO model for the prediction of the free energy differences in aqueous solution gave values in excellent agreement with the most recent experimental values for pKa. Glutamic acid is predicted to be more acidic than aspartic acid in aqueous solution due to differential solvation effects.

Li, Zhong; Matus, Myrna H.; Velazquez, Hector Adam; Dixon, David A.; Cassady, Carolyn J.

2007-09-01

258

Modulating the acidity: highly acidic Brønsted acids in asymmetric catalysis.  

PubMed

Recently, chiral highly acidic Brønsted acids have emerged as powerful catalysts for enantioselective C-C and C-X bond-forming reactions. Their strong acidity renders them valuable tools for the activation of imines, carbonyl compounds, and other weakly basic substrates. As a result, new perspectives are opened and highly stereoselective transformations based on the concept of chiral contact-ion-pair catalysis can be realized. This Minireview gives an overview of the design and application of these new organocatalysts and presents recent results in this rapidly growing field. PMID:21678531

Rueping, Magnus; Nachtsheim, Boris J; Ieawsuwan, Winai; Atodiresei, Iuliana

2011-07-18

259

Thin-Layer Separation of Citric Acid Cycle Intermediates, Lactic Acid, and the Amino Acid Taurine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes a two-dimensional mixed-layer method for separating citric acid cycle intermediates, lactic acid and the amino acid taurine. The method cleanly separates all citric acid cycle intermediates tested, excepting citric acid and isocitric ...

R. T. Riley M. C. Mix

1979-01-01

260

Succinic Acid in Wines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Following a brief discussion of methods which are currently employed to determine the succinic acid content of wines, as well as the shortcomings of those methods, procedures used for colorimetric evaluation of this particular acid are explained. The prin...

M. Castino

1969-01-01

261

Omega-3 fatty acids  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To examine evidence for the role of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE PubMed was searched for articles on the role of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease. Level I and II evidence indicates that omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial in improving cardiovascular outcomes. MAIN MESSAGE Dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids has declined by 80% during the last 100 years, while intake of omega-6 fatty acids has greatly increased. Omega-3 fatty acids are cardioprotective mainly due to beneficial effects on arrhythmias, atherosclerosis, inflammation, and thrombosis. There is also evidence that they improve endothelial function, lower blood pressure, and significantly lower triglycerides. CONCLUSION There is good evidence in the literature that increasing intake of omega-3 fatty acids improves cardiac outcomes. Physicians need to integrate dietary recommendations for consumption of omega-3 fatty acids into their usual cardiovascular care.

Schwalfenberg, Gerry

2006-01-01

262

Acid Aerosols Issue Paper.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report evaluates scientific information on direct health effects associated with exposure to acid aerosols. The present report is not intended as a complete and detailed review of all literature pertaining to acid aerosols. Rather, an attempt has been...

1988-01-01

263

Fatty acid analogs  

DOEpatents

In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

Elmaleh, David R. (Newton Center, MA); Livni, Eli (Brookline, MA)

1985-01-01

264

Polymerization of Itaconic Acid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Itaconic acid has various uses in chain copolymerization reactions, because of its two carboxylic groups and relatively good reactivity with different comonomers. As an unsaturated dicarboxylic acid it also has applications in grafting reactions and polyc...

J. Ahlgren

1990-01-01

265

Sulfuric acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Sulfuric acid is a very strong chemical that is corrosive. Corrosive means it can cause severe burns and ... or mucous membranes. This article discusses poisoning from sulfuric acid. This is for information only and not for ...

266

Folic Acid Quiz  

MedlinePLUS

... folic acid supplement d) eat a cup of broccoli 5. Spina bifida and anencephaly: Hint a) are ... acid every day. This question is tricky because broccoli is a natural source of food folate, however ...

267

Aminocaproic Acid Injection  

MedlinePLUS

Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

268

Hydrochloric acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Hydrocholoric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This is for information only and not for ...

269

Facts about Folic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

... of the baby's brain and spine ( anencephaly and spina bifida ). How much folic acid a woman needs 400 ... audiocast about folic acid. Related Pages Healthy Pregnancy spina bifida Birth Defects CDC’s National Center on Birth Defects ...

270

Uric acid - blood  

MedlinePLUS

Uric acid is a chemical created when the body breaks down substances called purines. Purines are found in ... mackerel, dried beans and peas, and beer. Most uric acid dissolves in blood and travels to the kidneys. ...

271

Plasma amino acids  

MedlinePLUS

Plasma amino acids is a screening test done on infants that looks at the amounts of amino ... Rheumatoid arthritis High or low concentrations of individual plasma amino acids must be interpreted along with other ...

272

Refining Lurgi tar acids  

SciTech Connect

There is disclosed a process for removing tar bases and neutral oils from the Lurgi tar acids by treating the tar acids with aqueous sodium bisulfate to change the tar bases to salts and to hydrolyze the neutral oils to hydrolysis products and distilling the tar acids to obtain refined tar acid as the distillate while the tar base salts and neutral oil hydrolysis products remain as residue.

Greco, N.P.

1984-04-17

273

Nucleic acid molecule  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention relates to an isolated nucleic acid molecule encoding a polypeptide capable of producing a triterpenoid hydrocarbon. The invention also relates to the encoded polypeptide, a vector comprising the nucleic acid molecule, a recombinant non-human organism comprising the nucleic acid molecule, and to methods of producing a triterpenoid hydrocarbon or an intermediate of biofuel using the nucleic acid molecule, polypeptide or recombinant organism.

2011-10-11

274

Linolenic acid deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linolenic acid deficiency has not been demonstrated clearly in warm blooded animals, yet circumstantial evidence suggests\\u000a that n?3 fatty acids may have functions in these animals. The fact that several species of fish definitely require dietary\\u000a n?3 fatty acids indicates that n?3 fatty acids have important and specific functions in these animals and suggests that such\\u000a functions may also be

J. Tinoco; R. Babcock; I. Hincenbergs; B. Medwadowski; P. Miljanich; M. A. Williams

1979-01-01

275

Plant fatty acid hydroxylases  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); Broun, Pierre (Burlingame, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

2001-01-01

276

Acid-fast stain  

MedlinePLUS

... The slide is then washed with an acid solution and a different stain is applied. Bacteria that hold onto the first dye are considered "acid-fast" because they resist the acid wash. This type of bacteria is associated with tuberculosis and other infections.

277

[alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

2010-01-01

278

Energy and acid rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain is one of the foremost environmental issues of the 1980s and will be of continuining importance to energy policy for several reasons. First, the pollutants that cause acid rain are projected to increase through the end of the century as the demand for energy grows and as coal replaces oil. Second, many of the effects of acid rain

R R Gould

1984-01-01

279

Acid (and Base) Rainbows  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners use red cabbage juice and pH indicator paper to test the acidity and basicity of household materials. The activity links this concept of acids and bases to acid rain and other pollutants. Resource contains vocabulary definitions and suggestions for assessment, extensions, and scaling for different levels of learners.

Kolenbrander, Amy; Yowell, Janet; Mach, Natalie; Zarske, Malinda S.; Carlson, Denise; Perez, Sharon

2004-01-01

280

Neutralizing Acids and Bases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners use their knowledge of color changes with red cabbage indicator to neutralize an acidic solution with a base and then neutralize a basic solution with an acid. Use this as a follow-up activity to the related activity, "Color Changes with Acids and Bases."

Kessler, James H.; Galvan, Patricia M.

2007-01-01

281

The Acid Rain Reader.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

282

Crystallization of uric acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crystals of uric acid have been grown in tetra methoxy silane and silica gel medium. Small winged, transparent, platy crystals of uric acid of about 0.5x0.5x0.1 mm were grown and were found to be hydrated uric acid.

Kalkura, S. Narayana; Vaidyan, V. K.; Kanakavel, M.; Ramasamy, P.

1993-09-01

283

Nucleic acid detection compositions  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI) [Madison, WI; Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI) [Madison, WI; Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI) [Madison, WI; Brow, Mary Ann (Madison, WI) [Madison, WI; Dahlberg, James L. (Madison, WI) [Madison, WI

2008-08-05

284

Cleavage of nucleic acids  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

2000-01-01

285

Cleavage of nucleic acids  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Waunakee, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow; Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

2010-11-09

286

Acid Rain: Students Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website introduces students to the concepts and issues surrounding acid rain. They will learn what acid rain is, how it forms, and what its effects are on humans, on the environment (lakes, rivers), and on infrastructure (buildings, monuments). There is also discussion of what is being done to reduce the presence of acid rain, and some suggestions for the students themselves to help reduce acid rain. A set of games, puzzles, and activities provides students with an opportunity to put their new knowledge of acid rain to use, and an animated slide show is provided to visually illustrate its causes and effects. A Spanish translation is available.

287

Cleavage of nucleic acids  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor L. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

2007-12-11

288

Amino acid analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (inventors)

1974-01-01

289

Demospongic Acids Revisited  

PubMed Central

The well-known fatty acids with a ?5,9 unsaturation system were designated for a long period as demospongic acids, taking into account that they originally occurred in marine Demospongia sponges. However, such acids have also been observed in various marine sources with a large range of chain-lengths (C16–C32) and from some terrestrial plants with short acyl chains (C18–C19). Finally, the ?5,9 fatty acids appear to be a particular type of non-methylene-interrupted fatty acids (NMA FAs). This article reviews the occurrence of these particular fatty acids in marine and terrestrial organisms and shows the biosynthetic connections between ?5,9 fatty acids and other NMI FAs.

Kornprobst, Jean-Michel; Barnathan, Gilles

2010-01-01

290

[Biosynthesis of adipic acid].  

PubMed

Adipic acid is a six-carbon dicarboxylic acid, mainly for the production of polymers such as nylon, chemical fiber and engineering plastics. Its annual demand is close to 3 million tons worldwide. Currently, the industrial production of adipic acid is based on the oxidation of aromatics from non-renewable petroleum resources by chemo-catalytic processes. It is heavily polluted and unsustainable, and the possible alternative method for adipic acid production should be developed. In the past years, with the development of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering, green and clean biotechnological methods for adipic acid production attracted more attention. In this study, the research advances of adipic acid and its precursor production are reviewed, followed by addressing the perspective of the possible new pathways for adipic acid production. PMID:24432653

Han, Li; Chen, Wujiu; Yuan, Fei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Qinhong; Ma, Yanhe

2013-10-01

291

MODEL AND CELL MEMBRANE PARTITIONING OF PERFLUOROOCTANESULFONATE IS INDEPENDENT OF THE LIPID CHAIN LENGTH  

PubMed Central

Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) is a persistent environmental pollutant that may cause adverse health effects in humans and animals by interacting with and disturbing of the normal properties of biological lipid assemblies. To gain further insights into these interactions, we investigated the effect of PFOS potassium salt on dimyristoyl- (DMPC), dipalmitoyl- (DPPC) and distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC) model membranes using fluorescence anisotropy measurements and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and on the cell membrane of HL-60 human leukemia cells and freshly isolated rat alveolar macrophages using fluorescence anisotropy measurements. PFOS caused a concentration-dependent decrease of the main phase transition temperature (Tm) and an increased peak width (?Tw) in both the fluorescence anisotropy and the DSC experiments, with a rank order DMPC > DPPC > DSPC. PFOS caused a fluidization of the gel phase of all phosphatidylcholines investigated, but had the opposite effect on the liquid crystalline phase. The apparent partition coefficients of PFOS between the phosphatidylcholine bilayer and the bulk aqueous phase were largely independent of the phosphatidylcholine chain length and ranged from 4.4 × 104 to 8.8 × 104. PFOS also significantly increased the fluidity of membranes of cells. These findings suggest that PFOS readily partitions into lipid assemblies, independent of their composition, and may cause adverse biological effects by altering their fluidity in a manner that depends on the membrane cooperativity and state (e.g., gel versus liquid crystalline phase) of the lipid assembly.

Xie, Wei; Ludewig, Gabriele; Wang, Kai; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

2009-01-01

292

Negative Association Between Serum Perfluorooctane Sulfate Concentration and Bone Mineral Density in US Premenopausal Women: NHANES, 2005-2008.  

PubMed

Context: Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfate (PFOS) are used in a variety of products worldwide. However, the relationship among serum PFOA, PFOS concentration, bone mineral density (BMD), and the risk of fractures has never been addressed. Objectives: The study examined the association among serum PFOA, PFOS concentration, and lumbar spine and total hip BMD in the general US population. Design and Participants: We analyzed data on 2339 adults (aged ?20 y) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2005-2006 and 2007-2008 to determine the relationship among serum PFOA, PFOS concentration, and total lumbar spine and total hip BMD measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and history of fractures cross-sectionally. Results: After weighting for sampling strategy, a 1-U increase in the natural log-transformed serum PFOS level was associated with a decrease in total lumbar spine BMD by 0.022 g/cm(2) (95% confidence interval -0.038, -0.007; P = .006) in women not in menopause. There was no association among PFOA, PFOS concentration, and self-reported fracture in adults. Conclusion: Serum PFOS concentration is associated with decreased total lumbar spine BMD in women not in menopause. However, the potential biological significance of this effect is marginal and subclinical in the general US population. Further studies are warranted to clarify the causal relationship between perfluorinated chemical exposure and BMD. PMID:24606077

Lin, Lian-Yu; Wen, Li-Li; Su, Ta-Chen; Chen, Pau-Chung; Lin, Chien-Yu

2014-06-01

293

Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid  

DOEpatents

Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

2008-12-02

294

NRPSs and amide ligases producing homopoly(amino acid)s and homooligo(amino acid)s.  

PubMed

Microorganisms are capable of producing a wide variety of biopolymers. Homopoly(amino acid)s and homooligo(amino acid)s, which are made up of only a single type of amino acid, are relatively rare; in fact, only two homopoly(amino acid)s have been known to occur in nature: poly(?-L-lysine) (?-PL) and poly(?-glutamic acid) (?-PGA). Bacterial enzymes that produce homooligo(amino acid)s, such as L-?-lysine-, L-valine-, L-leucine-, L-isoleucine-, L-methionine-, and L-glutamic acid-oligopeptides and poly(?-l-glutamic acid) (?-PGA) have recently been identified, as well as ?-PL synthetase and ?-PGA synthetase. This article reviews the current knowledge about these unique enzymes producing homopoly(amino acid)s and homooligo(amino acid)s. PMID:23817633

Hamano, Yoshimitsu; Arai, Toshinobu; Ashiuchi, Makoto; Kino, Kuniki

2013-08-01

295

Glycolic Acid 15% Plus Salicylic Acid 2%  

PubMed Central

Background: Facial flat warts are a contagious viral disease that can cause disturbing cosmetic problems. Topical glycolic acid has been reported to be effective in dermatological treatment depending on the exfoliant capacity, but has not often been reported to be effective in the treatment of facial flat warts. Objective: The aim of this paper was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of glycolic acid 15% topical gel plus salicylic acid 2% in the treatment of recalcitrant facial flat warts. Methods: A total of 20 consecutive patients 7 to 16 years of age with recalcitrant facial flat warts were enrolled in this study. Patients having warts by the eye and lip regions were excluded from the study. A fine layer of face gel was applied to the treatment area once daily. Most of the participants had tried different treatments with no success. Assessments for the response and the occurrence of side effects were performed every two weeks at Weeks 2, 4, 6, and 8. Results: All the patients were clinically cured within eight weeks. Seven patients cleared in four weeks, and 13 patients cleared in eight weeks. No noticeable adverse events were related to the skin. Conclusion: Topical gel of glycolic acid 15% plus salicylic acid 2% is safe and effective when applied to facial flat warts once daily until clearance and may be considered as first-line treatment.

Sanchez-Blanco, Elena

2011-01-01

296

21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and oils derived from edible sources: Capric acid, caprylic acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid. (b) The food additive meets the following specifications: (1) Unsaponifiable matter does...

2009-04-01

297

21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and oils derived from edible sources: Capric acid, caprylic acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid. (b) The food additive meets the following specifications: (1) Unsaponifiable matter does...

2010-01-01

298

21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and oils derived from edible sources: Capric acid, caprylic acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid. (b) The food additive meets the following specifications: (1) Unsaponifiable matter does...

2013-04-01

299

Kinetic acidity of cubane  

SciTech Connect

The authors have determined the kinetic acidity of cubane by the application of a {sup 3}H NMR spectroscopic approach. An earlier measurement of the acidity of cubane has been subject to some controversy. Kinetic acidities are a useful measure of the acidity of weak carbon acids and are obtained by measuring rates of base-catalyzed proton-exchange reactions. It has been found that one-bond {sup 13}C-{sup 1}H NMR coupling constants ({sup 1}J{sub CH}) correlate closely with kinetic acidities for cyclic aliphatic hydrocarbons. This correlation holds even for strongly strained systems such as cyclopropane. Cubane, a strained polycycloalkane, would be anticipated to also fit this correlation.

Dixon, R.E.; Streitwieser, A. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA)); Williams, P.G. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Eaton, P.E. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (USA))

1991-01-02

300

Acid Rain Learning Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These suggestions for activities allow students to learn about acid deposition in new and interactive ways, both in and out of the classroom. The suggestions are for individuals and small groups, the class as a whole, or for field trips. Students may contact local experts about acid rain issues, investigate the energy sources used to generate electricity by their local power companies, collect cartoons about acid rain and air pollution, or play the roles of scientists or interested parties involved in investigations of acid rain issues. Field trip ideas include visiting a local museum or science center to see exhibits or resources on acid rain, and visiting a local cemetary to examine the effects of acid rain on the headstones.

301

of natural amino acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for the synthesis of protected N a -(ø-Y-alkyl) amino acids (Y is a thio, amino or carboxy group) and related compounds by reductive alkylation of natural amino acids is reported. These new amino acids serve as building units for the synthesis of backbone-cyclic peptides. They are orthogonally protected at the Æ-amino position by butoxycarbonyl (Boc) or 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl

Gal Bitan; Dan Muller; Ron Kasher; Evgenia V. Gluhov; Chaim Gilon

1997-01-01

302

Acid-Base Solutions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do strong and weak acids differ? Use lab tools on your computer to find out! Dip the paper or the probe into solution to measure the pH, or put in the electrodes to measure the conductivity. Then see how concentration and strength affect pH. Can a weak acid solution have the same pH as a strong acid solution?

Simulations, Phet I.; Lancaster, Kelly; Malley, Chris; Loeblein, Patricia; Parson, Robert; Perkins, Kathy

2010-09-01

303

Characterization of acid tars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid tars from the processing of petroleum and petrochemicals using sulfuric acid were characterized by gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS), inductively coupled plasma\\/optical emission spectrometry (ICP\\/OES), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy\\/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM\\/EDX) micro-analysis. Leaching of contaminants from the acid tars in 48h batch tests with distilled water at a liquid-to-solid ratio

Sunday A. Leonard; Julia A. Stegemann; Amitava Roy

2010-01-01

304

THIN-LAYER SEPARATION OF CITRIC ACID CYCLE INTERMEDIATES, LACTIC ACID, AND THE AMINO ACID TAURINE  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper describes a two-dimensional mixed-layer method for separating citric acid cycle intermediates, lactic acid and the amino acid taurine. The method cleanly separates all citric acid cycle intermediates tested, excepting citric acid and isocitric acid. The solvents are in...

305

USGS Tracks Acid Rain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

1995-01-01

306

Automobiles and acid rain  

SciTech Connect

In his editorial Acid rain Philip H. Abelson writes that everyone who drives an automobile is a contributor to acid rain. Examination of emissions data indicates that controlling automobile emissions will contribute little to solving acid precipitation problems. Of the strong acid anions associated with precipitation acidity, sulfate accounts for about 60% and nitrate for about 40%, on an equivalence basis. The contribution to national SO/sub 2/ emissions by all forms of transportation is about 3%. The corresponding value for national NO/sub x/ emissions is about 44%. If ground-level emissions from highway vehicles contribute to long-range transport of atmospheric pollutants and to precipitation acidity on an equal basis with other sources, for example, power plant smokestacks, then the respective contributions to precipitation acidity can be approximated. The atmospheric chemistry of NO/sub x/ and its interaction with SO/sub 2/ is poorly known. However, it is likely that automobiles account for less than 14% of total equivalents of strong acid anions in either wet or dry deposition in the eastern US. The implication of these data for regulatory policies aimed at controlling acid precipitation by reducing SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions is obvious.

Hendrey, G.R.

1985-01-01

307

Perfluorinated compounds in the Pearl River and Yangtze River of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 14 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were quantified in river water samples collected from tributaries of the Pearl River (Guangzhou Province, south China) and the Yangtze River (central China). Among the PFCs analyzed, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were the two compounds with the highest concentrations. PFOS concentrations ranged from 0.90 to 99ng\\/l and <0.01–14ng\\/l in samples

M. K. So; Y. Miyake; W. Y. Yeung; Y. M. Ho; S. Taniyasu; P. Rostkowski; N. Yamashita; B. S. Zhou; X. J. Shi; J. X. Wang; J. P. Giesy; H. Yu; P. K. S. Lam

2007-01-01

308

Pilot Investigation of Perfluorinated Compounds in River Water, Sediment, Soil and Fish in Tianjin, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detectable PFCs could be found in all samples. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the major PFC in river water, while perfluorooctane\\u000a sulfonate (PFOS) was dominant in sediment and were 17- to 153-fold higher than those in water. PFCs concentrations in soil\\u000a were little higher than those in sediment. In fish muscles PFOS showed the highest concentrations. Generally, PFC concentrations\\u000a in fish

Yuanyuan Pan; Yali Shi; Jieming Wang; Xinglong Jin; Yaqi Cai

2011-01-01

309

Molecular Structure of Fumaric acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fumaric acid is odorless and colorless or white crystalline powder with a fruit acid taste. Fumaric acid is used as a substitute of tartaric acid in beverages and baking powders and as a replacement for citric acid in fruits drinks. It is also used as antioxidant to prevent rancidity in butter, cheese, powdered milk, and other foodstuff. In addition, fumaric acid is a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, synthetic resins and plastics. Fumaric acid can be prepared by catalytic oxidation of benzene or by bacterial action on glucose and it is involved in the production of energy from food. Fumaric acid (known as trans-butanedioic acid) is the trans isomer of maleic acid (also called cis-butanedioic acid). Fumaric acid is more stable than maleic acid and can be prepared by heating maleic acid.

2004-11-05

310

Structure of Acid phosphatases.  

PubMed

Acid phosphatases are enzymes that have been studied extensively due to the fact that their dysregulation is associated with pathophysiological conditions. This characteristic has been exploited for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic methods. As an example, prostatic acid phosphatase was the first marker for metastatic prostate cancer diagnosis and the dysregulation of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase is associated with abnormal bone resorption linked to osteoporosis. The pioneering crystallization studies on prostatic acid phosphatase and mammalian tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase conformed significant milestones towards the elucidation of the mechanisms followed by these enzymes (Schneider et al., EMBO J 12:2609-2615, 1993). Acid phosphatases are also found in nonmammalian species such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and plants, and most of them share structural similarities with mammalian acid phosphatase enzymes. Acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters following the general equation. Phosphate monoester + H2O -->/<-- alcohol + phosphate. The general classification "acid phosphatase" relies only on the optimum acidic pH for the enzymatic activity in assay conditions using non-physiological substrates. These enzymes accept a wide range of substrates in vitro, ranging from small organic molecules to phosphoproteins, constituting a heterogeneous group of enzymes from the structural point of view. These structural differences account for the divergence in cofactor dependences and behavior against substrates, inhibitors, and activators. In this group only the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase is a metallo-enzyme whereas the other members do not require metal-ion binding for their catalytic activity. In addition, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and erythrocytic acid phosphatase are not inhibited by L-(+)-tartrate ion while the prostatic acid phosphatase is tartrate-sensitive. This is an important difference that can be exploited in in vitro assays to differentiate between different kinds of phosphatase activity. The search for more sensitive and specific methods of detection in clinical laboratory applications led to the development of radioimmunoassays (RIA) for determination of prostatic acid phosphatase in serum. These methods permit the direct quantification of the enzyme regardless of its activity status. Therefore, an independent structural classification exists that helps to group these enzymes according to their structural features and mechanisms. Based on this we can distinguish the histidine acid phosphatases (Van Etten, Ann N Y Acad Sci 390:27-51, 1982), the low molecular weight protein tyrosine acid phosphatases and the metal-ion dependent phosphatases. A note of caution is worthwhile mentioning here. The nomenclature of acid phosphatases has not been particularly easy for those new to the subject. Unfortunately, the acronym PAP is very common in the literature about purple acid phosphatases and prostatic acid phosphatase. In addition, LPAP is the acronym chosen to refer to the lysophosphatidic acid phosphatase which is a different enzyme. It is important to bear in mind this distinction while reviewing the literature to avoid confusion. PMID:23860654

Araujo, César L; Vihko, Pirkko T

2013-01-01

311

Exocarpic acid inhibits mycolic acid biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Exocarpic acid (13 E-octadecene-9,11-diynoic acid) from Exocarpos latifolius R.Br. (Santalaceae) was previously shown to have specific antimycobacterial activity. Microarray data suggested inhibition of fatty acid metabolism as a potential mode of action. Experiments designed to elucidate the mechanism of action showed that exocarpic acid was effective at inhibition of mycolic acid biosynthesis and did not act by dissipating the proton gradient in treated M. tuberculosis. Amide derivatives of exocarpic acid displayed similar properties to exocarpic acid, while other polyacetylenic fatty acids varied in their effects on mycolic acid biosynthesis. PMID:20506078

Koch, Michael; Bugni, Tim S; Sondossi, Mohammad; Ireland, Chris M; Barrows, Louis R

2010-10-01

312

What Causes Acid Rain?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomenon is the formation of acid rain. The resource explains the chemical reaction that begins when compounds like sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are released into the air, mix and react with water and other chemicals to form more acidic pollutants that dissolve very easily in water and can be carried long distances where they become part of rain, sleet, snow, and fog.

313

Iodinated humic acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humic acids are iodinated by elemental iodine and, if the iodine is present as iodide, by peroxidase-mediated reactions. It is demonstrated that iodination of humic acids leads to a product with a uniform distribution of iodine. It could not be unambiguously verified whether the enzymatically mediated iodination is a direct reaction between a peroxidase-iodine complex and the humic acid molecule or a two-step reaction in which the enzyme creates elemental iodine, which consecutively reacts with the humic acid. Based on a simple model of a reaction between sites in the humic acids available for iodination and the electrophilic iodinating species, it was concluded that the reaction should be described as an equilibrium with a logarithmic equilibrium constant of approximately 4. The number of sites available for iodination was, in the humic acids studied, determined to be approximately 4×10-4 per gram humic acid. The different parameters influencing the enzymatically controlled iodination of humic acids are discussed.

Christiansen, Jesper V.; Carlsen, Lars

314

Characterization of acid tars.  

PubMed

Acid tars from the processing of petroleum and petrochemicals using sulfuric acid were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) micro-analysis. Leaching of contaminants from the acid tars in 48 h batch tests with distilled water at a liquid-to-solid ratio 10:1 was also studied. GC/MS results show that the samples contained aliphatic hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons, up to 12 of the 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and numerous other organic groups, including organic acids (sulfonic acids, carboxylic acids and aromatic acids), phenyl, nitrile, amide, furans, thiophenes, pyrroles, and phthalates, many of which are toxic. Metals analysis shows that Pb was present in significant concentration. DSC results show different transition peaks in the studied samples, demonstrating their complexity and variability. FTIR analysis further confirmed the presence of the organic groups detected by GC/MS. The SEM/EDX micro-analysis results provided insight on the surface characteristics of the samples and show that contaminants distribution was heterogeneous. The results provide useful data on the composition, complexity, and variability of acid tars; information which hitherto have been scarce in public domain. PMID:19857924

Leonard, Sunday A; Stegemann, Julia A; Roy, Amitava

2010-03-15

315

EFFECTS OF ACID PRECIPITATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent reviews of available data indicate that precipitation in a large region of North America is highly acidic when its pH is compared with the expected pH value of 5.65 for pure rain water in equilibrium with CO2. A growing body of evidence suggests that acid rain is responsib...

316

Acid rain options  

SciTech Connect

A number of contributions made to a series of seminars on acid rain options held by the Air Pollution Control Association are presented. They include statements on US and Canadian policy and legislation, and views from coal producers, electric utilities and motor vehicle manufacturers on measures to counteract or prevent the effects of acid rain.

Perhac, R.M.

1985-03-01

317

Analysis of Organic Acids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are the procedures and a discussion of the results for an experiment in which students select unknown carboxylic acids, determine their melting points, and investigate their solubility behavior in water and ethanol. A table of selected carboxylic acids is included. (CW)

Griswold, John R.; Rauner, Richard A.

1990-01-01

318

Altered retmoic acid receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structurally and functionally altered retinoic acid receptors have been associated with rare human neoplasms: acute promyelocytic leuke- mia and hepatoceilular carcinoma. Whereas the ret- inoic acid receptor 13 (RAR13) rearrangement in hepatocellular carcinoma is unique, in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), RARU fusion to the promyelocytic leukemia (PML) gene by the t(15;17) translocation is a general feature of the disease. APL

CNRS UPR; Service de Biochimie

319

Humus Acids of Soils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Humus acids are known to occur widely in soils, peats, and natural waters. Soil fertility, migration and accumulation of minerals in natural landscapes, and mineral nutrition of plants are all associated with these acids. In recent times they have been us...

D. S. Orlov

1985-01-01

320

Lead-acid cell  

SciTech Connect

A lead-acid storage battery is described that has a lead negative electrode, a lead dioxide positive electrode and a sulfuric acid electrolyte having an organic catalyst dissolved therein which prevents dissolution of the electrodes into lead sulfate whereby in the course of discharge, the lead dioxide is reduced to lead oxide and the lead is oxidized.

Hradcovsky, R.J.; Kozak, O.R.

1980-12-09

321

Acid (and Base) Rainbows  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the differences between acids and bases and how to use indicators, such as pH paper and red cabbage juice, to distinguish between them. They learn why it is important for engineers to understand acids and bases.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

322

Acid in water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Plants and animals that live in water create some amount of acid in the water. The carbon dioxide that plants and animals release into the water makes the water acidic and unsafe for living organisms. This is why the water of captive aquatic animals and plants must be changed often.

Laszlo Ilyes (None;)

2007-05-16

323

Acids in Proteins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson describes how amino acids build proteins in a person's body. Amino acids are the chemical building blocks for the structure of an organism. A link to a quiz is provided at the end of the lesson to check comprehension.

2012-06-19

324

Strong Acids (GCMP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Strong Acids: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". This problem will explore the properties of common strong acids. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

325

Acids and Salts (GCMP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acids and Salts: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". This problem will explore a few properties of common acids and their salts. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

326

Lead-acid batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of producing a lead-acid battery capable of activation by the addition of electrolyte thereto, comprises the steps of: starting with a battery container accommodating at least one pack of battery plate grids having insulating separators interposed between adjacent grids, each of said grids carrying the lead-acid battery paste required to produce a positive or a negative battery plate

J. A. Bant; V. J. Raban

1980-01-01

327

ACID AEROSOLS ISSUE PAPER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report evaluates scientific information on direct health effects associated with exposure to acid aerosols. The present report is not intended as a complete and detailed review of all literature pertaining to acid aerosols. Rather, an attempt has been made to focus on the eva...

328

Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in consumer products in Norway - a pilot study.  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are used in numerous industrial and consumer products because of their special chemical properties, for instance the ability to repel both water and oil. A broad variety of PFAS have been introduced into the Norwegian market through industrial use (e.g. via fire fighting foams and paints) as well as in treated customer products such as textiles and coated paper. Our present knowledge of the exact chemical PFAS compositions in preparations using perfluorinated compounds is limited. This lack of knowledge means that it is difficult to provide an accurate assessment of human exposure to these compounds or to the amount of waste that may contain treated products. It is a growing concern that these potentially harmful compounds can now be found throughout the global environment. Samples of consumer products and preparations were collected in Norway, with supplemental samples from Sweden. In 27 of the 30 analyzed consumer products and preparations a number of polyfluorinated substances that were analyzed were detected but this does not exclude the occurrence of unknown PFAS. Notable was that perfluorooctanesulphonate (PFOS), which has been strictly regulated in Norway since 2007, was found in amounts close to or exceeding the EU regulatory level in 4 of the 30 analyzed products, all within the leather or carpet product groups. High amounts of fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) were found in waterproofing agents, carpets and textiles, consistent with earlier findings by Fiedler et al. (2010). The presence of PFAS in a broad range of consumer products can give rise to a constant diffuse human exposure that might eventually result in harm to humans. PMID:22483730

Herzke, Dorte; Olsson, Elisabeth; Posner, Stefan

2012-08-01

329

Acid Rain Revisited  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The results of a long term study of the effects of acidic deposition in the Northeast were published in Bioscience this week, and they suggest that forests, lakes, and streams of the Northeastern US are not recovering from the toxic effects of acid rain despite significant cuts in the power plant emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide -- two major contributors to the problem. "Acid rain," more accurately called acidic deposition, causes toxic forms of aluminum to concentrate in soil and water, vital calcium and magnesium to be leached from trees, and surface waters to become inhospitable to aquatic biota. The study showed that, after 30 years of federally mandated air emission reductions, sulfur dioxide emissions have decreased while nitrogen oxide emissions have remained the same and that acidic deposition-related problems continue to plague New York and New England.

Sanders, Hilary C.

2001-01-01

330

Energy and acid rain  

SciTech Connect

Acid rain is one of the foremost environmental issues of the 1980s and will be of continuining importance to energy policy for several reasons. First, the pollutants that cause acid rain are projected to increase through the end of the century as the demand for energy grows and as coal replaces oil. Second, many of the effects of acid rain are cumulative, so that even at current levels of emissions the problem is expected to intensify and to spread geographically. Third, the transport of air pollutants across state and national boundaries has raised fundamental issues of equity that are likely to be disputed for some time. Finally, any serious program for reducing acid rain will exert a profound influence on the future development of energy supplies. This review summarizes the causes, effects, and transport of acid rain, and discusses possible strategies for mitigating the problem.

Gould, R.R.

1984-01-01

331

Perfluorinated compounds in sediments from the Daliao River system of northeast China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have received much attention on their distributions in various matrixes of different areas globally, however, little is known about their existences in river sediments of China. In this study, eight target PFCs including perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA) and perfluorotetradecanoic acid

Jia Bao; Yihe Jin; Wei Liu; Xiaorong Ran; Zhixu Zhang

2009-01-01

332

Airborne haloacetic acids.  

PubMed

Haloacetic acid (HAA) concentrations were measured in air samples from a semi-rural and a highly urbanized site in southern Ontario throughout 2000 to investigate their sources and gas-particle partitioning behavior. Denuders were efficient for collection of gaseous HAAs, and the particle phase was collected on a downstream quartz filter with negligible breakthrough. Total HAA concentrations (i.e., gas + particles) ranged between <0.025 and 19 ng m(-3) for individual HAAs at both sites. The dominant airborne HAA was monochloroacetic acid (MCA), followed in decreasing order by dichloroacetic acid (DCA), trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), and trichloroacetic acid (TCA). Difluoroacetic acid (DFA), monofluoroacetic acid (MFA), and chlorodifluoroacetic acid (CDFA) were also frequently detected at lower concentrations. Between sites, TFA, DFA, MFA, and TCA concentrations were significantly higher in Toronto, while CDFA concentrations were higher in Guelph. HAAs were primarily in the gas phase all year; however, during colder months, particle-phase HAA concentrations increased relative to the gas phase. Trichloroacetic acid had the highest particle fraction (phi) for all detected HAAs, with a mean phi of 0.51 and 0.56 for Guelph and Toronto, respectively, and both vapor pressure and acid strength appeared to influence gas-particle partitioning. Temporal trends at both sites were partially explained by temperature, short-wave radiation, and particle mass (PM10), leading to indications of the respective sources. A simple deposition model indicated that dry deposition of TFA and TCA should not be neglected in temperate mid-latitude environments and that precipitation concentrations can be successfully predicted by the Henry's law constant. PMID:12875391

Martin, Jonathan W; Mabury, Scott A; Wong, Charles S; Noventa, Francis; Solomon, Keith R; Alaee, Mehran; Muir, Derek C G

2003-07-01

333

Contribution of organic acids to the acidity of Finnish lakes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study provides a comprehensive assessment of the contribution of organic carbon and organic acids to the acid-base status of Finnish lakes, summarizing empirical organic acidity measurements (from 16 lakes) combined with the Finnish Lake Survey data ...

P. Kortelainen

1993-01-01

334

Acid recovery from waste sulfuric acid by diffusion dialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the process of sulfuric acid production from pyrite, there is a lot of waste acid produced in fume washing with dilute\\u000a acid. Acid recovery from this sort of waste sulfuric acid by diffusion dialysis is studied in the paper. The mass transfer\\u000a dialysis coefficient of sulfuric acid of the membrane AFX is measured, the effect of the flowrate of

Guiqing Zhang; Qixiu Zhang; Kanggen Zhou

1999-01-01

335

Trans Fatty Acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

Doyle, Ellin

1997-09-01

336

Exposure and effects of perfluoroalkyl compounds on tree swallows nesting at Lake Johanna in east central Minnesota, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) samples were collected at a reference lake and a nearby lake (Lake Johanna) in east central Minnesota, USA contaminated with perfluorinated carboxylic and sulfonic acids. Tissues were analyzed for a suite of 13 perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) to quantify exposure and to determine if there was an association between egg concentrations of PFCs and reproductive success of tree swallows. Concentrations of perfluoroocatane sulfonate (PFOS) were elevated in all tree swallow tissues from Lake Johanna compared to tissues collected at the reference lake. Other PFCs, except for two, were elevated in blood plasma at Lake Johanna compared to the reference lake. PFOS was the dominant PFC (>75%) at Lake Johanna, but accounted for <50% of total PFCs at the reference lake. There was a negative association between concentrations of PFOS in eggs and hatching success. Reduced hatching success was associated with PFOS levels as low as 150 ng/g wet weight.

Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Poganski, Beth H.; Solem, Laura

2012-01-01

337

Exposure and effects of perfluoroalkyl compounds on tree swallows nesting at Lake Johanna in east central Minnesota, USA.  

PubMed

Tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) samples were collected at a reference lake and a nearby lake (Lake Johanna) in east central Minnesota, USA contaminated with perfluorinated carboxylic and sulfonic acids. Tissues were analyzed for a suite of 13 perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) to quantify exposure and to determine if there was an association between egg concentrations of PFCs and reproductive success of tree swallows. Concentrations of perfluoroocatane sulfonate (PFOS) were elevated in all tree swallow tissues from Lake Johanna compared to tissues collected at the reference lake. Other PFCs, except for two, were elevated in blood plasma at Lake Johanna compared to the reference lake. PFOS was the dominant PFC (>75%) at Lake Johanna, but accounted for <50% of total PFCs at the reference lake. There was a negative association between concentrations of PFOS in eggs and hatching success. Reduced hatching success was associated with PFOS levels as low as 150ng/g wet weight. PMID:21296656

Custer, Christine M; Custer, Thomas W; Schoenfuss, Heiko L; Poganski, Beth H; Solem, Laura

2012-07-01

338

Strongly Acidic Auxin Indole-3-Methanesulfonic Acid  

PubMed Central

A radiochemical synthesis is described for [14C]indole-3-methanesulfonic acid (IMS), a strongly acidic auxin analog. Techniques were developed for fractionation and purification of IMS using normal and reverse phase chromatography. In addition, the utility of both Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry for analysis of IMS has been demonstrated. IMS was shown to be an active auxin, stimulating soybean hypocotyl elongation, bean first internode curvature, and ethylene production. IMS uptake by thin sections of soybean hypocotyl was essentially independent of solution pH and, when applied at a 100 micromolar concentration, IMS exhibited a basipetal polarity in its transport in both corn coleoptile and soybean hypocotyl sections. [14C]IMS should, therefore, be a useful compound to study fundamental processes related to the movement of auxins in plant tissues and organelles.

Cohen, Jerry D.; Baldi, Bruce G.; Bialek, Krystyna

1985-01-01

339

Understanding acid rain  

SciTech Connect

The complexities of the phenomenon of acid rain are described. Many factors, including meteorology, geology, chemistry, and biology, all play parts. Varying weather, varying soils, the presence of other pollutants and species differences all act to blur the connections between industrial emissions, acid rain, and environmental damage. Some experts believe that the greatest pH shock to lakes occurs during snow melt and runoff in the spring; others believe that much of the plant damage ascribed to acid rain is actually due to the effects of ozone. Much work needs to be done in the area of sampling. Historical data are lacking and sampling methods are not sufficiently accurate. (JMT)

Budiansky, S.

1981-06-01

340

Nucleic acid-based matrixes  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Various nucleic acid-based matrixes are provided, comprising nucleic acid monomers as building blocks, as well as nucleic acids encoding proteins, so as to produce novel biomaterials. Methods of utilizing such biomaterials include cell-free protein synthesis.

2013-07-16

341

Waste Acid Detoxification and Reclamation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Economically feasible processes that reduce the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acids by reclaiming, reusing, and recycling spent acids and metal salts are being developed and demonstrated. The acids used in the demonstrations are ge...

T. M. Brouns T. L. Stewart

1988-01-01

342

WASTE ACID DETOXIFICATION AND RECLAMATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) project demonstrated the Waste Acid Detoxification and Reclamation (WADR) systems ability to recover waste electropolish acid solutions generated during the manufacturing of gun-tubes, and reuse the clean acid. ...

343

Hydroxy-Conjugated Fatty Acids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention relates to a method of producing hydroxy-conjugated octadecadienoic acid from linoleic acid contained in vegetable oils and soap stocks from alkali-refined vegetable oils. Linoleic acid soaps are dispersed in an aqueous medium containing di...

E. A. Emkeu

1973-01-01

344

Nucleic Acid Cloning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention provides an improved system for linking nucleic acids to one another. In particular, the present invention provides techniques for producing DNA product molecules that may be easily and directly ligated to recipient molecules. The pr...

K. A. Jarrell V. W. Coljee W. Donahue S. Mikheeva

2001-01-01

345

(Acid rain workshop)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler presented a paper entitled Susceptibility of Asian Ecosystems to Soil-Mediated Acid Rain Damage'' at the Second Workshop on Acid Rain in Asia. The workshop was organized by the Asian Institute of Technology (Bangkok, Thailand), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, Illinois), and Resource Management Associates (Madison, Wisconsin) and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the United Nations Environment Program, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, and the World Bank. Papers presented on the first day discussed how the experience gained with acid rain in North America and Europe might be applied to the Asian situation. Papers describing energy use projections, sulfur emissions, and effects of acid rain in several Asian countries were presented on the second day. The remaining time was allotted to discussion, planning, and writing plans for a future research program.

Turner, R.S.

1990-12-05

346

Aminolevulinic Acid Topical  

MedlinePLUS

... under the skin that result from exposure to sunlight and can develop into skin cancer) of the ... acid will make your skin very sensitive to sunlight (likely to get sunburn). Avoid exposure of treated ...

347

Acid-Base Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Website for anyone wanting to become more familiar with the physiology of acid-base balance in clinical medicine. Several pages are interactive. Numerical results are accompanied by text interpretations to facilitate recognition and understanding.

MD Alan W. Grogono (Tulane University School of Medicine Dept. of Anesthesiology)

2002-06-01

348

Stomach acid test  

MedlinePLUS

Gastric acid secretion test ... The test is done after a period of not eating so that fluid is all that remains in the ... the stomach through the esophagus (food pipe). To test the ability of the cells in the stomach ...

349

Amino Acids and Chirality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

Cook, Jamie E.

2012-01-01

350

Molecular Structure of Gallic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gallic acid is found in its free state and combined with the tannin molecule, from which it can be extracted by the hydrolysis of tannic acid with sulfuric acid. Since one molecule of gallic acid has a carboxylic acid group and hydroxyl groups, it can react with another molecule of gallic acid to form an ester, digallic acid. When heated above 200 degrees C, gallic acid loses carbon dioxide to form pyrogallol (1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene, C6H3(OH)3), which is used in the production of azo dyes, photographic developers, and in laboratories for absorbing oxygen.

2003-05-08

351

Acid Rain Lesson Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Five articulated lessons focus on air quality using classroom and field data collection activities. Case study in Great Smoky Mountains has broader application. Background and data for lessons on: the pH scale, understanding acid vs. base, collecting data, mapping relationship of weather events to acid rain. Links to NPS data on air quality, current values, atlas and reports, packaged datasets on ozone, meteorological conditions and other parameters. Also available: teacher resources; educator workshops.

352

Inflammation, acid and ulcers.  

PubMed Central

Chronic active type B gastritis is invariably the result of Helicobacter pylori infection and is an important factor in duodenal ulcer disease. The actions of mediators produced (a protein factor, a lipid soluble "pore-forming factor" and urease) or induced (immune/inflammatory cell mediators) by this bacterium on the control of gastric acid secretion are currently being investigated. These studies are reviewed in light of our current knowledge of the physiological control of gastric acid secretion.

Muller, M. J.; Hunt, R. H.

1994-01-01

353

Domoic Acid Fact Sheet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online fact sheet illustrates the transfer of domoic acid through the food web. Domoic acid is a nerve toxin produced by a naturally occurring Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) usually (but not always) of the genus Pseudonitzchia. The sheet explains what to do if you find a sick or dead animal and includes contact information for injured/sick/entangled animal rescue networks in California.

Sanctuary, Channel I.

354

Effects of acid precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid precipitation, including dry deposition, is recognized as coming from pollution-caused strong acid precursors that result from the burning of fossil fuels. Recent studies suggest that ecosystems susceptible to acidification occur over the entire length of the Appalachian Mountains and certain other regions of the eastern U.S. This paper reviews a short-term assessment by the EPA to survey the extent

Norman R. Glass; Dean E. Arnold; James N. Galloway; George R. Hendrey; Jeffrey J. Lee; W. W. McFee; Stephen A. Norton; Charles F. Powers; Danny L. Rambo; Carl L. Schofield

1982-01-01

355

Acid-base chemistry  

SciTech Connect

The book is not a research compendium and there are no references to the literature. It is a teaching text covering the entire range of undergraduate subject matter dealing with acid-base chemistry (some of it remotely) as taught in inorganic, analytical, and organic chemistry courses. The excellent chapters VII through IX deal in detail with the quantitative aspects of aqueous acid-base equilibria (salt hydrolysis and buffer, titrations, polyprotic and amphoteric substances).

Hand, C.W.; Blewit, H.L.

1985-01-01

356

Gas-phase acidities of the 20 protein amino acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gas-phase acidities of the 20 protein amino acids (PAAs) have been determined using an electrospray ionization-quadrupole ion trap instrument. Three different methods were used to determine both the absolute acidities and the relative acidity ordering of the PAAs. The extended kinetic method was used to determine absolute acidities for all 20 PAAs with substituted carboxylic acids and substituted phenols as reference acids. Acidities were obtained with an average uncertainty of ±10 kJ/mol, which is large compared to some of the differences between amino acids with similar acidities. To determine the relative acidity ordering, single-reference kinetic method experiments were performed using both the reference acids from the absolute acidity studies and tryptophan and threonine as reference acids. Additional ordering information was obtained from kinetic method experiments in which proton-bound dimer ions comprising pairs of amino acids were generated and dissociated in the ion trap. The recommended acidity ordering is Gly < Ala < Pro < Val < Leu < Ile < Lys < Trp < Phe < Tyr < Met < Ser < Thr < Cys < Gln < Gln < Arg < Asn < His < Glu < Asp. Isodesmic acidity values were also obtained at the B3LYP/6-311++G**//B3LYP/6-31+G* level of theory with acetic acid as the reference acid. The theoretical acidities are in excellent agreement with the absolute acidities obtained from the extended kinetic method studies. The calculations predict that the preferred isomer for protonated cysteine and tyrosine is not a carboxylate anion, but rather a thiolate anion and a phenoxide anion, respectively.

Jones, Christopher M.; Bernier, Matthew; Carson, Erin; Colyer, Kathryn Ee; Metz, Rachel; Pawlow, Anna; Wischow, Emily D.; Webb, Ian; Andriole, Erica J.; Poutsma, John C.

2007-11-01

357

Optimizing acid suppression for treatment of acid-related diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric acid is of central importance in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Pharmacological reduction of acid secretion is, therefore, the mainstay of current treatment, but the optimal degree of acid suppression remains incompletely understood. This paper considers the ideal ways of assessing and reporting the pharmacological effectiveness of acid-inhibiting drugs and relating such data

Richard H. Hunt; Christer Cederberg; John Dent; Fred Halter; Colin Howden; I. N. Solly Marks; Simon Rune; Robert P. Walt

1995-01-01

358

Thin-layer chromatography of gallic acid, methyl gallate, pyrogallol, phloroglucinol, catechol, resorcinol, hydroquinone, catechin, epicatechin, cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and tannic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six solvent systems of varying suitability are reported for the thin-layer chromatographic separation of simple phenolics and related compounds such as gallic acid, methyl gallate, pyrogallol, phloroglucinol, catechol, resorcinol, hydroquinone, catechin, epicatechin, cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and tannic acid. The solvent system chloroform-ethyl acetate-acetic acid (50:50:1) facilitated the separation of all the compounds except pyrogallol and ferulic acid;

Om Prakash Sharma; Tej Krishan Bhat; Bhupinder Singh

1998-01-01

359

Levulinic acid in organic synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data concerning the methods of synthesis, chemical transformations and application of levulinic acid are analysed and generalised. The wide synthetic potential of levulinic acid, particularly as a key compound in the synthesis of various heterocyclic systems, saturated and unsaturated ketones and diketones, difficultly accessible acids and other compounds is demonstrated. The accessibility of levulinic acid from hexose-containing wood-processing and agricultural

Boris V Timokhin; V A Baransky; G D Eliseeva

1999-01-01

360

New look at sandstone acidizing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acid mutual solvent (AMS) technique is a 3-step process which involves a preflush, a mixed HF-HCl stage, and an afterflush employing the mutual solvent. The preflush is normally regular hydrochloric acid (15% HCl). This step is designed to serve as a buffer between formation water and hydrofluoric acid. Normally an adequate preflush is 50 gal of regular acid per

Gidley

1973-01-01

361

Fungal production of citric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citric acid is the principal organic acid found in citrus fruits. To meet increasing demands it is produced from carbohydrate feedstock by fermentation with the fungus Aspergillus niger and the yeasts of Candida spp. Effect of various fermentation conditions and the biochemistry of citric acid formation by A. niger have been discussed. Commercially citric acid is produced by surface, submerged

H. S. Grewal; K. L. Kalra

1995-01-01

362

Acid rain: a background report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Staff Brief was prepared for the Wisconsin Legislative Council's Special Committee on Acid Rain to provide an introduction to the issue of acid rain. It is divided into four parts. Part I provides an overview on the controversies surrounding the measurement, formation and effects of acid rain. As described in Part I, the term acid rain is used to

L. Glustrom; J. Stolzenberg

1982-01-01

363

Molecular Structure of Malonic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Propanedioic acid is a dibasic carboxylic acid that was first synthesized by oxidizing malic acid in 1858 by a scientist named Dessaigne. Naturally, propandioic acid is found in apples. This chemical is relatively unstable and has few uses, but its ester derivative, diethyl malonate, is used to synthesize useful compounds such as barbiturates, flavors, fragrances, and vitamins (B1 and B6).

2002-10-10

364

Optical high acidity sensor  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber. 10 figs.

Jorgensen, B.S.; Nekimken, H.L.; Carey, W.P.; O`Rourke, P.E.

1997-07-22

365

DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCATANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE RAT AND MOUSE  

EPA Science Inventory

1Lau, C., 1J.M. Rogers, 1R.G. Hanson*, 1B.D. Barbee*, 1M.G. Narotsky, 1J.E. Schmid* and 2J.H. Richards*. 1Reproductive Toxicology Division, and 2Environmental Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Developmental toxicity of Perfluorooctane ...

366

PFOS and PFOSA in Bottlenose Dolphins: An Investigation into Two High Mortality Epizootics (NRMMSTSN2009)  

EPA Science Inventory

Along the Atlantic coast of the United States during 1987 and 1988, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) suffered one of this country's largest marine mammal mass mortality events. An estimated 50% of all near-shore bottlenose died during this short period. Two years later a ...

367

PFOS and PFOSA in Bottlenose Dolphins: An Investigation into Two Unusually High Mortality Events  

EPA Science Inventory

Along the Atlantic coast of the United States during 1987 and 1988, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) suffered one of this country's largest marine mammal mass mortality events. An estimated 50% of all near-shore bottlenose died during this short period. Two years later a ...

368

PFOS and PFOSA in Bottlenose Dolphins: An Investigation into Two Unusually High Mortality Epizootics  

EPA Science Inventory

Along the Atlantic coast of the United States during 1987 and 1988, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) suffered one of this country's largest marine mammal mass mortality events. An estimated 50% of all near-shore bottlenose died during this short period. Two years later a ...

369

PFOS and PFOSA in Bottlenose Dolphins: An Investigation into Two Unusual Mortality Epizootics (WDA)  

EPA Science Inventory

Along the Atlantic coast of the United States during 1987 and 1988, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) suffered one of this country's largest marine mammal mass mortality events. An estimated 50% of all near-shore bottlenose died during this short period. Two years later a ...

370

Excretion of PFOA and PFOS in Male Rats During a Subchronic Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), a class of synthetic surfactants that are widely used, have become global environmental contaminants\\u000a because of their high persistence and bioaccumulation. An increasing number of studies have described the pharmacokinetics\\u000a of PFCs following in vivo exposure, however, few papers have focused on the excretion of these compounds during a period of\\u000a consecutive exposure. In this study, the

Lin Cui; Chun-yang Liao; Qun-fang Zhou; Tong-mei Xia; Zhao-jun Yun; Gui-bin Jiang

2010-01-01

371

Patent Foramen Ovale and Stroke: Should PFOs Be Closed in Otherwise Cryptogenic Stroke?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since initial reports of its association with ischemic stroke appeared in 1988, there has been continued controversy regarding\\u000a the existence and strength of the association between patent foramen ovale (PFO) and ischemic stroke. Many case-control studies\\u000a have reported an association between incident cryptogenic ischemic stroke and PFO, yet population-based studies have failed\\u000a to confirm this association. Studies of the risk

David A. Carpenter; Andria L. Ford; Jin-Moo Lee

2010-01-01

372

Molecular Structure of Succinic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Succinic acid is an odorless and colorless crystal, triclinic or monoclinic prism with a very acid taste. Succinic acid is one of the natural acids found in broccoli, rhubarb, beets, asparagus, fresh meat extracts, sauerkraut and cheese. It is also a constituent of almost all plant and animal tissues and plays an important role in intermediary metabolism. Succinic acid is produced commercially by catalytic hydrogenation of maleic or fumaric acid or by acid hydrolysis of succinonitrile. Succinic acid is used in flavoring for food and beverages, and in the manufacture of lacquers, dyes, esters for perfumes, succinates, in photography and in foods as a sequestrant, buffer and neutralizing agent. Succinic acid has uses in certain drug compounds and in agricultural production. An interesting fact, succcinic acid has also been found in meteorites.

2004-11-11

373

Exposures to acidic aerosols.  

PubMed Central

Ambient monitoring of acid aerosols in four U.S. cities and in a rural region of southern Ontario clearly show distinct periods of strong acidity. Measurements made in Kingston, TN, and Steubenville, OH, resulted in 24-hr H+ ion concentrations exceeding 100 nmole/m3 more than 10 times during summer months. Periods of elevated acidic aerosols occur less frequently in winter months. The H+ determined during episodic conditions in southern Ontario indicates that respiratory tract deposition can exceed the effects level reported in clinical studies. Observed 12-hr H+ concentrations exceeded 550 nmole/m3 (approximately 27 micrograms/m3 H2SO4). The maximum estimated 1-hr concentration exceeded 1500 nmole/m3 for H+ ions. At these concentrations, an active child might receive more than 2000 nmole of H+ ion in 12 hr and in excess of 900 nmole during the hour when H2SO4 exceeded 50 micrograms/m3.

Spengler, J D; Keeler, G J; Koutrakis, P; Ryan, P B; Raizenne, M; Franklin, C A

1989-01-01

374

Amino acid analysis.  

PubMed

Amino acid analysis (AAA) is one of the best methods to quantify peptides and proteins. Two general approaches to quantitative AAA exist, namely, classical postcolumn derivatization following ion-exchange chromatography and precolumn derivatization followed by reversed-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC). Excellent instrumentation and several specific methodologies are available for both approaches, and both have advantages and disadvantages. This unit focuses on picomole-level AAA of peptides and proteins using the most popular precolumn-derivatization method, namely, phenylthiocarbamyl amino acid analysis (PTC-AAA). It is directed primarily toward those interested in establishing the technology with a modest budget. PTC derivatization and analysis conditions are described, and support and alternate protocols describe additional techniques necessary or useful for most any AAA method--e.g., sample preparation, hydrolysis, instrument calibration, data interpretation, and analysis of difficult or unusual residues such as cysteine, tryptophan, phosphoamino acids, and hydroxyproline. PMID:18429107

Crabb, J W; West, K A; Dodson, W S; Hulmes, J D

2001-05-01

375

Reducing acid rain  

SciTech Connect

The effects of acidic rainfall are most evident and highly publicized in Europe and the northeastern US. Greatest damage is done to lakes that are poorly buffered. The various strategies for reducing acid rain involve possible investments of billions of dollars annually. To minimize acid rain in a cost-effective manner, the authors must develop a better understanding of the chemistry of the oxides of nitrogen and sulfur as well as hydrogen peroxide, ozone, formaldehyde, and other species in cloud droplets and in the vapor state. The roles of reactive species, such as the radicals of OH, OOH, and NO/sub 3/, in oxidation reactions leading to scavenging of pollutants from the atmosphere need to be better understood in the heterogeneous atmosphere.

Not Available

1986-05-01

376

Biodegradation of Cyanuric Acid  

PubMed Central

Cyanuric acid biodegrades readily under a wide variety of natural conditions, and particularly well in systems of either low or zero dissolved-oxygen level, such as anaerobic activated sludge and sewage, soils, muds, and muddy streams and river waters, as well as ordinary aerated activated sludge systems with typically low (1 to 3 ppm) dissolved-oxygen levels. Degradation also proceeds in 3.5% sodium chloride solution. Consequently, there are degradation pathways widely available for breaking down cyanuric acid discharged in domestic effluents. The overall degradation reaction is merely a hydrolysis; CO2 and ammonia are the initial hydrolytic breakdown products. Since no net oxidation occurs during this breakdown, biodegradation of cyanuric acid exerts no primary biological oxygen demand. However, eventual nitrification of the ammonia released will exert its usual biological oxygen demand.

Saldick, Jerome

1974-01-01

377

Coronary vasodilatation by fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Fatty acids increase the coronary flow rate of rat hearts, perfused according to theLangendorff technique. Long-chain and medium-chain fatty acids are more effective vasodilators than short-chain fatty acids. The vasodilatation by fatty acids does not proceed through the intermediate formation of the vasodilator adenosine, nor by stimulation of adenylcyclase activity. Since at low Ca2+ concentrations fatty acids not only

W. C. Hülsmann

1976-01-01

378

Molecular Structure of Citric Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Citric Acid was first isolated in 1734 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele. Citric acid is found in many fruits, in particular lemons, grapefruit, and oranges. Several types of bacteria and fungi are also known to produce citric acid. In fact, the fungus Aspergillus niger produces the vast majority of citric acid, which is used in almost all carbonated sodas. Additionally, citric acid is also used to clean stainless steel.

2002-08-13

379

Acid Deposition Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students will design an apparatus and carry out tests of fossil fuels to determine their impact on acid deposition by placing a small amount of a fossil fuel on a cotton puff and burning it to measure if acidic compounds are given off. Students will provide a diagram of their collection device and describe how it should function. Students will then draw a map showing the location of their precipitation collector and develop a graph or chart based on the results they have collected.

380

Liposomal spherical nucleic acids.  

PubMed

A novel class of metal-free spherical nucleic acid nanostructures was synthesized from readily available starting components. These particles consist of 30 nm liposomal cores, composed of an FDA-approved 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) lipid monomer. The surface of the liposomes was functionalized with DNA strands modified with a tocopherol tail that intercalates into the phospholipid layer of the liposomal core via hydrophobic interactions. The spherical nucleic acid architecture not only stabilizes these constructs but also facilitates cellular internalization and gene regulation in SKOV-3 cells. PMID:24983505

Banga, Resham J; Chernyak, Natalia; Narayan, Suguna P; Nguyen, SonBinh T; Mirkin, Chad A

2014-07-16

381

Polyvalent Nucleic Acid Nanostructures  

PubMed Central

Polyvalent oligonucleotide-nanoparticle conjugates possess several unique emergent properties including enhanced cellular uptake, high antisense bioactivity, and nuclease resistance, which hypothetically originate from the dense packing and orientation of oligonucleotides on the surface of the nanoparticle. In this communication, we describe a new class of polyvalent nucleic acid nanostructures (PNANs), which comprise only crosslinked and oriented nucleic acids. We demonstrate that these particles are capable of effecting high cellular uptake and gene regulation without the need of a cationic polymer co-carrier. The PNANs also exhibit cooperative binding behavior and nuclease resistance properties.

Cutler, Joshua I.; Zhang, Ke; Zheng, Dan; Auyeung, Evelyn; Prigodich, Andrew E.

2011-01-01

382

Acid rain revisited  

SciTech Connect

This article reviews calculations of the estimates reported in this Newletter in 1983 on the contributions of nitric and sulfuric acids to deposition that may originate with motor vehicles. Previous estimates can now be updated, based on the recently released 1985 emissions inventory that was compiled by the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). This inventory relied in turn on the US Environmental Protection Agency's National emissions Data System (NEDS), the 1985 version of which is the latest containing both point source and area source information in sufficient detail to be useful for this purpose.

Not Available

1990-06-01

383

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in endodontics  

PubMed Central

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a chelating agent can bind to metals via four carboxylate and two amine groups. It is a polyamino carboxylic acid and a colorless, water-soluble solid, which is widely used to dissolve lime scale. It is produced as several salts, notably disodium EDTA and calcium disodium EDTA. EDTA reacts with the calcium ions in dentine and forms soluble calcium chelates. A review of the literature and a discussion of the different indications and considerations for its usage are presented.

Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

2013-01-01

384

Bacterial Degradation of 4-Hydroxyphenylacetic Acid and Homoprotocatechuic Acid  

PubMed Central

A species of Acinetobacter and two strains of Pseudomonas putida when grown with 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid gave cell extracts that converted 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (homoprotocatechuic acid) into carbon dioxide, pyruvate, and succinate. The sequence of enzyme-catalyzed steps was as follows: ring-fission by a 2,3-dioxygenase, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent dehydrogenation, decarboxylation, hydration, aldol fission, and oxidation of succinic semialdehyde. Two new metabolites, 5-carboxymethyl-2-hydroxymuconic acid and 2-hydroxyhepta-2,4-diene-1,7-dioic acid, were isolated from reaction mixtures and a third, 4-hydroxy-2-ketopimelic acid, was shown to be cleaved by extracts to give pyruvate and succinic semialdehyde. Enzymes of this metabolic pathway were present in Acinetobacter grown with 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid but were effectively absent when 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid or phenylacetic acid served as sources of carbon.

Sparnins, Velta L.; Chapman, Peter J.; Dagley, Stanley

1974-01-01

385

Bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl compounds in midge (Chironomus riparius) larvae exposed to sediment.  

PubMed

Midge larvae (Chironomus riparius) were exposed to sediments from a deposition sampled at a site along the Rhône River (France) downstream of an industrial site releasing various perfluorinated chemicals. This sediment is characterized by high concentrations of perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA) and perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA) and a low perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentration. Concentrations of 23 perfluoroalkyl compounds, including C4-C14 carboxylate acids, C4-C10 sulfonates, and seven precursors, were analyzed in overlying and pore water, sediment, and larvae. Midge larvae accumulated carboxylate acids (C11-C14), PFOS, and two precursors (perfluorooctane sulfonamide: FOSA and 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acid, 6:2 FTSA). These substances accumulated mainly during the fourth instar larvae exponential growth phase. Accumulation of 6:2 FTSA, PFUnA, and PFOS occured via trophic and tegumentary routes. Other compounds mainly accumulated from food. Kinetics followed a partition model, from which uptake and elimination constants were derived. PMID:24631894

Bertin, Delphine; Ferrari, Benoît J D; Labadie, Pierre; Sapin, Alexandre; Garric, Jeanne; Budzinski, Hélène; Houde, Magali; Babut, Marc

2014-06-01

386

The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

2012-01-01

387

The second acidic constant of salicylic acid.  

PubMed

The second dissociation constant of salicylic acid (H2L) has been determined, at 25 degrees C, in NaCl ionic media by UV spectrophotometric measurements. The investigated ionic strength values were 0.16, 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 M. The protolysis constants calculated at the different ionic strengths yielded, with the Specific Interaction Theory, the infinite dilution constant, log beta1(0) = 13.62 +/- 0.03, for the equilibrium L2- + H+ <==> HL-. The interaction coefficient between Na+ and L2-, b(Na+, L2-) = 0.02 +/- 0.07, has been also calculated. PMID:16235788

Porto, Raffaella; De Tommaso, Gaetano; Furia, Emilia

2005-01-01

388

Distribution of perfluorooctane sulfonate and other perfluorochemicals in the ambient environment around a manufacturing facility in China.  

PubMed

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) can be released to the surrounding environment during manufacturing and usage of PFC containing products, which are considered as main direct sources of PFCs in the environment. This study evaluates the release of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other PFCs to the ambient environment around a manufacturing plant. Among the nine PFCs analyzed, only PFOS, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) were found in dust, water, soil, and chicken eggs. Very high concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were found in dust from the production storage, raw material stock room, and sulfonation workshop in the manufacturing facility, with the highest value at 4962 ?g/g (dry weight) for PFOS and 160 ?g/g for PFOA. A decreasing trend of the three PFCs concentrations in soils, water, and chicken eggs with increasing distance from the plant was found, indicating the production site to be the primary source of PFCs in this region. Risk quotients (RQs) assessment for surface water >500 m away from the plant were less than unity. Risk assessment of PFOS using predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC, 3.23 ng/g on a logarithmic scale) indicated no immediate ecological risk of a reduction in offspring survival. PFOS concentrations in most egg samples did not exceed the benchmark concentration derived in setting a reference dose for noncancer health effects (0.025 ?g/(kgxd)). PMID:20879709

Wang, Yawei; Fu, Jianjie; Wang, Thanh; Liang, Yong; Pan, Yuanyuan; Cai, Yaqi; Jiang, Guibin

2010-11-01

389

A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid  

SciTech Connect

An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

2010-05-03

390

Alkyl phosphonic acids and sulfonic acids in the Murchison meteorite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Homologous series of alkyl phosphonic acids and alkyl sulfonic acids, along with inorganic orthophosphate and sulfate, are identified in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite after conversion to their t-butyl dimethylsilyl derivatives. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl compounds are observed in both series. Five of the eight possible alkyl phosphonic acids and seven of the eight possible alkyl sulfonic acids through C4 are identified. Abundances decrease with increasing carbon number as observed of other homologous series indigenous to Murchison. Concentrations range downward from approximately 380 nmol/gram in the alkyl sulfonic acid series, and from 9 nmol/gram in the alkyl phosphonic acid series.

Cooper, George W.; Onwo, Wilfred M.; Cronin, John R.

1992-01-01

391

Production of conjugated fatty acids by lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Conjugated fatty acids have attracted much attention as a novel type of biologically beneficial functional lipid. Some isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduce carcinogenesis, atherosclerosis, and body fat. Considering the use of CLA for medicinal and nutraceutical purposes, a safe isomer-selective process is required. The introduction of biological reactions for CLA production could be an answer. We screened microbial reactions useful for CLA production, and found several unique reactions in lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria produced CLA from linoleic acid. The produced CLA comprised a mixture of cis-9,trans-11-octadecadienoic acid (18:2) and trans-9,trans-11-18:2. Lactobacillus plantarum AKU 1009a was selected as a potential CLA producer. Using washed cells of L. plantarum AKU 1009a as a catalyst, CLA production from linoleic acid reached 40 mg/ml under the optimized conditions. The CLA-producing reaction was found to consist of two successive reactions, i.e., hydration of linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12-octadecenoic acid and dehydrating isomerization of the hydroxy fatty acid to CLA. On the basis of these results, the transformation of hydroxy fatty acids by lactic acid bacteria was investigated. Lactic acid bacteria transformed ricinoleic acid (12-hydroxy-cis-9-octadecenoic acid) to CLA (a mixture of cis-9,trans-11-18:2 and trans-9,trans-11-18:2). Castor oil, which is rich in the triacylglycerol form of ricinoleic acid, was also found to act as a substrate for CLA production by lactic acid bacteria with the aid of lipase-catalyzed triacylglycerol hydrolysis. L. plantarum AKU 1009a produced conjugated trienoic fatty acids from alpha- and gamma-linolenic acid. The trienoic fatty acids produced from alpha-linolenic acid were identified as cis-9,trans-11,cis-15-octadecatrienoic acid (18:3) and trans-9,trans-11,cis-15-18:3. Those produced from gamma-linolenic were cis-6,cis-9,trans-11-18:3 and cis-6,trans-9,trans-11-18:3. The conjugated trienoic fatty acids produced from alpha- and gamma-linolenic acid were further saturated by L. plantarum AKU 1009a to trans-10,cis-15-18:2 and cis-6,trans-10-18:2, respectively. PMID:16310724

Ogawa, Jun; Kishino, Shigenobu; Ando, Akinori; Sugimoto, Satoshi; Mihara, Kousuke; Shimizu, Sakayu

2005-10-01

392

Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters  

DOEpatents

A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

2003-06-24

393

Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB; liquid ecstasy, sodium oxybate) is a drug of abuse which is increasingly used recreationally and has been implicated in cases of ‘drug rape’. GHB-intoxicated patients may appear sedated or may show paradoxical agitation. After ingestion of a toxic amount of GHB, rapid onset of respiratory depression and deep coma may occur, resolving spontaneously within 24 hours with

Ruben Thanacoody

2007-01-01

394

Plant fatty acid hydroxylase  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related to the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

Somerville, C.; Loo, F. van de

2000-02-22

395

Acid rain game II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper we have developed a conceptual model of the issues connected to cooperative efforts in Europe to solve acid rains problems. The basic model is a simple game theoretic model with a unique equilibrium in dominant strategies. In order to illust...

K. G. Maeler

1993-01-01

396

Acid rain in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain has been an issue of great concern in North America and Europe during the past several decades. However, due to the passage of a number of recent regulations, most notably the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1990, there is an emerging perception that the problem in these Western nations is nearing solution. The situation in

N. Bhatti; D. G. Streets; W. K. Foell

2009-01-01

397

Acid rain in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain has been an issue of great concern in North America and Europe during the past several decades. However, due to the passage of a number of recent regulations, most notably the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1990, there is an emerging perception that the problem in these Western nations is nearing solution. The situation in

Neeloo Bhatti; David G. Streets; Wesley K. Foell

1992-01-01

398

Antimicrobial Fatty Acid Derivatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Acetylthio amides and esters were prepared by the free radical addition of thiolacetic acid to the terminal and nonterminal double bonds of N-substituted fatty amides and fatty esters. These new sulfur or halogen-containing compounds were found to have an...

R. R. Mod J. A. Harris F. C. Magne G. Sumrell A. F. Novak

1978-01-01

399

Targeting tumor acidity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the main features of solid tumors is extracellular acidity, which correlates with tumor aggressiveness and metastatic potential. We introduced novel approach in targeting of acidic tumors, and translocation of cell-impermeable cargo molecules across cellular membrane. Our approach is based on main principle of insertion and folding of a polypeptide in lipid bilayer of membrane. We have identified family of pH Low Insertion Peptides (pHLIPs), which are capable spontaneous insertion and folding in membrane at mild acidic conditions. The affinity of peptides of pHLIP family to membrane at low pH is several times higher than at neutral pH. The process of peptides folding occurs within milliseconds. The energy released in a result of folding (about 2 kcal/mol) could be used to move polar cargo across a membrane, which is a novel concept in drug delivery. pHLIP peptides could be considered as a pH-sensitive single peptide molecular transporters and conjugated with imaging probes for fluorescence, MR, PET and SPECT imaging, they represent a novel in vivo marker of acidity. The work is supported by NIH grants CA133890 and GM073857 to OAA, DME, YRK.

Reshetnyak, Yana K.; Engelman, Donald M.; Andreev, Oleg A.

2012-02-01

400

Effects of acid precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of evidence suggests that acid rain is responsible for substantial adverse effects on the public welfare. Such effects include: the acidification of lakes and rivers, with resultant damage to fish and other components of aquatic ecosystems; acidification and demineralization of soils; and possible reductions in crop and forest productivity. Affected areas include Canada and the northeastern US.

Norman R. Glass; Gary E. Glass; Peter J. Rennie

1979-01-01

401

Ascorbic Acid in Oranges  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN 1934 Bacharach, Cook and Smith1 reported that the concentration of ascorbic acid in the peel of oranges was greater than that in the juice. This was the result of tests carried out on five bitter oranges and one sweet orange, and was afterwards confirmed by various workers2-6. In connexion with an investigation on methods of preparing orange juices for

L. H. Lampitt; L. C. Baker

1942-01-01

402

[Acid hydrolysis of mandioca].  

PubMed

The influence of time of hydrolysis, pression of the process, ratio of mass of flour and volume and concentration of the acid solution was studied in the hydrolytic processes for Cassava flour. The aim was to obtain fermentable sugars, and the results were submitted to variance analysis. PMID:1228838

Colombo, A J; Schneiderman, B; Baruffaldi, R; Nacco, R

1975-01-01

403

Plant fatty acid hydroxylase  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

2000-01-01

404

Citric acid urine test  

MedlinePLUS

Urine - citric acid test ... to discontinue drugs that may interfere with the test. On day 1, urinate into the toilet when ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. However, the ... performed while you are eating regularly. Ask your health care ...

405

Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals in the U.S. Population: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004 and Comparisons with NHANES 1999-2000  

PubMed Central

Background Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) have been used since the 1950s in numerous commercial applications. Exposure of the general U.S. population to PFCs is widespread. Since 2002, the manufacturing practices for PFCs in the United States have changed considerably. Objectives We aimed to assess exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and eight other PFCs in a representative 2003–2004 sample of the general U.S. population ? 12 years of age and to determine whether serum concentrations have changed since the 1999–2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods By using automated solid-phase extraction coupled to isotope dilution–high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, we analyzed 2,094 serum samples collected from NHANES 2003–2004 participants. Results We detected PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, and PFNA in > 98% of the samples. Concentrations differed by race/ethnicity and sex. Geometric mean concentrations were significantly lower (approximately 32% for PFOS, 25% for PFOA, 10% for PFHxS) and higher (100%, PFNA) than the concentrations reported in NHANES 1999–2000 (p < 0.001). Conclusions In the general U.S. population in 2003–2004, PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, and PFNA serum concentrations were measurable in each demographic population group studied. Geometric mean concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, and PFHxS in 2003–2004 were lower than in 1999–2000. The apparent reductions in concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, and PFHxS most likely are related to discontinuation in 2002 of industrial production by electrochemical fluorination of PFOS and related perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride compounds.

Calafat, Antonia M.; Wong, Lee-Yang; Kuklenyik, Zsuzsanna; Reidy, John A.; Needham, Larry L.

2007-01-01

406

40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 ...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (PMN P-92-445) is subject...

2010-07-01

407

40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 ...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (PMN P-92-445) is subject...

2012-07-01

408

40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 ...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (PMN P-92-445) is subject...

2011-07-01

409

Temporal trends of perfluoroalkyl contaminants in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from two locations in the North American Arctic, 1972-2002.  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl substances are globally distributed anthropogenic contaminants. Their production and use have increased dramatically from the early 1980s. While many recent publications have reported concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAs) in biotic and abiotic samples, only limited work has addressed temporal trends. In this study we analyzed archived polar bear(Ursus maritimus) livertissue samples from two geographic locations in the North American Arctic, collected from 1972 to 2002. The eastern group, taken from the vicinity of northern Baffin Island, Canada, comprised 31 samples, and the western group, from the vicinity of Barrow, Alaska, comprised 27 samples. Samples were analyzed for perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) from carbon chain length C8 to C15, perfluorohexane sulfonate, PFOS, the neutral precursor perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), as well as 8:2 and 10:2 fluorotelomer acids and their alpha,beta unsaturated acid counterparts. Concentrations of PFOS and PFCAs with carbon chain lengths from C9 to C11 showed an exponential increase between 1972 and 2002 at both locations. Doubling times ranged from 3.6 +/- 0.9 years for perfluorononanoic acid in the eastern group to 13.1 +/- 4.0 years for PFOS in the western group. PFOSA showed decreasing concentrations over time at both locations, while the remaining PFAs showed no significant trends or were not detected in any sample. The doubling time for PFOS was similar to the doubling time of production of perfluoroctylsulfonyl-fluoride-based products during the 1990s. PMID:16572767

Smithwick, Marla; Norstrom, Ross J; Mabury, Scott A; Solomon, Keith; Evans, Thomas J; Stirling, Ian; Taylor, Mitch K; Muir, Derek C G

2006-02-15

410

Perfluorinated chemicals: differential toxicity, inhibition of aromatase activity and alteration of cellular lipids in human placental cells.  

PubMed

The cytotoxicity of eight perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), namely, perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA), perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was assessed in the human placental choriocarcinoma cell line JEG-3. Only the long chain PFCs--PFOS, PFDoA, PFNA, PFOA--showed significant cytotoxicity in JEG-3 cells with EC50 values in the range of 107 to 647 ?M. The observed cytotoxicity was to some extent related to a higher uptake of the longer chain PFCs by cells (PFDoA>PFOS?PFNA>PFOA>PFHxA). Moreover, this work evidences a high potential of PFOS, PFOA and PFBS to act as aromatase inhibitors in placental cells with IC50s in the range of 57-80 ?M, the inhibitory effect of PFBS being particularly important despite the rather low uptake of the compound by cells. Finally, exposure of JEG-3 cells to a mixture of the eight PFCs (0.6 ?M each) led to a relative increase (up to 3.4-fold) of several lipid classes, including phosphatidylcholines (PCs), plasmalogen PC and lyso plasmalogen PC, which suggests an interference of PFCs with membrane lipids. Overall, this work highlights the ability of the PFC mixture to alter cellular lipid pattern at concentrations well below those that generate toxicity, and the potential of the short chain PFBS, often considered a safe substitute of PFOS, to significantly inhibit aromatase activity in placental cells. PMID:24680846

Gorrochategui, Eva; Pérez-Albaladejo, Elisabet; Casas, Josefina; Lacorte, Sílvia; Porte, Cinta

2014-06-01

411

Molecular Structure of Aspartic Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Aspartate was first isolated in 1868 from legumin in plant seeds. Aspartic acid forms colorless crystals that are soluble in water and insoluble in alcohols and ethers. This is a naturally occurring nonessential amino acid that is produced in the liver from oxaloacetic acid, but is plentiful in meats and sprouting seeds. The amino acid is important in the Krebs cycle as well as the urea cycle, where it is vital in the elimination of dietary waste products. Aspartic acid is required for stamina, brain and neural health. This acid has been found to be important in the functioning of ribonucleic acid (RNA), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and in the production of immunoglobin and antibody synthesis. A deficiency of aspartate will lead to fatigue and depression. Aspartic acid has many uses that include biological and clinical studies, preparation of culture media, and it also functions as a detergent, fungicide, germicide, and metal complexation.

2002-08-20

412

Specific bile acids inhibit hepatic fatty acid uptake  

PubMed Central

Bile acids are known to play important roles as detergents in the absorption of hydrophobic nutrients and as signaling molecules in the regulation of metabolism. Here we tested the novel hypothesis that naturally occurring bile acids interfere with protein-mediated hepatic long chain free fatty acid (LCFA) uptake. To this end stable cell lines expressing fatty acid transporters as well as primary hepatocytes from mouse and human livers were incubated with primary and secondary bile acids to determine their effects on LCFA uptake rates. We identified ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA) as the two most potent inhibitors of the liver-specific fatty acid transport protein 5 (FATP5). Both UDCA and DCA were able to inhibit LCFA uptake by primary hepatocytes in a FATP5-dependent manner. Subsequently, mice were treated with these secondary bile acids in vivo to assess their ability to inhibit diet-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Administration of DCA in vivo via injection or as part of a high-fat diet significantly inhibited hepatic fatty acid uptake and reduced liver triglycerides by more than 50%. In summary, the data demonstrate a novel role for specific bile acids, and the secondary bile acid DCA in particular, in the regulation of hepatic LCFA uptake. The results illuminate a previously unappreciated means by which specific bile acids, such as UDCA and DCA, can impact hepatic triglyceride metabolism and may lead to novel approaches to combat obesity-associated fatty liver disease.

Nie, Biao; Park, Hyo Min; Kazantzis, Melissa; Lin, Min; Henkin, Amy; Ng, Stephanie; Song, Sujin; Chen, Yuli; Tran, Heather; Lai, Robin; Her, Chris; Maher, Jacquelyn J.; Forman, Barry M.; Stahl, Andreas

2012-01-01

413

Effects of acidic precipitation and acidity on soil microbial processes  

SciTech Connect

Effects of oil acidity on microbial decomposition of organic matter and transformation of nitrogen in an acid forest soil were investigated. In the oak-leaf-amended pH-adjusted acid soils, CO/sub 2/ production in 14- and 150-day preincubated samples decreased by about 6 and 37%, respectively. In the control (unamended) acidified soils, reductions in CO/sub 2/ production of 14% in 14-day preincubated samples and 52% in 150-day samples were observed. Ammonia formation in the pH-adjusted acid soil was about 50% less than in the naturally acid soil. Increased rates of ammonification and nitrification were observed in the pH-adjusted neutral soil. Little autotrophic and heterotrophic nitrifying activity was detected in naturally acid and acidified forest soils. The rate of denitrification was rather slow in acid soils, and at greater acidities N/sub 2/O was the predominant end product. The abundance of nitrogen-fixing free-living bacteria was very low in acidic and acidified forest soils, and nitrogen gains by asymbiotic bacterial fixation in an acid forest ecosystem may be insignificant. These results suggest that further acidification of acid forest soils by addition of sulfuric acid or by acid precipitation may lead to significant reductions in the leaf litter decomposition, ammonification, nitrification, and denitrification and thus reduce nutrient recycling in the forest ecosystem.

Francis, A.J.

1981-01-01

414

Fatty acid-producing hosts  

DOEpatents

Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

2013-12-31

415

[Clinical significance of bile acids].  

PubMed

During the last years bile acids have gained more and more clinical importance. They play a decisive part in intestinal fat resorption. Increased bile acid content in the colon will result in diarrhea. By determination of serum bile acids the liver function can be judged exactly. It seems probable that bile acids take part in the pathogenesis of gastritis gastric ulcer and colonic cancer. By administration of chenodeoxycholic acid and ursodeoxycholic acid dissolution of cholesterol stones within the gall bladder is possible. PMID:456969

Schmack, B

1979-04-19

416

Fatty Acids of Mycobacterium kansasii  

PubMed Central

The cellular fatty acids of 35 strains of Mycobacterium kansasii isolated from clinical material were analyzed to establish properties by which we could identify and characterize these acid-fast microorganisms. The fatty acids were extracted from cells grown in liquid synthetic media, and they were analyzed as methyl esters by gas-liquid chromatography. The fatty acid profiles of all strains were similar. They differed from fatty acid profiles of other mycobacteria by their content of a saturated fatty acid with a methyl group at C2. Images

Thoen, Charles O.; Karlson, Alfred G.; Ellefson, Ralph D.

1971-01-01

417

Process for Synthesis of Phosphonic Acids and Phosphinic Acids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A process is claimed for the synthesis of phosphonic and phosphinic acids by hydrolysis of the corresponding esters. The phosphonic and phosphinic acids produced act as catalysts in the process, which is characterized by the fact that the hydrolysis proce...

H. D. Block H. Kohnen

1983-01-01

418

Boswellic acid inhibits expression of acid sphingomyelinase in intestinal cells  

PubMed Central

Background Boswellic acid is a type of triterpenoids with antiinflammatory and antiproliferative properties. Sphingomyelin metabolism generates multiple lipid signals affecting cell proliferation, inflammation, and apoptosis. Upregulation of acid sphingomyelinase (SMase) has been found in several inflammation-related diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. Methods The present study is to examine the effect of 3-acetyl-11-keto-?-boswellic acids (AKBA), a potent boswellic acid, on acid SMase activity and expression in intestinal cells. Both transformed Caco-2 cells and non-transformed Int407 cells were incubated with AKBA. After incubation, the change of acid SMase activity was assayed biochemically, the enzyme protein was examined by Western blot, and acid SMase mRNA was quantified by qPCR. Results We found that AKBA decreased acid SMase activity in both intestinal cell lines in dose and time dependent manners without affecting the secretion of the enzyme to the cell culture medium. The effect of AKBA was more effective in the fetal bovine serum-free culture medium. Among different types of boswellic acid, AKBA was the most potent one. The inhibitory effect on acid SMase activity occurred only in the intact cells but not in cell-free extract in the test tubes. At low concentration, AKBA only decreased the acid SMase activity but not the quantity of the enzyme protein. However, at high concentration, AKBA decreased both the mass of acid SMase protein and the mRNA levels of acid SMase in the cells, as demonstrated by Western blot and qPCR, respectively. Under the concentrations decreasing acid SMase activity, AKBA significantly inhibited cell proliferation. Conclusion We identified a novel inhibitory effect of boswellic acids on acid SMase expression, which may have implications in human diseases and health.

2009-01-01

419

Do trans Fatty Acids Impair Linoleic Acid Metabolism in Children?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trans isomeric fatty acids disturb themetabolism of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in animals and in premature infants. We assessed whether similar effects may also occur in healthy children. Plasma phospholipid fatty acid composition was analysed in 53 apparently healthy children aged 1-15 years (mean 7.5 years). Trans fatty acids were found in all samples and contributed 1.78 ± 0.10% (w\\/w,

Tamås Decsi; Berthold Koletzko

1995-01-01

420

Prophylactic Tranexamic Acid and ?-Aminocaproic Acid for Primary Myocardial Revascularization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The efficacy of prophylactic ?-aminocaproic acid and tranexamic acid to reduce transfusions after primary myocardial revascularization was evaluated in a teaching hospital context.Methods. Patients (n = 134) received either ?-aminocaproic acid (15-g bolus + infusion of 1 g\\/h), high-dose tranexamic acid (10-g bolus + placebo infusion), or normal saline solution in a double-blind fashion. Anticoagulation and conduct of cardiopulmonary

Jean-François Hardy; Sylvain Bélisle; Charles Dupont; François Harel; Danielle Robitaille; Micheline Roy; Lyne Gagnon

1998-01-01

421

Effect of phenolic acids on glucose and organic acid metabolism by lactic acid bacteria from wine.  

PubMed

The influence of phenolic (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, gallic and protocatechuic) acids on glucose and organic acid metabolism by two strains of wine lactic acid bacteria (Oenococcus oeni VF and Lactobacillus hilgardii 5) was investigated. Cultures were grown in modified MRS medium supplemented with different phenolic acids. Cellular growth was monitored and metabolite concentrations were determined by HPLC-RI. Despite the strong inhibitory effect of most tested phenolic acids on the growth of O. oeni VF, the malolactic activity of this strain was not considerably affected by these compounds. While less affected in its growth, the capacity of L. hilgardii 5 to degrade malic acid was clearly diminished. Except for gallic acid, the addition of phenolic acids delayed the metabolism of glucose and citric acid in both strains tested. It was also found that the presence of hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic) increased the yield of lactic and acetic acid production from glucose by O. oeni VF and not by L. hilgardii 5. The results show that important oenological characteristics of wine lactic acid bacteria, such as the malolactic activity and the production of volatile organic acids, may be differently affected by the presence of phenolic acids, depending on the bacterial species or strain. PMID:19376463

Campos, Francisco M; Figueiredo, Ana R; Hogg, Tim A; Couto, José A

2009-06-01

422

An amino acid transporter involved in gastric acid secretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric acid secretion is regulated by a variety of stimuli, in particular histamine and acetyl choline. In addition, dietary factors such as the acute intake of a protein-rich diet and the subsequent increase in serum amino acids can stimulate gastric acid secretion only through partially characterized pathways. Recently, we described in mouse stomach parietal cells the expression of the system

Philipp Kirchhoff; Mital H. Dave; Christine Remy; Ortrud Kosiek; Stephanie M. Busque; Matthias Dufner; John P. Geibel; Francois Verrey; Carsten A. Wagner

2006-01-01

423

College Chemistry Students' Mental Models of Acids and Acid Strength  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central goal of this study was to characterize the mental models of acids and acid strength expressed by advanced college chemistry students when engaged in prediction, explanation, and justification tasks that asked them to rank chemical compounds based on their relative acid strength. For that purpose we completed a qualitative research…

McClary, LaKeisha; Talanquer, Vicente

2011-01-01

424

Acid Earth--The Global Threat of Acid Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acid pollution is a major international problem, but the debate it has elicited has often clouded the distinction between myth and facts. This publication attempts to concerning the acid pollution situation. This publication attempts to identify available facts. It is the first global review of the problem of acid pollution and the first to…

McCormick, John

425

Oxalic acid excretion after intravenous ascorbic acid administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascorbic acid is frequently administered intravenously by alternative health practitioners and, occasionally, by mainstream physicians. Intravenous administration can greatly increase the amount of ascorbic acid that reaches the circulation, potentially increasing the risk of oxalate crystallization in the urinary space. To investigate this possibility, we developed gas chromatography mass spectrometry methodology and sampling and storage procedures for oxalic acid analysis

Line Robitaille; Orval A. Mamer; Wilson H. Miller Jr.; Mark Levine; Sarit Assouline; David Melnychuk; Caroline Rousseau; L. John Hoffer

2009-01-01

426

Molecular Structure of Sulfuric Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

H2SO4 was discovered by alchemists and made from heating a compound of iron sulfate. In 1740, sulfuric acid was produced for commercial sale. Sulfuric acid is a very strong acid which is used in car batteries. The acid disassociates in water to give two protons and sulfate. This acid can destroy flesh and cause blindness. It was discovered in the 19th century that adding sulfuric acid to soil produces phosphorus, which is beneficial to plants; hence, sulfuric acid is used as a fertilizer in the form of super phosphate and ammonium sulfate. Sulfuric acid is also used to refine petroleum and process metals, and is found in paints and car batteries.

2002-08-15

427

Crosslinked acid gels offer advantages  

SciTech Connect

Acid polymer gels having a pH less than one have been crosslinked for retarding the chemical and physical activity of hydrochloric acid on calcareous formations. Hydrochloric acid concentrations from /one quarter/% to 28% have been successfully crosslinked. This unique stimulation fluid offers high viscosity with adequate shear stability, perfect support for propants, and clay stabilization. Additionally, the fluid provided effective fluid loss control and retardation of acid reaction enabling live acid to penetrate deeper into the formation for better conductivity; furthermore, there is practically a residue free break for rapid cleanup of the well after the job. Results of lab and field tests show this new acid crosslinked system to be an effective stimulation fluid for acidizing and acid fracturing in calcareous and sandstone formations having low permeability. 5 refs.

Pabley, A.S.; Holcomb, D.L.

1981-09-28

428

Molecular Structure of Glutaric acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Glutaric acid is a colorless liquid and white crystals as a solid occurring in plants and animal tissues. It is used in organic synthesis and as an intermediate for the manufacture of polymers such as polyamides and polyesters, ester plasticizers and corrosion inhibitors. It is also useful in the application of decreasing polymer elasticity and in a variety of industrial applications. In addition glutaric acid plays an important role as an intermediary in the Krebs cycle and is used in medication against a large number of viruses and in animal diabetes. Glutaric acid can be prepared from cyclopentanone by oxidative ring fission with nitric acid and in the presence of a catalyst. Glutaric acid has the lowest melting point among dicarboxylic acids (98 C); it is very soluble in water and the solution in water is a medium strong acid. Short-term exposure to glutaric acid may cause irritation to the eyes, skin and the respiratory tract.

2004-11-10

429

Ethylene Production from Linolenic Acid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The possibility that the ethylene that is evolved from plants arises from linolenic acid was investigated by determining the relationship between ethylene evolution and linolenic acid levels from a number of plants. The evidence indicates that linolenic a...

F. B. Abeles

1966-01-01

430

Omega-3-acid Ethyl Esters  

MedlinePLUS

Omega-3-acid ethyl esters are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount ... a fat-like substance) in your blood. Omega-3-acid ethyl esters are in a class of ...

431

Omega-3 fatty acids (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

432

Ideas about Acids and Alkalis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates students' ideas, conceptions, and misconceptions about acids and alkalis before and after a teaching sequence in a small-scale research project. Concludes that student understanding of acids and alkalis is lacking. (DDR)

Toplis, Rob

1998-01-01

433

Antilisterial activity of selected phenolic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenolic acids are known to exhibit antimicrobial activity against a variety of micro-organisms. Their influence on the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes, particularly in foods derived from plants, is not well understood. Several phenolic acids including chlorogenic acid and the hydroxycinnamic acids, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid, were screened for activity against five strains of L. monocytogenes using a

Aimin Wen; Pascal Delaquis; Kareen Stanich; Peter Toivonen

2003-01-01

434

(Radioiodinated free fatty acids)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler participated in the Second International Workshop on Radioiodinated Free Fatty Acids in Amsterdam, The Netherlands where he presented an invited paper describing the pioneering work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving the design, development and testing of new radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids for evaluation of heart disease. He also chaired a technical session on the testing of new agents in various in vitro and in vivo systems. He also visited the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, West Germany, to review, discuss, plan and coordinate collaborative investigations with that institution. In addition, he visited the Cyclotron Research Center in Liege, Belgium, to discuss continuing collaborative studies with the Osmium-191/Iridium-191m radionuclide generator system, and to complete manuscripts and plan future studies.

Knapp, Jr., F. F.

1987-12-11

435

Acid rain abatement  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of obtaining acid rain abatement from a flue gas containing nitrogen oxides (NOX) and sulfur oxides (SOX). It comprises the steps of treating the flue gas with a reducing agent to remove the remaining oxygen and produce an effluent, the reducing agent being selected from group consisting of natural gas, methane, a mixture of CO and hydrogen derived from steam, hydrocarbon, and hydrogen, passing effluent over a catalyst to simultaneously reduce the NOX to water and elemental nitrogen and the SOX to H{sub 2}S or elemental sulfur, the catalyst being selected from the group consisting of heteropoly acids and their salts, the reduction of the NOX and SOX taking place in a temperature range of 200{degrees} - 900{degrees} C., and removing the sulfur or sulfur compounds from the reduced flue gas to thereby remove essentially all of the NOX and SOX.

Stiles, A.B.

1991-06-11

436

Industrial ecotoxicology "acid rain".  

PubMed

The acid rain phenomenon was studied in the province of Cordoba, Argentina. This study, based on a previously outlined framework, determined the anthropogenic origin of the low pH due to the presence of industrial hydrochloric acid wastage. This industrial ecotoxicological phenomenon seriously affected the forest wealth, causing a great defoliation of trees and shrubs, with a lower effect on crops. A survey on its effects on human beings has not been carried out, but considering the corrosion caused to different metals and its denouncing biocide effect on plants and animals, we should expect to find some kind of harm to the health of the workers involved or others engaged in farming, and even to those who are far away from the polluting agent. PMID:3758667

Astolfi, E; Gotelli, C; Higa, J

1986-01-01

437

Weak Acid Equilibrium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are asked to calculate the pH of a weak acid aqueous solution. The problems involve a series of generic acids with assigned equilibrium constants (Ka) and total concentrations (Ct). Initially, students are required to hand calculate all problems by algebraic manipulation of the mathematical relationships of the system. The solution is a cubic equation. Through a series of assumptions, the solution is simplified. The assumptions are based on the chemistry of the system given the Ka and Ct for the problem. The problems are then graphically solved. Ultimately, the students develop an Excel worksheet to solve the problems and a Bjerrum plot to display the speciation as a function of pH.

Stapleton, Michael

438

Perfluorinated Compounds in Umbilical Cord Blood and Adverse Birth Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background Previous animal studies have shown that perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have adverse impacts on birth outcomes, but the results have been inconclusive in humans. We investigated associations between prenatal exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctyl sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUA) and birth outcomes. Methods In total, 429 mother-infant pairs were recruited from the Taiwan Birth Panel Study (TBPS). Demographic data were obtained by interviewing mothers using a structured questionnaire and birth outcomes were extracted from medical records. Cord blood was collected for PFOA, PFOS, PFNA, and PFUA analysis by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Results The geometric mean (standard deviation) levels of PFOA, PFOS, PFNA, and PFUA in cord blood plasma were 1.84 (2.23), 5.94 (1.95), 2.36(4.74), and 10.26 (3.07) ng/mL, respectively. Only PFOS levels were found to be inversely associated with gestational age, birth weight, and head circumference [per ln unit: adjusted ? (95% confidence interval, CI)?=??0.37 (?0.60, ?0.13) wks, ?110.2 (?176.0, ?44.5) gm and ?0.25 (?0.46, ?0.05) cm]. Additionally, the odds ratio of preterm birth, low birth weight, and small for gestational age increased with PFOS exposure [per ln unit: adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95%CI)?=?2.45 (1.47, 4.08), 2.61(0.85, 8.03) and 2.27 (1.25, 4.15)]. When PFOS levels were divided into quartiles, a dose-response relation was observed. However, PFOA, PFNA, and PFUA were not observed to have any convincing impact on birth outcomes. Conclusions An adverse dose-dependent association was observed between prenatal PFOS exposure and birth outcomes. However, no associations were found for the other examined PFCs.

Chen, Mei-Huei; Ha, Eun-Hee; Wen, Ting-Wen; Su, Yi-Ning; Lien, Guang-Wen; Chen, Chia-Yang; Chen, Pau-Chung; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun

2012-01-01

439

An amino acid transporter involved in gastric acid secretion.  

PubMed

Gastric acid secretion is regulated by a variety of stimuli, in particular histamine and acetyl choline. In addition, dietary factors such as the acute intake of a protein-rich diet and the subsequent increase in serum amino acids can stimulate gastric acid secretion only through partially characterized pathways. Recently, we described in mouse stomach parietal cells the expression of the system L heteromeric amino acid transporter comprised of the LAT2-4F2hc dimer. Here we address the potential role of the system L amino acid transporter in gastric acid secretion by parietal cells in freshly isolated rat gastric glands. RT-PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry confirmed the expression of 4F2-LAT2 amino acid transporters in rat parietal cells. In addition, mRNA was detected for the B(0)AT1, ASCT2, and ATB(0+) amino acid transporters. Intracellular pH measurements in parietal cells showed histamine-induced and omeprazole-sensitive H+-extrusion which was enhanced by about 50% in the presence of glutamine or cysteine (1 mM), two substrates of system L amino acid transporters. BCH, a non-metabolizable substrate and a competitive inhibitor of system L amino acid transport, abolished the stimulation of acid secretion by glutamine or cysteine suggesting that this stimulation required the uptake of amino acids by system L. In the absence of histamine glutamine also stimulated H+-extrusion, whereas glutamate did not. Also, phenylalanine was effective in stimulating H+/K+-ATPase activity. Glutamine did not increase intracellular Ca2+ levels indicating that it did not act via the recently described amino acid modulated Ca2+-sensing receptor. These data suggest a novel role for heterodimeric amino acid transporters and may elucidate a pathway by which protein-rich diets stimulate gastric acid secretion. PMID:16308696

Kirchhoff, Philipp; Dave, Mital H; Remy, Christine; Kosiek, Ortrud; Busque, Stephanie M; Dufner, Matthias; Geibel, John P; Verrey, Francois; Wagner, Carsten A

2006-03-01

440

Acid rain in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain has been an issue of great concern in North America and Europe during the past several decades. However, due to\\u000a the passage of a number of recent regulations, most notably the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1990, there is an emerging\\u000a perception that the problem in these Western nations is nearing solution. The situation in

Neeloo Bhatti; David G. Streets; Wesley K. Foell

1992-01-01

441

Acid Deposition Sampling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides students with the opportunity to use analytical meters and instruments and perform acid deposition sampling. Students will collect samples from various sources over a period of time, then measure pH and develop graphs or charts. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Willey, Babe

2011-02-17

442

Spermatotoxicity of dichloroacetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The testicular toxicity of dichloroacetic acid (DCA), a disinfection byproduct of drinking water, was evaluated in adult male rats given both single and multiple (up to 14 d) oral doses. Delayed spermiation and altered resorption of residual bodies were observed in rats given single doses of 1500 and 3000 mg\\/kg; these effects persisted to varying degrees on post-treatment days 2,14,

Ralph E. Linder; Gary R. Klinefelter; Lillian F. Strader; Juan D. Suarez; Naomi L. Roberts

1997-01-01

443

Lipoic acid biosynthesis defects.  

PubMed

Lipoate is a covalently bound cofactor essential for five redox reactions in humans: in four 2-oxoacid dehydrogenases and the glycine cleavage system (GCS). Two enzymes are from the energy metabolism, ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase; and three are from the amino acid metabolism, branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase, 2-oxoadipate dehydrogenase, and the GCS. All these enzymes consist of multiple subunits and share a similar architecture. Lipoate synthesis in mitochondria involves mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis up to octanoyl-acyl-carrier protein; and three lipoate-specific steps, including octanoic acid transfer to glycine cleavage H protein by lipoyl(octanoyl) transferase 2 (putative) (LIPT2), lipoate synthesis by lipoic acid synthetase (LIAS), and lipoate transfer by lipoyltransferase 1 (LIPT1), which is necessary to lipoylate the E2 subunits of the 2-oxoacid dehydrogenases. The reduced form dihydrolipoate is reactivated by dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD). Mutations in LIAS have been identified that result in a variant form of nonketotic hyperglycinemia with early-onset convulsions combined with a defect in mitochondrial energy metabolism with encephalopathy and cardiomyopathy. LIPT1 deficiency spares the GCS, and resulted in a combined 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase deficiency and early death in one patient and in a less severely affected individual with a Leigh-like phenotype. As LIAS is an iron-sulphur-cluster-dependent enzyme, a number of recently identified defects in mitochondrial iron-sulphur cluster synthesis, including NFU1, BOLA3, IBA57, GLRX5 presented with deficiency of LIAS and a LIAS-like phenotype. As in DLD deficiency, a broader clinical spectrum can be anticipated for lipoate synthesis defects depending on which of the affected enzymes is most rate limiting. PMID:24777537

Mayr, Johannes A; Feichtinger, René G; Tort, Frederic; Ribes, Antonia; Sperl, Wolfgang

2014-07-01

444

Acid Rain Effects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners conduct a simple experiment to model and explore the harmful effects of acid rain (vinegar) on living (green leaf and eggshell) and non-living (paper clip) objects. Learners observe the effects over a period of days. This activity has links to other activities which can be combined to make a larger lesson. Resource contains vocabulary definitions and suggestions for assessment, extensions, and scaling for different levels of learners.

Kolenbrander, Amy; Yowell, Janet; Mach, Natalie; Zarske, Malinda S.; Carlson, Denise

2004-01-01

445

Acid hydrolysis of chitosans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrolysis of the O-glycosidic linkages (depolymerization) and the N-acetyl linkage (de-N-acetylation) of partially N-acetylated chitosans were studied in dilute and concentrated HCl. The rate of hydrolysis of the glycosidic linkages was found to be equal to the rate of de-N-acetylation in dilute acid, while the glycosidic linkages was hydrolysed more than 10 times faster than the N-acetyl linkage in

K. M. Vårum; M. H. Ottøy; O. Smidsrød

2001-01-01

446

Enviropedia: Introduction to Acid Rain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides information about acid rain, a widespread term used to describe all forms of acid precipitation. The sources, nature, and chemistry of acid rain are discussed, along with its impact on buildings, soils, freshwater lakes, trees, and wildlife. Other topics include measuring, modeling, and monitoring acid rain; and vehicle and industrial emission controls. The problem of airborne pollutants migrating across international borders is also discussed.

447

Molecular Structure of Octanoic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Caprylic acid is a colorless oil manufactured from 1-heptene or 1-octanol. Octanoic acid has an unpleasant rancid taste. When converted from the carboxlic acid to an ester, it has a pleasant taste. In addition, esters of caprylic acid are used in the preparation of dyes, perfumes, and food preservatives. This compound has also been found to have antifungal activity and is used to treat yeast infections.

2002-10-11

448

Fatty acid signaling in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Many organisms use fatty acid derivatives as biological regulators. In plants, for example, fatty acid-derive